QUESTION := Some Muâ€™tazilite minded people say that Sunni Attributes are nothing but Catholic Hypostases. They further say Christian Word and Sunni Speech are one and the same concept. Please response to them:
REPLY:= First of all one must understand what does dogma of trinity means. According to the dogma:= God is a Being which in which there is One Essence and in the Essence there are three Hypostases.
[Singular:=Hypostase/Hypostasis, Alternative term Person] Being: A thing which Exist. Essence [Essentia]. A Thing Where By A Thing is That It Is. The words Form,Nature, Ousia (Substance) may have different meanings from the word Essence , but in the Divine Case they all means Essence. The Divine Essence is Per Se Subsistent. A Hypostasis (Hypostase) is a thing which is:= a) Individua in Se (Individual in Itself).Not species,not Generas, Indivisible. b) Substantia (Substance) . It is a substance in the negative sense, i.e Not an accident. c) Completa [Complete]. It morma as Complete Nature. It is neither an Actual Part nor an Altitudinal Part. d) Per Se Subsistens (By Means of Itself Stands). One that is Sustained (Sustineo,Sustentus) by means of itself. [Per Se = By means Of It Self]. The thing Exists by It self [ and for It Self]
3 e) Sui Iuris [It Self Binding]. Ultimate Subject of Its Nature,Attributes and Acts. [Some use the letter J inslead of Y in Yurus but Original Latin has Y instead of J] f) Separata Ab Aliis [Separate From Other]. (Ab=By, From,Aliis,Alia=Other). This Excludes Universal. g) Substantia Secunde [Substance Second]. A thing which has no Existence a part from the individual. h) Rationalis Naturae [ Rational Nature] It has the Attribute Of Rationality. i)Per Se Seorsum [By ItSelf Apart/Seperate from the rest].A thing which does not exist in other. A Hypostasis is ascribed by the Attributes of three incommunicabilities. They are mutually Distinct from one another. WHY HUMAN NATURE IS NOT CALLED THE HUMAN SUBSTANCE, BUT THE DIVINE NATUE IS CALLED. The reason is that it exists in Alio. The very same reason it is not called a Hypostasis or a Person. [It is not Per Se Subsistent But Per Quod Subsistent] WHY A HYPOSTASIS IS NOT CALLED A SUBSTANCE. Thomas Like Asharites and Maturidites believed God is neither a Substance Nor An Accident. But All the Christiandom do use the words like Ousia and HomOusia in case of God. In case of God Ousia [substance] means Essentia. On this ground the difference between Subsistent and Substance is as follow:= The Common Essence of these Hypostases Is not Identical to any one of the Hypostasis. That is inspite of the extreme Communicability and Indistinctness of Divine Essentia from Divine Hypostases neither A Hypostasis is the Essence nor The Essence is the Hypostasis. That is why Plurality of Hypostases is accepted and Plurality of Essences is denied. Now Essence of a Substance is the Essence Itself.
A SUBSTENCE IS A PER SE SUBSISTENT WHOSE ESSENCE IS THE PERSE SUBSISTENT IT SELF. ON THE CONTRARY THE ESSENSE OF A HYPOSTASIS IS NOT THE HYPOSTASIS IT SELF. THAT IS WHY A HYPOSTASIS IS SUBSISTENT BUT NOT A SUBSTANCE.
Reasons of following things for not being a Hypostasis. 1]The Human Soul/Spirit
4 The human soul/spirit belongs to the nature as either an actual part or aptitudinal of the Human Being, hence not a Hypostasis, whether existing separately or not from the Human Being. 2] The Human Nature of Christ The human nature of Christ does not exist per se seorsum, but in alio, in the Divine Hypostatisness of the the Second Hypostasis. It is communicated by assumption and so is not a Hypostase/ Person. 3] The Divine Essence Divine Essence [Godhead,Divinity, Divine Ousia], It subsisteth per se, but is so communicated to the Three [Mutually] Hypostasis that it does not exist apart from the Mutually Distinct Hypostases; it is therefore not a Hypostasis. [If Would have existed apart it would have been a Hypostasis]. Note:= The human Nature [Divine Humanity] is neither an Essence [,Essentia] nor a Substance [Ousia]and additionally not a Form.[ One may note that Divine Essence may also be termed as Nature but Human Nature may not be termed as Human Essence/Ousia.] Relations and reasons of Hypostases. Divine Attributes are believed to be Identical to Divine Essence in Christian System. 1] The Second Hypostasis is believed to be Issued/Proceedes as a Term of an Immanent Act of Divine Attribute Of Intellect Of God.The act of Proceeding/Issuing from the Attribute of Intellect is also called Generation. Thomas renamesthe second Hypostasis as Verbum Mentale. 2] The Third Hypostasis is believed to be Issued/Proceeded as a Term of an Immanent Act of the Attribute Of Will Of God.The act of Procession/ Issuance from the Divine Attribute Of Will is called Aspiration/Respiration and not Generation. Similarly the Act of Generation is not called Aspiration/Respiration.[ Some theologian use the word Procession as opposite of Generation.] 3] Three Hypostases are believed to be constituted In the Divine Essence by Four relations. They are as follow. Paternitas [paternity]
Spiratio [Breathing,Aspration,Respiration] Filiatio :descent-from-father; (father has paternitas, son has filiatio) Processio [PRO=BEFORE,CESSIO=surrendering/conceding]
5 POINTS TO BE NOTED:= 1]GREEK CHRISTIANITY BELIEVES HYPOSTASES PRIOR TO DIVINE OUSIS/ ESSENTIA. 2]ROMAN CHRISTIANITY BELIEVES ESSENTIA/OUSIA PRIOR TO HYPOSTASES. 3] DIVINE RELATIONS IN THE DIVINE ESSENCE ARE BELIEVED TO BE PER SE SUBSISTENT, NOT JUST RELATIONS. 4] GREEKS DIFFER IN SEVERAL DETAILS FROM ROMANS. WE HAVE NOT DISCUSSED THEM IN DETAIL FOR THE SAKE OF BREVITY .
NOW COME TO THE OBJECTION OF MU’TIZILITE MINDED PEOPLE WHO MAKE OBJECTION ON DIVINE ATTRIBUTE. A DIVINE ATTRIBUTE IS NOT PER SE SUBSISBTENT. IT SUBSIST IN DIVINE ESSENCE. SO A DIVINE ATTRIBUTE AS ACCORDIBG TO SUNNI THEOLOGICAL SYSTEM IS NEITHER AN ACCIDENT NOR A SUBSTANCE, NEITHER AN ESSENCE NOR A HYPOSTASIS. THESE OBJECTION MAKERS NEITHER KNOW CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY NOT ISLAMIC THEOLOGY. THAT IS THE REASON THE CONFUSE SUNNITE ATTRIBUTES WITH CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX HYPOSTASES. RAITHER THESE MUTIZILITE MINDED PEOPLE DO AGREE WITH ROMANS AND GREEKS THAT ATTRIBUTES ARE IDENTICAL TO ESSENCE. BUT THE MAKE OBJECTIONS ON ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH WITH OUT STUDYING THEOLOGY OF CATHOLICS AND ORTHODOXE , AND THEOLOGY OF AHLUSSUNNAH [ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH] THIS DOES SHEW THAT MUTIZILITE OBJECTION MAKERS EITHER DELIBERATELY SPEAK FALSE STATEMENTS IF THEY KNOW THE CHRISTIAN AND ISLAMIC THEOLOGIES OR ARE IQNORENT OF TEACH ONE OF THEM OR HAVE A VERY LITTLE KNOWLEDEGE OF EACH OF THEM. DIVINE SPEECH [OMILIA/KALA:M/CALA:M] ACCORDING TO AHLUSSUNNAH IS NOT THE DIVINE WORD [LOGOS/KALMAH/CALMAH] OF CHRISTIANDOM. REASON IS THAT THE SPEECH IS AN ATTRIBUTE AND THE WORD IS A HYPOSTSIS. SUNNIS [ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH] DO NOT BELIEVE IN CATHOLIC AND ORTHODOX HYPOSTASES , AND CATHOLICS AND ORTHODOX DO NOT BELIEVES IN SUNNI [ASHAIRAH AND MATURIDIYAH] ATTRIBUTES. It is hoped that all the Mutizilite confusions must have been clarified [‘Insha: ‘All-h].