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in nature: for body and soul

01 nature and patrimony in my region

nature and patrimony in my region

Municipality Provadia is located in north-east Bulgaria and is one of the members of Varna region. The municipality consists of 24 villages with total population of 22 934 citizens (01.02.11).

Acreage of municipality Provadia: 576.6 km2

Total population: 27233

Number of towns: 1

Number of villages: 24

Altitude: 56 m

nature and patrimony in my region

There are different kinds of water sources: rivers, dams, springs, underground rivers, mineral springs. The most major ones are Provadiyska river, the “Wonder rocks” dam and the Spa which uses water from a natural mineral spring.

Provadiyska river

The “Wonder rocks” dam

The spa complex

nature and patrimony in my region

Varna is located in the north-east of Bulgaria and it is the third biggest city in the country with more than 300000 citizens . The students took photos of Varna and the region, painted pictures, made posters and presentations


nature and patrimony in my region

The students took samples

of soil from the school yard and different areas in Varna. In the school lab they researched the soil for Ph. The indexes of the Ph were less 7. This means that the soil is suitable for our Comenius trees and for the plants grown in Varna.

r The “Wonder

Nature and patrimony in my region The students painted pictures of the change from the moorlands to the cultural lands in the West M端nsterland

Nature and patrimony in my region and of the “Zwillbrocker Venn”, a wildlife sanctuary in the Münsterland where you can find flamingos living and breeding

nature and patrimony in my region

Latvia's climate Latvia's climate is our wealth, because Latvia is located in a geographical zone, that allow you to enjoy all the 4 seasons: winter, spring, summer autumn There are no volcanoes or earthquakes, not a devastating tornado and floods, not harsh winter and excessive heat and drought. Latvia's climate depends on the Baltic Sea and the Gulf Coast. Climate in Latvia is soft and moist, without wide temperature variations. Latvian climate is mild and humid, with no major fluctuations in temperature Cyclones from the Atlantic Ocean bring marine air mass. Warm period is influenced by formation of cloudy and rainy weather. During the cold period cyclones make warm winter. Cyclones affecting cloudiness is great - on average 160-180 cloudy days per year. The average annual temperature is +5.9 째 C. During the year the warmest month is July. Coldest months are January and February. So far, the highest observed temperature in Latvia is +36.0 째 C (13. 06. 1994.), minimum: - 43.2 째 C. (8.02. 1956.) The richest precipitation months are July and August. The least precipitation is February and March. Latvia, like the other Baltic states, characterized by frequent changes of air masses. For example, over Riga on the average 170 passing weather fronts.

nature and patrimony in my region

Climate of Lithuania Lithuania’s climate is characterized by seasonal weather changes, so when you come to our country in different seasons you can see how different it looks - we know what a really sunny spring, hot summer, long and warm autumn and a nippy winter are like. In recent decades the climate of Lithuania has become warmer – the average annual temperature in the whole territory is 6.5-7.9° C. The warmest month of the year is July (with an average temperature – about 19.7° C, and a maximum - over 30° C), and the coldest is January (with an average temperature – about -2.9° C, its lowest temperature during severe frosts may occasionally drop below -30° C). The most rainfall is recorded from April to October (60-65% of annual rainfall). Heavy rains are common nearly every summer with precipitation exceeding 30 mm per day. The seaside and the Curonian Spit have the most sunny hours per year – about 1 860. The sunniest months in Lithuania are between May and August, the lowest amount of sunshine is from November to January. The strongest winds blow in the months between November and January (at speeds of 5-6 m/s near the coast and 3-5 m/s elsewhere), the weakest winds occur between May and September (4-5 m/s near the coast and 2-3 m/s elsewhere). Occasionally, the winds get dangerously strong, with gusts reaching over 15 m/s. Such winds occur on the coast on average 60 days a year. As the temperatures warm up, tornado-like winds are more likely to be seen.

Soils of Lithuania

Lithuanian soils range from sands to heavy clays. In the northwest the soil is either loamy or sandy (and sometimes marshy) and is quite heavily podzolized, or leached out. In the central region, weakly podzolized loamy peats predominate, and it is there that the most fertile, and hence most cultivated, soils are found. In the southeast there are sandy soils, somewhat loamy and moderately podzolized. Sandy soils in fact cover one-fourth of Lithuania, and most of these are blanketed by woodlands

Relief Underlying rock structures are of little significance for the contemporary Lithuanian terrain, which basically is a low-lying plain scraped by Ice Age glaciers that left behind thick, ridgelike terminal deposits known as moraines. The Baltic coastal area is fringed by a region characterized by geographers as the maritime depression, which rises gradually eastward. Sand dunes line an attractive coast; the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuanian: Kuršiu Marios), almost cut off from the sea by the Curonian Spit, a thin 60-mile (100-km) sandspit, forms a distinctive feature. It is bounded by the Žemaičiai Upland to the east, which gives way to the flat expanses of the Middle Lithuanian Lowland.

The lowland, consisting of glacial lake clays and boulder-studded loams, stretches in a wide band across the country from north to south; some portions of it are heavily waterlogged. The elevated Baltic Highlands, adjacent to the central lowland, thrust into the eastern and southeastern portions of the country; their rumpled glacial relief includes a host of small hills and numerous small lakes. The Švenčioniai and the Ašmena highlands—the latter containing Mount Juozapinė, at 957 feet (292 metres) above sea level the highest point in Lithuania—are located in the extreme east and southeast. Čepkeliai marsh (Lithuanian: Čepkelių raistas) is the largest swamp in Lithuania, in the territory of Dzūkija National Park. The area of the swamp is protected as a natural rezerve. In Lithuania there are 34 swamps – natural rezeves

Lithuania counts around 29 thousand watercourses, longer than 0.25km. The total length of all these watercourses would be around 65,000km

There are about 6,000 lakes in Lithuania, covering 950km², or 1.5% of the territory of Lithuania

Myths of Kulautuva, Lithuania

The legend about The Stone of Jonučiai Princess About this stone there is a legend that in ancient times lived the king of Žemaičiai in Kulautuva. Once the land was attacked by cruel enemies. They were burning farmhouses, killing people and robbing their property. All women and men, even children, went to defend their land against the enemies. Just the princess of Jonučiai with her beloved boy secretly ran away and hid in the forest. When the king learnt about that, he became very angry and started to ask his powerful gods by saying: -The daughter who does not appreciate her country is unhappy. By the name of the gods I forsake her and curse her forever. The Mighty Thunder, punish her!

At the same time in the forest next to the spring of Narėpai was standing the princess and she turned into the stone. She stayed there reminding that everybody has to protect their country.

This stone is also amazing, because people who sometimes walk in the forest clearly can see that. The Stone of the Princess is really there. But sometimes the stone disappears and it is impossible to find it.

Origin of the name Kulautuva For the first time the name Kulautuva (Kalaten) was mentioned in 1364 in the chronicles of Vygandas Magdeburgietis who was the chronicler of the Crusaders Local residents link the name of the town with the word beetle (lith. kultuvė). It is said that in ancient times there were no permanent residents in Kulautuva, just from the neighbouring villages were coming women to wash their clothes next to the Nemunas River. They were beating the beetles so loudly that the sound was spreading widely. Even the people who lived on the other side of the Nemunas River heard it. They used to say: “The beetles are washing the clothes again”. From that came the name of the settlement – Kulautuva.

The sculpture “Kultuvė” (eng. “Beetle”) close to Kulautuva region (the author – Ž.Karkauskas

Some of the researchers think that the name of the town came from the surname of the noblemen – Kolotauskai - who lived there in the 18th –the beginning of the 19th centuries.

The others think that the name of the settlement came from a Lithuanian verb „kūlauti“ which means to catch fishes under the ice beating them with the poles.

In 2001 was approved the coat of arms of Kulautuva which represents the beetle

nature and patrimony in my region

CLIMATE The climate in our region - Douro region - is mediterranean, which can be featured with: Dry and hot summers; Precipitation throughout the lasting 9 months of the year; Relatively smooth winters with temperatures between zero and minus five centigrades (ยบC)

SOIL The geology of Douro region is made up mainly of schist and the predominant soils are poor and stony. These features constitutes an unique terroir that allows the creation of wines as the world famous Port Wine.

PATRIMONY The Armamar county offers great diversity of natural and built heritage enhanced by the landscape area belonging to the Alto Douro Wine Region classified in 2001 as world heritage by UNESCO.

nature and patrimony in my region

NATURE CORKTREE Quercus suber Quercus suber is a Mediterranean species which can be found only in Southern Europe and northern Africa. Corktree was adopted as the Portuguese national tree in 2011. The bark of a Corktree is, naturally, the cork used to produce, for eg, corks for bottles. Portugal is the biggest cork producer in the world. It is the only tree in the world whose bark can be removed without any harm. Corktrees’ chop down must be previously allowed by legal authorities.

OLIVE GROVES From the olive groves produces comes one of the most famous Mediterranean products, essencial in the mediterranean food diet – the olive oil.

APPLE ORCHARDS Extensive apple orchards appear in areas of higher altitude producing one of the county´s most appreciated producst – the sweet, crunch and tasty mountain apple. Armamar is proud to present the title of ‘Mountain Apple Capital’

nature and patrimony in my region

Soil in the area of Şicula

Arable land

Types of soils

Soils in Romania

The sustenability of soil

Soil in Romania The soil is a very dynamic system which is vital for human activity ity and the survival of the ecosystems. eco The soil is a regenerative resource which has many vital functions: -production of food/ biomass; depositing, filtering and transforming certain -depositing, substances; -it it is a source of biodiversity, habitats, species and genes; - it serves as a platform for people and human activity; -it is a source of raw material; - it represents a geologic and archeological patrimony

The land represents a valuable natural resource for the country. Apart from the rocky Carpathian mountains, most part of the Romanian land is suitable for agricultural activity. Rather recently, a vast part of the country was used in agriculture, where cultivated land comprised about 40 percent and about 20 percent pasturage, but only 3 percent vineyards and orchards.

The soils in Romania are fairly fertile. Chernozem.- a black-coloured soil containing a high percentage of humus. Rich agricultural crops are obtained from about 20 percent of the arable land. Chernozems prevail in Campia Romana (The Romanian plain), Moldova and Banat regions. These areas are well known for grain – growing and newly, colza. Red brown forest soils are also to be found in these regions, too. In the hills and mountains regions the soils are good for vineyards, orchards and pasturage, as they are less rich in humus.

The arable land has been extended over the forests and pasturage areas as farming has developed in the last centuries. People used irrigation and drained marshes to gain more arable land. As a result the area under cultivation grew little by little.However, However, sometimes, unwise practices in agriculture led to soil acidity in many areas due to chemicals use, and an important part of the arable land had suffered from erosion.

In the area of Şicula, Romania, we have been able to identify the following types of soil: soloneţurile / white alkali soils occupy the greatest part, clay soils, still not very common in the area and chernozemic hernozemic levigated soils. The latter are considered to be generally quite fertile, fact that led to the development of agriculture agricu since the ancient times. Here, the he agriculture base upon the two main branches: cereals cultivation and animals breeding.

nature and patrimony in my region

Climate in Romania Romania has a temperate-continental climate with four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter marked by some influences such as: oceanic, continental, Mediterranean and the Black sea influence. In the west part of the country there are influences of low pressure system generated by the Atlantic ocean which bring about moderate temperatures and richer rains. In the southern part of the country (Banat, Oltenia) the Mediterranean touch is present, characterized by milder winters and richer rains in autumn. In Dobrogea the Black sea influence is felt with more occasional but torrential rains. In the eastern parts of the country the continental climate is dominant while in the north (Maramures, Bucovina) there are Scandinavian-Baltic influences with wet and colder weather and frosty winters. In the mountains the mountain climate is felt with great humidity all over the year. Students’ artistic representation of seasons

General description of climate in Romania

The rainfalls are not constant in Romania. There are rainy years and droughty years. The rainfall amount increases in the west part, while in the east it decreases, it also varies with the altitude being richer in the mountains. In n summer the oceanic air blows from west, northwest being a wet air that brings clouds of rich rains. In the south part of the country the tropical dry hot air causes heat and long drought. In winter Crivățul ul (The North Wind) is a polar continental air very cold and dry and provokes strong st frosts in the eastern fields of the country. The West Wind is a polar oceanic air, cold and wet and brings snow and frost in the west and central part of the country. Austrul (The South wind) is a tropical warm air that melts the snow and softens the frost.

The average annual temperature is 10-11°C 11°C in the south and 8.5-9°C 9°C in the north. It also varies from altitude 6°C at 1000 m and 0°C at 2200 m. The medium summer temperature is of about 21°C, the hottest month being July with tropical days of 30-35°C. The medium winter temperature is of about -2°C in January, with lower values in mountainous areas. The hottest day in Romania was recorded in 10.08.1951 at Ion Sion (Brăila): 44.5°C, while the coldest was recorded in Braşov ov in 25.01.1942:-38,5°C.

The average temperature

In Romania the spring is a transitory season, quite short. It usually starts in March, when there are ancient Romanian traditions connected to the arrival of spring: mărţişorul on the 1st of March. The temperature increases fast and in April the frosts disappear. The Great Wind appears in the beginning of spring and blows from south crosses the mountains and gets down in Făgăraș valley melting the snow. Foehnul is a warm m wind that blows from the base to the top. top Spring

The autumn is a shorter transitory season with long periods of dryness broken by rainy periods. In the second half of October the first frosts come and in November the first snowfalls. In the fields these phenomena emerge later than in the other parts of the country.


Students’ artistic representation of seasons

Weather in Sicula

Rainfalls and winds

The summer is a hot season that lasts from the beginning of May up to the half of September in the West and South fields of the country. In the south of Romania there are tropical days with temperatures over 30°C. In summer there are often strong storms with rich rainfalls. In the mountainous areas in North and the Centre of the country there are few tropical days and cool nights in summer. There are also local winds such as the breezes that blow in summer summe on the seashore during the day from the sea to the land and the other way around during the night. In the mountains the breezes blow from the valleys to the top and during the night from the top to the valley. valley Summer by the Black Sea

Summer The winter is a cold season with temperatures up to -20°C, 20°C, or even lower. These features are brought about by the cold airs that come from the East. The snow is not rich in comparison to other European countries, because of the lack of rainfall on one hand, because of the repeated increases in temperature on the other. The snow layer melts and reinforces again a few times during one winter in the south and west parts of the country. The winter lasts from the second part of November to March, but sometimes there are snowfalls even in April.


02 get to know fauna and flora

Long-legged buzzard


Rat snake


Egyptian vulture


Wild boar


Apis mellifera

Elaphe longissima

Sus scrofa


Lepus europaeus

Buteo rufinus

Neophron percnopterus


get to know flora and fauna


get to know flora and fauna


Alyssum alyssum Alyssum Borzaeanum

Clove Dianthus nardiformis

Wormwood Artemisia lerchiana

Feather grass Stippa capillata

Oak Quercus cerris

Oak Quercus frainetto

Honeybee bug Ophys apifara

Hop Humulus lupulus

Lilac Syringa vulgaris

get to know flora and fauna




Fylum Cnidaria

Monachus monachus

Mytilus edulis

Trachurus mediterraneus

get to know flora and fauna


Natural Pharmacy just around the corner

Sambucus ebulus

Inula helenium

Sambucus nigra

Symphytum officinale

Hypericum perforatum

Get to know fauna and flora The students did a research about typical plants and animals in Germany and the M端nsterland and made PowerPoint presentations about their results.

Get to know fauna and flora At the end we had a small bilingual field guide with lots of information about the plants and animals that live in and around Ahaus

get to know fauna and flora

Elk (Alces Alces) Elk lives in large swarms, wet and overgrown forests. Usually elks stays in flocks, where are male and female. New antlers grow soft with a lot of blood vessels in the skin. It is much higher than deer-reaching 3m in length, and height of 2m. The tail is very short, only 4-10cm long. Weighing in at 300-350kg, the old elk can be hard to 500kg. Elk feed depends on the time of year,it is very different. In winter it feeds on willow branches and aspen or spruce bark in summer eating grass, leaves, water plants and crops.

Hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus) Hedgehog is very common throughout the Latvia. He was staying in deciduous forests, gardens, parks and fields. Living in thick bushes, dry leaves, twigs stacked under the strains or other appropriate places. In the evening after sundown Hedgehog wakes up from sleep and going to look for food. Hedgehog feed on frogs, lizards, mice, earthworms, snails, beetles and caterpillars, and he eats the roots and fruits, even eggs and young chicks. Sometimes the Hedgehog also attack larger animals: cats and snakes

Doe (Capreolus capreolus) Doe or the deer is a medium-sized, round-hoofed owned cervids. Dorcas is found in various places: forests, swamps, agricultural land, and in the suburbs. Deer in the summer coat is a reddish-brown or orange with a darker grey face. Dorcas is herbivorous. it is a mammal.

get to know fauna and flora

Plain Oak (Quercus robur) Oak is the national tree of Latvians. It symbolizes courage, strength. Description: Common Oak (latin: Quercus robur) is a species of beech native oak tree species, the only species of this genus, which grows wild in Latvia. A large (up to 30-35 m), with a wide, forked crown. The tree can grow up to 500 years. Bark gray, cracked. Distribution: Europe frequently found species. Latvian grows throughout the area. Habitats: Found in forests, approximately 0.3% of the total area of Latvian forests, rivers, ravines, some trees growing various agricultural land and cultural landscape. One of the most valuable trees in Latvia. It is used in the manufacture of boards and furniture Today, the oak branches decorate the coat of arms of the Republic of Latvia, our banknotes, companies and organizations emblems. Oak is used for names, surnames of houses. Latvian oak-leaf is specially protected natural territories symbol.

Lime- tree (Tilia cordata Mill.) Lime-tree is a Latvian national tree. It symbolizes femininity. Popular songs of women and girls are compared to lime. Description: The usual tree up to 30 m tall linden family tree with a broad crown. Smooth bark of young trees, later wavy. Young shoots reddish or olive-green. Leaves simple, with a handle and a more or less asymmetric heart-shaped base. The bottom blue green leaves, veins brown-hair tassels at the corners. Flowers pale yellow, fragrant. Bloom in June, July. Distribution: Latvian common throughout the territory. Habitats: Common tree grows in the forests, river banks, lake islands. It is also grown along roads and places nearby. Special instructions: Decorative tree. Good nectar. Of dried linden flowers made tinctures, teas. Used as a means of sweat upper respiratory tract irritation and colds.

Flora of Lithuania Lithuania lies in the area of temperate forest zone, which has its characteristic flora and fauna. Most of forest is coniferous, spruce and birch, with alder, ash, aspen and oak found in smaller numbers - forest land makes up almost one third of the country’s area. Facts and numbers: The total number of plant species recorded in Lithuania is near 2,000, of which 16 species are already extinct; The total number of Lithuania’s invertebrate species is estimated at over 200,000. Among them 150,000 are insects, about 1,200 – arachnids and about 170 – molluscs; The total number of animal and plant species included into the Red Data Book of Lithuania (Lietuvos Raudonąją knygą) is 768 Oregano named Origanum vulgare by Carolus Linnaeus, is a common species of Origanum, a genus of the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to warm temperate western and southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region. Oregano is a perennial herb, growing from 20–80 cm tall, with oposite leaves 1–4cm long. It is sometimes called wild marjoram, and its close relative O. majorana is known as sweet marjoram.

Uses Culinary: Oregano is an important culinary herb, used for the flavour of its leaves, which can be more flavourful when dried than fresh. It has an aromatic, warm and slightly bitter taste, which can vary in intensity. Good quality oregano may be strong enough almost to numb the tongue, but the cultivars adapted to colder climates often have a lesser flavor. Factors such as climate, seasons and soil composition may affect the aromatic oils present, and this effect may be greater than the differences between the various species of plants. Among the chemical compounds contributing to the flavour are carvacrol, thymol, limonene, pinene, ocimene, and caryophyllene. Medicinal: Hippocrates used oregano as an antiseptic, as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. A Lithuania oregano is still used today in Lithuania as a palliative for sore throat. Oregano is high in antioxidant activity, due to a high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In test-tube studies, it also has shown antimicrobial activity against strains of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In the traditional Lithuania medicine Origanum vulgare herb has been used internally (as tea) or externally (as ointment) for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and nervous system.

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers that bloom in the summer months. Valerian flower extracts were used as a perfume in the sixteenth century. Valerian, in pharmacology and herbal medicine, is the name of a herb or dietary supplement prepared from roots of the plant. Crude extract of the root is often sold in the form of capsules. Valerian root has sedative and anxiolytic effects. Valerian has been used as a medicinal herb The name of the herb is derived from the personal name Valeria and the Latin verb valere (to be strong, healthy). Because of valerian's historical use as a sedative, anticonvulsant, migraine treatment and pain reliever, most basic science research has been directed at the interaction of valerian constituents with the GABA neurotransmitter receptor system

Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by seeds and rhizomes. Tussilago is often found in colonies of dozens of plants. The flowers, which superficially resemble dandelions, appear in early spring before dandelions appear. The leaves, which resemble a colt's foot in cross section, do not appear usually until after the seeds are set. Thus, the flowers appear on stems with no apparent leaves, and the later appearing leaves then wither and die during the season without seeming to set flowers. The plant is typically 10–30 cm in height. Traditional uses Coltsfoot has been used in herbal medicine and has been consumed as a food product with some confectionery products, such as Coltsfoot Rock. Tussilago farfara leaves have been used in the traditional Lithuania medicine internally (as tea or syrup) or externally (directly applied) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, locomotor system, viral infections, flu, colds, fever, rheumatism and gout. Coltsfoot-inflammatory, so it can be used in the treatment of bronchitis, laryngeal and tracheal inflammation, asthma and pleurisy, even in the initial phase of tuberculosis treatment. Coltsfoot is a mitigating measure expectorant. In order to reduce coughing and hoarseness to be several times a day to drink very hot tea with honey, coltsfoot. The leaves and flowers of the steam used to treat chronic bronchitis Food source Coltsfoot is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the gothic and small angle shades. The coltsfoot is also worked by the honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

Fauna of Lithuania Facts and numbers: The total number of vertebrate animals found in Lithuania is over 500. Among them 70 are mammals, 369 – birds, 100 – fish. The total number of Lithuania’s invertebrate species is estimated at over 200,000. Among them 150,000 are insects, about 1,200 – arachnids and about 170 – molluscs. The total number of animal and plant species included into the Red Data Book of Lithuania (Lietuvos Raudonąją knygą) is 768. Beavers - they are the most numerous animals in Lithuania. The extraordinarily prolific beavers are busy building their dams and lodges on our streams, lakes and rivers.

The extraordinarily prolific beavers are busy building their dams and lodges on our streams, lakes and rivers.

Storks. Lithuania has the highest density of white stork population in Europe with 13 000 pairs. That is why Lithuania is known as a land of storks and the stork is our country’s national bird.

Black storks:

Lithuania still has rare cattle species - wild European bisons - left in the wild. In 2010, there were 60 bisons living in the wild, and each year their herds are growing in number to once again roam in Lithuania forests.



River kingfisher Alcedo atthis

Eel Anguilla anguilla

Lizard Lacerta lepida

Ana Filipa

viperine water snake


Viperine water snake Natrix maura


Iberian wolf Canis lupus


Genet Genetta genetta


Weasel Martes foina

Ana Patrícia

Lusitanian salamander Chioglossa lusitanica


Otter Lutra lutra


Gecko Tarentola mauritanica

get to know fauna and flora


Works by students of the 8th grade

get to know fauna and flora


Turpentine tree Pistacia terebinthus

Pterospartum tridentatum


Honeysuckle Lonicera sp.

Dog rose Rosa canina

Common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna

Cork oak Quercus suber

Elderberry Sambucus nigra

Gum rockrose Cistus ladanifer

Tree heath Erica arborea

Strawberry tree Arbutus unedo

Kermes oak Quercus coccifera

Spanish lavander Lavandula stoechas

get to know fauna and flora

Romanian fauna in the area of Şicula

The deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the Cervidae family. It is not as large as the Carpathian stag; it weights 2020 30 kg, and has about 60-70 70 cm height, being 90-130 90 cm in length. It has a small tail like all the members of the Cervidae family. It is a herbivorous animal eating grass and lives near the forests in small herds. In our area deer can be seen sometimes in winter, in the village’s vicinity, where they eat the cabbage left behind. The deer’s fur is golden red in summer, but in winter it turns to brown, even to black. It usually lives ives for 10 years. In Romanian carols the deer is usually the symbol of a girl.

Bondarul Barza

Erinaceus danubiens

The hedgehog is spiny small mammal with small and vivid eyes and round ears. It has grey hair on face, forehead, chest and belly. A defensive behaviour that all species of hedgehogs possess is represented by the ability to roll into a tight ball, with all the spines pointing outwards. It is one of the most useful animals that live near the human houses: it kills snakes, eats insects, earthworms and mice. Sometimes the hedgehog eats hen eggs, too. Hedgehogs communicate through different sounds similar to pigs’snout.. It usually digs a hole in the ground and it hibernates during the winter. w It is believed that if you ring a bell when you see a hedgehog, it hops and “dances” according to the sound. In Romanian mythology it is the counselor of God.


Asius asius

The owl is a night bird with big bushy head and strong claws; during the day owls live in ruined buildings and/or old trees, only at night they go hunting when they fly about 15 km distance from the nest. Their size is about 30–46 30 cm, being light brown in colour, perfectly camouflaged. They Th are long winged and have the characteristic eyes pointing forward. The owls that live near Şicula are eared owls, characterised by feathers on the head which give the appearance of "ears". They nest in the branches or hollows of trees and on land. These owls hunt over open fields or crops, taking mainly small mamals, rabbits and some birds. birds In ancient times the Romanians thought the owls were the messengers of the forest. Nowadays these birds are protected by law.


Ciconia ciconia

It is a large bird, with white and black feathers. It has a height of 100-125 125 cm with long red legs and a long red straight pointed beak. The White Stork migrates in autumn south onto the African continent as far south as South Africa, and returns in spring to the same nest. They build nest on roofs, chimneys or church towers. The stork eats insects, nsects,earthworms, reptiles, frogs, fish and small rodents. The stork makes a specific sound by rapidly opening and closing its beak, thus communicating with the other storks. In Romania the white stork is protected by law. Many popular beliefs are connected connect to this bird: it brings the spring, it brings luck to the house where it builds its nest and prevent the house from fire and lightning, it may foretell wealth, luck, health, etc.



The bumblebee is a social insect of the Apidae family similar to the bee, but bigger in size with a hairy body with black and yellow stripes. The bumblebees live in colonieslike the bees.They feed on pollen and nectar and build nests in tunnels made by other animals in the ground. There, in these colonies, they make combs, where they lay eggs and a specific sweetsweet bitter honey. In autumn the majority of the colony members die, but he queens naturally hibernate during winter. In spring they build a new nest. The contribution the humblebees humb have to agriculture consists in pollination of large vegetable crops and orchards. Bumblebees also help the ecosystem through pollinating a diversity of wild plant species; therefore the bumblebee is an important species that we must protect.

Capreolus capreolus

The deer

The hedgehog

The owl

The White Stork

The Bumblebee


get to know fauna and flora

FLORA Romanian flora in the area of Şicula

The willow Salix

Description: The willow is up to 3-4 m in length. It has tough roots which can be remarkable in size and grow strong. The leaves are elongated and grow on versatile, smooth branches. Willows’ semi-opened buds are produced early in spring. They appear even before the leaves and are also called catkins. The willow can live for 200 years. The willow can be found on the banks of Crişul Alb River and mostly all over Romania. It prefers the wet soils near the river banks, or near the lakes in cool areas. Special baskets and chests are made out of red willow (salix purpurea). The salix tea is used instead of aspirin. Salcia

Description: Poplar is up to 35-40 40 m high. Its leaves are of rhombic-ovoid, ovoid, or triangular form. They fall in autumn. The buds are sharpened at the top, sticky and resinous .The poplar has a straight trunk and that is the reason why it has been planted on both sides of the roads. The trees grow fast, and are generally used for producing paper. Being softwood it had been also used in some areas for making wood shoes. It is a resistant tree, not very exigent gent and that is the reason why it has been used for re-forestation forestation in some areas where the soil was degraded. The buds are used for different medical treatments. Plopul

Oak tree Quercus

Fir tree Albies alba

Description: It is a majestic large tree that grows up to 40 m. It has a large wide spreading crown. The leaves are lobed and 7–14 cm long. The fruits called acorns ripen in autumn are very appreciated by wild boars. It is one of the thickest trees with the circumference of 4 m. It is home for different species of animals. It grows mainly in the plains in forests, also in some hill areas. The oak wood is a valuable material used for making luxury furniture and also in different expensive constructions. The oak tree is a national Romanian tree along with the fir tree; its leaf is the emblem of the Romanian rugby team, as a symbol of strength. Stejarul

Pansy grows spontaneously in the mountainous hayfields, but also in the plainss and meadows. Sometimes it can be found in waste places and on both sides of the roads. The plant loves light and humidity. In the fields the flowers have a light yellow colour with white. In the mountains the colour is blue-violet violet and yellow. The leaves are oval and the flowers circumference is of about 1,5 cm. Only one flower grows on a stem, which is generally 15 cm high. It is used d in natural medicine for treating respiratory diseases. Its flowers were used to make dyes: yellow, green and blue-green. green. Trei fraţi pătaţi

The Poplar Populus

Description: It is an evergreen plant that lives in the mountainous area of Romania, mostly in the Carpathians where they make thick woods. It is also found in other areas as decorative species in parks and gardens. It can be easily identified from the shape of the leaves le resembling the needles. It is a tall tree about 50 m height and it can live for about 700 years. The leaves, 2-4 2 cm long fall in 10 years. The cones (flowers) are erect and cylindrical of 55 25 cm; they drop the seeds in maturity. Its wood is used in furniture urniture industry and different constructions. Some parts of the fir trees are also used in natural medicine. It must be protected against irrational deforestation. The fir tree is a national tree in Romania, being traditionally used in burial rituals in certain c parts of the country. Bradul

Heartsease/ Pansy Viola tricolor

Dandelion iss a herb with long and cut leaves of 5 to 45 cm long ng and 1 to 10 cm wide. The flowers are yellow. It grows everywhere: in the mountains, in the plains and meadows, in waste grounds and on both sides of roads. It doesn’t like the shadow, and it only grows in sunny areas and moist soils. The plant is known for its medicinal use. It can be also used in gastronomy.

Dandelion Taraxacum officinale


Robinia pseudoacacia

Salix alba

Sauce blanco white willow

Falsa acacia false acacia


Rosmarinus officinalis


Papaver rhoeas

Amapola roja red poppy

get to know Flora and fauna


Works by students of the 10th grade

get to know Flora and fauna


Aguilucho hawk Buteo polyosoma

Ardilla squirrel Sciurus aestuans

Conejo rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

Cigüeña stork Ciconia maguari

Ratón mouse Apodemus sylvaticus

Zorro fox Vulpes vulpes Works by students of the 7th grade

03 herbarium




We collected and dried some typical plants


Herbarium Some of the typical plants were collected and dried



Oats and barley




Lime tree

Herbarium Lily of the valley (convallaria majalis)

Dandelion (taraxacum officinale)

Oak (Quercus robur)

Blueberry (vaccinium myrtillus)

Rowan (sorbus aucuparia)

Plantain (plantago major)

Raspberry (rubus idaeus)

Strawberry (fragaria vesca)





Hedera helix


Aesculus hippocastanum

CastaĂąo de indias indian chestnut


Ulmus minor

Olmo comĂşn commmon elm

Vitis vinifera




painting with natural materials

The students did a research to find out different ways to paint with natural products and then they used the information to do some painting themselves.



Beetroot Product

Purple-red Colour - green



Ivy leaves







Light brown

Bark from oak tree


Hazelnut leaves


Walnut leaves or shells




Leaves from a birch tree


Nettle leaves


Elderberry leaves

Yellow-green to brownish



Elderberry fruit




Red cabbage


Bark from an apple tree


Bark from birch tree


painting with natural materials

plants and berries for dyeing and painting

This is the Project work of class 6 . At the beginning students discussed what plants, seeds or berries could be used for dyeing and painting. All together came to an agreement to use blueberry jam, cherry juice, carrot juice, onionskin, beat roots, coffee beans and mix of herbal teas. All colours liquid students tried on the paper and educed that they are not so bright as synthetical paint. After that students started to dye wool using salt and vinegar as a mordant. After dyeing wool was rinsed in warm water and dried Project work was interesting for children and they decided to do it again in summer and autumn.

blueberry jam

cherry juice

plants and berries for dyeing and painting

oregano tea

Canadian goldenrod

Painting with nature colours Since we love making homemade paint we thought we would take it a step further and see if we could use flowers to make our own natural watercolors. We started by choosing several flowers of varying colors from our yard. Students to find flowers with vibrant colors, so we could get vibrant paint. We separated the flowers, picked and made predictions about which flowers we thought would give off the most color. We agreed that the red would probably give us the best results, followed closely by the orange and blue. I heated up one cup of water. We didn't want it too hot, but figured that warm water would help pull the color from the flowers. We put the flowers into ziploc bags and divided the cup of water between the four bags. We noticed that the red flowers bled immediately.Next we had use a rolling pin to squish the flowers in the baggies.Painting with colours. The results were surprising. As I mentioned above the orange flowers gave off color immediately.The blue flower gave off a lovely violet color. The blue was a very light blue.The photos make it look richer than it actually was. The little people love to paint, but they tend to dump colored water.We didn't want to see our watercolors overturned before we had a chance to use them.

04 traditional architecture heritage

Traditional architecture heritage

The students took photos of remarkable buildings in Varna and in the countryside, drew pictures and made 3D models of traditional Bulgarian houses with a wine-cellar, developed a business idea.

The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Vergin

The Drama and Opera Theatre

Traditional architecture heritage

OLD WINERY – a business idea Aims for business development

Company mission 

to produce and offer tourists excellent sorts of wine made by special technology and recipes of old masters. to let tourists feel the joy of being part of the whole process of growing vines, grape harvesting and sharing emotions with a glass of wine.

Business Strategies

Strengths of the company:

A great opportunity to become an attraction in the city and through it indirectly to profit from tourism. 

Weaknesses :

Lack of sufficient market studies related to consumer interests.

Construction of an '' old winery''- a complex of a typical old cottage with a wine-cellar and a vineyard.

Offering new tourist entertainment as taking care of the vineyard, taking part in the grape harvest, making wine.

Providing their organization and implementation.

Traditional architecture heritage After a research of old wind mills in the M端nsterland the students chose pictures of one of the mills and made linocuts

Traditional architecture heritage

Some examples of the whiteline and blackline linocuts

In addition the students buildt models of the landscape in the M端nsterland

The cellar entrance

The cellar

Mazzarino Castle

Falconara Castle in Butera

Coat of arms Branciforti

Feudo Principi di Butera

Traditional architecture heritage

Country farm in Mazzarino

Mazzarino cathedral

Angend monastery in Mazzarino

Mosaics in Piazza Armerina

Old farm in Mazzarino

Country farm in Mazzarino

Town hall in Mazzarino

Greek temple in Agrigento

Traditional architecture heritage

traditional architecture heritage

Video ”Nature and patrimony in my region’’

traditional architecture heritage 20region.mp4

Lithuanian windmills

Baisiogala Manor windmill

Šeduva windmill

Šeduvos windmill has a long history. It dates back to 1905, when the construction of the windmill started. As if under a spell, the windmill had been set on fire before the construction works were finished. The windmill was almost lost as a result of severe damages during war periods. However, it was never forgotten. The windmill became a place of attraction in 1967 and attracted as many people as the Church on the feast day.

Baisiogala Manor was built on XVIII-XX century. From these times left one of the most beautiful windmills in our country. This mill is made from stones and it is plasted. (

Pakruojis Manor windmill


Windmill in Air Museum of Lithuania (Rumšiškės)

Open Air Museum of Lithuania is a unique and one of the largest (195 ha) open-air ethnographic museums in Europe. It has the biggest quantity of exhibits. The museum presents the mode of life, works, and traditions of peasants and townspeople of all Lithuanian ethnographic areas: Dzūkija, Aukštaitija, Suvalkija, Žemaitija and Lithuania Minor. It was established in 1966, in Rumšiškės on a picturesque coast of Kaunas Lagoon. In this museum there are 4 mills. (

The Wind Mill, located in the northern part of Pakruojis Manor, built in 1823. The Mill stands out from other Manor buildings and is a very important milestone in the territory of Pakruojis Manor homestead. After the Second World War, the mill has been adapted to a Silos tower; later the Wind Mill was equipped with cement storage. Currently this Wind Mill is renovated and there is an exposition.


Kleboniškis windmill

This windmill was built on 1884. On our days the mill is used for tourism. (

Purplių windmill

This mill was build on 1898. It was restored and now it is used for festivals and parties. (

Pilaitė windmill Žaliūkai windmill

The mill was built on 1875 and restored on 2009-2010. In this mill people are celebrating ethnic culture parties. (

Not far from our capital Vilnius, in Pilaitė Manor, stands a windmill, which was built in XVI century. The mill was restored and on the moment it is used for exposition. (

Žemaičiai windmill

Stačiūnai windmill

The Wind Mill was built in 1890. It was restored in 2004. Currently there is an exposition of milling equipment. (

The windmill was biult on 1924. Mill works like museum. (

traditional architecture heritage

traditional architecture heritage

Works by students of the 9th grade

traditional architecture heritage

Romanian traditional architecture in the area of Şicula Ş

and shed


The wattle consists of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) twigs horizontally plaited with locust tree stakes.

Children’s artistic representation

Traditional Romanian houses

Children’s artistic representation

Newer house and landscape

Water mill

Children’s artistic representation


The construction also comprises: 1.a a larder=a room made of oak wood in German technique with a reed roof. It was used to store food / clothes; 2. a shed with two rooms, one for the cattle, and another one opened, it was made of oak wood, fir-tree wood and reed.

Children’s artistic representation


The house has two rooms: tinda (PARLOUR) and working room. The foundation is made of stone, mortar, ground and the walls of oak wood, while the roof is made of fir-tree fir wood.

Traditional fence


Traditional Romanian house from Chereluş, Şicula 1701-1800 1800 which can be admired at the VILLAGE MUSEUM in Bucureşti.

Children’s artistic representation


Traditional fence

Traditional house from

Traditional architecture heritage

traditional architecture heritage

Students’ artistic representation

Students’ artistic representation

Students’ artistic representation

Tri-dimensional dimensional representation of landscape

Landscape by the river

Landscape by the river

Seaside landscape representation

Landscape by the river

Mountain chalet

Traditional well in Arad area

Traditional house

The road to the city by-passing nature

Natural landscape

Traditional architecture heritage

Traditional architecture heritage Mansion of Berdugos family

Casa de los Berdugo A noble mansion built in the fifteenth century by Martin Durango is located in the Rollo square. The mansion of the Berdugo is located in the so-called New Town, an area that suffered a rapid transformation to the output of Jews of Aranda de Duero in 1492. The owners of the house have been inherited the property from parents to children, expanding and improving its dependencies, although the surname varies throughout the years: Durango, Tamayo, Berdugo. The building has the charm of a rich local gentry house, which stands inside a spacious and harmonious patio with wooden columns, library, chapel and some rooms with period furniture, such as bed-called Napoleon, a baroque bed in which it is stated that the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte rested for a few days in November 1808 before crossing road Somosierra mountain to go to Madrid. The Hermitage of Virgen de las Viñas

Ermita Virgen de las Viñas There is a legend that tells about a place dedicated to the Virgen of the Vines in Quintanilla de las Viñas (Burgos province). Before the Muslim invasion, they fled with the image they worshipped and they looked for refuge in the proximity to the Duero river. After some years, the Virgen appeared to a farmer to tell where they had hidden the image and where they wanted to build the chapel. As people didn´t believe that, the Virgen gave the farmer a bunch of grapes at the time that it wasn´t still the period of harvest. So the Virgen became the patron of this city Aranda de Duero.

Traditional architecture heritage

The Sanctuary was built in the 17th century. Inside there is the image of the Virgen of the Vines with baby JesĂşs in her arms from the 15th century. This is a sanctuary from the baroque era that was built on Stone. The Shield of Aranda de Duero

Escudo de Aranda de Duero

Two rampant lions on a blue field, in an attitude of defending the entrance of a castle, located in the Puente Duero. With all these elements recalls the famous victory of two brothers from Aranda de Duero, Don Romero and Don Julian, defending his people from the outset that the Moors wanted to make in Aranda by this bridge. Although the feat took place in the time of the Muslim occupation, the use of this shield did not become widespread until the 13th century.

Works by students of the 8th and 9th grade

05 sounds and songs of the harvest

sounds and songs of the harvest

Рано рани Димитър

Не гледай Иване

Зажена Ганка нивата

Рано рани Димитър

Не гледай Иване мома на хорото

Зажена Ганка нивата,

рано ми преди слънцето, че опрегна Димитър бащини лиси биволи,

най гледай Иване мома на нивата

нивата край могилата с нейни девет девера.

дали чекъм кара или край обира

Най-малък девер Иванчо

бащини ниви да оре

Пустата му Гана, Гана мързелана

айде у дома да идеш,

Майка му го изпровожда

нито чекъм кара, нито край обира

че ще иде Димитър

с прясна пита житена едра дай пшеницата сита дай годината.

под крушата седи, люлка с дете люлей.

и той бульо льо думаше

бели хлябове омеси, омеси и ги опечи, хубави гозби наготви

sounds and songs of the harvest

The song "Rano rani Dimitar" ("Dimitar has woken up early") represents a typical harvester's day. Dimitar has woken up even before the sunrise and harnessess his father's bullocks to do harvesting. His mother gives him bread - his meal for the day - and sends him off, wishing him luck.

The song "Ne gleday Ivane" ("Don't look Ivan") This song represents an advice to Ivan to search for a diligent and good wife, not like the lazy Gana, who sits under the tree and swings her baby in the cradle while the others are harvesting.

The song "Zazhena Ganka nivata" ("Ganka started harvesting") tells the story of Ganka, who went harvesting with her nine brothers inlaw and the youngest of them, Ivan, told her to go home, bake some bread and cook tasty dishes.

sounds and songs of the harvest

1. Гроздобер Grape harvest Children’s song

2.Най-хубавото вино е Мавруд The best wine is Mavrud, Bulgarian Folklore Song

3. Гроздобер Grape harvest Bulgarian Folklore Rituals and Songs, in the villages of Dobrich and Kasnakovo , 14.09.2013

Sounds and songs of the harvest Erntelied (Harvest Song) by Mendelssohn There is a reaper, who's called Death, Who has power from the highest God, Today he sharpens the knife, It is already cutting much better; Soon he will cut with it, And we can only suffer. Beware, pretty little flower! Beware!

You pretty lavender, rosemary, You colourful little roses, You proud irises, You ruffled basil, You tender violets, One will soon fetch you. Beware, pretty little flower! Beware!

What today is still green and standing fresh, fear you. Will be already mown away tomorrow: The noble daffodils, The ornaments of the meadows, Many beautiful Hyacinths, The turkish posies. Beware, pretty little flower! Beware!

Defiance! Death, come here, I do not Defiance! Hurry here in one step! Were I only hurt, Then I would be transported To the celestial garden, For which we all wait. Rejoice, you beautiful little flower Rejoice, rejoice!

Many hundreds of thousands uncounted, That only fall under the scythe. You roses and lilies, He will eradicate you, The crown imperials as well He will not spare. Beware, pretty little flower! Beware! The sky-blue veronica, The yellow and white tulips, The silver bellflowers, The golden centaury, All sink to the earth, What will become of it! Beware, pretty little flower! Beware!


sounds and songs of the harvest

Video ” From grain till loaf of bread” %C5%BEas%20video.mp4

sounds and songs of the harvest

FUI AO DOURO ÀS VINDIMAS LYRICS Fui ao douro às vindimas, não achei que vindimar vindimaram-me as costelas. olha o que lá fui ganhar! retira-te das janelas retira-te do balcão vem comigo p´rás vindimas, amor do meu coração. não se me dá que vindimem videirinha que eu podei não se me dá que outros logrem o que eu por gosto deixei. não se me dá que vindimem nem também de vindimar só me dá das tristes noites que se passam no lagar. fui ao douro às vindimas, pagaram-me a trinta réis vim pela feira do Pêso; empreguei-os em anéis.

Click to listen and see the ‘Rancho Folclórico da Casa do Povo de Barqueiros’

sounds and songs of the harvest

Maria Tănase - Bun îi vinul ghiurghiuliu

Maria Tănase - Rosé wine is good

Bun îi vinull ghiurghiuliu Cules toamna pii târziu Mai pi brumă, ă, mai pi-omăt pi Mult mai beu şi nu mă-mbăt mă

Rosé wine is good, good Harvested in a late autumn When it's hoarfrost, when it's snow I drink a lot and don’t get drunk

M-am jurat ca n-oi oi mai bè b Dar eu nu mă pot ţânè ţ Bun îi vinul, bine-mi mi place Nu ştiu viei ce i-oi oi face

I’ve sworn I’ll quit on drinking But I can't help myself... The wine is good and I like it. I don’t know what I’ll do to the vineyard.

Vinişor di poamăă rară rar Se suie-n cap făr' ăr' di scară Vinişor or de boghi verzi Face pe om de nu--l vezi

The wine of rare fruit Easily gets to your head. Wine of green berries Makes you uneasy to see.

Bun îi vinul şii gustos Cind îl bei cu om frumos Dar de-ll bei cu om urât Se opreşte vinu-n n gât

The wine is good and tasty When drinking in good company; When drinking in bad company, You’ll ll choke cho on it.

Listen to the song at:

06 recipe book

recipe book

Tarator (cold soup) Products: Cucumbers – 2


Yoghurt – 1 pot

Cooking oil



Preparation: Grate the cucumbers or chop them into small cubes. Put them in a bowl and add salt. Whip the yoghurt and add it to the bowl and stir. Then add water until it gets as thick as soup. Add the chopped garlic and fennel and some oil. You can cool it in the fridge for a while or serve it with ice cubes.

Bean stew Products: Beans – 250 gr

Flour – 1 tablespoon

Carrots – 3

Curry – 1 teaspoon

Peppers – 3

Savory – 1 teaspoon

Onion – 1

Red pepper – 1 teaspoon

Parsley – ½ bunch

Mint – 1 tablespoon

Sugar – 1 tablespoon

Salt, black pepper, cooking oil

Preparation: Put the beans in water and let it soak overnight. Then wash it and boil it in 1, 5 l of water with the chopped carrots and onion.

recipe book

Pour 6 tablespoons of cooking oil into a frying pan and add the flour, curry and the red pepper. Then add a ladle of the beans bouillon in the pan and then pour it all back to the pot and stir. Boil for 20 more minutes and then add the rest of the spices and boil for 5 more minutes.

Milk with rice Products: Rice – 100 gr

Water – 1 teacup

Milk – 600 ml

Cinnamon – 1 teaspoon

Sugar – 120 gr Preparation: Boil the rice in the water for 10 min and then add the milk. When the rice is boiled add the sugar. Then put it in desert cups and sprinkle with the cinnamon.

recipe book

TSAR’S BOATS Ingredients: 2 eggplants, 1 green pepper, 1 red pepper, 1 tomato, 1 onion, 150 g white cheese, 1 bunch of parsley, black pepper, red pepper, olive oil


Halve the eggplants lengthways. Use a teaspoon to remove the flesh . Blanch them for 4 minutes in boiling water. Pour olive oil in a pan and sautĂŠ the chopped onion, peppers, tomato, and chopped flesh of the eggplants. Add the crumbled cheese, black and red pepper. Stir well, add the chopped parsley. Arrange the eggplants in a baking tin. Pour several drops of olive oil and fill with the mixture. Bake them in an oven for 15-20 minutes at 200 degrees Celsius.

recipe book

WINE KEBAP Ingredients: 1 kg pork ,1 onion, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, 2 tablespoons tomato paste, 1 teaspoon paprika, 1 tablespoon flour, black pepper, 1 teaspoon savory, salt to taste, 1 cup of wine, 4 tablespoons cooked rice

Preparation: Stew the sliced pieces of meat in oil with the chopped onion. Add the tomato puree , red and black pepper, flour, wine and savory. Add salt to taste and cool water. Allow to simmer. Serve with cooked rice.

Recipe book)

Recipe book)

Recipe book)


I state that the arancini are those with large and filling in the center. Let's say that this kind is a mini version where there is in fact the heart of the filling as they are tiny, but the rice is mixed with seasoning as if they were short balls. The process is therefore easier and faster than making the larger ones

Procedure: You have to prepare the meat sauce. It must be very dry, with 350 to 400 grams of ground beef, half pork and half veal. First I make the sauce with olive oil and chopped onion very small and thin. Then add the meat and make it brown, faded with a little 'of wine, add a little' tomato paste, say it is a white sauce rather, to give a bit of color ... but should not be too juicy. Combine peas fine and a handful of pine nuts, salt, pepper and a pinch of saffron. After preparing the sauce you cook the rice. It is cooked in broth cube, able to make the broth would be even more tasty. Add 500 grams of rice in 1 and a half liters of broth. It must be stirred often and when the broth is almost absorbed by the rice and takes the shape of an almost risotto, add salt, pepper and saffron, then add to it a little 'of grated cheese, such as cheese or cheese and then stir in a little butter. In arancinette everything is mixed, so at the end of cooking, add the sauce to rice and mix well and let cool, then roll into balls, all roughly the same size. Fry them in vegetable oil.


INGREDIENTS 4 eggs 1 slice of veal of 1Kg 150g ham or sausage 100 g sausage 80g of minced beef Procedure:

150gr of cheese

You have to prepare the meat sauce. It must be

20 pistachios

very dry, with 350 to 400 grams of ground beef,

1 onion, sage,

half pork and half veal. First I make the sauce with olive oil and chopped onion very small and


thin. Then add the meat and make it brown, faded


with a little 'of wine, add a little' tomato paste, say it is a white sauce rather, to give a bit of color ... but should not be too juicy. Combine peas fine and a handful of pine nuts, salt, pepper and a pinch of saffron. After preparing the sauce you cook the rice. It is cooked in broth cube, able to make the broth would be even more tasty. Add 500 grams of rice in 1 and a half liters of broth. It must be stirred often and when the broth is almost absorbed by the rice and takes the shape of an almost risotto, add salt, pepper and saffron, then add to it a little 'of grated cheese, such as cheese or cheese and then stir in a little butter. In arancinette everything is mixed, so at the end of cooking, add the sauce to rice and mix well and let cool, then roll into balls, all roughly the same size. Fry them in vegetable oil.

Ricotta pie

Ingredients : 1kg ricotta 4 eggs 200 grams of sugar Âź vial of vanilla extract 1 grated lemon rind 150 grams of dark chocolate. At least a day to drain the ricotta.

The farmer does not know how is good cheese with pears

Procedure: Make the ricotta creamy using a masher, then incorporate the sugar, vanilla, lemon rind, egg yolks and small pieces of chocolate . Whisk the egg whites and add them to the mixture and stir around. Butter the baking pan and pour the mixture evenly. Bake at 240 ° in a convection oven; when it takes color, just put the oven to 180 °. In the end, allow to cool and then place it on the plate

Fried (and cooked in tomato source) fishballs sardines

Procedure: Cook the peas, once cooked, drain, remove the bay leaf and set aside. Rinse the fish, and cut the fish heads off completely, bone them and then mince finely. Put the fish in a bowl , add the breadcrumbs, grated cheese, mint leaves, eggs and season with salt and freshly ground pepper. With an ice cream scoop, shape into

ingredients: 500g of sardines

balls, flatten slightly, flour the balls, fry them in a pan with vegetable oil and place them finally on straw paper to remove

200g of sardines 50g of cheese 2 eggs

excess oil. Cut the onion finely and fry it in a pan with a few tablespoons of oil. Add the tomato paste dissolved in warm water, add a little 'sugar to remove the acidity, salt and pepper and

300g of peas Raisins, pine nuts, mint OO flour

cook over low heat for ten to fifteen minutes, at which point add the meatballs prepared in advance. When almost cooked, add the peas. Finish cooking and serve.

200g of tomato paste

recipe book

Sorrel soup beef or pork broth, sorrel onions parsley butter barley groats sour cream spices salt greens hard boiled eggs Prepare beef broth or pork broth. Add barley groats or pearl barley. Add chopped onions and parsley fried in butter .When the soup is nearly ready, add chopped sorrel. Serve with sour cream and sliced hard-boiled eggs.

Grey peas and bacon 100g grey peas, 125g smoked bacon, 150g onion, salt parsley

Soak peas overnight. Put them in a pot with hot to cover, add salt and boil until tender. Dice bacon into small cubes and stew with onions. Peas are traditionally served in individual clay bowls adding fried bacon mixture to each serving. Sprinkle with chopped dill and parsley

recipe book

Sklandu rausi (potato and carrot tarts) 450-500g flour 65 g butter 200g water 250g potatoes 50g milk 400g carrot 2 eggs 50g honey or sugar salt caraway seeds

Mix flour (coarse rye flour or equal parts of rye and wheat flour) with water and salt. Knead into dough of homogeneous consistency. Add some butter to ease the flattening of the dough. And roll it to 3-4 millimeter’s thickness. With the help of a glass or a special form, cut out round shapes (with a diameter of about 12cm) and turn up the edges. Place on a greased baking tray. Mash boiled potatoes; add some milk and butter, caraway seeds, salt and egg. Mash boiled carrots; add egg, a small amount of honey and some milk. Put a layer of the potato mass on each dough patty and top it with the carrot mass. Bake in a moderate heat until the dough turns dry and crusty. Serve cooled. Serve with sour porridge or curdled milk.

Cream of curd cheese and fresh parsley Ingredients:

   

400g curd 100g fresh parsley leaves 0,5 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons of mayonnaise

Making: Wash, dry a bit parsley leaves, put everything together and blend it

Dzūkiški švilpikai Ingredients:  3 kg potatoes  500 g wheaten flour  3 eggs  2 onions  200 g curried in smoke flank  100 g butter  200 g sour cream  pinch of salt and pepper Making: At first we need to peel potatoes. Then put them in pot and boil with one onion and a pinch of salt. When it is boiled you must strain them of and mash up. When mashed up potatoes get cold, put two eggs, strew flour to that mass and mix everything. From the dough you get, form a roller and cut it slantwise. The pieces you get put in a baking tin which must be poured by flours’. Then put everything in oven and bake about one hour. You may eat this dish with curd, cracklings, sour cream, butter or mushrooms sauce.

Homemade biscuits Ingredients:  500 g butter  500 g flour  300 g sour cream  1 egg  500 g sugar Making: You must take a frozen butter, cut it with knife and those crumbs stir with flour. After that in this mass put sour cream and knead everything. The dough you get put in freezer for 2 hours. You must take out the dough from freezer 1-2 hours before baking. It must thaw off. When the dough is already good for using it, you need roll it. After that, smear on it a beated egg and pour sugar. The ready dough cut in pieces, put everything in oven (which is heated till 200C) and bake about 30 minutes, until they get gold color.

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INGREDIENTS 600 grs codfish 4 eggs A big onion A parsley bunch Salt and pepper Oil to fry

PREPARATION Boil the cod after soaking. Drain it and cut into thin slices taking out all skin and fishbones. Reserve the cod boiled water. Meanwhile, peel and chop the onions. Wash and chop the parsley. Add the eggs with the flour, stirring firmly until getting a soft texture cream. A little of the reserved water can be added if necessary. Add the cod, the onion and the parsley. Involve well. Finally, season freely and fry spoons of the mixture in hot frying oil.

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INGREDIENTS Lamb Onion, garlic, white wine, parsley, pepper, bulk salt, paprika, olive oil Lard, veal, prosciutto, giblets Bread, egg yolk, lemon, olives, nutmeg, bacon, saffron Rice, smoked chorizo, clove

PREPARATION The roast lamb: After well prepared, the beheaded little lamb, is rubbed with garlic sauce previously prepared with chopped onion, garlics, white wine, parsley, pepper, bulk salt and paprika. Then, add in the bowl a little more of white wine. Leave it marinating for 24h. Next day, rub the lamb with the seasoning. Meanwhile, prepare a stir-frying with a little of lard and chopped onion. Add small pieces of veal, prosciutto and previous chopped giblets. Add the sauce and let it cook. After cooking, add crumbled bread, an egg yolk and lemon juice. Remove from the heat and add a handful of stoned olives. Season it with salt, pepper and nutmeg. This mixture may be used to stuff the lamb or to garnish the rice. The lamb must be cooked in the oven with strips of bacon sticked into the skin and sprinkled with the rice syrup. Before finishing the roast, sprinkle it with a hot water saffron sauce. The rice: In a pan, fry two onions, the lamb’s head, half a kilo of veal, prosciutto, lard, smoked chorizo, parsley, pepper, clove and salt. Strain the broth (keep the meat) and let it gently cook. Fry the rice in olive oil and add the broth. Season it with a bit of the lamb’s sauce, salt and pepper. Let it slightly cook s and take it into the oven, in a clay pot.

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INGREDIENTS Golden apples Honey Cinnamon Port Wine

PREPARATION Remove the apple core with a ginner. Display the apples in a baking tray. Shed honey on the top of the hole made by the ginner. Put a cinnamon stick in the same opening. Dip the apples in Port wine. Take them to bake.

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Romanian traditional dishes in the area of Şicula I.STARTER 1.POGĂCELE CU JUMĂRI






Ingrediente : - 1 kg de făină; - o farfurie plină cu vârf de jumere măcinate; - un pacheţel de drojdie proaspătă; - o cană plină de lapte călduţ - 2-3 ouă întregi; - sare, piper după gust. Ingredientele se amestecă bine, se adaugă făina la urmă ( se poate pune şii mai mult de un kilogram dacă e cazul), după care se frământă puţin aluatul obţinut. Aluatul se pune la dospit o jumătate de oră. După dospire se întinde aluatul pănă ce are cam un centimetru grosime. Pogăcelele lele se formează cu ajutorul unui păhărel sau a unei forme special de decupat prăjituri. Pentru un aspect mai plăcut înainte de decuparea formelor se poate unge aluatul cu 2-3 2 gălbenuşuri de ou, şi pe irmă se mai poate încresta aceleşi aluat cu un cuţit( aşa /////, şi apoi \\\\\ aşa ). Pentru entru coacere este indicat a se încălzi cuptorul la 180 de grade şi a se ţine pogăcelele celele acolo timp de 25 de minute( se pot lăsa şii mai mult timp în cuptor dacă vă plac pogăcelele mai crocante). POFTĂ BUNĂ !!!

Ingredients:-1 kg of flour -a plate full of minced pork rinds -a packet of fresh yeast (45-50g) -a mug of warm milk -2-3 eggs -salt and pepper by taste Mix the ingredients well, then add the flour (more ( than a kilo may be putt in case it is necessary), and next knead the dough a little. Let the dough to settle for half an hour. hou After settling, roll out the dough until one centimetre thick. Shape buns with a glass, or with a tool for shaping cookies. To make a better look paint the dough with 2-3 2 yokes before shaping, in the end the dough may be carved with a knife (like this /////, and then \\\\\ like this ). For baking ng the oven should be preheated at 180 Celsius degrees and then bake the buns for 25 minutes or more if you like them to be more crunchy. Enjoy your buns! Bon appetite!

Ingrediente: 1 – 1,5 kg. de carne de porc (gata macinata sau puteti sa o macinati voi) 1 – 1,5 kg. varza murata (sau chiar ceva mai multa, in functie de calitatea foilor) 2 – 3 cepe 50 de ml. de ulei 150 de ml. de orez (o ceasca), ceasca preferabil din cel cu bobul rotund, mai bogat in amidon 1 legatura de marar verde 4-5 crengute de cimbru 3 foi de dafin bucati de costita cruda sau afumata daca e afumata e bine sa o desarati sarati inainte, tinand-o tinand in apa rece cateva ore) sau jumari de porc 3-4 linguri de bulion de rosii, in cazul in care varza nu e prea acra - alegeti geti varza murata cu foi netede si subtiri - gustati varza, daca e sarata tare desfaceti-o in foi si spalati-o in cateva ape reci - vasul de lut intr-adevar adevar ajuta la obtinerea unor sarmale foarte gustoase oase si unul dintre motive este acela ca odata aduse sarmalele la fierbere, se va mentine in interiorul vasului lui o temperatura constanta; in niciun caz nu asezati vasul de lut direct pe flacara aragazului, e nevoie de o plita (preferabil de fonta) - se pot pregati sarmalele e si in interiorul cuptorului, le

Ingredients: 1-1.5 kg pork (already minced or you can mince it yourselves) 1-1.5 kg pickled cabbages (or even more ore depending on the quality of leaves) 2-3 onions 50 ml. oil 150 ml rice (~ a cup), preferable rice ice with round grain, richer in starch 1 handful of fresh dill 4-5 leaves of savory/thyme 3 leaves of laurel pieces of raw or smoked bacon (if it is smoked it’s better to let it in cool water a few hours to drain the salt) or lard 3-4 spoons of tomato sauce, in case the cabbage is not sour enough -choose the pickled cabbage with flat and thin leaves - taste the cabbage, if it’s too salty, take the leaves one by one and wash in cool water -clay pot helps us to get very tasty” stuffed cabbage rolls” rolls and a reason is that when put ut to boil, there is a constant temperature in the pot; don’t place the clay pot on the gas cooker, you need a kitchen range, preferable made of cast iron. -stuffed cabbage rolls can also be cooked in the oven, place them in order and cover with hot water like for boil on the

recipe book aranjati si acoperiti eriti cu apa calda la fel ca si pentru fierberea pe plita apoi le introduceti in cuptorul preincins la 180 de grade, pentru aproximativ 2-3 2 ore -o parte din ceapa se căleste, ste, apoi se adauga boia, tot acest amestec se pune peste carnea tocată şi orez, se amesecă şi condimentează. -pe urmă se rulează sarmalele. le. - atunci unci cand dati gust compozitiei de carne, e foarte important sa tineti ti cont ca varza e sarata si ea (si daca puneti si afumatura va aduce aduc si aceasta un aport de sare), asa incat gustul compozitiei e bine sa fie mai degraba prea putin sarat, decat d potrivit, in aceasta faza; sarmalele le fierte isi vor mai m lua sare si din varza, asa incat vor fi numai bune -impartiti foile in bucati egale si faceti sarmalute cat mai apropiate ca dimensiune, mai degraba micute decat mari - în oală puneti întâi un strat de varză murată tăiată marunt,foi de dafin,ceapa,apoi asezati sarmalutele in oala, adaugati apă cât să acopere putin sarmalele -verificati să fie apă tot timpul peste sarmale -se fierb la foc mic. -se poate servi cu iaurt,smântână smântână sau mămăligută.

kitchen range, then set the preheated oven at 180 C degrees for 2-3 hours - a part of the onion is tempered, than han we add paprika, pa then we add the he minced pork and rice, we mix and add spices -when you season the meat composition, ition, it is very important not to forget the cabbage is already salted (if smoked bacon is added, there will be more salt) so that the taste t of the composition must be less salty than salty enough in this phase. Boiled Stuffed cabbage rolls will take salt from the cabbage, so that they will be salty enough to get tasty. -divide the leaves in even parts and roll stuffed cabbage rolls as even as possible, rather little than big. - first put a layer of pickle cabbage fine chopped, laurel leaves, onion, and then put the stuffed cabbage rolls in the pot and water to cover a little the stuffed cabbage rolls -check there is always water over the stuffed cabbage rolls -they are to be simmered - stuffed cabbage rolls may be e served with milk cream or yoghurt and corn mush

Ingrediente 800 de grame de faina 500 ml de apa 1 lingurita de otet 1 lingurita de sare ulei pentru intins Din toate ingredientele de mai sus se framanta un aluat neted, elastic: Aluatul luatul se imparte in doua si se unge din abundenta cu ulei, se infoliaza si se lasa sa se odihneasca cel putin jumatate de ora: Luati o bucata de aluat, o ungeti bine cu ulei si o rasuciti citi in aer asezata pe pumnii stransi, pana cand mijlocul se subtiaza pana la transparenta, apoi o asezati in centrul mesei, cu grija sa nu creati cute in aluat: Stropiti foaia ia cu ulei (e utila o sticla cu picurator) si cu rabdare si finite incepeti sa trageti tra de marginile aluatului, plimbandu-va va in jurul mesei. Trageti ti atat cat simtitit ca permite aluatul fara a se rupe. Repetati stropitul cu ulei si trageti din nou. In final, marginile foii de placinta depasesc tablia mesei. Se taie marginile aluatului de jur imprejur.Si foaia e gata de umplut. Umpluturi: Mere, curatate de coaja, a, rase, amestecate cu zahar si scortisoara si o lingura de gris. Imprastiati astiati umplutura de mere pe toata suprafata foii, apoi rulati placinta: Pentru a doua umplutura: iaurt cu zahar si o lingura de gris.Puneti ti iaurtul la o margine a foii de aluat, ca la strudel, si rulati cu ajutorul fetei de masa Placintele asezate in tava se stropesc cu ulei si se introduc in cuptorul preincins reincins la 190 de grade: Se lasa sa se coaca pana se rumenesc. rumenesc

Ingredients: 800 gr. of flour 500 ml water 1 spoon vinegar 1 spoon salt oil for heating From all the ingredients a flat, versatile dough is kneaded kne The dough is divided in two parts is greased in abundance with oil, it is covered and let to rise at least half an hour A table cloth is laid (eventually and older one as it is going to be spotted with oil) Take e a piece of dough, grease well with oil and roll in air seated on closed fists, until the middle of the dough h gets thin up to transparency, then you put the dough in the middle of the table carefully not to make pleats in the dough. Besprinkle the sheet with oil and patiently patient and finely begin to pull the margins ins of the dough walking around the table. Stretch as far as you feel the dough doesn’t break. break Repeat by besprinkling with oil and stretch again. again In the end the margins of the sheet exceed the table board. The margins are cut all around. And the sheet is ready for filling. filling Fillings: Apples cleaned of seeds and peeled, grated and mixed with sugar, cinnamon and a teaspoon of semolina. Spread the apple filling all over the sheet. Roll the pie. For the second filling: yoghurt mixed with sugar, and a spoon of semolina. Place the yoghurt on the margin of the sheet and roll with the help of the table cloth. The stretched pies are placed in the tray and sprinkled with oil and placed ed in the preheated oven at 190 C degrees. They are left to bake till they parch.

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Ingredients: • 4 potatoes • 1 onion • Salt • 250 ml Olive oil • 8 eggs How to make it • Cut them into small pieces • Fry the potatoes with the olive oil and when they are almost ready add the onion and fry for 5 minutes. • At that moment, whisk the eggs and add the fried potatoes in a bowl. Fry in a pan with a tea spoon of olive oil when it is hot. • Turn round carefully with a dish and fry to finish the omelette.

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Main course

Ingredients: • Half lamb • 40 g fat of pork • salt • 4 dl of water • 1/2 lemon How to make it: • You have to use a round plate made of clay. • Spread the fat of pork on the lamb and salt. Add the water in the plate. • That should be in the oven for 75 minutes, heated at 190° C. • When the meat gets gold brown colour, turn it over the other part and spread the rest of the fat of pork on that part. Add salt and water, if there is no much in it. • That should be in the oven for 45 minutes too. When ready, add the juice of the lemon with water and pour over the meat and leave it for 10 or 15 minutes more. • Cut it into pieces to serve.

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Ingredients: • 1 baguette • 1 L milk • 1 cynnamon stange • 1 spoon of cynnamon • Lemon zest • 150 gr. Sugar • 6 eggs • Olive oil How to make it: • Boil the milk with the lemon zest, sugar and cynnamon. • Cut the bread in slices and sink in the milk. • Whisk the eggs and put on top of the slices of bread. • Fry with a lot of oil. • Pour a mixture of sugar and cynnamon before the slices get cold.

Works by students of the 8th grade

in nature: for body and soul

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