Proceedings - 2011

Page 1

5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 27 July 2011

Page 1 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

FORWARD The 5th Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference was hosted at Gold Coast, Australia, 18-21 July 2011, by Gold Coast City Council.

Since the previous (4th) Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference, there have been a number of major natural disasters that have impacted communities within Australia, New Zealand and Pacific region. Some of these included: 

Earthquakes in Christchurch

Floods in Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales and Viet Nam

Tsunami impacting Sumatra, Indonesia

Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi impacting North Queensland

Volcanic Eruptions in Indonesia and Philippines

As with the previous conference, the 5th Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference was a forum to discuss the integration of hazard information into effective risk management of natural hazards. Adopting a theme that focused on major events and major impacts of natural hazards, this year’s conference provided a unique opportunity for participants to consider, examine and review best practice disaster research and management. The conference was attended by approximately 210 participants, who were emergency managers, policy makers, researchers, planners, risk assessors, asset and utility managers, scientists, and/or students. Participants came from Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, Iran, Thailand, India and the United Kingdom. The main conference program (19-20 July 2011) was organized into six thematic sessions, with each session providing reports and/or analyses of research and/or emergency management practice. The sessions were: o

The role of research in emergency management, which highlighted the diversity and importance of emergency management research

o

Understanding and reducing risk

o

Preparedness

o

Response during crisis

o

Communicating disaster information to others

o

Social impacts of disasters and recovery

A copy of the conference program is included in this proceedings document.

Page 2 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

During the main conference, four keynote speakers provided important focal points for the conference and attendees. The 2011 keynote speakers were: 

Deputy Commissioner Ian Stewart, APM, Queensland Police Service, who provided a personal reflection on the 2011 Queensland Floods and Cyclone disasters, and the challenges that faced/face the Queensland community before, during and after these events.

Commissioner Murray Kear, AFSM, New South Wales State Emergency Service, who provided an overview of his agency’s role in supporting the New South Wales community during storm, flood and tsunami events, and the importance to the NSW SES of hazard/risk research

Assistant National Commander Dan Coward, AFNZIM MOSH, New Zealand Fire Service, who is Director, Strategic Redevelopment Christchurch, and Inspector Derek Erasmus, Area Commander Canterbury Central, New Zealand Police Service, who provided a candid insight to the Christchurch earthquake disaster and the long-term recovery challenge facing this community

Mr Greg Goebel, Executive Director Queensland, Australian Red Cross, who provided an account of the impact to Queensland’s social, environmental (built and natural) and economic capital, and the effect this has had on the people of this State.

Through their presentations, keynote speakers presented four contemporary and important emergency management case studies, which provided context to the conference and reinforced the importance of research and learning from practice. Prior to the commencement of the main conference, seven pre-conference workshops were offered on Monday 18 July 2011, which provided an opportunity for participants to engage indepth on particular issues relevant to the conference theme. On Thursday 21 July 2011, a post-conference tour was offered to demonstrate the Queensland Disaster Management Arrangements. The tour included site visits to the Gold Coast City Council Disaster Management Centre and the Queensland Government’s new Queensland Emergency Operations Centre and State Disaster Coordination Centre. This proceedings document is a summary of the conference. It includes copies of the presentations made by workshop facilitators. It is important to note that the works reproduced are not the property or views of the Conference organisers or Gold Coast City Council. While the Conference provided a forum for participants to meet, the papers remain the intellectual property of the researchers and presenters, and are provided as a summary of the issues presented and discussed at the Conference. Each of the papers makes a unique and important contribution to the best practice emergency management, and to our collective understanding of this Conference’s theme – Major Events, Major Impacts.

Peter McNamee BSc, DipEd, MEdSt, GCertAppMngt, AdvDipPubSafety(Emerg Mgt) Executive Coordinator Disaster Management Engineering Services Gold Coast City Council PO Box 5042 Gold Coast Mail Centre Qld 9729 http://www.goldcoastcity.com.au

Page 3 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Contents 1.

Conference Program ............................................................................................................................. 6

2.

WORKSHOPS ....................................................................................................................................... 14 Workshop A – Major Disaster Events ..................................................................................................... 14 Workshop B – Information Management Systems................................................................................. 15 Workshop C – Gender and Disasters ...................................................................................................... 25 Workshop D – Partnerships: Science and government enhancing capability ........................................ 57 Workshop E – Social Media and Disasters .............................................................................................. 58 Workshop F – Professionalising emergency management..................................................................... 59 Workshop G – Pre‐deployment preparation for emergency services personnel in large scale disasters ................................................................................................................................................................ 62

3.

MAIN CONFERENCE PAPERS ............................................................................................................... 65 Achilles, T., “Communicating Uncertainty of Weather Forecasts: from Meteorologists to End Users” . 65 Banizaman Lari, F, Abbasi, H, Poryari, M., “Experience of Flood Event Documentation in Transportation System” ................................................................................................................................................... 72 Becker, J., Webber, D., Wright, K., Doody, B., McClure, J. Pritchard, S. Davies, B. “Keeping people out of floodwaters: a review of reasons why people enter floodwater”....................................................... 86 Brackley, H. and Berryman, K., “Research and prior knowledge informing response and recovery following the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011” .................................................................... 95 Buergelt, P., Morrison, D., Lawrence, C., Dunlop, P. & Clark, P., “Integrating research and practice: A holistic, multi‐site and process‐oriented action research designed to build community disaster capacity” ............................................................................................................................................... 102 Davidson, J.,“Severe Tropical Cyclone YASI – seen but once in a generation”...................................... 108 Handby, R., Australian Red Cross International Disaster Response, “Development of Disaster Response Tools” .................................................................................................................................................... 109 Hanrahan, M., “Building Situational Awareness: The role of media agencies through the ages”........ 124 Hughes, M., “Impact of the Christchurch earthquake on the future of public education within the hazard management context” .............................................................................................................. 157 Johnston, D., “The role of multi‐disciplinary research and collaboration for improving the resilience of communities to natural hazard events” ................................................................................................ 164 Khan, S., “Extreme Events & Impacts: Contributions of Hazardscape and Gaps in the Response Practices” .............................................................................................................................................. 174 Mirfenderesk, H., “Address‐Based Flood Risk Indexing A Method of Communication of Flood Risk to Public and Industry” .............................................................................................................................. 186 Morrison, D., Skinner, T., Lawrence, C., MacLeod, C., Buergelt, P., Dunlop, P. & Clark, P., “Information processing in the face of threat: A Multilevel Research Perspective”................................................... 195

Page 4 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Notebaert, L., Clarke, P., Dunlop, P., MacLeod, C., Buergelt, P. & Morrison, D., “Alert but not alarmed: Examining the potential benefits of anxiety and worry on behavioural preparedness for threat in bushfire affected communities”............................................................................................................ 205 Opper,S. & Yeo, S., “A Flood's Silver Lining: Developing Flood Intelligence for Enhanced Community Resilience” ............................................................................................................................................. 215 Rekers, P. , “Is the age of strategic communications dead?” ............................................................... 228 Roche, K., “The Australian Great Flood of 1954: the cost of a similar event in 2010” ......................... 239 Taylor, H., “Children in Disasters: Lessons from Indonesia and Christchurch” ..................................... 249 Wardman, J., Wilson, T., Cole J., Johnson, D., “Investigating the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash and its effect on HV power systems” .................................................................................................... 267 Winn, L., “Vulnerable Communities Identification & Mapping Project (Renal Enable)”....................... 275

Page 5 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

1. Conference Program

Pre‐conference Workshops

9.00 am – 12.00 noon

Monday 18 July 2011 Topic: A. Major Disaster Events

Hosted By:

This workshop will focus on a number of major recent disaster events: flooding in Brisbane and Rockhampton, and Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi in the Tully Region.

Stephen Jenkins Regional Director Australia, New Zealand & Oceania Region TIEMS – The International Emergency Management Society

The workshop will draw on the expertise and experience of the presenters in disaster management and these recent events, in relation to: land use planning, risk communication and community perceptions of risk, emergency alerting and warning systems, planning and preparation, operational responses to disasters and community recovery. B. Information Management Systems

Assoc Prof David King Centre for Tropical Urban and Regional Planning James Cook University, Townsville

This workshop will focus on systems used to track and provide warning of disasters.

Mr Eddie Bennet Regional Director Emergency Management Queensland

In particular it will focus on systems that allow for the gathering and coordination of information.

Mr J Cowan Telstra, Australia

The workshop will include demonstrations of Emergency Alert, CoastalCOMS, Guardian, and other information management systems.

Mr Chris Lane Research and Development Manager CoastalCOMS, Australia. Ms Chris Madsen QIT Plus Pty Ltd, Australia

C. Gender and Disasters This workshop focuses on gender and families during disasters and examines issues such as: single-parent families during disasters, domestic violence during disasters, children’s needs during disasters, rural families and disasters, and youth and disasters. The workshop is drawing from international expertise in the United Kingdom, the United States, and New Zealand, as well as Australian research to inform local practitioners, policy makers and planners of what is currently being found in the latest research available. It will give the opportunity for the practitioners, policy makers and planners to discuss their needs of the research community and potentially formulate future research directions.

Dr Maureen Fordham Senior Lecturer in Disaster Management, University of Northumbria, UK

Page 6 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Pre-conference Workshops (continued) 1.00 pm – 4.00 pm

Monday 18 July 2011 Topic: D. Partnerships: Science and government enhancing capability The purpose of this workshop is to bring the scientific and government communities together to enhance and strengthen relationships that will ultimately improve the resilience of Australian communities to natural disasters. By doing so, the scientific community will gain a clearer understanding of the key drivers for capability development within government, and government will gain a clearer understanding of the breadth of expertise within the scientific community. E. Social Media and Disasters This workshop will explore the emergent use of social media in preparation for and during times of disaster. It will examine examples from the various Australian Floods and Christchurch Earthquakes, and challenge participants to consider the future of social media within disaster management agencies.

Hosted By: Co-chairs: Attorney-General’s Department Australian Government Geoscience Australia

Chair: Mr Warwick Sinclair Corporate Communications Branch Gold Coast City Council Mr Philip Campbell Manager, Corporate Communications NSW State Emergency Service Ms Sara Page Outreach Coordinator, GeoNet GNS Science, NZ Mr Simon Kelly Deputy Director, Media and Public Affairs Branch, Queensland Police Service

F. Professionalising emergency management This workshop will examine best practice and current trends in education and training of emergency management personnel.

Chair: Ms Carolyn Thompson Director – Education, Research and Training Australian Emergency Management Institute Attorney-General’s Department

G. Pre-deployment preparation for emergency services personnel in large scale disasters This workshop will discuss pre-deployment considerations that are essential for emergency service organisations, the goals of on-scene support and training and how to consider the potential impact on responders that could compromise their ability to function on scene or post disaster and provide the necessary training.

Gina Mammone Manager, Critical Incident and Counselling Services NSW State Emergency Service Craig Willmott Managing Director Employee Assistance Services Australia

Page 7 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Main Conference Tuesday 19 July 2011

8.15 am

Welcome and Conference Opening Cr Ron Clarke MBE, Mayor, Gold Coast City Council Chair, Gold Coast City Local Disaster Management Group

8.30 am

Keynote Speaker: “Reflections on Queensland Flood Disasters” Deputy Commissioner Ian Stewart APM Queensland Police Service Deputy Commissioner Ian Stewart is a career Police Officer with over 36 years service. He currently undertakes the role of Deputy Commissioner (Regional Operations) and is responsible for the strategic management and direction of regional police operations throughout Queensland. Deputy Commissioner Stewart was appointed the inaugural State Disaster Coordinator and was responsible for coordination and overview of state wide disaster response operations during the unprecedented flooding and cyclone events throughout Queensland, December 2010 to February 2011. Deputy Commissioner Stewart holds Master of Public Policy and Administration and Bachelor of Business qualifications. Deputy Commissioner Stewart is the recipient of the Australian Fulbright Professional Scholarship and the Australian Police Medal.

9.10 am

Session 1: The role of research in emergency management 

“The role of multi-disciplinary research and collaboration for improving the resilience of communities to natural hazard events” Assoc Prof David Johnston, GNS Science & Massey University, Wellington, NZ

“Integrating research and practice: A holistic, multi-site and process-oriented action research designed to build community disaster capacity” Buergelt, P., Morrison, D., Lawrence, C., Dunlop, P. & Clark, P., University of Western Australia & Bushfire CRC

“Investigating the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash and its effects on HV power systems” Wardman, J., Wilson, T., Cole, J. & Johnson, D., University of Canterbury, GNS Science NZ, Massey University, NZ

10.40 am

Morning Tea

11.00 am

Session 2: Prevention – Understanding and Reducing risk 

“A flood’s silver lining: Developing flood intelligence for enhanced community resilience” Opper, S. & Yeo, S., NSW State Emergency Service & Bewsher Consulting

“Experience of flood event documentation in transport systems” Banizaman, F., Lari, F, Abbasi, H, Poryari, M, Ministry of Road and Transportation, Iran.

“Extreme events and impacts: Contributions of hazardscape and gaps in response practices” Khan, S., Victoria University of Wellington, NZ.

12.30 pm

Lunch

Page 8 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Tuesday 19 July 2011 (cont)

1.00 pm

Proceedings of Conference

Keynote Speaker: “Research and Practice: The importance of agency hazard research programs” Commissioner Murray Kear AFSM NSW State Emergency Service Murray Kear joined the NSW Fire Brigades as a recruit firefighter and served in a variety of roles within the NSW Fire Brigades including six years as an Assistant Commissioner. His education qualifications include a Post Graduate Certificate in Applied Management, a Certificate in Strategic Management and Murray is a graduate of the Institute of Fire Engineers. His last appointment before becoming the Commissioner of the NSW SES was as the Director Community Safety for the NSW Fire Brigades. From 2003 to 2006 he was responsible for an operational command that covered two thirds of the State, incorporating all remote areas. He received the highest honour a firefighter in Australia can receive in 2006 with the awarding of the Australian Fire Service Medal. Murray was appointed Director General, now Commissioner, of the NSW State Emergency Service in November 2008. He is a member of the NSW State Emergency Management Committee, the NSW State Rescue Board, the Australian Council of State & territory Emergency Services and the Australasian Fire and Emergency Services Authorities Council.

1.40 pm

Session 3: Preparedness – Being ready 

“Address-based flood risk indexing: A method of communicating flood risk to the public and industry” Mirfenderesk, H., Gold Coast City Council, Australia.

“Alert but not alarmed: Examining the potential benefits of anxiety and worry on behavioural preparedness for threat in bushfire affected communities” Notebaert, L., Clarke, P., Dunlop, P., MacLeod, C., Buergelt, P., & Morrison, D., University of Western Australia & Bushfire CRC

“Keeping people out of floodwaters: A review of reasons why people enter floodwater” Becker, J., Webber, D., Wright, K., Doody, B., McClure, J., Pritchard, S. & Davies, B., GNS Science NZ, NSW State Emergency Service and Victoria University Wellington, NZ.

3.10 pm

Afternoon Tea

3.30 pm

Session 3: Preparedness – Being ready (cont) 

“Impact of the Christchurch earthquake on the future of public education within the hazard management context” Hughes, M., Massey University, NZ

“Adoption of Hazard Mitigation Measures by Local government in Queensland” Childs, IRW, Hastings, PA, Bajracharya, B and Godber, A.

“Communicating uncertainty of weather forecasts: From meteorologists to end users” Achilles, T., Bureau of Meteorology, Australia.

5.00 pm

Close – Day One

Page 9 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Wednesday 20 July 2011 8.20 am

Welcome – Day Two

8.30 am

Keynote Speakers: “Reflections on Christchurch Earthquake Disasters” Assistant National Commander Dan Coward AFNZIM MOSH New Zealand Fire Service Director, Strategic Redevelopment Christchurch Dan Coward joined the New Zealand Fire Service in 1996 posted to Gisborne. During his 14 years Dan has worked in a variety of roles, from operations in Gisborne, Health and Safety Coordinator, Operational Officer and Deputy Chief Fire Officer in the Central West Region. During that time was involved in response to the beaching of the logging ship Jodi F Millennium in 2002 and the Central North Island Floods in 2004. Promoted to Chief Fire Officer of the Christchurch brigade in 2007 saw the restructuring and amalgamation of roles and ranks and Dan was appointed the Area Commander for Christchurch in 2009. Over the past 6 months Dan has responded to the September 4th earthquake, was involved in the management response for Pike River Coal Mine explosion on the West Coast of the South Island and was appointed Acting Assistant National Commander to lead the overall Fire Service response to the February 22nd earthquake.

Inspector Derek Erasmus Area Commander, Canterbury Central New Zealand Police Service Inspector Derek Erasmus is the Area Commander for Canterbury Central. His area includes the Christchurch CBD and lower socioeconomic eastern suburbs of the city. The whole area was badly affected by both the September and February earthquakes. Following the February quake Derek was responsible for initial command of the Police response and was then second in command to the District Commander for the following month. He was the officer in charge of logistics and planning for the September earthquake and ran the Police response to the Boxing Day aftershock Derek has been a Police officer for 27 years with most of that time spent in Christchurch. He is married with two children and is committed to his city. 9.10 am

Session 4: Response 

“Christchurch earthquake civil defence response” Mitchell, J., Canterbury Civil Defence and Emergency Management Group, NZ

“Research and prior knowledge informing response and recovery following the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011” Brackley, H. & Berryman, K., GNS Science, NZ.

“Development of disaster response tools” Handby, R., Australian Red Cross

10.40 am

Morning Tea

Page 10 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

11.00 am

Wednesday 20 July 2011 Session 4: Response (continued) 

“Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi – seen but once in a generation” Davidson, J., Bureau of Meteorology, Australia.

“Information processing in the face of threat: A multilevel research perspective” Morrison, D., Skinner, T., Lawrence, C., MacLeod, C., Buergelt,P., Dunlop, P. & Clark, P., University of Western Australia & Bushfire CRC.

“Vulnerable communities identification and mapping project (Renal Enable)” Winn, L., NSW Health Counter Disaster Unit, Australia.

12.30 pm

Lunch

1.00 pm

Keynote Speaker: “Recovering from Crisis” Mr Greg Goebel Executive Director Australian Red Cross, Queensland Greg Goebel joined Australian Red Cross as Executive Director in January 2000. Prior to this he worked for 15 years in senior executive and leadership roles in Government and in the private sector. As Executive Director of Australian Red Cross, Queensland, Greg is responsible for overseeing the introduction of programs to improve the lives of vulnerable people including services to indigenous communities, vulnerable and homeless youth, those with a disability, and the isolated and elderly, more recently the transition of asylum seekers into Community Detention. Greg has led many projects of national significance including a review of first aid health & safety, a review of detention visitation programs. In 2004 he undertook a national visioning project which was the largest consultation undertaking of its kind in Red Cross to determine the future strategy and direction of the organisation for the next 10 years. More recently, he has been involved in the floods and Cyclone Yasi response. In March 2005 Greg led the Red Cross recovery effort in Cyclone Larry with over 80 staff and 400 volunteers mobilised to help the people of north Queensland. For that he was awarded Red Cross national Meritorious Service Award. He has since been involved in recovery effects following the severe storms which hit Brisbane in 2008 and after Cyclones Ellie and Charlotte in 2009. Greg was also the recipient of the Centenary Medal in 2001 for services to the community.

Page 11 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Wednesday 20 July 2011 (cont)

1.40 pm

Proceedings of Conference

Session 5: Communicating Disaster Information 

“Building situational awareness: The role of media agencies through the ages” Hanrahan, M., Nine News Gold Coast, Australia.

“Is the age of strategic communications dead?” Rekers, P., Australia

2.40 pm

Afternoon Tea

3.00 pm

Session 6: Social Impacts of Disasters 

“The Australian Great Flood of 1954: the cost of a similar event in 2010” Roche, K., Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

“Children in disasters: Lessons from Indonesia and Christchurch” Taylor, H., Massey University, Wellington, NZ.

5.00 pm

Conference Close Cr Ted Shepherd, Gold Coast City Council Deputy Chair, Gold Coast City Local Disaster Management Group

Page 12 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Post-conference Technical Tour 9.00 am – 4.00 pm

Thursday 21 July 2011 Topic: Queensland’s Disaster Management Arrangements This tour will explain and showcase Queensland’s Disaster Management Arrangements. The tour will include site visits at the Gold Coast City Disaster Management Centre, and the new state-of-theart Queensland Emergency Operations Centre and State Disaster Coordination Centre at Kedron, Brisbane.

Tour Leader:

Peter McNamee Executive Coordinator Disaster Management Gold Coast City Council Mr Bruce Grady Asst Director-General Emergency Management Queensland Department of Community Safety Queensland Government

Itinerary 9.00 am

Depart Conference Venue, QT Gold Coast

9.30 am

Arrive at Gold Coast City Local Disaster Coordination Centre Overview of the Queensland Disaster Management Arrangements as they relate to the Gold Coast, including a tour of the Gold Coast City Disaster Coordination Centre

10.30 am

Morning tea (15 mins)

11.30 am

Depart Gold Coast City for Brisbane

12.45 pm

Arrive at Department of Community Safety, Kedron, Brisbane. Lunch on arrival

1.30 pm

Address by Mr Bruce Grady, Assistant Director-General, Emergency Management Queensland, Department of Community Safety, regarding State-level disaster management support and operations Tour of the State Disaster Coordination Centre and the new Queensland Emergency Operations Centre

3.15 pm

Afternoon tea

3.30 pm

Depart Kedron for Gold Coast

5.00 pm

Arrive at Conference Centre, QT Gold Coast

Page 13 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

2. WORKSHOPS Workshop A – Major Disaster Events

Co-hosted by: Mr Stephen Jenkins, Regional Director, Australia, New Zealand & Oceania Region, TIEMS – The International Emergency Management Society Assoc Prof David King, Centre for Tropical Urban and Regional Planning, James Cook University, Townsville.

Precis: This workshop focused on a number of major recent disaster events: flooding in Brisbane and Rockhampton, and Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi in the Tully Region. The workshop drew on the expertise and experience of the presenters in disaster management and these recent events, in relation to: land use planning, risk communication and community perceptions of risk, emergency alerting and warning systems, planning and preparation, operational responses to disasters and community recovery.

Page 14 of 282


Tully Heads after Yasi

MAJOR EVENTS 2011

Mid 1990s – Bushland Beach Townsville – 3rd Feb

Some Recommendations made to the Review of State Planning Policy 1/03: Mitigating Natural Hazards and to the Flood Inquiry Recommendation: combine storm surge risk with other hazards. Recommendation: address flash flood risk in hazard mitigation planning. Recommendation: locally define flash flood risk independently from river flood risk. Recommendation: identify urban design and planning trends that contribute to increased flash flood vulnerability.

Recommendation: EMQ should be directly involved in strategic development assessments of hazard risk areas. Needs to be effective modelling of flash flood impacts in all new developments, & the effect of such flash floods on surrounding urban & non urban areas. Best practice residential development should target high set housing in flood prone areas. Recommendation: whatever legislative form hazard mitigation planning takes in the future it needs to be stronger, more precise and less open to interpretation. In matters of public safety, prescription is better than best practice.


EVENTS

ISSUES

River Flood Evacuation

POLICY ISSUES Building Codes

Death Rate

Flash Flood Warnings

Cyclone & Surge Warnings

Land Use Planning

Flash Floods Cyclones

Storm Surge Resilience

Insurance

Disruption-

Adaptation

Economic,

Response Capacity –

Infrastructure

extreme numbers

Isolation

extreme events


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Workshop B – Information Management Systems

Hosted by: Mr Eddie Bennet, Regional Director South Eastern Region, Emergency Management Queensland.

Precis: This workshop focused on information management systems used to track and provide warning of disasters. In particular it will focused on systems that allowed for the gathering and coordination of information. The workshop included demonstrations of Emergency Alert by Telstra, CoastalCOMS, Guardian by QIT Plus Pty Ltd, and other information management systems.

Page 15 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Contributing Presentations: Cowan, J., “Improving emergency preparedness nationally for major events, major impacts through an effective supplier partnership for a simulation training and exercising solution” The presentation covers a case study of how Telstra Radio and Emergency Managed Services Group worked with Avalias, a supplier of a simulation training solution called Avalanche ST, to enhance Telstra’s important role in supporting Public Safety organisations, national security and increase service to customers. We will discuss how the power of efficient project management for preparing for major natural hazards, good governance and strong customer/supplier relationships fast tracked a demanding project in record time and cost effectively provided a superior outcome. The purpose of the case study is to show how the challenge of a highly complex training and exercising requirement was achieved through effectively managed relationships, proper governance and project management efficiencies. The training solution was required rapidly to support skills development and responsiveness vital in the area of natural hazard emergency management and provide accuracy, behavioural and attitudinal data on their users. The presentation describes the approach of how this project was managed, the results and outcomes achieved from two organisations working effectively together that will ultimately benefit the entire emergency management community. Available on the Avalias booth will be a demonstration that will show Emergency Alert processes as well as other training capability. The software system implements organisationspecific and customisable, scenario design methodologies (special ideas or master scenario events lists), with participants engaging with systems, processes and procedures as they would in a real situation. Their responses and specific actions are all recorded and logged to enable constructive and objective feedback. The opportunity to provide reports of performance and perform individual competency assessments is also demonstrated. In the present version, role specific scenarios and plug-in applications are able to be trained and the approach gives the opportunity to scale up according to operational needs. The system also allows easy updates, allowing new simulated systems to be added to the exercises. There is also the ability to train multiple role types simultaneously. One area of interest in this approach is to monitor whether a specific process workflow or application is able to support the operators’ ability to perform their role effectively. This research supports an organisational culture of continuous improvements.

Page 16 of 282


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Workshop C – Gender and Disasters

Hosted by: Dr Maureen Fordham, Senior Lecturer in Disaster Management, University of Northumbria, UK.

Precis: This workshop focuses on gender and families during disasters and examines issues such as: single-parent families during disasters, domestic violence during disasters, children’s needs during disasters, rural families and disasters, and youth and disasters. The workshop is drawing from international expertise in the United Kingdom, the United States, and New Zealand, as well as Australian research to inform local practitioners, policy makers and planners of what is currently being found in the latest research available. It will give the opportunity for the practitioners, policy makers and planners to discuss their needs of the research community and potentially formulate future research directions.

Page 25 of 282


www.gdnonline.org

Workshop C – Gender and Disasters Hosted by:

Maureen Fordham, University of Northumbria, UK and Gender and Disaster Network www.gdnonline.org

Peter McNamee, Executive Coordinator Disaster Management, Gold Coast City Council

David Johnston, Joint Centre for Disaster Research/ GNS Science/ Massey University and GDN Pacific-Oceania Regional Hub 5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference. Monday 18 July 2011

The Workshop focus: gender and families during disasters Single-parent families during disasters Domestic violence during disasters The needs and roles of children and youth during disasters The urban and the rural Etc. (contributions from the participants) Knowledge exchange between international and regional perspectives, and local practitioners, policy makers and planners 2

What will we do? Hear about international and more ‘local’ research Discuss the practical & strategic needs of practitioners, policy makers, planners & academics Learn about/join/engage with the Gender and Disaster Network www.gdnonline.org & its new Pacific-Oceania Regional Hub (based at Massey University) Highlight future research directions Share materials (flyers, reports, papers, etc) Actively engage with the ideas & contribute to the discussion 3


Outline for an interactive morning Introduce the key research findings across the various categories of interest (Maureen Fordham) Presentations: here (Di DeLaine), on behalf of (Robyn Betts, Ros Houghton) and virtually (JC Gaillard) Extract the key issues of interest from the international research and identify the key issues of interest for the region (All, carry over through the

refreshment break)

Strategise the next steps including the role of the GDN Pacific-Oceania Regional Hub (All) 4

0900-0915

Introduction to the workshop

MF & PM (?DJ)

0915-1015

International research including those not able to be there

1015-1020 1020-1035

Di DeLaine Sexuality and DRR

1035-1045

Add important topics not addressed

MF MF presenting work of RB, MA, RH, ‌ Di DeLaine JC Gaillard videoconf/skype Participants

1045-1100

Refreshment break plus Draw out key points (for Wordle) by writing on flipchart (3 columns) during refreshment break

Participants & MF

1100-1130

Compare with regional concerns and identify the key issues of interest for the region

MF & Participants

1130-1145

Introduction to GDN and Regional Hub

MF

1145-1200

Wrap Up and strategise the next steps

MF plus...

INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH

5

6


SINGLE-/LONE-PARENT FAMILIES DURING DISASTERS 7

Single-/lone-parent families during disasters After major disasters both women and men can be left as single/lone parents with responsibility for caring alone for children and extended families It is advisable to give particular support to single parent households or to people with new childcare responsibilities Monitoring their progress will help to ensure that they are coping with/adjusting to new roles and responsibilities. Single parents may need special support, guidance and assistance in coping with the care of children and elderly/other dependent family members whilst also experiencing personal grief and loss Men and women may face different difficulties Women may be more likely to face bureaucratic and legal obstacles in gaining access to financial and material assistance, documentation, land title, property and compensation They may face obstacles accessing employment In the most serious circumstances, single women heads of household can face threats to physical security and well-being, including rape, sexual abuse and exploitation

8

Single-/lone-parent families during disasters Men who have not previously been primary caregivers may face practical, social and psychological difficulties in adapting to their new role They may need support in finding alternative employment, or retraining opportunities, to accommodate their family responsibilities Substance abuse can be a problem for those trying to cope on their own, struggling with the loss of family members, and the disintegration of family and community support structures Valuable family income and benefits can be wasted on the purchase of intoxicating substances; their abuse can lead to an increase in domestic and sexual violence UNISDR and IRP, pp. 8-9 Brooking-Bern Project on Internal Displacement. 2008, p.75. 9


VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN DURING DISASTERS 10

Violence against women during disasters – international findings Increased violence was noted in field reports from: the Philippines after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption (Delica 1998); after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Globe and Mail, January 14, 1998); after the Charleville flood in the 1990s where “socially isolated women became more isolated, domestic violence increased“ (Dobson 1994) During the 1998 Canadian ice storm in Quebec and Ontario, a Montreal Urban Community Police Chief reported that one in four calls he had received in the previous week had come from women about abuse (Wilson et al 1998) After the Loma Prieta, California earthquake in 1989, the director of a battered women’s shelter reported a 50% rise in requests for temporary restraining orders as housing shortages restricted women’s ability to leave violent relationships (CDC 1992) Following Hurricane Andrew in Miami, spousal abuse calls to the local community helpline increased by 50% (Laudisio 1993) and over one-third of 1400 surveyed residents reported that someone in their home had lost verbal or physical control in the two months since the hurricane (CDC 1992) Source: Elaine Enarson, http://www.gdnonline.org/resources/VAW%20in%20Disasters%20Fact%20Sheet%202006.doc 11

Domestic violence during disasters – New Zealand findings by Ros Houghton

12


Since the 4th September 2010 earthquake – DV reporting increase In the first week after the earthquake, the NZ Police reported that they experienced a 53% increase in domestic violence callouts over the weekend Since then, domestic violence callouts for the NZ Police have increased 47% in the month of September. This meant an actual increase of 127 extra cases, bringing the total number of domestic violence callouts to 400 in the month of September This increase was seen by Women’s Refuges, who not only received the 400 POL400’s (code for family violence police report form) from the NZ Police, but have also seen a 20% increase in crisis calls and women seeking help on top of the their usual caseloads Women’s Refuges have experienced a decrease in the number staff available, due to a large volunteer base dealing with their own EQ issues, and have collectively lost one safehouse and two offices 13

NZ earthquake 2010: Issues Increased workload reported across the Family Violence sector in Christchurch. Caused by an increase in the number of cases reported and an increase in the complexity of the cases being worked with. Each case is requiring more time than cases prior to the earthquake Reduced staffing levels reported. Initially, specialist Family Violence Police were reassigned to cordon duty meaning the number of staff available was reduced. Women’s Refuge volunteers were reduced as volunteers were responding to their personal needs following the earthquake Safehouse accommodation shortage in Christchurch. Battered Women’s Trust lost their safehouse. West Christchurch Women’s Refuge lost their office space and had to work out of their safehouse which reduced its capacity. Women in abusive situations were forced to access undesirable accommodation alternatives, such as YWCA beds, as there was simply no room for them within Women’s Refuges A lack of access to cash proved problematic for Refuges in Christchurch. Cash was needed to purchase necessities such as petrol, groceries and phone cards so women are able to contact Women’s Refuge Access to public funds was slow and confusing. Even six weeks after the earthquake, Women’s Refuges had not received any funding from the public funds being publicised Staff burnout soon started in Christchurch. Working in the field of trauma during such a significant disaster took its toll on staff. Six weeks after the earthquake, no relief teams had been funded to go to Christchurch to help local staff and allow them some respite and to address their own disaster response. Workers were trying to last out week by week, in the hope that some sort of relief would come Lack of available funding and the many aftershocks that caused more and more damage, causes continuing difficulties for the Refuges

14

NZ earthquake February 2011 Police reported that in one weekend, there were 100 callouts for domestic violence, compared with 30 normally 689 cases in the first 6 weeks (over and above existing clients)

The Issues Housing – lack of safehouses to replace damaged. Policing – Police reassigned to cordon duties instead of domestic violence, damage to Police stations meant reduced number of cells available for arrested perpetrators, court processes slowed down Food/water/sanitation – all damaged in the quakes Traffic and petrol – traffic slowed down, increased time spent travelling, whilst petrol was harder attain (2 hours queues at petrol stations) Staff trauma – staff having gone through two quakes, plus aftershocks, then working in traumatic field Increased demand for services in other areas – All across the South Island, and as far north as Auckland. Some legitimate domestic violence cases from Christchurch, some just families wanting help. More complexity in cases, more time needed per case 15


See also: domestic violence following flooding in New Zealand by Ros Houghton Case study of one community in New Zealand following a moderate flooding event July 2004 that left over 200 homes uninhabitable for at least a week following the initial flooding. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with government and NGOs working in the field of domestic violence These showed a clear increase in domestic violence between 200-300% depending on the agency Factors in the increase: lack of cash flow, lack of insurance, school closure, misinformation, longer time to get back into homes meant many families were stuck living with extended family for months following the event A year after the event, agencies felt they were still dealing with an increase in the number of reported cases of DV stemming from the flooding event Not only did the violence intensify, but the victims’ tolerance level was reduced leading to an increased proportion of reported cases, as well as increasing unreported cases Source: Rosalind Houghton, http://www.gdnonline.org/sourcebook/chapt/doc_view.php?id=7&docid=703 16

THE NEEDS AND ROLES OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH DURING DISASTERS 17

The needs and roles of children and youth during disasters Children are generally recognized as a vulnerable group requiring particular attention However children’s needs are often overlooked Children may be given information or instruction but are rarely involved in decision making or action Post-event, if no help is available, children and young people can cope better if prepared; they can recognize the risks and better prepare to reduce them; they can respond better in an emergency, warning and protecting others This kind of active engagement should lead to more resilience in children

Community work by Plan El Salvador. Photo: M. Fordham 18


Plan Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sme sBo54Wh8&feature=player_embedded #at=26

Risk reduction training and active roles in the community can lead to greater self confidence and respect from other community members – research in El Salvador and elsewhere for Plan International has demonstrated this Community work by Plan El Salvador. Photo: M. Fordham

19

Children and adolescents in postKatrina New Orleans Research by Osofsky et al (2007) involving several thousand children and adolescents in post-Katrina New Orleans showed: One third 4th-12th grade students had been separated from their caregivers during or after the hurricane They attended as many as 9 schools since the hurricane Almost all (95%) saw damage to their homes and neighborhoods 75% reported losing personal belongings One third reported being separated from a pet One fifth reported that a family member had been injured and 15% that a family member had been killed Almost half said one of their parents was unemployed as a result of Hurricane Katrina Almost half of the 4th-12th grade students and over a quarter of younger children met criteria for mental health services, based on the number and severity of their behavioural symptoms Post-disaster, adolescents are especially vulnerable to alcohol and substance abuse and risk-taking behaviours most children and adolescents cope successfully and demonstrate adaptive skills following traumatic exposure 20

The needs and roles of children and youth during disasters Most children and adolescents cope successfully and adapt following traumatic exposure but for some the impacts can be long lasting “The Legacy of Katrina’s Kids” Children who survived the Hurricane Katrina are at increased risk to suffer mental-health issues 5 years later “Many of these kids show signs of hyperactivity, have trouble getting along with peers, or perform poorly in school. About half of the kids tracked in the study have moved in the last year, and about 40 percent still live in transient housing situations—such as hotels, motels, or trailers—or expect to move again in the near future.” Redlener et al 2008; Photo: http://www.newsweek.com/2010/08/27/how-katrina-reshapeddisaster-planning-for-kids.html

21


THE URBAN AND THE RURAL

22

The urban and the rural Rural families during tornado disasters USA Between 25-28April 2011, 305 tornadoes hit Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee and Virginia, leaving more than 300 fatalities (NOAA) “Areas in the Black Belt that are extremely rural, and seriously economically depressed...are in danger of getting left out of the process of assistance...Individuals [are] not able to get out of the community to various supply relief hubs to pick up relief supplies.” - Federation of Southern Cooperatives http://bridgethegulfproject.org/node/361 Experiences of Australian women in drought - not part of the decision-making “...one woman producer described the decision made to use all the family’s savings to get through the drought (rather than go into debt) — a decision made early in the drought...She explained that these savings were originally set aside to build their first home on the property. As a result of the decision, in which she had no part, the family remains in the modified shed they have always lived in, and as there is now no money available for building, will probably continue to live there in the future.” Stehlik et al 2000 p.43 Change in roles “Some women responded to the drought crisis by undertaking work off-farm. As a result, not only their roles changed, but so too did their daily routines which in turn affected their families.” Stehlik et al 2000 p.46

23

ROBYN BETTS:

PRINCIPAL RESEARCHER, RESEARCH AND STRATEGIC PROJECTS, OFFICE OF THE EMERGENCY SERVICES COMMISSIONER, HUME REGION, BENALLA 24


'Women Doing It Alone - the stories from women who have defended their properties against bushfire' The CFA almost assumes that women should choose to leave their properties rather than defend because women aren't able to do the work This is in contrast to women (and in particular older women) who choose to stay and defend and who become resourceful at getting extra help, planning what they will do and preparing well in advance For many women - their male partners are off in the CFA strike team trucks while they are at home organising the defence of their properties - so they need to be resourceful and know how everything works. 25

What does this mean? If women are making the decisions and taking actions about a response to emergencies then they need to be part of the overall decision making at neighbourhood, family, local and state government levels - yet we continue to have an emphasis on command and control. Women are active in emergency response - so the system needs to acknowledge this and resource women appropriately.

26

Questions What resources and support are there/should there be for women who live in high risk areas and who will need to take direct actions to protect their properties and families ? What are the social systems that women can access? Are there any such systems set up for women in your local areas? How can women who rent houses be assisted to protect themselves , their families and their property or possessions? Often they are disadvantaged 27


DI DELAINE (SEE SEPARATE PRESENTATION) 28

JC GAILLARD (SEE SEPARATE PRESENTATION) 29

Resources and Links Brooking-Bern Project on Internal Displacement 2008 Human Rights and Natural Disasters. Operational Guidelines and Field Manual on Human Rights Protection in Situation of Natural Disaster, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/repo rts/2008/spring_natural_disasters/spring_natur al_disasters.pdf Delica, Zenaida. 1998. “Women and Children During Disaster: Vulnerabilities and Capacities,” The Gendered Terrain of Disaster, edited by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Dobson, Narelle. 1994. “From Under the MudPack: Women and the Charleville Floods.” Australian Journal of Emergency Management 9 (2): 11-13. Erikson Kai and Peek Lori 2008 Hurricane Katrina Research Bibliography Social Science Research Council, Task Force on Katrina and Rebuilding the Gulf Coast http://www.hiphoparchive.org/files/KatrinaBibliog raphy.pdf

Fischer, Sarah 2005, “Gender Based Violence in Sri Lanka in the Aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami Crisis,” http://www.gdnonline.org/resources/fish er-post-tsuami-gbv-srilanka.doc Irwin Redlener, Caroline DeRosa, Kelly Parisi 2008 Legacy of Katrina: The Impact of a Flawed Recovery on Vulnerable Children of the Gulf Coast. A Five-Year Status Report. Children’s Health Fund and The National Center for Disaster Preparedness, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, August 23, 2010. http://www.childrenshealthfund.org/site s/default/files/files/Five-Years-AfterKatrina-Web.pdf Lane, Ruth and McNaught, Rebecca 2009 'Building gendered approaches to adaptation in the Pacific', Gender & Development, 17 (1): 67-80 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13552070802 696920 30


Resources and Links Norris FH, Friedman MJ, Watson PJ. 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry. 2002;65:240-260 Osofsky, Joy D. Osofsky, Howard J. and Harris William W. 2007 Katrina’s Children: Social Policy Considerations for Children in Disasters. Social Policy Report Volume XXI, Number I Plan UK. 2010. Child-Centred Disaster Risk Reduction. Building Resilience Through Participation. Lessons from Plan International. www.plan-uk.org/resources/documents/33987/ Plan UK - video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SmesBo54Wh8 &feature=player_embedded#at=26: Plan - Child centred DRR approach, Mozambique video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtPEmjlt_lc

Stehlik, D. Lawrence, G. and Gray, I. 2000. Gender and Drought: Experiences of Australian Women in the Drought of the1990s. Disasters 24(1): 38-53. UNDP Pacific Centre and AusAID (no date) The gendered dimensions of disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change - Stories from the Pacific http://www.undppc.org.fj/_resources/articl e/files/UNDP%20PC%20Climate%20Change. pdf UNISDR and IRP (no date) Guidance Note on Recovery. UN ISDR and International Recovery Platform, http://www.recoveryplatform.org/assets/Gu idance_Notes/INTERNATIONAL_HEALTH _%20011210_nisa.pdf Wilson, Jennifer, Phillips, Brenda and David Neal. 1998. “Domestic Violence After Disaster,” in The Gendered Terrain of Disaster, edited by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

31


Targeting Women for Bushfire Safety Workshops Di De LAINE

Targeting Women for Bushfire Safety Workshops Di De LAINE


Wangary fire images






Acknowledgements Photos: • Ivon Perrin • Theo & Mark Modra • District Council of Lower Eyre Peninsula • Pt Lincoln Times Narratives: • ABC Local Radio staff, Latisha Proude & Philip Ashley-Brown






2010 state-wide workshops-strategy Given a Catastrophic FDR, I would..... 0%

10%

Leave the night before or early the next day to a safer location regardless of whether there was a fire or not

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

7% 24%

Leave the night before or early the next day to a lower risk location if there was a bushfire at least 50kms away

11% 11%

43%

Stay at home but keep a close eye out for signs of a fire

19%

Commenced bushfire safety preparation even though there was not an active fire

Pre-Firey Women Post-Firey Women

28% 59%

10%

Wait and see if a fire develops

None of these

20%

5%

2% 0%



2010 state-wide workshops-preparedness To what extent do you agree or disagree that the course has enabled you to become extremely well prepared for a bushfire in your area? 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

Strongly agree

100%

88%

10%

Slightly agree

Post-Firey Women

Slightly disagree

Strongly disagree

1%

0%

2010 state-wide workshops-preparations Actions completed prior to the course, and actions planned or done since undertaking the course. Cleaned gutters

64% 20% 55%

Removed fire hazard materials/vegetation from around the house

29% 21%

Landscaped the garden with fire retardant plants

38% 52%

Purchased fire fighting equipment

24% 16%

Spark and ember proofed the house

57% 48%

Installed independent water dedicated to bushfire protection

25% 45%

Installed fire fighting pump and hose

29%

Pre- Firey Women Post- Firey Women

18%

Installed a bushfire sprinkler system

31%

Discussed a decision to stay and defend or leave early

48% 37% 12%

Prepared a written Bushfire Action Plan (written checklist) Practiced / rehearsed your Bushfire Survival Plan

69% 7% 69% 11%

Prepared a property protection plan with a calendar of actions

66% 16%

Prepared a "home survival kit" incl. personal protective clothing

66%

Prepared an "evacuation box" incl. personal belongings

17% 62%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

‘I recommend that…conduct tuition courses to be made available to the general public to enable members of the public to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to implement their preparation and planning for bushfires.’

Deputy State Coroner, 2008 re Wangary Fire 2005.

70%

80%


‘The State revise the approach to community bushfire safety education in order to….. ■ ensure that in content and delivery the program is flexible enough to engage individuals, households and communities and to accommodate their needs and circumstances’ RECOMMENDATION 2 - 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission

‘The education of adults and children about fire prevention and protection must be taken seriously.’

Judge Stretton, Royal Commissioner, re Black Friday 1939.

‘…if you educate a woman, you educate a family.’ Ruth Manikan 1947


www.gdnonline.org

Workshop C – Gender and Disasters Sexual minorities in disaster: insights from the Philippines and Indonesia JC Gaillard The University of Auckland, NZ Kristinne Sanz Gender and Disaster Network Benigno C. Balgos Nippon Foundation, Indonesia

Soledad Natalia M. Dalisay University of the Philippines Ruth Mónica Díaz Sánchez CIESAS, Mexico Emile Tauati The University of Auckland, NZ

5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference. Monday 18 July 2011

Sexuality, culture and disaster risk reduction (DRR) Sexuality

Culture

DRR

Dominant view

Heterosexuality is the norm and Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgenders (LGBTs) reflect a deviance from the norm

Reflects unequal power relations between dominant and marginalised groups of people

Outsiders’ view dominates and leads to LGBTs being neglected and discriminated in research, policy and practice

Alternative view

LGBTs share ‘an organised system of knowledge and beliefs by which they structure their experience’ (Kirsch, 2000)

Recognises cultural diversity and emphasises perceptions, values and resources of different groups

Shows that insiders’ / LGBTs’ suffer from specific forms of vulnerability but display significant capacities to face disasters

LGBTs in disasters: insights from the Philippines LGBTs are often tasked for dirty chores at home LGBTs are sometimes considered by their parents as second priority for food and financial support in time of disaster. LGBTs are frequently discriminated in evacuation centres. LGBTs usually lack proper private spaces in evacuation centres.


LGBTs in disasters: insights from the Philippines LGBTs often take the lead in collecting relief goods and seeking support from aid agencies. LGBTs spontaneously play a crucial role in providing support to the most vulnerable people in evacuation centres.

LGBTs in disasters: insights from the Philippines Gay group distributing relief goods after typhoon Ondoy in Quezon City, Philippines, Sep. 2009 (Associated Press)

Lesbian organization distributing relief goods after typhoon Ondoy in Malabon, Philippines, Sep. 2009 (Associated Press)

LGBTs in disasters: insights from Indonesia LGBTs are strongly marginalised within the Indonesian society. LGBTs seek shelters from friends to avoid discrimination in public evacuation centres.


LGBTs in disasters: insights from Indonesia

LGBT NGO staff distributing relief goods to evacuees of Mt Merapi, Indonesia, in Nov. 2010 (B. Balgos)

LGBTs in disasters: insights from Indonesia

LGBT NGO staff offering free haircut to evacuees of Mt Merapi, Indonesia, in Nov. 2010 (B. Balgos)

Ways forward for DRR On the short-term, DRR practice must recognize the needs and endogenous capacities of LGBTs which are embedded in their particular culture.

• On the short-term, DRR practice must recognize the needs and endogenous capacities of LGBTs which are embedded in their particular culture. 9


Ways forward for DRR

LGBT youth involved in DRR activities in Irosin, Philippines, in Jan. 2010

Ways forward for DRR In the long-term, it is essential to include LGBTs in policy and decision-making towards a comprehensive, inclusive and sexuality-sensitive DRR

Ways forward for DRR

LGBT Facebook group involved in DRR advocacy in the Philippines


UN Resolution on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity “the Council requests the High Commissioner to commission a study to be finalised by December 2011 to document discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, in all regions of the world, and how international human rights law can be used to end violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity� (17 June 2011).


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Workshop D – Partnerships: Science and government enhancing capability

Hosted by: Attorney-General’s Department and Geoscience Australia.

Precis: The purpose of this workshop is to bring the scientific and government communities together to enhance and strengthen relationships that will ultimately improve the resilience of Australian communities to natural disasters. By doing so, the scientific community will gain a clearer understanding of the key drivers for capability development within government, and government will gain a clearer understanding of the breadth of expertise within the scientific community. The workshop will contain a number of presentations that will outline the needs from the Australian Government’s perspective regarding natural hazard management. The workshop will provide an overview of the skills of the scientific community and a description of case studies. These presentations will be followed by discussions on how the scientific community can deliver against the needs of government in the short, medium and long term and how the two communities can engage more effectively.

Page 57 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Workshop E – Social Media and Disasters

Hosted by: Corporate Communications Branch, Gold Coast City Council.

Precis: This workshop will explore the emergent use of social media in preparation for and during times of disaster. It will examine examples from the various Australian Floods and Christchurch Earthquakes, and challenge participants to consider the future of social media within disaster management agencies. Â Presentations:

Mr Philip Campbell, NSW State Emergency Service Ms Sara Page, Outreach Coordinator, GeoNet, GNS Science, NZ Ms Kym Charlton, Director, Media and Public Affairs, Queensland Police Service

Page 58 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Workshop F – Professionalising emergency management

Hosted by: Ms Carolyn Thompson, Director – Education, Research and Training, Australian Emergency Management Institute, Attorney-General’s Department, Australian Government Ms Dianne Cooper, Australian Emergency Management Institute, AttorneyGeneral’s Department, Australian Government

Precis: This workshop will examine best practice and current trends in education and training of emergency management personnel

Page 59 of 282


Workshop Summary: Professionalising emergency management The 5th annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference held this year on the Gold Coast, Queensland commenced with a number of workshops. An outcome of last year’s conference was a request to conduct a workshop focused on Professionalising Emergency Management and examining best practice and current trends in education and training of emergency management personnel. Carolyn Thompson and Dianne Cooper from the Federal Attorney General’s Department’s Australian Emergency Management Institute (AEMI) were invited to conduct a three hour workshop on this topic. It was recognised as important to examine the distinctions around professions, professionalism, professionalising and professionalisation schemes. Knowing that the conference attendees and therefore the workshop nominees would have considerable experience and knowledge of emergency management, the workshop was designed to draw on the participants’ insights and thinking to address the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What distinguishes a profession from an occupation? What are the values of a profession? What are the behaviours of a profession? How can we change an occupation to a profession? What that means for emergency management?

The workshop approach entailed a mix of personal reflection, small group and plenary discussion and an opportunity to delve into the research in this area. It was designed to provide sufficient opportunity to tease out the distinctions and identify what actions and structures would contribute to making emergency management a profession. Participants were invited to introduce themselves and quickly explain why they had chosen this workshop. The apparent feeling was that occupations in emergency management are diverse and often not clearly designated as EM, rather the emergency management function is often tacked on to a role which is regarded as more ‘core’ within the organisation. This, in turn, can result in insufficient support for training and development or recognition of the experience individuals bring to the EM function. There was a strong concern to maintain the integrity and ethics of emergency management and avoid the rise of ‘cowboys’ within the field. As the workshop activities progressed it was clear that there was a need for professional standards to ensure a quality framework against which employers, the community and emergency management practitioners could measure their performance, skills and knowledge. It was also noted that credentialing would assist the recognition of experience and ethical practice and that this should be controlled by a body of peers. Further to this it was regarded as essential that a high level of emergency management knowledge was expected in an emergency management professional. It was felt that there was a need for learning pathways. Knowledge would be enhanced through effective life‐long learning via appropriate, recognised professional development programs, VET and higher education qualifications. By this stage the three hours had expired. There was a strong desire to continue the dialogue around this topic. Carolyn and Dianne undertook to produce a journal article examining the issues in


more detail and to liaise with relevant interested bodies around how professionalising emergency management can be progressed.


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Workshop G – Pre-deployment preparation for emergency services personnel in large scale disasters

Hosted by: Ms Gina Mammone, Manager, Critical Incident and Counselling Services, NSW State Emergency Service Mr Craig Willmott, Manager, Managing Director, Employee Assistance Services Australia

Precis: This workshop will discuss pre-deployment considerations that are essential for emergency service organizations, the goals of on-scene support and training and how to consider the potential impact on responders that could compromise their ability to function on-scene or post-disaster and provide the necessary training.

Page 62 of 282


5TH AUSTRALASIAN NATURAL HAZARDS MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE - 2011 MAJOR EVENTS, MAJOR IMPACTS WORKSHOP PROPOSAL PRE-DEPLOYMENT PREPARATION FOR EMERGENCY SERVICES PERSONNEL IN LARGE SCALE DISASTERS Emergency service personnel are repetitively exposed to high-risk situations, including critical incidents which may elicit intense emotional responses. Large scale disasters with have a devastating impact on members of the community with loss of life and property and the personnel sent in to provide this help also require preparation and support. Large scale incidents can impact on psychological wellbeing and as such, preparation, protection and support are imperative for these personnel. The New South Wales (NSW) State Emergency Service (SES) is recognised as the most widely used rescue and public safety organisation, consisting of over 10,000 trained volunteers. Volunteers assist communities during emergencies such as storms, floods and serious road incidents. The Critical Incident and Counselling services branch of the NSW SES currently provide a Critical Incident Support Program (CISP) available to members of the SES who have experienced a traumatic incident or a stressful reaction following an event and has a significant role in influencing the preparation of members prior to these deployments. In preparing teams to deploy into the “Black� Saturday Bushfires in Victoria in 2009 and in 2011 to support to EMQ SES QLD in the Brisbane Flood disaster and Cyclone Yasi the NSW SES provided pre deployment training to members of the Critical Incident Support Programs Peers and Chaplains and embedded Peers and Chaplains into the Taskforces from NSW SES being sent into Far North QLD to ensure NSW SES mitigated the impact of these events on members of the teams. In 2011 this preparation was extended to the Taskforces by way of stress management and awareness and pre-deployment health and wellbeing assessments. This preparation ensures that NSW SES volunteers are not only prepared for the possibility of psychological and emotional difficulties during and following exposure to critical incidents, but also cared for and supported through such deployments and post deployment follow up as necessary. This workshop will discuss the Pre-deployment considerations that are essential for emergency service organisations, the goals of on-scene support and training and how to consider the potential impact on responders that could compromise their ability to function on scene or post disaster and provide the necessary training. Upon completion participants will be able to: Define the considerations for preparing teams of responders in pre-deployment training, health and wellbeing assessments; Understand the type of support required and the roles of Peer Support and Chaplains during large scale events


Identify what last minute training and preparation needs to be considered related to the disaster, how this can be provided and considerations for the return of personnel.

Presenter’s biographies Gina Mammone Gina Mammone manages the Critical Incident and Counselling Services for over 10,000 volunteers and staff of the NSW State Emergency Service. This includes the day to day management of a Peer Support Team of 70 volunteer Peers and Chaplains, 24 hour crisis support line and deployment of team’s for critical incident stress management interventions across NSW. Gina manages the SES Critical Incident Support, Chaplaincy and Employee Assistance Programs for NSW SES with a continuum of care model of support to SES members and has led teams in the interagency response to disasters in Australia in response to the “Black Saturday” bushfires in February 2009 and the QLD flood and Cyclone Yasi disaster in January/February 2011. She has worked in this role since 2003 and with SES since April 1990 and has been awarded the Commissioners Commendation for Service in recognition of her service to SES volunteers. Gina was awarded by the Critical Incident Stress Management Foundation Australia the achievement award in November 2009 for her outstanding contribution to the field of Critical Incident Stress Management recognised internationally for the program she manages in SES. Gina is an accredited Crisis Intervention Management Australasia trainer in the ICISF approved course for Group Crisis Interventions.

Craig Willmott Craig Willmott is the Managing Director of Employee Assistance Services Australia (EASA) which provides the EAP services to NSW SES and is a member of the Critical Incident Support Program’s Capability Advisory Group. . EASA provides a range of people services to the Government and private sectors to reduce human factor costs, increase employee performance and productivity, and assist in safety and wellbeing. Craig specialises in training, consultation and specialist trauma advice in disasters management, manmade or natural and organisation culture change. He has also provided general counselling, management assistance services and a welfare and cultural advisor to leaders in disasters both in Australia and overseas. His experience includes Police and the Australian Army. Following the Tampa incident, Craig was deployed to advise Command on Cultural and Religious issues and look after the Welfare of Navy and Army providing the blockade. After the 2004 Tsunami Craig managed a multinational volunteer agency in Thailand with over 300 volunteers at the request of the local Thai Coordinator. In 2006 Craig was also deployed to Iraq with the Australian Army as a Chaplain providing spiritual, welfare, support and religious and cultural advice to command. A speciality of Craig’s is the preparation and support of personnel providing assistance in large scale events and disasters.


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

3. MAIN CONFERENCE PAPERS Achilles, T., “Communicating Uncertainty of Weather Forecasts: from Meteorologists to End Users” A number of barriers exist for meteorologists endeavouring to communicate weather forecasts. The first challenge is the uncertainty in weather itself because weather and consequently weather forecasts are ‘inherently uncertain’ (Morss et al, 2008; Friday & Rapporteur, 2003; Tracton, 2002). This uncertainty has been greatly reduced over time due to improved understanding and technological advances, but it is understood that ‘it is scientifically impossible to predict the weather in 100% accuracy’ (Jun & Jing, 2010, pp.1, para.1). The second challenge, and the focus of this paper, is accurately conveying this uncertainty to end users with varying needs and meteorological knowledge. In order to develop a clear, interpretable and adequate weather forecast (Jun & Jing, 2010; Morss et al, 2009, 2008; Lorditch, 2009; Kloprogge, Sluijs & van der Wardekker, 2007; Brooks & O’Hair, 2006; Friday & Rapporteur, 2003) the end user need’s (both known and unknown to them) must be considered. Correctly interpreted messages are also of great necessity for the safety of the general public in times of severe weather events to ensure that the public receives and appropriately acts upon the message within the warning. Improvements in this area will ultimately enhance community resilience to severe weather events (Nicholls, 2011). The communication barriers that will be addressed include terminology; language; symbols; knowledge and understanding of users; access to information; and the level of determinism employed by meteorologists in the dissemination of the message. Along with the identification of possible options meteorologists may employ to reduce the uncertainty within their message to the end user.

Biographical Information: Tamsin Achilles is a Disaster Mitigation Program Support Officer in the Weather and Oceans Services Branch of the Bureau of Meteorology.

Page 65 of 282


Communicating Uncertainty in Weather Forecasts Tamsin Achilles Disaster Mitigation & Severe Weather Bureau of Meteorology T.Achilles@bom.gov.au

Communicating Uncertainty Forecasts encounter a number of barriers to clear communication: Written & Verbal Visual Access ‘know your audience’

4 Cs Elements of Effective Weather Forecasts: • Consistent • Confidence of end users in information • Change (averse & adapt) • Content relevant


1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race • Accurate forecasts • Communication break down • Race rules were a barrier • Varied meteorological understanding • Terminology misunderstood Source: http://www.richardbennett.com.au/storms.html

Written Access • Language - Plain English • Terminology BoM Glossary Terms fine - No rain or other precipitation (hail, snow etc). Note: fine means the absence of rain or other precipitation… - not ‘good’ or ‘pleasant’ weather. Rainfall - The total liquid product of precipitation or condensation from the atmosphere, as received and measured in a rain gauge. Temperature - A physical quantity characterising the mean random motion of molecules in a physical body. Source: http://www.bom.gov.au/

Sydney to Hobart Terminology Storm Force Wind Warning statement which warns of winds averaging from 48 knots and up to 63 knots in coastal waters and high seas areas Thunderstorm Sudden electrical discharges manifested by a flash of lightning and a sharp rumbling sound… more often accompanied by precipitation. They are usually short-lived and hit on only a small area


Numerical Access • Numbers can provide clarity i.e. Hobart PoP forecast • Precise • Reduce uncertainty associated with text Source: http://www.bom.gov.au/tas/forecasts/hobart.shtml

Verbal Access • Broadcaster’s personality Simon McCulloch – Meteorologist & Weather Broadcaster • More information can be provided (Lazo et al, 2009) Source: http://www.omnistream.co.uk/about/attachment/broadcast/ Source: http://www.abc.net.au/profiles/content/s2725540.htm?site=news

Visual Access • Must be able to easily understand the image • Image must be clear

Pictorial Safety Symbols Source: http://homeland.gov.safenow.org/


Icons • Assist conveying a message • Not relied upon for whole message • Complimented well by text Source: http://www.bom.gov.au/

Deterministic (Brisbane Forecast) Source: http://www.bom.gov.au/qld/forecasts/brisbane.shtml

Provision of Uncertainty Information (Canberra Forecast) Source: http://www.bom.gov.au/act/forecasts/canberra.shtml


Charts • Effective to convey uncertainty information • Range of formats e.g. Meteograms, fan charts, pie charts, bar graphs

Source: http://www.yr.no/place/Norway/Oslo/Oslo/Oslo/long.html Source: http://www.probcast.com/

Tropical Cyclone Yasi Threat Map • Tropical Cyclone Yasi - threat maps: aids information explanation to community and emergency managers • More certain with reductions in lead time • Identifies more vulnerable communities • Concise representation of information Source: http://aifsa-qld.bom.gov.au/cgibin/cmcgi/webdir.pl?d=/archive/productfile/

Physical Access • • • •

Radio & TV Newspaper Computers Intelligent technology

Source: http://www.facebook.com/mobileprotection#!/pages/Bureau-of-Meteorology/170992086298033


Intangible Access • • • •

Sophistication of meteorological knowledge Education Background Experience

Source: http://www.google.com.au/search?q=school+education+pictures&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=699&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei= gnsZTo7oBqXFmAX-xrEQ&ved=0CDEQsAQ

ABS Statistics 2006 Adult Australians Level 1 or 2 Literacy Rates Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4228.0Main%20Features22006%20(Reissue)?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4228.0&issue=2006%20(Rei ssue)&num=&view=)

Prose - 46% Numeracy – 53%

Document literacy – 47% Problem solving – 70%

Proportion at each skill level

Wrap Up • 4 Cs (Consistent; Confidence; Change; Content relevant)

• Forecasts must be developed with the end user in mind • Forecasts must adapt with users and technology • Forecast information depth and complexity can reduce uncertainty • Forecasts communication requires continuous research


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Banizaman Lari, F, Abbasi, H, Poryari, M., “Experience of Flood Event Documentation in Transportation System� The rate of ever increasing natural disasters and high amount of expenditures that are allocated to engineering and executive approaches for management of numerous crises worldwide considerably justifies the necessity of review and evaluation of plans and programs pertaining to natural disasters mitigation. A basic tool which could be used for review and evaluation of short term and long term plans is documents associated with an event in an extensive way including consequences, damages, and implemented measures covering four stages of disaster management cycle containing Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Professional documentation of events covering all engineering and management activities in an extensive way provides executives with a very useful facility to be used for evaluation and review of plans, event routing, figuring out the down points of management processes and finally proposing corrective actions. Documentation is as a subordinate of knowledge management that draws a logical process in order to gather different levels of with knowledge and to convert them from the most basic level(data) to the highest one(expertise) in a way to be considered in significant decision makings. This paper has been written based on leading an applied research project which concentrates on designing an applicable structure which is targeted to document past flood events in ground transport system including road and railway section of MRTi. In the mentioned project, the optimized level of documentation was set based on investigation of existing condition of documentation in MRT to understand their level of expectation, performing an extensive literature review from the patterns that have been implemented in other countries and finally following existing standards and guidelines.

Page 72 of 282


Experience Of Flood Event Documentation in Iran

Kurit Kara Consulting Engineers Co.

Disaster management Group of Road Research Institute

It is a saying: it takes ages for promoting our abilities, yet for only a couple of hours , we work with the outmost. Although, the out comes of that hurs worth a life times endeavor.

Significance of documentation

1. Evaluation of hazard and crisis management system. 2. Review of the planning. 3. Analysis of the event occurrence cause. 4. Recovery of budgets and expenses.


The role of documentation in promoting operation of organizations 1. Historical, Analytical and scientific record of experiences, outcomes, successes and points of organizational highlight. 2. Development of a platform for recording, extension and training organizational culture to new generations. 3. Provision of a tool for distribution of Successful experiences.

The role of documentation in provision of background for extending organizational culture. • enhancement of diagnosing problems Systematically. • examining new solutions •Learning from experiences of the organization’s personnel •Transferring learning's and experiences

Where documentation is occurred?

The relation ship between documentation and crisis management cycle


General Characteristics of Documentation

Facts and Figures about Flood Flood induced losses in Comparison with different natural hazards in ground transportation system

Comparison of frequency of happening different natural hazards in ground transportation system


Targets of the project

Steps of the project

Existing condition of documentation


‫‪Reporting procedure in railway section‬‬

‫ف رد تاعالطا شدرگ و تاطابترا‬ ‫ﻩلباقم دنيار‬ ‫ر د ﻩحناس‬ ‫ﻩاگتسيا‬

‫ر د ﻩحناس‬ ‫راطق‬

‫ئر‬ ‫سي‬ ‫ﻩاگتسيا‬

‫ن ﻩ ﺁ ﻩار داتس‬ ‫لرتنﮎ‬ ‫ﻩيحان‬

‫لﮎ ري دم‬ ‫ﻩيحان‬

‫لرتنﮎ‬ ‫يزﮎرم‬

‫تظافح لﮎ ري دم‬ ‫ينميا و‬

‫نيرومام‬ ‫راطق‬ ‫نويسي مﮎ‬ ‫حناوس‬

‫ئر‬ ‫سي‬ ‫ب داتس‬ ‫نارح‬ ‫ب داتس‬ ‫نارح‬ ‫ﻩيحان‬ ‫نويسي مﮎ‬ ‫حناوس يلاع‬

‫ﻩيحان‬

‫ثداوح داتس‬ ‫روشﮎ و ناتسا‬

‫ل مح ﻩورگراﮎ‬ ‫ناتسا لقنو‬

‫ب داتس‬ ‫نارح‬ ‫زﮎرم‬

‫ﻩورگراﮎ‬ ‫روشﮎ لقن و ل مح‬

‫ث داوح داتس‬

‫‪The result of survey of existing documents in the ministry of road and‬‬ ‫‪transportation‬‬

‫‪The result of survey of existing documents in the ministry of road and‬‬ ‫‪transportation‬‬


How to reach optimized level of documentation?

WHO

HOW

WHAT

WHEN

Elements of documentation

WHERE


Documentation of activities and evidences during different time steps

Event Happening

t‐72 t‐48 t‐24 t‐12 t‐6

t+6 t+12 t+24 t+48 t+72 Prevention

Preparedness

Response

Recovery & Reconstruction

documentation of different phases •Documents of: •Warnings •Preparedness activities •Trainings •Practices Planning's

•Documents of : •Road and bridge span cleaning up •Short term reconstruction •Long term reconstruction

time Documents of : •Studies •Planning's •Designs •Construction works

•Documents of: •Description of event •Response activities •Evacuation •Diversion •

* Prevention ** Preparedness *** Response **** Recovery

Important Indexes coming out from Documentation Delay Hours /year

The hours of training /year

Number of Cancelation /year Number of Deaths/year

The Total budget invested on prevention works/year

Number of Injuries/year

Total budget invested on reconstruction works/year

Damage to road and appurtenances structures /year Damage to Train/year Damage to vehicles/year


What Elements should be Documented?



Deputy of Road Maintenance Urban and Rural Road

High Commission of Transportation Deputy of Crisis management

Documentation Unit

Deputy of Road Maintenance Office of Road Maintenance

Deputy of Road Costruction

Deputy of Road Safety and Traffic Office of safety

Deputy of Planning and Budget

Province level Department of Road Maintenance Urban and Rural Road

Documentation Unit Department of Road Construction Supervision office

Department of Technical Affairs Dep of Studies and Consultations

Department of Road Maintenance Machinery sec

Department of Crisis management Police Adm Road Police

Department of Safety Department of Technical Affairs Dep of Contracts


Design of Responsibility Matrix for Flood documentation scheme Organization

Dep of Road Maintenance–Maintenance sec

prevention

preparedness

Response

Reconstruction

Dep of Road Maintenance–road safety , clearance and surroundings Dep of Road Maintenance–machinery and equipments Dep of Road Maintenance–road upgrading and rehabilitation Contracts and agreements

Administration and Financial office

Public Relations department

Planning and training section

Road management unit

Provincial commission of transportation

Department of crisis management

City council

Sub‐Organization

Records and Documents Flood Protection Structures Characteristics Road Structure Inspection Bridge Structure Inspection Flood prone Identification zones (road) Flood prone Identification zones (Bridges and Deputy of Maintenance‐Road and Properties structures) Maintenance Flood plain zoning Mitigation plans and road rehabilitation, road diversion etc River engineering works In bridge and culvert opening Deputy of Technical Affairs‐Department of Technical Characteristics of plans and constructed studies and Consultations works Deputy of Technical Affairs‐Contracts and Description of Contracts and agreements agreements unit Deputy of Rural Roads Characteristics of rural road projects Financial and Administration Deputy‐ Financial information of projects Executive summery of all the projects and studies Top Executive Manager‐Manager in Chief


Requirements • • • •

Professional manpower Tools and facilities Information forms and check lists guideline

Establishment of documentation system in the ministry of Road and Transportation


Establishment Steps Of Documentation System Inter‐organizational Publicizing of the procedural documentation amongst sub‐organizations  Cooperation of organizational stakeholders  sub‐national and regional forum  Guideline issuance and training of user levels the executive view points of documentation

?


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Becker, J., Webber, D., Wright, K., Doody, B., McClure, J. Pritchard, S. Davies, B. “Keeping people out of floodwaters: a review of reasons why people enter floodwater” Flooding is a well known cause of death and injury in Australia. From 1950-2008 there were 206 flash flooding fatalities (Coates and Haynes, 2008) and from 1950-2007 125 riverine flood deaths are recorded in the Emergency Management Australia Disaster Database. Many deaths are avoidable, and a large proportion occurs when people voluntarily enter floodwaters. For example, Coates and Haynes (2008) report that 61% of flash flood deaths are transport related (vehicle, pedestrian, others). Coates and Haynes also (2008) found that approximately a third of flash flood deaths were from people inside a vehicle, while FitzGerald et al., (2010) report that from 1997 – 2008 nearly half of flood deaths were vehicle-related. To find out more about why people enter floodwater, the New South Wales State Emergency Service commissioned a literature review study in 2010. The study reviewed the reasons why people drive, ride, walk or play in floodwater and reviewed current strategies employed to deter people from entering floodwater. The review found that males, younger people, and people with four-wheel-drive vehicles were more likely to enter floodwater, and there was some association with risk-taking and entry of flood water. Overall the study found seven main reasons why people enter floodwater including: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Attempting to reach a destination Undertaking a recreational activity Retrieving property, livestock or pets Undertaking employment duties Unaware of or underestimate risk Influenced by others Rescuing, or assisting with evacuation.

Internationally, a number of strategies have been developed to try and specifically deter people from entering floodwater. In Australia, there remains an opportunity to build upon these strategies to develop holistic and effective programmes that target behaviours around floodwater entry.

Biographical Information: Julia Becker, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Julia studied natural hazards, resource management and social science research to tertiary Masters level before joining GNS Science in 2000. Currently she is involved with research into enhancing community resilience and effective planning and policy for natural hazards in New Zealand, including a focus on weather and flood hazards. In addition to her work at GNS Science, Julia spent 2 years in the United Kingdom from 2002-2004 working on environmental impact assessment, energy issues and urban development.

Page 86 of 282


Never drive, ride or walk through floodwater: Pedestrian and motorist behaviour in and around floodwater GNS Science

Julia Becker

NSW SES

David Webber

Flood fatalities • In Australia, flood related deaths rank second only to heat waves in mortality rates from natural disasters • Between 1950‐2008 there were 206 flash flooding fatalities (C&H, 2008) • From 1950‐2007 there were 125 riverine flood deaths (EMA Disaster Database) • 61% (of flash flood deaths were transport related (vehicle, pedestrian, other modes) (C&H, 2008) • Other deaths related to wading, swimming, recreating, evacuating, rescuing people

Pedestrian and Motorist Flood Safety Scoping Study The NSW SES, with NDMP (now NDRGS) grant funding commissioned a literature review to: – Explore behaviour and risk perception associated with why people drive, ride, walk, or play in and around floodwater – Review existing strategies and programs which deter this behaviour – Provide recommendations on appropriateness of existing strategies and directions for new strategies


Flood risk perceptions • Awareness of flooding high – 85% (e.g. CB, 1999; Becker et al.) • Nearly half of people affected in some way (either directly e.g. physical damage, or indirectly e.g. evacuated) • Despite this people have only moderate concern about flooding reducing their propensity to act (e.g. CB, 1999; Becker et al.) • Some unaware of the risk completely (King 2000) • Many underestimate the danger (e.g. live outside flood prone area; think are protected; think that warning indicate the presence of danger rather than the degree) (see paper for refs). • Influence of other people also a key component in forming beliefs about flood risk (e.g. Becker et al., 2010)

Behaviour Driving Walking, wading , swimming Recreating Evacuations (by emergency services and self‐evacuation) • Rescue

• • • •

Driving in floodwater • Approximately a third of flash flood deaths 1950‐2008 were from people inside a vehicle (C&H, 2008) • During period 1997 – 2008, 49% of flood deaths were vehicle‐ related (FitzGerald, 2010) • 10‐20% admitted they would attempt to drive through floodwater (Becker et al. 2007a,b; 2008 a,b) • Aware of danger but still drive through: ‐ Deem the floodwater to be manageable (e.g. not rushing) ‐ Test the floodwater ‐ See others driving through ‐ Want to get to a particular destination ‐ For fun

• Some would seek advice on whether to drive through (e.g. locals, official sources)

GNS1


Slide 6 GNS1

Says who? what if there is poor visibility and a missing manhole vcover - this bullet needs clearer wording, especially if this presentation becomes a handout Kim, 19/01/2011


Walking, wading and swimming • 17% flash flood deaths – people on foot (C&H) • 15% flash flood deaths related to swimming/wading (C&H) • No information about who is walking, wading, or swimming (demographics) • Common reasons: getting to a destination, checking or saving property/livestock

Recreating • 16% ff deaths occurred when swimming / playing /paddling / bathing (C&H, 2008) • 27% general flood deaths swimming or surfing (FitzGerald, 2010) • 4.5% ff deaths boasting or making a wager (C&H, 2008) • 4% ff deaths on a boat (C&H, 2008) • ‘Flood tourism’ had caused deaths • No studies on why people recreate in floodwater – risk‐takers?

Evacuation and Rescue • Data provided was unclear differentiating between official evacuation and escaping/fleeing • From 1950‐2008, 6% flash flood deaths occurred during evacuation process (C&H) • Since 1980 only about 2% from evacuation (C&H)

Up to 6% of flood deaths are rescuers trying to rescue others (this includes professional rescuers and amateurs)


Risk profile • Male to Female flood death ratio is 4:1 • Age: 10 to 29, and over 70 • People with 4wds – more likely to self report driving • February is the peak month for deaths from floods (FitzGerald, 2010) • Flash flood deaths occur mostly at night; riverine deaths during the day (Sedwick, 2008) • Vehicle drowning more common at night (Sedwick, 2008) • Wollongong (NSW) to Maryborough (QLD) most hazardous zone in Australia (Coates, 1999)

Seven reasons why people enter floodwater Attempting to reach a destination Undertaking a recreational activity Retrieving property, livestock or pets Undertaking employment duties Unaware or underestimate risk Influenced by others Rescuing, or assisting with evacuation

Floodwater behaviour strategies Turn around, don’t drown (USA)

M8s4life (Gold Coast City Council, Queensland)

Ditch playing in Ditches (Colorado, USA)

Benalla Community Floodsmart (Victoria SES and Rural City of Benalla Council)

Hunter Central Rivers (Hunter Rivers CMA and NSW SES)

NSW SES FloodSafe messages


Signage and Barricades • Do not always deter people from entering floodwater • Useful if they are monitored and accurate, otherwise trust is lost • Should be backed up with road closure information through media and on Council website • Flood height markers require education and consequences associated to them

Effective messaging • No research on effective messaging for flood behaviour • Research on structure of messages • Earthquake context: “positive action – negative outcome seem most effective” – E.g. “Turn around, don’t drown”

Current SES Messaging • Never enter or travel through floodwater – Never drive, ride, walk or play.... This is the main cause of death during floods Floodwater may be deeper and faster flowing than you think and may contain hidden snags and debris


Media portrayals • Portrayal of people in floodwater is generally against SES messaging and of people recreating or being rescued • More emphasis should be placed on hazards such as contamination, debris, road damage

From the review • Core message/s based on safest advice with priority on protecting life • Test core and secondary messages for impact, linguistics and cultural relevance • Develop targeted messaging specific to entering floodwater – unpack ‘FloodSafe’ • Community engagement to shape cultural acceptances of entering floodwater

Multi‐level and multi‐stage messaging and engagement ‐ media, information, products, and how we ‘engage’ with these

Community engagement • Core message and targeted delivery through multi‐level program activities – Programs targeting at‐risk areas

• Working with identified influencers, key people and networks at a local level in relation to risk • Long‐term, change cultural perceptions from inconvenience to priority on safety • Lobby media to portray risks of entering floodwater appropriately


Questions


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Brackley, H. and Berryman, K., “Research and prior knowledge informing response and recovery following the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011” The Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake rocked the South Island’s Canterbury region at 4.36 am on 4th September, 2010. No deaths and only two serious injuries resulted. Almost six months later, the devastating Mw6.3 aftershock of February 22nd occurred at 12.51 pm close to Christchurch city. Approximately 50,000 people were in the inner city area, well-known for its heritage and unreinforced masonry buildings. Few of the earthquake prone buildings had been retrofitted. Consequently there were many failures under the extreme ground motions that exceeded 100% of gravity in the inner parts of the city and hillside suburbs south of the city. Immediate roles for the scientific and engineering community included providing advice on the earthquake and likely impacts to the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management and senior government officials. Prior knowledge had contributed to the seismic coefficients of building code requirements, the earthquake prone building register for the city, identified areas prone to liquefaction, and for many decades contributed to the engineering and design of earthquake resistant buildings. Estimating the evolution of the aftershock occurrence was sought by the USAR teams undertaking search and rescue operations in badly damaged buildings, by infrastructure operators wanting to restore services, and the general public seeking reassurance about possible future safety and further damage to homes and businesses. Public briefings provided information to the general public on what were very rare events for the Canterbury region. As response transitioned to recovery, requirements on the research community moved from “what did happen” to “what will happen”, and applied to: 

Aftershock or triggered earthquake occurrence (a Mw5.3 earthquake causing further minor damage occurred on 16 April);  What specifications will be required for rebuilding buried infrastructure networks, and residential and commercial buildings;  Where and how should ground improvement take place to guard against future damaging liquefaction;  Whether some areas are so badly damaged, and future damage so probable, that some areas should not be re-built;  How to alleviate high levels of trauma among the impacted population which has led to significant migration, issues with school and university enrolments, and a reluctance by many to enter high rise buildings;  Where and what will be the characteristics of future commercial enterprise in Christchurch;  The heightened appreciation of earthquake hazard and risk is leading to new multi-hazard considerations for future urban development in the Canterbury region. One of the few certainties at the early stages of recovery is that the new Christchurch will be significantly different in terms of buildings, the location of business activity, and attitude to natural hazard perils.

Page 95 of 282


Research & Prior Knowledge Informing Response and Recovery Following the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury Earthquakes Hannah Brackley, GNS Science Kelvin Berryman, NHRP

GNS Science

The Natural Hazards Research Platform Key Features: To provide a stable, long-term research environment Obligation to provide science advice in the national interest Emphasis on partnerships between researchers and end-users

GNS Science

This presentation     

The Canterbury earthquakes & their impacts The issues arising Research activities Communicating the knowledge On-going challenges

(image: Russ van Dissen, GNS Science) (image: Tonkin & Taylor Ltd) GNS Science


The earthquakes & their impacts

GNS Science

The earthquakes & their impacts: 4 Sept 2010

Large rural sector impact oDisruption to grazing and fencing oRiver inundation oSome infrastructure damage – roads, electricity, irrigation

In urban areas oPublic & Heritage buildings oOld commercial buildings - poor performance, but good performance with retrofit oNew commercial buildings – very good performance of most oAbove ground services quickly recovered oIn-ground pipe networks heavily damaged in areas of liquefaction GNS Science

The earthquakes & their impacts: 4 Sept 2010

GNS Science


The earthquakes & their impacts: 22 Feb 2011

GNS Science

The earthquakes & their impacts: 22 Feb 2011

GNS Science

The earthquakes & their impacts: 22 Feb 2011

GNS Science


EOC Science Liaison Desk - post 22 Feb

GNS Science

Issues Requiring Science Input Earthquake risk buildings and the heritage conundrum What is effective retrofit Performance anomalies – to be examined by DBH & Royal Commission Earthquake cascade phenomenon and forecast likelihood Rebuilding Criteria – where, when and how Retreat or repatriate homes and suburbs Liquefaction, subsidence, and flooding – is Christchurch particularly susceptible? o Risk management, risk communication, acceptable risk and future tolerable impact o Maintaining public confidence over an extended period o o o o o o o

Magnitude 5.0-5.9

Magnitude 6.0-6.9

Start date & Length

1 week

30 days

1 year

1 week

30 days

1 year

15/6/11

63%

84%

98%

9%

16%

34%

15/8/11

9%

29%

89%

<1%

4%

18%

Earthquake Likelihood Statistics GNS Science

Short Term Applied Research Activities •Bedrock structure beneath Canterbury & Pegasus Bay Provides context to EQ occurrence, positive science comments & validation of advice provided (CERA, Recovery Minister, insurers, public)

•Earthquake likelihood estimates & revised building code coefficients Rapid response to changed EQ occurrence in Canterbury. Raised seismic coefficient for the building code provides confidence to insurers and public that it is safe to begin rebuild (DBH, insurers, construction industry)

•Rockfall & slope stability issues in Port Hill suburbs Several hundred homes were considered too dangerous to occupy in the immediate aftermath of the Feb 22nd EQ. These homes remain unoccupied. Risk management framework under development (CCC, CERA) GNS Science


• Liquefaction damage on pipe networks Data on numbers and types of breaks in the below ground networks, coupled with estimates of future earthquakes and liquefaction provide a basis for cost effective remediation and reinstatement of services (CCC, CERA)

• Characteristics of foundation damage in the CBD Both shaking and liquefaction has played a role in damage in the CBD. Data from specific examples, identifying generic issues is required (insurers, building owners, CCC, CERA)

• Performance to bridges, stairs, non-structural building components, residential house foundations & structural performance of buildings of all types The performance of structures of all types must be evaluated prior to reconstruction to identify any systemic failures and ensure code provisions are adequate in light of recent experience (CCC, CERA, NZTA, DBH) GNS Science

• Business impacts A major concern in the aftermath of the EQ sequence for future business directions and viability in the region. Supply and demand issues need to be modelled accurately to facilitate effective Recovery (CERA, CHCH Dev. Corp. Recover Canterbury)

• Psycho-social, education & tourism impacts The viability of the city going forward is more about people than buildings. Stress and trauma are widespread in the community and the region relies heavily on overseas students and tourism. Data supporting these aspects are crucial to effective Recovery of the people and the region (CCC, CERA, Tourism NZ, TEC, MSD)

• Temporary housing issues When displaced persons are being accommodated in new parts of the city it is imperative that services are adequate, that hazards are identified and mitigated, and social issues are well-managed (CERA, CCC, MSD, DBH) GNS Science

Communicating the knowledge Crucially depends on: orelationships (are hard to develop at times of crisis) orelationships (can quick start integrated response & recovery) orelationships (already provide a clear understanding of goals, roles & responsibilities by both parties)

otrust (comes with time - MOU’s and the like provide a good starting point) othe right language (must be geared to how the message is received) oaddressing the users needs, not the researchers curiosity (there is a time for fundamental research but not during response and early recovery activity)

otimeliness (decisions will be made with or without the research knowledge – better an imperfect contribution than no contribution) GNS Science Natural Hazards Research Platform


On-going challenges Providing accurate advice on further earthquakes in what increasingly appears to be a triggered cascade of events Providing consistent advice in a rapidly evolving situation Providing confident advice to insurers and other agencies on where, when, and how to begin the rebuild of Christchurch Developing suitable adjustments to building code provisions in a non-stationary hazard situation Finding the societally acceptable balance between current risk aversion and appropriate building standards for the nominal 50 year design life of reconstruction Developing an accurate assessment of socio-economic impact of the earthquake sequence and future trends in accord with city reconstruction

GNS Science

Thank You

GNS Science


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Buergelt, P., Morrison, D., Lawrence, C., Dunlop, P. & Clark, P., “Integrating research and practice: A holistic, multi-site and process-oriented action research designed to build community disaster capacity” Resilient communities result from interactions between individuals and their environment. The dynamic interactions provide both with opportunities to gain capabilities important for survival and adaptation in the face of natural disasters. So far, disaster research has predominately focused on investigating single hazards and specific aspects of individuals and/or communities at one point in time through the lens of one discipline. Most research has used theory-driven top-down quantitative or mixed method research, and provided top-down recommendations concentrating on education and risk communication. While this research has greatly enhanced our understanding of factors and processes involved in preparing and responding to disasters, interventions based on this research have, arguably led only to small improvements in community preparedness and response. To identify and create new intervention opportunities, different research designs may need to be developed and implemented. This presentation introduces a novel research design: an holistic, multi-site and processoriented action research designed to empower individuals and communities to build up their capacity for coping with natural disasters. This approach will seek both generic and specific solutions, applicable to hazards more broadly as well as the identification of solutions that appear to be hazard specific. In so doing the research design takes a multi-level perspective and investigates the influence of individuals within communities, and their reciprocal interactions. Based on a synergy of four theoretical frameworks paradigms (i.e., salutogenic paradigm, symbolic interactionism, narrative theory, systems theory), the research will merge three qualitative methodologies (i.e., grounded theory, multi-side ethnography, multi-side action research) to inform both theory and measurement of relevant constructs. In the first phase of the research, we will collect data with a combination of participant observation, episodic interviews, and surveys. The aim is to identify and describe similarities and differences between communities with respect to, for example, the influence networks, emergent community leadership characteristics and community proactivity. In the second phase, we will model differences between communities to identify statistically reliable effects with a view to develop effective and efficient interventions which will promote community proactivity, capacity and resilience. In the third phase, we will collaboratively with the communities identify, design and implement interventions based on the research findings. The outcomes of these interventions will be assessed and reflected onin phase four of the project. Throughout the project, the data from the case studies will be compared to identify the characteristics and processes that contribute to enhancing the resilience of individuals and communities.

Biographical Information: Besides being a research associate with the Bushfire CRC & UWA, Petra Buergelt is also an honorary research fellow at Massey University’s and GNS Science’s Joint Centre for Disaster Research (NZ) and an international associate at the Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research (NZ). Petra gained her PhD in Psychology from Massey University (NZ). In her research she explores with a qualitative research approach the psychological and social factors and processes that influence resilience, health/well-being and adaptation of individuals and communities with respect to disaster preparedness and response, and contemporary migration between Western countries. She collaboratively designed and conducted various projects studied the psychological and social factors that influence individual and community preparedness for bushfires (Australia), tsunamis (USA) and bird flu (New Zealand). Petra is on the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches (IJMRA) and the Journal of Psychology. Petra has been awarded numerous scholarships and fellowships including the TEC Top Achievers Doctoral Scholarship, the Ryoichi Sasakawa Doctoral Young Leaders Scholarship, and the NZVCC Claude McCarthy Fellowship.

Page 102 of 282


Integrating research and practice: A holistic, multi-side and process-oriented action research designed to build up individual and community capacity P. Buergelt D. Morrison C. Lawrence

P. Dunlop P. Clark

School of Psychology, University of Western Australia & Bushfire CRC

ROADMAP Setting the scene: Context Resilience Interactions  individual & community Research design Intended outcomes Challenges & cooperation

Context preparedness  influenced by both individual & community variables communities  significant resource for responding to disasters lack of research  community characteristics & how they interact with people’s interpretations

What community level factors influence the development of individual interpretations & capabilities that enhance resilience? How do variables interact with each other?


PAST: specific hazards general preparedness measures specific aspects of Individuals and/or community

at one point one discipline quantitative, mixed method based on theories (top-down)

Identify & create new interventions  different research approaches: across hazards generic capabilities enable people to adapt & cooperate complexity of individuals AND community/contextual influences  interact over process  longitudinal multi-disciplinary mixed method, emergent from bottom-up & top-down action-research

Small increase in preparedness

Resilience

positive capacity to cope with stress & adversity result of interactions between individual & environment dynamic process  opportunities to gain capabilities that enable to adapt in the face of disasters spiral rather circle  constant learning by doing 3 D nature of interactions  width, depth & time

Interactions  Width: Many aspects & complex Indigenous knowledge Past disasters Social trust

Weather & landscape House & garden design Fuel management RS with nature & animal

Historical

Personal/ social

Physical/ natural

Political Policies & regulations Education programs Land use & planning Health & social services

Partner Neighbourhoods Colleagues Sport Clubs Animals Religious groups Fire Brigade

Interpretations Capabilities Competencies

Schools Work places Health services Social services

Technological Communication devices & channels Fire equipment

Legal

Policies Insurances

Economical Businesses, Insurance, media, tourism Property agents & developers


Community Empowerment Collective adaptive capacities

Community Organisation

Structures

Processes

# & types social networks communication patterns participatory leadership & other roles culture/climate status & power cohesion

motivation group dynamics

Community Participation

relatedness & attachment social trust & responsibility task significance & identity skill variety & delegation goals & planning compliance & reinforcement autonomy decision-making problem-solving & feedback

Depth  Interactions: Multi-level Nation

State

Shire

Community

Household Indiv

Time  Interactions: Change

Off-season

Fire season

Off-season

Historical context Physical/ natural Belief Systems Capabilities Political context

Historical context Personal/ social

Economical context

Physical/ natural Belief Systems Capabilities

Technological context Legal context

Fire season

Political context

Personal/ social

Technological context Legal context

Economical context


Research Design  Weave together 3Ds

Research Design: Mixed Methods & Longitudinal

Qualitative

Quantitative

In-depth ethnographic case studies of high & low prepared communities

 Design survey  Survey distributed to 36 communities in 3 waves

Interpretations, structures, processes

 test key com variables/RS  identify causal RS  assess degree of influence  model differences between the communities

 similarities/differences key community variables  hypothesis re IA

Top-down Quantitative: Questionnaire & Surveys July 12 (m/off) Oct 12 (b/f) Regulations & policies

Feb 13 (m/f)

12 communities in 4 states 12 communities 4 states 12 com 4

Refining of model & community profiler ~ 2 years Review of documents & census data In-depth episodic Interviews

Participant Observation Diaries

October 2011  WA

Action March 2012  TAS, QLD, VIC, NSW

Bottom-up Qualitative: Multi-site Ethnography


Intended Outcome Generic capabilities empower & enable individuals & communities to build up their resilience capacities

Community Profiler Key community variables that cause greatest differences between communities ďƒ covers all 3 dimensions

Challenges & Cooperation

all-hazards vs Bushfire CRC action research vs funding duration identifying high prepared & resilient communities actors ďƒ academia, government & agencies cooperation partners in WA, TAS, NSW & QLD

carmen.lawrence@uwa.edu.au

petra.buergelt@uwa.edu.au

http://www.bushfirecrc.com/projects/6-1

THANK YOU! david.morrison@uwa.edu.au

www.psychology.uwa.edu.au/ research/bushfire

patrick.clarke@uwa.edu.au

patrick.dunlop@uwa.edu.au


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Davidson, J.,“Severe Tropical Cyclone YASI – seen but once in a generation” Severe Tropical Cyclone YASI made landfall between Innisfail and Cardwell around midnight on 2nd February 2011 as one of the most powerful and largest cyclones to have impacted the state since records commenced. Fortunately, there was no direct loss of life and no serious injuries were reported. However, wind and storm surge damage along that section of the coast and nearby islands was quite extensive with insured losses expected to approach $Aus1B. YASI was the 4th cyclone in the Queensland region this season and came on top of record rains in the previous 6 months and widespread flooding in December and January. When tracking across the Coral Sea, YASI passed directly over Willis Island which is a permanently staffed Bureau of Meteorology facility located 400 km east of Cairns. To ensure their safety, occupants were evacuated the day before the cyclone struck. Significant damage occurred on the island both to the natural environment and to the Bureau’s facility. It will be some months before staff can return to the island and the weather radar is again operational. Improvements in numerical modelling prediction enabled the Bureau to alert Queenslanders almost a week prior to landfall that YASI could form and later be a threat to the state. With the cyclone approaching the coast, the Queensland Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre was warning of wind gusts to Category 5 strength and the likelihood of a dangerous storm surge. At landfall, an eye pressure below 930 hPa was recorded along with a storm surge in excess of 5 metres. Wind estimates from interpretation of high quality satellite imagery placed the highest wind gusts in the vicinity of 280 km/h, equivalent to a borderline Category 5 cyclone. In the aftermath of the event, the Bureau is following its standard practice of collating all relevant information including meteorological observations (pressure and wind in particular), storm surge measurements, satellite and radar data, wind and storm surge modelling results and field survey reports. As an integral part of the process, key stakeholders will also be consulted, both internal and external to the Bureau. It is expected that by Conference time, the Bureau will be in a position to provide its best estimate of YASI’s landfall intensity. Severe Tropical LARRY crossed the coast a little further north near Innisfail on 20th March 2006 – a landmark cyclone with considerable impact. A direct comparison will be drawn between cyclones LARRY and YASI in regards to estimated landfall intensity. Various assessment techniques are applied, including satellite imagery interpretation. Internationally recognised US experts in this field provided valuable and ongoing assistance with the study.

Biographical Information: Jim DAVIDSON is the Regional Director (Queensland), Bureau of Meteorology. With a career spanning over 4 decades with the Bureau of Meteorology, he was a Bench forecaster in the early years, former Queensland Weather Services Manager and Supervisor of the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre. He has been the Bureau’s Regional Director in Queensland since 2002.

Page 108 of 282


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Handby, R., Australian Red Cross International Disaster Response, “Development of Disaster Response Tools” The Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement responds to disasters worldwide. Australian Red Cross is one of 186 National Societies and one of the primary roles of any Red Cross or Red Crescent National Society is to provide first-line disaster response services. The main tool used by the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement internationally is the Emergency Response Unit (ERU), developed in response to large complex disasters in the 1980’s and 90’s. The ERU consists of standardised equipment and trained aid workers ready for rapid deployment throughout the World. These tools cover a number of sectors including water and sanitation, field hospitals, logistics and relief distribution. I have been involved with Australian Red Cross international disaster response for the past 27 years. During the past 4 years, I have been responsible for advising and helping to establish the Australian Red Cross disaster response capacity. This process has included looking at disaster trends, considering the constraints that exist in responding to remote islands in the Pacific, reviewing what already exists and identifying gaps in the International response capacity of the Red Cross Movement. This work has led to the establishment of two response tools, one being a Community Health approach to disease surveillance and the second being the establishment of the Australian Red Cross Disaster Response Team in the sectors of emergency water, sanitation, vector control and emergency shelter. An important component of both of these tools is the training of aid workers and the preparation to enable a rapid and appropriate response. These tools have been deployed on ten occasions in the past four years. The tools are available for deployment nationally however they have mainly been deployed internationally with a small amount of equipment used within Australia. This paper reviews these two tools including the deliberations about the decision to develop them, equipment that is available, training of aid workers and deployments undertaken.

Biographical Information: Mr. Robert (Bob) Handby worked as an Environmental Health officer in local Government in Victoria for 27 years. During this time he took leave to work in disaster response with the International Committee of the Red Cross in countries including Uganda, Iraq, Rwanda, Former Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka and throughout Asia and the Pacific. This work included the provision of emergency water supplies, sanitation and the construction of Refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps In 2007, Bob joined Australian Red Cross where he established the Australian Red Cross Disaster Response Team and the Community Health disease surveillance module. Bob is a life fellow of Environmental Health Australia and has been involved with this institute since1984 running courses throughout Australia on the Public Health response to disasters.

Page 109 of 282


Australian Red Cross Development of Disaster Response Tools Bob Handby One of the primary roles of the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement internationally is to provide first-line disaster response services. Often Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement is the first to respond in a disaster and in order to ensure an effective response, it is crucial that the response is coordinated. The main tools used by Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement internationally are Emergency Response Units (ERUs); developed in response to large complex disasters in the 1980’s and 1990’s. ERUs were developed to allow a rapid, high quality and standardised response during emergencies including the deployment of standardised equipment and trained personnel. An ERU is a team of trained technical specialists, ready to be deployed at short notice. The team uses pre-packaged sets of standardized equipment designed to be self-sufficient for one month and can operate for up to four months. ERUs are primarily owned by the large European Red Cross National Societies and have been deployed approximately 150 times since there inception. ERUs are deployed following recommendations made by an initial Red Cross/Red Crescent multi-sectoral field assessment. ERUs are heavy, expensive and designed for relatively large populations and they are not always appropriate for displaced populations found in the Pacific Islands. This paper describes the Emergency Response Units as well as the establishment of two tools that Australian Red Cross (ARC) is involved with including the Community Health Module and the ARC Disaster Response Team (DRT).

Types of ERUs Basic Health Care ERU The provision of immediate health care including maternal-child health, community health care, outpatient services, immunisation and nutritional surveillance for up to 30,000 people. Logistics ERU Coordinates and manages the arrival of large amounts of relief items. The logistics ERU coordinates custom clearances, warehousing, transportation and support to other ERUs. Water and Sanitation ERU Three water and sanitation ERU modules are available depending on the volume and quality of water required, the number of beneficiaries and the location.  The M15 can provide treatment and distribution of up to 225,000 litres of water/day for 15,000 beneficiaries.  The M40 can provide treatment and distribution of up to 600,000 litres of water/day for 40,000 beneficiaries.  Mass sanitation provides basic sanitation and vector control for up to 20,000 beneficiaries. Referral Hospital ERU A first level referral hospital that provides essential surgical and medical care for up to 250,000 people with an inpatient capacity of up to 150 beds.

Page 1 of 7


Relief ERU Ensures the distribution of relief goods to beneficiaries occurs in a rapid, effective, co-ordinated and dignified manner. Base Camp ERU Provides living and working conditions for Red Cross /Red Crescent staff Information Technology and Communications ERU Provides local communication networks and connects field operations and the secretariat in Geneva to ensure the smooth flow of information and operational coordination. Not withstanding the success of these ERUs as an international disaster response tool, there still appeared to be some gaps in this response capacity, this was particularly evident to Australian Red Cross who is primarily responsible for the Asia/Pacific region where the nature of disasters and the demographics of the countries did not always require the deployment of ERUs. There is considerable evidence that there is an increasing number of natural disasters worldwide with the majority of these (37%) occuring in the Asia/Pacific region during the period 2004-2008 and of which 51% were water related. The increased numbers may be due to a number of factors including climate change with the impact increasing due to increased population living in vulnerable locations including along the coast and rivers and on small Pacific Islands. Australian Red Cross made a strategic decision to increase its capacity to respond to these disasters and developed disaster response tools appropriate to these changes. The tools that have been developed by Australian Red Cross include a Disaster Response Team and a Community Health disease surveillance and intervention capacity.

Disaster Response Team The Australian Red Cross Disaster Response Team can be deployed in conjunction with an ERU but is really designed to be used in disasters with smaller populations and/or with populations which are dispersed or difficult to access. The Disaster Response Team consists of material and equipment stockpiled in warehouses in Kuala Lumpur and Brisbane and the team includes trained aid workers with expertise in one or more of the following four modules: Emergency water production, storage and distribution  Contains water treatment plants with three levels of filtration and ultra violet disinfection with the capacity to produce up to 5,000 Litres per hour.  5,000 Litre storage bladders and tap stands.  10 Litre collapsible water carrying containers.  Water testing equipment. Sanitation  Contains slabs for quick construction of latrines.  Hygiene kits for infants and adults.  Resources for undertaking hygiene promotion and public health messaging.

Page 2 of 7


Emergency shelter  Emergency shelter kits contain two 6 x 4 metre tarpaulins plus hammers, rope, nails etc for construction of temporary shelters.  Kitchen sets. Vector control  Vector control module contains equipment for spraying adult mosquitoes and spreading larvacide.  Mosquito nets. Each of the four modules can be deployed individually or collectively, the design of the modules enables them to be deployed onto the remote Islands of the Pacific as all components are light weight and able to be carried and transported by hand. The capacity of the equipment is to be able to provide for all of the needs of an affected community (excluding the provision of food and medical services). Each warehouse has the necessary equipment to support up 1000 families. The disaster response equipment and materials are also available for use within Australia. Training All aid workers have to participate in a strict Australian Red Cross selection process and successfully complete a five day introductory training course known as IMPACT (International Mobilisation and Preparation for Action). Once this training has been successfully completed, aid workers are selected to undertake additional training to become DRT members. Those selected would usually have a particular expertise in one of the four modules and be expected to have a working knowledge of the other three. This training is a field based training which includes theory as well as field work. The training is primarily field based where all equipment is available and used.

Since the DRT in Australian DRT training participants assemble a tap stand. Disaster Team has been deployed on eight occasions. 1. Floods in Papua New Guinea 2. Floods in Vietnam 3. Floods in India 4. Floods in Solomon Islands 5. Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar

Deployments inception of 2007, Red Cross Response

Page 3 of 7


6. Tsunami in Samoa 7. Cyclone Pat in Cook Islands 8. Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand Each of these deployments have included the provision of the water module and a combination of the other modules. At the conclusion of the emergency response the water treatment equipment is gifted to the National Society within the country of operation. An on going commitment is made by Australian Red Cross to provide support and training to these National Societies. Six of these National Societies have subsequently re-deployed the water treatment equipment, some with the assistance of Australian Red Cross aid workers and some independently. In addition to the above countries, water treatment equipment has been prepositioned in Vanuatu and Fiji. Team composition The disaster response team can consist of between two and six members depending on the disaster. Team members will all have a defined responsibility usually in one or more of the sectors and at times this team is supported by a logistician and media/communications member. One person is always designated as a team leader, this individual has the added responsibilities of team security, co-ordination with other NGOs and Government, liaising with the local National Society and determining the appropriate exit strategy.

Community Health Module During the past 27 years, I have worked in some of the worlds worst natural and man made disasters including civil wars in Uganda, Rwanda, Former Yugoslavia [Kosovo] and Sri Lanka plus natural disasters including the Boxing Day tsunami in Banda Aceh, the 2010 floods in Pakistan and cyclones, earthquakes and floods throughout Asia and the Pacific. My role in these disasters has primarily been the provision of emergency water supplies and sanitation plus temporary shelter and vector control. It became apparent to me some years ago that there was a weakness in ensuring a proper coordinated response between the medical and Public/Environmental Health. The Boxing Day tsunami resulted in a complete breakdown of the provisional health department in Banda Aceh which normally carried out the function of disease surveillance and intervention. This breakdown was due to the destruction of buildings used by the health authorities including the laboratories and the death of many key personnel. This breakdown occurred at a time when disease surveillance was most critical in trying to prevent the out break of diseases following the disaster. This problem was also highlighted to me at a presentation by a Red Cross national society who had operated a field hospital during floods in Kenya. The presenter showed detailed statistics of the patients who presented at the hospital with detailed information on the conditions being diagnosed including suspected dengue fever, malaria and bloody diarrhoea. When I enquired about how this information was being used in the field during the response, it became very apparent that it was not being used and so the treatment of these conditions continued without any attempt to try to investigate the causes and thereby prevent or reduce the numbers presenting. Under normal circumstances, surveillance is the responsibility of the Ministries of Health however, during and after disasters; the health problems have the potential to worse significantly at a time when the normal disease surveillance systems are overwhelmed or dysfunctional. For these reasons, Australian Red Cross has been involved in developing an emergency disease surveillance and intervention capacity which often amounts to filling gaps or supporting the countries Ministry of Health.

Page 4 of 7


The Red Cross movement has been providing medical responses during disasters for decades, including the deployment of emergency response field hospitals and basic health care facilities. The Community Health Module aims to prevent disease and works in conjunction with the field hospital and other health care facilities. ARC has formed a partnership with Norwegian and Canadian Red Cross societies to establish a Community Health response which focuses on disease surveillance, prevention and control of the five most important causes of morbidity during disasters: 1. Acute Respiratory Infection 2. Acute Malnutrition 3. Vector borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever 4. Diarrhoeal Diseases 5. Trauma Activities also include reproductive health including safe motherhood and neonatal care. Community Health Training The delegates chosen to work in a Community Health (CH) response have a variety of backgrounds but primarily public and/or environmental health. The additional training that these delegates receive is a field based training and has been held in the past two years in Fiji and with the First Nation Indian community in Northern Canada. In September 2011, the third training will be held in the Solomon Islands. Important components of the training include working with volunteers from the local Red Cross society to determine priority health issues in those communities and determining ways to reduce or prevent the disease or health issues identified. These solutions may include using the volunteers to develop and present a public health message about good hygiene practices, education about prevention of disease such as dengue fever including removal of breeding sites or involving others for example in the provision of safe drinking water. The CH delegates are not equipped to provide hardware such as water supplies and latrines however they are equipped to determine the need and arrange for other Emergency Response Units to provide the hardware. Training also includes learning how to gather disease surveillance data from hospitals, the Ministry of Health, laboratories (if they exist) and the communities. CH is designed to work with and support existing disease surveillance systems or to develop one if they do not exist.

Page 5 of 7


Training participants at CHM training in Fiji

Deployments Since its inception three years ago, CH delegates have been deployed to the earthquake in Haiti and to the floods in Pakistan. Trained delegates come from twelve different National Societies with Australian delegates playing a leading role in these deployments.

ARC community health delegate Kym Blechynden and a Pakistan Red Crescent Society volunteer provide food supplementation to malnourished mothers and babies in Pakistan.

Page 6 of 7


Report Prepared by: Robert Handby Water and Sanitation Manager Australian Red Cross

Page 7 of 7


Major Events , Major Impacts 5th Australian Natural Hazards Management Conference 2011 Development of disaster response tools

Bob Handby Manager Water & Sanitation International Emergencies Australian Red Cross

The world is experiencing a changing trend in disasters

Disasters by region 2004-2008


Type of disasters 2004-2008

Australian Red Cross have responded to these changing trends in disasters by: •. •.

Developing a Community Health Response Establishing a Disaster Response Team (DRT)

Community Health Response

Community Health Response module is attached to an emergency response hospital it was deployed to Haiti and Pakistan. It consists of trained experts in disease surveillance and intervention in: • • • • • • • •

Diarrhoeal diseases Acute respiratory infections Acute malnutrition Vector borne diseases Vaccine preventable diseases Family health Trauma Gender based issues


Disaster Response Team

Consists of equipment and material kept in warehouses in both Brisbane and Kuala Lumpur in the following sectors: • • • •

Emergency water supply Emergency shelter Sanitation Vector control

The team includes trained experts in each of the sectors who are able to be deployed internationally at short notice.

• In the past four years the DRT has been deployed to the following countries: • • • • • • • •

Papua New Guinea India Vietnam Solomon Islands Myanmar Samoa Cook Islands New Zealand

• Cyclone Pat – Cook Islands 2010


The disaster: • • • •

Cyclone Pat struck the island of Aitutaki on 10 February 2010 Aitutaki is approximately 7 kms long x 3 kms wide Population approx. 1,500 people 78% of the 580 homes were assessed as suffering between 50-100% damaged • The island has 2 banks, small number of general stores, a hospital with 2 doctors and a number of resorts

Cook Islands Red Cross Team consisted of: • 5 staff from Rarotonga • 4 Board Members • 26 Volunteers • 1 Australian Red Cross

Click to add title

•Emergency Water Supply


Click to add title

Click to add title •Emergency Shelter


•Sanitation

Click to add title

Click to add title


CookAustralian Islands Red Cross played a Red Cross has changed its approach to international disastersrole . This has been brought aboutthis by the types of disasters, pivotal throughout response especially in the Asia-Pacific area, population growth and people living in vulnerable areas. This response capacity is available for which commenced with their detailed disasters within Australia . assessment and report which was not only used by the Red Cross, but by


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Hanrahan, M., “Building Situational Awareness: The role of media agencies through the ages� This presentation explores the role of media agencies in building situational awareness of disaster events amongst response agencies and the public. It commences with a brief historical account of how, over the past 100 years, changing technologies have changed the way media agencies get their stories to print or broadcast: from news arriving by sailing ships three months after events had occurred, to the current situation in which newsworthy events are able to be delivered live. The presentation explores how this ability to go live assists in building rapidly situational awareness of events that are about to happen, and have happened. The presentation provides examples of how warnings of the 2011 Japanese Tsunami were able to be broadcasted well before the rapidly approaching tsunami wave had arrived, which resulted in many lives being saved; and how live pictures of the tsunami were able to be televised by a news helicopter while the 10+ metre wave was still at sea. Finally, because of this ability to build situational awareness rapidly, the presentation challenges participants to consider the important role that media agencies can play in contemporary disaster management arrangements, and reminds participants that television media were working actively during the recent Christchurch and Haiti earthquakes, 2004 Asian Tsunami, the recent Queensland Cyclones, the South East Queensland floods, and the Victorian bush fires.

Page 124 of 282


Building Situational Awareness The Role of the Media Agencies Through the Ages Speaker ‐ Mark Hanrahan • Nine Network Australia • News Cameraman and Editor • Live Link Operator (Microwave and Satellite)

News Stories Before: - The Telegraph & Telephones - Microwave & Coax Cables - Communication Satellites

3rd Aug 1845 800 ton emigrant ship ‘Cataraque”, sinks in Bass Strait - 414 lives Lost - 9 survivors


6th Feb 1851 Victorian Bushfires - 15 people killed - Over 100 homes destroyed, hundreds more damaged - Around one million head of livestock killed

4th March 1899 Cyclone Mahina strikes Nth Queensland - estimated loss of life is 400 - 13 porpoises (dolphins) were found 5 metres up the hills at Flinders (storm surge) - 87 boats and schooners and a light-ship were lost

1856 Newspaper Headlines

Ship arrives with mail sent 2 months earlier

Telegraph messages handed to the ship in India


Australian Disasters Significant Event

Published in Australian Newspapers

Emigrant Ship Cataraqui, sinks off Tasmania, 406 people drowned and 9 survivors ‐ 3rd Aug 1845

Reported over 6 weeks later in Tasmanian newspaper (17th Sept 1845) then mainland newspapers on 29th Sept

Black Thursday Bushfires Victoria 15 people dead, farms & livestock destroyed ‐ 6th Feb 1851

Word doesn’t reach Melbourne till next day, then in the newspapers 8th Feb.

Cyclone Mahina strikes North Queensland Estimated 400 dead ‐ 4th March 1899

First reports by passing ship 5 days later. A vessel sent to assist reports back 9 days later (13th March), and in the newspapers on the 14th

Chile Earthquake with Tsunami across the Pacific Ocean ‐ 23rd May 1960

Reports reach Australia on the earthquake

Cyclone Tracy hits Darwin 1974

All media reports had to be flown out, so at best, all stories were 24 hrs old

Overseas Events Event

First mention in Australian Newspapers

King William of England dies 20th June 1837

3 Months and 2 weeks later (9th Oct 1837)

1839 Indian cyclone 25th Nov 1839 300,000 dead

Over 2 months and 2 weeks later (13 March 1840)

Abe Lincoln Assassination 14th April 1856

Over 2 months later (24th June 1856)

Krakatoa Erupts 36,000 people killed 27th Aug 1883

Small mention 2 days later on 29th Aug. More detailed stories not till 31st Aug.

San Francisco Earthquake 18th April 1906

Small mention the next day, with the complete story two days following.


Welcome to Television

Early Live Broadcasts of Breaking News Events (Victoria)

Temporary Microwave Relay Site (Brisbane)


The Wake Up Calls to the Australia TV Media Cyclone Tracy - 1974

Granville Train Disaster - 1977

Darwin – 25th December 1974 Cyclone Tracy


How Do The Media Know of Worldwide Disasters So Quickly • Local Media in Foreign Countries • News Wire Services (AAP, Reuters, AP, NZAP, AFP, Kyodo) • CNN, BBC, Sky News, Fox News, Al Jazeera • The Internet (Social Media)

Nine Network Australia News Bureaus in London and Los Angeles, with dedicated satellite links to Sydney



Media’s Role During a Disaster • Keep the public up to date with the latest factual information • Inform the public on evacuation details and safety tips • Detail the actions being taken by authorities and aid groups • Highlight the needs of survivors • Inform the public on potential secondary risks, in the way of health concerns and hazard’s • Provide information concerning the welfare of isolated or trapped groups

Hon. Julia Gillard MP Australian Prime Minister July 2011

During times of This was clear to Australians Whilst Queensland payed a environmental catastrophe, during Tropical Cyclone Yasi. heavy toll, the damage could the media plays an The category five storm have been much worse had it important role in information created nine metre waves, not been for the media’s dissemination and harm 300kmh winds and destroyed forewarnings and alerts. minimisation. The media’s 10,000 homes. The media role helps alert government reporting allowed officials and relief Queensland residents to organisations as to what has prepare for the storm, both occurred and the specific mentally and physically. needs to be addressed.

Prime Minister’s and State Premier’s stay informed. Queensland State Disaster Centre - Brisbane Floods


"As soon as we received the message about the Christchurch earthquake, we started monitoring the television coverage and the images we saw helped us with our situational awareness of the disaster. We were continually monitoring this coverage right through the disaster so we could keep an eye on the overall situation." John Cawcutt, QFRS Chief Superintendent Director of the State Operations Branch and Christchurch USAR taskforce leader

Monitoring All The Local & Cable TV Stations Emergency Management Centre ‐ City of Frisco, Texas

California’s Disaster Management Centre


President Bush, soon after the 911 attack. Emma E. Booker Elementary School, Florida

Problems the Media Need to Overcome in Disaster Zones Transport (flights and road) Access (Customs and passable roads) Latest up to date Information Communications (language differences and local phone networks down) • Electricity Outage and Fuel Shortages • Limited Food, Water and Accommodation • • • •

Getting Television Images out from a Disaster Zone • • • • •

Fibre Optic Cables Microwave Links Communications Satellites Phone Network (Internet) Fly the Recordings out (Helicopter)


Worldwide Fibre Optic Cables

Microwave Vehicles ENG (Electronic News Gathering) Point to Point on the ground (truck to mountain top or building) Tape playback and Live Crosses Range: 50 to 90 km (govern by terrain) Operated only in larger cities


Satellite Uplinks Multiple Satellites over Australia, NZ, Asia and the Southwest Pacific Region - Optus - Asiasat - Intelsat - World Skies NSS


Streambox DNG ‐Digital News Gathering

Inmarsat Network Four Satellites Around the World


Channel Nine News Helicopter Aerospacial AS350 B3

Latest Tool for Live Television News Avenir


Broadcast Transmitter Site Backup

Media Involvement at Recent Natural Disasters • • • • • • •

Black Saturday Bushfires ‐ 7th Feb 2009 Sumatra Earthquake – 30th Sept 2009 Haiti Earthquake ‐ 12th Jan 2010 Christchurch Earthquake ‐ 4th Sept 2010 Queensland Floods ‐ Dec 2010 / Jan 2011 Tropical Cyclone Yasi ‐ 3rd Feb 2011 Japanese Tsunami – 11th March 2011

Black Saturday Bushfire ‐ 2009


Sumatra Earthquake 2009


Haiti Earthquake ‐ 2010


Media from around the World arrived in Haiti by helicopters and cars. Walking was at most times the only way of getting about Portau-Prince.


Christchurch Earthquake ‐ 2010

13 Passengers – Cameramen, Reporters and Technicians, with 500kg of gear



Queensland Floods ‐ 2011


Tropical Cyclone Yasi ‐ 2011


Issues for the Media - Electricity - Mobilephones - Flooded Roads

- Fuel - Accommodation - Food and Drinks


Nth Qld Media – Pre & Post TC Yasi Newspapers ‐ Townsville Bulletin kept nine male reporters on all night at their offices. Electric generator keeps them powered for the four days. Paper distribution was down slightly as many shops remained closed. Their web site traffic had reached 10,000 hits / minute during the peak of the cyclone

Nth Qld Media – Pre & Post TC Yasi • ‐ Cairns Post evacuated their offices, and essential staff set up in a meeting room of a local hotel. They remained operational through the night by connecting to the News Ltd computer servers in Sydney.


Nth Qld Media – Pre & Post TC Yasi Radio Stations ‐ 4TO Townville ‐ On air staff evacuated at 4pm to a safe house in Townsville. ‐ SEA & Hot FM Cairns – They remained in their studios and on air without any incident

Nth Qld Media – Pre & Post TC Yasi Television Stations ‐ Services down around Tully due to both mains failure and generator issues ‐ Analogue TV and FM radio in Townsville down for some hours due to electrical issues

Japan Earthquake & Tsunami ‐ 2011 The disaster that set a new standard for Television News Gathering




Situations Where The Media Assisted in the Prevention & Recovery • • • • •

Victorian Bushfire Soloman Island Cyclone Hurricane Katrina & New Orleans Queensland Floods Cyclone Yasi

Black Saturday Bushfire

Soloman Islands Survivors Found By News Cameraman


New Orleans

Brisbane Floods ‐ 2011


Cyclone Yasi


Skype as a News Gathering Tool



5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Hughes, M., “Impact of the Christchurch earthquake on the future of public education within the hazard management context�

This paper examines looks at the impact of the Christchurch earthquake on the future of public education within the hazard management context.

Biographical Information: Dr Miriam Hughes is a public education advisor/researcher in the Joint Centre for Disaster Research, Massey University, New Zealand.

Page 157 of 282


Impact of the Christchurch earthquake on the future of public education within the hazard management context Joint Centre for Disaster Research Dr Miriam Hughes Public Education Advisor

Public Education – Established Messages

Memorable quotes in Emergency Management 2010 – We just provide information...what people do with that information is their business.... Is it?


 Briefly, the goal of public education within the disaster/hazard management context is to:  improve levels of awareness and preparedness at both the individual and collective (community) levels  Adequate preparation for disaster and hazard events is crucial to both recovery and resiliency

2010 NZ Public Education ‘Uptake’ Statistics  One in every nine New Zealanders (11%) are fully prepared for an emergency  One in every four New Zealanders (24%) are prepared for an emergency when at home.  Four out of five New Zealanders (79%) have emergency survival items.  One in five New Zealanders say they have a plan that includes what to do when away from home

Hazardscape Overview Canterbury 2010‐2011  September 4th 2010 – 7.1  February 22nd 2011 – 6.3 (5km depth)  June 13th 2011 – 5.6/6.3 Shallowness of the February earthquake, proximity to the CBD of Christchurch and unusually high ground accelerations led to the level of destruction seen in the region


Where to from here..or to put it another way...Now What? Two earthquakes – two completely different outcomes  September 4th Earthquake – Damage to property, injuries, no deaths  February 22nd – 181 deaths, scores of injuries, widespread damage


What we do know...  Research on perceptions of those caught up in the Christchurch earthquakes still be gathered and analysed. Broadly we get a sense that....  Awareness hugely raised across New Zealand  Some indications (via a key stakeholder) are that this increase in awareness has also been followed by an increase in preparation...this remains to be seen

 Most importantly, communities working together in the aftermath of the Christchurch earthquakes made a significant difference to the comfort and ‘coping’ levels of the members of those communities and the region as a whole  This perhaps is the key component to education, preparedness, recovery and resilience...

 To date, research suggests that to increase community preparedness a combination of communication/public education and community development/education is required.  Traditional means of public education are crucial in the first stage of awareness ‘ however, public education alone does not lead to an uptake of preparedness activities.


Community development and education programmes have been found to:  increase preparedness and foster a sense of community and resilient qualities in people which cannot be done simply via mass media communication.

 Some examples of community programmes that have been initiated in New Zealand are:  Shake Safe Initiative  Quake Safe Schools Exercise  In 2010 studies which examine earthquake preparedness in schools in Wellington have been undertaken as part of a joint initiative between GNS Science, the Joint Centre for Disaster Research – Massey University.

Challenges and Considerations  No need to reinvent the wheel...  Who’s doing what and where? Understanding what public education programmes and initiatives are currently being enacted within NZ and Australia  What’s working? What isn’t? – evaluate, evaluate, evaluate...and then write it up and publish it!


Current Research  Coming to an agency near you!  ‘Information gathering’ of the work and research within public education that is already out there in Australia and New Zealand  Collaborating with state and federal agencies, academic institutions and SES response staff to better understand the who, the what and the how of public education within the Austral‐Asia Pacific region


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Johnston, D., “The role of multi-disciplinary research and collaboration for improving the resilience of communities to natural hazard events” Over the last few decades it has been recognized that integrated multi-disciplinary research is needed to provide an understanding of the social, economic and cultural factors that influence the development of strong communities, resilient to the impacts of natural hazards and able to respond effectively when events occur. The benefits of a multi-disciplinary approach include: (1) improvements in governance structures and processes, such as policy and legislative frameworks, planning (including land use), governance institutions and leadership; (2) identification of the characteristics that make people, communities, organizations, and other social structures resilient, and the impediments that prevent it; (3) improvement in emergency management and disaster relief procedures and processes; (4) more efficient and effective recovery after an event; and (5) improved uptake and value of hazard related research investment; (6) the capture of emerging trends (e.g. how an aging population effects community resilience and what this means for research and policy); (7) a better understanding of the relationship between economics, resilience and recovery; (8) an assessment of the impact of hazards on society (including social, economic, environmental, cultural impacts); (9) a better understanding of vulnerability and how society perceives its own vulnerability; (10) strengthening the evidence-base at the research/policy interface; and (11) a better understanding of the linkages between the stakeholders, frameworks and institutions. The Integrated Research for Disaster Reduction (IRDR) (http://www.irdrinternational.org/) is a decade-long integrated research program co-sponsored by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the International Social Science Council (ISSC), and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN-ISDR). It is a global, multi-disciplinary approach to dealing with the challenges brought about by natural disasters, mitigating their impacts, and improving related policy-making mechanisms. The IRDR Program endeavors to bring together the natural, socio-economic, health and engineering sciences in a coordinated effort to reduce the risks associated with natural hazards. Biographical Information: David Johnston a Senior Scientist at GNS Science (New Zealand’s Geological Survey) and Director of the Joint Centre for Disaster Research in the School of Psychology at Massey University, Wellington. The Centre is a joint venture between Massey University and GNS Science. His research has developed as part of multi-disciplinary theoretical and applied research programme, involving the collaboration of physical and social scientists from several organisations and countries. His research focuses on human responses to volcano, tsunami and weather warnings, crisis decision-making and the role of public education and participation in building community resilience and recovery. David is a member of the Scientific Committee for the Joint International Council for Science (ICSU) and the International Social Science Council (ISSC) Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (IRDR); the Royal Society Social Science Advisory Panel; Leader, Cities and Volcanoes Commission, International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior; on the Editorial Board of The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies; and Deputy Editor of International Journal of Disasters and Mass Emergencies.

Page 164 of 282


The role of multidisciplinary research and collaboration for improving the resilience of communities to natural hazards

David Johnston Joint Centre for Disaster Research GNS Science / Massey University

Policy

Practice

Research

GNS Science

Understanding human behaviour

GNS Science


1960 Tsunami Despite the warnings, there was major loss of life in Chile, Hawaii and Japan.

23 May 1960 – magnitude 9+ earthquake in Southern Chile generated a tsunami that swept across the Pacific. GNS Science

GNS Science

• Gisborne 1960

GNS Science


GNS Science

Individual Risk Perception

Warnings

– understanding – belief – personalisation

GNS Science

28 February 2010 Tsunami advisory

GNS Science


GNS Science

Reasons for evacuating • Clarity of the threat • Sources of social influences • Availability of resources Riad et al. 1999

“Evacuation behaviour is complex rather than simple, collective rather than individualistic and develops along multiple lines rather than a single path” Quarantelli 1985 GNS Science

Warning sources

GNS Science


Large central New Zealand earthquakes since 1840 1868 1843 1897 1855 1929 1968 1929

1932 1931 1931 1863 1934 1942 1942

1848 1888

GNS Science

Hawke’s Bay 1931

GNS Science

GNS Science


Faults and Aftershocks from the Darfield (Canterbury) Earthquake Sequence

Natural Hazards Research Platform

GNS Natural Hazards Research GNS Science Science Platform

A tale of two earthquakes – the Canterbury sequence of 2010-2011

Source: Jason Ingham GNS Science


Source: Jason Ingham GNS Science

GNS Science

Social and psychosocial impacts

GNS Science


Integrated Research on Disaster Risk addressing the challenge of natural and human‐induced environmental hazards

1 GNS Science

Issues • • • •

Globalization Population growth Widespread poverty Changing climate

• Urban areas

– Complex infrastructure – Concentration and centralization of economic and political functions – Social segregation and – Complex spatial and functional inter‐ relationships

Key question: Why, despite advances in the natural and social science of hazards and disasters, do losses continue to increase?

GNS Science

The Science Plan Addressing the challenge of natural and human‐induced environmental hazards An integrated approach to research on disaster risk through: an international, multidisciplinary (natural, health, engineering and social sciences, including socio‐ economic analysis) collaborative research programme. IRDR Science Plan at: www.icsu.org/Gestion/img/ICSU_DOC_DOWNLOAD/2121_DD_FIL E_Hazard_report.pdf

4 GNS Science


Partners

Sponsors

• National and international science institutions • National and international development assistance agencies and funding bodies • National IRDR

6 GNS Science


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Khan, S., “Extreme Events & Impacts: Contributions of Hazardscape and Gaps in the Response Practices� Extreme events and their catastrophic impacts are frequent, ongoing and very likely to increase in the future with global climate change. Significant investments in hazard mitigation, policies and emergency management have failed to stop recurrent disasters. Their persistence not only indicates gaps in the current response but also suggest a need for different perspective in which hazards have been seen, assessed and dealt by now. This paper views disasters through the lens of hazardscape. It finds that one major cause of response failure is inadequate consideration of the local hazardscape in planning. It presents a conceptual framework of hazardscape and discusses why it is essential to look at the various aspects of a local hazardscape in order to plan a response strategy. It argues that planning for response based on local hazardscape is likely to be more successful as it depicts both vulnerability and response. This is particularly significant in the context of climate change which is likely to shift risks over space and time. The second part of the paper illustrates shortcomings of the current hazard response practices and recommends an holistic approach to emergency management. It finds that while globalization of hazard response practices is progressive, it has been less successful in dealing with local issues of vulnerability. Extreme events such as earthquakes in Japan (2011) represent complex hazards where excessive damage was not mainly caused by the shaking, but by subsequent or second order hazards such as tsunami, fires and nuclear blasts. The recovery became further difficult during cold waves and storms. The planning for emergency response often proves to be inadequate due to prevailing focus on a few dominant hazards. The integrated risk management system primarily deals with regular damaging events of certain intensity, while disasters occur by less likely hazards which are rarely planned either due to too much or too less risk. It is also noted that although legislative acts suggest planning for all hazards, not all hazards are efficiently planned at the local level. The rising costs of disasters, demands for immediate recovery and economic response lead to scenario based risk management rather than hazard mitigation. Multiple breakdowns during complex hazards also produce some unpredictable issues and complex public response that can be better understood and planned by having a focus on the hazardscape.

Biographical Information: Dr. Shabana Khan is a researcher at the New Zealand Climate Change Research Institute at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. She completed her PhD from the same university with a focus on the hazardscape of the Wellington Region and its influences on the intra-regional response. Her previous research background includes studies on disasters in India for her Master and M.Phil. theses in Geography from Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi. She has worked on a number of research projects, and has attended several international workshops and conferences focusing on hazards, disasters and climate change.

Page 174 of 282


Extreme Events and Disasters: Contributions of Local Hazardscapes

Dr. Shabana Khan New Zealand Climate Change Research Institute Victoria University of Wellington

Overview • • • • •

What is the question we are answering to in our response? Extreme events and disasters in 2011 Current institutional response What is hazardscape and its relationship to response Contributions of hazardscape behind extreme impacts

What is the question we are answering to in our response? Not one but perhaps a series of them: Starting from.. • What do we know about extreme events and disasters? - We are yet not aware of all characteristics of complex behaviour of extreme events, so… • Is it the awareness we want to increase? -Yes, and we also don’t want disasters. But… •

Do we really want to end disasters from this world? -Both yes and no, so…

• What we are doing about it?


Extreme Events and Disasters: 2011

International Media: •

Earthquakes in New Zealand, Japan

Flood and cyclone in Australia

Flood and landslides Brazil

Storms and tornadoes in US

Extreme Events and Disasters: 2011 EM-Dat from CRED: •

Total 59 events and 29,825 deaths from 1st January 2011 to 13 July 2011

Maximum hazardous events were flood (24) followed by 9 earthquakes and drought events each.

Maximum deaths occurred in earthquakes (28, 516) followed by flood (1110) and extreme temperature (131).

The most extreme event of the year was earthquake and tsunami in Japan that alone took 28,050 lives.

Extreme Events and Disasters: 2011

Weekly Disaster Reports (CRED): •

74 events in 37 countries

21 different types of events

Maximum hazardous events were floods (25) followed by 7 earthquakes and 7 landslides


Current Response Integrated Emergency Management (IEM) The objectives of the integrated emergency management system include: • Building partnerships vertically between levels of government • Building partnerships horizontally between different agencies and the public-private sector •

Focus on hazard analysis, capability maintenance, emergency response and recovery requirements (Britton, 2001, 45)

Current Response Integrated Emergency Management (IEM) Characteristics: • •

Focus on management of response types and agencies. Emphasis on disasters or emergency rather than root causes.

Shortcomings: • • •

A disconnect between response agencies A disproportionate response for 4Rs Emphasis on means of response over requirements of a hazardscape

Current Response All Hazards Approach Characteristics: • •

Broad perspective Consideration of new and old hazards

Shortcomings: • •

Not all hazards are planned Generic treatment of hazards


Current Response Response: An All Hazard Approach All Hazards Approach City/ Districts

Hazards EarthEarth- Flood LandLand- Cyclone Coastal TsuTsu- Drought WindWind- BushBush- Volcanic quake slide hazard1 nami storm fire Ash fall

Wellington Porirua Kapiti Coast Lower Hutt Upper Hutt South Wairarapa Carterton Masterton

√ √

χ √ χ √

√ √

√ √

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ χ χ χ

χ

χ

χ √ χ

χ χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

√ χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

n.a.2

n.a.2

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

χ

Based on District Plans of Wellington, Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt, Kapiti Coast, Porirua and Proposed Combined Wairarapa District Plan. Notes: 1. Coastal hazard: erosion, sedimentation, inundation by storm surge or tsunami. 2. Not applicable.

Current Response Risk Governance Characteristics: • • •

Economic and statistical feasibility Choices in decision making Successful in past

Shortcomings: • • •

Risks are positively accepted Hazards persist Disaster persists

Current Response Risk Governance Landscape Resourcescape

Hazardscape

Riskscape

Disasterscape

(Potential resources)

(Potential hazard) occurrence)

(Potential damage)

(Realised damage)

Relationship Between Hazardscape, Riskscape and Disasterscape


Response Response:Current Resilience vs. Vulnerability Existing and Proposed Stop Banks at the Otaki River

100 Year Flood Extent General Measures Upgraded Culverts New/Upgraded Stop banks Existing Stop banks

Source: Otaki Flood Plain Management Plan, 1998, 33

Response: Risk Response Based Approach Current Efforts made to manage risks in the Wellington Region Current Efforts Rank Hazards

Risk

High Medium – High

None Storms (rain/wind/hail/lightening)

----High

Droughts

Medium

Rural fire Storm surge and coastal erosion

Medium High

Medium – High

1 2

3

Flooding in Hutt River (440 year event) High Landslides Tsunami distant source Low – Medium

4

Low

5

Volcanic ash from Taranaki eruption

Low

Earthquake by Wellington fault

High

Local tsunami

High

None

-----

Based on WREMG, 2003

Current Response Building resilience Characteristics: • •

Reduces frequent disasters Helps not to build vulnerability further

Shortcomings: • •

Medium Medium

A greater emphasis on infrastructure than people Initial vulnerability or root cause of disaster persists


Current Response Top to bottom approach Characteristics: • •

Organised response from top to bottom Consultation not participation of local people

Shortcomings: • •

Less emphasis on local vulnerability, needs and expectations Less recognition of local knowledge, participation and resilient practices

Hazardscape A dynamic scape, which reflects the physical susceptibility of the place and vulnerability of life and assets to various hazards in a given human ecological system.

E P1 (H)

HS P3 (V+R)

P2 (PS)

HS=Hazardscape E= Ecosystem H=Hazard P1=Process P2=Place P3=People PS=Physical Susceptibility V=Vulnerability R=Response

HS= H + PS + V

Hazardscape & Response Capacity to make change (long-term)

Hazard

Capacity to make change (short-term)

Mitigation

Adaptation

Adjustment

No response (Limited Capacity)

Susceptibility

Vulnerability

Hazardscape

Preparedness Response

Nature & Type response (Possibilities & Constraints)

Disaster

Resistance & Coping Capacity

Resilience

Recovery & Adaptive Capacity

Emergency Response Recovery


Hazardscape & Response Hazard mitigation measures for houses in the Wellington Region

a

b

c

Notes: a. Slanting roof for heavy rain; b. Wooden structure for earthquake; c. Retaining wall for landslide Source: Primary Survey, 2007

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Spatio-temporal distribution of hazards

Damage claims Flood Landslide Earthquake: High:20 Low:0 Based on data from Earthquake Commission [EQC], 2007

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Response to hazards Hazards for which safety measures taken by respondents in the Wellington Region Volcanic ash fall Isolation Landslide Diseases Property loss

Hazards

Tsunami Cyclone Disrupted services Drought Windstorm Bushfire Flood General/all/any hazard Did not name hazard Earthquake 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Respondents (in percent)

Based on Primary Survey, 2007

35

40

45


Contribution of Local Hazardscape Hazard Preparedness

Hazards preparedness of respondents in the Wellington Region Volcanic ash fall Drought

Not applicable

Tsunami

Don't know

Hazards

Cyclone

Not at all prepared

Windstorm Less prepared

Bushfire Landslide

Fairly prepared

Flood

Very prepared

Earthquake 0%

20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Respondents

Based on Primary Survey, 2007

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Physical Susceptibility and Hazards

Active Faults Drought Wind speed >55m/s Wind speed >65m/s Liquefaction Tsunami Flood Bush fire (Medium) Bushfire (High) Slope (15m) Based on digital data from Wellington Regional Council, WELA, CLIFLO, GNS, 2007.

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Physical Susceptibility and Response A. Hazards perceived by respondents at different slope angles 100% 90%

.

80% 70%

Respondents

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0-2

2-5

5-10

10-18

18-30

30-45

Slope Angle (in degrees) Earthquake

Flood

Landslide

B. Problems experienced across slopes 100 90

Bushfire

Windstorm

Cyclone

Tsunami

Drought

C. Respondents who considered hazards before moving in house

Volcanic ash fall

D. Respondents who took hazard measures after moving in house

Respondents (%)

.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0-5

6-18

>18

Slope Angle (in degrees) Earthquake Bushfire Tsuanmi

Flood Windstorm Drought

Landslide Cyclone Volcanic ash fall

Based on Primary Survey, 2007 and data from GWRC, 2007

Slope (in angles), Respondents (in %)


Contribution of Local Hazardscape Physical Susceptibility and Perception - Not only the hazards characteristics but also perception varies with biophysical characteristics of a place. -Hazard perception can be mapped along the place characteristics that can be used for planning hazard mitigation and awareness.

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Human Vulnerability Composite Vulnerability Composite Composite Vulnerability Index • Demographic • Social • Economic

Kapiti Coast Masterton

Porirua Wellington

Kapiti Coast

Wellington Lower Hutt

South Wairarapa

Economic Kapiti Coast

Kapiti Coast Masterton

Upper Hutt

Lower Hutt

Carterton

Social

Demographic

Porirua

Upper Hutt

Masterton Porirua

Carterton

Wellington South Wairarapa

Upper Hutt

Lower Hutt

Masterton Porirua

Carterton

Wellington

South Wairarapa

Upper Hutt

Lower Hutt

Carterton

South Wairarapa

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Human Vulnerability and Response Response to hazards by respondents living in different vulnerability zones in the Wellington Region A

B

C

Composite Vulnerability Index Score for the Area (Low vulnerability) -12773 to -4481 -4480 to -994 -993 to 2370 2371 to 9884 9885 to 30689

(High vulnerability) A. Considered hazards during renting or purchase of house B. Made changes in house in order to prevent or reduce damage from hazard C. Shifted house because of hazard Based on Primary Survey, 2007


Contribution of Local Hazardscape Human Vulnerability and Response Insurance taken by respondents living in different vulnerability zones in the Wellington Region 100 90

Respondents (in percent)

80 70 60 50 40 30

House Contents Farm Livestock

20 10 0 -12773 to -4481 -4480 to -994

-993 to 2370

2371 to 9884

9885 to 30689

Low

High Composite Vulnerability of Area

Based on Primary Survey, 2007

Contribution of Local Hazardscape Human Vulnerability and Preparedness Preparedness of respondents living in different vulnerability zones in the Wellington Region Composite Vulnerability of Area Low----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------High -12773 to -4481

-4480 to -994

-993 to 2370

2371 to 9884

9885 to 30689

Very prepared

P rep ared n ess

Fairly prepared Less prepared Not at all prepared Don't know Not applicable 0

20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60

80 100 0 20 40

60 80 100 0

20 40 60 80 100 0

20 40 60 80 100

Respondents (in percent)

Earthquake

Flood

Landslide

Bushfire

Windstorm

Cyclone

Tsunami

Drought

Volcanic ash fall

Based on Primary Survey, 2007

Conclusion • Disasters are recurrent and widespread across the world. • Extreme events are likely to increase further with climate change. • Incompleteness and discrepancy in data are common. • There is a disconnect between our response and hazardscape. • Contribution of local hazardscape are evident and can be planned to avoid disasters from extreme events.


References Britton N. (2001) A New Emergency Management for the Millenium? Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 16(4): 44-54. GWRC (1998) Otaki Floodplain Management Plan: The Community’s Plan for the Otaki River and its Environment. Wellington: Greater Wellington Regional Council. WREMG (2003) Hazard and Risk Analysis for the Wellington Region Civil Defence Emergency Management Group Plan. Wellington: Wellington Region Emergency Management Group Office. WREMG (2005) Hazard and Risk Analysis for the Wellington Region Civil Defence Emergency Management Group Plan. Wellington: Wellington Region Emergency Management Group.

Thank you ď Š


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Mirfenderesk, H., “Address-Based Flood Risk Indexing A Method of Communication of Flood Risk to Public and Industry” To manage natural hazard risk effectively, an informed and fully engaged public is necessary. For full engagement, the public needs to receive accurate risk information. This means government has the responsibility to inform the public about risks in accurate, meaningful, and actionable ways. Communicating flood risk is generally exercised through the publication of flood maps in the Local Government Planning Schemes. These maps aim to identify areas subject to flood hazard and act as a trigger map for development assessment. The information in these maps is available electronically to the public via flood search databases that are generally maintained by local authorities. By its nature, these maps reflect the flood associated with only one return period, generally 1 in 100 year ARI, as it is the recommended design flood event in the Building Code of Australia. On this basis, these maps divide a city into two sections namely: flood affected and non-flood affected. From a layperson’s point of view, areas inside a flood line are subject to flooding and areas beyond the line are safe. These maps are basically designed to address statutory needs of the local governments with respect to flood. Such black and white representation of flood risk is misleading and can result in misinterpretation of flood risk by the public. In reality, no place within a floodplain is immune from flooding. Some areas may be prone to 1 in 2 year ARI flood and some areas may be prone to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). Different flood types, such as local flood, regional flood, storm tide or a combination of them, can inundate properties. A challenge in communicating flood risk to lay people is to combine the risk associated with floods of different return periods, different durations and flood types with one representing index. This study presents a methodology that has been used to develop addressed-based flood risk index maps for the Gold Coast. This methodology combines the risk of flood with various return periods, durations, and types with ground level information and generates an attribute for each parcel of land, indicating the true risk of flood that the land is subjected to.

Page 186 of 282


Addressed-Based Flood Risk Mapping Presenter: Hamid Mirfenderesk

Gold Coast City Council

Research Question • How best can flood risk be communicated between experts and their audience? Risk Communication = a dialogue between experts and their audience.

Finding a Balance • Balance between alerting and informing audience about seriousness of the risk and creating exaggerated and harmful fears. • Missing this balance can result in a demand for sub-optimal policies (planning process) and actions (time critical emergency management process).


Flood Maps • Flood maps are the most widely-used tool for communicating flood risk. • Downside : – it has limited capacity for conveying information and therefore can be misinterpreted. A single flood map is not adequate for communicating all aspects of flood risk.

Types of Flood Maps • There is a need for at least three types of flood risk maps, as follows: – For statutory purposes. – For communication of flood risk to public and businesses, including insurance industry. – For emergency management.

Statutory Map • This is the map in the planning scheme of a city. • This map divides a city into two parts: – Flood affected – Non-flood affected


Statutory Map • The criteria is generally 1 in 100 year ARI flood or other statutory issues. • This map contains no information about flood consequence.

Statutory Map • It shows flood planning level for development. • Its audience is generally (and should be) development industry. • It is generally (and should be) used as a trigger, informing development applicants whether a flood search is required prior to lodging any development application. • The information on likelihood of flood can be inaccurate and a source of misinterpretation of the map.

Comparing damage to different properties and for different return periods Normalised damage $

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4

200 y-ARI

0.2 0.0 1

10

100 Return Period year ARI

1000

A B C D E F G H I 10000


Flood Risk Map • This map has a focus on flood consequence on an asset throughout its life cycle. • The map is concerned with information that planners (businesses, general public) need, to minimise the cost of flooding.

potential structural damage depth of flooding

potential structural damage $1000

Average external damage depth of flooding

potential structural damage $1000

fully detached single story

fully detached single story

<0.1

0

-0.2

0

0.15

16.9

0.15

3.3

0.15

20.5

0.45

12.2

1.05

27.9

1.05

17.1

>1.05

27.9

>1.05

17.1

1.2

0.02

1

0.016

0.8

0.012

0.6 0.008

0.4

0.004

0.2 0 22

55

10 10 20 20 50

100 50

200 100

0 500 200 1000 500 2000 1000

ReturnReturn PeriodPeirod (year ARI) year ARI

Damage * likelihood

Damage (normalised) $

AnnualAnnual AverageAverage Damage = The area under Damage the curve divided by 2000

2000


Address-Based Flood Risk Index Lot Plan

Lot

Plan

Address

Suburb

AAD

Normalised AAD

Risk Index

0.002746

0.673749952

0.7

0.002244

0.550686753

0.6

0.002184

0.535918156

0.6

0.003232

0.79318436

0.8

0.002755

0.676104375

0.7

0.003338

0.819156966

0.9

0.003335

0.818477654

0.9

6.2E-08

1.52072E-05

0.1

0.00045

0.110307702

0.2

0.001723

0.422876721

0.5

0.001791

0.43951848

0.5

0.000444

0.108872251

0.2

This map is created using fictitious data only for the demonstration of the methodology. The risk indices in the map are not correct.

Future Improvements • Consideration of length of inundation. • Consideration of flow velocity.


Flood Emergency Map • This map has a focus on flood consequence on the people, at the time of flood. • The map is concerned with information that is primarily needed for saving lives (not saving building or infrastructure).

Philosophy Behind Flood Emergency Map

Risk = Hazard * Vulnerability • Hazard includes the element of likelihood; and vulnerability includes the element of exposure

Elements of Hazard for Baseline population Hazard

Warning time

Velocity times Depth

Duration of flooding

Low Weighting

15%

30%

5%

(1)

Minor (2) Moderate (3) High (4) Extreme (5)

Evacuation potential

10%

Utility failure

Number of flooded properties

Lack of community preparation

5%

20%

15%

Duration of inundation between Evacuation Potential Utility failure Warning time Velocity times Depth Duration of Flooding Lack of community preparation Number of flooded properties 63and hours and12 6 hours


Vulnerability Vulnerability Hazard

Baseline

Warning time

One parent families

Children

Elderly

People living alone

Households without access to a car

New residents

People not fluent in English

0

Velocity times Depth

3 5

Duration of flooding

1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Inundation between 6 and 12 hours 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 constitutes moderate hazard for 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 Households without People not fluent in baseline population Baseline One Parent People Children Elderly living alone 0 0 0 New 1 residents 0 families 0 0 0 access to a car English 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 This would constitute extreme hazard for 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0elderly 0 0 0 0 0

Evacuation potential Utility failure Number of flood properties Lack of community preparation

Assume duration of inundation is 8 hours Hazard (duration of inundation) = 3*5% Vulnerability=12.2%*(2) Risk score = 12.2%*(3+2)*5%

Nerang and Coomera River Hazard and Vulnerability study Undertaken by SKM for the Gold Coast City Council

Number of people

Percentage of CCD

Baseline

50

20.4%

One parent families

30

12.2%

Children

60

24.5%

Elderly

30

12.2%

People living alone

35

14.3%

Households without access to a car

20

8.2%

New Residents

15

6.1%

People not fluent in English

5

2.0%

Total population

245

CCD


Conclusion • A single flood map is not adequate for communicating all aspects of flood risk. • There is a need for at least three types of flood risk maps as, follows:

Conclusion 1. City-wide flood planning level map for statutory purposes. 2. Addressed based flood risk map for communication of true risk of flooding to lay people and insurance industry. 3. Flood consequence map for emergency management.

THANK YOU


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Morrison, D., Skinner, T., Lawrence, C., MacLeod, C., Buergelt, P., Dunlop, P. & Clark, P., “Information processing in the face of threat: A Multilevel Research Perspective” The lessons drawn from the 2003 Victorian bushfires suggest that community and social context,information and its sources, and anxiety and emotional regulationcrucially influence preparing for and responding to bushfires(McLennan & Elliott, 2010). This presentation discusses a three year research programthat will explore the combined and interactive role of these three factors in decision making. At the community level, individual behaviours in terms of preparing for and responding to an immediate threat are influenced by community characteristics. While large differences in community preparedness and responses are observed, as yet we appear to have no systematic account of how or why these differences exist.To address this gapa project entitled – “Community level influence on individual behaviours with respect to bushfire readiness and decision making in the face of immediate threat.” - aims at systematically identifying what factors and processes distinguish communities which are more prepared from those which are less prepared. It also endeavours to identify, implement, and assess interventions at the community level that improve preparedness and response. Prior to and during a disaster, individuals seek and/or receive information,process the information,and act. However, decisions made under stress are frequently impulsive, based on imperfect information, and rigid. In many instances fear interferes with the mitigationof danger, resulting in bad decisions. Accordingly, a second project - “Information processing under stress: Community reactions” - seeks to understand the role fear plays when community members process the information they receive in the lead up to, and during, the bushfire season, as well as during bushfire emergencies.It aims toidentify how individuals use information and warnings to guide their actions, what information should or should not be provided, how and when information is best delivered. How the community context moderates the effectiveness of these messages will be informed by findings from the community level project described previously. At the individual level, research in clinical settings has shown how people varysystematically with respect to their typical attentional responses to threat cues. Some people tend to deliberately avoid or ignore threat cues. Other people tend to be especially vigilant for threat cues. Both low and high levels of dispositional anxiety can impair decision-making and actiontaking capabilities. The goal ofthis project - “Managing the threat through the modification of thought” – is to develop an effective self-administered cognitive bias modification program that trains adaptive attentional styles for specific stress inducing events such as bushfires.

Biographical Information: The research team combines the expertise and skills of established and early career researchers from clinical psychology, social psychology, health psychology, and organisational psychology. The research program will make use of the skills underpinning each area including expertise in statistical modelling and qualitative research methodologies. Additionally, use will be made of clinical expertise and the practical skills possessed by the team in designing laboratory and field based interventions and their evaluation.

Page 195 of 282


Information Processing in the Face of Threat: A Goal Systems Research Perspective David Morrison, Timothy Skinner, Illy McNeill, Patrick Dunlop, Petra Buergelt, Patrick Clarke, Colin MacLeod, & Carmen Lawrence

Overview • Our interest in human decision making • Lessons from Black Saturday • Multi-level Research Perspective – Understanding community differences – Understanding messages and how they are interpreted – Individual differences in how people process and react to information

Human Decision Making


Deciding without thinking •

You hear so much about ‘don’t get in your car and drive’…But my first instinct, the first thing I did, was jump in my car and drive back over here. I was very adamant that we should be in the car …. But my first instinct was to get away from the fire. … you see it on the news and you think “idiots. Why did they get in the car?’ It might be that people aren't educated or, you know, have no idea at all. I at least, in that regard, knew what I should and shouldn’t do. But still, that flight instinct took over and I just wanted to get away.

When people don’t know what to do they will react – “I gotta do something”

Social Context All those in favour say “Aye!”

Aye! Aye!

Aye!

Aye!

Aye!

Theories of Decision Making • Static as opposed to dynamic • Focused on single-level explanations • Developed in low risk as opposed to high stakes environments We aim to address all three of the perceived limitations


Our Research Aims • Apply psychological knowledge to understanding: – community behaviour – decision making – cognitive behaviours

• Reduce the risk to lives in catastrophic bushfire conditions • Contribute to theory beyond bushfires

McLennan & Elliott (2010) • “10 Lessons” learned from Black Saturday: – 2 identified community and social context • Normative beliefs about fire risk • What others are doing affects decision making

– 2 identified information and its sources • Uncertainty is chief threat to survival • Information from experts is very influential

– 1 identified the importance of regulating emotions • Down-regulate fear and anxiety, maintain focus

Multi-Level Perspective Understanding the Community Context  Embeddedness  Self-Efficacy  Leadership

 Social Cohesion  Trust in agencies  Attitudes

wait and see

plan for contingencies take shelter

Decisions in the lead-up PLANNING

Getting the Messages ‘Right’ select home site

 Medium  Source

 Timing  Content

Leave early prepare home

formulate fire plan

Understanding the ‘Receivers’  Individual Differences

Decisions on the day RESPONSE!

avoid altogether


Broad Research Questions 1. Why are some communities better prepared and more resilient to bushfires than others and what can be done to raise the bar? (Buergelt et al.) 2. Are some individuals more able than others to make good decisions in the lead up to and during a bushfire crisis? (Notebaert et al.) 3. How/when do individuals use information and warnings to guide their actions, with respect to both planning AND response? Can better decision making be enabled?

Lessons from Health Psychology • Fundamental problem: Why don’t people do what they know is the right things for their health?

• Apply to bushfire preparedness context: Why don’t people form a fire plan or properly prepare their homes for bushfire threats?

Communication Problems • Wrong message received • Right message but wrong effect – Misunderstanding – Inconsistency – Message outcome mismatch

This happened on February 7 as well


What about Intentions? it!” “Yes, I’ ll defin round to itely do “I’ll get a “Sure, r that!” ig h t a ft !” e r I’ve fi o it d ll I’ e nished rs u o c f “O doing th is”

• Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies: – Intentions explain only 28% of the variance in behaviour (Sheeran, 2002)

• Can you change people’s intentions? – Yes! – but actual behavioural change rarely follows! – (Effect size r=.18)

Plans, Goals, and Values

Plans:

Stay and defend

Wait for more info

Leave when aware of fire

Plans, Goals, and Values

Plans:

Goals:

Stay and defend

Wait for more info

Save house

Save livestock

Leave when aware of fire


Plans, Goals, and Values

Plans:

Stay and defend

Wait for more info

Leave when aware of fire

Save house

Save livestock

Save self/childen

Goals:

Plans, Goals, and Values

Plans:

Stay and defend

Wait for more info

Leave when aware of fire

Save house

Save livestock

Save self/childen

Goals:

Plans, Goals, and Values

Plans:

Goals:

Values:

Stay and defend

Wait for more info

Leave when aware of fire

Save house

Save livestock

Save self/childen

The “man of the house� is responsible for saving it

I find it important not to come across as a coward


Some Facts about Goals… • People generally have multiple goals competing for their attention, • People tend to pursue the goal that is strongest at that time, • Goal strength = combination of value and achievability, • In case of competing goals or actions, pursuit of one will inhibit the activation of the competing others, • More attention will be given to information that is relevant to the goal being pursued and less to the goal being suppressed, and • Avoidance goals (focused on avoiding negatives) lead to a narrowing of attention, and a more rigid processing style.

…Applied to Bushfires • People generally have multiple goals competing for their attention.

Behaviour in offseason

Prepare home for fire

Go on family holiday

Pay off mortgage

Plan daughter’s wedding

Values

…Applied to Bushfires

Response to Bushfire Threat

Defend home

Protect possessions

Protect family

Values

Save livestock


…Applied to Bushfires • Goal strength = combination of value and achievability, • Strongest goal will win • If you really value your house but think there’s no way you will be able to defend it, saving it will not be a very strong goal.  If you don’t value saving your house that much you are less likely to stay and defend, even when you see yourself as highly capable to do so:  If you value your house but also really value your life, and saving your life by evacuating seems much more likely than saving your house by defending, then saving your life by evacuation will be the likelier pursuit.

Attending to Information • In case of competing goals or actions, pursuit of one goal will inhibit the activation of any competing others. • Attention  information that is relevant to the goal being pursued and less to the goal being suppressed.

But what if goals need to change?????

…Applied to Bushfires • Avoidance goals (focused on avoiding negatives) lead to a narrowing of attention, and a more rigid processing style.  When processing information during a bushfire, people are likely to have difficulties processing conflicting pieces of information.  They are also likely to find it hard to switch from one source to another.  Furthermore, if they do switch between sources, they are likely to have difficulties integrating the information, especially when information format or wording differs from one source to another.


Research Questions? • How should info about fire and evacuation routes be communicated (content, framing, source) to reach those we want it to reach? • How do we ensure the information leads people to adjust their actions in the desired manner? (and isn’t just used in a confirmatory manner)

• Should different communication sources be allowed to use their own wording?

Proposed Method • Multi-wave longitudinal studies of community members  Focus on preparedness. – Survey-based – Measure goal strength – Quasi-experimental manipulations

• Laboratory work  Focus on information processing in ‘live’ situation

Stay Tuned!!!!! Thank you for your attention!


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Notebaert, L., Clarke, P., Dunlop, P., MacLeod, C., Buergelt, P. & Morrison, D., “Alert but not alarmed: Examining the potential benefits of anxiety and worry on behavioural preparedness for threat in bushfire affected communities� The experience of anxiety and worry often carries negative connotations. However, anxiety can be a highly motivating force which encourages behavioural action in response to legitimate sources of threat. Similarly, worrying about potential dangers can assist in preparing for and limiting the likelihood of adverse consequences when this focuses on identifying ways and means of averting such negative outcomes. Yet, these processes can also disrupt preparation for potential threat. When anxiety is unrelated to real sources of danger, and worry focuses only on the negative consequences of a potential threat, they may in fact reduce preparatory behaviours for potential danger by motivating people to avoid actions that remind them of potential threats. This presentation will briefly outline the possible causal relationships between anxiety, worry, and behavioural preparedness for potential threat. These theoretical perspectives will then be discussed in relation to recent data collected from bushfire affected communities. Following the February 6th fires in Roleystone, Kelmscott and Red Hill in Perth this year, a collaborative project was launched to sample 400 community members within these fire affected areas. The scale and locations of the February 6 fires meant that affected areas included rural, semi-rural, and urban regions. By sampling from these different areas we have been able to perform unique comparisons of individuals within these different communities in terms of their level of anxiety and worry about bushfires, their level of bushfire preparedness, and symptoms of traumatic stress following the event. Questionnaire measures used in this study included a modified version of the Worry Domains Scale to examine individual differences in the tendency to worry about a number of different areas in life (e.g. finances, environment), including the risk of bushfires. General anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety inventory which examines the frequency and intensity with which people experience symptoms of anxiety. The Acute Stress Disorder Scale was also used to examine the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms following the recent fires. Indicators of preparatory actions before the fire, and behaviours on the day of the fire were also gathered via interviews. Insights derived from comparisons of these different communities will be discussed in relation to the role of anxiety and worry in affecting behavioural preparedness and subsequent traumatic responses to bushfire. These are considered along with implications for enhancing community preparedness and resilience.

Page 205 of 282


Alert but not alarmed: Examining the potential benefits of anxiety and worry on behavioural preparedness for threat in bushfire affected communities Dr Lies Notebaert Dr Patrick Clarke Dr Petra Buergelt Patrick Dunlop

Prof Colin MacLeod Prof David Morrison Dr Illy McNeill

Project Aims • To: improve behavioural threat management through an enhanced understanding of individual difference factors in cognition and emotion • By: Establishing emotional and cognitive mechanisms that may enhance or impede preparedness behaviours • And: Developing techniques to modify critical emotional, cognitive and behavioural mechanisms to enhance preparedness

Anxiety-Worry-Action Model

Anxiety

Action

Worry


Anxiety • Anxious apprehension (Barlow, 1988) – Acts on a number of physiological and cognitive systems to enhance an individual’s ability, and motivation to deal with potential threats.

• The experience of anxiety is inherently unpleasant, such that it creates a desire to reduce it

Anxiety - Quantity • At what levels will anxiety motivate action to address potential risk • Too high: – Overwhelming, incapable of meeting the challenge posed by the feared event/s – Unable to differentiate legitimate sources of danger from low-level dangers

• Too Low: – Communicates low risk – Not motivated to act – Low awareness of potential sources of danger

Anxiety - Quality • Different individuals are characterised by different patterns of anxiety

• Anxiety reactivity – how rapidly anxiety increases in response to threat • Anxiety perseverance – How long anxiety remains elevated


Anxiety - Quality High Reactivity - Low Perseverance

Anxiety - Quality Low Reactivity - High Perseverance

Anxiety

May motivate action – to a point .. .

Likely to stimulate worry – Type of worry may depend on quality and quantity of anxiety


Worry • Cognitions which focus on a future negative event

‘Self-talk’ – internal dialogue about a particular concern

Worry - Quantity • People will vary according to how much they entertain cognitions regarding future negative events • As with anxiety: likely to be optimal worry levels Very low worry Little consideration of the potential threat, risk factors, potential consequences  Less likely to lead to behavioural action

Very high worry Repeated intrusive cognitions regarding the potential threat Overwhelmed  Contribute to action targeting the worry, not the risk

Worry - Quality • Problem solving – “What can I do to reduce the impact of a disaster” – “What things are in my control that can positively affect the outcome in the event of a disaster”

• Catastrophising/Rumination – “What if my house burned down” – “How could I cope” – “My children would be devastated”


Worry – Problem solving Cognitions focused on controllable variables that can help to avert the likelihood, or consequences of a negative event. May contribute to action and lower anxiety

Worry – Catastrophising Cognitions focus on uncontrollable, disastrous outcomes occurring as a result of a negative event. May exacerbate anxiety and contribute to emotion‐focused behaviours

Worry

Anxiety ng i si ph ro ng s t l vi o ta Ca m S le ob Pr

Action

Catastrophising Problem Solving

Worry


Action: Regulatory Behaviours • Any behaviours that regulate anxiety and worry about a potential negative event

• Goal: – To encourage the adoption of behaviours that serve to reduce risk when confronted with a potential threat

Action: Regulatory Behaviours • Qualities of behavioural responses to anxiety and worry • Two categories of things you can do to reduce anxiety and worry – Behaviours which reduce anxiety and worry via ameliorating the potential threat • Problem focused

– Behaviours which reduce anxiety and worry directly without ameliorating the potential threat • Emotion-focused

Action: Problem-focused behaviours • Seek solutions to ameliorate the Risk – Reduce likelihood of negative outcome


Action: Emotion-focused behaviours • Often involves seeking more immediate Reward – reduce anxiety and distract from worry

Anxiety-Worry-Action

Anxiety

Action

Worry

Current research approach • What are the individual difference factors that lead some people to deal with anxiety and worry in ways that do and do not deal with risk • Questionnaire data • Field studies • Lab studies


Questionnaire Data Roleystone, Kelmscott, Red Hill • Feb 5th and 6th fires • Coordinated interviewing of 400 community members. • Questions including: – Actions on the day – Sources monitored for information – Preparedness actions prior to the event

• Emotional assessment measures – Anxiety (STAI-T) – Worry (General and Bushfire) – Trauma Symptoms (ASDS)

Field study: Cognitive biases and preparedness • Field study with the people from the Roleystone, Kelmscott, Red Hill community: assess several types of cognitive biases: – – – –

Attentional bias Interpretation bias Memory bias Mental imagery

Cognitive Bias Modification

• Investigate how these relate to individual differences in anxiety • And to worry and behavioural preparedness

Lab research: Eg. Risk Action vs. Reward Action • Task designed to examine the degree to which behaviour is driven by the desire to reduce risk vs. the opportunity for reward • Investigate this risk/reward tendency both in situations where people have control over the negative events, and in situations where they do not have control • Motivation to act based on potential reward vs. • Motivation to act based on potential risk – Potentially critical individual difference dimension determining the adoption of preparedness behaviours


Anxiety

Thank you

Worry

Action

Questionnaire data

Anxiety r(254) = 0.06, ns

r(402) = 0.47, p<.01

Worry

Action r(258) = 0.18, p<.01


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Opper,S. & Yeo, S., “A Flood's Silver Lining: Developing Flood Intelligence for Enhanced Community Resilience” Flood intelligence is the product of a process of validating and reviewing information about the impacts of flooding on communities. The primary tool of the NSW SES Flood Intelligence database is Flood Intelligence Cards, which relate flood heights at a stream gauge to consequences within the gauge’s reference area. Good flood intelligence is essential for implementing an effective and pro active emergency response prior to consequences occurring including interpreting flood predictions, delivering meaningful warnings and public information, and informing decisions about resourcing and deployment. The SES routinely updates flood intelligence and emergency plans following changes to the floodplain, actual flood events or when synthetic information becomes available in floodplain risk management studies. Associated with a strong La Niña event, widespread and in some cases record breaking flooding has occurred in many inland areas of NSW since late 2010 and included the Murray and Murrumbidgee catchments which is discussed as a case study in this paper. Flooding affected some communities that had not experienced serious flooding for many decades. Accordingly, the SES commissioned an unprecedented number of extensive flood intelligence reviews to take advantage of this rare data gathering opportunity across NSW. In addition to the collection of information from government agencies and in some areas via remote sensing, questionnaires were distributed to many thousands of residents across the State to gather firsthand observations. The flood intelligence generated from these reviews has been used to enhance Flood Intelligence Cards and Local Flood Plans, for the betterment of future flood responses. The flood level data will also be used to review behaviour indicated by existing Flood Studies and as an input to future Flood Studies, in partnership with local governments. Flood Studies are in turn a key input into the broader floodplain risk management process, of which one outcome is informed development control plans. This paper reports some of the key findings of the flood intelligence reviews, which represent an excellent example of the way in which flood science is being integrated into emergency management planning and floodplain development practice, for the creation of more flood resilient communities.

Biographical Information: Simon Opper is a Planning and Research Officer in the NSW SES Emergency Risk Management Branch. Simon undertakes emergency planning and manages research projects for flood, storm and tsunami as well as providing emergency risk management and risk assessment advice during operational events. Simon is an Environmental Engineer. Stephen Yeo works as a floodplain management specialist with Bewsher Consulting in Sydney and is an Associate with Risk Frontiers. Stephen has a doctorate from Macquarie University for his investigation of flooding in Fiji.

Page 215 of 282


A FLOOD’ FLOOD’S SILVER LINING: DEVELOPING FLOOD INTELLIGENCE FOR ENHANCED COMMUNITY RESILIENCE

Simon Opper - NSW SES Stephen Yeo - Bewsher Consulting Contributors Marcus Walsh – NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Steve Opper – NSW SES

Thankyou to the following who have made valuable contributions

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OF FLOODING IN NSW

OVERVIEW

• SES and Flood Planning • Flood Warnings – Evacuations and Flood Intelligence • The link to Floodplain Risk Management • Case study: Bewsher Consulting, Adelong October 2010 Flood Event


What do you expect the SES’s priorities would be in responding to a flood ?

FLOOD WARNING & EVACUATION TIME MANAGEMENT!

What enables the SES to proactively undertake its responsibilities ?

With enough lead time to prepare and for the community to act?


What is the difference between peering out the back window of the car racing a flood wave? and Seeing clearly round the coming S bends, over the next hill and even the horizon to the things that may jump out in front of you!

The Intelligence Difference

Flood Intelligence allows us to: • Determine: – What predictions mean on the ground?? – Who / what is at risk?

• Most importantly to know and manage time constraints Without good intelligence we become reactive not proactive.


Flood Intelligence BOM predicts Height (Vertical) 8m

60 homes N IO 20 businesses T A ND School INU N TIO Nursing home A L ISO Road closures

SES translates effect (horizontal) Caravan park Rural land

Flood Intelligence • Flood intelligence is a product of a process of collecting, analysing and storing flood information to determine likely flood impacts and behaviour at different magnitudes of flooding. • In its totality it is a product of a flood risk assessment for a given area. • The SES is obligated by legislation to develop flood intelligence.

SES and Floodplain Risk Management


Floodplain Development Key SES Roles • Member of the Floodplain Management Committee • Provide emergency risk management related advice eg. flood warning and evacuation capacity • Ensure relevant information produced as a consequence of the FPRM process is incorporated in emergency plans.

Case study

Flooding in Murray and Murrumbidgee Regions, October 2010

Stephen Yeo - Bewsher Consulting


Date/time (EDT)

16/10/2010 9:00

16/10/2010 6:00

16/10/2010 3:00

16/10/2010 0:00

15/10/2010 21:00

15/10/2010 18:00

15/10/2010 15:00

15/10/2010 12:00

15/10/2010 9:00

15/10/2010 6:00

15/10/2010 3:00

15/10/2010 0:00

Jingellic Ck @ Jingellic (401013)

14/10/2010 21:00

Wagga Wagga AMO (72150) Carabost (72012)

14/10/2010 18:00

14/10/2010 15:00

14/10/2010 12:00

14/10/2010 9:00

14/10/2010 6:00

14/10/2010 3:00

14/10/2010 0:00

13/10/2010 21:00

13/10/2010 18:00

13/10/2010 15:00

13/10/2010 12:00

Cumulative rainfall (mm)

100

13/10/2010 9:00

13/10/2010 6:00

13/10/2010 3:00

13/10/2010 0:00

12/10/2010 21:00

12/10/2010 18:00

12/10/2010 15:00

12/10/2010 12:00

12/10/2010 9:00

Murray and Murrumbidgee Region Pluviographs, 12-16 October 2010

180

Batlow Post Office (72004) Tarcutta Ck @ Belmore Bridge (410155) Lockhart (Ferrier St) (unofficial)

160

140

>100y ARI

120

80

5-10y ARI

60

40

2020-50y ARI

20

0

Data sources: NSW Office of Water, Bureau of Meterology, Weatherzone, private


Highest since 1931? ~100y ARI?

Highest on record (1938) ~100y ARI? Highest recalled ~200y ARI

Highest recalled ~100y ARI?

Highest on record (1947) >100y ARI?

Same as 1984 ~20y ARI

Highest since 1931 ~50y ARI

Highest on record (1983) >100y ARI?

Highest recalled 70-100y ARI

Highest on record (1973) >100y ARI?

Similar to 1974 ~20y ARI

Information sources Flood history

Office of Water, SES, flood studies, community questionnaire, museums, pubs, TROVE

Flood behaviour

Data, descriptions, photos, video footage from Office of Water, SES, Gov’t dept’s, media, community questionnaire, Internet

Flood consequences

Media, community questionnaire, RFAs (requests for assistance), EOC Sit Reps, Councils

Adelong flood history Monthly Water Level Maxima, Adelong Creek @ Batlow Road gauge, 1947-2010 Data source: NSW Of fice of Water

5.0

Oct 2010 4.61

4.5

4.0

Jan 1984 3.52

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 Jan-47 Jan-48 Jan-49 Jan-50 Jan-51 Jan-52 Jan-53 Jan-54 Jan-55 Jan-56 Jan-57 Jan-58 Jan-59 Jan-60 Jan-61 Jan-62 Jan-63 Jan-64 Jan-65 Jan-66 Jan-67 Jan-68 Jan-69 Jan-70 Jan-71 Jan-72 Jan-73 Jan-74 Jan-75 Jan-76 Jan-77 Jan-78 Jan-79 Jan-80 Jan-81 Jan-82 Jan-83 Jan-84 Jan-85 Jan-86 Jan-87 Jan-88 Jan-89 Jan-90 Jan-91 Jan-92 Jan-93 Jan-94 Jan-95 Jan-96 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09 Jan-10

Water level (m)

3.5


Adelong flood history Nov 1860: Rose in a few hours to a height greater than has ever been remembered Aug 1863: Town visited by flood of unprecedented severity during last 15 years Jun 1870: Creek rose rapidly; one or two families had to evacuate Oct 1870: A tremendous flood; rose 5 ft in less than 10 minutes; water rose 1 ft over floor of the bridges Jan 1874: Adelong Creek overflowed banks about 7 p.m. and made a ‘clean sweep’ through Tumut Street; several business premises and houses destroyed

http://trove.nla.gov.au/

Oct 1879: Approaches to main bridge washed away Jun 1931: Experiencing most serious flood for 50 years; main approaches to Adelong Bridge carried away and whole structure in danger of collapsing

Tumut & Adelong Times, October 2010

Adelong flood behaviour, October 2010 Rapid rate of rise

Adelong Creek @ Batlow Road hydrograph 15/10/2010 14:45 4.61m

5.0 4.5 4.0

But peak at Town Bridge 1-130pm?

3.0

14/10/2010 00:45 2.55m

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

Date/time (EDT)

Adelong flood behaviour, October 2010 High depth, velocity in main street

View You Tube footage

17/10/2010 00:00

16/10/2010 18:00

16/10/2010 12:00

16/10/2010 06:00

16/10/2010 00:00

15/10/2010 18:00

15/10/2010 12:00

15/10/2010 06:00

15/10/2010 00:00

14/10/2010 18:00

14/10/2010 12:00

14/10/2010 06:00

14/10/2010 00:00

13/10/2010 18:00

13/10/2010 12:00

13/10/2010 06:00

0.0 13/10/2010 00:00

Water level (m)

3.5

Data source: NSW Office of Water


Adelong flood behaviour, October 2010 Flood levels

Adelong flood behaviour, October 2010 Flood extent mapping

Adelong flood behaviour, October 2010 Debris blocking the waterway at the bridges


Adelong flood consequences, October 2010 Buildings inundated Roads closed Rescues

Adelong flood intelligence outputs Draft flood intelligence card ADELONG CREEK AT BATLOW ROAD GAUGE - STATION NUMBER: 410061 Tuesday, 12 July 2011 Adelong Creek

Stream: Location:

Minor:

Gauge Zero:

351.52m

Batlow Road, 1.7km south of Rimmers Bridge

Datum Type:

AHD

Long: 148.0685

Lat: -35.3323

Owner:

Office of Water

Moderate:

Major: 3.50

Levee Height:

N/a

GDA94

Design Flood Levels: N/a Class

Height (m)

Consequences

MAJ

3.52

MAJ

4.61

16 January 1984 peak height. Snowy Mountains Highway Bridge not overtopped but approach on town side inundated. 3 houses and 4 commercial premises inundated to depths less than 0.5m. 15 October 2010 peak height. Highest flood at Adelong since at least the 1800s. 17 dwellings and 16 commercial premises in Tumut Street flooded over floor. Some houses in Selwyn Street, Camp Street and Travers Street also affected. New Snowy Mountains Highway Bridge overtopped. Floodwater about 1m deep at high velocity down main street.

Adelong flood intelligence outputs Local Flood Plan (current) Adelong (Pop. 810, census 2001) can experience flooding in its main street; four shops, three houses and the public swimming pool are affected. In addition, two houses in the loop of the creek on the eastern side of the town can be inundated.


Adelong flood intelligence outputs GIS

Some Intelligence Thoughts • Flood intelligence matures • Begins as either records of experience from real events; or synthetic modelled events • It should be a mix of sources, real and synthetic across all magnitudes of flooding to account for no two floods being the same

Some Intelligence Thoughts • It should be linked to defined and reproducible reference triggers – although not always possible • If something written does not occur it does not mean it is wrong! But it should be updated to reflect changes on the floodplain • Hence Intelligence is not written in stone • Consequences happen within ranges – S*#t happens often but rarely to 2 decimal places


Flood Intelligence for Community Resilience • Flood Intelligence facilitates a discussion and understanding of what may occur • It targets response and community education to key risk areas • Some people may undertake their own proactive actions based on it

Flood Intelligence for Community Resilience • SES can proactively build community capacity to prepare on sunny days; and for a coming flood • A community more prepared, evacuated in advance of a threat or generally more aware is a more resilient and faster recovering community

A FLOOD’ FLOOD’S SILVER LINING: DEVELOPING FLOOD INTELLIGENCE FOR ENHANCED COMMUNITY RESILIENCE

Questions?


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Rekers, P. , “Is the age of strategic communications dead?” That information collection, management and dissemination in emergencies are crucial is a no brainer. That every emergency responder is therefore primarily a communicator takes more convincing. A whopping twenty percent of radio communications during the September 11 response were either repeated, unacknowledged or irrelevant. In the 1990’s the talk was the CNN effect, where almost real-time broadcast of battles drove Generals, finding themselves thinking on the back foot, to find tactical responses rather than being able to rely on strategic plans. The rapid growth of social media now permits any communicator to reach massive audiences at unprecedented speeds, changing the face of information management at rates unseen before. The information explosion evident in every major event can intimidate and overwhelm agencies. Their challenge now is to develop and implement strategic communication plans that can react faster than ever and reach wider audiences during preparedness, response and recovery. To lose the strategic communication game is to lose control of the incident. The key is genuine and honest planning and training. Biographical Information: Peter Rekers has worked in theatre (musical comedy not operating), been the Pope’s Stage Manager, been a sound engineer for Prince Charles, chased illegal foreign fishing vessels, survived nine cyclones at sea, qualified as a marksman, has investigated rapes, fires and frauds, led 100 bush fire fighters in the Blue Mountains, coordinated the media liaison for the Navy for the Tony Bullimore rescue, as a Management Consultant spent time in a lot of Prisons, in Australia, New Zealand and the US fixing their process management, was the Australian Naval Commander’s Media Advisor during the 2003 Gulf War and later in Baghdad was the Coalition Media Director running press conferences for, among others, Colin Powell and Donald Rumsfeld. He was the Manager of Media and Strategy at QLD’s then Department of Emergency Services managing all media liaison for Queensland Fire and Rescue Service and Emergency Management Queensland including coordinating all media liaison for Cyclone Larry. He is a Lieutenant Commander in the Navy Reserve, an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of the Sunshine Coast and a co-founder and Chairman of Emergency Media and Public Affairs which has run five conferences, funds research in the field and took him to Washington DC in 2010 to speak at the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Public Information Officers’ Conference.

Page 228 of 282


Does the age of social media mean the end of strategic communication? Peter Rekers "The time to fix the roof is when the sun is shining" ~ John. F. Kennedy

obligatory dead guy quote

A lie can travel halfway around the world while the truth is still putting on its shoes. Mark Twain

the social media phenomenon • There are more people ‘farming’ on Facebook’s Farmville than actual farmers in the US • When a software glitch broke the game, there was a violent protest at Zynga, Chicago over ‘farmers’ not being able to feed their animals

3


• set up in 2006 to share lessons learnt from TC Larry • annual conferences • profits fund research by academics and practitioners • internationally recognised • Accreditation Program for practitioners www.emergencymedia.org.au

social media premises • everyone has a voice • two-way communication • audiences choose to… – – – – – –

listen be friends / like retweet / share comment unlike / unfriend / block based on trusted relationships

strategic communication?

“It’s the difference between doing communications stuff, and doing the right communications stuff.”


strategic communication • planned – not simply reactive • targeted at specific audiences • targeted to achieve specific outcomes • ensures a coordinated effort • minimises wasted effort

or… or…

Let’s have the intern start our Facebook page!

the argument? • Planning and policy formulation takes too long • Lets just see how it goes! • “We are very conscious of the risks associated with engaging through social media. However recent events have shown us that the risks of not being in the social media space are far greater.''


Using social media channels in emergency public communication without a social media policy is like speeding without a seatbelt just because you’re in a hurry; reckless, dangerous, irresponsible and bound to attract the attention of a coroner eventually.

the dangers • wasted effort – ineffective – ‘Higginsing’ – fooling yourself into believing you're achieving aims – open to allegations of misuse of position or public monies

• not delivering on the two-way promise of communication – build contempt in your audiences

the need for strategy is greater! • • • • •

consistency in messaging able to target specific audiences able to bypass media gatekeepers accuracy professionalism


will social media reach them? • around 78% of households in QLD have internet access • drops to around 60% outside metropolitan areas • drops further for households with lower income • around 50% of online users use Facebook so… • you’ll be lucky to reach 30% of rural audiences on Facebook • if they have power…..

can they listen?

Jan 13 Brisbane River Peaks, Bremer River peaks (Ipswich) Jan 11 Flash flooding across QLD (Brisbane, Caboolture, North Coast, South West of QLD)

Jan 10 Flash flooding occurs in Toowoomba & Lockyer Valley

Jan 5 Fitzroy River peaks (Rockhampton)

Dec 25 TC Tasha (Cat 1)

Jan 31 TC Anthony (Cat 2)

Feb 2 TC Yasi (Cat 5)


Jan 13 Brisbane River Peaks, Bremer River peaks (Ipswich) Jan 11 Flash flooding across QLD (Brisbane, Caboolture, North Coast, South West of QLD)

Jan 31 TC Anthony (Cat 2)

Feb 2 TC Yasi (Cat 5)

Jan 31 TC Anthony (Cat 2)

Feb 2 TC Yasi (Cat 5)

Jan 10 Flash flooding occurs in Toowoomba & Lockyer Valley

Jan 5 Fitzroy River peaks (Rockhampton)

Dec 25 TC Tasha (Cat 1)

Jan 13 Brisbane River Peaks, Bremer River peaks (Ipswich) Jan 11 Flash flooding across QLD (Brisbane, Caboolture, North Coast, South West of QLD)

Jan 10 Flash flooding occurs in Toowoomba & Lockyer Valley

Jan 5 Fitzroy River peaks (Rockhampton)

Dec 25 TC Tasha (Cat 1)

where are your friends? http://wheremyfriends.be


solutions • get everyone onboard – make sure everyone is connected and informed

• planning – expect the unexpected and they wont be unexpected • keep your plans simple – build robust flexibility

strategic plan




conclusion • social media has not changed the landscape that much • we now have the best opportunity ever to hear our audiences • failing to plan is planning to fail • your audiences (and tax/ratepayers) deserve better • it will save you time in a disaster when time is limited • its not hard

Thank you

www.crisisready.com.au www.facebook.com/crisis.ready


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Roche, K., “The Australian Great Flood of 1954: the cost of a similar event in 2010” In many parts of the globe, migration to the coast and rapid regional development is resulting in large concentrations of population and insured assets. In Australia, one of the most rapidly growing regions is South-Eastern Queensland and Northern New South Wales, an area prone to flooding, severe thunderstorms and tropical cyclones. In this study we re-examine the Great Flood of 1954 and estimate its likely cost if a similar event were to recur given current societal conditions. This cost is estimated using local council flood maps, Census information and Risk Frontiers’ proprietary flood loss model, FloodAUS. The 1954 flood arose from heavy rainfall caused by the passage of an unnamed tropical cyclone (T137) that made landfall on the 20th February near the Queensland / New South Wales border, before heading in a southerly direction for some 500 km. Responsible for some of the largest floods on record for many northern New South Wales’ river catchments, it occurred prior to the availability of reliable insurance statistics and the recent escalation in property values. In the ‘dollars’ of the day, the direct economic loss was of order £7.5 million and around 28 people lost their lives. Our best estimate of the insurance losses using given current (2010) exposure and assuming 100% insurance penetration is $3.4 billion. Losses could also be considerably higher if the cyclone were to be more intense that T137 and wind damage significant over and above that due to riverine flooding. The magnitude of the modelled loss demonstrates the regional exposure of population and assets on floodplains and recent floods emphasize the failure of land-planning policies to take this risk into consideration. Biographical Information:

Kevin Roche is a PhD candidate at Risk Frontiers, Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. His research interests focus on the financial risk of natural hazards and creating economic incentives for the mitigation of these risks. Previously Kevin spent 7 years working in financial markets in London, Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand.

Page 239 of 282


The Great Flood of 1954: What would it cost today? Kevin Roche 2011 Risk Frontiers

Weather Catastrophes: 1950 ‐ 2009

Source: Munich Re

Weather Catastrophes: 1950 – 2009 By decade

Source: Munich Re


What happened in Feb 1954 ? • No rain for 9 months • And there was an unusual visitor…….

The Queen was down under

Source: New Zealand Post

The Queen has form…… The after affects of the lahar at Tangiwai

Source: Massey University, New Zealand


TC #137 Track 15° S

Brisbane

30° S

 Sydney

150° E

135° E

120° E

Source: Bureau of Meteorology (BOM)

Catchments

Source: Bureau of Meteorology (BOM)

TC #137 Impacts 28 lives lost Predominantly a flood event; minor wind event, Springwood 900mm in 24 hours Highest rainfall in Lismore, Casino, Kyogle, Nimbin Clarence River 11km wide at one point 3,000 homeless in Lismore, 700 houses destroyed in Grafton Byron Bay lost 650 feet of fishing wharf Damage to infrastructure: electricity, gas & other life lines; more than 40 bridges washed away & 20 sections of railway • Losses to agriculture

• • • • • • • •


Changes since 1954 Lots more people, e.g. Tweed Heads - Gold Coast region

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

Changes since 1954 Average houses prices have gone up substantially

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

Methodology Total Insured Losses2010

≈ (nLM2006 + LG2010 )*R

where

n = normalisation factor LM = modelled residential losses from FloodAUS LG = ground‐up residential losses in 2010 R = Total insured losses/Residential insured losses


Methodology Step 1: Modelled losses

LM = modelled losses • FloodAUS – Risk Frontiers’ natural catastrophe loss model • National Residential Portfolio in 2006 terms • Correlations between catchments • Floor height critical for loss calculations, we perform sensitivity analysis later

Catastrophe Model

Floor height data

Probability

Floor Height (m) Weighted average is 0.47cm (Source: Richmond Valley Council)


Methodology Step 2: Ground up losses LG = ground up losses where FloodAUS currently has no coverage – Estimate number of Residential Homes at 1:100 year – Average claims cost per address in 2011 Brisbane floods ~$35k – Council websites and correspondence – Digitise flood maps and extents

Digitization Inundation Comparison Brisbane 1974 ‐ 2011

2011 flooding shown by the Nearmap imagery (13/01/2011, © www.nearmap.com) and the 1974 Brisbane Flood inundation extent (red polygon) Source: Keping Chen, Risk Frontiers

Methodology Step 3: Normalisation

n = normalisation L2010 = L2006 * Nj * Dj • • • •

L = loss in year N = ratio of new dwellings from 2006 to 2010 D = value of new dwellings from 2006 to 2010 j = Urban Locality Centre (ULC)


Methodology Ratio of (C&I)/Res

R = Commercial and Industrial Ratio Flood

State

Year

LOB($million)

Res ($ million)

Ratio

Katherine

NT

1998

41

28

1.47

Townsville

QLD

1998

40

30

1.34

Wollongong

NSW

1998

25

14

1.74

South East

QLD

2005

29

25

1.15

North East

NSW

2005

7

18

0.38

Broken Hill

NSW

2005

1

3

0.39

Central West

NSW

2005

3

1

3.70

145.9

119.2

1.22

Total

(Source: Insurance Council of Australia)

Initial Results in 2010 terms Assuming commercial and industrial losses ≈ Assuming commercial and industrial losses ≈ residential losses residential losses

Area

FloodAUS Losses

Ground Up Losses

Total Residential

Total insured Loss

Gold Coast

200

30

230

460

Northern Rivers

924

524

1,447

2,895

1,124

554

1,678

3,355

Totals

(2010 AUD $ millions)

Normalised Losses ‐ Ranked Total normalised insured losses for weather related events since Total normalised insured losses for weather related events since 1967 1967 Rank

Event

Year

Location

State

Original loss (AUD $ million)

Normalised loss (2006) (AUD$ million)

1

TC Tracy

1974

Darwin

NT

200

3,650

2

Hailstorm

1999

Sydney

NSW

1,700

3,300

3

TC#137

1954

GCR / NRR QLD,NSW

n/a

2,420

4

Flood

1974

Brisbane

QLD

68

2,090

5

Flood

2011

Brisbane

QLD

2,550 1,785

6

Hailstorm

1985

Brisbane

QLD

180

1,710

7

Ash 1983 Wednesday Bushfire Hailstorm 1990

Multiple

VIC/SA

176

1,630

Sydney

NSW

319

1,470

8

In 2006 AUD $ millions (Crompton and McAneney 2008))


Sensitivity Analysis FloodAUS only Floor heights play a crucial role in loss estimates

0

0.27

0.47

0.95

2.0

Limitations Wind losses minimal Storm surge losses minimal Floor height sample data is small Commercial and industrial estimates range widely • Total economic losses estimates beyond the scope of this paper • • • •

Acknowledgments Geoscience Australia Craig Arthur Bob Cechet Marcus Haynes Denis Waters


Land use Land use changes across catchments

Catchment

Agricultural Commercial

Industrial

Other

Residential

Coomera

6%

2%

3%

2%

87%

Nerang

1%

12%

3%

2%

82%

Tallebudgera

3%

7%

2%

1%

87%

Tweed

11%

9%

1%

2%

76%

Brunswick

17%

6%

3%

1%

72%

Richmond

21%

5%

3%

1%

71%

Clarence

29%

5%

1%

1%

64%

Bellinger

7%

6%

3%

2%

82%

Source: Geo‐coded Address File (GNAF)

Normalised Losses ‐ Ranked Total normalised insured losses for weather related events since Total normalised insured losses for weather related events since 1967 1967 Rank

Event

Year

Location

State

Original loss (AUD $ million)

Normalised loss (2006) (AUD$ million)

1

TC Tracy

1974

Darwin

NT

200

3,650

2

Hailstorm

1999

Sydney

NSW

1,700

3,300

3

TC#137

1954

GCR / NRR

QLD,NSW

n/a

2,420

4

Flood

1974

Brisbane

QLD

68

2,090

5

Hailstorm

1985

Brisbane

QLD

180

1,710

6

Multiple

VIC/SA

176

1,630

7

Ash 1983 Wednesday Bushfire Hailstorm 1990

Sydney

NSW

319

1,470

8

Flood

Brisbane

QLD

2,000 1,400

2011

In 2006 AUD $ millions (Crompton and McAneney 2008))


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Taylor, H., “Children in Disasters: Lessons from Indonesia and Christchurch” Children represent a vulnerable group with unique needs in a natural disaster, but they can also be, depending on their individual social and psychological characteristics, a highly resilient group. Recent studies reveal that children have different perspectives as well as vast amounts of energy and creativity that can assist families and communities prepare for and recover from disaster. This paper presents on the experiences of children exposed to flooding in Indonesia, and in turn how this research assisted in the development of practical assistance for children and families following the Christchurch earthquake. Widespread flooding and landslides occurred along the Bengawan Solo River in Central Java, Indonesia following heavy rains in December 2007-January 2008. Research was conducted with 32 children living in the riparian urban setting whose homes had been affected by minor to moderate flooding. Qualitative techniques, including group discussions, drawings and openended interviews, were used to elicit stories of the flood and its social impacts. Children’s capacity for disaster risk reduction and flood preparedness was also investigated by involving them as active researchers in their own community in creating flood-safe community plans and conducting interviews with their parents. Research revealed that in disaster situations where children are involved culture and context, the nature of the event and the nature of community and country’s response to the event, matter. While these aspects are relevant for both children and adults, children are social actors who have distinct and important capabilities that the disaster research field need to take into account. The February 22nd earthquake in Christchurch interrupted the final stages of writing up this research, and I found myself in a natural disaster in my own city. Using the knowledge gained from the Indonesian case study, and with the support of other community members and organizations, a series of “Family Fun Days” were organized in three affected neighbourhoods around Christchurch. These events, which drew hundreds of individuals at each site, were designed to offer families a break from stress caused by the earthquake and provided them with the opportunity to share their earthquake experiences with friends and neighbours. Activities included an art space, bouncy castles, face painting, games, refreshments, treasure hunts and an educational talk by local academics which explained the science behind earthquakes and liquefaction. This paper represents the culmination of research into children’s experiences of natural disasters and presents the results of their “unexpected” practical application.

Biographical Information: Heather Taylor is a PhD candidate at the Joint Centre for Disaster Research on the Wellington campus of Massey University in New Zealand. She holds a BSc degree in Geological Engineering from Queen’s University in Canada and worked in this field for a brief time before beginning her doctorate. She is based at the geology department at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, where she has resided for the last four years.

Page 249 of 42


Children in Disasters: Lessons from Indonesia and Christchurch

Heather Taylor Joint Centre for Disaster Research Massey University, New Zealand 5th Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference Gold Coast, Australia July 1818-21, 2011

Overview  

Introduction Indonesian Research – – –

Disaster Event & Research Site Methods Key Findings

Christchurch Earthquake – Family Fun Days

Children in Disasters 

66.5 million affected by disasters each year.

By 2020, 175 million children affected as a result of climate change related events

children represent a highly vulnerable group in disasters, but can be highly resilient


Children in Disasters “children are undoubtedly the most photographed and least listened to members of society� ~ Roger Hart

Eurasian Plate

Australian Plate



Dec 2007 Flood 

Began Dec 25

Series of 3 floods – 26th, 27th, 28th

1 week for all of water to subside

150150-200mm rainfall btwn Dec 24 - Jan 2

Landslides in the hills above Solo killed ~70 people.

0-3m gradation

3-4m


Methods    

Group Discussion Drawing Priority List ChildChild-run interviews: parent & community member

Group Flood Plan

Interviews of Parents, Teachers, Community


Methods    

Group Discussion Drawing Priority List ChildChild-run interviews: parent & community member

Group Flood Plan

Interviews of Parents, Teachers, Community


Methods     

Group Discussion Drawing Priority List Group Flood Plan ChildChild-run interviews: parent & community member Interviews of Parents, Teachers, Community

10 most important items

Methods     

Group Discussion Drawing Priority List Group Flood Plan ChildChild-run interviews: parent & community member Interviews of Parents, Teachers, Community


Flood Flood… Flood… You come from human We can’ can’t take care the beauty and keep the world clean Flood You come from us Some cut trees down illegally And some throw garbage recklessly Flood We want you to subside We want you to forgive our fault So we can see the beauty of the world

Methods    

Group Discussion Drawing Priority List ChildChild-run interviews: parent & community member

Group Flood Plan

Interviews of Parents, Teachers, Community

In a disaster where children are involved:  Context

matters

– Cultural – Social – Geographic – Circumstantial


Cultural Context  Traditions:

Gotong royong = “mutual help”

At my school, they asked us to clean up. We had day off, but they asked us to come and clean up. (Leon, male, 12) Communal work … We brought [a] mop on the first day (Charli, male, 10.5)

Social Context

Geographic Context  Flood

invaded geography of daily life: home, school, streets and public places

 Streets

= place where children play and interact with peers

 Loss

of the streets resulted in a lack of ‘safe’ safe’ space for play, which resulted in children playing in the floodwaters …making children more vulnerable


Circumstantial Context  short

duration and moderate intensity

 Significant

loss of possessions and income

all the things of the house were damaged I wasn’t drowned, only the belongings

(Aknes, female, 9) (Kantel, female, 11)

Circumstantial Context  short

duration and moderate intensity

 Significant

loss of possessions and income

 PostPost-disaster

environment

 Adequate living conditions  Extensive social support

In a disaster where children are involved:  Context

matters

– Cultural – Geographic  Children

̶ Social ̶ Circumstantial

are active

– Contributed to recovery process and applied knowledge of flooding


Children’s Contributions  In

peer culture – Shared and processed event together – Helped each other with practical tasks

 Adult

Society

– Helped save possession – Clean house and belonging – Cleaned school

Children’s Contributions  In

peer culture – Shared and processed event together – Helped each other with practical tasks

 Adult

Society

Without children’ children’s help, the recovery process would have taken much longer and resulted in a lengthier period of instability

In a disaster where children are involved: 

Context matters – Cultural – Geographic

̶ Social ̶ Circumstantial

Children are active – Contributed to recovery process and applied knowledge of flooding

=> longlong-term resilience of community being enhanced by involving children in disaster risk reduction activities


Family Fun Days 

Born out of research and personal observation

Aim of Family Fun Days: – provide a space for families to gather – give children activities to do and parents a break

Supported by Adventure Specialties, Spreydon Baptist Church, and University of Canterbury




Quake Zone

Quake Zone

Quake Zone


Drawings


Comments or Questions?


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Wardman, J., Wilson, T., Cole J., Johnson, D., “Investigating the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash and its effect on HV power systems” Volcanic ash contamination of high voltage (HV) power networks compromises the reliability of society’s electricity supply. Ash-induced insulator flashover is a common problem on transmission networks during explosive eruptions, which is attributed to the high conductivity (σ) (low resistivity (ρ)) of volcanic ash. However, there have been few studies which have investigated the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash and how it may be influenced by different volcanological and environmental factors. In this study we have used a simple and rapid testing method to measure the influence of ash composition, grain size, soluble salt content, compaction and water content on ash conductivity. We also developed physically, chemically and electrically equivalent ash proxies to be used for current and future laboratory experimentation. Results indicate that dry volcanic ash is non-conducting (σ = < 5.0 x 10-8 S-m1 , ρ = > 2.4 x 107 Ω-m), however, the conductivity of volcanic ash increases abruptly with the adsorption of water. Further increase in conductivity has been observed with increasing soluble salt content and compaction. All grain sizes (<32 μm to 1.4 mm) can exhibit high conductivity values (σ = > 0.01 S-m-1, ρ = < 100 Ω-m) and therefore have similar potential to cause flashover on HV insulation. The methodology development and results herein represent a benchmark for in-field testing during volcanic crises and for future studies. Preliminary insulator contamination testing in the University of Canterbury’s HV lab has shown that the operational performance of porcelain disc insulators contaminated with 2-3 mm of fine-grained (<105 µm) 0.18 M NaCl basalt wetted by a hand sprayer is reduced by nearly 40%.

Biographical Information: Hailing from the island of Bermuda, Johnny is studying the effects of volcanic ash on high voltage power supply systems at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Johnny aims to quantify the vulnerability of HV power systems to ash fall hazards and looks to both identify and strengthen the shortcomings in infrastructural interdependencies during volcanic ash fall events.

Page 267 of 282


Johnny Wardman Tom Wilson, Pat Bodger, Jim Cole, David Johnston

Jo

Outline  Intro  Case study  Resistivity of volcanic ash  Power‐frequency tests  Summary

Known Impacts to Electricity Supply Systems

www.boston.com


Ruapehu September 25, 1995 0615 hrs

Ruapehu 1995/96  Lines close to volcano contaminated by falls of volcanic ash and mud  Bunnythorpe – Tokaanu A/716  Bunnythorpe – Tokaanu B/718  Bunnythorpe – Wairakei A/721

 Flashover and voltage fluctuation  Cascade effect: Wellington hospital  Loss of water pump in dialysis wing  Thermal power phased in to ensure security of the grid

Impacts to Transpower Hardware…


What makes volcanic ash conductive? •Volatile scavenging •Attached soluble salts provide ionic content

Chaiten, 2008

Mt St Helens, 1980

•Several controls on conductivity: 1. Moisture 2.Soluble salt 3.Grain size 4.Compaction/bulk density

•Logistical difficulty in obtaining freshly fallen volcanic ash • Create a proxy for lab tests

Contamination Severity Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD)  Equivalent amount of salt

(NaCl) yielding same conductivity as contaminant  Malaysia ‐ ESDD heavily used

in polluted areas (e.g. coastal and industrial zones).

ESDD (mg/cm2)

Site Severity

0 – 0.03

Very Light

0.03 – 0.06

Light

0.06 – 0.1

Moderate

>0.1

Heavy

 Cleaning when ESDD ≥0.03

mg/cm2 (Ahmad et al., 2004)

• Nellis & Hendrix, 1981: 3‐6 mm volcanic ash = 0.3‐0.6 mg/cm2

Investigating the electrical resistivity of volcanic ash  Measure resistance of freshly fallen and pseudo ash samples under varying:  Composition  Moisture content  Soluble salts  Grain Size  Compaction

 Convert resistance to resistivity by recording volumetric changes  Resistivity (ρ) = 1/σ

 Identify the most influential controls


 moisture content =  resistance

 soluble salt content =  resistivity

 compaction =  resistivity


Ash Composition

Contamination Testing

Power‐Frequency Tests  Analogue laboratory testing of HV insulators coated in volcanic ash  Withstand measurements  Max withstand ESDD while operating at normal service voltage  Better inform power industry of conditions creating vulnerability


Preliminary Contamination Results FLASHOVER VOLTAGE

# Glass Insulators

1‐10 mm Clean Clean String Dry Basalt 58.5 mm/hr (kV) (kV) Rainfall (kV)

1

80.5

86.6

44.6

2

148.7

154.9

88.7

3

197.5

217.5

140.2

4

242.1

262.8

194.4

5

298.4

323.5

N/A

Role of this Research in Emergency Management?  Maintain reliable and safe power to key

infrastructure during a disastrous event  Development of predictive modeling that will

warn power companies of imminent failure on HV equipment  Contribute to the development of new technology and methodology (insulator design and conductivity measurements) to better prepare electricity infrastructure for ash falls

Summary  Insulator flashover the biggest threat to HV power systems  Dry volcanic ash is non‐conducting, influenced by other variables  Rapid, in‐field method to test resistivity/conductivity  Early power‐frequency results show nearly 40% reduction in insulator performance  Findings will inform the electrical industry of the appropriate preventive measures against ash‐induced failure of HV apparatuses


Your Thoughts Johnny Wardman john.wardman@pg.canterbury.ac.nz

www.epri.gov


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Winn, L., “Vulnerable Communities Identification & Mapping Project (Renal Enable)� Research illustrates that the human result after a disaster is hugely dependent on the quality of the planning carried out beforehand. This demonstrates a fundamental shift beyond disaster response and reaction, towards anticipation and mitigation. Therefore the NSW Health Counter Disaster Unit in conjunction with Emergency Information Collection Unit (EICU) of Lands & Property Management Authority, submitted a one year funding submission in 2008 to the Australian Government Natural Disaster Mitigation Program for the Vulnerable Communities Identification & Mapping Project (Renal Enable) which aimed to identify vulnerable individuals living in the community who are at risk in an emergency or disaster situation, and to establish and maintain a state-wide database of vulnerable individuals for use in emergency planning. The aim of this project was to identify vulnerable individuals who may need assistance in times of utility failure or emergency. This project was limited to individuals on home dialysis and ventilators living in the community. The project also identified varied and limited information sources, a lack of uniformity and different methodology of data collection across various agencies. The project utilised geo spatial technology which displays the impact areas and vulnerable groups. The map allows visualization of information among agencies for priority planning and response in an emergency situation. Collaborative decisions can then be made on resource prioritisation and allocation. The timely access of information improves the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency management of the vulnerable population, thereby improving mortality and morbidity of disaster or emergency impacts. The project was concluded with an upgrade the Information Technology infrastructure in NSW Health so that electronic map data can be sent to and received from various agencies including the Land and Property Management Authority and NSW Health. This enables NSW Health and Ambulance to share information through a secure central collaboration site accessible between the two agencies. This presentation will demonstrate how this geo-spatial mapping information can be used in emergency situations, using scenarios on bushfires and floods.

Biographical Information: Linda Winn is currently the Deputy Director of the NSW Health Counter Disaster Unit and has worked in emergency management for 10 years gaining experience in Australia and overseas. She is a Registered Nurse and is very passionate about disaster management issues, and in particular the role of Health Services in the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery from disasters or emergencies.

Page 275 of 282


Vulnerable Communities Identification & Mapping Project (Renal Enable)

Prepared by Linda Winn Deputy Director NSW Health Counter Disaster Unit July 2011

Introduction  A fundamental shift beyond disaster response & reaction, towards anticipation & mitigation.  The human result after a disaster is dependent on the planning carried out beforehand.

Impact of disasters  The incidence of disasters caused by natural hazards has continuously impacted on communities around the world.  Difficulties faced by NSW Emergency Service Organisations include: – Vulnerable people are not identified – Door knocking is resource intensive – No single system of vulnerable people to provide information to emergency services.


Aim of the Project  To create & maintain a statewide database that maps where specific vulnerable individuals reside.

Objectives:  Enhance demographic understanding & identification of vulnerable individuals  Increase resilience of vulnerable individuals.

Method  Literature review  Establishment of a project Steering Committee – legislative & regulatory issues.  Consultation with key stakeholders – community representatives from Government & non-government agencies.  Identification of vulnerable groups  Data collection of vulnerable individuals.

Governance Structure Project Sponsor State Emergency Management Committee: Federal Natural Disaster Mitigation Program

Steering Committee Counter Disaster Unit NSW Health

Reference Groups

Partnership

Groups set as needed

EICU (Emergency Information Collection Unit) Lands & Property Management Authority

Technical Team

Stakeholders

5


Method  Key stakeholders identified for the project were NSW Health Renal Services and Enable NSW.  Development of minimal data requirements of each individual (22 data fields).  Identification of data custodians  Mapping of data/individuals  Issues resolution

Planning & Implementation  Key stakeholders & Steering Committee responsibilities included determining project objectives, direction, scope & resolution of issues.  A secure method of data exchange between two NSW Government agencies.  Development of a Memorandum of Understanding between NSW Health & Lands & Property Development Management Authority.  Development of NSW Health Emergency Information Management Policy.

Outcomes/Evaluation  Examples of mapping tool.



Future Directions  Expansion of the project scope to include additional population groups.  Conduct a feasibility study & research on selfregistration process for vulnerable communities, including a pilot study in a regional area of NSW.  Provide data and evidence for future development of vulnerable communities databases.

Contact Linda Winn, Deputy Director NSW Health Counter Disaster Unit, Ambulance Service of NSW, State Headquarters, Balmain Road, Rozelle. (W) 9320 7629 (M) 0409 721 614 (F) 9320 7817 Email: lwinn@ambulance.nsw.gov.au Website: http://internal.health.nsw.gov.au/public‐health/cdu/


5th Annual Australasian Natural Hazards Management Conference

Proceedings of Conference

Page 281 of 282


The following organisations are proud sponsors of the

5th Annual Australian Natural Hazards Management Conference


Millions discover their favorite reads on issuu every month.

Give your content the digital home it deserves. Get it to any device in seconds.