Water in Egypt The Challenge and the Solution Ahmed Hassan
One key challenge facing Egypt today is water leakage. First, I will provide some information to clarify the problem. We know Egypt has many resources of water but each of them is threatened and if we don't get a solution to the problem we may have a disaster. Water is life and if we don't give the situation immediate attention we may face catastrophic consequences. As some studies said that on 2025 the population in Egypt will reach 95 million The main source of water in Egypt is Nile water that nearly 97 percent of water comes from. So we cannot depend on because it comes from Africa by falling rains in Lake Victoria and that falling rains are threatened by the global warming. Also countries sharing Nile water now build water dams and use more water for irrigation and industry. Other sources of water in Egypt is the another 3 percent remaining which include ground water extraction which is not a renewable source of water and one day it will come to an end. Also another source is precipitation of water drops in air which is renewable but not applicable everywhere as it needs high technology. Now it comes to the last source and the solution which is sea water desalination which is already used in Egypt but on little scales in some resorts on the red sea and also we have in Alexandria w plant that produces 10,000 m3/ day of fresh water out of desalination. The idea here comes is how to use that desalinated water and finance it on large scale we can use another renewable clean source of energy which is available in Egypt which is solar energy. We shall use solar desalination plants in the red sea and the Mediterranean and here comes another problem that financing those plants. It costs a lot much but by pumping that fresh water from the water shores to the inland we can get to life and get the money needed for those plants by getting some of the profit of the agricultural products that benefit from the irrigation by that fresh water and also to get another profit from the tourism and resorts that will use that water but that profit will be taken for a period until the costs of the desalination plants is covered.