The winners of the article contest held by the journal "Science and Innovation" in 2011
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Required Optimum Integral: Criteria and Indicators Ilya Levyash. Chief Research Officer of the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Doctor of Science (Philosophy)
The sociohistorical criteria are quality indicators for estimating the science efficiency. Their scientific–and--practical magnitude is equally depending on both adequate expression of objective nature of a process under investigation and on inadmissibility of substituting drastic and future interests of the cumulative productive force, i.e. – mental and physical labour people with situational interests. The subject of the analysis is a set of indicators of scientific work efficiency. They are developed by statistics (status in Latin means a state) - a science studying quantity indicators of the public production and community development, relationship and changes therein in the sphere of economic, public and social life, as well as in the field of biology, physics, etc. appearing in mass phenomena. The validity of its results is growing as the number of the observed cases is increasing . It is required to define the form which with possible adequacy would express the content of the processes under investigation, establish the parameters of «a junction line of measures» - quantitative changes of qualitative shifts. A finding of such form is one of the greatest achievements of the mankind. Pythagoras, an Ancient Greek philosopher and the mathematician, founder of the known theorem (580500 B.C.) generally regarded that «the whole world is the number», and Anacsagoras who was born on day when Pythagoras died (500428 B.C.) has induced major consequences of such understanding for arranging the human world : «In the beginning all has been mixed; then sense has appeared to create due order» . Later the man’s sense, more exactly reason, has split off to create the nature and community sciences dealing with a far greater sophisticated material for reckoning up. K. Marx has created his «Capital» not only as a sample of scientific depth, but also «Mont Blan of actual material» (by Mihailovsky), for the system statistics of a studied social system. The author of this paper stated: «The Science reaches perfection when it seizes mathematics». However the appeal to the quantitative analysis outside qualitative assessments is not a panacea yet. An evidence of such fact is Utopian socialist Sh. Fourier who has traced a line link between the growth of the universe up to 3 billion inhabitants and in consequence appearing 37 million Newtons. Such statistics turned to be speculative
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The above example and similar lessons testify that the statistics should rest against not only obvious results of modern information revolution (IR), but also against the understanding of its nature. The information is already knowledge of the world, but not yet understanding of its sense, and Goethe’s question: «What does the notion “to know” mean? What a question, my friend». Only antropos senses of the world are accessible for us. They are not in the world, and in ways of communications of the person with the world itself, but in the ways of communication of a human with such world and with himself. Such communications are not always easy to be measured by the number and as it was correctly stated by G,B. Leibniz, German philosopher, physicist, mathematician and the historian (1646-1716) : «Such substances as freedom, the good, justice are not seen as one can see a horse, but they are also understood as good as ever and even better» . Herefrom there is suggested a conclusion (disappointing for the followers of self-sufficient statistics) advanced by I. Wallerstayn, Ex-President of the International sociological association: « The social science should recognize, that it is in search of not a unit concept, but more adequate interpretation of a complex concept ». Nevertheless outside the quantitative concept qualitative criteria employed for measuring the society maturity are not able to perform the estimating function and so the practice orientations. Such imperatives can be executed by the statistics provided there is employed a wide interdisciplinary approach with due account of the fact that «all human relations and functions, whatever the form and way of expression are employed, are affecting the material production and have an effect thereon to a greater or lesser degree » . Several quite essential indicators of «all human relations and functions» are quite accessible for quantitative measurement and estimation (for instance, a correlation of the live and embodied labour, a share of research intensity related to products, dependence of the social and individual labour efficiency on education and qualification of employees, regulatory framework state, degree of comfort of business communications (including the linguistic aspect thereof), influence of the state image, etc.). Hence, the statistics as related to its significance, is not simply «a factor», but a factor of factors generalized, or the integrated indicator of qualitative criteria of sociohistorical development. The involvement of the Republic Belarus in the world financial and economic crisis, likewise the first symptoms of postcrisis development, have revealed a necessity of transforming the statistical knowledge and practice when achieving the priority goals and tasks faced by the state and nation. Experience of the countries which have not yet exhausted the potential of extensive growth (virtually unlimited natural resources , an insufficient wages, etc.) testifies, that, as stated by F. Nietzsche, «they are growing, but not developing». The developed countries are follow-
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ing the way of intensification of production, but owing to technological deadlocks this lever ( limited capabilities of line and semi-automatic productions) and social protest has quickly lost its efficiency. Currently the issue of optimization of the production of social wealth is on the agenda i.e. achieving maximum productivity of labour while employing minimum human and extraneous capital. The statistics task is amounting to a problem - in a monitoring mode to trace a current state not of these or those fragments, but a complete structure of such process and provide the state and business community with a required material for defining its dynamics followed by making and implementing relevant decisions. In this context close attention should be accorded to the following issues: «What is innovation? What is its correlation with modernization»? It is Senseless in theory and hopeless in practice to homologate thereof. The reason is as follows. The term «modernization», in all multiformity, is originating from a historically common root modern meaning up-to-date and predetermining a transition from a conventional society to generating and developing a modern industrial one. Modernization is a process of formation and deployment of historically alternating stages of its maturity. «A recent argument» of a mature modern, its ability not only to replicate, but also to be essentially transformed in aspiration to provide for itself «Many Years!», is reducing to a reliance on a process being objective by its nature and innovative in many aspects which is expressed by the polysemantic term «globalization». Irrespective of the number of cross swords relating to its essence, there is exists a robust consensus meaning that conflict resolution in such process is possible in the direction of creative reconstruction of activities of all its subjects personalities, governments, regions of the multidimensional world as new stage of modernization thereof. The question at issue: in what are the essence and specific features of innovative activities in the conditions of contemporaneity? Currently the term “innovation” is interpreted to standard pursuant to the provisions of « Frascati Manual». This document adopted by OECD in 1993 in cognominal Italian city is defining innovation as «final results of the innovative activities which has received its embodiment in the form of a new or upgraded product, introduced in the market, a new or upgraded technological process employed in practical activities, or in a new approach to social services» . This definition does not contain clear criteria of novelty, the more so indicators thereof, and it is not deprived of the eventful ambiguity relating to originally «new» and «upgraded». The rich in content digest by Russian experts is soundly bringing up the issue «…on speculative babelism in understanding…modernization, innovations and correlation thereof… Modernization in the theoretic deflection and practical implementation is not equal to innovations (emphasis added. - I.L.). The engrained handling of modernization and innovations as synonyms is materially complicating the modernization processes… Modernization is not expected to lead to … generating innovative economy». The recent conclusion is especially significant in the domestic practice. In the conditions of general agiotage the innovative activity as a nostrum was followed by V. Koudrov”s (Russian economist) deinebriating question “Is innovation always new?”. The expert is further stating: «When they say «innovation» no one begins to think what this
notion means A base of innovations are naturally… new knowledge, novations. However an innovation it not only a technical or industrial product …, but in a broad sense it is also a new industrial and organizational process, as new industrial device and management and even the modernized person - both the manufacturer, and the consumer of such new product. Nevertheless the innovation as a principally y new product of knowledge or R&D may be new for one country, branch or company, but created in another country, branch or company and borrowed therefrom…in strict sense such product is not considered to be an innovation (emphasis added. – I.L.). An innovation is a product of the pioneer or the trailblazer. If…a country is using a foreign innovation, that certainly is good, the latter is still involved in its national innovative process». So it should seem, that all is clear, but nevertheless the realities are inducing the author if not to repudiate quite definite criterion of innovative activity as « pioneerdom, trailblazerdom», but to mix thereof and in the”raising the soul” spirit to ascertain, that, as it happens, it is applicable only «in strict sense». However virtually, he is stating, it is very difficult to separate «friend» and «foe» in an innovative process of any country. And virtually «friends» and «foes» novelties are considered to be innovations» . Such servil final can be understood, but, if to proceed from long-term, but not from market interests of a society, it cannot be accepted. Grains of innovation activity in many cases are difficult to be separated from tares imitating thereof, but if it is not done today, tomorrow it will be too late. Therefore the answer to two indissolubly united questions is importunately required. Firstly, whether the upgrading of conventional technologies is to be considered to be amendments introduced within their basic quality or renewal, replacement of such quality are taking place, generating at first a new technological mode followed by a public production mode. Secondly, whether the assessment, undoubtedly required for borrowing foreign innovations from a donor country to provide for a recipient country’s national innovative achievements is essentially correct? The rhetorical nature of the questions is requiring upgrading the « society - production - management» system structuralgeodynamic restructuring thereof on the innovative basis. V.Kelle, Russian sociologist and research researcher is stating that «Such norm is reached …by means of a social and economic component of an innovative process, or the infrastructure thereof» . Such integrity assumes generating and developing a system-forming core. It is not groundless and eventually conditioned by a degree of a society’s maturity in general. If one resorts to da Vinci’s creative projects it can be concluded that they have a lead of centuries and are «anticipatory ideas». When the industrial century has come «da Vinci syndrome» had to be rediscovered as a public production norm. The same things are with innovations. The countries which are still on a conventional development stage and are possessing material extensive resources (for instance Russia as an energy «superpower»), despite of high-rise creative shifts, have not yet developed a system of innovative breakout’s demands and have to ascertain that even business is required to be urged to it. However, with all priority of the system’s core it, like a wheel, is not reduced to its axis and virtually cannot be such without “rundles”. «Rundles» are subsystems of innova-
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tions, beginning with a conventional market competition and ending with their scientific support and regulating interrelations of public-private and international partnership. As a result a synergistic effect is generated when such system is not a simple sum of its components, but is qualitatively exceeding thereof. From such methodological positions of understanding of innovative activity the assessment of the criteria and indicators of the Belarusian model of stable development is becoming possible and necessary. This model was mentioned for the first time only a decade ago at the Second All-Belarusian public gathering in 2001 If one turns to declarations by the President of the Republic of Belarus he will define the Belarusian model “in a two-valued form. According to him «…this economy and policy can be called as socialist … However if to consider, that here the private property is developing unhampered, … then all these are inherent to the capitalist economy. We realize, in what direction the world is developing and we are not going to remain off the road of such development». A most labour-consuming problem is the antipodes synthesis practice - technical- and- economical competitive ability and social justice , and such synthesis has already ceased to be monopoly of developed countries seriously preoccupied with socialization thereof. In this boiling point some authors look like lagging behind the Belarusin model’s initiator. Until l recently a single criterion for the society reformation process was such indicator as «gross output», In his message A. Lukashenko’ has confirmed The Government’s basic orientation: «… the Basic reference point in all spheres of activities is quality. The quality of manufactured goods and rendered services. Quality of management. And the most important - quality of people life ... On a global scale the advantage shall be possessed by that economic system which reaches higher labour efficiency, quality of products and reduction of a prime cost thereof…It is required to generate general culture of quality in the country…Currently on international scene there is taking place a review of principles of generating economic systems. A successful is that of such systems which is constantly regenerated while sucking in all the best aspects of the world experience …In this context a breakthrough in quality in the domestic economy is of a vital importance for us» . Such approach is entirely coinciding with a cardinal turn of the world social and economical idea (and practice would be desirable ) in the direction of quality of life integral indicator. However, maximalizm is a contraindication for both such new approach and any other one. It is not possible to totally abandon GDP at least for the following two reasons. Firstly, countries of near and far abroad are not in a hurry to part with it as one of the landmarks of their anticrisis programs and further postcrisis development. Secondly, a definite amount of tangible wealth is a starting point of beneficiation thereof. A different matter is how to dispose it and here it is pertinent to recall that the notion optimum is no less than but just enough for high-efficiency labour with minimum demands in human and material resources. Intrinsically the discussion around the President’s orientation to fast pace of economic growth is taking place under a required optimum integral. However, «verity hours» lie in the fact that strategic solution of the problem of dynamic improvement of labour productivity and qual-
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ity of life is stipulated the transformation of the entire system of social and economic relations and primarily by liberalization which in many aspects is new for Belarus. The question consists in a way of «alternating all parameters». We have already stated, that it was important not only to comprehend , but also feel an admissible bound of government regulation under concrete historical conditions. Currenly it is clear, that the liberal fundamentalism has brought the Western countries to «to such life», and there they are approaching a necessity of materially limiting thereof. In the Belarusian reality such government regulation urgent in the 1990s for rescueing the country’s economy from liberal trash and social-and–political instability, has passed a measure of such impact, and the required «golden mean» is required to be built up virtually anew . It is not simply innovative, but intrinsically a crash superchallenge for an urgent modernization stage and it is relating not only to Belarus, but also to the allied Russia, all CIS countries and those members of the European- Asian Economic Cooperation Organization. Currently it is important to procure practical implementation of this problem. The development of the Society assumes stable reproductive performance of its foundations, but is not reduced thereto and requires continuous dynamics. We are on an autobath of contemporaneity are not going to remain off the development road. In this way contrary to the well-known saying stating that «statistics knows all», one can conclude it does not know all since it answers the question what is happening, but it why, in what way and where to the development statistics is directed with a view to improve quality of people’s life. The task of scientifically grounded and efficient management of the society, state and public production system consists in determining such qualitatively defined quantitative triad on the basis of reliable and system quantitative indicators. In this sense the role of criteria and indicators of scientific knowledge cannot be diminished, and the conventional formula of «scientific maintenance demands revision. Intrinsically it is a recent wording of medieval lot of science as «a servant» The modern science is called to be a generator of creative activity. Therefore, between a society and a science there should be established relations not of a priority, but parity, coevolution both integration, and the role of such relations is steadily growing while the process of upgrading the society is shifting to the innovative development stage.
References 1. The abridged philosophy encyclopaedia. – М., 1994.. 2. On: Nieztshe F. Works /F. Nieztshe/ - М., 1998. - V.1. 3. Leibniz G.W. On thecentury of the Composition in 2 v. - Т.2 /G.W.Leibniz/- М, 1987. 4. Wallerschtein I. Konets of the familiar world. Sociology of the XXIt century/and. Wallerstajn/ -М., 2003. 5. Marx К, Engels F.Works. - Т. 26. - Part.1 /to. Marx, F.Engels/ -М., Publ. 4. 6. [An electronic resource] <ab2b.ru> glossary/methologies.html> 7. Compulsion to innovations / under the editorship of V.L. Inozemtsev/- М, 2009. 8. Kudrov V. Innovation economy - command of time of /century Kudrov/- Modern Europe. – 2009 - №2. 9. Kelle V. Innovatsionnye systems of/century Kelle/- Free thought. – 1997 - №7. 10. The message of President A. Lukashenko to the Belarus people and National meeting //SB. Belarus today. 21.04.2010. 11. Bobkov V., Levyash I. Logik of global realism /of century V. Bobkov, I. Levjash/-Belarusian Thought. – 2009. - №9.
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Tolerant society as a social project Tadeoush Adoulo, Head of the Social, Philosophical and Anthropological Research Centre, the Institute of Philosophy, the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor
Being actively discussed in recent years, yet human tolerance is not rated among new problems. It has originated in high antiquity and in the context of philosophy has been quite explicitly stated in the works of Aristotle. But long before him ancient Chinese thinkers made it the subject of serious theoretical conceptualization, although for the purpose they used another terminology. In the Middle Ages tolerance was considered from the religious plane. And although it was theoretically recognized to be a principle of interrelations among representatives of various confessions, in practice the actual situation was different, as evidenced by constantly conducted “crusades” against “infidels”. More radical and more humane changes in peoples’ outlook concerning these questions occurred only in the Early modern period. John Locke's treatise “A Letter Concerning Toleration” became the confirmation of that. Particular emphasis should be placed on the practical and political activities of French enlighteners. Probably no one in the world could stir up the public consciousness and shake the foundations of society so much as it has been done by Francois Voltaire, JeanJacques Rousseau, Charles Montesquieu et al. Those great thinkers and public figures should be paid proper tribute: they not only enlightened people, but they were at the cutting edge of scientific and cultural achievements of that epoch. In their books and scientific papers, published in “The Encyclopedia”,
they represented a picture of the world which was scientific for that historical era, revealed the essence of many social and philosophical categories and concepts, submitted to the readers’ judgment their understanding of many socially significant philosophical problems. There is a prime example when Denis Diderot in his paper “Man” described the essence of economic relations developed in European countries and gave specific advice related to possible improvement of social conditions, which can be still quite useful in the ХХI century. “The bigger is the net income, - he noted, - and the more equally it is divided, the better is the governance; net income, divided equally, may be more preferable than a greater net profit, very unequally divided and separating people into two classes, one of which is satiated with wealth, while the other dies in poverty” . Thus, the tolerance as the problem is a new one, but at the same time it is well known, since to some extent it reproduces the previous eras on a new stage of human history. The concept of “tolerance” itself (Latin “tolerantia” - patience), just as the concept of “tolerant society”, does not cause any discussions among the researchers. All agree to the fact that tolerant society should be understood as the one, where on the state level fair and impartial legislation is provided, law-and-order, judicial and procedural rules and administrative regulations are respected, and where each person is given the opportunity for economic, social and cultural development without any discrimination, as it is stated in the “Declaration of Principles on Tolerance”, approved by resolution 5.61 of the General Conference of UNESCO on November 16, 1995. Аnd, undeniably, on the consciousness level tolerant society presupposes tolerance and indulgence to someone or something – to convictions, opinions, other persons’ position etc. .
So, the word “indulgence” is a key word when interpreting the notion “tolerance” is However, formidable debates are arising while exactly concerning the term “indulgence”, as in terms of content this term is far too polysemantic. For example, Vladimir Dahl for the disclosure of the word “endure” uses such words as “bear”, “sustain”, “suffer”, “demand”, “be tormented”, “stand firm”, “take heart”, “be gentle”, “accept”, “indulge” and so on . In general, “patience” and, therefore, “tolerance” acquires certain passive, submissive, temporizing and other distinctive nuances, which are contrary to the active, creative human nature. Therefore, as a counter to tolerance interpreted in such a way, the idea of rejection of humility and submissiveness concepts is established. Indeed, is it possible to associate a humane future of mankind with suffering and patience? Such a world order is unattractive, especially for groovers. This is the reason why antonyms “intolerance”, “antitolerance” etc. have appeared and become widely-used. The second problem of “tolerant society” (“tolerant mankind”) is resulting from the procedure of constructing thereof. People have always strived for freedom. Particularly successful in this were the founders of liberal ideology, many philosophers. And in the practical political life and in consciousness of the world community of the second half of the twentieth century the self-regulation principle was predominant. It was especially urgent late in the 1980s in the USSR. Currently many researchers and politicians reconsidered their outlook guidelines. They have come to a conclusion that “selfregulation” principle was and with ever grooving efforts are advocating the idea of regulating social processes. However the idea is far from being shared by everyone. Particularly the interference into the internal problems is not accepted by the political elite and the titular nations of young sovereign states:
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they spent too many intellectual, moral and material resources in order to gain their own statehood. And, in addition to it, under restrictions of the existing social inequality, division of countries into “the strong” and “the weak”, some politicians are tempted to use “tolerance” for their own benefit, while others, vice versa – are disquieted by being dependent on the “superpowers”. Pursuant to the “Declaration of Principles on Tolerance” the interests of nations and states are met: “tolerance means respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world's cultures, our forms of expression and ways of being human individuality” . At the same time tolerance is not interpreted as a concession, condescension or indulgence. Tolerance – “is primarily an active attitude, formed by recognition of universal human rights and fundamental freedoms” . It would seem that all the issues are deleted from the agenda, at least in the legal sphere. But declaration is merely a document. The main problems arise in its practical implementation. Who will be the guarantor, and who is able to provide an impartial conduct of standards of the document in life - that's the main question. In addition to it, in the “Declaration of Principles on Tolerance” the economic and social foundations of the existing evil are not revealed. Take, for example, the problem of illegal migration. How can it be solved? We, Europeans, look at immigration through the eyes of Europeans and act, guided by the selfish principle “don’t let in!” Conclusions of rational thinking are categorical: the West is good, and illegal immigrants are bad. Undoubtedly, this phenomenon is one of the numerous social evils. But what and who makes the masses of people illegal immigrants? It depends not only on the subjective desires of specific individuals, but also on the objective circumstances. And that is what seems to require more specific changes. As the concrete threats to humanity as usual enumerated overpopulation of the planet, unreasonable attitude to natural resources, conflicts between high-tech North and increasingly technologically and intellectually poor South, the expansion of economic leaders regarding the natural and intellectual resources of less developed countries, interethnic and religious conflicts, epidemics,
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terrorism, human trafficking, increasing criminality, drug addiction, poverty and unease about the future. According to the opinion of a well-known English sociologist Anthony Giddens, even in the USA, “despite the fact that the country constantly changes poverty characteristics, much more people remain to live in poverty and much more people are experiencing recurring state of poverty comparing to Europe population” . But the greatest threat of the modern civilization is an actively going on destruction of its spiritual and moral foundations. The majority of politicians, public figures and classical scholars nowadays are tending to believe that the formation of a tolerant society is feasible on the basis of the collective mind. And for the triumph of mankind’s mind, not only the existing system of education at all its levels should be involved, but new educational institutions are to be established, keeping in mind that the Internet is making it possible to attain this goal. This is stated in the “Declaration of Principles on Tolerance” as well. Thus, we are dealing with a well-known even in the eighteenth century idea of appealing to a human mind, the hope for enlightenment as the main lever of a tolerant society construction. And here it is important to recollect the history. French, English, German and Russian educators also staked on a human mind in due time and in this connection considered enlightenment and education as a tool for overcoming of social ills. For example, Jean Condorcet believed that it was possible to forecast ‘the fate of mankind’ and linked the future of humanity exactly to the progress of the mind. But mind played for him only one of the three proposed levers of reorganization of the world on humane principles. He stated: “Our hopes for the future human race improvement can be summarized in three important propositions: the destruction of inequality between nations, the progress of equality between different classes of the same nation, and at last, a real improvement of a person” . Even at that distant epoch Condorcet denounced the inhuman relations between the North and the South, vindicated the need of their radical revision. What is the result of such active educational activities of the best minds of that historical era? Have they achieved their lofty
goal? Apparently not. Enlighteners hoped for a peaceful resolution of actual social contradictions, but as a result of such a large-scale journalistic activities, they stirred the public consciousness and brought the society not into a state of harmony and prosperity, but into a state of dissent and revolution. And not because their ideas were wrong. In general, they were correct, but surpassed the era by several centuries. At that time the positive potential of new subjects of history, that replaced the noble-class society not long ago, hasn’t been exhausted yet. And the revolution, which French enlighteners ideologically prepared without realizing it, finally prepared the ground for new, more progressive political forces. Up-to-date evidence indicates that industrialism has virtually arrived at its finger-ends. It is obliged to give a way to a new type of society with a fundamentally new economic, political, moral, etc. attitudes and values. To comprehend possible ways of constructing society on a new basis, making it possible for all of us to exist normally, bring it to public awareness without urging it on coercive actions – that is the goal of politicians as well as humanists. Therefore, an appeal to a human mind should be supported by specific humane, equitable economic projects for the benefit of all mankind. Otherwise, may happen the same, what have happened in France at the end of the eighteenth century. The prerequisite for future world order, based on humane principles, may become the Institute of Conscience, formed and functioning at all levels of social organization, ranging from the ordinary citizen and ending with the political elite. At the World Forum of spiritual culture, held in Astana on the 18-20th of October, 2010, which brought together prominent politicians, scientists, cultural and art figures from 71 countries from all over the world, the concepts “industrial” and “post-industrial society”, which have already become habitual, haven’t been mentioned. The term “harmonious society” is clearly fixed in the scientific papers and public speakings. According to the lecturers’ opinion the key basis for it should be provided by spirituality - spirituality, immateriality to the widest extent of these words, spiritual culture in all its splendor and national diversity, morality, which permeates economy, and politics, and law.
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Notwithstanding ambiguous appraisals tolerant society has a real chance for existence. For this there are existing both objective and subjective grounds. Certainly, while speaking of the first ones, one should in the first instance bear in mind the economic component of the project. If a person fails to meet material, purely physiological needs, harmony in the world will not be achieved. The modern level of the development of productive forces, technology and science in general is making it possible to resolve such issues, although the issue of population should not be removed from the
agenda. However, we believe, that the problem of the armaments drive, and rivalry of different countries in the field of military engineering and technologies is not less significant. How to turn on the developed nations to “reset”, to reorient their economies so that they are meeting the civilian needs both of their own and “foreign” countries? That is the question. In terms of objective reasons for “The Tolerant Society” Project implementation there should be mentioned the fact that at the present historical stage the mankind has reached the limit point, stopped on the verge
of disaster. Without solving the urgent global problems, it won’t be able to continue its existence. Such circumstances are already realized not only by single individuals, but also by a growing mass of people from different countries and continents - the spiritual and cultural elite of the world community. A heavy layer of social consciousness is being formed. And this very fact can be regarded as one of those objective circumstances (even though it is operating at the level of public consciousness), enabling to expect, that the world will at last come to an agreement.
Y-chromosome Haplogroups and National Gene Pool Descent Oleg Davydenko, Manager of Nonchromosomal Heredity Laboratory of the Institute of Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Correspondent Member
Only men are possessing Y-chromosome and it is inherited from a father to a son. The research works conducted on Y-chromosome molecular and genetic markers of modern humans of various ethnic groups made it possible to draw conclusion on commonality of descent of catholic humanity from the ancestral African population existed 160–220 thou. years ago. Owing to investigating hundreds of ethic populations Y-chromosomes have been systematized in haplogroups each of which is representing a combine of related halotypes descending from one ancestral type, resulting from an
Elena Koushnerevich, Research Officer of the Institute of Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus , Candidate of Science (Biology)
evolutionary event (total mutation). However, since it happens not frequently, a direct ancestral line «son – father – grandfather, etc.» may bear one and the same Y-chromosome genotype. Major Y-chromosome haplogroups are sufficiently well marking more ancient prehistorical migration flows. The territory of Belarus was populated minimum twice – prior to and after the Ice Age. Most probably a gene pool basis of our population might be glacial epoch migration flows when local flora, fauna and climate started to acquire modern patterns.
The investigation of a sampled population composed of 565 men living in 6 regions of Belarus has revealed 18 Y-chromosome haplogroups. The allele composition of microsatellite locuses made it possible to genotype Y-chromosomes of major haplogroups and to reveal carriers of similar genotypes possessed not only by representatives of Belarusians, but also by those of other peoples and this gave a chance to appraise the gene pool descent. In addition to it, the microsatellite variability makes it possible to approximately estimate an age of such haplogroup and a period of its expansion – the time of wide distribution outset (Fig. 1).
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Figure 1. Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies in Belarusians
The analysis of frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups of Belarusians is showing that out of 18 major ones 3 are represented in the absolute majority. 51% of our fellow-countrymen are bearing R1a haplogroup with its two branches, I2a haplogroup – 17% (in Polesye region – up to 26%), N1c – around 10%. In Podvinye and Ponemanye regions the indicators are somewhat higher to reach 15 and 12% respectively. In general such three haplogroups are uniting around 80% of Belarusians. The rest 15 falls within only 22%. Such minor haplogroups are also of interest in terms of understanding the history of our gene pool (Fig. 2).
gure 3. Y chromosome haplogroup R1a1(SRY1532) in Eurasia
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Figure 2. Gene pool of Belarusians among other Europeans based on the Y chromosome data
If one compares the frequency of occurrence of Y-chromosome haplogroups of Belarusians and other European peoples it will turn out that we are sufficiently close to our neighbors – the Ukrainians and Russians – not only in respect of the language, but also in respect of the compositional makeup of Y-chromosome haplogroups . Neither are we far from other Slavic peoples – both neighboring and remote – due to a high content of R1a and I haplogroups. Genetically furthest from us south-westerly are the Spaniards and the Finns northerly. The Spaniards, French people, Italians and Germans are separated from us by a high convent of R1b haplogroup, and the Finns and Balts by N1c.
A most distributed haplogroup among Belarusians (51%) is R1a. Its high content can be also observed also among the population of Eastern Europe, Northern Hindustan, Iran, Altai. In the territories people are speaking mainly in the languages of Indo-European language family (Fig.3). A maximum age of the accumulated molecular variability of such haplogroup falls within the north-end of Hindustan evidencing the fact that most probably the expanse of this group started here prior to a recent glacierization and dissemination of its carriers reached Eastern and Central Europe by the time when a moderate climate settled here i.e. 10–12 thou. years ago. Such haplogroup has two prevailing branches. One
Figure 4. Phylogeny of Y chromosome haplogroup R1a1(SRY1532)
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Figure 5. Y chromosome haplogroup R1a1a7(M458) in Belarusians
(a younger branch) is distributed only in Europe with its maximum concentration in South-East Poland and Slovakia and it proves the availability of two waves of postglacial migration. The first one is from Caspian, westerly and easterly, and a later one – from the territories of PolandSlovakia, in all directions. Fig.5 shows a frequency of occurrence of the two branches of haplogroup R1a: R1a1 and a younger R1a1a7. It is interesting to note that the latter is most widely disseminated in Eastern Polesye and Ponemanye, which is, probably, testifies that before the dawn of history there were existed powerful migration flows in the valleys of Neman and Pripyat rivers. In the territories there lived carriers of R1a1 haplogroup creating various proportions between its old and new branches: from 1:1 in Eastern Polesye up to 1:5 in Podvinye and Podneprovye. The age of accumulated microsatellite variability in the populations of Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians is approximately the same. Besides, from the phylogeny of this haplogroup it is evident that absolutely similar genotypes are present in random samples of Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians testifying the fact that these people of various nationalities may have common ancestors along their paternal line(Fig.4). The second largest Y-chromosome haplogroup of Belarusians is I2a1, distributed in the north of Balkan peninsula. The frequencies of this haplogroup of the Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles and Russians from Southern regions are sufficiently close. They are somewhat lower at
Figure 6. Phylogeny of Y chromosome haplogroup I2a(P37)
the Russians living in northern regions. At the Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians they are presented in a small quantity. In the territory of Belarus they are widely revealed in Western and Eastern Polesye – up to 25%. In this way this haplogroup is marking the southern migration flow of epochs beyond historical reach which reached the southern part of Belarus, Russia and Poland, but not Baltic countries. One can assume that it has superinduced agriculture to the above territories. Paleontologists are stating that (according to V. Zernitskaya) traces of wheat dust found in the south-westerly regions of Belarus are 7 thou. years old, while such traces northward appeared several millennia later. The age of the accumulated microsatellite variability is indicative of the haplogroup distribution antiquity. It is evident from its phylogeny that absolutely similar genotypes are present in random samples of the Poles, Ukrainians, Bosnians, Croats and Belarusians. By this is meant that people of various nationalities may have common ancestors along their parental line (Fig. 6). The third large haplogroup of Belarusians is N1c. The places of its widest distribution in Europe are regions of the Finns and Saams. It is interesting to note that proceeding from published data this haplogroup engendered in the territory of China had several “ Founder principles” while it was moving westward. Belarusians on average have its frequency reaching 10%, rising from 8% southwardly up to 15% northwardly
which is characteristically for Russians living in the south and the Ukrainians. Such value is higher for Russians living in the north, still higher for the Balts and Estonians, however sufficiently lower for the Poles and Czechs. Thus, this Y-chromosome is marking a migration flow from the north probably related to the Ugro-Finnic component. Judging by the accumulated molecular variability of Y-chromosome N1 of Belarusians it could be superinduced in our gene pool and in that of neighboring nationalities sufficiently long ago, perhaps even prior to the time when the Common Slavs and Baltic peoples became separate ethnic groups. The phylogeny of haplotypes within this haplogroup proves that people out of random samples of the populations of Russians, Belarusians and Baltic peoples may have absolutely similar genotypes of their Ychromosomes and, therefore, may also have common ancestors along their paternal line. In this way, the conducted investigations of three major Y-chromosome haplogroups of Belarusians prove that we have common genotypes with other peoples of Eastern Europe and, consequently, common ancestors (Fig.7). Are the data on Y-chromosome in keeping with other genome parts of Belarusians? Fig. 8 gives a fragment of our investigations related to mt DNA of Belarusians. As distinct from Ychromosome it is descended along the maternal line – from mothers to all children, men may not descend it to further generations. In general
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Figure 7. Phylogeny of Y chromosome haplogroup N1c(Tat)
the comparison of frequencies of mt DNA haplogroups is demonstrating strong resemblance almost of all European peoples. Nearer to them are the Slavs and Baltic peoples which proves the collectivity of their descent. As in the case of Y-chromosome the outermost in one direction are the Spaniards and in the other one – our neighbours the Finns. In this way, the data on mt DNA are not contradicting to those on Y-chromosome. A major part of our genome is still concentrated not in mt DNA and Y-chromosome, but in autosomes. At the Institute of Genetics Belarusians are investigated by 35 autosomal genes, for the most part for medicine ends. For the evolutionary investigations they are not quite convenient, since sometimes they are subject to the action of very tough natural selection. By differences in frequencies of mutations of even a set of autosomal genes it is impossible to estimate the genetic relationship of various populations. The paper by Israeli scholar Doron Bekhar et al has studied various populations of Jews and analyzed genetic relationship between them and their «economic» populations. In a majority of cases such relationship was insignificant. The Belarusian «economic» population has been also investigated employing just our DNA-bank, i.e. the data are quite comparable, since they are taken from the same representative sample. Scholars
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Figure 8. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in Belarusians (n=292)
have compared 100.000 uninucleotide substitutions (i.e. investigated 100.000 points, scattered along the entire human genome). The investigation results are demonstrating a sufficiently close spectrum of changes in Belarusians, Lithuanians and Russians and evidencing the presence of three major «ancient» components in comparable proportions. This is also indirectly indicating to a probability of common descent of the Slavs and Baltic peoples, as well as to the fact that the gene pool basis of various European peoples was laid away back before the dawn of history. If the mathematical linguistics data are compared with those on the genome analysis, one can see a definite parallelism not only in the diverging nature, but also in the evolution time estimate – both the language and genetics. Such data may also testify to the advantage of the assumption related to the collectivity of descent of the Slavs and Baltic peoples from a single population which once was common for them. Thus, major Y-chromosome haplogroups are sufficiently well marking postglacial, prehistoric migration flows, which have laid a basis for the gene pool of Eastern Europe in general and for Belarus in particular. Probably a most ancient flow from Asia has reached Central Europe, East-country and even Scandinavia. Most probably , the incomers who have developed
uninhabited postglacial forested territories were speaking the Indo-European language. A second, a sufficiently weighty northern flow presumably related to ancestors of Ugro-Finns has reached the East-country, northern part of Russian and partially Belarus. A third migration flow, from Balkans, has ranged up to Belarus, but failed to come up to Baltic lands. This was a second branch of Indo-Europeans. Probably, the Balkan flow has superinduced agriculture to the territory of our country and to that of the entire Eastern Europe which originated here several thousand years earlier than in Baltic countries and this considerably increased the density of the population and predestined the population size growth. Just this phenomenon can explain such wide-spread occurrence of the Slavs in Europe. WE assume that variously arranged sets of genetic flows in different regions might create also prerequisites for cultural, ethnic, anthropological and linguistic differentiation of peoples. Further migration flows already in the historical time might only complicate the mosaic of genotypes, however they were not able to cardinally change the proportions between major Y-chrome haplogroups established as early as in the postglacial period, since already within the mesolitic period the territory of Belarus was sufficiently populated to maintain such correlation.
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Science Diaspora as Resources for Developing Belarusian Science Mikhail Artyukhin, Manager of the Center of Monitoring of Migration of Scientific and Scientific Pedagogical Manpower of the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Candidate of Science (Philosophy)
Many nations have developed and are implementing the programs and effective mechanisms for raising the intellectual potential of the foreign science diaspora in order to procure economic and scientific development advancement of metropolitan countries. In increasing frequency they arrive at understanding that diaspora is not a simple part of people residing abroad, having common spiritual, cultural and historical roots and striving to maintaining contacts with their historic native land, but primarily a transnational network containing a vast socio-cultural, socio-political and economical strength. The problem of integrating and consolidating foreign scholar- compatriots and high-skilled experts is topical also for Belarus. Recently one can observe some positive changes in understanding their role in the system of preferred directions in the country’s scientific, technical and innovation policy. However it should be stated that so far the country has no clear concept of interacting with the national diaspora, whereby its intellectual potential for developing the science and innovation spheres is not employed. Such resources have been generated resulting from several ethnic and social-nature emigrational surges late in the last century and early in the third millennium. The analysis of statistical data evidences that the resources of the educational emigration from Belarus are sufficiently large. A share of persons with higher education in the total number of immigrants is sufficiently large: in 1994 – 32,7% (2,3 thou. persons); 2000 – 27,6% (2,3 thou. persons), 2009 – 27,2% (2,1 thou. persons). In 1996–2009 their number reached around 900 persons, where a half of them were high-skilled experts. In average a share of Doctors of Science in the annual number of immigrants varies from 3,1 to 9,8%, that of Candidates of Science – from 26,2 to 51,5%. However, if for the above period of time the annual number of immigrants totaled in average around 60–65 scholars and lecturers of higher educational institutions (of them 3 Doctors of Science , 20–25 Candidates of Science ), then within recent years the average performance continuously reduced to reach in 2009 44 persons (Fig. 1). The above figure means "complete" emigrants, i.e. persons who have lost Belarusian citizenship. The number of those who have not lost it can be calculated very approximately.
Leonid Orlov, Deputy Director of the Institute of System Analysis, Candidate of Science (Physics and Mathematics)
Olga Meerovskaya, Manager of the Sector of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation of Belarusian Institute of System Analysis
By estimate of experts this figure is around 4–5 thou. persons. As qualified by countries of intellectual migration reception Russia, Germany, USA, Poland, Israel are leading the pack (Fig. 2). Year after year a share of domestic scholars and lecturers of higher educational institutions emigrated to Russia is growing, – 42,4% of the total number. It can be explained by strengthened offensive nature of the neighboring state’s immigration policy, as well as by a high level of competition in the intellectual labour market in scientifically and technologically developed countries. The Belarusian diaspora is a significant intellectual resource for our country possessing a great creative potential and capable to exert influence on the level of science and economy not only of the country where they are currently residing and working, but also on that of their country of origin. On this basis a task at governmental level is allotted at a growing rate to elaborate efficient ways of cooperation with immigrated scholars and integrate thereof in the national science and higher education. However, yet a creative state policy of interacting with the diaspora and mechanisms of interacting therewith are not available and the latter’s potential is intrinsically not called for. As evidenced by the world experience there are two ways for integrating the diaspora’s intellectual potential in the development of a country of origin: • implementing large-scale repatriation programs aimed at returning back scholars and high-skilled experts; • distance raising thereof for them to be involved in the national scientific sphere employing information networks and other forms of scientific cooperation. Such countries as Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, China, etc. were able to implement such quite extravagant target governmental programs for implementing large-scale repatriation of compatriots residing abroad. In this context of special interest is the experience of China successfully employing the political, economic and intellectual potential of the national diaspora in the country’s interests. The best part of foreign investments in Chinese economy is due to huatsyao (so named emigrants from China – both temporary residing abroad and descendants of such emigrants who
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100 80 60 40 20 0
Doctors of science
Candidates of Science
2007 2008 2009
Researchers without a scientific degree
Figure 1. Number of researchers and university lecturers emigrated from Belarus within 1996-2009 and stayed abroad
are citizens of countries where they are residing). In the People’s Republic of China there have been explicated large-scale governmental programs of returning back to China high-skilled experts and promising scholars educated abroad and/ or residing there for a long time. For instance, the leadership of the People’s Republic of China following the government program «100 scholars» not only worthily remunerates labour of emigrants ( EUR 250 thou. Per three years), but also provides housing and partially backs up education of their children abroad. AS a result currently around a half of members of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the People’s Republic of China, one third of managers of leading institutions are repatriates . In addition to it, representatives of Chinese science diaspora are intensively involved in the developing the country’s scientific and educational sphere by employing various forms of scientific cooperation (delivering lectures at leading Chinese universities, exchanging scientific experience, conducting joint researches, etc.). Employing efforts of huatsyao there have been incorporated funds equal to a total sum exceeding USD 500 mln. for training the Chinese youth at universities of the USA and West Europe . European countries with less opportunities as compared to China are also taking a shot at returning back high-skilled experts to their home countries. Widely known is expatriation from Toronto of «a star» of modern genetics Austrian Josef Penninger. Along with this such case can be qualified as exceptional: Mr. Penninger was offered to rule the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences specially incorporated for him and equipped with the facilities conforming to the best world standards. The task of generating a large-scale policy of returning back compatriots has been also set up in Russia. It is evidenced not only by declarations of the country’s chief executives, but also relevant documents, particularly the Government Program of rendering assistance to voluntary migrating compatriots residing abroad to the Russian Federation (2006), Program of cooperating with compatriots residing abroad for 2006–2008 , New Concepts of Russian foreign policy (2008). Of special note are the activities of the Moscow Government assumed the functions of developing and implementing pilot projects in the sphere of cooperation with emigrants. New approaches to interacting with the Russian diaspora are effected by the Government Committee in charge
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Total Figure 2. Number of researchers, university lecturers and PhD students emigrated from Belarus within 1996-2009, by destination
of resolving issues of compatriots residing abroad; Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; Roszaroubezhcenter; Ministry of Federation Affairs, national and migration policy of the Russian Federation; embassies; relevant committees of the State Duma. The International Forum «Foreign Diaspora – Russian Intellectual Resource» (2003) has become a start of serious and thematic discussion of the ways and forms of interacting with Russian-speaking compatriots from near and far abroad in the field of education, science, culture and arts. By the way Russia is not the only country in CIS solicitous about returning back the departed experts. Certain actions in this direction is taken by Kazakhstan. In 2011 the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan developed a special repatriation program valued at USD 2 mln. The Program is directed to returning back to the country domestic researchers and high-skilled lecturers of higher educational institutions occupying high positions in foreign scientific centers and universities. More impressive is the implementation of large-scale educational project of incorporating in the capital of Kazakhstan a research university included in the global ratings of recognized world higher institutions. The Institution of Higher Education incorporated by order of President N. Nazarbayev is called for to become a national brand harmoniously combining national peculiar properties and best international educational models and scientific practice. The implementation of the Project will make it possible for young citizens of Kazakhstan to be trained on the level of world standards with no departing the country. This comes under the quality of offered academic programs, teaching staff, material and technical base, training methods, level of conducting research works. With a view to procure the University activities there has been passed a special act of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On the Status of Nazarbayev University», which is directed to implementing an up-todate management form, creating a research university model procuring the integration of education, science and production, to generating conditions for implementing new world standards of education. The Act is vesting the university management with exclusive rights relating to recruiting high-skilled lecturers and research workers of the number of compatriots and foreign experts, as well as to creating proper conditions for their work, including equipping research laboratories. For
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instance , the annual wages of an assistant professor is amounting to from USD 78 thou. ,professor – USD 210 thou. In addition to it there are provided for other benefits for repatriates and foreign scholars, such as providing housing (depending on the number of family members), free medical insurance policy, paid leave, moving benefit, etc. The efficiency of such measures raises no doubts: as at June 2011, only in a year following opening N. Nazarbayev University its scientific centers and laboratories employed 50 persons, of whom 40 were repatriates and 10 – foreign researchers. Taking into account the Project’s incidence its budget is valued to amount to USD 4–5 bln. and it can be expected that in years to come these figures will grow. The necessity to repatriate scholar compatriots is also declared in our country. Pursuant to Clause 6 of the Measures of Foreign Migration in the interests of the Republic of Belarus within the framework of the National Program of Demographic Safety for 2011–2015 . (approved by Decree of the President #357 of 11.08.2011 ) the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Culture , regional executive committees and Minsk-city Executive Committee have been charged to create socio-economic and legal conditions for «securing in the country persons providing for the scientific, technical, intellectual and creative potential and returning back to the country high-skilled experts and scholar compatriots ». It is true that unlike Kazakhstan the actions are suggested to be implemented within the framework of the funds allocated for the above organizations. The existing practice of interacting of the governments with foreign diasporas makes it possible to identify several tendencies in the development of the state policy relating to diaspora. Firstly it is a retreat from implementing predominantly repatriation policy (returning emigrants back to their country of origin with restoration of civil rights) and switching over to the policy of pragmatic use of economic and intellectual potential of diaspora in the interests of a metropolitan country. Secondly, ever-growing application of the strategy of remote science diaspora recruiting involving thereof in the scientific sphere of the country of origin by employing information networks and other forms of scientific cooperation. The latter is comprehension of the fact that the process of generating science diasporas under present-day conditions is determined primarily by globalization the economic and scientific spheres, as well as by distributing information technologies. The task of creating a mechanism of remote raising compatriots abroad to develop the Russian scientific sphere by employing information networks was for the first time advanced in 2003 at the International Forum « Foreign Diaspora – Russian Intellectual Resource ». Here there was no necessity to invent generally and wide known things: by that time many countries already created similar information networks, uniting foreign diasporas and solved the problem of recruiting intellectual resources of scholar compatriots. Such networks as Global Korean Network, BGN, ASTA (Saudi Arabia) and Tunisian scientific consortium are annually holding conferences being of interest for both network members and the country of origin. For instance, ASTA arranges joint conferences with the Jordanian Technological University, International forums discussing the issues of power engineering and exhibitions jointly with Bahrain University, conferences discussing the issues of water resources and environment.
Currently in Finland the Project «Internet Resources» is operating. The Project is directed to cooperating of the Russian-speaking diaspora with St. Petersburg University. The cooperation is aimed at integrating scholar emigrants in the Russian science and education. The first Project is involving information internet resources «Researcher@», «Neuroscience» and «Neuronet», created and supported by the initiative team of the number of representatives of the Russian-speaking diaspora. Its association with the Russian scientific community is effected by means of «Researcher@», www.researcher-at.ru. website. Currently the Website is advancing a new initiative- «Russia to compatriots», where there will be arranged a feedback with Russian scholars, created a unified information platform for providing the colleagues working abroad with data on the projects open for their participation in certain subjects and on theme business environment. Thus, there has been arranged a forum for experts involved in solving neurobiology problems – «Neuroscience.ru – Modern Neurobiology », www.neuroscience.ru. In many aspects the initiative in establishing and developing relations with the colleagues in the country of origin belongs to the Russian-speaking scholar diaspora. In order to reach a more complete national and professional identification its members in a number of cases are united in associations which are arranging and holding various scientific, educational, social and cultural events. Currently a most active and numerous is the Russian-speaking Academic Science Association (RASA), consolidating scholars, engineers and entrepreneurs in the field of high technologies – natives of the USSR. The Association is based on the regulations of the First International Workshop of Former Soviet Scholars working at present outside the Russian Federation held in October 2008 in France. (www.ntr2008.com). The RASA activities are aimed at consolidating the Russian scholar diaspora , assisting in developing their career in scientific work and qualification of its members. The tasks are involving the following: ■ establishing a world-wide network of Russian-speaking scholars operating outside the Russian Federation; ■ exchanging knowledge and experience, initiating joint projects and coordinating research programs; ■ distributing information on scientific results and innovations; ■ arranging conferences, workshops, scientific schools; ■ distributing information on vacancies, fellowships and postdoctoral scholarships. Currently RASA numbers around 200 members, mainly from the USA, France, Germany, Great Britain the majority of whom are professors of various-level universities – from Assistant Professor to Distinguished Professor. The trends of science in which they are involved are physics, chemistry, biology, biomedicine, engineering, economy, science history, etc. Among the Association members are also directors of institutions or scientific centers. For instance Vyacheslav Safarov and Boris Chichkov are ruling nanotechnology institutes at US universities. As of a date of its incorporation RASA held two conferences in France and two in Russia at which a dialogue with representatives of the Ministry of Education and Science and Rosnano was managed to be commenced and there were discussed the issues relating to the forms of the diaspora participation in the process of science development in Russia. One should name also other science associations incorporated by efforts exerted by the Russian-speaking diaspora from post Soviet countries, including the following:
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■ Russian-Swiss Scientific Association, RSSA; ■ Association of Russian-speaking Bioscientists, BIORUS, which has been motivating the development of international projects in selecting skilled experts and interacting with other professional associations in the interests of developing biological sciences and technologies; ■ Russian-American Medical Association, RAMA; ■ American Business Association of Russian Expatriates, AMBAR, http://www.ambarclub.org); ■ Professional Association of Russian-speaking graduates from leading legal schools (www.ruslo.net); ■ Professional Association of Russian-speaking computer technology experts. It is obvious that for Belarus a most realistic program of science diaspora integrating in the country’s life is its distance raising, i.e. creating a system and mechanisms of employing such powerful intellectual resource for developing the country’s scientific and innovation spheres without returning expatriates back to their native country. It is well comprehended by the country’s Government. In 2010 it initiated and charged the State Committee for Science and Technology jointly with the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Sciences of Belarus and Ministry of Foreign Affairs to ascertain Belarusian diaspora and elaborate valid mechanisms of cooperating therewith. Within the framework of discharging this commission the State Committee for Science and Technology has encouraged the two-year Project «The Analysis of opportunities and working out a set of actions for developing of the international scientific, technological and innovation cooperation with the participation of scholars cooperation– natives of Belarus working abroad». The Project implementation was started this year by Belarusian System Analysis and Dataware Institute. The team of researches is also including a group of employees of the Center of monitoring of migration of scholars and pedagogical staff and of the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Within the framework of the Project it is scheduled to: ■ examine the foreign practice of interacting of a country of origin with scholars –expatriates, including the mechanisms of international science and technological cooperation therewith; ■ review the experience of science and higher education institutions of Belarus of interacting with their former and present colleagues continuing scientific work abroad; ■ generate a database of active scholars –expatriates; ■ create an electronic platform to serve a virtual meeting point for representatives of the diaspora and the country’s science community providing for both parties data on probable cooperation mechanisms. The work is including also a sociological polling of diaspora representatives with a view to clarify their attitude and preferences relating to their more active participation in the developing the country’s science and innovation spheres. The quintessence of the Project should become proposals relating to actions and mechanisms employed for developing international science, technological and innovation cooperation with the participation of scholars – natives of Belarus working abroad. The above Project is a first attempt to identify and establish contacts with the science diaspora and concurrently it is a first step on the way of elaborating a system-wide approach thereto. With due account
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of the world experience it is required to develop an integrated policy aimed at improving the role of Belarusian science diaspora, scholarscompatriots working in foreign countries to play in social, economic, science and technological development of our country. In this context high-priority tasks are as follows: ■ creating a database containing data on scholars and pedagogical staff who emigrated from the country or are working abroad for a long time; ■ activating two-way information flows among scholars-emigrants and domestic scientific institutions (operating exchange of scientific information; publications in our journals; publishing the reference book «Scholars of the Republic of Belarus abroad»); ■ inviting scholars-repatriates for delivering lectures, participating in conferences, joint projects, expert examinations of domestic R&D projects, etc.; ■ cooperating with potential reemigrants and generating conditions (economic, social, legal), encouraging their repatriation; ■ developing mechanisms of involving scholars-emigrants in the process of developing science in Belarus, particularly incorporating relevant agencies (including those operating on a commercial basis) on rendering information, consultation and broking services for scholarscompatriots striving in any form for being a benefit for their metropolitan country. Most important prerequisite and condition for a successful process of generating stable relations between scholars –compatriots and their native country’s scientific community is creating an information internet network procuring such interaction open for it. In addition to it the following actions are worthwhile: ■ to employ definite projects as science diaspora integration milestones. Such projects could be procured by research teams or separate scholars- emigrants interested in forming contacts with their colleagues from metropolitan countries. Only under such terms and conditions one can place reliance in the fact that a realistic process is possible to be commenced to generate stable relations between Belarusian and foreign scientific centers through scholars-compatriots; ■ procure publishing various information manuals and other advertizing materials (newsletters, press-releases, statistical reviews and directories, etc.) stating major activities and achievements of the domestic science along with the analysis of possibilities, forms and trends in the international scientific and technological cooperation, lists of priority of scientific and innovation projects, as well as а database containing data on scientific institutions and scientificproduction associations for probable interaction in the fields of science and business. The science diaspora problem is touching upon various aspects of economic, social, political and science policy of the state and national safety. In order to give a dynamic tone to the process serious legislative, organizational and financial actions are required. The question is in not waging a regular campaign, but in developing and implementing a crucially new science and migration policy of the state . In this connection it is expedient to raise a question of preparing and adopting a special government program aimed at solving tasks of creating the required socio-economic conditions for returning high-skilled experts and scholars-compatriots back to their native country.
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Biodiversity in the Warming up World Mikhail Nikiforov, Director General of the Research-andProduction Center of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus in Charge of Biological Resources, Correspondent Member
Vitaly Semenchenko, Chief Executive of the Hydrobiology Laboratory of the Research-andProduction Center of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus in Charge of Biological Resources, Correspondent Member
With all different of estimations and opinions on the point relating to the reasons, rates and, especially, scenarios and prognoses of climate changes overwhelming majority of authoritative scientific centers and individual scientists arrived at a conclusion that global warming is an invulnerable fact. The average temperature has risen by 0.76° C on the Earth since the second half of the 18th century i.e. since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The predictions based on the climatic models are evidencing that the average ground temperature in the 21th century can rise by 1.4-5.8 C. Along with timid attempts of analyzing the probable positive effects resulting from global warming the majority of scientists are predicting exclusively negative consequences often industriously painting them in catastrophic colours. At times the predictions are overwhelming: the climate change brings about a very serious danger for people and biodiversity all over the world and call for urgent measures on a global basis in return. Where is a real danger and where is a science fiction? It is unlikely that currently one can answer these questions with undeniable guarantee. It stands to reason that global climate changes accompanied by increasing average annual temperature are already causing series of economic, ecological and social problems. Let’s have a look at the problem of ecological implication resulting from the perspective of existent threats at present-day biodiversity formed during evolution and under anthropogenic pressure. In United Nations Frame Convention of Climate Change (Article 1.1) “adverse effects of climate change” are defined as changes in physical environment or biota resulting from climate changes which have significant detrimental effects on the composition, resilience or productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on operation of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfare. The numerous organisms on the Earth had to repeatedly adapt to such changes of climate. It was one of the evolutionary factors which have resulted in becoming of present plants and animals. For this rea-
son individuals as well as whole ecosystems should be resistant to such changes or, at least, have a sufficient potential for more or less quick adaptation to new conditions. Nevertheless, according to the opinion of quite a few international experts such climate change is one of the serious hazards for global biodiversity and, judging by the predictions, its role as a trigger of different negative processes will become greater in the future (Technical Expert Group…, 2003). What is the explanation of this, at first sight, contradiction? The question arises to the following: is it a fluctuating state of biodiversity and its possible disturbances that we are concerned with, that is in changing of climate some species will be disappear from ecosystems while others will occupy them?. As a consequence, the humanity will deal with a new list of species and new ecosystem conditions. Since any species should be considered rather as playing a part in the habitat or ecosystem than an isolated independent unit, it’s born in that extinction of species or appearance of new species can lead to some changes of ecosystem processes and, vice-versa, the changes in ecosystem can affect separate species. The other question is: to what extent can these changes be estimated negatively or positively from the present points of view including pragmatic ones? There is one more reason why plants and animals are facing problems with adapting to on-going global warming (McCarthy et al, 2001). It is related to extraordinarily rapid temperature changes. The average global temperatures are expected to rise faster than in another historical period, at least, within the recent 10 000 years. Many species can’t adapt to new conditions or shift their areas to regions more suited for survival quickly enough. In this case there's a strong possibility of their extinction. Global warming is affecting biodiversity not only in polar latitudes where it is expressed at most, but in temperate latitudes, including in Belarus. During the last 10-20 years lots of changes in aquatic and ter-
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Ареал гнездования до 1900 Расширение ареала 1900-1960 Расширение ареала 1960-1985 Расширение ареала 1985-
Fig.1. Settling of the collared turtle dove (Streptopelia decaocto) in Europe (after Burton, 1995).
Gulls are ever increasingly occupying a niche of “scavengers” in cities and surroundings of industrial zones
restrial ecosystem biodiversity were observed. It is some of them which are the clearest shown in respect of either independent animal species or communities and ecosystems as a whole we’ll discuss below.
CHANGES IN SPECIES DISTRIBUTION.
The annual temperature increases have led to expanding of a number of species mainly from south latitudes. Thus, for example, the Great white egret, the Night heron, the Cormorant, the Oystercatcher, the Mediterranean gull, the Syrian woodpecker, the Collared turtle dove, the Serin and a number of other native inhabitants of Europe south regions spread in Belarus (Nikiforov et al,1997; Nikiforov, 2003). The process activation is especially evident by the end of the 20th century. Actually, more than 10% of birds in Belarus fauna became nestling only during the recent 50-60 years. Given that almost 70% of species settled towards the north and they are typical inhabitants of forest-steppe and steppe zones the relationship of this phenomenon with global warming becomes apparent. In order to estimate the rate of existent changes account must be taken of the fact that fauna formation has continued no less than 10 thousand years since the last Pleistocene glaciation. Certainly, some of new species has lived in the territory of Belarus formerly, but has disappeared afterwards. For instance, inhabitation of the Cormorant, the Greylag goose, the Mute swan is known from chronicles and, even, the first ornithological publications (Tyzenhauz 1846). Such species as the Night heron, the Great white egret are known from fossil remains of earlier post-glacial periods (Nikiforov, 2001). However, reappearance of them and also settling of other species never inhabited in this region are the evidence of the essential changes in the habitat conditions in the second half of the 20th century. Among settled species more than 70% ones are inhabitants of coast and bog places. It is well known that climate change is closely related to changes in moisture of a territory. Climate warming intensifies the aridization of south parts of species areas and forces bird populations to shift to more wet and cooler latitudes. Consequently, not only temperature changes but increasing in aridity of habitats in the south latitudes is an accelerating factor of species settlement. Alteration of species areas can cardinally change the biodiversity of native ecosystems and, accordingly, their functioning. For instance, press of fish-eating bird complex causing damage of many millions on natural water bodies and piscines intensified acutely in consequence of settling of the Cormorant starting from the 1980s. And gulls occupy a niche of “scavengers” in cities and surroundings of industrial zones ever increasingly replacing rooks and other corvids.
LOSS OF HABITATS.
Accumulation of cormorants on piscines
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Within the recent semicentenary the rates of man-made changing of natural ecosystems are recognized to be unprecedented versus any other comparable distance of time in human history. The reason is mainly in an attempt to satisfy increasing demand for energy supply, food, fresh water, plant resources. At that, ever increasing development and transformation of natural habitats are accompanied with progressive agrolandscape chemicalization, reservoir and bog eutrophication, transboundary transfer of toxic pollutants and other effects which degrade quality of even relatively natural ecosystems. Decreasing and loss of typical habitats resulted in fast growth of threat to lose a lot of
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Spring water-level in the Viliya River.
biological species irretrievably. By Bird Life International estimate, 1211 bird species the world over, or 12 % of the total number, are endangered. 189 of them are having the status of critically endangered, i.e. confronting an inevitable disappearance. However, the process of habitat decreasing is related not only to man-induced activity but also to climate change. Mountain and polar deglaciation, permafrost boundary displacement, increase in strength and the number of extreme weather phenomena – floods, cyclones, droughts and wilderness fires, plant and animal area decreasing because of the boundary displacement to poles or area disappearance in case of such displacement is impossibility – these are yet incomplete check list of possible disamenities of climate warming as well as already involved. Changes are not so evident at a regional level. Nevertheless, one can give a lot of examples of such changes taking place in Belarus. For the purposes of illustration, recently the low spring water-level was observed in many rivers with increasing frequency that resulted in loss of spawning areas of fishes reproducing on waterlogged overflow lands.
A CHANGE IN TROPHIC CHAINS.
Bloom of blue-green algae in lakes in summer is a typical example of changes in trophic chains. High summer and early autumn temperature is the trigger mechanism of unrestrained reproduction of the most blue-green algae. The temperature optimum for the majority of freshwater cyanobacteria is fixed to be at about 30°С. For instance, the growth and development comfort temperature for wide spread species Microcystis aeruginosa is 32°С including that in lakes of Belarus. Such high
summer temperatures and close to them are ever frequently observed in shallow lakes and reservoirs of Belarus. Simultaneously, when temperature is increasing an advantage in the development over the rest of zooplankton is achieved by small-size crustaceans which can’t efficiently control breeding of planktonic algae that results in the cascade effect in a chain of “phytoplankton-zooplankton- fish” (Brucet et al, 2010). The result of “water bloom” proves to be exert a toxic effect from the part of the substances producing blue-green algae and the following dissolved oxygen deficiency owing to their post-mortem decay that causes fish mass mortality, so-termed summer kills.
INTENSIFICATION OF INVASIVE PROCESSES.
The appearance of invasive alien species into native fauna and flora is by no means always harmless for existing intercommunications within ecosystems. One can observe a sudden increase of species number in the territory of Belarus in recent decades (Semenchenko, Pougachevsky, 2008). It is a typical all-European tendency in conformity with which not only new species expansion is accelerating, but also aggressive pressure to indigenous species and communities is rising. For the purposes of illustration, brackish-water species of gobiids and invertebrates being specific to estuaries of the Black and Caspian Seas strongly developed in Dnieper and Pripyat’ rivers (Semenchenko et al, 2007). At present similar situation can be observed virtually in all large European rivers. In this connection the following question is coming up: what reasons save anthropogenic activities were conductive for successful penetration of these species into typical freshwater ecosys-
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tems. The answer should be sought in the increase of average annual temperatures and thaw water flow limitation into rivers and reservoirs that resulted in growth of water salinity, i.e. such ecosystems are more closely similar to estuarial ones in respect to their characteristics. Thus, water salt content in the river Pripyat’ has almost doubled for the past 20 years. Accordingly, it promoted successful settling of new habitats by the Ponto-Caspian species. The intensification of invasive processes gives rise to acceleration of native species ousting as one of the major negative results. So, a typical indigenous amphipod Gammarus lacustris quite disappeared in the middle- and downstream of the river Pripyat’ on account of competition with Black Sea species, and invasion of the spiny-cheek crayfish leads to ousting of aboriginal crayfishes. The introduction of American minks and raccoon dogs in Belarus in the last century caused considerable decrease of competitive local species populations: an aboriginal species – the European mink – is almost completely displaced, the number of polecats and stoats decreased many-fol, badger and otter populations are experiencing negative effects.
INCREASE OF EXTINCTION SPEED OF EXOTIC AND VULNERABLE SPECIES.
The main distinction of the so-called “endangered” species is their high sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions. Only from the early 17th century over 20 terrestrial vertebrate species became extinct in the territory of Belarus following variation of abiotic factors and influence of human activities, especially over the last centuries. Among them there are two extinct species: a forest bull – the Urus and a bangtail – the Tarpan. Such species as the Polar fox, the Glutton, the Fallow-deer, the Forest cat, the Desman cease to be found. Ditto birds – the Great bustard, the Little bustard, the Glossy ibis, the Spoonbill, the White pelican and some others. The Beluga, the Russian sturgeon, the Baltic sturgeon, the Black Sea roach vanished from Belarusian rivers in the 20th century. A number of species were killed off by man, others disappeared because of total reduction and change of habitats. For example, the Glutton, the Great and Little bustards and others ceased to be found owing to area boundary displacement. Regional habitat changes are considered to be a factor of disappearance of such species as the Forest cat, the Desman, the White pelican and almost all deleted fish species. Sixty soil-dwelling invertebrate species known in Belarus formerly were found over the past 80 years, some more 106 species were not registered for the last 50-60 years, and additionally 72 soil-dwelling invertebrate species are revealed to have quite vanished or to have become uniquely rare during 20 years. In such a way, the presence of 238 species inhabited in the territory of our country formerly is not certified nowadays.
CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR AND PHENOLOGY.
Shift of phenological time affects passing of seasonal life-cycle stages of animals and plants such as reproduction, seasonal migrations, hibernation, and insect exit of one or another stages, foliage expansion and exfoliation, flowering, fruitage and so on. Temperature
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increase moves or modifies these terms and by no means always synchronously and proportionally over different trigger mechanisms of any given stage. Therefore, not only behavior, but also life and reproduction success of the whole populations does it exert influence on. For the purposes of illustration, over the last years a number of bird species – the Mallard, the Mute swan, various gulls, rooks and others, prefer wintering in the territory of Belarus to migrating in autumn. A noticeable shift of spring migration terms of a considerable number of bird species toward earlier beginning took place in recent 10 years. Flying away terms of so called long-distance migrants from African wintering sites are more permanent, nevertheless, spring flight time of these species in Europe moved for sure that is related to the change of environmental situation in Africa. Account must be taken of the fact that global warming takes place against a background of man’s growing influence on ecosystems. The pollution by biogenic elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus, introduction of alien invasive species, overhunting of wildings or excessive fish catching would reduce the reconstructive capacity of ecosystems and, hence, the probability to adapt naturally to climate changes. All that must come into account while working out strategies of biodiversity conservation and its adaptation to new conditions. Maintenance and preservation of native ecosystems, habitat conservation for the most vulnerable species, making new natural reserves and elaboration of different effective means of biodiversity conservation are to be involved in these actions.
References. McCarthy, J. J., O. F. Canziani, N. A. Leary, D. J. Dokken and K. S. White. 2001. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. IPCC, Cambridge University Press, UK. Ad hoc Technical Expert Group on Biological Diversity and Climate Change. 2003. CBD Technical Series No.10, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Guidelines for promoting synergy among activities addressing biological diversity, desertification, land degradation and climate change. CBD Technical Series No. 25, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Brucet, S., Dani B. X., Quintana E.J., , Nathansen L.W., Trochine C., Meerhoff M., Gascón S., and Jeppesen E. 2010. Factors influencing zooplankton size structure at contrasting temperatures in coastal shallow lakes: Implications for effects of climate change. Limnol. Oceanogr., 55(4). Burton J.F. Birds and climate change. – London: Christopher Helm Publ., 1995. – 376 р. Nikiforov М.Е. The Analysis of subboreal period subfossile fauna in Belarus // Вести НАН Беларуси. Сер. биол. наук. - 2001. – № 2. – С. 119-123. Nikiforov М.Е., Kozoulin А.V., Grichik V.V., Tishechkin А.К. Birds of Belarus at the turn of XXI century: the status , number, dispersal. - Minsk: Н.А.Korolyov Publisher 1997. - 188 p. Nikiforov M. Distribution trends of breeding bird species in Belarus under conditions of global climate change // Acta Zoologica Lituanica. – 2003. – Vol. 13, № 3. – P. 255-262. Semenchenko V., Rizevsky V., Mastitsky S., Vezhnovets V., Pluta M., Razlutsky V., Laenko T. Checklist of aquatic alien species established in large river basins of Belarus. 2009. Aquatic Invasions, Volume 4, Issue 2. Semenchenko V.P. , Pougachevsky А.V. The Problem of alien species in fauna and flora of Belarus. 2007. Nauka I Innovacii, Tyzenhauz K. Ornithologia powzechna, cyl opisanie ptakow wszystkich czesci swiata. - Т. 3. - Wilno, 1846. - 647 s.
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Appraisal of Current State of Historic Parks in Belarus Igor Garanovich, Laboratory Manager of Introduction of Woody Plants of the Central Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences NAS of Belarus
value, as well as botanical importance are obvious. The exotic plants preserved are a unique scientific material for validation and evaluation of hardiness of introduced plants, their adaptation potential.
PALACES AND PARKS OF VITEBSK REGION
The art of landscape gardening in Belarus is our cultural and historical heritage which requires special attention and attitude as far as both studying its peculiarities and state, and reconstruction and restoration are concerned. Researchers of landscape gardening in Belarus, V.V.Adamov, S.D.Gyeorgiyevsky, V.G.Antipov, N.V.Shkutko and particularly A.T.Fedoruk, are noting that there are over a thousand estate parks in our country. Around 600 parks have been preserved to a various extent. Unfortunately, many of them have been damaged and cannot be restored in their original state, however, cirtain works are to be completed wherever possible in order to return the treasury of cultural monuments. The golden age of palace-and-park complexes - we believe that is how they should be called, - is XVIII-XIX centuries, though it is known for sure, that construction of some significant sites began in XVI century - these were Alba and Myr parks. Most of them are located on estates of our famous countrymen, such as the Radzivills, Sapehas, Yelskys, Oginskys, as well as outstanding men of science and culture: Monyushko, Orda, Mitskiewich, Kalinovsky, Domeyko, Turayev, Narkyevich-Iodka, Bohvich, Rudnitsky, Dubovsky, Ryepin, Yakushkyevich, Kosberg, etc., therefore their historical and memorial
Of 62 objects of landscape gardening in Vitebsk region 31 can be considered to be the ones of primary importance, i.e. parks in Plamya, Vysokoye, Beshenkovichi, Luzhesno, Osveya, Gorodets, Opsa, etc., 21 of which are of of local importance. Unfortunately, 10 parks have been lost for ever. On Plamya estate (former Old Belitsa) in Syenno district numerous utility buildings have been well preserved, picturesque ruins of a house with an octagonal tower. In 1903-1904 a national poet of Belarus Yanka Kyupala lived on the Svyatskys estate and worked as a clerk. In Ratsevo park in Tolochin district, an estate of Earl of Zamoscie, ponds have been preserved, the park itself became place of recreation for local residents. On a high hill, surrounded by a ravine, a stream and a pond stands a fine Mezhevo park in Orsha district, it is also used as a recreation park. Well preserved is Dvor Nizgolovo park in Beshenkovichi district, it has a dendrological value. A school is built on its grounds. Lyntyupy estate in Postavy district, an estate of the Gilzens of the late XVIII century - first half of the XIX centuries, has preserved its grandeur. Artificial full-flowing ponds with low banks, ruins of a house, a stone bridge, a tower of a utility building fortunately have not been destroyed and, therefore, urgent restoration thereof is required.
Despite considerable changes which Uzmeny estate in Miory district has undergone, it is of interest as an example of terraced parks where old larches are still amazing us with their beauty. On Belmont estate in Braslav district the park was laid out in the last quarter of the XVIII century (an estate of Earl Pototsky). Of interest are elements of its lay-out, stand of trees. On the crest of the hill there runs a ring route where Decembrists used to walk. On a high ridge dividing lakes Beloye and Muravshchina there are ruins of the house and the park of Zalessye in Glubokoye district.
A TOURIST "PARADISE" OF MINSK REGION
Minsk region has 73 historic palace-andpark complexes, among them 27 can become part of centres of national tourism: they are Snov, Stan'kovo, Krupki, Logoisk, Nesvizh, etc., and 33 - of local tourism. 13 parks are considered to be irrevocably lost. Prilyuki is considered to be of a greatest value. A XVIII century palace in neogothic style and a terraced park have been preserved there. At the former estate of the Oginskys-Chaskys there is a palace of 1827, a landscape park, ponds. Of special interest is Snov estate, surrounded by a landscape park. Unique are exotic plants of Lyuban park, the park and the house of the Svyatskys in the centre of Krupki. Today it is a basis of the city park. Of value is a historic park in Logoisk, which is situated on a high terrace of the Gayna river. Although the buildings have been destroyed, the site of an ancient castle can still be transformed into a real archeological museum, and the Tyshkeviches estate â€• into an important
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tourist attraction. Stankovo, the Chapskys estate, is of great historical and cultural value. The lay-out of buildings, which have already been partly restored, has been preserved. It already is playing a great role in Belarusian tourism. Parks in Dyukora (a gateway arch has been preserved), Olshevo (an example of a terraced park, ruins), Nadnemanye, Ostyiukovichi, Grozovka, Radzivillmonty can be operated again. Park entrance in Logoysk
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ESTATES IN MOGILEV REGION
This region is relatively poor, out of 32 parks available only 7 are worth paying attention to. 10 are considered to be irrevocably lost. Of a paramount value in the region is the palace-and-park complex of Zhylichi in Kirovsk district of the first quarter of the XIX century. It belonged to the Bulgaks. It is a well preserved palace with an almost selfcontained courtyard, surrounded by a rectangular park with an area equal to 18 hectares. A number of bosquets are divided by linden avenues, gardens. The parterre has been modified, the side way runs along the remaining ruins of a stable. Behind a water basin an avenue of white poplar can be seen. In this part of the park there are growing American and Carolina basswood, butternut, silver maple and Schwedler maple. The northern part consists of uneven bosquets, divided by avenues. A special ornament of the park is a four-meter observation hill. In the main part of the park there is another, 7 meter- high hill surrounded by Petrovsky poplar and common Britzen willow, here there are growing hornbeam, maple, elm, larch and thuja. A central drive lane is running along its edge. In the western part of the park there is a cellar in the form of a terrace. It is one of the few ensembles in Mogilev region that are of national significance and which is already being restored and reconstructed. Soon it will be possible to see it improved. There is a marvelous palace and park with an area of 10 hectares in Grudinovka in Byhov district. It belonged to Earl D.A.Tolstoy. Well preserved are a house with a dome, a porch with columns and a balcony on the second floor, a parterre reservoir which used to have a fountain, surrounded by linden avenues and planting. The parterre across a vast glade opens a
view of a big reservoir. In the solitaires there is Siberian cedar pine, Weymouth pine, spruce fir f. Virgata and blue spruce, English oak, Crimean linden (the oldest tree is 50 cm in diameter), large-leaved linden. There is a lot of thuja, including the plantings. In the northern part there is a whole tract of European larch. An excellent decoration of the estate is a giant oak, which is one and a half meters in diameter. The shrubs include honeysuckle, mock orange, lilac, spiraea, blackthorn, rose, false spiraea, pea shrub, snowberry and others. As a valuable dendrological object and a monument of landscape architecture the palace needs improvement and restoration. A cohort of the most significant objects of Mogilev region also includes the unique ensemble of Slavgorod. The park in some aspects is similar to the one in Logoisk, its owner prince A.M.Galitsin began constructing it in 1787, having built the palace on a steep bank of the Sozh on an ancient castle hill, surrounded by ravines. The parkâ€™s area is 6 hectares, it is laid out on several terraces with ash plantations. Currently the part of the estate between the river and the ravine is well within view. The grandiose steep is decorated with ash, horse-chestnut, solitary lindens and maples towering above the steep slope, and the picturesque views of beyond the river give it its uniqueness and beauty.
LANDSCAPES OF GOMEL REGION
Of 26 historic parks of the region are parks in Krasny Bereg, Sutkov, Narovlya, and Petrikov. They are the ones that can be reconstructed. 12 parks of local value are subject to restoration as well, and 10 parks have been irrevocably lost. The priority of the park in Krasny Bereg in Zhlobin district is obvious, it is a most significant palace-and-park ensemble of Gomel region of the late XIX century. An agrarian college is located here, due to which the palace which is currently being restored, (a number of utility buildings, a unique gateway arch, an outbuilding) have been preserved. The parkâ€™s area is 8 hectares, it is located on a low- level terrace on the bank of Dubosna river. The entrance is shaped perpendicular to the lay-out axis. The parade part (a slope to the river) has been changed. Most of the exotic plants
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have been lost. Only the landscape park with an area of 4 hectares has survived. It is separated from the modern settlement by a high wall, and by the river in the northern side. The park has a number of walking routes, the ring route is a basic one. There are picturesque avenues of linden, maple, chestnut and birch, hornbeam, groups of fir, horse-chestnut and maple. In the territory of the park there are growing Weymouth pine, Alpine currant, northern red oak, red spruce, American basswood, Crimean linden, largeleaved lime, silver maple, Amur cork tree, Circassian walnut, Schwedler maple, fir, ashleaved maple, horse-chestnut, white poplar, larch, hornbeam, ash. It is a real monument of landscape architecture and an important dendrological object. Another valuable monument of landscape gardening of the region is Sutkov estate in Loyev district. The XVIII century ensemble is located on a high terrace of the Dnieper river. The restored palace houses a school. Two wings have been preserved. The main drive has been modernized, it consists of row plantings of spruce and nutwood. There used to grow cut-leaf linden, common drooping ash, German hawthorn here, there are now extensive plantings of locust, maple, etc. The landscape park looks like a woodland one; it is extending along the terrace on the side. A deep ravine, leading to the river, adjoins the palace. It is a monument of classicism which is requiring improvement. The park of the first half of XIX century in Narovlya is located on a high level terrace of the Pripyat river. The central lane is decorated with black and grey poplar and cottonwood. The beautiful entrance gate with columns and a steep slope are leading to the palace. However, everything is in desolation, and only the park is operated as a city park. On the bank of the river there have been preserved stone benches, a fountain, a tower-pavilion, which served as a beacon, ruins of a wall. The park is mostly a landscape one, in the southeast part elements of a regular park can be noticed. There are avenues spreading fan-like from the entrance. There are a lot of exotic plants: locust, white poplar, lilac, ashleaved maple, Douglas fir, Amur cork tree, hop tree, pea shrub and horse-chestnut. The probability exists of restoring thereof in the near future.
CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL HERITAGE OF GRODNO REGION
There are 108 monuments of landscape gardening here with 29 objects of the first category of importance, 54 - of local importance, and 25 of them cannot be restored. Estate parks that have been preserved better than others are parks in Rutkevichi, Bolshoye and Maloye Mozheykovo, Zalessye, Svyatsk, Shchorsy, Bolteniki. The park in Rutkevichi is a remarkable example of a terraced park of XVIII century in which many exotic plants are growing. The park in Bolshoye Mozheykovo impresses with its bosquets of hornbeam. Zalessye estate built in the style of classicism is unique because it belonged to an oustanding composer Oginsky. On the estate of the Hreptoviches (Shchorsy) numerous buildings and ponds have been preserved. Mitskewich, Chechot worked in the rich library of the estate. The Bolteniki estate of Earl of Puttkamer has also survived. Adam Mitskewich used to stay there quite often. At Alexandrovshchina estate there is a fine neo-classic house. The palace-and-park ensemble of Albertin in Slonim remains to be an integral ensemble, consisting of a palace and a landscape park on the bank of the Issa river. Berdovka estate in Lida district is a cultural centre, the house and the park have been restored. The ensemble of Gnezdno in Volkovyssk district lives a modern life, its palace and outhouse have been put in order ande the park has been reconstructed. Golovichpolle estate in Shchuchin district has also preserved all its beauty and still serves for people. The majestic palace and park of the Svyatopolk-Chetvertinskys princes in the town of Zheloudok are not in a very good condition. The palace in neo-baroque style with elements of rococo is in a neglected condition. The same thing , if not a worse, is with the estate of Krasky in Volkovyssk district. The arrangement of the estate in the neo-gothic style makes it an attractive object for restoration. Maloye Mozheykovo estate has almost lost the parkâ€™s lay-out. However, well restored are the palace and the utility buildings, which perfectly fit the modern landscape. Unique are the preserved ensembles of Podarosk in Volkovyssk district and Rogozhnitsa in Mosty district. Both of them can be restored.
Remains of the park of the first half of the XIX c. in Narovlya
Former estate of the Hreptoviches
Fragments of the estate house of the Chetvertinskys
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HISTORIC PARKS OF BREST REGION
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The region has the greatest number of estates â€• 182, of them 42 are of primary value (Kosovo, Polonechka, Kobrin, Ruzhany, Pruzhany, Kroshyn, Mankovichi, Lukovo, Velikoryta, etc.), 85 are local ones and 55 have been lost. Kamenets district, where Belovezhskaya Pushcha is located, is a true masterpiece of world importance. A special place in the tourist hierarchy belongs to the White Tower. Inclusion of historic parks in tourist routes seems to make it possible to attract additional visitors who are interested in landscape architecture, biodiversity. In the territory of the district there are about 15 objects of landscape gardening. A most significant one is the palace-and-park ensemble in Vysokoye, a former estate of the Sapehas. The palace is being restored. Utility buildings - outhouses let one perceive the epoch of XVIII century in its fullness. However, the central parterre has been modified. The beautiful terraced location on the river Pulva, the picturesque landscape lay-out, the presence of a reservoir, a canal make this object really special. Particularly interesting are the ancient castle site - a rampart, a bypass channel, an entrance gate, ruins of a greenhouse. A number of exotic plants are growing in the territory of the park larch, black pine, there is an avenue of horsechestnut, which is rare for parks in Belarus. The ensemble is one of the best in Belarus and can well become a major tourist center of the region. Of great interest is Volchin estate with an ancient Holy Trinity church. From the remains of the foundation and part of a wall the location of the palace is known. The original water system of canals is noticeable. Unfortunately, the park, which used to occupy an area of up to 40 hectares, has not been preserved. Archeological findings allow founding an archeological museum here. Moreover, the estate is connected with names of such historic figures as Soltan, Gosevsky, Sapeha, Fleming, Chartorysky, Ponyatovsky and Puslovsky. The house of the cosy Gremyache estate is in a relatively good condition, however it also requires improvement. In Kopyly (Pobeda) estate there preserved a fine extensive park with avenues of hornbeam, linden, an observation hill, an
estate house, a number of utility buildings. Potentially it can be used as a tourist destination with botanical and folk crafts focus. The estate complex of Bucheml is interesting for its terraced location, remains of a water system. The general lay-out of the park is noticeable with a shady hornbeam avenue, with old trees. One of the owners of the estate was T.Bylchinsky, a famous gardenerselectionist who bred a cherry variety called Buchemlyanskaya. In the territory of the park there is a unique well built of sledged stone. The park also needs improvement. A decoration of Minkovichi estate is a cottonwood which is 1.2 m in diameter, a unique lay-out and a system of reservoirs. However all this also needs further improvement. The park in Shostakovo lies in its former borders, although it was modified considerably. A big stone with a marble plate in memory of Romualda and Apolynary Traugutt is a special pride of the local community. Lumno estate reminds of a farmstead behind a village which can be reconstructed for local crafts. The house, a number of utility buildings have been preserved, the central parterre and the general lay-out of the park are noticeable. Transverse avenues divide the park into several bosquets. Of a great interest is the system of canals and ponds surrounding the park in Pelishche. The long picturesque walking route which runs on the earthen wall along the perimeter of the park, a lot of shade, glades, makes it a remarkable place for recreation. Separate fragments of estates in Ryasna, Luskany, Ogorodniki, Verhovichi, etc. have been preserved. The necessity of preservation of historic parks of certain historical epochs in Belarus, their ethnographic and memorial value are obvious. Therefore, it is important to specify cultural, historical, as well as landscape and decorative value of historic palace-and-park ensembles, continue studying them, develop programs of their restoration and reconstruction with a view to operate them as tourist centers, or as a basis for objects of rural tourism. Today a primary goal consists in preserving historic parks, arranging effective protection thereof, restricting economic activities and construction works in on their territories.
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Problem of Visual Aspects in Literature Yauhen Garadnitsky, leading scientific officer of the Institute of the Language and Literature Institute named after Yakub Kolas and Yanka Kupala of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Candidate of Science (Philology), Assistant Professor.
The distinctive aspects of cultural and historical epochs are specified, among others, by the fact that various types of aesthetic activities and various arts may come to the foreground– ones of them at certain times may occupy a central position dominating over other types while the others are staying in the background. Thus, the Antiquity, for instance, is representing plastic arts (primarily imagery ) in a most expressive way. This is related to the fact that world perception by ancients has been directed to percepting the social realm primarily in visual images in their physical perception. In the Middle Ages a leading role was played by the architecture where the commonly used functionality is related to sacral symbolization. The Places of Worship image at that time became one of the central symbols through which the epoch world outlook and directionality of a medieval human to surveying absolute spirit were expressed. Within the Renaissance period the pictorial art represented by numerous names of genial artists reached an unprecedented verdure. Afterwards a period of the Theatre became ripe followed (starting from the 19th century) by the Literature occupying the top position and particularly characterized by its high-water marks in the novel genus. It is well known that the availability of a certain dominant in the aesthetic develop-
ment of the cultural and historical epoch by no means is evidencing that other art types are rasured at that time. Within all historical periods starting from ancient times literature has been one of the most important ways of creative expression. Nowadays in the early new century and millennium the fact that the literature centric epoch is remaining to stay in the past is becoming more evident. The imaginative literature for certain objective causes is not able any longer to qualify for that exclusive spiritually consolidating role it played in the community some decades ago. To a certain degree it has been loosing its reader who before was really a general one and was directed to perceive best examples of the literature art. Among other factors such situation is effected by ever rising importance of visual aids of communication in modern life. Nowadays the cultural space visualization has gained wide acceptance by penetrating into all spheres of human life while stipulating the processes of percepting and apprehending numerous contemporaneity phenomena. The visual aspect in the modern social cultural space in some specified sense is replacing the verbal one by performing semantic, determinative functions. In such situation literature has to find certain means for adapting to new existence conditions. As one of probable answers to the challenge of time one should evidently consider the development of gentre variety a characteristic feature of which is using figurative text properties. Recently the visual poetry has become very popular enough. Its pieces are impersonifying an attempt to unite the informative
and descriptive aspects of a poetic text. The structure of a poem which in itself is possessing vastly greater expressive capabilities as compared to that of a prosaic text in such case is given additional functions. A poetic pronouncing is communicated not only by means of customary ways of verbal expression but it is also “depicted” by the text itself, expressed graphically. Among pieces of visual poetry of various forms one can distinguish primarily figured poems. Such type of a poem is generally characterized by a long-standing history. It ascends to the baroque poetics which is characterized by heightened attention to a formal aspect of poetic oeuvre. Simyaon Polotsky was the first of East Slavic poets to master the practice of figured versification in the form of various figures having the sense of allegory. Within further cultural and historical epochs up to the early 20th century such figured poems did not enjoy any popularity. The interest in them occurred only during the modernism epoch. Giyom Appoliner’s caligrims may serve a glowing example. However , poets also within the 20th century were referring to revealing figurative art in the text structure of pieces and did it quite sporadically. In this way until recently the visualization technique of the structural basis of poetics was marginal in some specified sense. Its activation under current conditions is undoubtedly related to general processes of expanding the sphere of influence of visual communication means. While noting separate cases of referring to visual means of personification which occurred in 1920–1930Belarusian poetry (А. Аlexandrovich) scholar V. Zhiboul in
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his survey of Belarusian visual poetry is zeroing in on the modern state of its development . He is distinguishing individual approaches of authors to describing the graphic text aggregate providing a full-scaled picture of the poetry visualization process. We believe that the text space visualization technique employed by present-day poets is directed primarily to creating a queerness effect («removal», the term suggested by B. Shklovsky). And just such result is tried to be achieved by, for instance, А. Sprynchan when experimenting with graphic design of a text: Сня*ынка Падае на кры*, І кры* Кры*уе неба крыкам... . Here only one character ж is replaced with asterisk *, and along with this the poem by a young poetess has acquired some unusual styling, new and unexpected approach to reality. Ya. Chykvin, a poet from Bialystok id dividing words of a poem into separate syllables and in a new manner connecting such parts. As a result a final text is amazing by its queerness: шэ рышум да жджу надха тай ве тах ўсту дні стра ха ватай . V. Zhiboul in his survey is specifying general tendencies in the sphere of visual creative work expressed in ever growing approach by separate authors to nonverbal forms of aesthetic expression leading in its absolute to almost complete elimination of verbal elements . A most glowing example of such advance of poetry in this direction is creative work by Z. Vishnyov who by minimizing the availability of a text constituent as a matter of fact comes to pictorial art in its abstracted variety. The relation of such sort of artisctical practice with literature is becoming in a large measure mediated and even problematic. In such cases some scholars (Yu. Barysevich) have suggested to consider a verbal “prototype” of pictorial art or graphical artifact to be something inherent to it which can be “closely read” during a reception act. However, in so doing the sphere of application of this principle seems to be too wide. Virtually it can be adapted to any pictorial art piece which is subject to interpreting using verbal expression means. On the other hand a similar by its nature procedure is materialized in the cases when signs and specific features
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of pictorial art are found in a literary text. The technics with the help of which these or those visually perceived aspects of a composition are represented in a verbally transformed form is called ekphrasis. This term is used for denoting a description in a composition certain features of a pictorial art composition –a picture, illustration, sculpture, etc. Such vehicle can play a key role acting not only as one of the formal elements of description. Ekphrasis in many cases is naturally included in the image and structural system of a composition causing significant impact on its conceptual basis. An extremely glowing example of such informative content of the technics can be the story «Stenka Razin» by V. Shoukshin. A prominent Russian writer for whom the image of Razin has always had prime importance and who, as a film director, mused on transferring the image from verbal to visual form, in this story just ekphrasis was able to convey sensuous degree of approximation to his hero. Stepan Razin is not described in the story by V. Shoukshin as a personage, his image is incarnated only in the form of a figurine sculptured by people’s fixer Vasyoka. However, its description is replaced by the narrator with a description of actual events as seen by the wood cover during his persistent and inspirational work. At last the work is completed and Vasyoka is submitting it to an old teacher Zaharych. Followed by the phrase «This is what has been done on the workbench» virtually a full story is delivered, the inclusion of which in a time paradigm is stressed by elision marks: «…Stenka was caught nodding. They rushed in at night with their unscrupulous eyes and lashed out the hetman. Stenka in his underclothes dashed up to the wall with his weapon. <…> He made a dash for the weapon…but knocked against a Persian carpet , fell down. He wanted to jump to feet, but they bucketed aback , wrung hands… Fiddled around. Crepitated. Sweared lowly and hard» . The picture described in such dynamics is allegedly reviving and brought back to the reader. The pictorial effect in this case is reached by means of contrast contradistinction of description statics and narration dynamics. The technics is not shaded and vice versa it is openly manifested. In this way Ekphrasis is appearing to be a change from description to narration, as purposely underlined collision of
a fact in a pictorial form with the one which is transcendental in relation thereto. In general Ekphrasis as representation of a figurative art piece in a literary work always represents a certain expansion of a narrative space , exit outside the presented situation. This is like association of two pictorial worlds each of which is possessing its own persuasion and specific means of impact on recipients. Ekphrasis insertions in literary works are performing the spectrum of artistic functions. Their value cannot be reduced to mere decorative function. Thus, in the story “ Wild Hunting of King Stakh” bу V. Karatkevich the description of nobility class family portraits has a compositional meaning causing effectual impact on narrative development of the story. The portrait gallery touring by Andrei Belaretsky who happened round Balotnye Yaliny temple possessed by the Yankovskiyes is clearly evidencing moral degeneration and decay of the old family. It is taken to be dramatic confirmation of the author’s main idea on «Belarusian nobility decay» , which is a conceptual basis of the story. Further as the story unfolds shaping in a detective adventure character one of the portraits of the Yankovskiyes is directly included in the story collisions becoming in the hands of criminal Doubatovka a subject of influence on his victim– Nadeya Yankovskaya’s consciousness. One more of the ancient portraits by its likeness is carrying the protagonist back to a young mistress of Balotnye Yaliny temple . Through such juxtaposition complex relations of times and the system of mutual relations and dependences between happenings of the bygone and contemporaneity are implemented in the composition and this is remarkably specific for V. Karatkevich’s artistic concept. Incidentally in the novelism of this Belarusian writer the interaction of literature with other arts is playing one of the leading roles by finding its proper place in many of his literary compositions. In this case one should keep in mind the fact that bу V. Karatkevich himself had an eloquent gift of a graphic artist. The writer’s creative work heritage is composed among others of numerous illuminations, blottesques, cartoons which in many cases are accompanied with texts creating therewith an integration unities of time. The analysis of the writer’s graphics related to his novelism can materially deepen the knowledge of this extraordinary author.
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The problem of visual many-sidedness of his manifestations as related to his literary work is involving also such aspect as combination of a writer and artist in one person. Both Belarusian and world cultures are possessing examples of successful combination of two features in one author. Here a two-way traffic is intervened: literati are expanding their artistic opportunities by penetrating into «the territory» of pictorial art and artists in their turn resorting to verbal expression means in order to express their genius and ideas in such direct form. In so doing usually one or the other par is remaining to be predominant by specifying the author’s principal aesthetic trend and his/her gift’s nature. A prominent Belarusian artist Ya. Drazdovich tried prentice hand also in novelism , however his artistic originality and links with people’s aesthetics in the most degree have been concentrated yet on pictorial art pieces, graphics , wood carving. A specific ekphrasis is also the art language which describes and interprets pictorial art pieces. The difference is in the fact that while such literary ekphrasis helps to «translate» from one art language into another one, in this case – into the scientific discourse metalanguage. On the other hand the picto-
rial art itself is able to «interpret» a novelism – by way of illustrating separate images and story aspects. It is well known that in such case the ekphrasis notion is acquiring a widest sense by transforming from a technics to a way of interpreting. However, just such opportunity of its use is attracting ever growing attention from the part of scholars. It is directly related to the attempts to comprehend the processes of interaction and mutual transitivity of between the visual and verbal aspects in the modern culture has. As efforts in this sphere advance a demand for this term will undoubtedly grow. Under the conditions of present-day interdisciplinary rapprochement a subject of such studies will be both specific verbal discourse visuality and , in its turn, specific narrative aspect of artistic expression plastic forms. The paper by Doctor of Arts N. Zlydneva specifically named «Visual Narration and its Verbal Comments: Problem of Mutual Translability» delivered at the International workshop «The Language as Mediator between Knowledge and Art» (The Language Institute named after V.U. Vinogradov, the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008) was analyzing, for instance, specific features of «implicit verbal aspects of
a figurative phenomenon», ability of «visual narration » to express texts conforming to their verbal analogues . In this way while all differences in a material employed by literature and graphic arts are existing (on the one hand – word material, natural language which is transformed in artistic one; on the other hand – plastic forms, paints), one can still state the availability in them of definite typologically similar features provided for primarily by the commonality of the processes of perception and imagination.
References 1. Zhiboul V. Short history of Belarusian visual poetry // Texts. №3, 2007. P. 107–127. 2. Sprynchan А. Rhymes from А. – Мn., 2004. P. 30. 3. C hykvin Ya. On the bank of Doubich Tserkovnykh. – Bialystok, 2010. P. 14. 4. Shoukshin V. Mille pardon, Madam! – М., 2006. P. 43. 5. Karatkevich V. Novelism digest: in 8th vol. Vol. 7. – Мн., 1990. P. 6. 6. Invoke: Hazboulatova Т. The International Workshop «The Language as Mediator between Knowledge and Art » // Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Language and literature series. 2009. May – June. Vol. 68. №3. P. 73–80.
Academic Folkloristics: Heritage and Horizons Tatyana Volodina, Manager of Ethnolinguistics and Folklore Sector of the Institute of Language and Literature named after Yakub Kolas and Yanka Koupala of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Cultures in a globalist society are adapting to a single information space. A revolution in the sphere of informatics and means of communication is creating an opportunity for contacts between various cultures, however in a simplified stereotyped form. The activity of unified information processes in a contemporary-styled world is so high that it puts national cultures under its supervision. Their diffusion, spontaneous unexamining poaching of vital values communicated by mass media, advancing similar examples of transnational mass cul-
ture along all continents are offering loss of cultural originality , danger of total unification of behaviour, reality perception, plunging of moral norms and criteria as compared to conventional ones, generating rude consumption psychology, especially with youngsters. In this respect a major goal and concurrently a highest achievement of ethnic community under the conditions of the presentday civilization is consisting in preserving spiritual values, cultural identity and national identity by way of learning, apprehending
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and promoting local conventional cultures on the strength of ethnical ones. The problem of an individuum identity is settled in the sphere of local culture, with the traditions and deep meaning such individuum is identified. The culture of «a small native land» is translating meanings, norms of moral imperatives, behaviour and mutual relation with the environment, sensuous criteria, which were traditionally created at a local community on the basis of a daily, sacral and historical experience. Just collecting, investigating and expanding folklore as a richest moneybox of ethnic cultural values are an object of regard for academic folklorists. From the very outset of creating the Institute of Art Criticizm, Ethnography and Folklore named after K. Krapiva of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (ІМEF) the study of problems of Belarusian oral poetical creative work and mutual relations thereof with folklore of other nations, literature, the investigation of ethnomusicological peculiarities has occupied one of the leading places. As a priority there was considered collecting works of various folklore genres, recording rites, homely traditions and melodies. Records by the Institute’s employees, as well as materials of other folklorists (in particular a collection of proverbs and sayings by A. Serzhpotovsky, records by A. Grinevich, et al.), correspondents are kept at the Institute of Art Criticizm, Ethnography and Folklore. Oral poetic works recorded both by pre-revolutionary folklorehunters and the Institute’s employees are published as genre-thematic publications and voluminous collected books. On the initiative of P. Glebka there has been started preparation of a voluminous academic collected book of Belarusian arts and crafts (1970–2007), developed principles of classification and filing of materials, commentation and textual criticism. This fundamental collected book of Belarusian folklore in 49 volumes in 1986 was awarded a State prize of Belarus. The best part of the materials in volumes of the series «The Belarusian arts and crafts» (БНТ) is published on the basis of archival funds, primarily on that of the Collection of folklore records of the Slavonic studies unit. The Collection is consisting of several funds: textual one, photographic materials, music op-
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tions (transcripts) and phonorecords involving the materials of the basic and scientific accessorial funds. In 2001by its special resolution the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus the folklore collection of the Slavonic studies unit of the Institute of Art Criticizm, Ethnography and Folklore was awarded the status of the national heritage. The Institute’s folklorists are theoretically comprehend rich spiritual heritage of Belarusians, investigating present-day folklore processes. Special attention is accorded to studying the genesis, ideological and thematic interpenetration, poetics of separate genre works and types, completing comparative analysis of folklore works by Slavs. The following scholars have been and are involved in each of such directions: І. Goutorov, G. Bartashevich, Т. Varfalameeva, U. Vasilevich, М. Grynblat, А. Goursky, А. Dounar-Zapolskaya, Т. Koukharenok, А. Lozka, Z. Mazheika, L. Malash, G. Pyatrouskaya, L. Salavei, V. Skidan, U. Sysou, G. Taulai, І. Tsishchanka, Т. Tsyapkova, К. Tsvirka, V. Yalatau, etc. A material attention is accorded to learning the history of Belarusian arts and crafts and that of folkloristics. It is devoted a collective monograph «Belarusian folk oral-poetic works: Historical and theoretic investigations» (1967), collective editions «Belarusian folkloristics: Collection and investigation of arts and crafts in 60s XIX – early XX centuries» (1989), « Belarusian folkloristics: «Feudalism epoch» (1989), by А. Fyadosik « Belarusian Soviet Folkloristics (1987.). There were also published monographs dealing with various folklore types and genres, poetics and art specific features thereof. A team of authors have prepared and published six books of the series « Belarusian folklore: Genres, types, poetics», including «Calendar-ritual poetry», «Family - ritual poetry » (2001), «After-ritual poetry», «Folk prose» (2002), «Mythology. Spiritual poems» (2003), «Small genres. Children’s folklore» (2004.). The formation and development of the national musical folkloristics are investigated in the book « Belarusian ethnomusicology: essays of history (XIX – XX centuries)» (1997). The Institute’s ethnomusicologists had published regional miscellanies of Belarusian folk songs «Songs of Belarusian Paazerye» (1981);
«Songs of Belarusian Palessye» (Issue. 1, 1983–1984); « Songs of Belarusian Panyamonne» (1998); « Songs of Belarusian Padnyaproye» (1999). As of 2001the units of folkloristics and Slavonic studies jointly started to develop the subject «Belarusian folklore in a general Slavonic context» pursuant to the recommendations of the International Committee of Slavicists, which considers it necessary to expand and deepen comparative learning of folklore of Slavonic peoples. The aim of R&D work consists in learning that general aspects that are uniting the system of genres and types of Belarusian oral-and-poetic creative work with oral poetry of other Slavonic peoples, revealing the national and regional specific features of Belarusian folk creative work and its role in the spiritual culture of ethnoses. Among the publications dealing with this subject one can find the collective monograph «The levels of commonality of folklore of Eastland Slavs», monographic investigations by К. Кabashnikov «Small genres of Belarusian folklore in the Slavonic context», by А. Маrozau «Folklore in spiritual culture of Eastland Slavs: mental prerequisites of functioning». A comparative approach has made it possible to in full measure comprehend the genesis of calendar-ritual creative work, reveal priorities of the conventional culture of Slavs on genre, action, figurative and aesthetic levels. There has been analyzed the typological similarity of the calendar-ritual poetry of Belarusians, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians and of other peoples on the level of actions, image system, poetics and this has provided an opportunity to actually imagine the poetic wealth of the conventional culture of Slavonic ethnoses, investigate the actions of determining typological unity and specific difference of the Slavs’ folklore. By its sources of deepening in the epoch of Indo-European community being mythopathetic in its world-view basis the conventional spiritual culture of Belarusians in the recent century was subject to substantial impact from the part of Christianity. Its ideas, certain image realities, some rituals with the course of time became to be an organic part of the calendar- and family-ritual folklore which played a cardinal role in the ethnos being preserving identity thereof. Such Christianity impact in
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the Belarusian folklore is also accorded a substantial attention (the works by А. Boganyeva, А. Liss, А. Marozau). As of the beginning of the century areal learning of folklore academic investigations became to be a priority direction. The regional particularity of the conventional culture is remaining to be a stable event also on the level of nationality, nation. With no minute collecting all national folklore artifacts, detailed investigation of spiritual life traditions in their local or regional manifestation it is not possible to duly comprehend in aggregate the entire wealth and diversity of the phenomenon of the oral-and-poetic creative work of people, sociocultural and aesthetic experience incarnated therein i.e. instructions for future. Actually a fuller visualization of existence bounds of this or that genre can be acquired while employing a real approach to collecting and learning a certain material. Therefore, it is worthwhile to combine the mapping of the geography of expanding artifacts of each genre separately and finally all of a lump macro- and microregionwide starting just with the latter. On the present-day stage an initial value is given to consolidating the efforts of Belarusian folklorists directed to collecting, preserving, processing and various operating the folklore archives of the Republic of Belarus. The work is implemented pursuant to the UNESCO Convention 2003 governing the protection of intangible cultural heritage of the world nations. Pursuant to the regulations of the above Convention the officers of the Slavonic studies unit of the Institute of Art Criticizm, Ethnography and Folklore are considering the following crucially new scientific problems to be expedient: ■ re-recording fixed folklore values in modern electronic data carriers; ■ generating an electronic database of folklore data for further including thereof in the National list of intangible cultural heritage; ■ mapping (specifying areals of existing fixed events of intangible culture of Belarusians); ■ creating multimedia CDs relating to separate types of intangible heritage of Belarusians; ■ developing major regulations, principles of preserving, organizing, learning and certifying the intangible culture of Belarusians;
■ promoting UNESCO policy relating to preserving the intangible heritage and distributing international materials of given problematics; ■ cooperating with relevant foreign organizations and departments aimed at learning the cultural heritage of Belarusians . Within the recent decade the theoretical folkloristics is growing in employing advanced investigation methods, a multipronged attack on discussing folklore facts. A scientific paradigm of folkloristics (as a discipline investigating conventional forms of philology) has been experiencing significant alterations. In the present-day investigations folklore is interpreted not only as an aesthetic phenomenon, but also as a set of most important world-view, social and ideological functions. Following all-around considering major genres (a major part of them are devoted special monographs) the Institute’s folklorists have gone back to investigating codes of the folklore model of the community of Belarusians. In the recent years several dissertations were defended relating to this subject and many publications appeared relating to separate codes – dendrological (І. Shved), zoological (І. Vyrva), astrological (І. Malashouk), thematic (Т. Valodina), asexual (U. Sivitsky), ornithological (М. Komarova). The monograph by V. Sharai is devoted to asset aspects of ancestry veneration. Currently the domestic folklorists are facing a high-priority R&D problem: to identify a system of values and regularities of the sociocultural dynamics of modern arts and crafts of Belarusians in a variety of genres and in the context of developing both Slavic culture and world civilization in general. The learning and generalizing topical issues of developing spiritual culture of Belarus will make it possible not only to learn scientific investigations on a new theoretic level, but also to strengthen their practical importance. A most important assignment of culture is consisting in establishing and maintaining the system of values which will promote sustainable community development leading to no crises. The solution of this problen is defined as follows: ■ promoting the Belarusian cultural heritage within the globalized Slavonic world;
■ creating fruitful conditions for interacting the national culture of Belarusians with arts and crafts of Slavs and other European peoples; ■ generating Slavonic cultural-and- information field and developing ways of its regional, national and transformational mediation . The folklorists of the sector of ethnolinguistics and folklore of the Institute of Language and Literature named after Yakub Kolas and Yanka Koupala have started to create the Belarusian Folklore and Ethnolinguistic Atlas (БЭЛА). Intrinsically, following the principles of organization, goals and tasks it can act an encyclopedized edition based on the documented and primarily expeditionary sources generalized on the level of typologically valuable signs describing events of the conventional folk culture relating to independent historical or ethno cultural complexes in correlation with their territorial distribution. The Atlas is consistently and in great depth reflecting all conceptual folklore culture elements having a typological value and unalterably re-prodduced in a distinctive form specific for each given tradition. The academic folklorists are involved in an active and important work on popularizing the Belarusian folklore involving publications in mass media, radio and television programmes, participation in folklore fests, etc. The plans for the future actions are including areal investigations, theoretical updating major codes of the folklore model of the community, creating an electronic database and solving other problems of the theoretical and applied folkloristics.
References 1. Марозаў А.У. Беларуская фалькларыстыка 90-х гадоў XX – пачатку XXI стагоддзяў: вынікі i перспектывы развіцця // Словенски фолклор и фолклористика на размећи два милениjума / уредник Л. Раденковић. – Београд, 2008.
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Published on Apr 17, 2012
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