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AR320 4 Homework th

Student's name : Ahmad Al-aql

Student's number : 1007811

1.Baron Haussmann : Georges-Eugene Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann,was the french civic planner who was responsible for rebuilding paris in the 1860's.

The project encompassed not only architecture but also several aspects of urban planning, from streets and boulevards to buildings’ front facades, public parks and monuments. Haussmann has really fashioned the way Paris looks today as well as its architecture. He created very long and wide boulevards with cafÊs and shops influencing a lot Parisians’ lives. The ground floor has thick walls. The second storey boasts gorgeous balconies and the third and fourth floor are built in the same style, though their windows frames have a less elaborate stonework.

On some Paris buildings, simple stone facades were replaced by massive stone blocks, that allowed to create different aspects. Parisian Haussmann buildings, with their very typical architecture are monumental and do not demand any decoration, sculpture or other stonework to be outstanding and prestigious.

*Picture of a skinny building built by Haussmann in Paris

But the urban fabric which Haussmann had to work with in the mid-1800s remained locked in the medieval and post-medieval Paris of narrow, winding, sewer-less streets, lined by high buildings casting deep shadows ,conditions which the new boulevards and other improvements were meant to correct. Street conditions before Haussmann were grim compared to today. Most famous perhaps of Haussmann's accomplishments are the spacious boulevards which ring central Paris. The wide, landscaped streets were designed to link existing major monuments with new important structures (such as the new train stations which were springing up in response to the popular new form of transportation), to allow rapid movement through the city.

Parisians and visitors alike took to the new tree-lined boulevards and open spaces with glee. Men and women strolled and paraded in their finery‌ seeing and being seen. They window-shopped at stores now loaded with peacetime, industrial-revolution consumer goods, visited the gigantic new department stores Galleries Lafayette and Printemps, the Opera, parks, and the many diversions now available to the enormous urban population, while Haussmann did not architecturally design his namesake buildings himself, it is his overall plan for Paris that allows many of us today to enjoy the pleasures of strolling the boulevards and admiring, if not living in, a "Haussmannian building.

2. Palace of Versailles : The Palace of Versailles was the official residence of the Kings of France from 1682 until 1790, It was originally a hunting lodge, built in 1624, by Louis XIII, It was expanded by Louis XIV beginning in 1669, He used it as a little lodge as a secret refuge for his amorous trysts with the lovely Louise de la Valliere and built a fairy tale park around it. Jules Hardouin Mansart, the king's principal architect, drew the plans to enlarge what was turning more and more into a palace from A Thousand and One Nights. The terrace that overlooked the gardens was removed to make way for the magnificent Hall of Mirrors, the Galarie de Glaces, It is here from which the king radiated his power and where the destiny of Europe was decided over a century,The French classical architecture was complemented by extensive gardens. *Interiors of the palace: 1_ Hall of mirrors: The main feature of the hall is the seventeen mirrored arches that reflect the seventeen arcaded windows which look out onto Versailles equally- magnificent garden. Each arch contains twenty-one mirrors, for a total of 357 in all. This magnificent hall measures 73 meters long, 10.5 meters wide, and 12.3 meters high, Statues and busts line the walls. The Hall of Mirrors has always played an important role in history including in 1919, as the First World War officially ended when Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles in this hall. 2_ Royal Chapel: The current chapel of Versailles is the fifth at the palace. Construction began in 1689 and was completed around 1710. It features a "tribune" on the same level as the royal apartments, overlooking the nave, where the kings would sit when they attended mass. The architecture is a combination of Gothic and Baroque. Many of its features resemble cathedrals of medieval times, including the gargoyles and pointed roof, but other features are more reminiscent of the era in which it was built, including colored marble tile floors, columns, and carved pillars.

3_Royal Opera : The auditorium of the Opera is fashioned entirely from wood, making it one of the most acoustically "live" theaters in the world. Though it was a court theater and not meant for a huge public audience, it seats more than 700, Gold, pink, and green dominate the decor for the Opera, which wasn't constructed until 1770. It was first used for the wedding ball of future king Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette and boasts a unique mechanical system that raises the floor to the level of the stage. Today, it is still used for concerts and operas. * The palace's garden: At 100 hectare , the garden of the Versailles Palace is Europe's largest palace garden. It was created in the 17th century by landscape gardener Andre Le Notre who designed what could be considered the quintessential formal French garden. The garden is laid out in a geometric pattern of paths, bushes, flowerbeds and trees.

*Royal Chapel

*Hall of Mirrors

*Palace's Garden

3. Adam Smith: He was born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland,The exact date of his birth is unknown, Smith was the Scottish philosopher who became famous for his book, “The Wealth of Nations� written in 1776, which had an influence on modern economics and concepts of individual freedom ,Smith is cited as the father of modern economics and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today.

*Adam Smith

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