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s[ifsnfO{ k|]l/t u/]sf] ;+:yfn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfn] cfw'lgs b'w k|zf]wg sf/vfgfsf] lgdf{0f u/L ;b:osf] Joj;flos ljsf; / :t/ pGgtLsf lgz'Ns jf zz'Ns tflnd , canf]sg, e|d0f, cflbsf] Joj:yf ug]{ ePsf] 5 . o;sf nlIot ju{df kz'kfng Joj;foL, b'w pTkfbs, j}b]lzs /f]huf/af6 kmls{Psf o'jf ;d'bfo /x]sf 5g\ .

df}/Lkfns dxf;+3sf] ;fwf/0f;ef ;DkGg sf7df8f}÷F g]kfn df}/L kfns dxf;+3 e/tk'/ lrtjgsf] !$ cf}F ;fwf/0f ;ef sf7df8f}dF f ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . ut j}zfv @) ut] ;DkGg ePsf] ;f] ;fwf/0f ;ef pT3f6g ub}{ s[lif dGqL 6]s axfb'/ 3tL{n] s[lifnfO{ arfpg df}/L cfjZos ePsf] atfP . o:t} g]kfnsf &% lhNnfdf df}/Lkfngsf] nflu ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ul/g] pgn] atfP . g]kfndf !) xhf/ eGbf a9L df}/Lkfns s[ifsx¿ /x]sf] dxf;ª\3sf] cg'dfg 5 . g]kfndf df}/Lkfng Joj;foaf6 ! dlxgfdf sl/a ! xhf/ d]l6«s 6g dx pTkfbg x'g] u/]sf] g]kfn df}/L kfns dxf;+3sf] k|f/lDes tYofª\s 5 . df}/L kfng Joj;fodf k|lt:kwf{ x'gk' g],{ o;sf nflu sRrf kbfy{ ljb]zaf6 cfoft ug{ gkg]{ ePsfn] o; Joj;fodf s[ifsx¿sf] cfsif{0f a9]sf] dxf;ª\3sf cWoIf /fh]Gb| uf}tdn] atfP . sfo{qmddf ljleGg 7fpFaf6 efu lng cfPsf s[ifsx¿ cfkm"n] ef]Ug'k/]sf] ;d:of cjut u/fPsf lyP . ;/sf/sf] :ki6 gLlt gx'g,' ahf/sf] d"Nodf ptf/r9fj x'g,' dxnfO{ b}lgs pkef]Uo j:t'sf] ¿kdf glng' , :jb]zL cf}ifwLsf nflu g]kfnL dxsf] k|of]u gx'g,' df}/L r/gsf] nflu pko'Qm :yfg gx'g' o; Joj;fosf d'Vo ;d:of /x]sf] Joj;foLx¿n]

gfs{sf] @@cf}“ jflif{sf]T;j sf7df8f}÷F g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\ -gfs{_sf] @@cf}F jflif{sf]T;a ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . ;f] cj;/df gfs{n] k|yd s[lif cg';Gwfg P+j k|ljlw k|bz{gL @)&) ;d]t cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmdsf] pb\3f6g ub}{ s[lif, jg tyf e"–;+/If0fdGqL 6]s axfb'/ yfkf 3tL{n] g]kfndf s[lifsf] ljsf; geP;Dd ;du| b]z ljsf; x'g g;Sg] atfP . o;sf nflu hf]8tf]8n] s[lif ljsf;df ;a} lgsfo nfUg'kg]{ pgsf] egfO{ lyof] .

s[lif If]qsf] C0fdf nfUb} cfPsf] Jofhdf # k|ltzt 36fpg] of]hgf /x]sf] / s[lifsf] dxTjaf/] k|sfz kfg]{ ;~rf/sdL{nfO{ tflndsf] Joj:yf ug]{ dGqL 3tL{n] atfP . sfo{qmddf gfs{sf sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs 8f= lbn axfb'/ u'?ªn] gfs{n] ljutdf u/]sf j}1flgs pknAwL / eflj of]hgfaf/] k|sfz kf/]sf lyP . pQm sfo{qmddf s[lif If]qsf cGt/f{li6«o cjf8{ k|fKt gfs{sf kfFr hgf s[lif j}1flgsx¿ dbg/fh e§, ;/nf zdf{, 8f w|'jaxfb'/ yfkf, 8f= bLks e08f/L / e'jg/fh uf}tdnfO{ hgxL b'O{ nfv k|bfg ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf /fd|f] sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L, s[lif kqsf/nfO{ klg ;Ddfg ul/Psf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf s[lif ;DaGwL gf}nf k|ljlw af/] s[lif j}1flgs ;Fu 5nkmnsf ;fy} lapm ljhgsf] ljqmL Joj:yf ;d]t ul/Psf] lyof] . v'dn6f/ l:yt gfs{ kl/;/df tLg lbg ;Dd @% cf]6f eGbf a9L :6ndf hfgsf/L d'ns ;'rgf, ug'{ kg]{ sfd af/]df ;'emfj ;+sng ul/Psf] lyof] .

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/fli6«o dfl;s

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April - May 2013

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blwsf]6, eQmk'/ af]6df Ps};dodf af]6nfO{ rflxg] kfgL k'Ug] x'Fbf of] ljwL ckgfOsf] xf] . o;n] b'O{hgf dflg;sf] ;do hf]ufPsf] 5 . ljb]zaf6 NofPsf] lj?jf x'sf{pg TotL ;lhnf] 5}g . @)%* ;fndf klxnf] kN6 ha]{/f k|hfltsf] k]l/lgon km"n /f]Kbf klxnf] aif{ /fd|};Fu x'ls{of] . kl5 Ps aif{ eg] s/Lj !^ ;o lj?jfn] Ps l;hg klg km"n lbg ;s]g . o;n]

$) xhf/ s[lif ;DaGwL klqsf ;+sng u/]sf] 5' yfgsf]6 uflj; j8f g & clxn] d}n] b'O /f]kgLdf s'/Lnf] v]tL ul//x]sf] 5' . la:tf/} %–& /f]kgLdf s'/Lnf] v]tL ug]{ of]hgf agfpFb5 } ' . d klxNo} b]lv s[lifdf O{R5f ePsfn] o;} Joj;fodf ;FnUg 5' . klxn] wfg v]tL uy]{

df]xgs[i0f df:s] yfgsf]6–&, sf7df8fF} t/ clxn] t/sf/L v]tLdf a9L sfd ug{ yfn]sf] 5' . s[lifsf af/] ljleGg hfgsf/L klg lng ?rfpg] ePsfn] g} d ;Fu s[lif ;DalGw $) xhf/ htL kqklqsfx¿ 3/d} 5g\ . h8La'6L, kz'kfng, t/sf/L v]tL, kmnkm"n v]tL ;DalGw lstfa tyf klqsf ;ª\sng ug]{ d]/f] afgL 5 . o;af6 klg d}n] w]/} hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf] 5' . ca eljiodf Pp6f s[lif nfOa|/] L agfpg] of]hgf klg 5 . clxn] d]/f s]xL ;fyLx¿ lstfa k9\g cfpF5g\ . pgLx¿nfO{ Ps xKtf, Ps dlxgf ;do lbP/ k9\g lbg] u/]sf] 5' . s[lifdf w]/} ;d:of ePklg ahf/ / k|ljlwsf] ;d:of k|dv ' /x]sf 5g\ . o:tf ;d:of Go"lgs/0f ug{sf nflu s[lif ljsf; dGqfno, s[lif ljefu h:tf lgsfon] kxn ug'k{ 5{ eg] s]xL s'/f Joj;foL cfkm}F{ klg cl3 ;g'k{ 5{ . To:t} g]kfnsf] ;du| s[lif ljsf;sf nlfu ;/sf/n] Joj;flos t/sf/L v]tL ug{ kxn ug'k{ 5{ . lapmljhg, tflndh:tf sfo{df ;/sf/sf] ;xof]u cfjZos 5 . gofF k|ljlw NofP/ ls;fgnfO{ To;af/] hfgsf/L u/fP s[lif ljsf; x'g ;S5 .

;"rgf of] k[i7sf nflu tkfO{n] kf;kf]6{ ;fOhsf] kmf]6f];lxt ! ;o %) zAb ga9fO{ cfkm\gf] Joj;fosf] af/]df k7fpg ;Sg'xg ' 5] .


h]l6P sg{/

lel6P sg{/

s[lif sd{x?

s'v'/f kfng Joj:yfkg

v8\uk|;fb >]i7

1fg axfb'/ yfkf

k|fljlws clws[t sL6lj1fg dxfzfvf l;kmfl/; ul/P cg';f/sf -kfP;Dd /f]usL/f ;xg ;Sg]_ wfgsf] aLpm vf]hL ul/ g;{/L Aof8 /fVg] . wfgsf] aLpm /fVg' eGbf klxnf Ps ln6/ kfgLdf @)) u|fd g'g /fvL To;sf] 3f]ndf wfgsf] aLpmnfO{ 5fg]/ dfly t}l/Psf] hlt lgsfn]/ kmfnLlbg] / lk+wdf /x]sf] aLpm ;kmf kfgLn] kvfnL g;{/L Jof8df 5l/ lbg] . o;f] ubf{ /f]usL/f nfu]sf wfg, kf]u6f, dflyNnf] efudf t}l/G5g eg] /fd|f] hlt lk+wdf g} /xG5g\ . o;f] ubf{ wfgsf] aLpm ;t k|ltzt pd|G5 / !) b]lv !% k|ltzt pTkfbg a9\gs ' f] ;fy} aLpmsf] dfqf sd nfU5 . j}zfv dlxgfdf 5/]sf] ds}sf] klxnf] uf]8fO ug]{,klxnf] uf]8fO ul/ ;s]sf] ds} 3'+8f;Dd cfpg] ePsf] 5 eg], l;kmfl/; cg';f/sf] o'/Lof dn /fvL ps]/f lbg], ps]/f /fd|f];Fu lbgfn] ds} 9Ngaf6 ;d]t ;'/lIft x'G5 . a]df};dL uf]ne]F8fsf] nflu 6g]n lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg], l;kmfl/; ul/P cg';f/sf] uf]ne]F8fsf] aLpm 5g]{, tof/ ePsf] j]gf{ /f]Kg] / l;+rfO{ ul/lbg] . sf7df8f}+sf] h:tf] xfjf kfgL ePsf] If]qdf nufO{Psf] ux'F sf6\g],r'6\g] / $,% 3fd ;'sfP/ aLpm / vfBfGGfsf] nflu 5'6\6f– 5'6\6} e08f/0f ug]{, e08f/0f ubf{ d]6nljg jf ;'wfl/Psf] esf/Ldf ux'F /fvL gLd, dl/r, l6Dd'/, v';f{gLsf] w"nf] % b]lv !) u|fd

al/i7 kz' ljsf; clws[t k|lt s]hL ux'Fdf /fvL e08f/0f ug]{, jf af]emf]sf] w"nf] % u|fdsf] b/n] /fvL e08f/0f u/]sf] v08df 3'gaf6 s]xL xb;Dd arfpg ;lsG5 . kfvf]af/Ldf nufO{Psf] ds} leq sf]bf] /f]Kg] . vfnL v]taf/L 5 eg], k|z:t dfqfdf k|fu+ fl/s dn /fvL vghf]t u/L /fVg] . o;f] ubf{ df6f] /fd|/L kfSg kfpF5, 3fdn] emf/kft d5{, vghf]t ug]{ sfo{n] v]taf/Ldf ePsf xfgLsf/s sL/fsf km'n, Ko"kf cflb s]xL dfqfdf eP klg sd x'g hfG5g\ . tkfO{n] nufPsf] sf+qmf, kml;{, nf}sf, l3/f}+nf, s/]nf cflbdf cf}+;f sL/f (Fruit Fly) sf] k|sf]k b]lvPsf] 5 eg], km]/f]df]g 6\ofk /fvL xfNg'xf];\ . km]/f]df]g 6\ofk /fVbf k|lt /f]kgL $ j6fsf] b/n] /fvL lbg] . km]/f]df]g 6\ofksf] nflu kx]+nf] kf/bzL{ Knfli6ssf] a6\6f leq 9nfg tf/df yf]/} skf; /fvL To;df % yf]kf So"lno/ % yf]kf dfnflyog emf]n /fvL % lkm6 prfO{df /fvL lbg] . x/]s !%,!% lbgdf dfnflyog / So"lno/ yKb} hfg] . v]taf/Ldf nufOPsf] t/sf/L tyf cGo jfnLsf] lgoldt cjnf]sg ug],{ /f]u sL/f nfu]sf] eP ljiffbL 5g'k{ g]{ cj:yf ePdf dfq ;Dej eP;Dd ahf/df kfOg] h}ljs ljiffbL k|of]u ug]{ gkfOPsf] v08df ;'/lIft vfnsf] /f;folgs ljiffbLsf] k|of]u ug]{ .

ljif]ztM s'v/fkfngsf k|d'v b'O{ p4]Zox¿df df;' tyf km'n pTkfbg kb{5g\ . df;'sf nflu af]|On/ tyf km'nsf nflu n]o;{ hftaf6 klxrfg ul/G5 . oL b'j} p4]Zo k|flKtsfnflu df};dn] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 / df};d tyf hnjfo'sf] ;Gwe{df Pp6} k|sf/sf Joj:yfkg ljlw cjnDag ug{ ;lsG5 . k|fo udL{ tyf hf8f] df};ddf km/s km/s s'v'/f Joj:yfkg ljlwsf] k|of]u x'g ;s]df Joj;fo kmfObfhgs x'g] k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 5 . t;y{ lgDg lnlvt ljifoj:t'df ljz]if Wofg k'of{pg' cfjZos k5{ . tfkqmd udL{sf] ;dodf s'v'/f kfng If]qsf] ef}uf]lns l:ylt, e'–jgfj6sf] cj:yf cg';f/ tfkqmd km/s km/s ¿kdf kfO{G5 . s''v/fsf] ;/b/ zfl//Ls tfkqmd b'j} df};d-hf8f] jf udL{_ df !)% b]lv !)& l8u|L km/]GxfO6 ;Dd x'G5 . t;y{ zfl//Ls tfkqmdsf] cfwf/df aflx/L tyf kfng ug]{ vf]/sf] tfkqmd udL{ ;dodf ldnfpg kg]{ lgtfGt cfjZos 5 . cGoyf kfng ug]{ vf]/sf] tfkqmd 36L jf j9L x'Fbf s''v'/fsf] zf/Ll/s :j:ytf, pTkfbg Ifdtf tyf zf/Ll/s a[l4df x|f; cfpg ;S5 . s''v'/f kmfd{df tfkqmdsf] d'Vo >f]t eg]sf] ;f}o{zlQm xf] eg] cGo >f]tsf] ¿kdf ljleGg k|sf/sf

tfk lbg] laB'lto pks/0f lx6/ , ljB't lrd_ , Uof; tyf e';af6 aflng] e'sf/Lx¿ nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . k|fs[lts tfkqmd >f]t lbp;f]sf] ;dodf eGbf /ftsf] ;dodf sd x'g] ePsfn] pko'Qm tfkqmdsf] nflu dfkg ug]{ oGq -ydf{ld6/_ h8fg ug{'k5{ . xfd|f] h:tf] d''n'sdf a|f]On/ tyf n]o;{ s''v'/f kfngsf] nflu pko'Qm tfkqmd !*–@$ l8lu| ;]=;Dd sfod /fVg' kb{5 . olb tfkqmd a9L ePdf c08f pTkfbg sd x'g] , df;'sf] a[l4b/ sd x'g] , tfkqmd w]/} ePdf kv]6f lkmhfO{ d'v vf]n]/ :of :of ug,]{ h:tf cj:yf b]lvg'sf] ;fy} #) l8lu| ;]=tfkqmd eGbf dfly ePdf s''v'/nfO{ tfksf] tgfj (Heat Stress) a9\5 . ;fk]lIft cfb|tf s'v'/f kmfd{df ;fk]lIft cfb|tfsf] klg ljz]if dxTj /xG5 . t;y{ s''v'/f kfng kmfd{sf] pko'Qm ;fk]lIft cfb|tf ^)–*) k|ltztsf] cGt/df x'g /fd|f] x'G5 . pQm cfb|tf sfod /fVgsf] nflu xfjfsf] cfjfudg (Vantilation) sf] k|jGw x'g h?/L 5 . s'v'/f ;+Vofsf] wgTj (Bird Density)

udL{ ;dodf pko'Qm wgTjdf s'v/' f /fVg' kb{5 . ulx/f] ;f]t/ lj5ofPsf] e'Odf kflng] n]o;{sf] ;Gbe{df ^ j6f jo:s s'v/' f afFsL k]h * df

April - May 2013 h]7

@)&)

/fli6«o dfl;s

7


ljifofGt/ c?sf] cf“vfdf s[lif

6f9fsf] b]jtf eGbf glhssf] e"t Kof/f] s[lif Ps :jfanDaL k]zf xf] . s[lifnfO{ Jofj;flos ¿kdf lnFbf cfly{s pGgtL x'g ;S5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df t s[lifsf] If]q cem} j[xt\ 5 . s[lifn] JolQmnO{ cfTdlge{/ agfpF5 . lbks yfkf k|d'v, pBdL ljsf; s]Gb| 6f9fsf] b]jtf eGbf glhssf] lsª\u; sn]h, sf7df8f}F e"t Kof/f] eg]em}F g]kfnLx¿ s[lifdf cfaå eP ljb]z uP/ sdfOg] k};f cfkm\g} b]zdf sdfpg ;S5g\ . lxhf] eGbf cfh ;f]rdf kl/jt{g cfO;s]sf] 5 . lxhf] uf]a/ uGxfpF5 eg]/ kG5Lg] o'jfx¿ cfh ufO{kfng e}F;Lkfngdf nfu]sf 5g\, of] g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df pT;fxhgs s'/f xf] . t/sf/L, kmnkm"nh:tf s[lifhGo j:t' ljb]zaf6 cfoft ug'{kb}{g . g]kfndf gofF gofF k|ljlw NofO{ s[lifnfO{ Joj;flostf lbP ;du| b]zsf] cfly{s cj:yfdf pNn]Vo ;'wf/ cfpF5 . k]h & sf] afFsL c+z

udL{sf] ;dodf=== k|lt ju{ ld6/sf] cwf/df 7fFpsf] Joj:yf x'g kb{5 eg] a|fO] n/ sf] nflu * j6f s'v ' /' f k|lt ju{ ld6/ sf] 7fFp lbg kb{5 . xfjfsf] cfjudg (Ventilation) udL{ ;dodf s'v ' /' f kmfd{ leqsf] tfkqmd lgoGqg ug{sf nflu pko'Qm dfqfdf bf]xf]/f] -qm;_ xfjfsf] k|jfx x'g] / 5fgfdf ;d]t xfjf k|jfxsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg kb{5 . xfd|f] b]zsf] kmfd{ k|0ffnL cg';f/ q; e]lG6«n; ] g / k|fs[lts elG6«n; ] g ePsf] x'bf xfjf k|jz ] ug{ e]lGtn]6/sf] ;fOh % ;]= ld= ÷ju{ dL= / xfjf jflx/ hfg] e]lG6n]6/sf] ;fOh @ ;]= ld=÷j= dL= sf b/n] lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . olb kmfd{df cToflws Pdf]lgof Uof; hDdf ePdf b"j} e]lG6n]6/ sf] ;fOh j9fpg pko'Qm x'G5 . k|sfz km'n kfg]{ cjlwsf kf]lysf] nflu !$ 306f / a9Ldf !& 306f k|sfzsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . cToflws k|sfz x'bf km'n pTkfbg 36\g],cfk;df h'Wg] ;d:of klg b]lvg ;S5 . g]kfndf lgld{t v'Nnf kmfd{df * jf6-watt_ k|lt j= ld= sf] cfwf/df / aGb vf]/sf] nflu $ jf6 k|lt j= ld= b/n] vf]/sf] If]qkmn cg';f/ pHofnf] lbg pko'Qm x'G5 . pbfx/0f M vf]/sf] If]qkmn Ö!))) j= ld= ePdf v'Nnf vf]/sf] nflu * jf6 â !))) Ö *))) jf6 8

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

b]zsf] cfly{s cj:yf ;'wf/sf] nflu s[lif g]kfn s[lif k|wfg b]z ePsf] sf/0f klg g]kfnLx¿sf nflu s[lif cToGt} dxTjk"0f{ 5 . afFRgsf nflu :j:ys/ cfxf/f x/]s dflg;nfO{ cfjZos x'G5 s[lif lagf xfdL pQm cfxf/sf] sNkgf lbk]Gb| rf}nfufFO{ klg ug{ ;Sb}gf} . To;}n] dfgj ck/]zg Dofg]h/ lhjgdf s[lifsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf ;d[lå b k|f]:k/L6L kmfp08];g /x]sf] 5 . To:t} ls;fgsf] cfly{s pGglt ljsf; ug{, b]zsf] cfo j[lå ug{ s[lif cToGt} cfjZos 5 . xfdL klg s[lifdf ;FnUg 5f}F, d hlGdg' eGbf cufl8b]lv g} 3/df pv' tyf uf]ne]8f v]tL x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 / clxn];Dd klg x'G5 . g]kfndf s[lifsf] ljsf; pNn]Vo x'Fbf t/sf/L kmnkm"nsf] nflu ljb]zsf] e/ kg'{ kb}{g . a? :jb]zaf6 ljb]zdf lgof{t ug{ ;lsG5 . o;/L Ps ls;fgsf] dfq geO{ b]zs} cfly{s cj:yfdf ;'wf/ cfpg] ePsfn] s[lif cfjZos 5 .

To:t} ^) jf6sf] jNj sf] !## j6f jNj cfjZos kb{5 . bfgf e08f/0f udL{sf] ;dodf bfgfsf] e08f/ nfdf] cjlw ;Dd x'g' ' x'bg} lsgls bfgfdf ePsf lr:ofg (Moisture) sf] dfqf 36g] / d'Vo kf]if0f tTj v]/ hfg] x'bf 5f]6f] cjlwnfO{ cfjZos dfqfdf bfgf e08f/0f ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . e08f/ sf]7fdf xfjfsf] cfbfg k|bfg x'g] Joj:yf ug'k{ b{5 . s'v'/f vf]/sf] 5fgf lgdf{0f udL{ ;dodf cToflws tfkqmd a'l4 x'g] / ;f] tfkqmdn] vf]/ leq klg c;/ ug]{ x'Fbf 5fgfdf h:tfkftf /fVg] rng 5 . To:tf 5fgf ePdf vf]/sf] h:tfkftf dfyL k/fn, esf/Lh:tf tfk ;~rfng cj/f]w Nofpg] j:t' (Insulating material) sf] k|of]u ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . h}ljs ;'/Iff (Biosecurity) s'v/' f kmfd{df lhljt kG5L kfng sfo{ eO/xg] ePsfn] kmfd{sf] h}ljs ;'/Iff k|0ffnL hf8f] df};ddf eGbf udL{ df};ddf a9L Vofn ug'{ h?/L 5 . lsgls udL{ ;dodf ljleGg lhjf0f' tyf ljiff0f'sf] k|;f/0f tyf a[l4b/ a9L x'G5 . t;y{ s'v ' /' f kfng If]qdf hyfefjL dflg;, cGo kz' kG5L, ;jf/L ;fwgsf] k|jz ] nfO{ ljz]if lgu/fgL /fVg' kb{5 . kmfd{ 4f/df lg;+qmd0fsf cf}iflwsf] 3f]n, :k|]| tyf v'§f 8'jfpg] :yfgsf] lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . ;fy} cGo afXo j:t'sf] k|jz ] x'g] glhs 7fFpdf kf]zfs abNg] 7fFpsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kb{5 . kmfd{df sfdbf/sf] cfjf; u[x

s'v/' f kmfd{sf] b'/L sl/a @) ld6/ 6f9f x'g /fd|f] x'G5 . kmfd{df k|of]u x'g] ;fdu|Lsf] ;/;kmfO{df ljz]if Wofg kb{5 . kfgLsf] Joj:yf cGo df};ddf eGbf s''v'/fn] udL{ df};ddf j9L kfgL vkt ub{5g . kfgLsf] vkt s'v'/f vf]/sf] tfkqmdsf] cfwf/df bfgf vktsf] cfwf/df lge{/ ub{5g . km'n kfg]{ cj:yfsf] k|lt jo:s s'v'/fn] k|lt lbg bfgf vkt ;/b/ !@% u|fd x'G5 . Tffkqmd l8= ;]= $ !% @) @^ #%

bfgf tyf kfgLsf] vkt cg'kft !M!=& !M!=( !M@=@ !M#=) !M%=)

lgisif{ s''v'/f kfng Joj;fo ;~rfng ug]{ ;Gbe{df hf8f] ;dodf rNnf x'sf{pg ufx|f] x'g], bfgfsf] vkt a9L x'g], d[To'b/ a9L x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . eg] udL{ ;dodf /f]u Joflwsf] k|sf]k a9L x'g] tyf c08fsf] e08f/0f cjlw 5f]6f] x'g] h}ljs ;'/lIft k|0ffnLdf ljz]if Wofg kg]{ h:tf ljifodf s[ifsn] 7'nf] r'gf}tL Jof]xf]g]{ k/]sf] cj:yf b]lvG5 .


s[lifrrf{

u|fdL0f oftfoft

k"jf{wf/ If]qut sfo{qmd g]kfnsf clwsf+z u|fdL0f e]usf hgtf s[lif k];f u5{g\ . s[lifdf u/]sf] nufgLsf] k|ltkmn s[lif pkh ahf/df k'uk] l5 dfq k|fKt x'G5 . s[lif pkh ahf/df k'Ug] dfWod eg]sf] ;8s g} xf] . oxL s'/fnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ g]kfn ;/sf/, :yfgLo lgsfo tyf bft[ lgsfosf] ;xof]udf @)^^÷)^& b]lv ;/sf/n] u|fdL0f oftfoft k"jf{wf/ If]qut sfo{qmd NofPsf] 5 . ;f]xL sfo{qmd cGtu{t ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf] :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefun] s[lif tyf :yfgLo :t/sf ;8s cfof]hgf ;~rfng ul//x]sf] 5 . sfo{qmdn] u|fdL0f If]qsf] pTkfbg / ahf/ k|lqmofnfO{ ;3fO{ lghL If]qsf] /f]huf/sf] cj;/df j[l4 u/L ul/aL lgjf/0fdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] nIo lnPsf] 5 . @) jif]{ bL3{sflng s[lif of]hgfdf klg s[lif ;8s sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{] / u/fpg] p2]Zo /fvL 5'§} s[lif ;8s ljefusf] :yfkgf x'gk' g]{ a'bF f /fv]kl5 @)%% ;fndf ;/sf/n] ljefusf] :yfkgf u/]sf] xf] . s[lif ;8ssf] p2]Zo s[lif If]qnfO{ Jofj;foLs/0f tyf ljljwLs/0f ug{ ;3fpg], :yfgLo:t/df a;f]af; ug]{ hgtfnfO{ ;dod} cTofjZos ;]jf pknAw u/fpg], /f]huf/L j[l4 u/L hgtfsf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ NofO{

ul/aL lgjf/0fdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] xf] . s'g} klg 7fpFdf s[lif ;8s agfpg'k¥of] eg] Tof] lhNnf tyf gu/ oftfoft u'?of]hgfsf] k|fyldstfdf k/]sf :yfgLo hgtfsf] ahf/, cfwf/e"t ;]jf tyf cj;/df kx'Fr k'Ug ;Sg] ;8snfO{ sfo{qmdn] 5gf}+6sf] cfwf/ agfPsf] 5 . To:t} ahf/ jf cf}Bf]lus If]q;Fu cfa4 x'g ;Sg] :yfgdf ePsf] Jofj;flos jf Joj;fo pGd'v s[lif pTkfbg ks]6 If]q tyf gu/kflnsfsf] k|fyldstfdf k/]sf ;8s tyf ;8s lgdf{0fdf :yfgLo ;fwg, ;|f]t, ;Lk k|of]u eO dlxnf, blnt, pTkLl8t, cflbjf;Lx¿nfO{ k|ToIf kmfObf k'Ug] / pgLx¿n] /f]huf/ kfpg] ;8snfO{ klg k|fyldstfdf kf/]sf] 5 . s[lif tyf :yfgLo :t/sf] ;8s agfpgsf nflu of]hgf 5gf}6 ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ k|lqmof k'/f u/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltaf6 lhNnf kl/ifbdf

:j:y hLjgsf nflu tfhf Pj+ :j:ys/ df;'

Jofj;flos s[lifsf nflu cfw'lgs k|ljlw

tfhf, ;kmf Pj+ :j:ys/ s'v'/fsf] df;'sf] xf]n;]n tyf v'b|f v/Lbsf] nflu xfdLnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\

x/]s lsl;dsf s[lif d]l;g Pj+ s[lif cf}hf/sf nflu xfdLnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\

;+3if{ sf]N8 :6f]/

xf/tL d]l;g/L P08 kf6{;\

k]K;Lsf]nf, 6fpg Knflgª k|f]= lzj/fh k|wfg ;+ks{ M (*)*@$$&)$, (*)*@%^$@#

6]s'/f]8, sf7df8f}F ;Dks{M $@$)^)^

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10

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April - May - May 2013 2013 a}h]z7fv@)&) @)&)April


gfs{ s] xf] < s[lif cg';Gwfgsf] Oltxf;nfO{ lgofNbf g]kfndf vf; cg';Gwfg @)@@ ;fnaf6 ;'? ePsf] b]lvG5 . @)@( ;fndf wfg, ds}, ux',F cfn', pv'h:tf j:t'x¿sf] sfo{qmd:t/df cg';Gwfg ;'? eof] . @)#^ ;fndf cg';Gwfgsf] nflu Pp6f :jtGq lgsfosf] cfjZostf dx;'; u/L @)$$ ;fndf /fli6«o s[lif cg';Gwfg tyf ;]jf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf eof] . @)$* ;fndf g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\ P]g ;lxt j}zfv @% ut] g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\sf] ljlwjt :yfkgf eof] . s[lif If]qsf ;d:ofx¿sf] cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg u/L ;dfwfgsf pkfo kQf nufO{ ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] cfo:t/ j[l4 ug{ g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\sf] :yfkgf ePsf] xf] . s[lif ;DaGwL pRr:t/Lo cWoog tyf

cg';Gwfg ug]{ u/fpg], s[lif pTkfbg jf u'0f:t/ a9fpgsf] nflu s[lif If]qsf ;d:ofx¿sf] lg/fs/0fsf pkfox¿ kQf nufO{ cfjZos k|ljlw, 1fg tyf zLkx¿sf] vf]hk"0f{ cWoog ug]{ / /fli6«o s[lif gLltsf] th'd{ fsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] p2]Zo kl/ifb\n] /fv]sf] 5 . xfn gfs{ cGtu{t hDdfhDdL %& j6f sfof{nox¿ 5g\ . kl/ifb\sf] s]Gb|Lo sfof{no, j:t'ut cg';Gwfg sfo{qmdx¿ !^ j6f, If]qLo s[lif cg';Gwfg s]Gb| % j6f, s[lif cg';Gwfg s]Gb|x¿ !@ j6f, /fli6«o s[lif cg';;Gwfg k|lti7fg ! j6f, /fli6«o kz'lj1fg cg';Gwfg k|lti7fg ! j6f, dxfzfvfx¿ @) j6f, /fli6«o s[lif cg'jf+lzs ;|f]t s]Gb| (Gene Bank) ! j6f 5g\ .

kl/ifb\sf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ /fli6«o s[lif gLltsf] cwLgdf /xL s[lif ;DaGwL cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug{ cfjZos gLlt lgdf{0f ug]{, s[lif ;DaGwL cWoog tyf cg';Gwfgsf] k|fyldstf tf]Sg], s[lif ;DaGwL cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug{ cfjZos jflif{s sfo{qmd / ah]6 :jLs[t ug],{

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11


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kl/ifb\sf] sfof{nosf] ;Fu7gsf] 9fFrf / sd{rf/L b/aGbL :jLs[t ug]{, g]kfn clw/fHodf ePsf cg';Gwfg sfo{x¿sf] ;dLIff ug],{ s[lif ;DaGwL ;d:ofx¿sf] klxrfg u/L /fli6«o s[lif gLlt th'd{ f ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg] . cg';Gwfg ;DaGwL sfd ug]{ tl/sfx? s_ cfkm}F jf c¿ ;+:yfsf] ;xsfo{df b]xfosf ljifodf cg';Gwfg sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ug]{ vfBfGg tyf gub] afnL afujfgL kz'kfng tyf kz' :jf:Yo dT:okfng r/g tyf 3fF;afnL Pu|f] km/]:6«L÷kmfd{ km/]i6«L

ljsf;sf] ;'?cft cg';Gwfgaf6 x'G5, lagf cg';Gwfg ljsf; cuf8L a9\g ;Sb}g cg';Gwfg ljgf emg\ s[lifsf] ljsf; ;Dej g} 5}g . ljsf; eO;s]sf w]/} b]zx¿ ljleGg If]qdf cg';Gwfgsf] sf/0f g} cuf8L a9]sf x'g\ . t/ g]kfndf c¿ If]qdf h:t]} s[lifdf klg cg';Gwfgsf] sdL g} v8\lsG5 . cy{sf] cefj xf];\ jf ;/sf/L gLltsf] sf/0fn], s[lifdf oy]i6 cg';Gwfg 5}g . h;sf] d"No b]zn] vfBfGg cfot ub{} r'sfpFb} 5 . cg';Gwfgsf] cfjZostfnfO{ dx;'; u/]/ @)$* ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\ ;/sf/L lgsfo cGtu{t g]kfnsf] Ps dfq s[lif ;DaGwL cg';Gwfg ug]{ ynf] xf] . !*@# sd{rf/Lsf] b/ajGbL ePsf] of] ;+:yfaf6 s[lif

df6f] tyf l;FrfO{ Joj:yfkg jg:klt Pj+ h}ljs kof{j/0f sL6lj1fg / afnL /f]u lj1fg v]tLk|0ffnLx¿ s[lif k|;f/ s[lif cy{zf:q Pj+ ahf/ Joj:yfkg vfB lj1fg s[lif;Fu ;DalGwt cGo ljifox¿ v_ g]kfnsf] ljleGg xfjfkfgL cg's'n pko'Qm k|ljlw ljsf; ug{sf] nflu p2]Zod"ns cg';Gwfgdf hf]8 lbg] . u_ s[ifs, s[lif k|;f/ sfo{stf{, s[lifhGo pBf]u Pj+ cGo To:t} s[lif ;]jf pkof]u ug]{x¿sf nflu ;]jf k'¥ofpg] vfnsf] p2]Zod"ns cg';Gwfgdf hf]8 lbg] . 3_ jftfj/0fdf k|lts'n c;/ gkf/L lbuf] ¿kdf s[lif pTkfbsTj a9fpg] vfnsf] cg';Gwfg sfo{ ;~rfng ug]{ .

ljsf;sf] nflu w}/} If]qaf6 ljleGg lsl;dsf cfzf tyf ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . ;'?df Psbd pT;flxt j}1flgs / k|fljlwsn] el/k"0f{ gfs{ cfh dfgj ;+;fwgsf] cefjsf] rk]6fdf 5 . cfhsf] lbgdf gfs{df Ps ltxfO{ hgzlQm kbk'tL{ ug{ afFsL 5 h;df j}1flgsx¿sf] ;+Vof cfw} 5 . @@ aif{sf] Oltxf;df gfs{n] vf;} k|efj kfg{ ;s]g eGg]x¿ klg 5g\ . ;a}sf] rfxgf cg'¿k s[lif cg';Gwfg lsg ePg eGg] k|Zgdf w]/}n] cg';Gwfgsf] nflu pRr ;|f]t tyf ;fwgsf] cfjZostf x'g] t/ To;sf] pknAwtf sf] sdL g} atfpF5g\ . t/ of] dfq} xf] t < s[lif ljsf;sf] nflu cg';Gwfg clkl/xfo{ xf] . gofF k':tfsf] cefj Pp6f 7"nf] ;d:of 5b}5 . cfPsf s]xL a}1flgsx¿ nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] la1fkg;Fu} ptflt/ xflgG5g\ jf lab]z hfgsf] nflu nfluk/]sf x'G5g\ .

12

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h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

æ;d:of cg'; cg';Gwfg u

8f= lbnaxfb'/ u'?ª, sfo{sf/L lgb]z { @@ cfF} gfs{ lbj; dgfO{/fVbf tkfO{nfO{ s:tf] cg'e'lt eO{/fv]sf] 5 < g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\ -gfs{_ s[lif If]qsf ;d:ofx¿sf] cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg u/L ;dfwfgsf pkfo kQf nufO{ ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] cfo:t/ j[l4 ug{ la=;+= @)$* ;fn a}zfv @% ut] :yfkgf ul/Psf] Ps :jfoQ ;+:yf xf] . gfs{ j}1flgsx¿sf] Ps cToGt ;Ddflgt ;+:yf ePsf]n] ;+:yfsf] sfo{sf/L k|dv ' sf] x}l;otn] @@cfF} gfs{ lbj; dgfO/xFbf dnfO{ uj{sf] cg'el" t eO/x]sf] 5 . :yfkgfsfnb]lv g} s[lif ;DaGwL pRr:t/Lo cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug{] u/fpg], s[lif pTkfbg jf u'0f:t/ a9fpgsf] nflu s[lif If]qsf ;d:ofx¿sf] lg/fs/0fsf pkfox¿ kQf nufO{ cfjZos k|ljlw, 1fg tyf ;Lkx¿sf] vf]hk"0f{ cWoog ug]{ / /fli6«o s[lif gLltsf] th'd{ fsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] cfˆgf] p2]Zodf gfs{ sl6a4 /xFb} cfPsfn] xfdLn] o; aLrdf y'k}| pknAwLx¿ klg xfl;n ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5f}F . o;y{ d JolQmut ¿kdf dfq x}g, l;Fuf] gfs{ kl/jf/ g} oltv]/ cToGt xlif{t / pT;flxt 5 . gfs{sf xfn;Ddsf dxTjk"0f{ pknAwLx? s]–s] 5g\ < :yfkgfsf] @@ jif{sf] cjlwdf gfs{n] b]zsf] xfjfkfgL ;'xfpFbf] s[ifs–d}qL s[lif k|ljlwsf] ljsf;df y'k}| pknAwLx¿ xfl;n u/]sf] 5 . xfd|f] b]zsf] cg';Gwfgdf ePsf] nufgLsf] ;fk]Ifdf pNn]vgLo pknAwL ePsf] 5 tyfkL c´} w]/} ug{ afFsL 5 . lj=;+= @)@( b]lv xfn;Dd wfgsf ^( j6f, ds}sf @$ j6f, ux's F f #$ j6f, hf} sf ^ j6f, sf]bf]sf # j6f, bnxgafnLsf #( j6f, t]nxgafnLsf !( j6f, cf}Bf]lus afnLsf ( j6f, t/sf/L afnLsf $& j6f / 3fF;sf % j6f u/L hDdf @%@ j6f pGgt hftx¿ pGdf]rg e};s]sf 5g\ eg] tLdWo] !$* hft gfs{sf] :yfkgf kZrft\ pGdf]rg eO{ s[ifssf] 3/b}nf]df k'Ug ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . @% jif{cl3sf] bfFhf]df clxn] d'Vo vfBfGg afnLx¿ h:t}– wfg, ds}, uxF,' hf} / cfn'sf] pTkfbsTjdf qmdzM %!, ##, (#, @$ / !!$ k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 eg] xfn wfg, ds}, uxF' tyf cfn'afnLsf pGgt hftx¿n] qmdzM (@, *(, (&, / *% k|ltzt


g';f/sf] u5f}{+Æ

gb]{zs, gfs{ If]qkmn 9fs]sf] 5 . pNn]lvt pknAwL kSs} klg gfs{sf] dfq Psn k|of;af6 xfl;n ePsf] xf]Og, o;df k|ljlw ljsf;df ;+nUg j}1flgsx¿, k|ljlw k|;f/df ;+nUg s[lif ljz]if1x¿ tyf s[lif k|;f/df ;+nUg k|fljlwsx¿, d]xgtL, kf}/vL / hfu?s s[ifsx¿, tkfO{xF ¿h:tf kqsf/x¿ / s[lif If]q;Fu ;DalGwt cGo ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] ;+oQ' m k|of;af6 ;Dej ePsf] xf] . g]kfnsf] s[lif k|0ffnL cem} klg k/Dk/fut / lgjf{xd'vL 5 eg] ^% k|ltzteGbf a9L If]qkmn cl;l~rt 5 / cfsfz] kfgLsf] e/df v]tL ug'k{ g]{ afWotf 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj cl;l~rt If]q / pRr kxf8df a9L kg]{ ePsf]n] ;f] cj:yfnfO{{ b[li6ut u/L ljleGg cGt/f{li6«o ;+3;+:yfx¿;Fusf] ;fem]bf/Ldf hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 x'g] c;/ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ vfnsf hftx¿ ljsf; ul/Psf 5g\ . h;dWo] wfgsf 8'jfg k|lt/f]ws hftx¿ :j0ff{ ;j ! / ;fFjf d;'nL ;j !, ;'Vvf ;xg] hftx¿ t/x/f !, xlb{gfy @, ;'Vvfwfg !, ;'Vvfwfg @ / ;'Vvfwfg #, cl;l~rt If]qsf] nflu 3}of !, Joj;flos dxTjsf] nNsf jf;dtL, pGdf]rg ePsf 5g\ eg] pRr kxf8sf] nflu lr;f] ;xg] Pg=cf/= !)$&( / Pg=cf/= !)$*@ sf] l56} pGdf]rg x'bF 5 } . o:t} ux's F f] o"hL (( k|lt/f]wL hft ljho pGdf]rg eO;s]sf] 5 eg] 8fFkm] ! / Pg=Pn= !)&# pGdf]rgsf] qmddf 5 . ux's F } l;+b/' ] /f]u cj/f]ws hftx¿ cflbTo, uf}/f / wf}nflu/L, ds}sf ;'Vvf ;xg] b]ptL, l;tnf, v}/f] yf]Kn] /f]u ;xg] dgsfdgf #, $, % / ^ tyf kf]lifnf] ds} ! pGdf]rg ePsf 5g\ eg] u'0f:t/Lo k|f6] Lgo'Qm ds}sf] hftx¿, s0ff{nL If]qsf] nflu pko'Qm ds}sf hftx¿ tyf ds}kl5 wfg /f]Kg] 7fpFsf] nflu l56f] kfSg] hftx¿ c¿0f— # -;]tf]_ / c¿0f—$ pGdf]rgsf] qmddf /x]sf 5g\ . xfn x]o b[li6df k/]sf t/ dfgj :jf:Yosf] nflu clt dxTjk"0f{ k/Dk/fut jfnLx¿ sf]bf] / kmfk/sf qmdzM hL=O{= %)!^ / cfO=cf/= !# pGdf]rgsf] nflu k]z ePsf 5g\ . To:t} cfn'df 89'jf /f]u ;xg ;Sg] / lrK; agfpgsf] nflu pko'Qm hftx¿ pGdf]rgsf] nflu k]z ePsf 5g\ . r}qdf kfSg] h'gf/sf] hft tyf t/fOsf] nflu a]df};dL sfutLsf] hft l5§} pGdf]rgsf] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . s'kf]if0fsf] ;d:ofnfO{

April - May 2013 h]7

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cf}+ jif{df gfs{

b[li6ut u/L kf]lifnf] ds}sf] aLpm pTkfbg u/L $@ eGbf a9L kxf8L lhNnfx¿df v]tL eO/x]sf] 5 . j0f{zs + / ds}sf] aLpmsf] dfunfO{ Wofgdf /fvL kl/ifb\n] k|fyldstf lbO{ cWoog cg';Gwfg ul//x]sf] 5 / o;} jif{ /fdk'/ @ j0f{z { s + / ds} pGdf]rg eO{ gLlh If]qsf] ;fem]bf/Ldf aLpm pTkfbg sfo{ e}/x]sf] 5 eg] kxf8L If]qsf] nflu s]=jfO=Pd= ##÷s]=jfO=Pd= #% j0f{z { s + / ds} l56} pGdf]rgsf] qmddf 5 . o;}u/L j0f{zs + / t/sf/L aLpmsf] cfoftnfO{ k|lt:yfkg ug{ uf]ne]8F fsf] l;h{gf / sfFqmf]sf] dw' gfdsf j0f{zs + / hftx¿ l;kmfl/; eO{ lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfdf aLpm pTkfbg z'? ePsf] 5 . cem} klg g]kfndf d'Vo vfBfGg afnLx¿sf] aLpmsf] k|lt:yfkg b/ bz k|ltztsf] xf/fxf/Ldf /x]sf]n] klg aLpmsf] k|lt:yfkg b/ qmdzM wfgdf @% k|ltzt, ds}df ## k|ltzt / ux'dF f @% k|ltzt sfod ug{ cfjZos 5 . xfn k|hgg\ / d"n aLpmsf] cj:yf kof{Kt /x]sf] eP tfklg ;|ft] aLpm lat/0fsf] cg'kftdf aLpm–rqm sfod x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;|ft] aLpmsf] dfu / cfk"lt{aLrsf] vf8n sd ug]{ p2]Zon] k|fOe]6 l;8 sDkgL / s[ifs ;d"xx¿sf] ;fe]mbf/Ldf s[ifs :t/df g} sl/a %& j6f ;fd'bflos aLpm pTkfbg ;d"xdfkm{t\ d"n aLpm pTkfbg sfo{qmd eO/x]sf] 5 . o:t} wfg, ux'F / ds}sf] df6f], dnvfb tyf /f]u sL/f Joj:yfkg, sl/a @%Ü pTkfbg nfut sd ug]{ tyf sl/a $)Ü pTkfbg j[l4 ug]{ ;|ft] ;+/If0f k|ljlw, cfFkdf nfUg] 8fF7sf] ujf/f], ldlnau / km8\s] sL/fsf] Plss[t Joj:yfkg, cnFr +} L ;'sfpg /s]6 :6f]esf] lgdf{0f tyf k|zf]wg k|ljlw, sf]bf] r'6g\ ] tyf kmNg] oGqsf] ;'wf/, cb'jf w'g] d]lzgsf] ljsf; tyf hf}af6 dfN6 tof/ ug]{ ;fy} lrgf], sfu'gf] tyf hf}af6 la:s'6 agfpg] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . Rofpsf] pkef]u a9\b} uO/x]sf] ;Gbe{df g]kfns}

14

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

ljleGg If]qdf kfOg] /}yfg] Rofpsf] klxrfg u/L ltgsf v]tL k|ljlw ljsf;tk{m k|f/lDes ;kmntf xfl;n ePsf] 5 . kz'kI+ fL tyf dT:o cg';Gwfg If]qdf pGgt gZn / k|ljlwdf ;d]t cg';Gwfg sfo{ eO/x]sf 5g\ . rfF8f] b"w 5'6fO{ e}; + Lsf kf8fsf] df;' pTkfbg k|ljlw tyf /}yfg] lnd] / kf/sf]6] e}; + Ldf 5gf}6 u/L s[ifssf] Joj:yfkgdf !@)) ln6/ eGbf a9L -#)% lbg;Dd_ b"w lbg] k|ljlw ljsf; ePsf] 5 . kz' ;]jf laefusf] ;xsfo{df jflif{s @%),))) ufO{x¿df s[lqd uef{wfg u/L gZn ;'wf/ ug's { f ;fy} ;'b/" klZrdf~rnsf] a}t8L / bfr'n { fdf e}; + Ldf b]vf k/]sf] v/L /f]usf] pkrf/ tyf Joj:yfkg k|ljlw kz' ;]jf ljefunfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/;lsPsf] cj:yf 5 . afx|} dlxgf kz' cfxf/fsf] ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu xl/of] 3fF; pTkfbg u/L kz' pTkfbgdf j[l4 Nofpg] k|ljlw h} 3fF;sf] u0f]z / kfj{tL tyf ;]tf] Snf]e/sf] KofpnL hft l;kmfl/; ePsf 5g\ . h;af6 b"w pTkfbg nfut 36fpg d2t k'Ug uPsf] 5 . l56f] a9\g] a|fO] n/ afv|f, lu/L/fhf s'v/' f, 6sL{ tyf a§fO{sf] kfng k|ljlw ljsf; ul/Psf] 5 . g'jfsf]6 lhNnfaf6 ;'? ePsf] lr;f] kfgLdf x'g] /]Gaf] 6«fp6 df5f v]tL xfn !$ lhNnfdf lj:tf/ ePsf] 5 . ;fy} bfgfsf] u'0f:t/ ;'wf/ / Od]l/of /f]usf] ;kmn pkrf/ k|ljlwaf6 e'/f d[To' b/ *( k|ltztaf6 %@ k|ltztdf emfg{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 . gbL tyf cGo k|fs[lts hnfzodf /xg] !) j6f :yfgLo hftsf df5fx¿ -;x/, c;nf, sTn] ubL{, xf8], kms]6f_ sf]] s[lqd k|hgg\ / e'/f x'sf{pg] k|ljlw, l6nflkof df5fdf lnË kl/jt{g k|ljlw tyf cfn+sf/Ls df5fx¿sf] k|hgg\ k|ljlwsf]] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f / k|of]usf] nflu ;g\ @)!) df %),))) eGbf a9L hftx¿ ;+/If0f ug{ ;lsg] Ifdtfsf] hLg a}s + :yfkgf u/L

gfs{sf] s]xL oflGq ds} 5f]8fpg] d]lzg Ps 306fdf !% lsnf] ds} 5f]8fpg ;lsG5, xftn] 5f]8fpFbf %–* lsnf] dfq ;Dej 5 .

sf]bf] emfg]{ d]lzg -y|; ] /_ k|lt306f $)– %) lsnf] sf]bf] emf5{ . (&Ü eGbf a9L bIf of] d]lzg x'Dnf÷h'Dnfdf a9L k|of]u .

o'PdPdaL lkm8/ Ans o'l/of df]nf;]; ldg/n Anssf] k|of]un] ldy]g UofF;sf] pT;h{g sd ug{ d2t u5{

aLpm ;kmf ug]{ d]lzg pAhgL a[l4sf nflu ljleGg cGgafnL tyf t/sf/Lx¿sf] aLpmlahg ;kmf ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 .

hldg ;Dofpg] d]l;g 6«ØfS6/df h8fg u/L k|of]u ug]{ of] k|ljlwn] hldgnfO{ l56f] / /fd|f; ] uF ;Dofpg ;lsG5 .


lGqs pknAwLx? skmL k|zf]wg d]lzg k|lt 306f ^) lsnf] skmL k|zf]wg u5{ . of] k|ljlw gLlh If]qnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] 5 .

b'O{rSs] 6\o|fS6/ h'g;'s} ef}uf]lns If]qdf k|of]u ug{ ldNg], sd tf}n ePsf] ;lhnf] 6\of| S6/ .

wfg /f]Kg] d]lzg l56f]5l/tf] /f]kfOFsf] nflu of] k|ljlw k|of]u x'g] ePsf]n] o;sf] dfu a9\b} uPsf] 5 .

;f}o{ pmhf{af6 rNg] 8«fo/ d]l;g sd vlr{nf] Pj+ #%–%%);] tfkqmddf kmnkm"n, df5fdf;" tyf t/sf/L x¿ l56} ;'Vvf agfpF5 .

ds} 5g]{ d]l;g km/flsnf] If]qkmndf ds} 5g{sf] nflu of] k|ljlw l56f] / 5l/tf], ;lhnf] 5 .

ljleGg &) eGbf w]/} afnLx¿sf] ())) eGbf a9L cfg'jf+lzs ;|ft] x¿ ;+/lIft ul/Psf] 5 . k|ljlw ;Fufnf], k'l:tsfx¿, k|ljlw ˆofS6 l;6 cflb h:tf s[ifs d}qL k|sfzgx¿ tyf laB'tLo ;+rf/ dfWodx¿ dfkm{t\ ljsl;t s[lif k|ljlwx¿sf] k|;f/df kl/ifb\n] hf]8 lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . gfs{nfO{ cem a9L lqmofzLn / kl/0ffdd'vL agfpg s;–s;n] s:tf] e"ldsf v]Ng' knf{ < jt{dfg kl/k|I] fdf ljsf;sf] nflu s[lif cg';Gwfg ckl/xfo{ aGb} uPsf] 5 . ;f]xL cg'¿k ut cf=j=b]lv g]kfn ;/sf/n] s[lif cg';GwfgnfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ jflif{s ah]6 ljlgof]hgdf j[l4 u/]sf] 5 . of] ljlgof]lht ah]6 s'n u|fx:y pTkfbgsf] z'Go bzdna b'O{ gf} -)=@(_ k|ltzt dfq x'g cfpF5 . t/ cGt/f{li6«o :t/df s[lif cg';GwfgnfO{ s'n u|fx:Yo pTkfbgsf] ! k|ltzt;Dd ah]6 ljlgof]hg ug]{ dfGotf 5 . t;y{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] klg gfs{sf] jflif{s ah]6 ljlgof]hgdf pNn]Vo a[l4 u/L lgoldttf lbg' h?/L 5 . o;sf] cnfjf kl/ifb\nfO{ lbuf], ;zQm tyf cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf] cWoog cg';Gwfg :yn -dflgt ljZjljBfno_ agfpg kl/ifb\sf] P]g ljlgoddf ;+zf]wg u/L ;Fu7gfTds ;+/rgfdf ;d]t ;do;fk]If ;'wf/ ug{sf nflu ;/sf/n] kxn ug'k{ g]{ h?/L b]lvG5 . gfs{nfO{ cem a9L lqmoflzn / kl/0ffdd'vL agfpg Jojxfl/s :jfoQtf cfjZos k/]sf] 5 . /fhg}lts kf6L{x¿n] cfkm\gf r'gfjL 3f]if0ffkqdf /fv]sf s[lifsf] k|fyldstf dGqfno afF8kmfF8df klg /fVg'kg],{ /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]un] cem} pRr k|fyldstf lbg' kg],{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg cg';Gwfgdf pRr k|ltztdf /fVg'kg]{ h;n] ubf{ k"jf{wf/ aGg d2t k'Ub5, cg';Gwfgaf6 k|fKt k|ljlwnfO{ ls;fg ;dIf k'¥ofpg k|;f/sf] sfo{ef/ lnPsf] lgsfon] kl/ifb\;uF k|efjsf/L ;dGjo Pj+ e"ldsf

v]Ng' kg]{ b]lvG5 . cg';Gwfgdf ;+nUg j}1flgsx¿ b]z ljb]zaf6 cfk\mgf] If]qdf lj1tf xfl;n u/L dft[el" dsf] ;]jfdf ;dlk{t /x]sf 5g\ . j}1flgsx¿n] k|of]u ug]{ k|of]uzfnf / cGo ef}lts ;'ljwf, lghx¿nfO{ k|bfg ul/g] cfly{s k|fT] ;fxg tyf cWoog cg';Gwfg sfo{x¿df xf};nf k|bfg ug{] jftfj/0fsf] cefjdf k|ljlw ljsf; ug{ / k|ltef knfog /f]Sg 7"nf] r'gf}lt ePsf] 5 . To;sf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;|ft] / ;fwgsf] Joj:yf x'g' kg]{ b]lvG5 . gfs{df sfd ug]{ j}1flgsx¿ cToGt OdfGbf/, st{Jolgi7 / ;sf/fTds ;f]rsf ;fy cg';Gwfg ug{ sl6j4 5g\ . gfs{sf efjL of]hgfx? s]– s:tf 5g\ < s_ s[lif cg';Gwfg If]qnfO{ d'n'ssf] cfjZostf cg'¿k ;do;fk]If ;'b[9 ub]{ n}hfg] of]hgf /x]sf] 5 . To;sf] nflu ;+:yfleq cfjZos cfGtl/s ;'wf/nufot of]hgf th'{df k|lqmofdf kl/dfh{g ub}{ n}hfg] sfo{qmd 5 . v_ hgzlQm ljsf; / Joj:yfkgdf pknJw ;|ft] / ;fwgx¿df dfgj ;+;fwg ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ ePsf]n] k|lt:kwL{ ;zQm hgzlQm ljsf;sf] of]hgf /x]sf] 5 . o;sf] nflu kl/ifb\df dflgt ljZjljBfno :yfkgf ug]{ k|lqmofdf nfu]sf] 5 . o;af6 ;d:ofdf cfwfl/t cg';Gwfg / ljsf; ug{ ;Sg] bIf hgzlQm d'ns ' leq g} tof/ x'g5 ] . u_ kl/ifb\ cGtu{tsf ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿sf] cfw'lgsLs/0f / ;'b9[ Ls/0f ul/g] of]hgf 5 . To;sf] nflu /fHo:t/af6 g} qmdzM nufgL a9fpFb} nlu/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . 3_ vfB tyf kf]if0f ;'/Iffsf] nflu vf; u/L wfg, ds} / t/sf/L afnLx¿df j0f{zs + / hft / k|ljlw ljsf;df a9L hf]8 lbg] of]hgf /x]sf] 5 eg] cfo cfh{g a9fpg] vfnsf k|ljlw ljsf;sf nflu s[lifsf] Joj;foLs/0f d}qL

April - May 2013 h]7

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k|ljlwsf] ljsf;df Wofg s]lGb|t /xg] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efj Go"gLs/0f ug{nfO{ hnjfo' cg'lzng k|ljlw ljsf;df ljz]if k|fyldstf lbOg] 5 . ;fy} k|ljlw ljsf; ubf{ ahf/ of]Uo s[lif k|ljlwx¿ (Marketable Technologies) sf] ljsf;df hf]8 /xg] 5 . ª_ ljsf; ul/Psf s[lif k|ljlwx¿sf] u|x0fzLntf / o;af6 hghLljsfdf k/]sf] k|efj d"Nofª\sg ub}{ ljleGg nlIot ;d'xx¿sf] cfjZostfsf] cWoog cg';Gwfg ug{ ;dli6ut s[lif If]qdf ckgfOPsf gLltx¿sf] cWoog cg';Gwfg ug]{ ;d]t of]hgf /lxcfPsf] 5 . gfs{n] s[lif If]qdf v]ln/x]sf] e"ldsfk|lt c;Gt'i6 kIfx? w}/} 5g\, o;df tkfO{Fsf] egfO{ s] 5 < ;sf/fTds lx;fan] cfPsf ljrf/ x¿n] gfs{nfO{ cufl8 a9\g ;xof]u k'Ug] x'gfn] o;nfO{ xfdLn] dfu{bz{gsf] ¿kdf lng] u/]sf 5f}F . j}1flgsx¿sf] sfd ug]{ z}nLdf ;'wf/ / km/s cfpg h?/L 5 . gfs{n] s[lif If]qdf v]ln/x]sf] e"ldsf ;DaGwdf b]zsf] cfjlws of]hgf k|f/De ePb]lv g} gfs{n] lgsfn]sf] k|ljlw ls;fg ;dIf kof{Kt dfqfdf k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g . pGgt aLpmn] cem} dfunfO{ wfGg ;s]sf] 5}g . Psflt/ pGgt aLpmsf] pTkfbg df}Hbft /x]sf] 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ cfd ls;fg;Dd aLpmsf] kx'r F k'us ] f] 5}g . pTkfbgdf k|of]u ug]{ aLpm pkef]udf vkt ePsf] kfO{Psf] 5 . o;y{ aLpmsf] dxTj ;r]tgf sfo{qmd ;fy} lat/0fsf] j}1flgs k|aGw ldnfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . pGgt aLpm / k|ljlwsf] ;fydf dnsf] cfk"lt{ / l;+rfO{ ;'ljwfsf] lj:tf/n] s[lifdf ;3g v]tLnfO{ k|fT] ;fxg lbg] ePsf]n] cGt/dGqfno ;dGjofTds ljsf;df hf]8 lbg' cfjZos 5 . of] cj:yfdf gfs{sf] cfjZostf s]–s] 5, ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf s:tf] x'g'k5{ < -s_ g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\nfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] d"n k|jfxdf ;dfj]z gul/sg g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\ casf] lbgdf k|efjsf/L / ;zQm ¿kdf cufl8 a9\g uf¥xf] 5 . gfs{nfO{ d"n k|jfxdf ;dfj]z ug{' cfhsf] klxnf] /fHosf] cfjZostf xf] . -v_ j}1flgs tyf cGo sd{rf/L egf{ nf]s ;]jfnfO{ lbg'k5{ .

16

/fli6«o dfl;s

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April - May 2013

-u_ gfs{ cGtu{t dflgt ljZjljBfnosf] :yfkgf x'g'k5{ . -3_ cg';Gwfg ;]jfdf cfsif{0f a9fpgsf] nflu cfly{s nufot cGo ;/;'ljwfsf] ljz]if Joj:yf x'g'kb{5 . -ª_ hgzlQm kl/k"lt{df ljz]if kxn x'gk' g]{ / cg';GwfgsdL{x¿sf] clgjfo{ cjsfzsf] pd]/sf] xb ;do;fk]If a9fpg' kg]{ x'G5 . gfs{ lbj;sf] pknIodf s]lx laz]if ;Gb]z 5 ls < hgzlQm knfog x'g', >dzlQm aflxl/g' ulDe/ ljifo ag]sf] 5 . b]z ljsf;nfO{ k/lge{/tfaf6 cfTdlge{/tfdf ¿kfGt/0f ug{ s[lif If]qdf pBdzLntf a9fpg h?/L 5 . To;sf] nflu k/Dk/fut v]lt k|0ffnLnfO{ cfw'lgs k|0ffnLdf ¿kfGt/0f u/L cfoft k|lt:yfkg Pj+ lgof{t k|j4{g x'g ;Sg] If]qsf] klxrfg u/L nufgL a9fpg' kg]{ x'G5 . b]zn] nufgL u/]sf] clt bIf hgzlQmnfO{ oxL 7fpFdf of]ubfg ug]{ u/fpg] jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug{ cg';Gwfgstf{nfO{ cfs{ifs ;'ljwf / pTk|]l/t t'Nofpg cfjZos Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . s'g} klg b]zsf] phf{zLn / kl/jt{gsfdL zlQm eg]sf] b]zsf o'jfx¿ g} x'g\ . t;y{ g]kfnsf o'jfx¿ / k9]n]v]sf lzlIft JolQmx¿n] s[lifsf] ¿kfGt/0fsf] nflu s[lif If]qdf nfUg cfjZos 5 . gfs{ lbj;sf] pknIfdf d ;a} lab]lzPsf / lab]lzg] ;f]r agfPsf o'jfx¿nfO{ b]zleq} a;L sfd ug{sf] nflu gofF hf]z, hfFu/sf ;fy cfpg';\, gfs{n] cfjZos j}1flgs / k|fljlws ;xof]u ug]{ 5 egL cfJxfg ug{ rfxG5' . cGTodf < g]kfnsf] s[lif If]qsf] ;du| ljsf;sf] nflu s[lif cg';Gwfgsf] e"ldsf Hofb} dxTjk"0f{ Pj+ ckl/xfo{ ePsf]n] s[lif cg';Gwfgdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g] /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u, s[lif ljsf; dGqfno, cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf dGqfno, /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o bft[ lgsfo / ;+3;+:yfx¿, kqsf/ ldqx¿, gfs{sf a}1flgs tyf ;Dk"0f{ sd{rf/Lx¿ dxfg\ s[ifs ;d'bfok|lt cfef/ JoQm ub}{ cfufdL lbgx¿df klg lg/Gt/ ;xof]usf] ck]Iffsf ;fy o; @@cf}F gfs{ lbj;sf] ;Gbe{df xflb{s z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5' .

o;sf] cy{ xf] :jb]zeGbf ljb]zdf ;'ljwf a9L 5 . dflg; :jefljs ¿kdf cj;/sf] vf]hLdf x'G5 . t/ o;sf] cy{ gfs{n] s]xL u/]g eGg] xf]Og . !% nfv x]S6/ dWo] (@ k|ltztdf pGgt hftsf] wfg nufPsf] 5 h'g gfs{n] l;kmfl/; u/]sf] xf] . To:t} ul/ (& k|ltzt ux'Fsf] hft gfs{sf] 5 . oBlk pGgt aLpmsf] k|lt:yfkg b/df pNn]Vo ;'wf/ Nofpg' 5, h'g gfs{sf] dfq j;sf] s'/f xf]Og . gfs{n] cg';Gwfgsf] nflu afnL, jfujfgL, kz', dT:o, afx\o cg';Gwfg, ;fdflhs cg';Gwfgh:tf If]qdf sfd ub]{ cfPsf] lyof] / gfs{sf] d'Vo sfd klg oxL g} xf] . To:t} gfs{sf k|fo sfuhkqx¿ cu]|hL dfWoddf 5g\ h'g dxTjk'0f{ x'Fbfx'Fb} klg s[lif ljsf;sf nflu s;}nfO{ kN6fpg] hfFu/ rn]sf] kfOFb}g . o;sf nflu ljz]if kxnsf] cfjZostf 5 . To:t} s[lif j}1flgsnfO{ ;Ddfg :j¿k k|f]T;fxg / pTk|]/0ffsf] sdL b]lvG5 . h;n] ubf{ j}1flgsx¿ pT;flxt x'g ;s]sf] kfOFb}g / j}1flgsnfO{ ;dfhn] klg Tolt lrGb}g . csf]{tkm{ cjsfz k|fKt j}1flgsx¿nfO{ pgLx¿sf] bIftf cg'¿k pgLx¿ ;Fu ;xsfo{ ug{ g;Sg' gfs{sf] Pp6f sdhf]/L xf] . pgLx¿;Fu gfs{n] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df sfd u/fpg ;Sg'kb{5 . gfs{n] ca ;do cg';f/ cfkm"nfO{ kl/dflh{t ub}{ nfUg'kb{5 . ;d:ofnfO{ b]vfO{ cfkm\gf] bfloTjaf6 klG5g'eGbf s;/L ;dfwfg ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]tkm{ nfUg'kb{5 . ef}lts cg';Gwfgsf] cfwf/sf] ¿kdf ;fdflhs cg';GwfgnfO{ lng'kb{5 . h;sf/0f ;do;Fu} gfs{n] gofF–gofF k|ljlw lbg ;Ifd x'G5 . ha;Dd k|ljlw ;xL x'Fb}g ta;Dd sd nfutaf6 w]/} k|ltkmn k|fKt ug{ ;lsFb}g . k|ltkmnljgfsf] k]zf Jofj;foLs/0f x'g ;Sb}g . olb ;/sf/, gLlh If]q tyf ;a}n] eg] cg'¿k s[lifnfO{ Jofj;flos ¿kdf cuf8L a9fpg] xf] eg] gfs{sf] d"ldsf cxd\ x'g'k5{ . To;sf] nflu gfs{ cfkm}F klg nfUg'kb{5 . dfgj;+;fwgsf] ;d:ofnfO{ cfkm\gf] ana'tfn] ;'Nemfpg'kb{5 . csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ s'/f eg]sf] gfs{n] cfkm\gf] pknAwLnfO{ cfd dflg;;Dd k'¥ofpg'kb{5 . cfkm\gf ;fgfeGbf ;fgf s'/fnfO{ ;~rf/dfWodaf6 jf cGo s'g} dfWodaf6 k|;f/ ug{'kb{5 . gfs{n] b]zsf] ef}uf]lns l:ylt, ls;fgsf] cfjZostf, ahf/sf] dfu / /fHo lglb{i6 gLltnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L cg';Gwfg k|lqmofnfO{ r':t / b'?:t agfpg'kb{5 .


:ynut ;dfrf/ /fg} tl/sfn] v]tL ubf{ k|lts¶f a9Ldf !% s]hL d';'/f] kmNYof] . cfDbfgL sd x'Fbf ;w}F C0f lng'kg]{, kl5 afnL :ofxfg]{ a]nf ;fx'sf] OR5fn] lbPsf] /sddf lrQ a'emfpg'kYof]{ . afFs] jgs§Lsf ls;fg hflx/ vfgsf] clxn] To:tf] cj:yf 5}g . d';'/f]sf] cfw'lgs aLpm …vh'/f–@Ú k|ljlwsf sf/0f clxn] Ps s¶fdf %) s]hL;Dd Tof] klg Ps gDa/sf] d';'/f] kmnfpF5g\ pgL . pQm d';'/f] gfs{h:tf ;/sf/L ;+:yfn] l;w} vl/b ug]{ x'gfn] pgnfO{ ;fx"sf] df/ v]Kg'k/]sf] 5}g clxn] . d';'/f]v]tLsf] ;fy ;fy} Jofj;flos t/sf/L v]tL klg ugf{n] hflx/kl/jf/sf] hLjg:t/ w]/} km]l/Psf] 5 . To:t} k|lts¶f %# s]hL;Dd d';/' f] kmnfpg ;kmn alb{of ;fgf]>Lsf s[ifs lnnfw/ uf}td nufot …sflnsf s[ifs ;d"xÚsf s[ifx¿ … u|l] 8ªÚ -;kmf ug],{ clt /fd|f] / /fd|f] u/L Ps, b'O,{ tLg tx 5'6o\ fOPsf]_ u/L ljqmL ubf{ /fd|f] d"No kfPsf] atfpF5g\ . d';/' f] lgof{t x'g] k|dv ' j:t'dWo] k5{ . g]kfnL d';/' f] eg]kl5 j+unfb]zdf bf]Aa/ d"No ltg{ tof/ x'G5g\ pkef]Qmfx¿ . To;}u/L df]tLk'/–&, alb{ofsf yf? ;d'bfosf dlxnfx¿ …8fOg]li6sÚ / …dflngLÚ hftsf sfFqmf]af6 dfq} l;hgdf Ps s¶fsf] @) xhf/eGbf a9L / jflif{s b'O{ nfveGbf a9L cfDbfgL x'g] u/]sf] atfpF5g\ . cfDbfgL j[l4 ePkl5 pgLx¿ cfkm\gf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ /fd|f] ljBfnodf k9fpg], l6eL, df]afOn, hUufhldg hf]8\g ;kmn, pgLx¿ ;dfhdf OHht klg a9]sf] atfpF5g\ . alb{ofs} 8]p8fsnf e}; F f;'/sf eLdaxfb'/ vqL ljb]zsf] gf]s/L 5f]8L Jofj;flos s[lifdf nfu]sf 5g\ . pgL eG5g\– …;fpbL c/adf tLg jif{ b'Mv u/L b'O{ nfv sdfpg ;lsg, oxfF t/sf/Laf6 dfq} 5 dlxgfdf %) xhf/ sdfO

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;s]F .Ú e}; F f;'/s} xl/nfn 9sfn / ;Ltfb]jL cfkm\gf] Kofhv]tL b]vfpFb} eG5g\– …dfq cf7 ;osf] aLpmaf6 #% ;osf] a]gf{ a]lr;s],F of] b'O{ s¶fdf nufPsf] Kofhaf6 ca $) xhf/ sdfpg]df 9'Ss 5' .Ú alb{of d}gfkf]v/sf /fdk|;fb yf?nfO{ sfd gkfOg], sfd kfP klg b}lgs !) ¿k}ofFsf] Hofnfbf/Ldf, sdfPsf] k};fn] 3/vr{ grNg] h:tf ;d:ofn] lk/NYof] . sl/a b'O{ ljufxf hUufdf Jofjf;flos t/sf/L v]tL ug{ yfn]kl5 pgsf] hLjg:t/ g} ablnPsf] 5 . …;a} vr{ s6fP/ jflif{s b'O{ nfv cfDbfgL x'G5Ú– /fdk|;fb eG5g\ . s[lifaf6 /fd|f] cfDbfgL u/L hLjg:t/ ;'wf/] klg oL ;a} s[ifsx¿sf] ;d:of eg] p:t} 5g\ .

;dodf dn gkfOg], l;+rfOsf] ;d:of, h+unL hgfj/sf] cft+sh:tf w]/} ;d:ofn] lg/fz 5g\ pgLx¿ . o:tf ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f kfpg ;s] cfkm\gf] Joj;fodf cem pGglt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] s'/fdf ljZj:t 5g\ pgLx¿ . dfly pNn]lvt s[ifsx¿sf kl/jt{g To;} ePsf xf]Ogg\ . o'P;P8 cGtu{t …lg6 (NEATÚ ;+:yfn] g]kfnsf s[ifssf] cfly{s ljsf;, ul/aL 36fpg], vfB ;'/Iff Pj+ hLjg:t/ ;'wfg]{ nIocg'¿k s[ifsnfO{ ;fd"lxs tflnd / pGgt hftsf] aLpm Joj:yf ug]{b]lv ahf/ Joj:yfkg;Fu} s[ifsx¿df n3'ljQsf dfWodn] ljQLo ;]jf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . o;/L ahf/d'vL pTkfbgnfO{ hf]8 lbFb} pGgt k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f ug]{ / ef]lnsf lbgdf s[ifs cfkm}F ;an x'g] / cfo:t/ a9fpg ;kmn x'g] of]hgf adf]lhd o'P;P8dfkm{t o:tf] sfd ePsf] lg6sf sfo{qmd k|d'v lkm\nk ;L= a|f]6gn] atfpg'eof] . l8;]Da/ @)!) b]lv cu:6 @)!# cjlwsf] g]kfnsf c¿ 7fpFdWo] afFs], alb{ofsf] of] sfo{qmdaf6 cfzftLt ;kmntfn] o'P;P8sf] p2]Zoadf]lhd s[ifx¿n] u/]sf] pknAwLn] pT;fxL agfPsf] sfo{qmdsL jfXo ;Dks{ tyf ;~rf/ ljz]if1 :t'tL a:g]tn] atfpg'eof] . s[lifdf ePsf] pknAwLnfO{ l:jsfb}{ lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{no alb{ofsf al?i7 s[lif ljsf; clws[t lxSdts'df/ >]i7sf cg'/;f/ lg6sf] k|of; / ;xof]u, s[lif ljsf; sfof{nosf] ;dGjo / ;sf/fTds e"ldsf Pj+ s[ifsx¿sf] hfu?stfn] of] sfo{qmd ;Dej ePsf] xf] . April - May 2013 h]7

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;+u7g g} an xf]

‘ci6 h’ cleofg …ci6 hÚ cln km/s / ;'Gb} sf}t'xntf hufpg] gfd . g]kfnL j0f{dfnfsf] cf7f}F cIf/ … hÚ n] hn, hldg, hËn, h8La'6L, h/fh'/L, hnjfo', hgfj/ / hgzlQmsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ u/L gfd /flvPsf] ci6 h cleofgn] oL cf7j6} >f]t / ;fwgsf] k|of]uaf6 g]kfnsf] s[lif If]qdf of]ubfg lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . n'lhofgf nflkmo6 ljZjljBfno cd]l/sfdf gljs/0fLo phf{ ljefu k|d'vsf] ¿kdf s[ofzLn k|f]km];/ 8f= b'ufbQ kf}8]n / g]kfnd} /x]sf s]xL pT;fxL JolQmTjx¿sf] k|of;af6 lj=;+= @)^% ;fndf :yflkt o; ;+:yfn] g]kfnsf] pj{/ hldgaf6 pTkflbt vfBfGg, t/sf/L, kmnkm"n / h8La'6LnfO{ ljZjahf/df lrgfO{ To;sf] ahf/ l;h{gf ug{ lqmofzLn 5 .

lzj clwsf/L pkfWoIf, ci6 h cleofg ;f] p2]Zo cg'¿k ;+:yfn]sf7df8f}+ pkTosf, eQmk'/, nlntk'/ / yk @) lhNnfx¿df o'jf tyf k]zfut ¿kdf sfd ul/x]sf s[ifs ;d'bfonfO{ ;+ul7t ub}{ ;fd"lxs v]tLdf ;xefuL u/]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] s[lif pTkfbgnfO{ Jojl:yt / u'0f:t/Lo agfP/ ljb]zdf lgof{t ug{;s] cfly{s ;'b[l9s/0f x'g] / :jb]zd} /f]huf/L ;[hgf x'G5 / o'jfx¿ ljb]lzg] qmd :jtM sd x'Fb} hfG5 . o'jfn] sdfPsf] ljk|]if0faf6 geO{ pTkflbt j:t'sf] Jofkf/af6 b]z ;DkGg x'g ;S5 eGg] dfGotfsf ;fy ci6 h cleofg s[lif pTkfbgdf s]lGb|t eP/ cu8L a9L/x]sf] 5 . o; ;+:yfn] ljleGg pTkfbg ;d"xx¿ u7g u/L O{h/fnonufotsf d'n'sx¿af6 s[lif ;DalGw ;Lk l;s]/ cfPsf o'jfx¿sf] g]t[Tj tyf k|fljlws ;xof]u o'jf tyf s[ifsx¿nfO{ ;d]6]/ pTkfbg If]qdf nufpg k|of;/t 5 . 18

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

;xsf/Ldfkm{t\ nufgL ug{] jftfj/0f ldnfof}“ nf]sk|;fb ltdlN;gf, cWoIf, /fli6«o s[lif pTkfbg tyf ahf/ Joj:yfkg ;ldtL, OR5'dlt t/sf/L tyf kmnkm"n ahf/, afuahf/ ;'?df ef]6flx6L rf]s cf;kf; t/sf/L a]Rg] uYof},{ @)%% ;fn b]lv of] 7fpFdf ;'? u/]sf xf},F of] & /f]kgL hUufdf !)^ j6f :6n 5g\ hxfF (% k|ltzt s[ifs cfkm}F Jofkf/ u5{g\ . vf;u/L sfe|] / bf]nvf afx]s b]zsf ljleGg 7fpFsf s[ifsn] cfkm\gf] pTkfbg oxfF yf]sdf a]Rg] u5{g / ck'u t/sf/L lrg ef/taf6 klg ;f]em} NofO{ ljqmL ul/G5 . of] 7fpF sf7df8f}s F f] s]Gb| / hg;ªVofsf] rfkn] ubf{ klg pko'Qm 7fpF xf] . t/ of] 7fpF ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifb;Fu #÷# dlxgfdf gljs/0f x'g] df}lvs ;xdltdf k|fKt ePsfn] oxfFsf Joj;foL s'g lbg x6\ g'kg]{ xf] sL eGg] cGof}n 5 . ;fy] kfls{ª / kmf]xf]/sf] ;d:of klg 5 . @)^# ;fn b]lv ahf/ Joj:yfkg ;ldtL u7g k5L clxn] ;a}

Joj;foLn] cfkm\gf] dfl;s ef8f l;w} ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifbdf a'emfpg ;ldtLn] ;dGjosf] sfd dfq ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . klxn] @)^# cl3 7]sb] f/ åf/f ;~rfng x'bF f b]lvPsf ;d:of x6fO{ ;/;kmfO{, kfgL 6\ofªsLsf] Joj:yf ;fy} ;dfg rf]/L lgoGq0f ePsf] lyof] . o;sf] d'Vo pknAwLdf Joj;foLsf] ;femf …OR5'dlt art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf u7g u/L s[lifdf nufgL ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg ;kmn eof}F . eljiosf] nflu cfw'lgs s[lif ahf/ agfpg ;s] s[ifs, Joj;foL / pkef]Qmf ;a}sf] enf] x'g] lyof] .

s[lif pTkfbgdf ;sf/fTds of]ubfg s]lj pk|]tL, k|aGw ;~rfns, /fli6«o ;xsf/L a}ª\s, s'k08f]n g]kfnsf sl/a ^ xhf/ ;+3 ;+:yf ldn]/ @)^) c;f/ @% ut] of] …/fli6«o ;xsf/L a}ª\s lnld6]8Ú btf{ ePsf] xf] . xfn xfdLn] @( j6f zfvfaf6 ;]jf lbO/x]sf 5f}F h;df &) lhNnf ;b:o 5g\ . a}ª\sn] cfkm\gf ;b:o ;xsf/L ;+3 ;+:yfsf] k|jb{g, ljsf; / ltgLx¿sf] cfjZostf k"/f u/L ltlgx¿ dfkm{t s[lifnufot ljleGg If]qdf nufgLsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ sfd ub{5 . ;fy} ;b:o ;+:yfsf] ;d:ofsf] af/]df ;DalGwt lgsfodf kxn ug]{ sfo{ klg a}ª\sn]

ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . o:t} a}+sn] ;xsf/L ;+:yfx¿nfO{ ;kmn agfpg / a}slNks Joj;fo k|jb{gdf ;xof]u k'Ug] sfd eof] ls ePg elg x]Ssf /fVg] ub{5 . ;xsf/L a}ª\ssf] :yfkgf eO;s]k5L ;b:o ;+Vofdf pNn]Vo j[lå sf/f]af/ j[lå, d'n'sel/ o;sf] g]6js{ lj:tf/ / ;xsf/L ;+:yf dfkm{t cfd hgtfn] /fxt dxz'; ug]{ kl/l:ytL ag]sf] 5 . cfufdL lbgdf ;xsf/L a}ª\ssf] 5'§} P]g , cfly{s cg'bfg, Go"g Aofhdf C0fsf nflu cfjZo kxn ul//x]dg 5f}F .


k|ljlw

aLpsf] 5gf]6 / pkrf/ ljlw cfkm\gf] hUufsf] nflu l;kmfl/; hft e/kbf]{ >f]taf6 Uof/]G6L ePsf] -k|dfl0ft 6ofu tyf oyfy{ ;+s]t kq nfu]sf]_ aLp dfq lsGg] jf k|of]u ug]{ . o;sf] nflu ;DawLt s[lif ;]jf s]Gb| jf s[lif ljsf; sfof{nodf ;+ks{ ug{ ;lsG5 . wfgafnLsf] aLpsf] ;';'Kt cj:yf x6fpgsf nflu aLpnfO %) l8u|L tfkqmddf # b]lv % lbg ;Dd pkrf/ ug{'k5{ . j}1flgs tl/sfaf6 wfgsf] aLp 5fGg # ln6/ kfgLdf vfg] g'g %)) b]lv ^)) u|fd jf o'l/of dn ^&% u|fd xfnL 3f]n agfpg] . pQm 3f]ndf ! s]=lh= wfgsf] aLp /fVg], /fd|f] ;+u rnfpg] / Ps ldg]6 t}l/g÷lylu|g lbg] . t}l/Psf] / lyu|Psf] aLpnfO cnu cnu /fVg] . Af+fls aLpnfO To;/Lg} ;f]xL 3f]n k|of]u ul/ 5'6\6fpg] t/ af;L 3f]n k|of]u gug]{ . lylu|Psf] aLpnfO ;kmf kfgLn] @÷# k6s /fd|/L kvfnL Jof8 /fVg] jf 5?jf wfg eP l;w} 5g]{ . aLphGo /f]ux¿af6 arfpg aLpnfO{ a]leli6g jf 8]/f];fn @=% u|fd k|lt s]=lh= aLpsf b/n] pkrf/ ug'{ k5{ . g]kfndf k|rlnt wfg v]tL k|ljlw != 5?jf wfg jf l;w} 5g]{ -xftn] 5g]{ jf ;l8 l8«nåf/f_ @= Jof8 /fVg] jf a]gf{ /f]Kg] -dflg;åf/f jf wfg /f]Kg] cf}hf/åf/f_

Jof8 /fVg] tl/sf != w'n] Aof8 /fVg] tl/sf l;ldt l;+rfO ;'ljwf x'g] 7f+pdf of] tl/sf ckgfOG5 . o;df hUufnfO{ b'O ltg k6s /fd|f] ;+u vg hf]t u/L df6f] a'/ a'/fp+bf] agfO{ emf/kft d'Qm kf/L /fd|f] ;+u kfs]sf] sDkf]:6 jf uf]a/ dn ldnfpg' kb{5 . hUuf tof/L ubf{ df6f]sf] pa{/fzlQm x]/L o'l/of / lh+s ;Nkm]6 k|of]u ug'{ k5{ . Jof8nfO !=@% ld6/ rf}8f,

* dL=nDafO / !% ;]=dL=prfO{ ePsf Jof8x¿ cfjZostf cg';f/ tof/ kfg]{ ;fy} Ps Jof8 b]lv csf]{ Jof8sf] aLrsf] b'/L #) ;]=dL= sfod /fVg] . o;f] ubf{ ! x]=df wfg /f]kfO{ ug{ %)) ju{ ld6/ If]qkmndf %) j6f Jof8 rflxG5 . To; kl5 k|To]s Jof8df ! s]=hL= 6';fPsf] jf km'sf] aLp Ps gf;n] 5g'{ k5{ . r/fx¿af6 arfpg s/La ! ;]=dL=hlt aLp k'l/g] u/L sf]bfnf]n] rnfO{ lbg] / df6f]n] xNsf 5f]kL lbg' k5{ . To;kl5 Jof8nfO{ k/fn jf ;'s]sf] ;f]t/sf] 5fkf] lbg' k5{ / dfyLaf6 Jof8 leHg] u/L xNsf kfgL lbg' k5{ . aLp pd|]kl5 5fkf] x6fO{ Jof8df lr:ofg /xg] u/L s'n];f]df kfgL lbg' k5{ . ;do ;dodf Aof8sf] lgl/If0f u/L cfjZos ePdf o'l/of dn tyf /f]u sL/f gfzs laifflbx¿ :k|] ug'{ k5{ . hft x]/L l56f] kfSg] hft eP @! b]lv @% lbg / l9nf] kfSg] eP #% b]lv $) lbgdf j]gf{ /f]Kg of]Uo x'G5g\ . @= lxn] Aof8 /fVg] tl/sf of] tl/sfsf] Aof8 k|;:t sdkf]i6 dn /flv hldgnfO /fd|f; ] u+ (Puddling) lxNofOG5 . Aof8sf] ;fOh / aLp b/ w'n] Aof8sf] h:t /flvG5 . lxNofO ;s]kl5 aof8sf] alrsf] b'l/ #)–$% ;]=ld= /flv $–% ;]=ld= cUnf] Aofx¿ Agfpg' k5{ . kfgL ghDg vfnsf] hUufdf aof8 p7fpg'sf] ;^6f cfnL nufO kfgL cl8g] agfpg ;lsG5 . To;kl5 bfFb] nufO ;DofP/ kfgL ;+UnLgsf] nflu To; lbg 5fl8 ef]lnkN6 6':ffPsf] aLp 5l/G5 -aLp 6';fpgsf] nflu g'g

l;+rfO{sf] ;'ljwf / df6f]sf] cj:yf x]/L s'g Jof8 /fVg] eGg] s'/f kmfO{bf÷j]kmfO{bfsf] lgDgfg';f/ ljZn]z0f u/L lg0f{o ug{ ;lsG5 M tl/sf

kmfObfx? j]gf{ l56f] j9g] ;fy} alnof / b/f x'G5g\ . lxn] Jof8 ;j} k|sf/sf] df6f]df pko'Qm x'g] . hdLgsf] tof/L rf+8f} / ;lhn} ug{ ;lsg] cGo tl/sfsf] t'ngfdf /fd|f] j]gf{ x'G5g . l;ldt l;+rfO{ ePsf] :yfgdf ug{ ;lsg] . w'n] Jof8 a]gf{ pv]Ng ;lhnf] . a]gf{x¿n] cg'ko'Qm jftfj/0f klg ;xg ;Sg] . Jof8sf] nflu sd If]qkmn -^) b]lv &% au{ dL=_ eP k'Ug] . 8\ofkf]u -Dof6_ sd lbg -(–!$_ df j]gf{x¿ /f]Kg tof/ x'g] . /f]kfO{ kl5 rf+8}| j]gf{ x's{g] . tl/sf cfkTsflng cj:yfdf l56f] a]gf{ tof/ ug{ ;lsG5 .

a]kmfObfx? nuftf/ l;+rfO{ ug'{ k5{ . j]gf{ pv]Ng ufx|f] x'g] / r'+l8g] x'G5 . Hldgsf] tof/L a9L vlr{nf] . anf}6] Pj+ lrD6\ofO{nf] s8f df6f] cg'ko'Qm x'g] . a]gf{x¿ dl;gf / kftnf x'G5g\ . t/fO{sf] nflu dfq pkof]uL x'g] . /fd|f] Joj:yfkg / c6'6 l;+rfO{sf] h?/L x'g] . a]gf{ /f]Kg ufx|f] k5{ . emf/kftsf] c;/ a9L x'g] / 5f+ofbf/ jftfj/0f rflxg] . afFsL k]h @@ df April - May 2013 h]7

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/fli6«o dfl;s

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kmf]6f] lkmr/

cfGtl/s ko{6g Pj+ rrf{sf] s]Gb| sfe|]sf] dx]Gb| Hof]tL ufpFsf s[ifs l;Fxaxfb'/ tfdfªn] cGbfhL !^% s]hLsf] af]sf x'sf{O/x]sf 5g\ . ljut b'O jif{b]lv pgsf] 3/df x'ls{/x]sf] of] af]sf oxL hftsf] eGg] yfxf gePklg pgsf cg';f/ of] …u'h/ftLÚ xf] . tfdfªn] o; af]sfnfO{ s'g} Jofj;flos pb]Zon] geP/ cfkm\gf] /x/n] kfn]sf x'g\ . o;sf] prfO ! ld6/ eGbf a9L 5 eg] nDafO klg c¿ v;L af]sfeGbf a9L 5 . cfsf/ 7"nf] ePs} sf/0f of] af]sf y'k}| dflg;sf] cfsif{0f ag]sf] pgsf] egfO{ 5 . ljleGg 7fpFaf6 o; af]sfnfO{ x]g{ dflg;x¿ cfpg] / kmf]6f] lvr]/ n}hfg] u/]sf] pgn] atfP . tfdfªn] bfKrf, sfe|a] f6 !! xhf/ lt/]/ & lbgsf] dfx'kf7f NofPsf x'g\ t/ o;sf] dfx' eg] ;fdfGo cfsf/s} 5 . cfkm\gf /x/n] kfn]sf sf/0f v'nf 5f8\g] u/]sf tfdfªn] o;nfO{ b}lgs cfxf/fsf] ¿kdf Ps kfyL ds}, a|fO] n/ s'v/' fsf] bfgf, kL7f] Pj+ e'; cflb lbg] u/]sf 5g\ . tfdfªn] o; af]sfnfO{ ufpF tyf j/k/ uflj;sf av|fx¿nfO{ k|hgg\ u/fpg k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . tfdfª eG5g\– …lbgdf tLg–rf/ afv|f cfpg] u/]sfn] Pp6fsf] Ps ;osf] b/n] lbgdf tLg–rf/ ;o af]sfn] sdfpF5, cfkm\gf] cfxf/fsf] vr{ cfkm}F sdfpF5 .Ú

g]kfnL ahf/df afv|fsf] df;'sf] dfu ^) xhf/ * ;o @# d]l6«s 6g eP klg oxfF df;'sf] pTkfbg %@ xhf/ * ;o ( d]l6«s 6g dfq x'G5 . g]kfndf jflif{s % nfv v;Laf]sf cfoft x'G5g\ . ;g\ @)!@ df &# xhf/ afv|f / !^ xhf/ e]8f sf7df8f}+df lelqP . b]zsf] %! k|ltzt 3/w'/Lsf ls;fgx¿n] afv|f kfn]sf 5g\ eg] !( k|ltzt df;' afv|fn] kl/k"lt{ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . Oltxf;nfO{ x]bf{ lj=;+= @))! df lrTnfªdf e]8f j[l4 kmfd{sf] ;'?jft ePsf] lyof] . kl5 @)@#÷@$ ;fndf @) j6f b"wfn' ;fgg hftsf afv|fx¿ Oh/fon ;/sf/n] k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . kl5 @)#! ;fndf d':tfªdf e]8f afv|f / pg -k|j4{g_ ljsf; of]hgf nfu" eof] . @)#@ ;fndf af/a/L hftsf] afv|f kfFrvfndf / hd'gfkf/L, g'jfsf]6sf] t'Kr]df NofOof] . ;zQm ¿kdf afv|fsf] sfo{qmd cl3 a9fpg @)## ;fndf s]Gb|Lo afv|f ljsf; kmfd{sf] :yfkgf ul/of] . @)$) ;fndf a'9ftf]nfdf afv|f ljsf; kmfd{sf] :yfkgf eof] . g]kfndf afv|fkfngsf] jflif{s j[l4b/ $=@^ k|ltzt 5 . h; cGtu{t kxf8df %)=^ k|ltzt, dWodf~rndf @&=^ k|ltzt / k"jf{~rndf @^=& k|ltzt 5 . afv|fkfngsf nflu dWoklZrd / ;'b'/klZrdsf b}n]v, ;'v]{t, s}nfnL / 88]Nw'/f /fd|f] lhNnf dflgG5g\ . cfDbfgL /fd|f] eP klg afv|fkfngdf ;d:of w]/} 5g\ . jg ;d'bfoLs/0f x'g', dfgj ;+zfwgsf] x'g' / r/g If]qsf] cefj cflb d'Vo ;d:of x'g\ . afv|fkfngaf6 ;fgf ls;fgsf] cfo cf}iftdf !% xhf/b]lv @) xhf/;Dd x'G5 . kz'kfngsf] s'n u|fx:y pTkfbgdf !@ k|ltzt afv|fsf] of]ubfg 5 .

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/fli6«o dfl;s

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April - May 2013


k|sfz s];L

April - May 2013 h]7

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/fli6«o dfl;s

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k|ljlw k]h !( sf] afFsL c+z

Aof8sf] tof/L ub}{

6';fPsf] wfgsf] aLp

kfgLsf] 3f]ndf 5fg]sf] aLpnfO @$ 306f lehfO sl/j #^–$* 306f lr;f] af]/fdf u'D:ofP/ /fVg' k5{_. Zf'?df ! ;]=ld= kfgL /fvL lj:tf/} a9fp+b}

Aof8df aLp 5g]{ tl/sf

kfgLsf] ;tx % ;]=ld= sfod /fVg' k5{ . w'n] aof8df h:t} x]/rfxsf tl/sf ckgfP kl5 @)–@% lbgdf a]gf[ /f]Kg tof/ x'G5g\ .

#= 8\ofkf]u -Dof6_ tl/sf of] tl/sf 5f]6f] ;dodf a]gf{ tof/ ug{ /fd|f] x'G5 . ;dtn hUuf jf l;d]G6]8 km\nf]/df !=% ld= rf}8f / cfjZostfg';f/ nafO / $–% ;]=ld= prfO ePsf a]8x¿ agfpg] . cyjf sf7sf] km|d] jf s]/fsf] ;'Tnf k|of]u u/L a]8sf] af]8/{ agfpg klg ;lsG5 . s]/fsf] kftsf] dWo efusf] /];f x6fO Kjfn gePsf / ef+rs'r gePsf /fd|f kftx¿ Ps csf]d{ f vK6fP/ tof/L Aof8df cf]R5\ofpg] . o;sf] nflu s]/fsf] kftsf] ;6\6f Knfl:6ssf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . To;kl5 6';fPsf] aLp s]/fsf] kft jf

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Unlimited Withdrawal Account Statement - No charge Cheque book - FREE (upon request) Visa debit card - FREE 1st year initial issuing cost e-Banking facility Mobile/ SMS banking facility NTC and NCELL postpaid, ADSL, PSTN bill payment service from KBL Counter, Kumari Mobile Cash and Internet Banking ABBS - No charge for transaction amount upto NPR. 100,000.00 Locker Facility Evening Counter, 365 Days Banking Telephone/ Mobile Bill Payment service Home loan/ Education loan/ Auto loan

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GONGABU: 01-4385807 BANESHWOR: 01-4499322 CHABAHIL: 01-4484434

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April - May 2013

KOTESHWOR: 01-4492921 BUDHANILKANTHA: 01-4377718

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ptf/r9fj kfO{/xg' ePsf] 5 < s[lifdf klxn]sf] t'ngfdf w]/} k|ult ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 h:tf] gofF k|ljlwsf] ljsf;, xfd|f] g]kfnL bfh'efO{n] ljb]zdf a6'n]sf] cg'ejnfO{ :jb]zdf cfP/ lj:tf/} Jojxf/df ptfb}{ x'g'x'G5 h'g s[lifdf cfPsf] ;sf/fTds kIf dfGg ;lsG5 . tkfO{ clxn] g]kfnsf] l:yltnfO{ s;/L kl/eflift ug'{x'G5 < Pp6f /fd|f] s'/f g]kfnsf] s[lif clxn] lgjf{xd'vLaf6 lj:tf/} Joj;flod'vL aGb}5, clxn] a]df};dL t/sf/L pTkfbg, To:t} 6«fp6 df5f, cli6«r, lsjL kmn, h}t'gsf] t]n cflb h:tf a9L kmfObf lbg] s'/fsf] pTkfbg ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . o;nfO{ k|utL ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 . t/ hlt s[lifdf x'g'kg]{ ljsf; eg] x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . s;/L cl3 a9\bf pko'Qm{ xf]nf < o;nfO{ a9jf lbg ahf/sf] cj:yfsf] tfhf hfgsf/L, s[lif lj1x¿;Fu ;do ;dodf ;'emfj tyf ;Nnfx lng] lsl;dsf] sfo{qmd hxfFsxL eO{/xg' kb{5 . ;fy} ;~rf/ dfWodn] klg s[lif ljifonfO{ a9L se/]h ug'{ kb5{ . /fhgLlt / s[lifnfO{ s;/L x]g'{ x'G5 < k|ljlw /fhg}lts ty:6 ljifo xf] / x'g'k5{ . d]/f] egfO{ /fhgLltdf j}1flgsx¿ nfUg' x'b}g eGg] dfGotf 5 . s[lifdf xl/tqmflGt w]/} ;'lgG5 t/ xfd|f] s[ifsnfO{ hfgsf/L gePsf] cj:yf 5 o; af/]df s]xL atfO{ lbg'x'G5 sL < xl/tqmflGt (Green Revolution) @)@@÷@# ;fn lt/ af6 ;'? ePsf] xf] . bf];f| ]

j]a;fO6 l8hfOg

ljZjo'4 kl5 Pl;ofnL d"ns ' df w]/} ef]sd/L x'g yfNof] / o;nfO{ sd ug{ g} xl/tqmflGtsf] cjwf/0ff ljsf; eof] . h;df tLg rf/ s'/fdf hf]8 lbO{Psf] 5 . klxnf] ljsf;] aLpmnfO{, /f;folgs dnnfO{, ljiffbL / l;+rfO . ljz]if u/L ef/tsf] k+hfg / xl/of0fnfO{ xl/tqmfGtLsf] ;kmntfsf] ¿kdf lnOG5 lsgeg] ef/tn] clgsfnsf] rk]6faf6 xfn cfP/ vfBfGg lgof{t ;d]tug{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 . xl/tqmflGtdf ;kmn x'g] /fi6« klg ef/t g} lyof] lg . xh'/, ef]sd/L 5fPsf] ef/t vfBfGgdf slxn] klg cfTdlge{/ x'g ;Sb}g elgPsf] lyof] t/ xl/tqmflGtsf] k'/fgf] cjwf/0ff kl/jt{g ul/lbof] To; ;dodf k|wfgdGqL g]x¿ x'gx' G' Yof] . pxfFn] x/]s rLh /f]lsg ;S5 t/ s[lif /f]lsg ;Sb}g (Everything can wait but not agriculture) eGg] l;4fGt cg'¿k cufl8 a9\g] k|lta4tf lnO{ u/]sf] sfddf ef/t ;kmn klg eof] . d d]/f] sfo{sfndf k|jQmf lyP / d}n] g]kfnaf6 kfFr, 5 hgf kqsf/ ;fyLnfO{ klg xl/tqmflGtdf ;kmn k+hfa / xl/of0ff nu]sf] lyP, h;n] s[lif / ;~rf/sf] ;DaGw lj:tf/df 7"nf] ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . ef/t cu| :yfgdf lyof] eg] g]kfn / a+unfb]zn] xl/tqmflGtdf s'g} km8\sf] dfg{ g;s]sf] k|df0f 5 Tof] lsg eof] xf]nf < klxnf] sf/0f t ;DalGwt If]qdf ;DalGwt JolQmsf] lgo'QmL gu/fpg' g} xf] . s[lif dGqfnodf s[lifsf] 1fg gePsf] JolQm x'g' . d]/f] 5f]/L cd]l/sfdf k9\bf p;sf] k|fk] m];/n] g]kfn / cd]l/sfsf] o:tf] t'ngf atfP5g\–cd]l/sLx¿ cfkm"n] sfd u/]sf] sDkgLdfly hfcf]; / ;fy} ;f];uF ;DalGwt cGo sDkgL klg dfly hfcf];\ eGg] cjwf/0ff /fV5g\ t/ ltd|f] g]kfndf d cfkm" s;/L dfly hfg] dfq ;f]R5g / ;DalGwt sDkgL dfly hfgnfu] v'66\ f tfG5f} eGg] ;'gfpFyL jf:tjdf xfdL JolQmut :jfy{df dfq tlNng 5f} / cfkm'sfd u/]sf] clkm; ;d]t dfly hfcf]; eg]/ ;f]rb}gf}, c¿sf] t s'/fg} 5f}8f}+ . ;a}n] s[lif cfjZos 5 eG5g\ , o;nfO{ s;/L lnP/ hfFbf pko'Qm xf]nf < xfdL s[lifsf] ;Dk"0f{ kIfdf l;l/o; 5}gf} . d t eG5' ug{ g;Sg] s'/f gaf]nf}+ . xfd|f] s'g} klg of]hgf k"0f{ ¿kdf nIo xfl;nul/ cufl8 hfg ;s]sf] 5}g . of]hgf Jojxfl/s 5}g To;}n] x/]s If]qnfO{ dWo]gh/ u/L ToxfFsf] cfjZos tyf sdhf]/L a'em]/ of]hgf lgdf{0f ug{ ;s]df pko'Qm x'G5 .

dfq ?= #(((*

zt{x? nfu" x'g]5g\

x/]s lbg k|fljlws ;xof]u .np 8f]d]g /lh:6«];g cfsif{s j]a;fO6 l8hfOg xf]l:6ª Kofs]h cfkm\g} 8f]d]gdf Od]n ;'ljwf cf/ P08 l8 Ogf]e]l6e ;f]n';g k|f=ln= gofF afg]Zj/, sf7df8f}F )!–$&*%*$@ -clkm;_ , (*$!&)#((#, (*)*())&*( -d's]z /fhynf_ (*$#$&!$#) -lanaxfb'/ clwsf/L_ April - May 2013 a} h]z7fv@)&) @)&)

/fli6«o dfl;s

27


Joj;fo

ljho l3ld/]

t'N;L kf08]

lj=le=P;;L= P08 PPr, OG6g{l;k -lxsfi6_

6«fp6 df5f kfngsf] nflu :yn 5gf}6 !_ kfgLsf] dqf / u'0f:t/ s_ kfgLsf] dfqf M 6«fp6 df5f kfngsf nflu jif}{el/ k|;Zt dfqfdf pknAw x'g] kfgLsf] ;|f]t x'g h?/L 5 . Ps d]l6«s 6g df5f pTkfbgsf nflu sl/a !)) ju{ ld6/ /];j] kf]v/Ldf Go'gtd %)) 3gld6/ k|lt lbgsf] b/n] kfgLsf] axfj lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cfjZos kb{5 . ;fwf/0ftof !) ln6/ k|lt;]s]G8 c6'6 ¿kdf kfgLsf] axfj / b}lgs slDtdf $–% k6s /];j]sf] k'/f kfgL km]/jbn x'g] x'g'kb{5 . v_ kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ M 6«fp6 df5f afFRg, x's{g / kl/kSj x'g ;kmf, lr;f] / a9L k|f0fjfo' ePsf] kfgL x'g'kg]{ x'G5 . lr;f] kfgLdf x's{g] 28

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

/]Gaf] 6«fp6 df5fkfng n]v ;DkfbsM clUgk|;fb g]kfn, al/i7 cg';Gwfg clws[t, df5f tyf dT:okfng, gfs{

x'gfn] of] df5fkfngdf kfgLsf] u'0f:t/df a9L ;+j]bgzLn x'g'k5{ . u_ tfkqmd M 6«fp6 df5f z'Gob]lv @% l8u|L ;]lN;o; ;Dd afFRg ;S5 . t/ kf]v/Ldf @@ 8Lu|L ;]= tfkqmd k'Ug' vt/fk"0f{ cj:yf x'G5 . /fd|f] j[l4sf nflu !$ b]lv @) l8u|L ;]lN;o; tfkqmd pko'Qm x'G5 eg] ;a}eGbf pko'Qm j[l4sf nflu !^ b]lv !* l8u|L ;]lN;o; tfkqmd rflxG5 . Ps jif{df $–% dlxgf kfgLsf] ;/b/ tfkqmd !) l8u|L ;]lN;o; eGbf sd x'g] :yfgdf of] df5f l9nf] a9\5 x'gfn] 6«fp6 df5f kfngsf] nflu kfgLsf] pko'Qm ef}lts / /;folgs u'0fx¿sf] dfqfsf] ljifodf ljz]if Wofg lbg' h?/L x'G5 .

3_ kfgLdf 3'lnt clS;hg M of] df5fnfO{ a9L dfqfdf clS;hgsf] cfjZostf kg]{ x'gfn] ;fwf/0ftof -&–*_ ld=u|f=÷ln= cfjZos x'G5 . ª_ kL=Pr= M 6«fp6 df5f kflng] kfgLsf] kL=Pr= -%=& – *=%_ leq x'g'k5{ . @_ e"–agf]6 /];j] lgdf{0f ul/g] :ynsf] le/fnf]kg !–#Ü x'g'kg]{, 8fF8fsfF8fdf cGo v]tLug}{ g;lsg] t/ kof{Kt kfgLsf] ;|f]t ePsf] :yfg pko'Qm x'g] . 6«fp6 df5f kfng ug]{ hldgsf] df6f] kfgL c8g ;Sg] u'0f ePsf] x'g'kg]{ .


#_ 6«fp6 kmfd{ l8hfOg tyf lgdf{0f M s_ l8hfOg M cfjZostf cg';f/ pTkfbg nIo tyf kfgLsf] pknAwtf cg';f/ /];j]x¿ lgdf{0f ug'{k5{ . cfjZos ;a} ;'ljwf h:t}M kfgLsf] s'nf], /];j] kf]v/L, bfgf pTkfbg 3/, hfn /fVg] 3/, cfjf;, kfls{ª, cflb sf] /fd|f] Joj:yfkg ldnfpg'k5{ . kfgLsf] axfj sd ePsf] :yfgdf k'gM k|of]u ljlw ckgfpg] vfnsf] l8hfOlgª ug'{k5{ . /];j] lgdf{0fsf] nflu s+lqm6 9nfg, cf/=;L=;L= 9nfg, df6f] sf6]/ jf kmfOj/ Unf;, h'g s'g} ;fdu|L k|of]u klg ug{ ;lsG5 . v_ /]vfTds÷nx/] /];j] M kfgLsf] axfj sd ePsf] 7fpFdf pko'Qm x'g] u/L agfpg' k5{ . o;/L agfpFbf ;'?sf] kf]v/Lsf] kfgL tNnf] kf]v/Ldf k'gM k|fof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ dflyNnf] kfv/Lsf] df5fnfO{ nfu]sf] /f]u ;lhn} tNnf] kf]v/Lsf] df5fnfO{ ;g{ ;Sg] ePsfn] ;fjwfgL ckgfpg' cfjZos .

6«fp6 df5f kfngsf] nflu kfgLsf] pko'Qm ef}lts / /;folgs u'0fx?sf] dfqf

;|f]tM Pkm=P=cf]=

tnsf] kf]v/L cln kmf]xf]/ x'g] ePsfn] lkmN6/sf] cfjZostf kg]{ x'G5 . tNnf] /];j]sf] cfwf/ sDtLdf )=% ld= tn x'g] u/L agfpg'kb{5 . h;n] ubf{ kfgL klxnf]af6 bf];|f]df embf{ clS;hgsf] dfqf a9\g hfG5 . u_ ;dfgfGt/ /];j] M x/]s /];j]x¿df 5§5'§} tfhf / ;kmf kfgL pknAw x'g] / kfgLsf] axfj k|z:t ePsf] :yfgdf o; k|sf/sf] /];j] lgdf{0f pko'Qm x'G5 . o:tf] /]; j]df /f]u ;g]{ ;Defjgf sd x'g] / ;w}F clS;hgsf] dfqf a9L ePsf] kfgL k|fKt x'g] x'G5 .

u'0fx? 3'lnt clS;hgsf] ;+t[Kttf 3'lnt clS;hg

dfqf ^)Ü & – * ld=u|=÷ln

kLPr

^=% – *=%

SoflN;od cdf]lgof kfgLdf /x]sf] 7f]; kbfy{

%) ld=u|f=÷ln= eGbf dfly )=)@ ld=u|f=÷ln= eGbf sd *) ld=u|f=÷ln=

6«fp6 df5fsf] ljleGg cj:yfsf] nflu cfjZos kfgL -ln=÷;]s]G8_ qm=;+= p2]Zo ! cfp68f]/ gl;{ª @ dpkf]v/L

cfjZos kfgL -ln=÷;]s]G8 !=% – @=)) %=)) – ^=))

df5fsf] cj:yf cg';f/ kf]ifs tTjsf] cfjZostf km/s x'G5 cj:yf e'/f x'sf]{nf 7"nf] df5f

k|f]l6g %)Ü $&Ü $)Ü – $%Ü

kmfOj/ !Ü !=%Ü @=%Ü

sfaf]{xfO8«]6 !%Ü @)Ü @%Ü

bfgf agfpg] ;|f]t / To;sf kf]ifs tTj

;|f]tM Pkm=P=cf]=

3_ /];j] kf]v/Lsf] l8hfOg M of] /];j] agfpFbf pknAw kfgLsf] axfj cg';f/ kf]v/Lsf] ;+Vof to ug'k{ g]{ x'G5 eg] df5fsf] pTkfbg nIo cg';f/ /];j]x¿ lgdf{0f ug'k{ g]{ x'G5 . g;{/L kf]v/L !) b]lv !% ju{ld6/, dfp tyf pTkfbg kf]v/L %) b]lv !%) ju{ld6/ sf] /];j] x'gk' 5{ .

sRrf kbfy{ k|f]l6g -Ü_ qm'8 lnlkª -Ü_ qm'8 kmfOj/ -Ü_ s'n zlQm÷Sofn/L 53=3 17=7 – 5289 ;'s]sf] df5f 54=6 3=8 – – lemFu] df5f 7=4 – – /fFufsf] sfFrf] sn]hf] 17=4 3=2 – – /fFufsf] ;'s]sf] sn]hf] 63=0 16=4 4=0 9=9 4516 ux'Fsf] rf]s/ 12=8 13=7 11=1 – rfdnsf] rf]s/ 30=2 17=7 – – tf]/Lsf] lkgf ;|f]tM /]Gaf]6«fp6 df5fkfng k|ljlw -@)^(_ . April - May 2013 h]7

@)&)

/fli6«o dfl;s

29


g;{/L kf]v/Lsf] rf}8fO{ )=&% b]lv !=@% ld6/, dfp pTkfbg kf]v/Lsf] rf}8fO !=@% b]lv #=)) ld6/ ;Dd /fVg' kg]{ x'G5 . /];j] l8hfOg ubf{ nDafO, rf}8fO kfgLsf] ulx/fO #)M#M! sf] cg'kftdf x'gk' 5{ . kgLsf] k|jz ] tyf lgsfzåf/ ldnfpg' k5{ h;n] ubf{ pknAw kfgLsf] clwstd ;b'kof]u ;lsG5 . kfgLsf] lgsf;åf/df kfOk jf tLgj6f ;6/ /fVg ldNg] u/L vfFrsf] Joj:yf ug'k{ b{5 . h+unL df5f tyf kft kltª\u/ cflb kf]v/Lleq k:g lbg'xbF' g} / df5f aflx/ hfgaf6 /f]Sg r]Da/ 5]pdf hfnL z6/sf] Joj:yf ug'k{ 5{ . e'/f :6lsª 6«fp6 df5f kfng ;fwf/0ftof b'O{ lsl;dn] ul/G5 M– cf+lzs k|0ffnL / k"0f{ k|0ffnL . cf+lzs k|0ffnL M ;;fgf e'/fnfO{ ahf/df lalqmof]Uo agfO{ ahf/ Joj:yfkg ul/g] . k"0f{ k|0ffnL M o; k|0ffnLdf dfpsf] Joj:yfkgb]lv e'/f pTkfbg tyf vfg] df5f ;d]t ljqmL ljt/0f ul/g] vfg] df5fsf] nflu /];j] kf]v/Ldf df5f e'/fsf] 3gTj kfgLsf] axfj, bfgfsf] u'0f:t/, /]js ] f] ;+/rgf, ;;kmfO, kfNg] cjlw cflbdf e/ kb{5 . @)) b]lv #)) u|fd;Ddsf]

30

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

;fOhsf] df5f laqmL of]Uo dflgG5 . % u|fd ;fOhsf&% b]lv !)) j6f df5f e'/f k|lt ju{ld6/df :6s ug'{kb{5 . o;/L :6lsª ubf{ !) dlxgfdf k|lt ju{ld6/ !) b]lv !% s]lh 6«fp6 df5f pTkfbg ug{ ;lsG5 . bfgf Joj:yfkg 6«fp6n] k|fs[lts cj:yfdf kfgLdf kfOg] ls/f, qm:6]l;oG; tyf ;;fgf df5f vfg] u5{ t/ oltn] dfq pgLx¿sf] cfxf/f k"0f{ x'Fb}g . o;nfO{ pRr k|f]l6go'Qm s[lqd bfgf lbg' k5{ . s_ bfgf agfpg' cl3sf] tof/L M bfgf agfpsf] nflu u'0f:t/Lo sRrf vfB kbfy{sf] 5gf}6 ug'{k5{ . zlQm ;|f]tsf] ¿kdf ux'F, lkgf, 9'6f] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 t/ cfjZos kf]ifstTj lx;fa u/]/ dfq sRrf kbfy{ 5gf}6 ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . v_ bfgf agfpFbf Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx¿ M e6df; k|of]u ubf{ e'6]/ dfq k|of]u ug'{k5{ . ;a} sRrf kbfy{ dl;gf] x'g] u/L lk;]/ cfjZos cg'kftdf ld;fpg'k5{ . wfgsf] 9'6f] a9L k|of]u ug'{x'Fb}g, o;n] bfgfsf] :jfbdf c;/ ug{ ;S5 . u_ qmDan cfxf/f M ljleGg sRrf kbfy{x¿ ldnfO{ agfOg]

cg'dflgt k'“hLut nufgL -klxnf] jif{ ##! j=ld=df_ qm=;+=

ljj/0f

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

hldg /];j] lgdf{0f kfgL cfk"lt{ k|0ffnL :6f]/, bfgf3/, Uof/]h 8\o|fu g]6 g]6ng, xfkf df5f 5fGg] ;fgf kDk g/d sf7, af6f, aflN6g n3' hnljB't 6jf{Og &=% lsnf]jf6 kfgL3§ 6«fp6Xofr/L -;fgf_ lkm8 d]l;g a}+s C0f hDdf

10 11 12 13

;;fgf s0f qmDan cfxf/f xf] . of] cfxf/f k"0f{tof kf}8g z'? u/]sf e'/f / x'sf}{nf e'/fnfO{ dfqf ldnfO{ lbg'kg]{ x'G5 . df5fsf] ljleGg ;fOh cg';f/qmDan bfgfsf] qmDan– !, @, #, $ u/L juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5 . 3_ tof/L bfgfsf] e08f/0f M bfgf e08f/0f ubf{ /fd|f; ] uF Kofs u/]/ xfjf gl5g]{ u/L /fVg'k5{ . bfgf e08f/0f ug]{ sf]7f ;kmf, ;'Vvf, kfgL gr'lxg] x'gk' 5{ / af]/fdf bfgf

If]qkmn ##! j=ld= vr{ /sd ?= Jofj;flos cfo' 625000 20 232500 20 187500 20 62500 5 12500 5 12500 5 7500 2 13750 20 31250 81250 162500 !$@*&%)

5 20 20 -

/fvL Kofs u/L e08f/0f sf]7fdf /fVg' k5{ . bfgfsf] pTkfbg ldlt n]v/] n]an ug'{ k5{ . ;"os { f] k|sfz l;wf kg]{ 7fpFdf bfgf e08f/0f ug{x' bF' g} ;fy} bfgfnfO{ d';faf6 hf]ufpg' cToGt h?/L x'G5 . ª_ bfgf lbg] b/ M e'/f k"0f{ kf}8g] cj:yfdf gcfP;Ddsf] nflu b'O{ lbg pl;g]sf] c08fsf] kx]Fnf] efu lbFb} s[lqd cfxf/f v'jfpg] afgL a;fNg'k5{ . t];|f] lbg df5fn] vfg ;Sg]hlt cfxf/f


Joj;fo

lbgdf !) b]lv !@ k6s ;Dd lbg'k5{ . bf];f| ] xKtfkl5 zf/Ll/s tf}nsf] cfwf/df & b]lv !) k|ltzt;Dd cfxf/f k|To]s 306f 306fdf lbg'k5{ . a9\bf] cfsf/eGbf dflysf e'/fnfO{ qmlds ¿kn] 36fpFb} b'O–{ b'O{ 306fdf b}lgs $ b]lv ^ k6s;Dd zf/Ll/s tf}nsf] # k|ltztsf b/n] % u|fd cfsf/sf] gk'uG' h]n;Dd cfxf/f lbg'k5{ eg] % u|fdeGbf dflysf] e'/fnfO{ % k|ltztsf] b/n] bfgf v'jfpg'k5{ . %) u|fdeGbf a9L cfsf/sf df5fnfO{ # k|ltztsf] b/n] bfgf v'jfP k'U5 . 5_ bfgf lbg] tl/sf M bfgf k|foM xft}n] lbg] ul/G5 . bfgf lbFbf df5f /fv]sf] 6\ofª\sLsf] rf/}lt/ a/fa/ 5/]/ lbg'k5{ . t/ bfgf 7Ls dfqfdf gfk]/÷tf}n/] dfq lbg'k5{ . df5fsf] a[l4 ;Dej eP;Dd !%÷!% lbgdf hfFr ul//xg'k{ 5{ . /]Gaf] 6«fp6 j[l4 tyf k|hgg\ ;fdfGotof b'O{ jif]{ )=* s]hL ;fOhsf] kf]yL df5fn] ;/b/ !%)) – @%)) / !=% ;fOhsf]

kf]yL df5fn] ;/b/ !^)) – #))) ;Dd cG8f lbG5 . o;/L df5fn] k|ltlsnf] ;/b/ @#)) – #))) ;Dd cG8f lbG5 eg] tLg jif]{ kf]yLn] k|ltlsnf] ;/b/ !*)) – @!)) cG8f lbG5 . /]Gaf] 6«fp6 df5fsf] k|hgg\ k|lqmof s[lqd tl/sfn] ug]{ k|rng /x]sf] 5 . kl/kSj kf]yLnfO{ km'n lgrf]/L af6fdf ;+sng ul/G5 / kl/kSj efn]nfO{ lgrf]/L ljo{ (Milt) ;+sng u/L km'ndf ld>0f ul/G5 . km'ndf efn]sf] ljo{ ld;fpg ;lsG5, h;nfO{ ;'Vvf lg;]]rg (Dry fertilization) elgG5 . km'nnfO{ )=( k|ltzt g'gkfgLsf] emf]nn] ;kmf u/L To; emf]n;lxtsf] km'ndf g} ljo{ /fv]/ klg lg;]rg (Fertilization) ul/G5 . h;nfO{ leh]sf] lg;]rg (Wet Fertilization) elgG5 . km'nnfO{ g'gkfgLsf] emf]ndf /fvL sf]/Ng (Incubation) sf] nflu OGs'j]6/ af6fdf /flvG5 . km'n sf]/Ng OGs'j]6/df /x]sf] ;dodf kfgLsf] jxfj sl/a #) ln6/ k|ltldg]6 rflxG5 / kfgL lg/Gt/ jlu/xg] x'g'kb{5 . kfgLdf clS;hgsf] dfqf & ldlnu|fd k|ltln6/ eGbf a9L rflxG5 . lg;]rg km'naf6 sf]/Ng (=!$ l8=;]= tfkqmd ePdf sl/j @&–#) lbg nfU5 . kfgLsf] tfkqmd sd eP l9nf] / a9L eP l56f] e'/f lg:sg] x'G5 . t/ OG's'j]zgsf] ;do kfgLsf] tfkqmd lr;f] ePdf /fd|f] x'G5 .

6«fp6 df5fdf nfUg] d'Vo /f]ux¿ qm=;+=

/f]u

sf/0f x'sf}{nfb]lv vfg] df5f;Dd nfUg] 1 sf]n'Dgfl/;\ /f]u 3gTj a9L ePdf, tfkqmd a9]df 2 AofS6]l/on luN; /f]u hLjf0f'sf] ;+qmd0fn] nfUg] :6«]K6f]sf]s; hLjf0f'af6 nfUg], 3 :6«]K6f]sf]sn /f]u kf]v/Lsf] tfksqmd gldn]df, kfgL wldnf] ePdf :o'8f]df]gf; km\n'/f];]G; hLjf0f'n] 4 P/f]df]gf; OGkm]S;g nfUg] P/f]df]gf;, :o'8f]df]gf; ;d"xsf] 5 kFv]6f s'lxg] /f]u hLjf0f'af6 nfUg]

nIf0f z/L/, 6fpsf] / kFv6] fsf] h/f efudf v}/f] x'g] 6f6fx¿sf] 5]plt/ /ftf]kg b]lvg] ;':t x'g,] pk|mg], bfgf vfg 5f]8g\ ] z/L/df sfnf]kg cfpg], cfFvf ;'lgg] kFv]6fsf] h/fdf /ftf]kg b]lvg] d'Vo ¿kdf z/L/sf] aflx/L efu / sfg]kqdf c;/ ug]{ kFv]6f, k'R5/sf] h/flt/ qmdzM lvOFb} hfG5 ;]tf]kgf b]lvg', 6 l6«sf]l8gf l6«sf]l8gf k/hLjLaf6 nfUg] sd vfg] / tf}n 36\g' leShf]a]n; ;]l/a|]ln; /+u a9L sfnf] x'g], 7 lj/lnª kl/hLjLaf6 nfUg] k'R5/ afª\uf] x'g] pkrf/sf] nflu ;DalGwt dT:o cg';Gwfg s]Gb|, dT:o ljsf; s]Gb| jf ljz]if1;Fu ;Dks{ ug'{ kb{5 .

Joj;fo ;~rfng vr{sf zLif{sx? qm=;+= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

ljj/0f s_ rfn' vr{ vfg] df5fsf] bfgf e'/f df5fsf] bfgf df5f e'/f -!=@ u|fd ;fOhsf] HofdL Hofnf ;fgf cf}hf/, l;;f, ;fdfg kmfd{ OGwg ljB't z'Ns cGo -t]n, cf}ifwL_ v_ l:y/ k"FhL sd{rf/L tna a}+ssf] Jofh -! jif{_ a}+s ;fjf e'QmfgL -! jif{_ x|f;s§L dd{t vr{ -k"FhLutsf] %!Ü_ ;~rf/÷6]lnkmf]g ljljw

6«fp6 df5fdf nfUg] d'Vo /f]u tyf /f]syfd pkfo ;3g k|0ffnL ePsf sf/0fn] / Joj:yfkgsf] ;fdfGo q'l6n] df5f kflng] jftfj/0f rfF8} g} lju|g ;S5 . of] Joj;fo ;+j]bgzLn ePsf sf/0f Joj:yfkgdf cToGt} Wofg lbg'k5{ . s_ /f]u nfUg] sf/0f /];j]df 6«fp6sf] lj:6f hDdf eO{ xflgsf/s UofF;x¿ a9\gfn], /f]uL df5f ePsf sf/0fn], kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ gldn]sfn], df5fsf] :6s ;+Vof w]/} ePsf sf/0fn] bfgfsf] cfjZostf cg';f/ cfk"lt{ ;do, dfqf cflb gldn]df v_ /f]u nfu]sf] df5fsf] nIf0f lzlyn x'Fb} hfg', e'F8L km'Ng', bfgf gvfg', cfFvf aflx/ lg:sg' :jfefljs tl/sfn] gkf}8g' kFv]6fsf] 5]pdf ;]tf] bfgf b]lvg' sfg]kq -luN;_ kx]Fnf] x'g' cflb . u_ :j:y 6«fp6 df5f s;/L pTkfbg ug]{ < :6lsª b/ 7Ls /fVg] , bfgf zf/L/Ls cfjZostf cg';f/ lbg], kfgLsf] u''0f:t/ sfod ug]{, kfgLsf u'0fx¿sf] b}lgs÷;fKtflxs /]s8{ /fVg] . :jf:ydf ;d:of cfPdf k|fljlws;Fu k/fdz{ lng], /f]uL / d/]sf df5f /];j]af6 x6fpg], df5fsf] :6s ;+Vof, x/]s lbg d/]sf df5f, df5fsf] x/]s lbgsf] cj:yf, rfnrng, cflbsf] ;d]t /]s8{ /fVg] . April - May 2013 h]7

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P8e6f]{l/on

cleofg Pu|f] k|fln

gsf]6sf] jf8eGHofªl:yt cleofg Pu|f]n] ljut Ps jif{ b]lv x/]s lsl;dsf t/sf/Lx¿ pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . k|flnn] ljz]ifu/L 6g]n k|ljlwaf6 t/sf/L pTkfbg ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . Ps jif{ cl3 ^) /f]kgL hUufdf t/sf/L pTkfbg u/]sf] cleofg Pu|f]n] xfn cfP/ *) /f]kgLdf t/sf/L pTkfbg ug]{ u/]sf] ;~rfns c/ljGb| ;'j]bL atfpF5g\ . k|flnn] l;hg cg';f/sf] t/sf/Ldf aGbf, sfpnL, leG8L, e]F8] v';f{gL, cfn', cflb pTkfbg ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . To:t} nx/] afnLdf l;ld, l3/f}nf, km;L{, cflb pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;a} t/sf/LdWo] uf]ne]8fsf] dfu tyf vkt a9L x'g] u/]sf] ;'j]bLsf] cg'ej 5 . Ps jif{ cl3 ;'jb] L ;lxtsf o'jf ldn]/ %) nfvsf] nfutdf t/sf/L Joj;fo yfn]sf x'g\ . t/sf/L Joj;fodf /fd|f] sdfO{ / Jofkf/ x'g] ePsfn] pgLx¿ o; Joj;fodf ;+nUg ePsf] ;'jb] Lsf] egfO{ 5 . clxn] dfu cg';f/sf] t/sf/L pTkfbg tyf ljt/0f ug{ ;Ifd

yf

32

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013


cleofg Pu|f] k|fln

P8e6f]{l/on

x'gfn] o; Joj;foaf6 k'/} ;Gt'i6 ePsf c/ljGb| af8eGHofªdf pTkfbg ePsf ;a}h;f] t/sf/Lx¿ sf7df8f}s F f] t'ngfdf kf]v/f, gf/fo0f3f6, d'ªlng, a'6jn, cflb :yfgdf ljqmL ljt/0f eO/x]sf] atfpF5g\ . xfn;Dd :jb]zdf dfq ljqmL ljt/0f ul//x]sf] / lgs6 eljiodf ljb]z;Dd k'¥ofpg] cleofg Pu|fs ] f] nIo /x]sf] 5 . k|flnn] cfkm\gf] Joj;fosf nflu !@ hgfsf] hgzlQm kl/rfng ul//x]sf] 5 eg] kfj/km"n On]lS6«s kDk, 6«ofS6/, :k|,] tyf yf]kf l;rfFO{ k|ljlw klg ckgfpg] u/]sf] 5 . To:t} ;Nnfx tyf ;'emfjsf] nflu 8f= s]bf/ a'9fyf]sLsf] ;xof]u lng] u/]sf] ;'jb] Ln] atfP . g]kfndf s[lif Joj;fosf] If]q a[xt\ ePklg w]/d} f 1fgsf] sdL /x]sf] ;'jb] L :jLsf5{g\ . t/sf/Lsf] d"No lgwf{/0f gx'g,] eG;f/df 5'6 gx'g,] s[lif pks/0fx¿sf] sdL h:tf ;d:of ef]Ug s[ifsx¿ afWo ePsf] pgn] atfP . April - May 2013 h]7

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P8e6f]{l/on

lu|g j]Ny

lu|

g j]Ny k|flnn] ljut b'O{ jif{ b]vL hdLg tyf kz'k+IfLaf6 dfgj :jf:Ydf kg]{ k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ ljleGg pTkfbgx¿ ahf/df NofpFb} cfPsf] 5 . lj ; @)^* ;fndf :yfkgf ePsf] o; k|flnn] vfB kz'k+IfL / af]6lj?jfnfO{ :j:Yo /fVg] p2]Zon] …;]e b db/ cy{Ú eGg] gf/fsf ;fy u'0f:t/Lo pTkfbg, lbuf] s[lif / s[ifsdf hgr]tgf hufpg] sfo{ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf w]/} h;f] 7fpFsf] s[lif pTkfbgdf /;folgs dnsf sf/0f s' k|efj kg]{ / Pl;l86Lsf] rfk a9L x'g] b]lvPsf] 5 . To:tf s'k|efjsf sf/0f :Jf:ys/ pTkfbgdf sdL x'g] / dfgj :jf:Yodf klg gsf/fTds c;/ ug]{ u5{ . To;}n] o;nfO{ Go"gLs/0f u/L dfgj :jf:Yo / lbuf] s[lifsf] ljsf; ug]{ k|flnsf] d'Vo pb]Zo /x]sf] k|flnsf ahf/ k|aGws vu]Gb| vltj8fn] atfP . dfgj:jf:Yo;Fu ;DalGwt ePsf] kz'kIF fLnfO{ klg :j:Ys/ agfpg k|flnn] ufO{j:t', afv|f, aªu'/sf nflu e]6, lku s]o/, kf]N6«L s]o/, e]6 lsFu, k]6 lsFu, kfj/ ldNs u/L * k|fs[lts le6fldg pTkfbg ug]{ u/]sf] 5. To:t} hdLg tyf lj?jfsf nflu kfj/ KnfG6 u|f,] kfj/ kfNd An'd, gfO6«fl] sFu h:tf k|8S6 pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . o:tf ljleGg vfB pTkfbgx¿ g]kfnsf w]/h } ;f] 7fpFsf s[ifsn] pkof]u ul/x]sf 5g\ . oL pTkfbgx¿sf] u'0f:t/Lo ePsfn] / o;sf] k|of]un] s[ifsx¿nfO{ lgs} kmfObf ePsfn]

cuf{lgsdf hgr]tgf hufp“b} pgLx¿ cfkm\gf] Joj;fodf lgs} pT;fxL ePsf] vltj8f atfpF5g\ . To;}n] oL pTkfbgsf] dfu klg ;a} 7fpFdf plQs} 5 . o; pTkfbgsf] k|of]un] :j:Yo pTkfbg lgdf0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{ . o;sf] k|of]un] hdLgdf %) k|ltzt s]ldsn cfwfl/t dn 36fpg ;xof]u u5{ h;sf/0f s[ifssf] klg %) k|ltzt nfut 36\g ;S5 . o;n] df6f]sf] cj:yf ;'wf/L u'0f:t/Lo pTkfbg j[l4 u5{ . ufOj:t'sf nflu pTkfbg x'g] e]6 k|8S6x¿sf] d"No k|lt ln6/ % ;o (@ /x]sf] pgn] atfP . To:t} cuf{lgs dn eg] To;sf] u'0f:t/ / sfd cg';f/ d"No lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfndf *) k|ltzt hg;ª\Vof s[lifdf lge{/ ePklg w]/h } ;f] s[ifsdf 1fgsf] sdL 5 , ljiffbL, /;fog af/] w]/h } ;f] s[ifsx¿nfO{ yfxf 5}g . o; k|flnn] s[lifdf cfj¢ ePsf JolQmx¿df hgr]tgf km}nfpg g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb;Fu sf] ;xsfo{df cg';Gwfg ul//x]sf] 5 . 34

/fli6«o dfl;s

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April - May 2013


lu|g j]Ny

b} lu|g j]Ny

P8e6f]{l/on

k]6 lsª\u s's/' kfng ;'/Iff / zf]v b'a} b[li6sf]0fn] ul/G5 . To:t} v/fof], la/fnf]h:tf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf] :jf:Yof ljz]if Wofg lbg' h?/L 5 . 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{ cfjZos kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ le6fldg, ldg/N;, SoflN;od, o; k]6 lsª\udf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . of] pRr sf]6Lsf] u'0[ f:t/Lo lkm8 ;lKnd]G6 ePsfn] 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{ :j:Yo agfpg o;sf] k|of]u cfjZos 5 . o;n] hgfj/sf] x8\8L, bfFtnfO{ dha't agfpF5, /f]u;Fu n8\g] Ifdtf j[lb u/fpF5, vfgf ?rfpF5, /QmcNktf, l/s]6; \ ,/tGwf] x'g af6 arfpF5 . To:t} hgfj/nfO{ :j:Yo / km"lt{nf] agfpF5 . o;nfO{ kz' lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ % b]lv !) ldnLln6/ lbgsf] b'Ok6s v'jfpg' k5{ . lku s]o/ aFu'/, aFb]n / ;'Fu'/sf] nflu ljz]if ¿kdf tof/ kfl/Psf] ljZj:t/sf] u'0f:t/Lo t/n v'/fs xf] . o;n] oL hgfj/x¿sf] :jfZYo cg's"n agfO{ ahg / zf/Ll/s ljsf; ug{ cfjZos kg]{ cfO/g, le6fldg, SoflN;od, kmf];kmf]/;, ldg/N; k|bfg u5{ . o;n] aFu'/, ;Fu'/ / aFb]n kfng ug]{ ls;fg / Joj;foLnfO{

Jojf;flos nfe lng dåt u5{ . o;sf] k|of]un] aFu'/sf] tf}n / zfl/l/s ljsf;df j[lb u5{, kf7f kf7L hGdg] dg]{ jf c:j:y hGdg] ;d:ofnfO{ sd u/fpF5, ;Fu'/ aFu'/df a9L x'g] /Qmrfksf] ;d:of ;dfwfg u5{, kfrg k|s[ofdf ;'wf/ NofpF5, /f]u;Fu n8\g] Ifdtf j[lb u/fpF5 / cfO/g, kmf];kmf]/;, le6fldg, ldg/N; / SoflN;od sf] sdL k"/f u/fpF5 . o;nfO{ kz' lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ ;fgf] kf7f kf7Lsf] nlfu k|lt lbg % ldnL ln6/ / 7"nf] / a9\bf] kz'sf] nflu lbgsf] b'O{ k6n !) ldnL ln6/ lbg ;lsG5 . e]6 lsª\u kz'kfng Joj;fonfO{ dWogh/ u/L ljz]if ¿kdf tof/ kfl/Psf] e]6 lsªu ljZj:t/sf] u'0f:t/Lo t/n v'/fs xf] . ufO{, e}; F L, 3f]8f, afv|f, v;L cflb kz'x¿sf] Joj;flos pTkfbgnfO{ j[lb ug{ d2t k'¥ofpg] o; lkm8 ;lKnd]G6df kz' :jf:Yosf nlfu cfjZos kg]{ le6fldg P, le6fldg la!@, SoflN;od, le6fldgl8 #, kmf];kmf]/;, cfO/g / u|fy ] k|fd] f]6/x¿ ;ld>0f ul/Psf] x'bF f kz'x¿nfO{ k|of]u u/fO{ Joj;flos nfe lng ;lsG5 . o;n] ufO{ e}; F L / afv|fsf] b"w / km\of6df j[lb u5{, kz'x¿sf] zf/Ll/s jhg j[lb u/fpF5, ldNs lkme/ x'gaf6 arfpF5, ld6fldG; / ldg/ N;sf] sdLaf6 x'g] ;d:ofnfO{ /f]S5, kz'x¿sf] kfrg k|so[ fdf d2t u/L pTkfbg a9fpF5, o;sf] k|of]un] :j:Yo kz'kfng / ;d[b Joj;fosf] cjwf/0fnfO{ Jojxf/df ¿kfGt/0f ug{ d2t u5{ . o;nfO{ kz' lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ lbgsf] b'O{ k6s !) ldnL ln6/ b]lv @) ldnLln6/ ;Dd lbg ;lsG5 . kf]N6«L s]o/ kf]N6«L s]o/ Ps pRr sf]6Lsf] lkm8 ;KnLd]G6 xf] . of] ljz]ifu/L kf]N6«L Joj;foLsf] nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] le6fldG;, ldg/N;, kmf];kmf]/; / SoflN;od / ljleGg k|fs[lts tTjx/sf] ;ld>0f u/L agfOPsf] ljZj:t/Lo lkm8 ;KnLd]G6 xf] . o;sf] lg/Gt/ k|of]un] s'v/' fkfng Joj;fodf b]vf kg]{ l/s]6; \ , sd jhg x'g,] s'v/' f dg]{ qmdnfO{ Go"lgs/0f u5{ / s'v/' fkfng ls;fg tyf Joj;foLnfO{ kmfObf lbG5 . o;sf] k|of]un] cfO/g, le6fldg / SoflN;odsf] sdL x'bF g} . s'v/' fsf] jhg l56f] a9fpF5, rNnfx¿df /f]u;Fu n8\g] Ifdtf ljsf; u5{, kfrg k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ NofpF5, cfO/gsf] sdLnfO{ k"lt{ u/L /QmcNkQf x'gaf6 arfpF5,, c08fsf] cfsf/ / u'0f:t/ a9fpg d2t k'¥ofpF5, x8\8L tyf dfz+kz ] L alnof] agfpF5 . o;nfO{ kz'lrlsT;ssf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ !)) rNnfx¿nfO{ k|ltlbg % b]lv !) ldnLln6/ lbg ;lsG5 . To:t} a|fO] /nnfO{ k|ltlbg !% b]lv @) ldnLln6/, n]o;{nfO{ @) b]lv @% ldnLln6/ / la|8/ s'v/' fnfO{ @) b]lv #) ldnLln6/ lbg ;lsG5 . April - May 2013 h]7

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P8e6f]{l/on

sdlz{on kmfld{ª P08 l/;r{ l8enf]Kd]G6 k|fln

Jofj;flo Jof

j;flos s[lif cg';Gwfg tyf ljsf; sfo{qmd k|flnn] ljut * jif{bl] v g]kfndf k'/ftg z}nLsf] s[lifnfO{ Go'gLs/0f u/fO{ Joj;flos s[lifnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg ljleGg sfdx¿ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . :jb]zd} s]xL ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] gf/fsf ;fy cl3 a9]sf] o; k|flndf ( hgf ;b:ox¿ /x]sf 5g\ . sDkgLn] b]zsf ## cf]6f lhNnfdf %)) s[ifsn] k|ToIf¿kdf ljleGg kmnkm"n tyf h8La'6L v]tL ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;fy} sDkgLn] 7fpF7fpFsf s[ifsx¿;Fu ;xsfo{ ub}{ ljleGg hftsf kmnkm"n tyf h8La'6L v]tL ug]{ u/]sf] 5 eGg] % 7fpFdf pGgt x}l;otsf] g;{/L /x]sf] 5 . k|ToIf s[lifsf] ljsf;, lj:tf/ tyf cg';Gwfgsf If]qdf sfd ul//x]sf] o; sDkgLn] )&% ;fndf ;Dddf cfkm\gf sfo{qmdx¿ b]zsf %) lhNnfdf k'/o\ fpg] nIo /fv]sf] 5 . h:tf] hUuf To:tf] afnLsf] cjwf/0ffsf ;fy la:tf/} afFemf] hldgsf] ¿kdf kl/0ft x'Gb} uPsf] s[lifof]Uo e"efunfO{ ljZj:t/Lo afnL nufpg] sfo{ ub]{ cfPsf] 5 . /f;folgs dn tyf cf}iflwsf] k|of]unfO{ Go'lgs/0f u/L df6f]sf] pa{/f zlQmsf] a[l4nfO{ hf]8 lbg] u/]sf] 5 . b]zsf ljkGg, blnt, hghflt tyf l;dfGts[t ju{df pGgt s[lifsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ k'/o\ fO{ ljsf;sf] uf]/6] f]df lxF8fpFg] d'Vo p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 . To:t} s[lifsf If]qdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L tyf ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf;Fu ;fem]bf/L tyf ;xsfo{ u/L of] If]qdf hgr]tgfsf sfdx¿ ug]{ 5 . of] sDkgLn] ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf] km\nf]l/8f /fHodf /x]sf] ECHO tyf ef/tsf] gofFlbNnLl:yt S.S.Herbals ;Fu ;xsfo{ u/L pGgt hftsf] aLpm lj?jf tyf k|fljlws ;Nnfx g]kfnL s[ifsx¿ dfem pknAw 36

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

u/fO/x]sf] 5 . sDkgLn] ljZjdf cToGt ;kmn ePsf afnLx¿sf] pGgt aLp tyf la?jf;lxt pTkfbgnfO{ ahf/Ls/0fsf sfd klg ub{} cfPsf] 5 . kmnkm"ndf cfnd08, cf]v/, lsjL, r]/L, Plk|s6, sfutL, cu/, k]:tf, h}tg' , cu/, pTkfbgdf sfd ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . To:t} hl8j'6Ldf ;]tf] d':nL, cZjuGwf, s'l/nf], s];/ cflb v]tL ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . sDkgLn] g]kfnL s[lifsf ;du| kIfsf] ljljw cWoog Pjd\ k|of]uaf6 s]xL gofF afnLx¿nfO{ g]kfndf kl/ro u/fpgsf] ;fy} o;sf] ;kmn kl/0ffdkZrft tL afnLnfO{ g]kfnL ls;fgsf] 3/3/df k'/o\ fpg] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 .


lu|g j]Ny

P8e6f]{l/on

os v]tL l;sfp“b}

b]zsf ljleGg :yfgdf ePsf ljleGg afnLsf sfdx? afnLsf] gfd

v]tL ul/Psf] lhNnf l;Gw'kfNrf]s, bf]nvf, sfe|]knf~rf]s, wflbª, nlntk'/, sflnsf]6, h'Dnf, uf]vf{, cnd08 afUn'ª, cf]vn9'Ëf, bf]nvf, ;f]n'v'Da', g'jfsf]6, sf7df8f}+, dsjfgk'/, Onfd, ;+v'jf;ef, ef]hk'/, /;'jf, /fd]5fk, l;Gw'nL, vf]6fª cflb :6]leof lrtjg, wflbª, dsjfgk'/, g'jfsf]6, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, sf7df8f}+, sf7df8f}+, nflntk'/ g'jfsf]6, eQmk'/, wflbª, dsjfgk'/, sfe|]knf~rf]s, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, sfutL ;'v{]t, lrtjg, k;f{, df]/ª cf]v/ sf7df8f}+, nlntk'/, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, sflnsf]6, cf]vn9'Ëf cZjuGwf sf7df8f}+, ;f]n'v'Da', k;f{, g'jfsf]6, wflbª, nlntk'/, ¿kGb]xL, sfe|]knf~rf]s ;]tf] d':nL k;f{, ;f]n'v'Da', bf]nvf, emfkf, bfª, ¿kGb]xL, l;Gw'kfNrf]s afF; lrtjg, k;f{, wflbª, gjnk/f;L sfh' afFs] h}t'g dsjfgk'/, g'jfsf]6, l;Gw'kfNrf]s Plk|sf]6 sf7df8f}+, nlntk'/, bf]nvf, ;f]n'v'Da' ;]k|mf]g h'Dnf, g'jfsf]6, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, l;Gw'nL k]:tf l;Gw'nL, lrtjg, k;f{ rGbg l;Gw'nL, k;f{, afFs], lrtjg, df]/ª, l;Gw'kfNrf]s sf7df08f}, nlntk'/, eQmk'/, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, sfe|], wflbª, lrtjg, dsjfgk'/, g'jfsf]6, s'l/nf]-h/fbf/_ bf]nvf, df]/ª, emfkf, gjnk/f;Lnufot . r]/L g'jfsf]6, sf7df8f}+, ;+v'jf;ef, bf]nvf l;Gw'kfNrf]s, sfe|] lslj /fd]5fk, l;Gw'nL, sfe|], g'jfsf]6, l;Gw'kfNrf]s

v]tLsf] k/L0ffd

s}lkmot

sl/a !^))) xhf/ la?jf

Joj;flos v]tL

sl/a @! /f]kgL sl/a @%)) la?jf sl/a *)) la?jf sl/a #% /f]kgL sl/a @)) /f]kgL sl/a @# /f]kgL @ lj3fxf @%) af]6 %)) af]6 sl/a % /f]kgL sl/a % /f]kgL sl/a @)) la?jf sl/a #))) /f]kgL sl/a !))) af]6 sl/a %)) la?jf

k|of]ufTds Joj;flos v]tL Joj;flos v]tL Joj;flos v]tL Joj;flos v]tL Joj;flos v]tL k|of]u k|of]u Joj;flos k|of]u k|of]u k|of]u Joj;flos v]tL Joj;flos Joj;flos v]tL

cfnd08 v]tL g]kfnL ;dfhn] cfnd08nfO{ ;fdfGotof dw]zL abfdsf] gfdn] lrGb5 . o;nfO{ lrlgof abfd klg eGg] ul/G5 . cfnd08df kmfOa/sf] dfqf sd x'G5 / le6fldg O, DofUg]l;od, l;lnlgod, SoflN;odh:tf ldg/nsf] dfq k|rf/ x'G5 . t]nhGo kmn eP klg o;n] zl//sf] sf]n:6«n 36fpg d4t k'/o\ fpF5 . ;fy} d'6s ' f nflu of] cToGt pkof]uL dflgG5 . cfo{j' b]{ df lbgx'F @ j6f Pnd08 vfg]nfO{ s'g} klg cfFvfsf] ;d:of gx'g] hgfOPsf]= 5 . cfnd08 le6fldg O sf] dxTjk"0f{ ;|ft] xf] h;n] dl:t:ssf] Ifdtf tyf cfFvfsf] IfdtfnfO{ dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k'/o\ fpF5 . To:t} SofG;/ /f]usf] k|lt/f]wssf] ¿kdf klg o;nfO{ lnOG5 . cfnd08 kmNg z'? ePkl5 !% jif{;Dd lg/Gt/ o;n] pTkfbg lbG5 . o;sf] af]6 $ b]lv !) km'6;Dd cUnf] x'G5 . cd]l/sfh:tf b]zx¿df o;nfO{ ;dfGotof kmfu'g r}tdf v]tL ul/g] ul/P klg g]kfnh:tf b]zx¿df hf8f] dlxgfafx]s ;a} df};ddf o;sf] v]tL ug{ ;lsG5 . g]kfndf jiff{ df};ddf klg o;sf] v]tL ;lsG5 . jiff{df la?jf ;g{ ;lhnf] x'g] ePsf]n] of] df};d g]kfnh:tf] l;FrfOsf] cefj ePsf] b]zdf v]tL ubf{ /fd|f] x'g] b]lvG5 . hf8f]sf] df};ddf afx]s k|foM ;a} df};ddf cfnd08 v]tL ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf] pTkfbg h'nfO cu:tdf lng] ul/G5 / ahf/df n}hfg] sfd cS6f]a/ gf]eD] a/df ul/G5 . kmnhGo afnL eP klg cfnd08 8«fO kmn ePsf]n] cfkm"nfO{ cg's'n ;dodf ahf/df n}hfg ;lsG5 . ljZjd} cToGt dFxuf] dflgg] cfnd08 v]tLaf6 cToGt 7"nf] cfDbfgL lng ;lsG5 . g]kfnn] k|To]s jif{ ?= !) s/f]8eGbf al9sf] cfnd08 vl/b ug{] ub{5 . o; cfwf/df :jb]zdf klg cfnd08sf] /fd|f] / e/kbf{] ahf/ /x]sf] 5 . ;fy} g]kfnaf6 ljZjsf w]/} b]zx¿df cfnd08 lgof{t ug{ ;lsG5, ljz]ifu/]/ kxfl8 If]q gePsf w]/} b]zx¿df cfnd08sf] Joj;flos lgsf;Lsf] ;Defjgf Jofks 5 . Ps /f]kgL If]qdf #) af]6;Dd v]tL ug{ ;lsg] cfnd08 Ps Ps8 hldgdf sl/a #)) la?jf nufpg ;lsG5 . cfnd08sf] la?jf v]tL ul/Psf] ;fdfGotof t];|f]jif{kl5 cfDbfgL lng ;lsG5 . cfnd08 v]tLdf nufgL, vr{ tyf cfDbfgLsf] :j?k nufgL -klxnf]jif{_ k|lt la?jf d"NoM ?= #))÷– b]lv ?= %))÷– ;Dd . k|lt /f]kgL la?jfM @% b]lv #) uf]6f;Dd . la?jfdf nufgLM Go"gtd &%))÷– b]lv !%)))÷– ;Dd . dn tyf s[lif r'gdf nufgLM ?= April - May 2013 h]7

@)&)

/fli6«o dfl;s

37


P8e6f]{l/on

sdlz{on kmfld{ª P08 l/;r{ l8enf]Kd]G6 k|fln

s]zj kf7s

cWoIf,sdlz{on kmfld{ª P08 8]enf]kd]06 k|f]u|fd k|fln

tkfFO{x?n] s;/L sfd ul//xg' ePsf] 5 < ljz]ifu/L ls;fgx¿nfO{ Joj;flos v]tL ug{ pTk|]l/t ug'{ g} xfd|f] d'Vo sfd xf] . To:t} ls;fgx¿nfO{ k|fljlws ;xof]u, pTkfbg vl/b, / d"Nosf] Uof/]06L xfdL pknAw u/fpF5f}F . JolQmut v]tL eGbf ;fd"lxs v]tLnfO{ xfdLn] ljz]if hf]8 lbFb} cfPsf 5f}F . TotLdfq geP/ gofF jfnLsf] cg';Gwfgsf] u/L xfdL ljut * jif{b]lv 8«fO{ km|'6\; pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsf 5f}F . 8«fO{ km|'6\; pTkfbgnfO{ g]kfnL ahf/ eGbf ljb]zL ahf/df lgof{t ub}{ cfPsf 5f}F . ljz]if u/L uNkm /fi6« / o"/f]lkog d"n'sdf xfd|f] pTkfbg lgof{t x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L r]/L, cNd08 / ;]tf] d':nLdf xfdLn] v]tL ul//x]sf 5f}F . l6:o" sNr/ k|ljlwaf6 oL ;a}sf] lj?jfx¿ g]kfnd} pTkfbg x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg] s]xL dfqfdf lj?jfx¿ xfdL ef/taf6 cfoft u5f}{F . tkfO{x?;Fu cfjå ePsf ls;fgx?n] s;/L ;]jf kfO/x]sf 5g\ < xfd|f] d'Vo p2]Zo g} g]kfnL pTkfbgnfO{ ljb]zL ahf/df k'¥ofpg] xf] . o;k|sf/ ls;fgx¿nfO{ Joj;flos v]tLdf nufpg xfdLn] w]/} k|of; ul//x]sf 5f}F . ls;fgx¿n] k|of]u ug]{ lj?jfsf] k'/} Uof/]06L xfdLn] lbg] u/]sf 5f}F . pgLx¿sf] pTkfbg vl/b u/L k};f klg pgLx¿sf] kfos kg]{ 7fpFd} xfdL k'¥ofpg] u5f}F . To:t} lj?jfdf v/faL b]lvPdf jf d/]df ;f] lj?jfsf] 7fpFdf c¿ lj?jf k"0f{ k|lt:yfkg ul/lbG5f}F . pgLx¿n]

38

/fli6«o dfl;s

h]7 @)&)

April - May 2013

jfnL nufPsf] :yfgdf xfdL k|To]s jif{ lg/LIf0f ug{ k'U5f}F / s]xL ;/;Nnfx lbg'k/] klg lbG5f}F . To:t} blnt, dlxnf cfbLn] ;fd"lxs v]tL jf JolQmut v]tL ub}{ 5g\ eg] pgLx¿nfO{ lj?jf lgz'Ns pknAw u/fP/ xfdL ls;fgx¿nfO{ ;]jf k'¥ofO/x]sf 5f}F . tkfFO{x?sf] gofF of]hgf s]xL 5 sL < xfd|f] ljz]if of]hgf eg]s} Joj;flos v]tLsf] pTyfg ug'{ xf] . To:t} of] jif{ k|of]ufTds v]tL eO/x]sf] h}t'g, s]z/, k]:tfnfO{ Joj;flosdf n}hfg] of]hgf agfPsf 5f}F . :jb]]zdf Joj;flos v]tLsf] k|jb{g u/L ljb]zdf g]kfnL pTkfbgsf] ahf/ cem} j[xt agfpg] of]hgf 5 . tkfFO{sf] ljrf/df clxn] ;du| s[lif If]qsf] ;d:of s] 5 < clxn] s[lif If]qdf cfsif{0f ;F;;Fu} htftt} ;d:o} ;d:of 5 . vf;u/L ;/sf/L lgsfon] plrt Wofgfsif{0f tyf cg'udg gugf{n] klg s[lif If]qdf ljleGg ;d:ofx¿ cfOk/]sf 5g\ . s'g} cWog cg';Gwfg lagf g} s[lif If]qdf k|j]z ug]{ 7"nf nufgLsf] s[lif klg 8'a]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] s[lif If]qnfO{ a]jf:tf ug]{ / Joj;foL cfkm}Fn] klg ;d:ofsf] klxrfg gu/L s[lif If]qdf k|j]z ug]{ k|rng a9L/x] casf] %÷& jif{k5L s[lif If]q w/f;foL aGg ;S5 . To;}n] g]kfnsf] s[lif If]q ljsf; ug{ ;/sf/, ;DalGwt lgsfosf] Wofg hfg' / ls;fg cfkm}F ;r]t x'g' lgs} cfjZos 5 .

@)))÷– b]lv ?= #)))÷– ;Dd . v]tLsf nflu Hofnf tyf cf}iflw nufot cGo vr{M sl/a ?= @)))÷– hDdf vr{M Go'gtd ?= !!%))÷– blv clwstd @),)))÷– ;Dd . x/]sjif{ nufgL dn, cf}iflw, HofnfnufotM sl/a ?= %,)))÷– lalawM ?= !)))÷– cfDbfgL v]tL z'? ul/Psf] jif{ pTkfbgM k|ltaf]6 Go'gtd # lsnf] bfgf ;+sng . xfnsf] ahf/ d"NoM ?= $))÷– k|ltaf]6 cfDbfgLM ?= !@))÷– hDdf cfDbfgLM ?= $*,)))÷– . bf];|f] jif{b]lvsf] cfDbfgL pTkfbgM Go'gtd % lsnf] k|ltaf]6 xfnsf] ahf/ d"NoM ?= $))÷– k|ltaf]6 cfDbfgLM ?= @)))÷– hDdf cfDbfgLM ?= *),)))÷– . g]kfndf ;]tf] d':nL ;]tf] d':nLsf] of}gjb{s, pd]/ab{s, An8k|];/, 8fOlal6h, kfON;, afafl;/h:tf /f]u lgoGq0f nflu pkof]uL dflgG5 . To:t} aRrfx¿sf] zfl/l/s tyf dfgl;s pkrf/sf nflu, dlxnf;DalGw ljleGg ;d:ofdf pkof]uL 5 To:t} xfdf]g{ u8al8df pkof]uL /x]sf] 5 . ;]tf] d':nLsf] ahf/ lbglbg} al9/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . ef/tsf] ljleGg /fHoaf6 hªunaf6 rf]/L lgsf;L x'g] of] afnLnfO{ kl5Nnf ;dodf tL /fHox¿n] aGb]h nufPkl5 ;]tf] d':nLsf] d"No klg a9]sf] xf] . ljZjahf/df o;sf] dfu sl/a #% xhf/ 6g /x]sf] dflgG5 eg] o;sf] cfk"lt{ rfFxL sl/a % xhf/ b]lv & xhf/ 6g dfq /x]sf] 5 . d':nL v]tLsf] nflu ^ b]lv & bzdnj % ;Dd lk Pr ePsf] xNsf anf}6] bf]d6 df6f] cfjZos k5{ . To:t} @) l8u|Lb]lv $% l8u|L;Ddsf] tfkqmd /fd|f] dflgG5 eg] jiff{df %;o b] l] v !% ;o ldnLln6/ x'g' /fd|f] dflgG5 . o;df sfaf]x{ fO8]6 $! k|ltzt, k|fl] 6g * bzdnj ( k|ltzt, ;kf]lgG; @ b]lv !& k|ltzt / kmfOa/ $ k|ltzt x'G5 . ;kf]lgG; g} ;]tf] d':nLsf] d'Vo cf}iflwo of}lus xf] . ;]tf] d':nLsf] h/fnfO{ zlQmab{s dflgG5 To:t} of}g b'jn { tfsf] nflu of] pko'Qm dflgG5 . o;sf] xl/of] kftnfO{ t/sf/Lsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . ;]tf] d':nL gfdsf ljleGg k|hftL e]l6G5 t/ SNff]/f]kmfO6d af]l/lelnogd dfq} Joj;fos v]tLsf] nflu ;Dejgf ePsf] afnL xf] . ;]tf] d':nLnfO{ jiff{ dlxgf z? x'g k"j{ v]tL ul/G5 . kfgLsf] /fd|f] ;|ft] ePsf] 7fpFdf v]tL ul/G5 . df6f]df lr;f]kgf $) b]lv $% k|ltzt x'gk' g]{ ePsfn] l;FrfO{sf] /fd|f] ;|ft] cToGt cfjZos 5 .

कृषक र प्रविधि - जेठ अंक  

Together for agriculture

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