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Aaron Hoppe UCD Portfolio Loughborough Univeristy UK

19/20 User Centred Design [BSc Hons] UX Design Product Design

Experimental Design Research System & Service Design


Aaron Hoppe UCD Portfolio

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About Me

“

Work together to influence purpose, people and process.

Quote by - JULIE ZHUO VP of Product Design at Facebook

Enrolled

2017 Part

B Graduation

2021

Hello! Thank you for your kind consideration, I hope you enjoy reviewing my application. I am an award winning 2nd undergraduate at Loughborough University. Currently I am on my placement year finishing a study exchange at SIT Tokyo. I am looking to undertake a summer internship before my final year. I have worked hard building a robust UX skillset. Most recently I completed a 10 week summer internship with Morgan Stanley. I collaborated with professionals to deliver in-house, human centred software; analysing user needs through primary research, insights, ideating and prototyping.

. e p p o h A Prepared by

- AARON HOPPE UCD at Loughborough University


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Experience

2019 Morgan Stanley - Summer Tech Analyst

Alongside studying for my degree, I have pushed myself in extracurriculars and working experience. These are some of my most recent activities both domestic and international, a more detailed summary can be found on my CV.

Enactus - ‘Prep-Mate’ Design Lead Shibaura Institute of Technology - Intentional Exchange

[Japan]

2018 IBM IX - UX and Business Workshop CSULB - Branding Team Lead

[S.Korea]

Korea University - Condensed Summer Semester

[S.Korea]

UXathon - MyTime CEO Design Team

1

2

3

4

[Hong Kong/UK]

Course Rep - Loughborough Design School

2016

19

19

18

16

FORD

HSBC

PIXELLED EGGS

NATIONAL GRID

Braithwaite - Systems Engineering Intern

Building Sustainable Communities Award

Grow Your Community Award

Best In Show UX Prototype

Energy Appreciation Award

USKO Karate - Brown/Black Belt

Prep-Mate - Enactus

Prep-Mate - Enactus

MyTime - UXathon

Young Engineers

Orange Box - Industrial Design Intern

19/20


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Contents

Abridged Copy This portfolio has been tailored to best fit the requirements of this application. As such only projects demonstrating my most relevant skillsets to the job specification are selected. If you would like to see write ups of my other works, I can provide them upon request.

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LINK

PP3

UX Design - A straight forward and comprehensive Smart City UX project, useful for a general understanding of my process.

Product Design Extensive R&D with IOT digital/physical prototype submission.

TELEHEALTH

System & Service Design - Design thinking to utline requirements for the development of a robust, user-friendly telemedicine system.

SULLECTION

International Branding - Lead a team re-branding a traditional Korean Rice Wine, using design empathy to meet client needs.

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N/A

54

RAVEL

Industrial Design - A straight forward and comprehensive form and function exploration.

N/A

GENDER SPENDING

Experimental Design Research Using new statistical estimation and data visualisation to prove a user research hypothesis.

HGV SAFETY

Ergonomics & Human Factors - Employing VR and primary research to investigate HGV incidents in London.

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“

Human focused works from my own design practise.

19/20


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Link

A travel app incorporating ‘Smart City’ functions, prepared for my courses UX module.


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Overview According to a general scale, over 32.4% of students feel moderately lonely, and 3.2% feel severely lonely - NCBI.gov

UX DESIGN A social app for cultivating friendships in new urban environments. It is designed to facilitate social integration for young professionals moving to a new city. It consisted of an initial group research stage, followed by individual design development and prototype submission. The brief requires “Smart City Functionality�.

PROJECT DETAILS Definition

My Roles

Date

Refined UX Project

UX Design

Oct 2018

Utilising Smart City Technology

UX Research

Dec 2018

Methods

Learnt

Deliverables

Primary/Secondary Research

Information Analysis Methods

Group Presentation

Design Development Prototyping

Individual Submission Low and High Fidelity Prototyping 19/20


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User Research HUNT STATEMENT “We want to augment the experience of young professionals looking to explore and socialise within a city”.

EMPATHY INTERVIEWING Project Time-line Interviews Ethnography

Sample Group

Identified Painpoints

8 young professionals interviewed and their answers recoded, a diverse set of views gathered from a variety of backgrounds.

Cultural differences Transportation Navigating Local Knowledge

01

02

Data Collection Experience Mapping User Journey Competitor Analysis Card-sorting Low Fidelity Wire-frame User Testing, Reflection, Iteration High Fidelity Axure RP Prototype

Language Barrier Finding ATM’s No Social Group


Group

USER JOURNEY Before

During

After

How Might We Statement?

Stressed about being in an unfamiliar environment and unsure about how they would integrate into this new city.

Looking up locations on maps to help navigate, money at an atm. going to venues.

Pleased about ‘going out and about’. Enhanced sense of surroundings. Expanded knowledge of local amenities.

To encourage brainstorming and a change of perspective, solutions were considered for how the problem of social isolation might be solved.

A lack of knowledge for the environment. E.g.) friends, transport timings and places.

Social awkwardness, confusion over things such as different transport systems/timetables. Feeling left out, and a lack of phone charge.

A sense of satisfaction. Moderated feelings of confusion.

UX VISION STATEMENT “There’s an opportunity for a smart app for young professionals who want to meet new people, create lasting relationships and explore a city but are hindered by their scarce knowledge of the unfamiliar environment and lack of social connections.”

19/20


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Ethnography RESEARCH AIM We decided to follow an example of the target user group we are designing for, choosing a placement year student who lives in an unfamiliar city. They are using their smart-phone to find out more about the local area and go to an activity.

Sample User

Identified Painpoints

21 year old Banking & Finance student.

Going out and socialising.

Recently moved to new city to work 9-5.

Finding new connections with people.

Has connections in the area but no immediately close friends.

Strengthening those connections.

Would like to experience the area.

Meeting like-minded people with the same interests as her.


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Group

10

Persona

Storyboard

Minimum Viable Product

Additional Q.O.L Features

The ideal sample user, and the goals they are hoping to achieve are drafted based on prior demographic research.

Framing the insights from the Ethnography the user journey is broke into distinct stages of ‘discovery’. From wishing to cultivation.

Real time transport information.

User Event Creation.

Heat maps linked with footfall info.

Group chat/forum.

Integrated map feature with route tracking.

Heat maps based on preferences.

19/20


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Ideation INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE I drew a site-map showing the pages a user interacts with and the stages of their interaction with it. I’ve made a conscious design decision not to design the social elements of the app as It lacks smart city elements from the brief.

LOW FIDELITY PROTOTYPING M.V.P User Journey

Non-Brief Functionality

Friends

Meet

Homepage

Do

Cardsorting

Initial Ideas

To understand the user journey and what screens might be needed, I asked a potential user to arrange a series of cards into a layout that makes sense.

Based on the users feedback regarding the user journey, I worked to create a variety of wire-frames. This allowed me to explore and conceptualise a variety of design ideas.

Options

Arrive

Transport

01

Chat/Plans

Venue Info

Local Events

Reviews

Book

Itinerary


USER TESTING & DESIGN ITERATION Wireframe

User Harris Profile & CTA Testing

Iteration Based on User Feedback

These design ideas were then finalised into a completed wire-frame, following a full user journey throughout the app.

To validate my own mental model, and to iterate my wire-frame, a target user tested it giving me critical feedback. The results in the form of CTA Transcripts and Harris Profile were then analysed.

The critical feedback was used to finalise the design making several alterations. This finished wireframe then formed the basis for my high fidelity prototyping in Axure.

02

03

04

19/20


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Prototype AXURE RP MVP My user journey revolves around the activity and venue finding functionality (See ‘Activities’ button on homepage). Smart city integration is included in this stage in the more information page, with the app “displaying” estimated footfall and live heat-maps. It is viewable both on mobile and desktop form-factors due to its usage of dynamic panels to scale and adjust content.

Prototype Link

https://8rizj8.axshare.com

Home-screen

Select Activity

Filter Activity


Select Venue

Venue Info

Venue Overview/ Global Nav

Heat-maps & Footfall

Venue Reviews

Itinerary 19/20


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P.P.3

“

A discrete augmentation for existing P.P.E helmet’s; a shift towards the growing I.3.0 trend.


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Overview Today, Structural steel worker is the sixth-deadliest job, with 30 deaths per 100,000 full-time workers. - CBS News

USER CENTRED PRODUCT DESIGN P.P.3, represents my courses UCDP module. It consisted of an initial research stage, followed by extensive design development and prototype submission. The brief stated it must incorporate ‘IoT’ technology, and a full UI. The user interface is the result of a comprehensive UX investigation, with input from users along the way.

PROJECT DETAILS Definition

My Roles

Date

Refined PD Project

Product Design

Oct 2018

Utilising IoT technology and UX Methods

UX Research & Design

June 2019

Methods

Learnt

Deliverables

Primary/Secondary Research

Design Research

2 Logbooks

Design Development

User Testing

High Fidelity Prototype

Prototyping

Industrial Design

High Fidelity UI Prototype 19/20


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Project Outline BRIEF For our second year design practise we were asked to develop a ‘Internet of Things’ product. This was to be a device that utilised sensors linked across the internet, to provide a benefit or functionality to the user. We were tasked to identify a market area, develop the products form and function; and consider a User Experience element in the form of a visual display.

Project Time-line Brainstorm Secondary Research Market Analysis

INITIAL RESEARCH Brainstorm

Chosen Market

The initial research stage was likely the most time intensive aspect of the whole project. I undertook the brief with little knowledge of IoT or its applications. After analysis I decided to design smart sensors in the form of personal protective equipment (PPE).

After consideration I settled on the iron and steel market as the focus of my PPE design. I choose this because of its leading fatality rate, the relatively unchanged nature of existing PPE; and its huge spending on new technologies related to the emerging ‘Industry 4.0’.

Ideation & Form Analysis Low Fidelity Prototyping

Top Fatality Rates per 10,000 FTE 2017:

User Testing & Design Development Task Analysis User Journey & Wire-frames

Electricians Plumbers

High Fidelity Prototyping User Testing

29.8

Iron & Steel

Causes:

10.1 8.3 Falls/Slips/Trips [39%] - Transportation Incidents [24%] - Objects/Equipment Contact [17%] Other [20%]

19/20


PROPOSED SOLUTION The Industry 4.0

Operator Augmentation Market:

PPE Hard Hat Augmentation

The emergence of IoT technology is revolutionising industry. This ‘Connected industry holds a huge 20% of IoT related spending. Heavy industry such as iron and steel accounts for a large amount of this. People empowerment and operator augmentation is a significant sector.

The user augmenting market is in its infancy, despite that many companies such as Microsoft are seriously investing in these futuristic technologies. Products such as HoloLens are already being employed to great effect, revolutionising the industry.

Following further research in this field I opted to augment existing PPE ‘Hard Hats’. These have remained unchanged since the 60’s, and are a steel workers most crucial element of PPE, and provide an inexpensive test bed to mount sensors and components. To mitigate the biggest killers I proposed the following:

AR Head Mounted Display [AR HMD]

Impact Force Monitoring [IFM]

Dynamic Proximity Alert [DPA]:

Prototyped with an inexpensive ultrasonic sensor and Arduino, the DPA will alert a user before a collision occurs. Mitigating the risk of contact with objects and equipment and moving vehicles.

Prototyped with an inexpensive ultrasonic accelerometer and Raspberrypi, the IFM will alert a user if a concussion occurs. This reduces the ambiguity stemming from concussions and TBI’s improving the operators survivability.

Prototyped with an inexpensive ultrasonic sensor and Arduino, the DPA will alert a user before a collision occurs. Mitigating the risk of contact with objects and equipment and moving vehicles.

IOT SENSORS USED

19/20


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Physical Prototype INDUSTRIAL DESIGN Mood Board

Rugged Styling

Form Sketching

With my ideas firmly established and based in research, I begun to visualise the appearance and functionality of my PPE design. To begin conceptualising design ideas I considered the form of representative products from my target market. This included form analysis, and sketch studies of details.

Many wearables intended for industrial use (for example ‘Google Glass’) failed to gain widespread adoption, a key factor was its failure to convey a ‘rugged/work ready style’. This doesn’t inspire consumer confidence. I choose a futuristic industrial style to combat this.

I ideated a with thumbnails, aiming to reconsider the boxy form of conventional HMD’s. I then worked on establishing a consistent visual style, suitable for the rugged context of a work-site, to better encourage adoption among potential users).


Aaron Hoppe UCD Portfolio

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LOW FIDELITY PROTOTYPES Mood Board

AR HMD Digital Prototype

From my completed sketches, I began the process of making the models for user testing. These were made from blue foam and card, employing existing PPE helmets as a testbed. Because my solution was not yet fully defined I created three configurations for user testing. These revolved around two helmets, three control models and two visors, giving me plenty of variety.

Next was to concept the most impactful element of my design, the HMD. This was done by sketching in a variety of mediums before developing details during the concept development stage, incorporating the vision created in my visual interface prototype. This was made using a geotagging feature in Snapchat.

https://vimeo.com/300195731


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Digital Prototype CONTEXT OF USE Persona & Empathy Map

Contextual Analysis

Personas were drawn up to frame consumer needs. These are two potential adopters. One in a labour role, and the other in a management position. Both make use of PPE Hardhats on work sites. Empathy maps were drawn to speculate on the users goals and motivations.

I then worked to better understand the context of my project, completing a hierarchical task analysis of the products visual interface. The construction site environment can be very harsh, from extreme temperatures to poor ground conditions, the amount of potential hazards are very high and ever present. Remote ethnography assisted in framing primary tasks.

19/20


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VISUAL INTERFACE Hierachical Task Analysis

Primary Tasks & Initial Wireframes

Paper Prototype

Considering the visual interface, this map shows the full amount of screens required for a complete user journey. Mapping out the complete function of the system. This was based on discoveries made during the previous environmental and task analysis.

A key consideration of my design was the AR HMD’s visual interface. This portion fulfilled the UX Design requirements of my brief. It is the graphics interface design that would be displayed to the user. A few wire-frames mapped out the overall feel of the interface.

This is the full wireframe to be used in conjunction with the low fidelity prototype in user testing. Special consideration had to be taken to make the interface visually un-disturbing, reducing the attention grabbing nature of a heads up display. Consideration also had to be given to a interface control method.

19/20


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Low Fidelity User Testing VISUAL INTERFACE TESTING Card Sorting & Paper Prototype

Testing Method

Testing begun with a user and a card sorting technique, to better organise the data present in my hierarchical task analysis from an alternative point of view. To finalise, the completed paper prototype was presented to a user in conjunction with an in-depth questionnaire.

Extensive care was taken to establish context utilising assets such as my virtual prototype. As the user moved through the interface his progress was mapped and a ‘Think out loud’ technique was used. Quantitative data from the questionnaire was then reflected upon. Consent was gathered from all participants involved.


LOW FIDELITY PROTOTYPE TESTING Physical Prototypes

Test Sample Group

Questionnaire & Harris Profile

The first instance, and largest undertaking, involved testing three configurations of my physical prototypes. The three prototypes were representative of different configurations of the same hardware. Particular attention was paid to assessing a variety of control inputs

In total six users were selected, each with professional experience in industry, whether as apprentices or more experienced engineers. Users were asked to validate their favourite configuration by performing predetermined commands, navigating through the control system.

They were then presented with a form comprising a questionnaire and a Harris Profile, methods I employed to gain both quantitative and qualitative data. The data from the Harris profile was then drawn into graphs, as well as the questionnaire answers analysed in conjunction with reports taken at the time.

TESTING RESULTS Physical Prototype

Visual Interface Prototype

The testing proved invaluable, predominantly during the analysis of my physical prototype test. It was here I was informed of the most appropriate design configuration based on my users’ opinions expressed in their Harris Profile results. As well as this valuable insight was provided helping to overcome the design challenge of designing a physical control interface a user has no visual of.

Thanks to card sorting techniques I was able to map out primary tasks present in my wire-frame. As well as confirm the validity of my own mental model, ensuring it was approachable and intuitive for users to adopt. Results also helped me gauge the intrusiveness of my software, a key consideration of my early design research that is a major barrier to adoption in current market producers.

19/20


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Physical Prototype 2 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN Product Redesign

CAD & Rapid Prototyping

Workshop Fabrication

Completed Prototype

With my ideas firmly established and based in research, I begun to visualise the appearance and functionality of my PPE design. To begin conceptualising design ideas I considered the form of representative products from my target market. This included form analysis, and sketch studies of details.

Many wearable intended for industrial use (for example ‘Google Glass’) failed to gain widespread adoption, a key factor was its failure to convey a ‘rugged/work ready style’. This doesn’t inspire consumer confidence. I resultingly choose a futuristic industrial style.

I ideated a with thumbnails, aiming to reconsider the boxy form of conventional HMD’s. I then worked on establishing a consistent visual style, suitable for the rugged context of a work-site, to better encourage adoption among potential users).

I ideated a with thumbnails, aiming to reconsider the boxy form of conventional HMD’s. I then worked on establishing a consistent visual style, suitable for the rugged context of a work-site, to better encourage adoption among potential users).


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PROTOTYPE STORYBOARD

Product Features:

This shows the user journey throughout the whole of the devices functions. The below steps illustrate a typical scenario of use, and the features used to fufill user needs. This includes both the physical hardware interaction and digital software use.

1.) Augmented Reality Head Mounted Display Iphone & Bi Focal Lenses.

User activates the HMD, he is presented with the homescreen

Midway through instruction they encounter a missing step using the follow me command to fix it.

They then establish the task they need to complete that day.

2.) Impact Force Monitoring Accelerometer & Arduino Nano

Using the HMD’s AR feature they use the navigation tool to guide them.

They then complete the task thanks to the remote guidances step by step process

3.) Dynamic Proximity Alert Ultrasonic Sensor & RP

User encounters virtual zoning around machinery, he avoids them.

Leaving the site the user knocks over a can. A trip hazard.

User arrives at task and realises he has not got the correct instructions.

User activates zones and signage feature by operating the menu system.

They activate the remote instruction feature operating the menu system.

They place a virtual warning sign instantly informing others onsite. 19/20


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Digital Prototype 2

Prototype Link

AXURE RP MVP Considerations at this stage involved a redesign of the form to resolve painpoints by accommodating a 3DeF method of VI assisted input. This let to a revision of the control units form. With interaction now suitably developed attention turned to the VI itself. Updating an initial wireframe based on user suggestions, a prototype was designed in Axure RP. Given the single physical touchpoint, the VI became the focus of successive user testing.

GLOBAL SCREENS

https://i2wxze.axshare.com

HEAD MOUNTED DISPLAY

Home Screen & Global Nav

Impact Alert Pop-Up

HMD Function Overview

Navigation Location View

Navigation Route View

Navigation A.R. View

Instruction Task Select

Instruction Step Tutorial


28 HEAD MOUNTED DISPLAY (CONT)

Instruction Video Tutorial

Instruction Program New Steps

Indication Place Sign

Indication Place Zone

Indication Place Cube Zone

Indication Place Cylinder Zone

Indication Sign Edit

DYNAMIC PROXIMITY ALERT SCREENS

IMPACT FORCE MONITORING SCREENS

Range Setting

Impact Activity Log

Heavy Good Vehicle Alert

Impact Log Details

19/20


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High Fidelity User Testing METHODOLOGY Testing Aim

Contextual Walk-through

Task Scenarios

Methods employed in testing were carefully structured to achieve investigation objectives. The primary aim was to evaluate a pre-existing mental model of the user journey by conducting moderated user testing. This was evaluated with 5 participants familiar with core UX principles.

When designing a system or service the design solution must be coherent with user expectations. Part of this is steering the user to the correct expectations. A VR Google Cardboard and iPhone setup, as well as the prototypes were used. This gave users experimental context, as well as to the function of apparatus. Investigation of these materials was limited to 15 minutes to mitigate any learning effects.

With the groundwork laid, users were introduced to four task scenarios. These were used as a consistent measure of performance indicators between participants, instructing them to perform the tasks using the interface with as few errors as possible. Success, time and errors were individually recorded.


DATA COLLECTION Numerical Scoring & Kano Matrix

Concurrent Think Aloud (CTA) Testing

Data Visualisation.

Data collection was divided between quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative results were recorded by the assessor using numerical scoring tables. These contained grading for performance and subjective measures; and finally, a Kano matrix needs assessment.

Considering qualitative data collection, users were instructed to perform Concurrent Think Aloud (CTA) Testing. User’s verbally explained their thought process providing insight into their decision making. This was actively recorded by the assessor during the experiment.

Data was visualized concluding the experiment by identifying and graphing trends and modelling a Kano distribution. The Kano process allowed for a comprehensive understanding of user basic/performance/attractive need satisfaction, indicative of the potential for the products market differentiation. This was preceded by a write up of feedback gathered during the CTA assessment.

01

19/20


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User Testing Results CTA TESTING OUTCOMES Difficulty in utilising submenu functionality.

SUBJECTIVE MEASURES 01

Satisfaction Rating:

Participants scores are in the higher threshold, with none exceeding neutral when expressing negative feelings. The majority of participants described their experience as satisfying and above. Those that gave a neutral score had felt the errors occurred in their performance measures hindered the user experience.

The submenu feature was badly neglected during user testing with many participants failing to utilize it even once. Its possible clear iconography or labels would improve visibility and acknowledgment. It may also help to explain its use to users within the interface, providing prompts.

Non-obvious global nav call to action.

02

Global navigation was appreciated by users and was used extensively during scenario testing. A number of users were initially puzzled as to begin locating features on the homepage. Currently the global nav is denoted by a call to action button in the form of the PP3 logo. Whilst this is accepted practice in UX design a few users suggest it be replaced with a home button to be instantly recognizable.

Instruction page initially daunting.

03

Scenario four was described by uses as the most difficult challenge, this was reflected in its greater mean completion time than other scenarios. The main sticking point was found to be navigating the instruction page. Users felt context provided was not adequate to properly explain the feature, and a few failed to notice the updates in the bottom toolbar activated by their choices.

04

Ease of Use Rating:

05 This measure was more diverse in results compared to the satisfaction measure. Its clear none rated the ease of use as excellent, but many participants gave it a close too score of 4. Those that had incurred errors effecting their satisfaction felt those issue had a greater impact on the ease of use.


32 TASK SCENARIO PERFORMANCE MEASURES Mean Scenario Time:

KANO DISTRIBUTION

06

09

Mean Scenario Time:

From the kano matrix provided to users, a distribution model was made,indicating need satisfaction across the sample. By measuring these needs when conducting the user testing, we are not just investigating the functionality of the interface, but the entire products competitiveness and expected market outcome. Based on the calculated mean from the combined Kano Matrixes, an interesting distribution can be modelled. Mean basic needs are slightly above average, performance needs and attractive are comfortably above average. Despite the small sample size, it would seem additional oversight when it comes to protection, fit and build would benefit the project; although the current scoring is not a net negative.

Data collection regarding time to complete individual scenarios produced a greater quantity of results. Control values were added to individual scenario measures reflecting the assessors scores. Collected data was somewhat homogeneous across users. Success Rate:

07 Participants were able to complete almost every scenario with relative ease. Scenario’s 2 and 4 were the only ones that presented difficulty to the sample. Failure to complete these tasks stem from difficulty identifying the correct functions. Either from missing key prompts or a failure to recognize iconography or labelling.

Error Rate:

08 More mixed than the analysis of scenario completion, not even a single participant was able to complete scenarios without a single error. Although this difference could stem from the subjective nature of defining errors. Few errors were based in testing misdirection. Almost all of the errors were based in the interface and its functionality.

CONCLUSION Both development and testing have produced actionable results contributing to a viable design solution. A lot of product development groundwork had been covered in CWK1, which left me free to make the VI the focus of the second semester. This was an important distinction to make given the limited touch-points present on my model, and the expanse HMD. Prototyping was limited to the component box because of this single touch-point, with extra time it would have been ideal to prototype the visor component. 19/20


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Telehealth

“

A user-friendly telemedicine system providing easy asthma management inbetween clinic appointments.


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Overview Telehealth involves the use of technology to deliver remote care outside of traditional facilities. SYSTEM & SERVICE DESIGN This project outlines the requirements for the development of a robust, user-friendly telemedicine system.Asthma is a common lung condition that causes occasional breathing difficulties. There’s currently no cure but there are simple treatments, facilitated by the remote system that can help keep symptoms under control, reducing quality of life impact.

PROJECT DETAILS Definition

My Roles

Date

Design Thinking

System Design

Sept 2018

Ideation

Service Design

March 2019

Methods

Learnt

Deliverables

Requirment Specification

Regulation & Standards

Requirment Specification

Problem Definition

F.A.S.T & Matrix Checklist

Final Concept Design

Design Thinking Methods

Cognitive Work Analysis, etc

19/20


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Project Outline

REGULATIONS & STANDARDS The regulations and standards that shall be adhered to in the development of this system range from horizontal to vertical standards. Either very broad standards relating to general healthcare practise, or those specific to asthma (the long term health condition selected for this project). Those use include, but are not limited to:

BRIEF

ISO 9001:2015

I was tasked to develop a sturdy, user-friendly telehealthcare system which provides effective self-monitoring of a long term condition in lieu of a clinic visit. The system enables people with asthma to share their health-related data so that health adviser can provide timely advice cost-effectively.

Requirements for a quality management system to demonstrate its ability to provide services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

BS EN 62366

The usability engineering process providing guidance on how to implement and execute this method to ensure safety in medical devices – from design, right though to usage.

NICE QS25

Diagnosing, monitoring and managing asthma in children, young people and adults. It describes high-quality care, including objective tests to support diagnosis. Etc

The purpose of this project is to investigate these requirements and explore possible system configurations; using a variety of design thinking methods to explore various solution options, pro and con arguments.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

Project Time-line

To establish the projects direction, a meaningful and actionable problem definition was created. This table reframes the design challenge, breaking considerations into actionable areas. By taking account of who,what,where,why and when an actionable definition of considerations is created that will drive the rest of my design work.

Problem Definition Stakeholder Diagram Cognitive Work Analysis F.A.S.T (Inhaler & Flow Meter) Matrix Checklist Issue Maps (1-3) TRIZ Application Concept Solutions System Interface Concepts FMEA Risk Assessment

01


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02

BUSINESS CONTEXT Currently there are no systems which deliver such a service. In the UK 5.4 million people are receiving treatment for asthma, related expenditure is approximately 1 billion a year. The asthma telemedicine system can help the NHS achieve organisational objectives: Enhanced sharing of health-related data, to better the reliability of clinical judgments. Imparting advice to patients in a timely and cost-effective manner. Reduced hospital admissions without a resulting increase in mortality rates, an efficient resource saving measure. Provide better healthcare to those unable to regularly access services. E.g. Users in isolated locations The UK has among the highest prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children worldwide; highlighting the importance of this services introduction.

MATRIX CHECKLIST This list of values in rows and columns allows me to systematically identify, analyse, and rate the performance of relationships between sets of values and information needed in the system. Elements of this matrix show decisions based on certain decision criteria. 03

STAKEHOLDER DIAGRAM The main users of the system shall be the asthma patient in lieu of a clinical visit. Their nature of use involves monitoring symptoms and submitting peak flow test readings, it’s likely they will have the system installed at home. In some cases, very young, old or disabled patients, will require their care giver to operate the telemedicine system. The other primary user shall be medical professionals, who will analyse the user’s data on the system, providing personalised feedback. They will do so remotely at the facility they work at.


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Consideration PROJECT SCOPE The system shall be partially integrated into the NHS medical records system held at the clinic and/or hospital. It will require the background information about the asthma patients using the system, as well as relevant records of their condition. Patients will interface with the system providing data for medical professionals in the form of monitoring their symptoms. This makes it easier to identify potential issues, an increase in symptoms can act as an early warning system notifying the healthcare professional to act. Patients will also submit measured peak flow readings, as part of their conventional asthma treatment. This will allow the healthcare professional to compare the users peak flow readings to what would usually be expected of someone their age, gender and height. Assessing the current severity of the user’s condition. Healthcare professionals will continually monitor the patient’s data to provide personalised feedback to the user about their health condition.

COGNITIVE WORK ANALYSIS I utilised this framework that was developed to model complex sociotechnical work systems. My work models different types of constraints, and how work could proceed within the telecommunications system.

04


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05

USER CHARACTERISTICS The main users of the system shall be the asthma patient in lieu of a clinical visit. Their nature of use involves monitoring symptoms and submitting peak flow test readings, it’s likely they will have the system installed at home. In some cases, very young, old or disabled patients, will require their care giver to operate the telemedicine system. The other primary user shall be medical professionals, who will analyse the user’s data on the system, providing personalised feedback. They will do so remotely at the hospital/clinic/etc they work at. Medical professionals shall be an assigned doctor, or more junior members of staff such as nurses.

F.A.S.T MAPPING I created two maps, one pictured for the inhaler and another for the peak flow meter. FAST provides a graphical representation of how my functions are linked or work together in the telecommunications system to deliver the intended goods or services.

+ Peak Flow F.A.S.T *Inhalers differ in both type (Preventer/Reliever) and manufacture (MDI, Powder, etc.)


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Specification FUNCTIONS TO BE IMPLEMENTED As outlined in the requirements specification a number of functions are key to the system. The patients must be able to interface with the system providing data for medical professionals by monitoring their symptoms. This is achieved by logging use of a peak flow meter and prescribed inhaler. Healthcare professionals must be able to continually monitor the patient’s data to provide personalised feedback to the user about their health condition. Patient and medical professionals must be able to communicate and exchange information with each other remotely

ISSUE MAPPING Previously a cognitive work analysis was conducted. As part of this process a number of purpose related functions were identified. To better understand the problem and generate ideas three issue maps were modelled. An issue map is a graphical network that integrates many problems, solutions, and points of view and shows the deep structure of an issue. The three issue maps modelled are: How to best identify the user? (Pictured) E.g. “Implement existing 3rd party solution” How to provide personalised feedback? E.g. “Multiple alerts over time” How to assess the users condition? E.g. “Automated when users log is empty”

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PURPOSE OF SYSTEM

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The NHS has commissioned a robust, user-friendly telemedicine system to provide effective management of asthma in between clinic appointments. It aims to include these features: Enhanced sharing of health-related data, to better the reliability of clinical professionals judgement. Reduced hospital admissions without a resulting increase in mortality rates, an efficient resource saving measure. Provide better healthcare to those unable to regularly access services. E.g. Users in isolated locations.

COMPLETED REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION This completed specification outlines the requirements for the development of a robust, user-friendly telemedicine system to provide effective management of asthma in between clinic appointments. The 24 page document covers all necessary specifications at a high level, provide a comprehensive understanding of system needs to its user.

Regulations & Standards

Physical Properties

Distribution & Storage

Training of Personnel

Functional Performances

Environmental Conditions

Disposal

Documentation

Interface Requirements

Maintenance

Validation

Safety

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Concept Design T.R.I.Z MATRIX INPUT

CONTRADICTION SOLUTIONS

For TRIZ, systems evolve towards ideality by overcoming contradictions. A TRIZ matrix gathers 40 Principles (known solutions) able to overcome these contradictions. To integrate development with the Issue Maps, two issues related to purpose related functions identified in the cognitive work analysis were investigated using this TRIZ method.

Based on the general contradiction solutions identified by the matrix. its possible to apply design thinking to convert these suggestions into valid solutions. Some of these included:

Contradiction 1: User Identification - Ease of Operation vs Necessary Complexity. The problems were applied [36: Device complexity], [33: Ease of operation], and solutions found [27: Cheap short-living objects], [9: Preliminary anti-action], [26: Copying] and [24: Intermediary].

[9: Preliminary anti-action] Implement visual identification technology, bypassing the need for a complex credential based login system. [24: Intermediary] An intermediary process would assist the user navigating the complex inputting process. A user that is having trouble navigating the interface could press ‘help’. [26: Copying] When a user accesses the healthcare system from a home network or personal computer. User identification credentials could be preloaded on first time entry.

Contradiction 2: Personalised Feedback - Process Quickly vs Feedback Detail The problems were applied [28: Measurement accuracy], [25: Loss of Time], and solutions found [24: Intermediary], [28: Mechanics Substitution] and [32: Colour Changes].

[27: Cheap short-living objects] Ease of operation hindered by the user memorising excessive login credentials. Repeatedly issue the user with a short, one time use password from the NHS. [24: Intermediary] When GP is writing personalised feedback, delegating sections of this task between less senior members of staff. [28: Mechanics Substitution] Automate mundane and time consuming tasks such as data entry, by using algorithmic computer software without extensive human oversight.

Contradiction Matrix link: https://tinyurl.com/z8yl8cj

[32: Colour Changes] Improving an analyst’s perception whilst using the database. Colour coding and iconography could be employed when categorising and filing data.


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08

SERVICE BLUEPRINT The service blueprint visualizes the relationships between different service components directly tied to touchpoints in the user journey.

To uncover big-picture, organization-level objectives; and find insight to various overlaps and dependencies, the service blueprint comprises some key elements: User Actions Steps, activities, and interactions that the user performs while interacting with the telehealthcare system. User actions were earlier derived from a user-journey map. Frontstage Actions Actions that occur directly in view of the customer. These actions can be human-tohuman or human-to-computer actions.

ACTIVITY DIAGRAM My activity diagram visually presents a series of actions or flow of control in the system similar to a flowchart or a data flow diagram. Activities modelled are both sequential and concurrent. The activity diagram also has a beginning (an initial state) and an end (a final state), for all users involved in the systems interaction.

Backstage Actions Steps and activities that occur behind the scenes to support onstage happenings. These actions could be performed by a backstage employee (E.g. a nurse). 19/20


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COMMUNICATION DIAGRAM This kind of interaction diagram (above), shows how objects within the telehealthcare system interact. The communication diagram is an extension of object diagram that shows the objects along with the messages that travel from one to another. In addition to the associations among objects, communication diagram shows the messages the objects send each other. objects (actors in use cases) are represented by rectangles.

SYSTEM COMPOSITION HIERARCHY DIAGRAM A composite hierarchy diagram is a type of visualisation that contains classes, interfaces, packages, and their relationships, and that provides a logical view of all the telehealthcare system. It shows the internal structure (including parts and connectors) of structured classifiers or collaboration that occurs between the systems user groups, for example the GP and their patient.


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FMEA RISK ASSESSMENT (INHALER) Failure mode and effects analysis is the process of reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify potential failure modes in a system and their causes and effects. This process was conducted with the inhaler utilised by the end user, the process was exstensive from disposal to maintenance of the device.

INTERFACE CONCEPT Above is examples of the system interface from a user’s perspective. Care was taken to incorporate all features present in earlier concept solutions (that are visible to the end user). The design encapsulates the primary screens uncounted by users, and visualises the layout of each screen accurately, describing a typical usage case.

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Sullection

“

A contemporary re-branding of the ancient Korean rice wine, known as Makoli.


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Overview A government sponsored project, working with real Korean Makoli producers. CLIENT BRANDING At Korea University I undertook a branding module in collaboration with graphic design students from California Long Beach. I lead a team re-branding a traditional Korean Rice Wine, managing client needs. We even made the wine ourselves with our clients, to better contextually understand the experience. Presented to business leaders at exhibition.

PROJECT DETAILS Definition

My Roles

Date

Collaborative Branding

Project Lead

Jun 2018

Working with a real business client.

Sept 2018

Methods

Learnt

Deliverables

Cultural Sympathy

Distilling Process

Public Exhibition

Brand Development

Branding Methodology

Brand Package

Exhibition and Presentation

Team Leadership 19/20


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Project Outline BRIEF Under instruction from Grandmaster Han, we got our first taste of Makoli. As well as making it ourselves we were tasked to rebrand it by several distillers. This was for an upcoming international conference relating to greater Korean Cultural exports. Both the distillers and government tasked CSULB Branding, the team I was employed with. We were told to exhibit our workers at a Makoli exhibition, and present at a conference describing our design decisions.

INITIAL RESEARCH Primary research, in the form of contextual inquiry and ethnography was needed to provide context Project Time-line Distilling Makoli Client Briefing Project Outline Branding Conventions Ideation Logo Design

Contextual Understanding

The Brewers

To better understand the product we were attempting to brand, we brewed the rice wine ourselves. The milky, offwhite and lightly sparkling rice wine has a slight viscosity that tastes slightly sweet, tangy, bitter, and astringent. Sediment gives it a cloudy appearance.

My team was instructed by both Grandmaster Han, as well as a Makoli Entrepreneur with their own product line. We produced the wine using a 1000 year old ancient Korean home brew method. The product contained yeast, rice and water. The masters supervised us throughout the process..

ATTRIBUTES OF OUR BRAND Based on our product knowledge, we began to define the attributes that will form our unique brand:

“Sullectors” Persona Spatial Design Video Public Presentation

Energetic:

Showing or involving great activity or vitality. "Energetic exercise"

Exclusive:

Catering or available to only a few, select people; “An exclusive Georgetown neighbourhood”

Modern:

Belonging to or occurring in the present. “The complexities of our contemporary society.”


ZEALOTS AND PAGANS

SENSES OF OUR BRAND

Zealots and pagans represented an essential way of establishing the target and non-target demographics.

Defining senses is a quick way of understanding a brands image.

Zealots Zealots are our brand advocates and represent the core consumers we aim to appeal to. We seek their loyalty.

Look:

“New Fashion”

Taste:

“Fruit Cocktails”

Smell:

“Clean Cotton”

3 Total

Pagans Pagans represent consumers who are uninspired with our brand. We aim to specialise away from these people.

Sounds: “House Music”

Feel:

“Concrete”

3 Total 19/20


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Brand Development TARGET DEMOGRAPHIC INTERVIEWS

MARKET RESEARCH

We decided to present our current vision to real people, gathering user insight.

We decided to present our current vision to real people, gathering user insight.

Interview One

Market Competitors

Tim was most on-board with the idea. He liked how the product represented an alternative to his favourite alcohol, whilst retaining the strength he wanted. We also gained a more well rounded image of his personality.

To understand the current state of the Korean Market, we conducted in-depth research on 3 existing examples of Makoli: ▪▪ Kumbokju ▪▪ Woorisol ▪▪ Kooksoondang

Natural

Interview Two

Perception Mapping

Kim was a less likely consumer than Tim, but nonetheless found herself interested. She appreciated Korean culture and saw the historical appeal of the wine. The taste however didn’t appeal to her, although the health benefits swayed her.

Here we tailored our approach based on the current Makoli market climate in Korea.

Our Brand Kumbokju Kooksoondang Quality

Quantity Yangiootakyak

Woorisool Flavoured


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BRAND DESCRIPTORS Our brand descriptors were based on client goals and research outcomes, establishing a definitive brand. Brand Story:

The small batch and organic nature of this product facilitated an exclusive drinking scene, setting it apart from hundreds of other bars with mass produced and identical offerings. With determination and financial backing the group were able to set up shop in three cosmopolitan city’s creative and fashionable neighbourhoods.

Vision

Position the brand as our target’s favourite & desired drink and present brand strategic positioning faithfully.

Values:

We introduced a new beverage to the public for the love of tradition and new flavours. Our brand means a healthy and nature lifestyle, it spreads a kind of low-pace life concept to customers. Health, Harmony, Youth.

Voice:

Sounds like a confident voice who will. Acts simple and natural to correspond to the healthy lifestyle. Dynamic and Elegant to offer the pleased experience.

Position:

Our brand is unique because you will never experience the same flavour twice. We produce different badges that people will never forget but they will always be excited to try what’s next.

Apperance: Progressive, postmodern because we are introducing an unusual, ever changing beverage.

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Brand Identity PHYSICAL IDENTITY Product Packaging A full set of packaging. The design is inspired by traditional Korean ceramic vessels. This draws on the 1000 years of tradition incorporated into the brewing process. The design was modelled in Solidworks.

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02

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Bar Design

The “Sullectors�

I designed an example of a bar location reflective of our brands exclusive nature. It is a private subterranean establishment with all the associated furnishings of a trendy bay. I designed this model in Sketchup.

As described in our brand story, we belived in addition to a seasonal menu our wine choices should be carefully selected by a group of curators. These fabricated personas add a human touch to the brand.


LOGO DESIGN Brush Calligraphy

Naming Convention

The logo is hand drawn using traditional Korean Calligraphy techniques. Traditional inks and brushes were also employed. This simple logo conveys the brands motives, and ties with the wines traditional art. The use of a monotone palette brings this classical logo a contempoary touch, appealing to modern sensiblities.

‘Sullection’ is the mixture of an alternative name for Makoli (Suul), and the word ‘selection’. This aims to convey our brands commintment to options, and our respect for Korean tradition. An outdated impression is now revitalised as a trendy and appealing drink, aimed at a younger demographic.

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The Exhibition PRESENTATION MATERIALS “Sullection� Poster These boards I designed were printed and mounted onto large sheets of foam boards for presentation at the Makoli Exhibition. They were intended as a synopsis of our brand image and values, to be utilised as marketing material. They were a topic of intrest for many visiting the exhibition, mainly due to their assymetrical layout and unqiue imagery. The posters were printed in a large A1 format and used as presentation materials in the exhibition.

VIDEO PRESENTATION 01

02

Sullection Video Link This short video visualises the conceptual elements behind the brand. It uses the heroes journey to present a story describing the taste, brand story, feelings and sensations of our product. https://tinyurl.com/y86kzxxd

Exhibition Video Link Here is the video of a walk-through the exhibition in progress. Note the exhibition advertising, the art for sale, and the clients and guests visiting. This was filmed on the day of our presentation. https://tinyurl.com/y7y99y5y


PUBLIC PRESENTATION 03

Makoli at Korea University Pi Centre The exhibition was held in July 2018 across a week. It was held in the university “Pi Centre�, a multifunction creative space on campus. Many hours were spent prior, setting up the exhibition in preparation for the start of proceedings. Attendees included members of the general public interested in the work, as well as our own clients and other Korean business leaders. Representatives from the Korean Government also appeared as sponsors of the exhibition. In our slot my team and I presented our finalised branding solution to all present and received positive feedback from our client, they then received our completed in materials, along with the other groups involved in preparation of their upcoming commercial venture.

Client Feedback Speaking with our client soon after concluding our presentation, feedback for my team was very positive with the premium feel well aligned with their brand mission. They highlighted our frequent communication as a differentiating factor compared to the other competing groups. We feel this allowed us to better align our brand vision with that of the clients.

19/20


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Experimental Research

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H ow do undergraduate social spending habits compare, between genders in an 18-24 age bracket?


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Overview Socializing costs undergraduates a hefty £675 a year, their 4th biggest weekly outgoing.

- Nus.org.uk

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN RESEARCH According to NUS, “men spend on average three times more on a night out”. If this statement is true, it may imply social spending statistics reporting mean student, irrespective of gender, are inaccurate. This microproject aims to investigate the likelihood of this gender difference using an experiment that employs ‘new statistical’ techniques.

PROJECT DETAILS Definition

My Roles

Date

Experimental Research

Data Collection

Feb 2019

Statistical Inference Supporting Hypothesis

Data Analysis

May 2019

Methods

Learnt

Deliverables

Primary Research

Applying “The New Statistics”

Research Report

Statistical Analysis

Data Visualisation in ESCI and Excel

Informed Consent

Data Visualisation

19/20


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Project Outline BRIEF

INDEPENDENT SAMPLE TEST

I was tasked to elaborate a meaningful academic or industrial research question within a design context. To design a micro-project aimed at answering that question and collect data using new statistics on a representative sample of choice. I was then to analyse the collected data, exploring and presenting complex meaningful patterns and trends in data relevant to the research question. Research findings were summarised and reported in a 1000 word

The microproject aims to prove a social spending gender difference by discovering statistical inference supporting this hypothesis. Two participant groups consisting of male and female undergraduates will be formed. Participants will be asked once to disclose their social spending on a Friday night through an independent sample test. The provided data will help to answer the research question , measuring effect size using mean difference between samples.

RESEARCH QUESTION

STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS TEST

“Men spend on average three times more on a night out”. If this statement is true, it may imply social spending statistics reporting mean student, irrespective of gender, are inaccurate. This microproject aims to investigate the likelihood of this. My research question is:

Combining this effect size with at statistical hypothesis test (T test) will help demonstrate statistical inference and prove research outcomes are not down to chance. The independent variable in this investigation is monetary expenditure in pounds; utilised because it is a suitable ratio level of measurement. Based on the authors understanding of social spending the smallest meaningful effect size will be set at a £5 threshold. This was based on prior knowledge of the subject to make this determination. The T test will prove the validity of either:

“How do male and female undergraduate social spending habits compare, on a Friday night, in an 18-24 age bracket?” A probability value (P) will also be calculated to help quantify any statistical inference numerically. Given the limited scope of this microproject a representative sample of undergraduates will be used to draw inference about the wider population.

Null Hypothesis:

H₀:µ₁=µ₂ Male and Female undergraduates have an equal social spending on a Friday night. Both groups are from the same population in the context of the independent variable. This occurs if the critical T value is larger than the calculated T value. Alternative Hypothesis:

H₀:µ₁≠µ₂ Male undergraduates have an increased social spending on a Friday night. The two groups are from different populations in the context of the independent variable, the calculated T value is larger than the T critical value.


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N=5

N=50

N=20

USE OF ESCI & NEW STATISTICS

DATA SPREAD VISUALISATION

To analyse collected data, an excel plugin called ESCI was used. ESCI (Exploratory Software for Confidence Intervals) can help provide New Statistics analysis and figures for many common research designs. The software makes it easy to use the estimation approach to answer a wide variety of research questions, such as the one posed in this experimental design microproject. It was used primarily for data spread and box plot visualisation.

ESCI was used to guide the sample size by visualising the potential spread of data. A larger sample produces results closer to the true mean, a smaller sample is less accurate but more obtainable. Based on these results a suitable compromise was decided. If the experiment samples 20 people (N=20), findings are likely to be acceptably close to the true population given the limited scope of this microproject.

x10

x10 19/20


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Collected Data INVESTIGATION RESULTS

T TEST (STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE)

After testing 20 male and female undergraduates, the independent sample test outcomes for both participant groups were gathered. This provided a reliable estimation of social spending indicative of the overall population.

A T test was then conducted based on 2-tailed probabilities. Utilizing the mean, variance and sample size a calculated T value was obtained. This was then compared to a critical T value from a normal distribution table.

The calculated T value was found to be larger than the critical (2.565>2.101). Based on this the null hypothesis can be rejected proving both sample groups are from separate populations with respect to the independent variable.

H₀:µ₁≠µ₂

(The alternative hypothesis is true)

This data was supplemented by calculating a p value of 0.024; this was found to be <0.05 and as such represents a statistically significant difference in spending habits. While this statistical significance relates to whether a gender difference exists its sole use is a shortcoming of this investigation. The statistical difference identified gives us no indication of magnitude, and as such its importance.

CALCULATIONS

MARGIN OF ERROR (PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE)

Calculations determined the means, variance and standard deviation for both groups. The MoE was used in conjunction with the mean difference to calculate upper and lower 95% CI’s of the effect size. Effect Size was found to be £7.40 based on mean difference, this exceeds the set minimum effect size threshold of £5. The largest error of estimation is £6.06. This estimate is within a range, £13.46 and £1.34, based on upper and lower 95% confidence intervals.

Previously a minimum effect size of £5 was determined based on subject-area expertise. The value of £7.40 gathered exceeds this demonstrating a practical significance. However, margin of error should be factored as the effect size is only an estimate. When the margin of error is factored the minimum 95%CI lies at £1.34, well below the £5 threshold, casting doubt about whether the actual population effect is large enough to be practically significant.


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DATA VISUALISATION

EXPERIMENT REVIEW

Graphs were produced of the results that are of interest to the research question. These were intended to help visualize the sample difference. These graphs include a box and whisker and ESCI visualization.

This microproject provided an estimate of effect size evidencing a hypothesis that suggested an inaccuracy in social spending statistics only reporting mean student. The calculated effect size was £7.4, we can be 95% certain the true value lies between a range of £13.46 and £1.34. The statistical significance of this estimation is proven given the outcome of the T test and P<0.05 thus rejecting the null hypothesis and proving the experiments result are not attributed to chance.

“We can conclude a gender difference likely exists in social spending among the undergraduate population” Practical significance remains unproven and as such the magnitude of this difference remains unknown. The experiments indefinite outcome regarding magnitude is potentially based on a uniformed estimation of £5 for minimum effect size. As such prior reviewing of effect size papers specific to spending habits could have provided a better knowledge of the subject matter allowing for a more accurate prediction. If this experiment was to be repeated it would be also be conducted following a user research phase. Participants could have been asked, either explicitly or implicitly, what a practically significant amount is, providing an estimate of minimum effect size based on the opinions of the target demographic. It should also be noted this test was conducted with a small sample over one day, and as such results cannot provide unequivocal inference about the entire graduate population

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