02 CONTENT Introduction 03 Fast Facts 04-06 History 07-08 Architect 09 ARCHITECTURE STYLE 10-14 SHANGHAI INFLUENCED
BUILDING MATERIALS 23-29 ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS 30-35 Conclusion 47 References 48
Introduction Klang Valley beyond the boundaries of Kuala Lumpur, which is the largest city in Malaysia, which was founded in 1857 at the confluence of the Gombak and Klang rivers. Klang Valley is a rich source of architectural heritage dated from pre-colonial, colonial, post independence until present times. The historical richness creates a very vibrant architectural fabric. The modern architecture emerges rapidly from 1950â€™s to 1970â€™s as the economic growth spurs. Stadium Chin Woo, which is located at Jalan Hang Jebat, Kuala Lumpur. . Jalan Hang Jebat, previously known as Davidson Road during British rule is the tree-lined in the heart of the capital, Kuala Lumpur. The insights of Chin Woo Stadium remains perched on the hill since its opening on 1953. Older residents of Kuala Lumpur will remember the many sporting and entertainment events held at the venue with the giant spot sign on the roof. The stadium was the first sports facility in the country with an Olympic-sized swimming pool that operated by the Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor.
01 Swimming pool in the Chin Woo Stadium which providing swimming class 02 Daytime view of Chin Woo Stadium 03 Night view of Chin Woo Stadium 04 Interior of Chin Woo Stadium
Location of Chin Woo Stadium Address:
Chin Woo Stadium, Jalan Hang Jebat, 50150 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The nearby landmarks are Balai Polis Tun HS Lee(A), Stadium Mederka(B), Chinese Assembly Hall(C), Kampung Attap (D), High Street Traffic Police Station (E), Stadium Negara (F), Chinatown Kuala Lumpur (G), Wisma OCM (I), MABA Basketball Stadium (J), SMK Confucian Chinese School (K), Church of St. Anthony (Q), Hentian Puduraya & Hotel Puduraya (P), Plaza Rakyat(R), Tengkat Tong Shin (T), Pudu Jalil (U), Victoria Institution-VI School (V), Ibu Pejabat Polis Kontinjen Kuala Lumpur (W), Balai Bomba & Penyelamat Jalan Hang Tuah (X).
01 & 02 Children and adult can preactice Wushu in stadium and also take part competitions 03 Children painting class in Chin Woo Stadium 04 Chinese painting class is to promote Chinese culture 05 Chinese chess corps is to cultivate intact and perfect character 06 Calligarphy class is to promote Chinese cultur and Chinese communication knowledge
Martial Arts Section Wushu Activities
The major objectives: To promote the interest to the public and members to take up training and to popularized the Wushu Activities both in Traditional Routines and the Competition Sets. And to Conduct Research studies, Seminars or Trainings for Advance Wushu Classes The role of Wushu Activity Bureau is to publicize and promote Chinwoo martial arts through two major intentions, they are: 1. To Promote the Chinwoo Wushu and to Win the Worldwide Recognition 2. To cultivate Wushu specialist to take the responsibility to pass down the Wushu knowledge so that it won’t vanquish
Literary Culture Section Chinwoo Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur concentrates 3 education parts that physical education, intellectual education and moral education. Intellectual education is aimed to cultivate intact and perfect character. It can develop the Chinese culture. Therefore, literary culture section has responding to extend Chinese culture and communicate knowledge, literature, art culture and others. It has organizing forum and academy competition in every year. • Chinese Painting Class: • Children Painting Class: • Calligraphy Class: • Chinese Chess Corps:
SPIRIT OF CHIN WOO Three Chin Woo’s virtues
Chin Woo’s concepts
Man of Wisdom cannot be mislead
To train physically, intellectually and morally to achieve all around ability
Man of Benevolence has no worry
To be clean and respect others and self
Man of Courage has no fear
To be honest and frank and to love and treat others universally and equally
01 The Central of Chin Woo Record which recorded the virtues and conpept of Chin Woo 02 Chin Woo School nearby the Chin Woo Stadium 03 The Chin Woo Association emblem
Words and deeds
To justify one’s behavior and manners with his words and deeds
To honour every pledge and promise
To be punctual in appointment seek and no pardon
To uphold justice impartially
To serve and not to be served
To give and not to take
To love others and self like brothers 03
02 The Chin Woo Association emblem has designed to have a shield and three inner circles.
Shield protection The three inner circles The three principles of Chin Woo to be united under brotherhood Red circle philosophy Blue circle freedom Gold outer boundary equality Four top angles in the shield philosophy, knowledge, deep thinking and judgment Fifth bottom angle the previous four are reliant on the fifth that stands for practice.
Chin Woo School was formed.
History of Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur (Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, n.d.)
Chin Woo was formed as a long-term project mainly focus on intensive expansion of the association. The project included: (1) Establishing a New Building for Chin Woo School (2) Establishing a Chin Woo Administrative Centre (3) Building a Chin Woo multi-purpose stadium (4) To Enhance Facilities for all Activities and Improve Effectiveness of Training (5) Formation of Malaysia-Singapore Chin Woo Federation Unfortunately, the Association was force to stop functioning and these projects were abandoned because of World War 2. The newly recognized Association came back to function shortly after the war and had successfully achieved the projects mentioned above.
The land which the current Chin Woo located was bought after Chin Woo raised enough capital and invested wisely in some landed properties when they made benefit from the operation of lotteries and long term saving. The Building Fund Committee Board was formed under the leadership of Mr. Chen Tai Jie.
New school building for Pasar Road Chin Woo School was completed. Officiated by the past president, Mr. Zhang Yu Chai. Charity club was started and aimed to provide more capable student. The school was renamed to Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina Chin Woo under the aids of the Government.
Chin Woo Stadium which located at Jalan Hang Jebat was constructed. This project was officiated by His Royal Highness Sultan Hishammudin Alam Shah on 31th of August 1950. Opening ceremony was honourably officiated by His Excellency, Sir. Mc Donald, the High Commissioner of Great Britain and witnessed by the local leader on the 11th December 1953. This was a remarkable date that worthwhile written in the history of Chin Woo Association.
Olympic sized swimming pool was completed and officiated by Tan Sri Lee Guang Qian. The facility of the pool was considered as the best one in the region of South East Asian at that time.
Chin Woo signed up a Joint- Venture agreement with a contractor on 26th of March 1992 to develop a land located at Jalan Kenanga, Kuala Lumpur and Chin Woo gets a 13- storey building- the Chin Woo Court, which houses 154 units and 160 parking place with swimming pool and squash facilities. The rental derived became the main source of income for Chin Woo.
Chin Woo sold few properties to cover the increasing expenses. Some activities were also forced to stop.
Chin Woo was deregistered on 26th of December 1972 because the Association failed to submit Audited Reports for the years 1970 and 1971. The properties were also taken over controlled by public Trustees/Assignees Dr. Choon Thiam Tat and Zhou Rui Biao.
The Association got back the Registration and reclaimed the properties on 25th of January 1977. Tan Sri Lee Yan Lian and the new committee then successfully cleared the debts that accounted up over a million ringgit.
Chin Woo was officially renamed as Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur on 28th of June 1992. The Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur is the founder member for the formation of the Federation of the World International Chin Woo Athletic Association, and established good relationship among all Chin Woo Associations in the world.
ARCHITECT Dato’ Y. T. Lee, also Lee Yoon Thim (19051977) was a Malaysian Chinese architect active in Kuala Lumpur in the 1950s and 1960s. He was one of those who helped ‘Build Merdeka’ after Malaysia independence,1963. He had proposed many landmarks building in Kuala Lumpur, such as: Too House, Chin Woo Stadium, MBS, Sentul, UMNO building, Dewan Pustaka, Federal Hotel, Kampung Baru Mosque, Chinese Maternity Association KL. Ar-Rahman Mosque, East Asia building, and Sin Hoe building. The significance of Lee’s work is that it is mainly influential to the development of the country in its early years. Dato’ Y.T. Lee died in 7/2/1977, by the age of 72, and was buried in the Chinese cemetery. 01 Federal Hotel The Federal Hotel was built in 1957 to accommodate the declaration of Merdeka, Malaya’s Independence Day. It was founded by Tan Sri Low Yat. 02 Dewan Pustaka Dan Bahasa The construction was completed on January 31, 1962. Its most prominent feature is a 65 by 25 foot glazed mosaic mural, designed by Ismail Mustam. The complex’s layout on the prominent site was likened to the United Nations: there is a figural auditorium that faces the traffic circle, and behind it lies the broad administrative block.
ARCHITECTURE STYLE BY YAP ZHONG LIN 0310557 History of Art Deco 11-12 Chin Woo Stadium 13-14 Buffalo City Hall
Art Deco & Art Nouveau 17 Conclusion 18
ART DECO STYLE (1925 – 1940) HISTORY Art Deco was originally called the Modernistic style, or Style Moderne. However, by the 1970s the term “Art Deco” was widely used; it was coined at the great Paris art exhibition of 1925 - the L' Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes (Hillier 11). Also, Art Deco is sometimes called depression moderne because many Art Deco buildings were built during the Great Depression in the 1930s. (Benton, C. 2003)
Some art movements that had a major influence on Art Deco were: • Cubism: Reduction of natural forms to their geometrical equivalents • Expressionism: Forms derived from nature are distorted or exaggerated and colors are intensified for emotive or expressive purposes • Futurism: Forms derived chiefly from Cubism were used to represent rapid movements and dynamic motion; showing hostility to traditional forms of expression • Vorticism : Using the concept of a vortex
04 01 Cubism - The Musician by Tamara de Lempicka (1929) 02 Expressionism - Metropolis by Fritz Lang (1927) 03 Futurism – Architecture by Antonio Sant’Elia (1914) 04 Vorticism – Sketch by Henri Gaudier-Brzeska
THE PARIS EXBITION (1925) The Paris Exhibition in 1925 focused primarily on the Art Deco movement in France. However, the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb in November of 1922 spawned a worldwide fascination with all things Egyptian, further contributing to the evolving aesthetic of Art Deco. Egyptomania, as it came to be known, spread throughout the globe like wild fire and influenced everything from architecture to jewellery to furniture. Hence, we recognize the classic Egyptian Ziggurat (staggered tier, zigzag and pyramid shape) as a classic Art Deco motif. (Hillier, B., & Escritt S, 1997)
SETBACKS During the Depression, very few buildings (especially houses) were constructed. One exception was New York City where rectangular skyscrapers next to narrow sidewalks were being built, the result of which was that very little light was reaching the pedestrian sidewalks.
Thus, in 1924, a “setback” ordinance was passed: upper stories of a tall building were stepped back from the lower stories to allow more light to reach the street. Art Deco buildings in other cities imitated the setback feature to the extent that it became a
01: Poster of “The Paris Exhibition – 1925” 02: Djoser Pyramid - Sakkara, Egypt 03: Art Deco Courthouse, BolderCountry 04: New York Flying - High street
CHIN WOO STADIUM (ART MODERNE) MULTI-LEVEL FLAT ROOF
Art deco or streamline buildings usually have a flat roof.
EYEBROWS HORIZONTAL CANTILIVERED Horizontal grooves or lines in wall
ROUNDED EDGES Technology allowed for construction to be built with rounded corners in the 1930’s and 1940’s. The design of ships influenced architecture of Stadium Chin Woo. Rounded corners made buildings appear aerodynamic, fast and sleek.
COLUMNS VERTICAL TOWER METAL CASEMENT WINDOWS
SUBDUED COLOURS Interior base colours were typically offwhites and trim colours were typically darker colours which are light pink, light green and light blue. (Or bright metals) to contrast from the light base.
PORTHOLE SHAPED (AIR VENTILATION) Inspired by the porthole windows in the ship.
01 Ceramic Tiles 02 Terazzo 03 & 04 Parquet
BUFFALO CITY HALL, NEW YORK (CLASSICAL ART DECO) INTENSE COLOURS IN TERRA-COTTA
SETBACKS Leaving soaring central tower flanked by two wings
Shaped like miniature Art Deco buildings
The individual red triangles are in the form of Native American masks.
throughout the interior and exterior
PATTERNS OF DIAMOND AND ZIGZAGS on the ceilings form-ed by stone beam
Art Deco reeded columns meant to represent strength in unity
SUNBURST COLOURS & MATERIALS Base: Green Granite Main Body: Ohio Sandstone Upper Floors: Yellowish stone with polychrome terra cotta tiles at the top of the tower Intricately patterned lobby ceiling Ornamental pilaster representing four civic virtues
Sunrise and floral patterns in ornamentation Stained Glass Ceiling A very large art glass sunburst helps light the Common Council Chamber
MOSAIC TILES The tile mosaic patterns on the arched ceiling are symbolic of the Iroquois Nation, which shared the shores of Lake Eerie and Ontario.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL ART DECO & ART MODERNE CLASSICAL ART DECO
• Early type of Art Deco • Emerged in early 1920s after World War I • Setbacks • Vertical Emphasis • Ornate entranceways but austere exterior • Angular and geometric patterns inlaid into facades: ~ Zigzags ~ Sunbursts ~ Chevrons ~ Sweeping curves ~ Egyptian, Floral & Bird mo tifs • Ziggurats • Symmetrical • Gold accents • Use of bold colours specifically green, yellow turquoise and ruby • Inlaid stained glass • Liberal use of stainless steel, aluminium, marble & glass
• Late type of the Art Deco • Emerged in the 1930s after World War II • Flat roof • Aerodynamic • Horizontal orientation • Rounded edge • Corner windows • Porthole windows • Metal window frames (Sash/ Casement) • Chrome Hardware • Smooth exterior finishes • Subdued colours • Functionalism • Constructivism • First to incorporate electric light into architectural structure. • Widespread design for automobiles
Art Nouveau to Art Deco Why there’s so much difference between early and late Art Deco? Early Art Deco followed in Art Nouveau’s footsteps in that it also paid homage to beauty, but it was a more ‘modern’ interpretation. The Machine Age was well underway at this time and function became an important requirement again. The rounded, scroll, naturalistic motifs of Nouveau were replaced with geometric, angular and streamlined motifs like zigzags and chevrons. Function was important, but not at the expense of beauty and decoration. Art Deco is both a functional AND decorative artistic style. In essence, Art Deco is a modern interpretation of the art movement that preceded it, Art Nouveau. So it may be helpful to structure the Art.
Art Nouveau Lamp
Art Deco Lamp
Chin Woo Stadium is most suitable for Streamline/Art Moderne compared to Classical Art Deco is because: • The Streamline Moderne was both a reaction to Art Deco and a reflection of austere economic times; Sharp angles were replaced with simple, aerodynamic curves. Exotic woods and stone were replaced with cement and glass.
What influenced the transition between EARLY and LATE Art Deco Style? With the stock market crash of 1929, the Great Depression began to spread throughout the globe. Although it would be a couple more years before the average family began to experience the effect of this economic downturn, the optimism of the 20s was beginning to be replaced with a bleak sombreness. Nevertheless, the Art Deco movement continued to flourish in the early 1930s. Members of high society still favoured the works of Art Deco artists and craftsmen. Less expensive materials were being co-mingled with luxury materials which satisfied the less affluent consumer. People were still able to purchase luxury products, albeit at a much more palatable price. By the mid 1930s however, the world had been badly bruised and beaten by the Depression and Art Deco was an obscene, glittering reminder of a future than never came. It came to be associated with an opulence and extravagance that had no place in the stark reality of the day. Moreover, as the threat of a second world war loomed closer and closer, Art Deco was looked upon ever more vehemently. And with the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Classical Art Deco was dead.
• Stadium focused more on functionality. Hence, Art Moderne style is simplified from Classical Art Deco but still remains the aesthetic of a building. In Chin Woo Stadium, unnecessary ornamental elements weren’t used. • Early Art Deco style often used in large buildings such as Skyscrapers, hotels and cinemas The relationship between demanded quality and characteristics of an Art Deco building show strong correlation between functionality, design and customer preference for something new and unseen until its time in art and architecture. The designing concept was the expression of the new age and modernisms that was in opposition to the old values and traumas of the First World War. The Art Deco buildings’ design huge success was copied in several waves later in the 50-ies and 80-ies. Whereas Chin Woo Stadium was built within the years 1950 to 1953.
SHANGHAI INFLUENCED BY ONG YII SIANG 0302692
Architecture Influence 20-23 Conclusion 24
20 ARCHITECTURE STYLE INFLUENCE The Art Deco style of Chin Woo Stadium is largely influenced by the architecture of Shanghai, China, during the French Concession. Art Deco is considered as the motif of Shanghai architecture, distinguishing its most significant buildings. As a result of the construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s in Shanghai, the city boasts one of the world’s largest numbers of Art Deco buildings. Since Chin Woo Athletic Association has its root in Shanghai, in the early 20th century, the architecture style of Chin Woo Stadium is clearly inspired by Shanghai’s Art Deco which flourished during that period.
Broadway Mansions, Shanghai
One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak architect who lived in the city between 1918 and 1947. Some of his most notable Art Deco buildings include the Park Hotel and the Grand Theater.
Shanghai French Concession The Shanghai French Concession was a foreign concession in Shanghai, China from 1849 until 1946, which progressively expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The concession came to an end in 1943 when the Vichy A map of Shanghai in 1935, showing French government signed it over the French Concession in red. to the pro-Japanese puppet government in Nanking. For much of the 20th century, the area covered by the former French Concession remained the premier residential and retail district of Shanghai, and was also the centre of Catholicism in Shanghai. Park Hotel, Shanghai
Chin Woo Stadium
Capitol Theatre, Shanghai
Flag poles and horizontal banding
The curving form of Chin Woo Stadium with rounded edges expresses the essence of late Art Deco. The stadium’s façade is distinguished by the typical strong horizontal and vertical elements of Art Deco with a clock tower emphasising a corner. Flag poles can also be seen attached to the main entrance canopy. Meanwhile, Capitol Theatre, a masterpiece of Art Deco in Shanghai designed by Austrian architect GH Gonda, has the same characteristic of horizontal and vertical elements, but with an Expressionist corner tower and the absence of flag poles. In order to accentuate aerodynamic concepts of Art Deco, horizontal banding which comes in group of three is incised on the façade of Chin Woo Stadium. The curved façade of Capitol Theatre lacks this simplified ornamentation, but is decorated with geometric motifs in place of the horizontal bonding. The sweeping curves and towers of both buildings are features of the nautical elements which can be occasionally found in late Art Deco buildings.
Main entrance of Capitol Theater.
Influenced by Chinese architecture, the exterior of Chin Woo Stadium is cladded with Shanghai plaster, a vintage decorative concrete option which gives the appearance of sculpted stone. The building’s main entrance is flanked by two flattened pilasters while sliced pilasters are attached to the façade. Flattened pilasters are also attached to the front doorway and facade of Capitol Theatre. However, the theatre’s façade is cladded with smooth stucco finish. In addition, the façade of Chin Woo Stadium which is made of concrete and glass is not load-bearing. This offers flexibility to the facade being curved all the way round to form the perimeter of the building. Due to technological advancements of the time, the free façade also allows for vast openings and long horizontal strips of metal casement windows to stretch to greater lengths. Besides, the windows are possible to be placed nearly full-height of the level, reducing the heaviness of concrete used. Likewise, the façade of the fan-shaped Capitol Theatre shares the similarity of Chin Woo Stadium in this respect. The long horizontal windows of both buildings represent the aerodynamic pure-line concept of motion and speed established from scientific thinking.
Pilasters on the façade of Chin Woo Stadium.
23 Window grilles decorated with Chinese lattice motifs.
Above: The auditorium of Capitol Theatre, Shanghai. Below: The hall of Chin Woo Stadium, Kuala Lumpur
Mosaic tiles with different colours and geometric shapes are applied to columns, floors and stairs. Furthermore, Art Deco-inspired window grilles with Chinese lattice motifs can be found on both Chin Woo Stadium and Capitol Theatre. Also, the polished surface and brilliant colour of Chinese jade inspires the use of decorative materials such as mosaic tile. Vivid and subdued coloured tiles can be seen applied to the floor, staircases as well as interior columns of Chin Woo Stadium and Capitol Theatre. Inside Chin Woo Stadium, the huge arches spanning from one end to the other at the ceiling of the stadium does not only showcase technology but also allows for large empty space beneath without the need of columns. The free and open plan provides huge space for performance, events and seating places. Similarly, every seat in Capitol Theatre has a clear view of the stage as there are no columns despite the large size of the auditorium. This is made possible by the use of large reinforced concrete beams spanning the entire auditorium, carried by huge reinforced concrete columns in the side walls, resting on a reinforced concrete foundation beam raft to prevent an unequal settlement of the building.
24 CONCLUSION In a nutshell, the Art Deco style is characterised by smooth lines, geometric shapes, streamlined forms, bright and sometimes garish colours, reflecting modern technology. The Art Deco style of Chin Woo Stadium is unique as traditional Chinese design elements are incorporated into a basic Art Deco palate. Since it is a building style that invokes symmetry, Art Deco works particularly well with Feng Shui, making it popular with local Chinese.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BY TOH CHEE CHENG 0311122
Construction of Chin Woo Stadium 26 Floor System 27 Beams and Columns 28 Wall System 29-30 Multi-level Flat Roof 31 Comparison 32-33
The Construction of Chin Woo Stadium Curved Precast Concrete Wall
Multi- Level Flat Roof
Curved Beam Column
Chin Woo Stadium was constructed on top of a hill at Jalan Hang Jebat, which took 3 years to complete a stadium, including a badminton court, music room, martial arts court, restaurant, dance hall and wash room. Chin Woo Stadium adopted the late Art Deco Style, which also known as Art Moderne construction method including the design concept, massing, and materials selection.
Chin Woo Stadium used a traditional steel superstructure with concrete caissons transferring building loads to bedrock which is one of the method been widely used in the Art Deco buildings. Concrete slab supported floor and roof gravity loads on composite steel deck, resting on wide flange beams and girders and transferred to the foundation by wide-flange columns.
Chin Woo Stadium uses Concrete Waffle Raft Slab in the construction to achieve the same function as foundation on the ground as it needs to support live load and dead load transferred from column and bearing wall. At first, the site is excavated to place the form work and prepare for the slab bedding. Steel reinforced mesh was added to have a very high compressive strength to and prepare for the slab bedding. Steel reinforced mesh was added to have a very high compressive strength to able to take load from the entire building and transmit the superimposed loads to support system. Reinforce Mesh was placed before mixing concrete then pouring the slab. The concrete has been cut into 2cm groove into the slab for every 150cm to provide control joint that function to prevent crack. The flexibility of the slab also allows different finishes to be apply on it, such as carpet, tiles and timber. (Various types of RCC Slabs , 2014)
Concrete Fill Steel Mesh Waffle Pod
Details of Floor Slab
02 01 02 03 04
Site Excavation Formwork Slab Bedding Column Construction
03 05 Parquet Floorig 06 Cement Concrete Flooring with Paint 07 Tiles Flooring
Beams and Columns Columns
Building loads are transferred to the foundation via wide-flange columns. Loads are transferred to the foundation through base plates Base plate dimensions vary with column dimensions to allow sufficient room around the column for the anchor bolts. The steel frame bears on precisely located foundation elements that are incorporated into the existing buildingâ€™s foundation system. The foundation is a strategic design of cast-in-place concrete pads and strips supplemented with steel screw piles and concrete micropiles.
Wide Flange Column
01 Superstructure of Stadium 02 Construction of Column 03 Beams of Chin Woo Stadium
14 Curve beams is used to provide supports to the 3 layers of flat roof on top of it, and transferring the load to column and supports the layering roof. Curved beams are also used because it needs to coordinate with the layering of roof. Plan of Chin Woo Stadium
Wall System Most of the walls in Chin Woo Stadium are load bearing walls. It bear some of the buildingâ€™s weight such as, carry large windows area, as well as its own weight. There are three types of building can be found in this building, they are, cast in situ Concrete Wall, Masonry Wall and Dry wall.
Cast in Situ Concrete Wall
Prepare timber formwork with steel reinforcement mix into form bar, then pour concrete into formwork. Then remove the formwork when it is cure. The reinforce concrete wall is now completed, enable the design and appearance of the wall to be manipulated through the use of formwork admixtures and additives. , it is easier to curve the wall due to the advance technology applied. The wall pieces are joined together and filled with in-situ concrete. The structural strength of this material also allows the wall to bear load with large window areas with better quality control. The facades obscure much of the stadium bowl and roof, making the building appear smaller as you move closer. The finishes of the outermost wall is Shanghai plaster. It is an exposed aggregate (inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone) system that uses traditional natural pebbles and marble chippings. Shanghai plaster as a weatherproof material which gives the appearance of sculpted stone.
The thrusting vertical element is the belfry that attached to the curved bowl. Cantilevered window shades also included in the building structure. Eyebrows shade direct sunlight and keep interior cool. All doors and windows are framed in yellow horizontal band adds a nice finishing touch. Bowl cast in situ concrete wall
There are also horizontal grooves lines in wall to emphasize the horizontality.
Facade of Chin Woo Stadium Showing Components
Wall System Masonry Wall
Masonry walls can be found at the interior of Chin Woo Stadium. Masonries are one of the oldest material and most common material for the wall construction in Malaysia. It offers great flexibility in form and appearance of the building, such as, forming oval faรงade. It can bear load from the windows and doors and transferring the load to the floor slab.
Dry walls are used for some of the interior parts. Especially found on the podium to divide the spaces using wall tracks, metal studs and gypsum boards. (figure : shows the support system of gypsum board). The interior of stadium are also surrounded by acoustic insulation wall to absorb and provide better sound insulation.
02 Stud Joints to be Staggered Fasterner centres in field of plasterboard Rock Wool ( absorb sound) 01 01 Masonry Wall 02 Partition Board
03 Partition Board 04 Acoustic Partition
Plasterboard on Both Sides
Multi-Level Flat Roof Retro Roofing has been used in Chin Woo Stadium. Using main purpose of using Retro Roofing is it can enhance the thermal efficiency of Chin Woo Stadium by adding insulation. This is exactly importantly as Chin Woo is situated on the highest land, which exposed under sunlight all the time. But using Retro Roofing keeps the interior of Chin Woo Stadium cools even it is in a hot weather about 34Â°C. The installation of the roof starts with joining the roof trusses to the existing steel frame structure of the building. Then it was built up step by step until the 3rd layer. Steel roofing solutions last three times longer than built-up, membrane, shake or asphalt shingle roofs.
This design has limited the sunlight to reach the interior of the stadium.
The roof trusses are supported by the stadiumâ€™s vertical concrete columns and curve beams.
02 01 Top View of Roof 02 Details of Roof
03 Interior Ceiling View
Plaster ceiling at the interior of the stadium reduce the visual impact of the large trusses which support the roof.
Comparison of Chin Woo Stadium (Late Art Deco) and Highbury Stadium (Early Art Deco) Highbury Stadium was originally designed by Archibald Leitch as Arsenal Stadium as Early Art Deco Style and constructed in 1913. The football club, “Gunners” moved to the new state of the art, iconic stadium- Emirates Stadium after remained home for 93 years until 2006. Almost immediately after the departure, work began on transforming the site into a large residential development –the first of a kind Europe. (Highbury Square Stadium, n.d.)
The construction method of Chin Woo Stadium and Highbury Stadium are quite similar. Both of the stadiums are made up of steel superstructure with concrete caissons transferring building loads to bedrock which is one of the method been widely used in the Art Deco buildings. Highbury Square Stadium has 6 storey steel frame, while Chin Woo Stadium has 3 Storey steel frame. The steel frame can still be seen in the interior of Highbury Stadium while Chin Woo hide the steel frame completely out of the sight of users. 01
Both of the stadiums cover the superstructures using masonries façade. However, Chin Woo Stadium uses cast in situ concrete wall at the front bowl while Highbury Stadium uses only concrete. The finishing of the walls are also much different. As Chin Woo Stadium used Shanghai Plaster and Highbury Stadium used marble at the entrance. 03
Both of the stadiums uses in situ concrete slabs as it is has high compressive strength to carry the building load on ground. 01 Chin Woo Stadium Steel Superstructure 02 Highbury Stadium Steel Superstructure 03 Chin Woo Stadium Masonry Facade
04 Highbury Stadium Masonry Facade 05 In Situ Concrete Slab For Both Chin Woo and Highbury Stadium
Comparison of Chin Woo Stadium (Late Art Deco) and Highbury Stadium (Early Art Deco) Differences
However, there are still few differences can be found in Chin Woo Stadium and Highbury Stadium.
The construction of the roof of Highbury Stadium will appear to be more complex because it needs to suits all of the 4 climate in that country. The roof will be more slanted to reduce the pressure of the roof when snow accumulate above the roof. And allow the snow be be slip off the roof. Flat roof in Malaysia keeps the interior of the building cool by using Retro Roofing. 01
The curvy faรงade of Chin Woo made the windows look complex as people may think that the windows are bent when look at it. The window of Highbury building looks simpler.
03 01 Chin Woo Stadium Flat Roof 02 Highbury Stadium Roof
04 03 Chin Woo Stadium Circular Bay Windows 04 Highbury Stadium Flat Windows
BUILDING MATERIALS BY CHEW WOAN CHYIN 0310797 Concrete Block 35 Shanghai Plaster 36 Stucco 37 Terrazzo & Ceramic tiles 38 Art Deco colour & Interior Materials 39 Comparison 40
Concrete Block Chin Woo Stadium was mainly built by concrete block. Concrete block is a compound material made from sand, gravel and cement. The cement is a mixture of various minerals which when mixed with water, hydrate and rapidly become hard binding the sand and gravel into a solid mass. With walls made from strong concrete blocks, the limitations of traditional brick-and-mortar construction could be disregarded.
01 & 02 Examples of texture of concrete blocks 03 Wall in the progress by using concrete blocks 04 Porperties of the wall of concrete blocks 05 Chin Woo Stadium of concrete block wall
36 Shanghai Plaster Chin Woo Stadium was a three- storey flat-roofed building with Shanghai plaster. The walls were coated with a very shiny acrylic paint- Shanghai plaster. Shanghai plaster was a way to seal walls from water damage. Despite the European derivation of the Art Deco style, there was a China connection. In Europe and America the monumentality often associated with Art Deco called for construction, or at least cladding, in stone. 01
In Malaysia where stone was too inaccessible and expensive, the substitute was ‘Shanghai plaster’, a cheap, external surfacing material that could easily be applied by skilled craftsmen and worked onto the fine decorative detail, which looked like stone. Both are technology and the craftsmen came from China, where Shanghai was booming in the 1930s and becoming a great Art Deco architecture and decoration. Kuala Luampur’s Chinese character was thereby reinforced. Christie, M. (1983)
01 Art Deco Shanghai plaster with cladding stone used at the entry of Chin Woo Stadium 02 Shanghai plaster used at the exterior wall 03, 04 & 05 Examples of texture of the Shanghai plaster with cladding stone
Stucco Stucco, a material often used in Art Deco building which also found in Chin Woo Stadium. Stucco is a mortar mixture used for siding. Stucco can be made by mixing sand and lime with water and various other ingredients, most often cement. The mixture is applied directly to specially prepared masonry surfaces. Beginning about 1890 and gaining momentum into the 1930â€™s and 1940â€™s, stucco was associated with certain historic architectural styles, including Art Deco, and Art Moderne. Stucco was as a building material in the United States during this period, since it clearly looked like adobe.
The popularity of stucco as a cheap, and readily available material meant that by the 1920's, it was used for an increasing variety of building types. Resort hotels, apartment buildings, private mansions and movie theaters, railroad stations, and even gas stations and tourist courts took advantage of the "romance" of period styles, and adopted the stucco construction that had become synonymous with these styles.
01 One of the ways of applying Stucco 02 Application of applying stucco on the concrete blocks 03, 04 & 05 Examples of texture of the stucco 06 Stucco applied on the belfry of Chin Woo Stadium, fully present the Art Deco style
38 Terrazzo There are few types of terrazzo used in Chin Woo Stadium. There were standard terrazzo and rustic terrazzo. Standard terrazzo that terrazzo is made from relatively small stone chips and typically ground and polished. It was used as the handrails of the stairs with two different colour to bring out aesthetic feel.Rustic terrazzo is a uniformly textured finish where the binder is recessed from the chips. It was used as steps of the exterior stairs to prevent slipping.
Ceramic Tiles Ceramic tiles that are used as the steps of stairs are mosaic ceramic tiles, usually less than 35 cm2. Mosaic can be glazed or unglazed and made from porcelain, ceramic, glass or natural stone. 04
01, 02 & 03 Examples of texture of the terrazzo 04 & 05 Examples of texture of the ceramic tiles 06 Staircase in Chin Woo Stadium with Art Deco materials, terrazzo and ceramic tiles 06
Art Deco Colour Schemes
Chin Woo Stadium used neutrals colours scheme for the exterior. Art Deco was all about a streamlined, modern look and a neutral, monochromatic colour scheme easily achieved this feel. Thus, this colour scheme is more closer to the colour of concrete, Shanghai plaster and stucco which were the materials used for furnishing of Stadium Chin Woo.
For the hall of Chin Woo Stadium partition board with internal filling with rockwool, wooden grooved acoustic panel and polyester carpet are used as the function of soundproof. The soundproof materials are needed to be used as Chin Woo Stadium always held sport competitions, ceremony and wedding dinner for public. While the flooring was used by parquet wooden floor which is hard and suitable for sporting.
While for the interior of Chin Woo Stadium was using bold and bright colours. Colours used in Art Deco are striking and bold with a lot of contrasts. The economy was booming in during the Roaring 20s and lively, energetic colors began to symbolize the prosperity of the times. Art deco colors can be described as being rich and cool. The interior walls of Chin Woo Stadium were using pink to match the green colour sitting zone and also the yellow brown colour parquet flooring bring the bright and bold contrast effect. Cranfield, I. (2004)
02 01 Cremes, beiges, taupes and medium browns became popular choices. 04 Hues like canary yellow, emerald green, peacock blue, royal purple and brilliant red became all the rage.
03, 04 & 05 Polyester carpet, wooden grooved acoustic panel and partition board as soundproof material for stadium 06 Interior space of Chin Woo Stadium with Art Deco style
Comparison with Cotton Bowl Stadium Cotton Bowl Stadium opened in 1930 and still in use, known as Fair Park Stadium 1930-1936, which belonged to Art Deco style.
Why were they using concrete block too?
The Exposition's architect, George Dahl, built upon the ideas of the City Beautiful movement Art Deco. Art deco design and concrete block building materials were the tools of the time. Dahl's Esplanade became the site's "architectural focal point."
Wrought iron used as decoration Cotton Bowl was also using wrought iron as decoration which bent into flowers and sunrise shape that are characteristic of Art Deco. Both stadiums were used in the handrails ofa staircases.
Indoor vs Outdoor
The time flies, Chin Woo Stadium is still the same condition until now, while Cotton Bowl Stadium has lots of changes. Chin Woo Stadium keeps the building as a historical spot. Instead, Cotton Bowl renovates the stadium but still preserves the Art Deco style. The design team said they plan to preserve the original stadium entrances. Light Veil is an integrated faรงade for the Cotton Bowl Stadium at Fair Park to replace the historic Art Deco faรงade. The stainless steel was also the material used in Art Deco. So, the material used for new Cotton Wood Stadium is still following Art Deco but used and designed in modern way. Vertical ribbons of stainless steel mesh surround the periphery of the stadium, delicately linking the Art Deco stadium entries while covering exposed bleachers.
01 The Art Deco style entry 02 The wrought iron gate with decoration 03 The outdoor stadium with waterproof seats 04 Stainless steel used for revonation of Cotton Wool Stadium which also as Art Deco
Cotton Bowl Stadium is an open space stadium which Chin Woo Stadium was indoor stadium. For the interior of stadiums, Cotton Bowl Stadium was using plastic and concrete for sitting which were waterproof materials. While, Chin Woo Stadium focused on the sound proof materials.
ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS BY YAP ZHI JUN 0310738 Flooring - Parquet 42 Stairs - Art Deco & Art Nouveau 43 Stairs - Chin Woo Stadium 44 Windows - Porthole Window 45 Windows - Cicular Bay Window 46
FLOORING - PARQUET Originating in the 1920s, the Art Deco movement was a break away from tradition in the use of materials and pattern. In contrast to the flowing lines of the Art Nouveau period, Art Deco designers began to work with more straight lines and geometric patterns, and the materials they chose for their work had to be able to mimic those lines in form and “feel”. The design of parquet floors is geometric in shape, which gives relaxation to the eyes that will see it. If one follows its pattern, relaxation is achieved as well as stimulation to the mind because the design looks like a very big puzzle. (Pickover, C. A. ,1995) Chin Woo Stadium used parquet (Art Deco’s material) as the main finishing for flooring. Almost entire of the floor in the hall were covered with parquet brings
out the Art Deco feel, emphasizing straight lines and geometric. Chin Woo Stadium mainly use for sports activities like badminton, Wushu and etc. Parquet acts as insulating material helps to maintain the hall temperature especially during activites going. Parquet also can reduce noise using a simple principle: greater mass means less vibration, it helps to reduce noise and bring more peace in big fuctions in the hall. Besides, parquet flooring is very durable and tough, it is very suitable to use in Chin Woo Stadium as it is very stable and can resist pressure created by sports activities.
01 The floor of the hall covered with parquet. 02 Finishes of stairs used parquet too. 03 Arrangment of parquet is ‘inlaid parquet’.
STAIRS Art Nouveau & Art Deco
Art nouveau combines geometric shapes with themes from nature like insects, plants, flowers, trees and sometimes mythical fairies. The design is also often characterized by its organic, fluid, asymmetrical curves. It emphasizes on the ‘new’ materials such as glass and iron. Art deco utilizes geometric shapes too, they are more linear, streamlined, repetitive and symmetrical. Sunburst and zigzags are two common shapes featured in art deco designs. When including natural forms, they tend to be more graphic and textural like the rough edges of a plant’s leaves or a zebra’s hide.
03 Art Deco
Hoover Building , UK. Geometric shapes are one of the most important features in Art Deco, which could be proved by stremlined lines and symmetric geometric patterns. Metallic colours like silver, gold and bronze are used. The stairs are covered with terazzo and cast-iron railings. Lemme, A. v. (1986)
04 Art Nouveau
01 01 Art nouveau is ornamental, “curvy” and asymmetrical. 02 Art deco is sleek, streamlined, linear and symmetrical.
Tassel House, Brussels. The stair hall is an integrated harmony of linear rhythms, established in the balustrades of ornamental iron, the whiplash curves atop the capitals, the arabesque design a form of buildings without traditions, and its functions lent themselves to an architecture that emphasized openes and spatial flow as wel as ornate decorative backgrounds.
STAIRS INFLUENCED BY ART NOUVEAU & ART DECO In Chin Woo Stadium, the stairs are influenced by Art Nouveau and Art Deco. 01 This picture shows two straight stairs located at the side of the office area before enter the main hall which connected ground floor to upper floors.
02 This picture shows stairs are covered with ceramic tiles which started to use in Art Nouveau period. However the handrails are made of wood and terrazo, materials which are used during Art Deco period. Stair is in Art Deco straight form not curvy like Art Nouveau. 03 This picture shows a stair connect to the seating area. Its handrails are more to Art Nouveau period because of the curvy flower design. The handrails are made of wrought iron which material that start to use in Art Nouveau period. However, the stairs are covered with parquet, material that used during Art Deco period.
04 Half circular stair connects office area to the main hall. The material use is Art Deco material - caramic tiles. 05 Half circular stair connects office area to the exterior. The material use is Art Deco material Terrazzo.
WINDOWS - PORTHOLE WINDOW
The Coca-Cola building is recognized by architects as a grand example of Streamline Moderne, a design style invoking speed and motion with long, flowing lines. The style flourished in 1930s Southern California. As historians David Gebhard and Harriette Von Breton noted in their book, “Los Angeles in the Thirties”: “Streamlining and the Moderne were perfect expressions of an automobile-oriented society. In an affirmation of faith in the future, the aesthetics of speed, freedom and mobility were applied to buildings, ocean liners, aircraft, refrigerators, radios--anything.” Derrah and Barbee, an avid yachtsman, decided a ship motif would project the attributes Coca-Cola sought to promote: modernity, cleanliness and progress. Derrah’s ocean liner features two rows of porthole windows. The Coca-Cola sign atop the building was built in the shape of a ship’s bridge. One aspect that makes porthole windows unique compared to regular windows is that they are always circular in shape rather than rectangular or square.
Chin Woo Stadium is consider as late Art Deco style which is close to Streamline Moderne style. The exterior form of this stadium also looks like a ship. Porthole shape is use in Chin Woo Stadium as ventilation but not as window. There is one long row of porthole ventilation at the both side of the stadium. The ventilation is important in the hall to reduce carbon dioxied produced during sport activities to ensure fresh air in the big hall.
WINDOWS - CIRCULAR BAY WINDOW
46 Greyhound is kind of Art Deco Modern architecture in Washington because of its architectural achievements through long accentuated lines giving the building a horizontal orientation, help create aerodynamic look and feeling of speed that the Streamline Modern style seeks to express. The rounded edges in the structure and circular bay windows, joining a combination of windows together into a smooth circular area. The roof of the building is concealed with parapet and a emphatic vertical signboard is placed at the centre of the building.
The exterior of Chin Woo Stadium is in half circular shape, upper floor is covered with a full row of vertical circular bay window. Chin Woo Stadium is located at the hill, the circular bay window is facing the view of the town, enable people to have a panaromic view. Through the picture, the roof is also concealed with parapet (Art Deco Modern style), but the difference is Chin Woo Stadium has a long horizontal eyebrows act as shade.
The windows of Chin Woo Stadium consist of three as a set with two double hung windows at the side, a deadlight in the middle and ventlight on the top. The materials used are Art Decoâ€™s materials, wrought iron casement with plain blue green stained glass.
CONCLUSION Chin Woo Stadium is an Art Deco building constructed in year 1950 and completed in 1953. Designed by Architect Y. T. Lee, it is located at Jalan Hang Jebat, previously known as David Road. Activities such as Martial Art and Literary Culture Section have been carried out at the stadium. The three virtues of Chin Woo are Wisdom, Benevolence and Courage. The stadium is equipped with an Olympic-sized swimming pool operated by the Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor. Embraced the technology progression during 1930s, the architecture of Chin Woo Stadium emphasised curving form, long horizontal and vertical lines with a touch of Shanghaiâ€™s Art Deco. As one of the early modern buildings in Malaysia, Chin Woo Stadium is rich in culture, heritage and history.
REFERENCES Are We at Risk For Another Great Depression? (n.d.). About.com 20th Century History. Retrieved May 15, 2014, from http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/p/greatdepression.htm Art Deco. (n.d.). Art Deco. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.buffaloah.com/a/archsty/deco/index.html ART DECO & MODERNE. (n.d.). ART DECO. Retrieved June 14, 2014, from http://student.santarosa.edu/~dbolt1/intro_dreamweaver/midterm_project/artdeco.html Art Deco and Moderne. (2011, October 1). Architecture Landscape and Urban Design. Retrieved May 13, 2014, from http://architecturestyles.org/art-deco/ Benton, C. (2003). Art deco 1910-1939. Boston: Bulfinch Press/AOL Time Warner Book Group. Chin Woo Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.chinwoo.org.my/en/1_1_premises.php Christie, M. (1983). The modern movement to include art nouveau and art deco. Conlin, J. H. (1993). Buffalo City Hall: Americanesque masterpiece. Buffalo, N.Y.: Landmark Society of the Niagara Frontier. Cranfield, I. (2004). Art deco house style: an architectural and interior design source book. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. Design Savvy Interior Decorating and Design Services. (n.d.). Design Savvy Interior Decorating and Design Services. Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.designsavvy.ca/#!art-deco-design/c1ifo Ground level concrete slab subfloor. (n.d.). Retrieved from Build: http://www.build.com.au/ground-level-concrete-slab-subfloor Highbury Square Stadium. (n.d.). Retrieved from Buro Happold: http://www.burohappold.com/projects/project/highbury-square-stadium-24/ Hillier, B., & Escritt, S. (1997). Art deco style. London: Phaidon. History of Art Deco. (n.d.). No5 Boutique Art Hotel Luxury Hotel in Port Elizabeth South Africa. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from http://no5boutiquearthotel.com/history-art-deco/ Lim, I. (2013, 9 29). Will the Warisan Merdeka project spell the end of Chin Woo Stadium? Kuala Lumpur: Malay Mail Online. Qiao, M. (2014). Capitol Theatre an Art Deco treasure | Shanghai Daily. Shanghaidaily.com. Retrieved 19 June 2014, from http://www.shanghaidaily.com/Feature/art-and-culture/Capitol-Theatre-an-Art-Deco-treasure/shdaily.shtml Schwartzman, A. (n.d.). London Art Deco. Hudsons Hill Press. Smith, K. (2014). Shanghai: A Global Centre of Art Deco, The Best Art Deco Architecture in The World. ChinaHighlights. Retrieved 18 June 2014, from http://www.chinahighlights.com/ shanghai/article-centre-of-art-deco.htm Stadium Constrution Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved from We Defend Together: http://www.sportingkc.com/stadium/construction-timeline Various types of RCC Slabs . (2014, 6 21). Retrieved from Civil Engineering Projects: http://www.civilprojectsonline.com/building-construction/various-types-of-rcc-slabs-design-of-rccstructures/ Visual-arts-cork.com. (n.d.). Art Deco Design Style: Origins, History, Characteristics. Retrieved 12 June 2014, from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/art-d Wang, J. (2006). Shanghai art deco in photo. Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 18 June 2014, from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/citylife/2006-12/29/content_770687.htm Wentworthstudio.com. (n.d.). HISTORIC STYLES / ART DECO STYLE 1925-1940. Retrieved 12 June 2014, from http://www.wentworthstudio.com/historic-styles/art-deco Your first look at what the â€˜new lookâ€™ Cotton Bowl could look like by September 2013. (2011, July 11). City Hall Blog. Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://cityhallblog.dallasnews.com/.../ your-first-look.../