Page 1


ÐÐ ¶ÆîàôÂÚàôÜܺðÆ ²¼¶²ÚÆÜ ²Î²¸ºØƲ вÚàò òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü Â²Ü¶²ð²Ü-ÆÜêîÆîàôî

òºÔ²êä²Ü²¶Æî²Î²Ü вܸºê 1(1)

ºñ¨³Ý 2013


ISSN 1829-3980

ò»Õ³ëå³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë Journal of Genocide Studies Æóðíàë èññëåäîâàíèé ãåíîöèäà

ÈáõÛë ¿ ï»ëÝáõÙ 2013 Ãí³Ï³ÝÇó

1(1), 2013

ÊÙμ³·ñ³Ï³Ý ËáñÑáõñ¹

гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý, å. ·. ¹. (·ÉË. ËÙμ³·Çñ) êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý, å. ·. Ã. (·ÉË. ËÙμ³·ñÇ ï»Õ³Ï³É) ²ñë»Ý ²í³·Û³Ý, å. ·. ¹. ȨáÝ ²μñ³Ñ³ÙÛ³Ý, å. ·. ¹. гñáõÃÛáõÝ Ø³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, å. ·. ¹. èáõμ»Ý ê³ýñ³ëïÛ³Ý, å. ·. ¹.

ì³É»ñÇ ÂáõÝÛ³Ý, å. ·. ¹. ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý, å. ·. ¹. ²Ý³ÑÇï Êáëñᨳ, å. ·. Ã. Ø»ÉÇÝ» ²ÝáõÙÛ³Ý, å. ·. Ã. ܳñÇÝ» سñ·³ñÛ³Ý, å. ·. Ã. »ÑÙÇÝ» سñïáÛ³Ý, å. ·. Ã. ¶¨áñ· ì³ñ¹³ÝÛ³Ý, å. ·. Ã.

ò»Õ³ëå³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë, ºñ¨³Ý: гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõï, 2013.- 176 ¿ç гݹ»ëÁ ÉáõÛë ¿ ï»ëÝáõÙ ï³ñÇÝ »ñÏáõ ³Ý·³Ù Ðñ³ï³ñ³ÏÇ㪠¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý-óݷ³ñ³Ý ÇÝëïÇïáõï гëó»ª ÌÇÍ»éݳϳμ»ñ¹Ç Ñáõ߳ѳٳÉÇñ, ºñ¨³Ý, 0028 лé.ª (+374 10) 39 09 81), ¾É. ѳëó».ª handes@genocide-museum.am

© ò»Õ³ëå³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë, 2013


гñ·»ÉÇ ÁÝûñóáÕÝ»ñ, гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÁ ëÏëáõÙ ¿ §ò»Õ³ëå³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë¦ ·Çï³Ï³Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÇ ÃáÕ³ñÏáõÙÁ: ²Ûë ѳݹ»ëáõÙ ½»ï»Õí»ÉÇù ÝÛáõûñÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáõ »Ý гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý, å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ûٳÛÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ ÙÛáõë ÑÇÙݳËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ áõ ³ëå»ÏïÝ»ñÇ ÉdzñÅ»ù áõ ѳٳå³ñ÷³Ï áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ¹³éݳÉáí Ýáñ ѳñÃ³Ï ·Çï³Ï³Ý μ³Ý³í»×»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, μ³ó»Éáí Ýáñ ÑáñǽáÝÝ»ñ ³å³·³ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ: ²Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ѳݹ»ëÁ ãÇ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ïí»Éáõ ÙdzÛÝ Ð³Ûáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³éÝãíáÕ ÑÇÙݳËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ³Ûɨ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáõ ¿ ³ÛÉ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ í»ñ³μ»ñáÕ Ñ³ñó»ñÇÝ` ѳïϳå»ë ϳñ¨áñ»Éáí ѳٻٳï³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃÇ Ñ»ï³½áïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ùáï³Éáõï ѳñÛáõñ³ÙÛ³ ï³ñ»ÉÇóÇ Ï³å³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ ËÇëï ϳñ¨áñíáõÙ ¿ ·Çï³Ï³Ý Ýáñ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõ٠ûٳÛÇ ßáõñç Ýáñ ·Çï»ÉÇùÝ»ñÇ Ó»éùμ»ñáõÙÁ: Âáõñù³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÇ ÅËïáÕ³Ï³Ý áõ ѳϳ·Çï³Ï³Ý Ùáï»óáõÙÝ»ñÁ ï³ñ»óï³ñÇ ³í»ÉÇ ³·ñ»ëÇí áõ μ³½Ù³ß»ñï ¹ñë¨áñáõÙÝ»ñ »Ý ëï³ÝáõÙ` Ýáñ Ù³ñï³Ññ³í»ñÝ»ñ Ý»ï»Éáí Ñ³Û ¨ ûï³ñ³½·Ç ·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳÝñáõÛÃÇÝ: àõëïÇ ³Ûë ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó ѳݹ»ëÁ Ïáãí³Í ¿ Éáõñç ¹»ñ³Ï³ï³ñáõÙ áõݻݳÉ` ѻﳽáïáÕÝ»ñÇÝ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ÁÝÓ»é»Éáí Çñ»Ýó ·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáí ³ñ¹Ûáõݳí»ï Ï»ñåáí 㻽áù³óÝ»É Ñ³Ï³·Çï³Ï³Ý μáÉáñ ÷áñÓ»ñÁ: ÀÝûñóáÕÇ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáÕ ³Ûë ѳïáñáõÙ ½»ï»Õí³Í »Ý 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñÛáõñ³ÙÛ³ÏÇ Ï³å³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ 2009 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ºñ¨³Ýáõ٠ϳ۳ó³Í ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ ·Çï³ÅáÕáíÇ ÝÛáõûñÁ: ²Ûë ·Çï³ÅáÕáíÇÝ ï³ñμ»ñ ½»ÏáõóáõÙÝ»ñáí áõ ѳÕáñ¹áõÙÝ»ñáí Çñ»Ýó Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ»ñ»óÇÝ Ñ»ï³½áïáÕÝ»ñ г۳ëï³ÝÇó, üñ³ÝëdzÛÇó, ²Ù»ñÇϳÛÇ ØdzóÛ³É Ü³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñÇó, ÐáõÝ·³ñdzÛÇó ¨ ²íëïñdzÛÇó: ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÛáõñûñÇÝ³Ï ë³Ñٳݳμ³Å³Ý ѳݹÇë³ó³Ý 19-ñ¹ ¹³ñ³í»ñçÇÝ ëáõÉÃ³Ý ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç ûñáù Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¨ 1915-1923 ÃÃ. »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó Íñ³·ñí³Í ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ³Í ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇç¨: ²Ûë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ÷³ëïáñ»Ý ϳåáÕ ûÕ³Ï ¹³ñÓ³Ý ï³ñμ»ñ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ ûñáù úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ ³åñáÕ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Édzϳï³ñ ¿ÃÝÇÏ ½ïÙ³Ý ¨ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ¨ Ç óáõÛó ¹ñ»óÇÝ Ýáñ ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛ³Ý ùáÕÇ ï³Ï ѳݹ»ë »ÏáÕ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ³½·³ÛݳϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý Íñ³·ñ»ñÝ áõ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÁ: гçáñ¹³μ³ñ ÐòÂÆ ÏáÕÙÇó ÃáÕ³ñÏíáÕ ³Ûë å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ëÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáõ ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï³½áïáõÃÛ³Ùμ ½μ³ÕíáÕ Ñ³Û ¨ ûï³ñ³½·Ç ·ÇïݳϳÝÝ»ñÇ ·Çï³Ï³Ý Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ, ÐòÂÆ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñå³Í ·Çï³ÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ ÝÛáõûñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ûٳÛÇ ßáõñç ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·ñ³Ëáë³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ¨ ³ÛÉ ÝÛáõûñ:

вÚÎ ¸ºØàÚ²Ü å.·.¹., ÐòÂÆ ïÝûñ»Ý

3


´àì²Ü¸²ÎàôÂÚàôÜ ²Ýݳ ²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý...........................................................................................................7 Ð²Ú Î²Ü²Üò вê²ð²Î²Î²Ü ¶àðÌàôܺàôÂÚàôÜÀ ÎÆÈÆÎƲÚàôØ 1909 Â. Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆò кîà (¼. ºê²Ú²ÜÆ ºì ². ºà¸ÆÎÆ úðÆܲÎàì) ²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý .....................................................................................................15 1909 Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ¨ вȺäÆ ìÆȲںÂܺðàôØ îºÔÆ àôܺò²Ì Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ ÄàÔàì𸲶ð²Î²Ü кîºì²ÜøܺðÀ ²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý.......................................................................................................24 1909 Âì²Î²ÜÆ ÎÆÈÆÎƲÚÆ Ð²ÚÎ²Î²Ü Îàîàð²ÌܺðÜ Àêî Æî²È²Î²Ü ¸Æì²Ü²¶Æî²Î²Ü ö²êî²ÂÔºðÆ Ð³ÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý ................................................................................................................34 1909 Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºô вȺäÆ ìÆȲںÂܺðàôØ îºÔÆ àôܺò²Ì Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ Ðය´²Ü²Î²Ü ¸ð¸²ä²îÖ²èܺðÜ àô кîºô²ÜøܺðÀ. ܲÊÜ²Î²Ü ¸Æî²ðÎàôØ Üºð Raymond Kévorkian........................................................................................................42 LA GESTION POLITIQUE DES MASSACRES DE CILICIE î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóÕãÛ³Ý ..................................................................................................59 ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ 1909 Â. Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ ²è²æÆÜ ²ðÒ²¶²ÜøܺðÜ ²ðºìØî²Ð²Ú زØàôÈàôØ êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý.........................................................................................................69 вÚÎ²Î²Ü ²ð¸Æ²Î²Ü²òàôØÀ àðäºê вÚàò òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü ä²îÖ²è (²¸²Ü²ÚÆ úðÆܲÎàì) Eva Merénics ....................................................................................................................76 REPORTS ON THE MASSACRES IN ADANA BY AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN NEWSPAPERS ²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý ............................................................................................................92 àð´²ÊÜ²Ø ¶àðÌàôܺàôÂÚàôÜÀ 1909 Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºì вȺäÆ Ü²Ð²Ü¶ÜºðàôØ îºÔÆ àôܺò²Ì æ²ð¸ºðÆò кîà 껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý ........................................................................................................98 ØÞ²Îàô²ÚÆÜ òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü Æð²¶àðÌØ²Ü ØºÊ²ÜƼØܺðÜ ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºì вð²ÎÆò Þðæ²ÜܺðÆ 1909 Â. Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ 5


ÀܲòøàôØ ºì ¸ð²Üò кîºì²ÜøܺðÀ Rubina Peroomian .........................................................................................................105 THE POETICS OF VIOLENCE IN LITERARY RESPONSES TO THE ADANA MASSACRES ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý ................................................................................................. 118 1909 Â. ÎÆÈÆÎÚ²Ü Îàîàð²ÌܺðÀ üð²ÜêÆ²Î²Ü ä²îز¶ðàôÂÚ²Ü øÜÜ²Î²Ü ÈàôÚêÆ Üºðøà (вزèàî ¸Æî²ðÎàôØ Üºð) гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý..................................................................................................128 ²î²Ü²ÚÆ Îàîàð²ÌÀ ºì Ð²Ú ²ôºî²ð²Ü²Î²ÜܺðàôÜ ÎàðàôêîÀ гëÙÇÏ êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý ..................................................................................................138 вÚÎ²Î²Ü æ²ð¸ºðÆ ²ðî²òàÈàôØÀ вڲî²è ÂàôðøºðºÜ ¶ð²Î²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü Øºæ ²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý..............................................................................................................142 1909 Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ æ²ð¸ºðÆÜ ´²Ü²ÎÆ Ø²êܲÎòàôÂÚ²Ü Ð²ðòÆ Þàôðæ Verjine Svazlian..............................................................................................................148 THE ADANA MASSACRE AND THE PEOPLE’S HISTORICAL MEMORY Æí î»ñÝáÝ .....................................................................................................................155 ÎÆÈÆÎƲ 1909 Â.£ Ðܲð²ìà±ð ¾ð ²ð¸Úàø βÜʲ¼¶²È òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü êä²èܲÈÆøÀ ²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý ..................................................................................................162 ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ æ²ð¸ºðÜ ²ìêîðÆ²Î²Ü ²ðÊÆì²ÚÆÜ ì²ìºð²¶ðºðÆ ÈàôÚêÆ Üºðøà ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ÝíÇñí³Í Ýáñ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ...................170

6


Ð²Ú Î²Ü²Üò вê²ð²Î²Î²Ü ¶àðÌàôܺàôÂÚàôÜÀ ÎÆÈÆÎƲÚàôØ 1909  Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆò кîà (¼. ºê²Ú²ÜÆ ºì ². ºà¸ÆÎÆ úðÆܲÎàì) ²Ýݳ ²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý 19-ñ¹ ¹³ñáõÙ Ñ³Û Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ëÏÇ½μ ³é³í ϳݳÝó ß³ñÅáõÙÁ, ¨ ³ñ¹»Ý ÇëÏ ¹³ñÇ Ï»ëÇÝ Ñ³Û ÏÇÝÝ ³ÏïÇí Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ óáõó³μ»ñáõÙ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý-ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ£ γݳÝó ç³Ýù»ñáí ÑÇÙÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ, ³Õù³ï³ÝáóÝ»ñ, ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ÙÇçáó³éáõÙÝ»ñ, ѳݷ³Ý³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ÇëÏ Ñ³í³ùí³Í ÝíÇñ³ïíáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí ÉáõÍíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùáõÙ ³éϳ ËݹÇñÝ»ñÁ£ 1890-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³Ùǹ II-Ç ûñáù ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ѳۻñÇ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éáí ÙdzéÅ³Ù³Ý³Ï ³Û¹ ³ÏïÇíáõÃÛáõÝÁ áñáß³ÏÇáñ»Ý Ýí³½»ó£ 1908 Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçáõÙÁ Ù»Í á·¨áñáõÃÛáõÝ ³é³ç³óñ»ó ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ Î³Ý³Ýó ÏáÕÙÇó Ó¨³íáñí³Í ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ëÏë»óÇÝ í»ñ³Ï³½Ù³íáñí»É, ÑÇÙݳ¹ñí»óÇÝ Ýáñ»ñÁ£ ¸ñ³Ýó ÃÇíÁ ÏïñáõÏ ³×»ó ѳïϳå»ë 1909 Ã., áñÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ³ñÛáõݳÉÇ ¹»åù»ñáí£ ²Û¹ Ýáñ³ëï»ÕÍ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ μ³ñ»·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ¨ Ýå³ëï³Ù³ïáõÛó μÝáõÛà áõÝ»ÇÝ ¨ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ͳí³ÉáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³Õù³ï³ËݳÙ, ³ÛñdzËݳ٠¨ áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ,1 ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ½μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ï³Ý³Ýó ÏñÃáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç Ýñ³Ýó ¹»ñÇ μ³ñÓñ³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍáí£ ²Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ ·ñ»Ã» Ï»Ýë³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ áõÝ»ó»É 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³Õ»ïÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ ¨ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÁ í»ñ³Ï³½Ù³íáñ»Éáõ ѳñóáõÙ£ ²ÛÝåÇëÇ Ï³ñ¨áñ ËݹÇñÝ»ñ, ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ áñμ»ñÇ áõ ³ÛñÇÝ»ñÇ ËݹÇñÝ ¿ñ, ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ͳÝñ³ó³Í ¿ñ ÙÇ ß³ñù ϳݳÝó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ³Ýѳï ÏÇÝ ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ áõë»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ³Ý·Ý³Ñ³ï»ÉÇ ³ß˳ï³Ýù ï³ñ³Ý Ñ³Û ³Õ»ïÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²Ûëûñ Ýñ³Ýó ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ³ñËÇíÝ»ñáõÙ, ïå³·Çñ ¨ ³ÝïÇå ÝÛáõûñáõÙ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ ·ïÝ»É ¹³ñ³ëϽμÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý ¨ Ýñ³Ý ѳçáñ¹áÕ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³ÝÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É, áñáÝù ϳñ¨áñ ³ÕμÛáõñ »Ý ѳݹÇë³ÝáõÙ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý ¹»åù»ñÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ºÃ» ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ñ³Û»ñÁ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ãáõÝ»ÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ ç³ñ¹»ñÇó ïáõÅ³Í ¨ ÷ñÏí³Í Çñ»Ýó ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ, ³å³ 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¹»åù»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ÁÝÓ»é»É ¿ñ ³Û¹ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ áõÕÕ³ÏÇáñ»Ý Ù³ëݳÏóáõÙ ¿ñ û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍÇÝ` ûñ¨ë ³Ûë Ï»ñå ÷áñÓ»Éáí ÏáÍÏ»É ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ѳÝó³·áñÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç Çñ ë»÷³Ï³Ý Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ. §ºñμ ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³Ñ³õáñ ¹¿åùÁ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³õ,- ÝßáõÙ ¿ ųٳݳϳÏÇóÁ,- »ñμ ß³ï»ñ ïáõÝ¿, ÇÝãù¿ ½ñÏáõ»ó³Ý, ãáñ³μ»Ï ѳóÇ Ï³ñûï ÙݳóÇÝ, íñ³ÝÝ»ñáõ ï³ÏÁ` ãáñ ·»ïÝÇ, ÑáÕÇ áõ ÙáËñÇ íñ³Û Ýëï³Ý, ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ Ù¿Ï ÏáÕÙ¿Ý, ³ÙμáÕç äáÉëáÛ áõ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÇ Ñ³Ûáõ1 1909 Ã. ÑÇÙݳ¹ñí»É ¿ §Ð³Û ϳݳÝó ÙÇáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦` ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ³Õ»ïÇó Ñ»ïá í»ñ³åñáÕÝ»ñÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí£ §Ð³Û ïÇÏݳÝó ÙÇáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦, áñÁ ϳ½Ù³íáñí»É ¿ñ ü»ñÇ·ÛáõÕÇ §îÇÏݳÝó¦ ¨ ´»ñ³ÛÇ §²ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ï³Ý¦ áñáß ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇ ÙdzíáñáõÙáí, ¹³ñÓÛ³É ³Û¹ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ áõÝ»ñ£ ´³óÇ Ñ³·áõëï ¨ ¹ñ³Ù ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»Éáõó, Ýñ³Ýù úñó·ÛáõÕáõÙ ÑÇÙÝáõÙ »Ý áñμ³Ýáó, áñï»Õ ÏñÃáõÙ ¨ ¹³ëïdzñ³ÏáõÙ »Ý Ñ³Û áñμáõÑÇÝ»ñÇÝ£ ¶³ïÁ·ÛáõÕáõÙ ÑÇÙݳ¹ñí³Í §îÇÏݳÝó ÙÇáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦ ѳݷ³Ý³ÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áñμ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ£ §Ð³Û ÏÇÝ»ñáõ ÙÇáõÃ۳ݦ ϳ٠§äáÉëá Ñ³Û ïÇÏݳÝó ÙÇáõÃ۳ݦ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÁ ßñçáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ïÝ»ïáõÝ, ѳí³ùáõ٠ѳ·áõëï áõ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï åÇïáõÛùÝ»ñ£ ²Ûë ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áñμáõÑÇÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ μ³óáõÙ »Ý ݳ¨ áñμ³Ýáó-³ñÑ»ëï³Ýáó£

7


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

ÃÇõÝÁ, Ð. ´. ØÇáõÃÇõÝÁ ÙÇõë ÏáÕÙ¿Ý` Ýå³ëïÝ»ñ áõ û·ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ѳëóáõóÇÝ...¦2£ ²Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí ³Ûë ѳñóÇÝ` ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ3 ÝßáõÙ ¿ñ, áñ §...²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÙÇ³Ï ³é³õ»ÉáõÃÇõÝ ÙÁ áõÝ¿ÇÝ Ð³ÙÇï»³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÝ íñ³Û. ³ÛÝ ¿ñ, áñ ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ϳñáÕ³ó³Ýù ³Ûó»É»É ³Õ¿ï³í³ÛñÁ ¨ áã ÙdzÛÝ û·Ýáõû³Ý ѳëÝÇÉ ³ñϳͻ³ÉÝ»ñáõÝ, ³ÛÉ Ý³»õ ·ñ»É ï³Å³Ý³ÉÇ ïå³õáñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ¦£4 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Î. äáÉëÇ Ð³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÁ ¨ ²½·³ÛÇÝ å³ïíÇñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳٳï»Õ γñÙÇñ ˳ãÇ Ñ³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí áõÕ³ñÏ»óÇÝ ÎÇÉÇÏdz, áñÁ å»ïù ¿ ï»Õáõ٠ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»ñ ³Õ»ïÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ ¨ áñμ»ñÇÝ óáõó³μ»ñíáÕ û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£5 гÏáμ »ñ½Û³ÝÇ Ëáëùáí` §Üå³ëïÝ»ñáõ ·áñÍÇÝ ÑëÏ»Éáõ å³ßïûÝáí ²ï³Ý³ ѳë³Ý` îÇÏÇÝ ¼³å»É ºë³Û»³Ý, îÇÏÇÝ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â¿á¹ÇÏ,6 úñ. ê³Ã»ÝÇÏ úѳÝç³Ý»³Ý,7 áñ ϳï³ñ»³É ³ÝÓÝáõÇñáõû³Ùμ ³ß˳ï»ó³Ý ë÷á÷»É ³Õ¿ï»³ÉÝ»ñáõ ó³õ»ñÁ, ³Õ¿ï³í³Ûñ»ñÝ ³Ûó»É»Éáí ³Õ¿ï»³ÉÝ»ñÁ ÙËÇóñ»óÇÝ »õ ·ñ³Ï³Ý áõ μ³Ý³ëï»ÕÍ³Ï³Ý ·»Õ»óÇÏ ¿ç»ñ ÝáõÇñ»óÇÝ ³Õ¿ïÇÝ áÕμ³ÉÇ ÛÇß³ï³ÏÇݦ£8 §²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³ó ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝݦ9 (Ñ»ï³Ûëáõ` §²½·³Ýí»ñ¦) Çñ ÑÇÙݳ¹ñÙ³Ý ³é³çÇÝ ûñí³ÝÇó áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ¹³ñÓñ»É ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇÝ, áñï»Õ ãÝ³Û³Í ÑáÍ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝ Ï³ñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ï»ÕÇ Ñ³Û»ñÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ËáëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý, ³ñ³μ»ñ»Ý, ùñ¹»ñ»Ý ¨ ·ñ»Ã» ã¿ÇÝ ïÇñ³å»ïáõÙ Çñ»Ýó Ù³Ûñ»ÝÇ É»½íÇÝ£ §²½·³Ýí»ñÁ¦, ãÝ³Û³Í Çñ áõÝ»ó³Í ëáõÕ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇÝ, ï»Õáõ٠ϳñáÕ³ó»É ¿ñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É Ñ³Û ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÇ Ù³Ûñ»ÝÇ ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ ïí»É ¿ñ Çñ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùÝ»ñÁ:10 ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ, ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõ٠ѳݹÇå³Í ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, Çñ Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ¹Åμ³Ëï³μ³ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ã¿ÇÝ ËáëáõÙ Çñ»Ýó Ù³Ûñ»ÝÇ É»½íáí, ¨ Ýñ³Ýó Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ñ ѳëÏ³Ý³É ÙdzÛÝ ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñë ËáëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ §ÃßݳÙáõ É»½íáí¦£ ܳ

2 Ü»ñë¿ë ºåëÏ. ¸³ÝÇ¿É»³Ý (êë³Ï³Ý ì³ñ¹³å.), γÃÇÉ ÙÁ çáõñ ³Ûñ³Í ëñï»ñáõ, Î.äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 56£ 3 ºë³Û³Ý ¼³å»ÉÁ (ÐáíѳÝÝÇëÛ³Ý) ÍÝí»É ¿ Î. äáÉëáõÙ 1878 Ã.£ ܳËÝ³Ï³Ý ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëï³ó»É ¿ ï»ÕÇ êμ. ʳã ݳ˳Ïñóñ³ÝáõÙ, áñÇó Ñ»ïá 1895 Ã. Ù»ÏÝ»É ¿ ö³ñǽ, áñï»Õ ³í³ñï»É ¿ êáñμáÝÇ Ñ³Ù³Éë³ñ³ÝÁ£ 1908 Ã. ºë³Û³ÝÁ í»ñ³¹³ñÓ»É ¿ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ÙÇÝ㨠1914 Ã. ³Ûëï»Õ ͳí³É»É ·ñ³Ï³Ý, ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý-ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý μáõéÝ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ£ 4 ¶ñ³Ï³Ý ºñ»ÏáÝ»ñ. Âñù³Ñ³Û ųٳݳϳÏÇó ·ñáÕÝ»ñ (¹³ë³ËáëáõÃÛáõÝ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ), ÂÇýÉÇë, 1916, ¿ç 35£ 5 ºÕdzۻ³Ý ´., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Ûáó å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ, ²ÝÃÇÉdzë-ÈÇμ³Ý³Ý, 1970, ¿ç 255£ Ü»ñë¿ë ºåëÏ. ¸³ÝÇ¿É»³Ý, Ýßí. ³ßË. ¿ç 57£ 6 гë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇã, Ù³Ýϳí³ñÅ, Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³Ëáë ¨ óñ·Ù³ÝÇã ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â»á¹ÇÏÁ (Ö»½í»×Û³Ý) ÍÝí»É ¿ Î.äáÉëáõÙ, ݳËÝ³Ï³Ý ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëï³ó»É ¿ ê³Ù³ÃdzÛÇ ÜáõÝÛ³Ý-ì³ñ¹áõÑÛ³Ý í³ñųñ³ÝáõÙ£ 1895 Ã. Ù»ÏÝ»É ¿ ²Ý·Édz` μ³ñÓñ³·áõÛÝ ¹åñáóáõÙ ëáíáñ»Éáõ, ³å³ Ù»ÏÝ»É ¿ ö³ñǽ` ß³ñáõݳϻÉáõ áõëáõÙÝ ³ÛÝï»Õ£ 1898 Ã. í»ñ³¹³ñÓ»É ¿ äáÉÇë ¨ ½μ³Õí»É ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ùμ` »ñϳñ ï³ñÇÝ»ñ ѳݹÇë³Ý³Éáí §²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³ó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃ۳ݦ ÝíÇñÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ£ 7 ê³Ã»ÝÇÏ úѳÝç³ÝÛ³ÝÁ ÍÝí»É ¿ 1880-³Ï³Ý ÃÃ.£ ܳ г۳ëï³ÝÇ ³é³çÇÝ Ñ³Ýñ³å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý í³ñã³å»ï гÙá úѳÝç³ÝÛ³ÝÇ ùáõÛñÝ ¿ñ£ êáíáñ»É ¿ñ ÂÇýÉÇëÇ éáõë³Ï³Ý ·ÇÙݳ½Ç³ÛáõÙ£ ܳ ³Ý-¹³Ù³Ïó»É Ð.Ú.¸.-ÇÝ, ѳݹÇë³ó»É ݳ¨ ÂÇýÉÇëÇ §Ø»Õáõ¦ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛ³Ý ù³ñïáõÕ³ñÁ£ 1908 Ã., »ñμ ¸³ßݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳɳÍíáõÙ ¿ñ ÎáíϳëáõÙ, ï»Õ³÷áËí»É ¿ äáÉÇë ¨ Çñ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï»É ³ÛÝï»Õ£ ê³Ã»ÝÇÏÁ »Õ»É ¿ äáÉëÇ Ï³Ý³Ýó γñÙÇñ ˳ãÇ ¨ ²ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ï³Ý ÑÇÙݳ¹ÇñÝ»ñÇó£ î»°ë ê. ¼»ÛÃÉÛ³Ý, §Ð³Û ÏÝáç ¹»ñÁ Ñ³Û Ñ»Õ³÷áË³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý Ù»ç¦, Èáë ²Ýç»É»ë, 1992, ¿ç 147-149; Zabel Essayan, Le Rôle de la femme Arménienne pandant la guerre, Revue des etudes Arméniennes, T. II, Paris, 1922, p. 134: 8 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú. Ú³Ïáμ, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ²Õ¿ïÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 151£ 9 î»°ë ²¹³Ý³ÉÛ³Ý Ø. È., ²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³ó ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ä³ïÙ³-μ³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë, 1979, ÃÇí 4, ¿ç 255-259£ 10 Victoria Rowe. Cilicia: The View From The Constantinople Women’s Organizations, (Armenian Cilicia; ed. by R. G. Hovannisian and S. Payaslian ), California, 2008, p. 375.

8


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ÙdzÛÝ Ï³Ý³ÝóÇó ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ñ Éë»É Ù³Ûñ»ÝÇ É»½áõÝ, ¨ áñ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ Ç·³Ï³Ý ë»éÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ ïÇñ³å»ïáõ٠ѳۻñ»ÝÇÝ£ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ ³ÛÝ Ñ³ñóÇÝ, û ÇÝãå»ë ¿ å³ï³Ñ»É, áñ í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñë ã»Ý Ïáñóñ»É Çñ»Ýó Ù³Ûñ»ÝÇ É»½áõÝ, ëï³ÝáõÙ ¿ Ñ»ï¨Û³É å³ï³ë˳ÝÁ. §Ù»Ýù ¹»é »ñ»Ë³Û ¿ÇÝù, »ñμ ²½·³Ýíáõ¿ñ ѳÛáõÑ»³óÝ áõëáõóãáõÑÇ áõÕ³ñÏ»ó Ù»½ Ùûï »õ Ù»Ýù ãÙáéó³Ýù Ù»ñ Ù³Ûñ»ÝÇ É»½áõݦ£ §²ÛëåÇëáí,- »½ñ³÷³ÏáõÙ ¿ ºë³Û³ÝÁ,- ²½·³Ýáõ¿ñ ѳÛáõÑ»³óÝ ¿ñ ÉáÛëÇ ßáÕÁ¦:11 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÛ³Ý »Õ»éÝÇó Ñ»ïá §²½·³Ýí»ñݦ Çñ ³ÙμáÕç ç³Ýù»ñÝ áõÕÕ»ó ¹»åÇ ÎÇÉÇÏdz` ³Õ»ïÇó ÷ñÏí³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ£ ÀÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÁ ß÷áóѳñ ¿ÇÝ, Ýáñ³Ï³½Ù ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹ñ³Ù³Ï³Ý μ³í³Ï³Ý ëáõÕ íÇ׳ÏÇ Ù»ç ¿ñ£ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â»á¹ÇÏÝ ³é³ç³ñÏáõÙ ¿ êÇåÇÉÇÝ (²½·³Ýí»ñÇ ³ï»Ý³å»ï) ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó Çñ»Ý ·áñÍáõÕ»É ÎÇÉÇÏdz£ êÇåÇÉÝ ³Û¹ ³é³ç³ñÏÝ Çñ»Ýó áõÝ»ó³Í ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí ³ÝÇñ³·áñÍ»ÉÇ ¿ ѳٳñáõÙ£ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇÝ, ¹ÇÙ»Éáí ÙÇ ß᷻ݳí³ÛÇÝ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý, Ó»éù ¿ μ»ñáõÙ ³Ýí׳ñ ïáÙë ¨ Ù»ÏÝáõÙ` ·ñå³ÝáõÙ áõݻݳÉáí ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ 30 áëÏÇÝ:12 §Ð³ÛáõÑ»³ó ÁÝÏ»ñáõû³Ý ÏáÕÙ¿ ³Ûë ãáñ»ùß³μÃÇ Ù³Ûñ³ù³Õ³ù¿ë Ø»ñëÇÝ ÏÁ Ù»ÏÝÇ îÇÏÇÝ ². ¿á¹ÇÏ` áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ μ³Ý³Éáõ ѳٳñ...¦:13 ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â»á¹ÇÏÁ ÑÇÙÝáõÙ ¿ áñμ³Ýáó, ¨ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã ·ïÝ»Éáí, í»ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ Î.äáÉÇë£ Üñ³Ý ѳçáÕí»É ¿ñ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ѳí³ù»É ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ μáÉáñ í³ñųñ³ÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É, áñáÝó ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³ ϳï³ñí»óÇÝ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ëË³Ý Ù³ëݳ·»ïÝ»ñÇ ·áñÍáõÕáõÙÝ»ñ:14 ÀÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ Çñ ËݳÙùÇ ï³Ï ¿ñ ³é»É سñ³ßÇ, ¸Ûáñà ÚáÉÇ, ²ÛÝóåÇ, гë³Ý ´»ÛÉÇÇ, г×ÁÝÇ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÇ í³ñųñ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ѳٳñ ¹³ë³·ñù»ñ, ·ñ»Ý³Ï³Ý åÇïáõÛùÝ»ñ ¨ ӻ鳷áñÍÇ ÝÛáõûñ ¿ñ Ù³ï³Ï³ñ³ñáõÙ£15 1909 Ã. ¹»åù»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ²½·³Ýí»ñÁ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÝ»ñ μ³ó»Éáõ Çñ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²Û¹ ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝáõÙ ¹³ Ï»Ýë³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ ѳۻñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, ù³ÝÇ áñ å»ï³Ï³Ý ¨ ûï³ñÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Í áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõ٠ѳۻñ»Ý ã¿ñ áõëáõó³ÝíáõÙ£ ²Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ñ Ïáñͳݳñ³ñ ¹³éÝ³É Ñ³ïϳå»ë Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÇ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ£ §´³Ý³Ýù ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, áñå¿ë ½Ç ³ÝáÝù ãËáñÃ³Ý³Ý Ù»Ý¿, áñå¿ë ½Ç ûñ ÙÁ í»ñÙ³ÏÇ ÙÁ ϳ٠³ÝÏáÕÇÝÇ ÙÁ ѳٳñ ³Ûɳ¹³õ³Ý ÏñûݳÙáÉ Ù³ñ¹áñëÇÝ ãÛ³ÝÓÝ»¯Ý Çñ»Ýó Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ³ñųݳå³ïõáõÃÇõÝÁ. μ³Ý³Ýù ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, áñå¿ë ½Ç ëÇñ»Ý ³ÝáÝù Çñ»Ýó É»½áõÝ, Çñ»Ýó ó»ÕÝ...¦£16 ². »á¹ÇÏÁ ϳñáÕ³ó»É ¿ ݳ¨ ³Ù³Û³ó³Í ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ï»ë³ÍÝ áõ í»ñ³åñ³ÍÁ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ï»É §²ÙÇë ÙÁ Ç ÎÇÉÇÏdz¦ ·ñùáõÙ£17 ä»ïù ¿ Ýß»É, áñ Ýñ³ÝÇó ³é³ç ¨ Ñ»ïá ß³ï ùã»ñÇÝ ¿ ѳçáÕí»É ÝÙ³Ý ë³ñë³÷Ý»ñÝ ³Û¹ù³Ý ½áõëå áõ ë³éݳëÇñï Ý»ñϳ۳óݻɣ ÀÝûñóáÕÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏÇó ¹³ñÓÝ»Éáí Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛ³ÝÁ` ݳ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ Çñ ë»÷³Ï³Ý ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ï³É ϳï³ñí³ÍÇÝ, Ù³ïݳÝß»É Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇÝ, ³ñ¹³ñ³óÝ»É ³ÝÙ»ÕÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ μ³ñÓñ³óÝ»É Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÁ μÝáñáßáÕ ³Ù»Ý³ï³ñμ»ñ ËݹÇñÝ»ñ£ úñÇÝ³Ï á×ñ³·áñÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõ٠ݳ ÝßáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ §ÆÃǹ³É¦ ûñÃÇ ËÙμ³·Çñ ÆÑë³Ý üÇùñÇÇÝ, áñÁ ѳϳѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ù³ñá½ãáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ͳí³É»É ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ 11 ºë³Û³Ý ¼³å»É, Ð³Û ÏÝáç ¹»ñÁ Çñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå³Í ÁÝÏ»ñáõû³Ýó Ù¿ç, §²ñ³·³Í¦, 29 ÛáõÝÇë, 1911, ¿ç 83£ 12 гñáõÃÛáõÝÛ³Ý ²., ºñ¨»ÉÇ ïÇÏݳÝó ¹³ñÁ£ Ð³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ 19-ñ¹ ¹³ñáõÙ ¨ 20-ñ¹ ¹³ñ³ëϽμÇÝ, ºñ., 2005, ¿ç 40£ 13 §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦, 1909, ÃÇí 305, ¿ç 3£ 14 гñáõÃÛáõÝÛ³Ý ²., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 54£ 15 ²½·³Ýáõ»ñ гÛáõÑ»³ó ÀÝÏ»ñáõÃÇõÝ, ºñϳٻ³Û î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ (1910-1912), äáÉÇë, 1914, ¿ç 42-44£ 16 ¿á¹ÇÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ, ²ÙÇë ÙÁ’ Ç ÎÇÉÇÏdz. ÎóÏïáõñ Üûûñ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1910, ¿ç 77£ 17 î»’ë ¿á¹ÇÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ, ²ÙÇë ÙÁ’ Ç ÎÇÉÇÏdz. ÎóÏïáõñ Üûûñ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1910£

9


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ Ïáã ¿ñ ³ÝáõÙ Ïáïáñ»É ³åëï³ÙμáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïñ³ëïíáÕ ¨ §ÂáõñùdzÛÇ Ù³ëݳïáõÙÁ »ñ³½áÕ ·Û³íáõñÝ»ñÇݦ:18 Üñ³ Ù³ëÇÝ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇÝ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §Ðñ³½¿Ý áõ ¹³ßáÛÝ ³å³Ñáí³μ³ñ ³ÛÝã³÷ ³õ¿ñ ã¿ÇÝ ë÷é³Í Ñáë, áñã³÷ ³Û¹ Ù³ñ¹áõÝ ·ñÇãÁ£ üÇùñÇ ÇÙ ³ãùÇë` ïËñ³ÝáõÝ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ ¿ñ Îáïáñ³ÍÇÝ...¦:19 ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇÝ Ñ³ñ³½³ïáñ»Ý ¿ í»ñ³ñï³¹ñáõÙ ØÇëÇëáõÙ,20 âáñù سñ½í³ÝáõÙ21 (¸»áñÃ-ÚáÉ) ¨ г۷ÛáõÕáõÙ22 (ÎÛ³íáõñ øÛáÛ) ѳۻñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñå³Í ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³Ý³Ï³Ý ¹ñí³·Ý»ñÁ` í»ñçÇÝÝ ³Ý·³Ù ³Ýí³Ý»Éáí ¹Ûáõó³½Ý³Ï³Ý:23 æ³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ѳۻñÇ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ μ³Ýï³ñÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ »Õ»É, ¨ ѳñÛáõñ³íáñ ³ÝÙ»Õ Ñ³Û»ñ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý μ³Ýï»ñáõ٠ѳÛïÝí»É ¿ÇÝ ã³÷³½³Ýó ͳÝñ ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ §²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³óݦ` Ç ¹»Ù ². »á¹ÇÏÇ, ½μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ËݹÇñÝ»ñáí ¨ ß³ï Ñ³×³Ë í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñÇë û·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ íï³Ý·áõÙ ¿ñ ³Ý·³Ù ë»÷³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùÁ:24 ÀݹѳÝñ³å»ë ³Û¹ ßñç³ÝáõÙ Ñ³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳñÍ»ë ¹áõñë ÉÇÝ»ñ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó, ÇÝãÁ ãÇ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ ³ë»É ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ£ Üñ³Ýù Ñ³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹ÇïáõÙ ¿ÇÝ áñå»ë ³å³ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ³ÏïÇíáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ã¿ÇÝ Ë³Ý·³ñáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ²Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÝ û·ÝáõÙ ¿ñ ϳݳÝó ³í»ÉÇ É³ÛÝ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ Í³í³É»É ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ¨ û·Ý»É û° áñμ»ñÇÝ, û° μ³Ýï³ñÏÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ£ Üñ³Ýó »ñμ»ÙÝ Ñ³çáÕíáõÙ ¿ñ ³Ý·³Ù ³½¹»É ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý áñáßáõÙÝ»ñÇ íñ³£ ²Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ ½³ñÙ³óñ»É ¿ñ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý Ù³ëݳÏÇó ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇÝ, áí ³ÙáõëÝáõÝ ·ñ³Í ݳٳÏÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ ³Ûë ϳå³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÝßáõÙ ¿. §... ³ëÇϳ ½³ñٳݳÉÇ ÏÁ ÃáõÇ ù»½Ç, μ³Ûó Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ ³ÛÝ ¿, áñ »ë ¨ ûñÇáñ¹ ê³Ã»ÝÇÏÁ ÙdzÛÝ ÏÁÙïݳÝù ³Ù¿Ý ï»Õ, Ï’»ñóÝù ÙÇÝã»õ Çñ»Ýó Ùûï (ËáëùÁ μ³Ýï³ñÏÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿.-².².). Çñ»Ýó ËݹÇñùÝ»ñÁ ÏÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Ýù áõñ áñ ѳñÏ ¿. Ù¿Ï Ëûëùáí Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï å¿ïù »Ýù. ݳ˳å¿ë ÇٳݳÉáí Çñ»Ýó Ù³ëÇÝ »Õ³Í ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ, »ñμ»ÙÝ Û³çáÕ³Í »Ýù ÷áË»É ½³ÝáÝù¦:25 Ð³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó ݳ˨³é³ç ³Ýѳݷëï³óÝáõÙ ¿ñ áñμ»ñÇ ËݹÇñÁ£ гÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ï³Ý·Ý³Í ¿ñ Ýñ³Ýó ÏáñóÝ»Éáõ Ù»Í íï³Ý·Ç ³é³ç£ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ, áñÝ Çñ áÕç ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ÝíÇñ»É ¿ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÇÝ,26 Ù»Í ó³íáí ¿ñ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ³Ûë ËݹñÇÝ` ß³ï ɳí ѳëϳݳÉáí, áñ á°ã ûï³ñ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÁ ¨ á°ã ¿É å»ï³Ï³Ý §úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý áñμ³Ýáóݦ ³å³Ñáí ã¿ÇÝ Ï³ñáÕ ÉÇÝ»É Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ£ ܳËáñ¹ ÷áñÓÁ óáõÛó ¿ñ ïí»É, áñ ÙdzÛÝ É³í ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ³½·³ÛÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ñ Ñ³Û å³Ñ»É Ñ³Û áñμáõÏÝ»ñÇÝ:27 Ð³Û áñμ»ñÇÝ ³½·³ÛÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóáõÙ å³Ñ»Éáõ ¨ ûï³ñ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõ٠ѳۻñ»ÝÇ ¹³ë³í³Ý¹Ù³Ý å³Ûù³ñÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ͳÝñ³ó³Í ¿ñ Ñ³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó áõë»ñÇÝ£ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ, áõÙ äáÉëÇ Ð³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÁ Édz½áñ»É ¿ñ áñå»ë áñμ»ñÇ Ñ³ñó»ñáí ·É˳íáñ ï»ëáõãÇ, μ³18 гÙμ³ñÛ³Ý ². ê., ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ä³ïÙ³-μ³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë, ÃÇí 4, ºñ., 1988, ¿ç 14£ 19 ¿á¹ÇÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 106£ 20 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 131-137£ 21 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 168-193£ 22 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 110-117£ 23 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 114£ 24 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 149-160£ 25 ¼³å»É ºë³Û³Ý, ܳٳÏÝ»ñ, ºñ., 1977, ¿ç 99£ 26 î»°ë ²½³ï»³Ý È., Ð³Û áñμ»ñÁ Ø»Í »Õ»éÝÇ, ·Çñù »ññáñ¹, Èáë ²Ý×»ÉÁë, 2002, ¿ç 83-84£ 27 1890-³Ï³Ý ÃÃ. ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÇ ×³Ï³ï³·ÇñÝ ³Û¹å»ë ¿É ³ÝѳÛï Ùݳó, ù³ÝÇ áñ Ýñ³Ýù ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ËݳÙùÇ ï³Ï ¿ÇÝ ¨ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ¹³ëïdzñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ÇÝ ëï³ÝáõÙ£

10


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

ݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¿ñ í³ñáõÙ Ãáõñù å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ Ñ»ï áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõ٠ѳۻñ»ÝÇ ¹³ë³í³Ý¹Ù³Ý ѳٳñ£ ²Ûë ϳå³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ ݳ Çñ ³ÙáõëÝáõÝ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §êÇñ»ÉÇ îÇ·ñ³Ý, ... Îáõë³Ï³ÉÇÝ Ñ»ï ÏáõñÍù-ÏáõñÍùÇ å³Ûù³ñ ÙÁ áõÝ»ó³Ýù áñμ³ÝáóÇ å³ßïûÝ³Ï³Ý É»½áõÇ Ù³ëÇÝ. ³Ë ë³ ùáõ Å»Ý Ãáõñù»ñ¹, ٳݳõ³Ý¹ ÇÃÃÇѳï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ¹ Ë¿ñÁ ï»ëݳë. ß³ï ɳõ, ëù³Ýã»ÉÇ Ù³ñ¹ ÙÁÝ ¿, μ³Ûó...¦:28 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ï³ñ³μÝáõÛà áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ Ýå³ëïáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ¼. ºë³Û³ÝÇ Ý³Ù³ÏÝ»ñÇ í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ¹ñ³Ýù, í»ñ³ñï³¹ñ»Éáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, å³Ñå³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ ÷³ëï³Ï³Ý ѳí³ëïÇáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²Û¹ ݳٳÏÝ»ñÁ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ μ³Å³Ý»É »ñÏáõ Ù³ëÇ` å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ý³Ù³ÏÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ݳ Ç å³ßïáÝ» áõÕ³ñÏáõÙ ¿ñ ųٳݳÏÇ Ñ³ÛïÝÇ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý, ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý áõ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ, ¨ ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý Ý³Ù³ÏÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ݳ áõÕ³ñÏáõÙ ¿ñ Çñ ѳñ³½³ïÝ»ñÇÝ áõ Ùï»ñÇÙÝ»ñÇÝ£ ²Ûë ݳٳÏÝ»ñÝ ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ³ÕμÛáõñ »Ý ÙÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ³Û¹ ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝÇ Ñ³Û Ñ³ÝñáõÃÛ³Ý, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë Ùï³íáñ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ïÇñ³å»ïáÕ Ñá·»μ³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Í³ÝáóݳÉáõ, ïíÛ³É Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Çñ ïí³Í ³Ý³ã³é ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ÇëÏ ÙÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó` í³í»ñ³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï»ñ »Ý å³ñáõݳÏáõÙ, áñáÝù ÝáõÛÝå»ë ³Ýã³÷ ϳñ¨áñ »Ý£ ¼. ºë³Û³ÝÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇó ݳٳÏÝ»ñ ¿ñ áõÕ³ñÏáõÙ ³ÙáõëÝáõÝ` îÇ·ñ³Ý ºë³Û³ÝÇÝ` Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ Ýϳñ³·ñ»Éáí Çñ ï»ë³ÍÝ áõ í»ñ³åñ³ÍÁ, Ïñ³Í Ý»ÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ·³Ý·³ïÝ áõ ·áÑáõݳÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ ýáݹáõÙ29 áõÃ Ý³Ù³Ï ¿ å³Ñå³Ýí»É, áñáÝù μ³ó³é³å»ë í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ »Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¹»åù»ñÇÝ£ ܳٳÏÝ»ñÁ ·ñí³Í »Ý ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇó, ¨ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ëó»³ï»ñÁ Ýñ³ ³ÙáõëÇÝÝ ¿` îÇ·ñ³Ý ºë³Û³ÝÁ£ ²Ûëå»ë` §îÇ·ñ³Ý ºë³Û»³ÝÇÝ, 1909, ÛáõÝÇëÇ 18 (1), ÑÇÝ·ß³μÃÇ, Ø»ñëÇÝ êÇñ»ÉÇ îÇ·ñ³Ýë, ...ÇÝãù³Ý ³É å³ïñ³ëïáõ³Í ÁÉɳÛÇ ³Ñé»ÉÇ ³Õ¿ïÇÝ, ÇÝãù³Ý ³É ϳñÍ¿Ç Ã¿ ã³÷³½³ÝóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ »Õ³Í »Ý ³ñ¹»Ý å³ïÙ³Í Éáõñ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç, ï»ë³Íë ³ÛÝåÇëÇ ³Ñ³õáñ μ³Ý ÙÁÝ ¿, áñ ³Ù¿Ý ÙÇ »ñ»õ³Ï³Ûáõûݿ í»ñ ¿. áã Ù¿Ï Ï»ñåáí ·³Õ³÷³ñ ÙÁ ã¿Ç Ïñݳñ áõݻݳÉ, ÙÇÝã»õ áñ ³ãù»ñáíÝǹ ãï»ëݳù »Õ³ÍÁ. ³ÙμáÕç íÇɳۻà ÙÁ ÏáñͳÝáõ³Í ¿. áÕç ÙݳóáÕ ¨ Ñáë ³å³ëï³ÝáÕÝ»ñÁ ³ÛÝù³Ý μ³ñáÛ³Éùáõ³Í »Ý, áñ »Ã¿ μÝ³Ï³Ý å¿ïù»ñáõ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý ¹ñ¹áõÙÁ ãÁÉɳÛ, Çñ»Ýù ³É åÇïÇ Ù»éÝ»Ý Ûáõë³Ñ³ïáõûݿÝ. áã Ù¿Ï ÛáÛë, áã Ù¿Ï ³å³·³ÛÇ ÝßáÛÉ ... Ù³Ñ, ³õ»ñ³Ï, ³ÝûÃáõÃÇõÝ, ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÇõÝ ¨ μ³Ýï ... »ñÏÇñÁ Ùï³Í ÙÇçáóÝÇë ³é³çÇÝ ïå³íáñáõÃÇõÝë ³ÛÝ ¿, áñ Ù»é»ÉÇ ïáõÝ ÏÁÙïݳ٠Ïáñ. ³ÛÝ ³É ¹»é ãóÕáõ³Í, óñÙ Ù»é»ÉÇ ïáõÝ ... ÎÇÉÇÏÇ³Ý ÏáñͳÝáõ³Í ¿ ... ³Ûë ¿ ³Ù¿ÝáõÝ ïå³õáñáõÃÇõÝÁ, ¹»é ²ï³Ý³ ã»Ù ·³ó³Í, μ³Ûó ÑÇÙ³ÏáõÝ¿ Éë³ÍÝ»ñë ¨ ÇÝÍ¿ å³ïÙ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÏÁ íϳۻÝ, áñ μáÉáñáíÇÝ ½áÑáõ³Í »Ý ѳۻñÁ Û³ÛïÝÇ ¨ ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëïáõ³Í Íñ³·ñáí. ³ñ¹¿Ý Û³ÛïÝÇ ¿. Ãáõñù»ñÁ Ñáë ³ÛÝ »ñ¨áÛÃÁ áõÝÇÝ, ÇÝã áñ áõÝ¿ÇÝ ÑÇÝ é»ÅÇÙÇ ·¿ß ûñ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç äáÉëáÛ Ù¿ç ¨ μ³Ý ÙÁÝ ³É ³õ»ÉÇ. »ñ»ë¹ ÏÁ ݳÛÇÝ ½³ñÙ³óáõÙáí, Çμñ ÿ ѳñóáõÝ¿ÇÝ, ÿ ÇÝã忱ë ÏÁÉɳÛ, áñ áÕç Ùݳó³Í »ë. Û³ïϳÝß³Ï³Ý Ï¿ï. »ñμ äáÉë¿Ý »õ áõñÇß ï»Õ»ñ¿ Ñ³Û ³ÝѳïÝ»ñ »Ï»ñ »Ý, áñáÝù óɳݿ ¨ Ïáïáñ³Í¿ ÷³Ë³ÍÇ »ñ¨áÛà ãáõÝÇÝ ¨ ÏÁ ÝÙ³ÝÇÝ ³ñï³ùÇÝ »ñ¨áõÛÃáí Çñ»Ýó ¿ý»ÝïÇÝ»ñáõÝ, Ãáõñù ³ÙμáËÁ ½³ñÙ³ó»ñ ¿ ¨ áÙ³Ýù Û³ÛïÝ»ñ »Ý, ÿ ˳μáõ³Í Ï’½·³Ý ÇÝù½ÇÝùÝÇÝ, ù³ÝÇ áñ áõñÇß ï»Õ»ñ ѳۻñÁ áÕç Ùݳó³Í »Ý£ ²ñ¹Ç ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ ³ÏÝÛ³Ûï ¿£ 28 ºë³Û³Ý ¼³å»É, ܳٳÏÝ»ñ, ¿ç 107£ 29 â³ñ»ÝóÇ ³Ýí. ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³ñí»ëïÇ Ã³Ý·³ñ³ÝÇ ýáݹ»ñ, ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ ýáݹ, ѳÙ. 230236, 245-250£

11


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

àõñÇß Ï¿ï ÙÁ. ÙÇßï ϳñÍáõ³Í ¿, ÿ É»½áõÇ áõ μ³ñù»ñáõ ÝáÛÝáõÃÇõÝÁ ѳٻñ³ßËáõÃÇõÝ Û³é³ç ÏñÝ³Ý μ»ñ»É ó»Õ»ñáõ Ù¿ç. Ñáë Ñ³Û ÙÁ Ãáõñù¿Ý ϳñ»ÉÇ ã¿ ½³Ý³½³Ý»É. ÝáÛÝ ¹ÇÙ³·ÍáõÃÇõÝÁ áõÝÇÝ, ÝáÛÝ ß»ßïÁ áõÝÇÝ, ÝáÛÝ μ³ñù»ñÁ áõÝÇÝ ·ñ»Ã¿. ÏÉÇÙ³ÛÇÝ ïÇñ³Ï³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÇõÝÁ ³ñï³ùÇÝ »ñ¨áÛÃáí ¨ μ³ñùáí ÝáÛݳóáõó»ñ ¿ ½Çñ»Ýù. μ³Ûó ¹³ñÓ»³É ç³ñ¹, ³í»ñáõÙ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ... ²Ûë ݳٳÏë å³Ñ¿, ûñÁ ûñÇÝ ïå³õáñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñë ÏÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Ý, ÏñÝ³Ý å¿ïù ÁÉɳÉ... »Ã¿ áñ»õ¿ Ï»ñåáí ³Ý³å³Ñáí ½·³ë ÇÝù½ÇÝù¹, Û³ÝÓÝ¿ Bareille-ÇÝ Ý»ñ÷³Ï»³É¦£ 30 ²Ûë ݳٳÏÁ ݳ ·ñ»É ¿ ¹»é¨ë ²¹³Ý³ ãѳë³Í, μ³Ûó ÇÝãå»ë »ñ¨áõÙ ¿ μáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó, Ýñ³ Ùáï ³ñ¹»Ý Ó¨³íáñí³Í ϳñÍÇù ϳñ ϳï³ñí³ÍÇ, Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇ ¨ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñóáõÙ£ ܳ å³ñ½³å»ë ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³ÍÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ ÷ÝïñïáõùÇ Ù»ç ¿ñ£ ²í»ÉÇ áõß, »ñμ ³ñ¹»Ý »Õ»É ¿ñ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ μáÉáñ ³Õ»ï³í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ, Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ ³ÙáõëÝáõÝ Ýϳñ³·ñáõÙ ¿ Çñ μáÉáñ Ñá·ë»ñÝ áõ Ùï³ï³ÝçáõÙÝ»ñÝ` ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ Ññ³ï³å ѳñó»ñÇÝ£ ²Ûëå»ë` §îÇ·ñ³Ý ºë³»³ÝÇÝ, 1909 Ã., ë»åï»Ùμ»ñ, Ø»ñëÇÝ êÇñ»ÉÇ îÇ·ñ³Ýë, ºñϳñ ׳Ùμáñ¹áõûݿ ÙÁ »ïùÁ, ï³Å³Ý³ÉÇ ïå³õáñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáí μ»éݳõáñáõ³Í` áÕç, ³éáÕç ѳë³Û Ø»ñëÇÝ, ³Ýóݻɿ »ïùÁ ѳë³Ýù êÇë, »ñ»ù ûñ ÙݳóÇÝù ÑáÝ, Ñ»ïá ׳Ùμ³Û »É³Ýù, ѳë³Ýù Ô³ñë-´³½³ñ, ...¶Çß»ñ ÙÁ, ÙݳóÇÝù ÑáÝ ¨ Ñ»ï»õ»³É ûñÁ ѳë³Ýù úëÙ³ÝÇ¿£ Ðáë ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á ËáÑ»Ùáõû³Ùμ ß³ñÅ»ÉáõÝ áõ Çñ ³Õ³Ý»ñáõÝ ÇÝãå»ë ù³Ñ³Ý³Ý»ñáõÝ ËûëùÇÝ ³Ýë³ÉáõÝ ÑÇÙݳ۳ï³Ï ÏáñͳÝáõ³Í ¿. úëÙ³ÝÇ¿ Áݹ³ñÓ³Ï ï»Õ ¿, ³õ»ñ³ÏÝ»ñÁ í»ñç ãáõÝÇÝ, 3 ïáõÝ ÙdzÛÝ ³½³ïáõ³Í »Ý, 800 Ñá·Ç Ññ³ó³Ýáí, ëñáí, ÇÝãå¿ë ݳ¨ ϳóÝáí ëå³Ýáõ³Í ¿ áõ 200 Ñá·Ç ³Ûñ³Í ¿ »Ï»Õ»óÇÇÝ Ù¿ç£ ²Ûë Ãí»ñÁ í³í»ñ³Ï³Ý ã»Ý ¨ Ýí³½³·áõÛÝ ã³÷Á ÏÁ Ý߳ݳϻݣ ê³ñë³÷»ÉÇ ·Çß»ñ ÙÁ ³ÝóáõóÇÝù Ñáë ï³Ý ÙÁ Ù¿ç, áõñ 25 ³ñϳͻ³É ÁÝï³ÝÇù å³ïëå³ñ³Í ¿£ лï»õ»³É ³éïáõÝ ³ñß³ÉáÛëÇÝ ×³Ùμ³ »É³Ýù, ѳë³Ýù ¾ñ½ÇÝ, áõñ Ýå³ëï μ³ßË»Éáõ å³ïñáõ³Ïáí ï»ë³Ýù Ù»ñ μ³Ýï³ñÏ»³ÉÝ»ñÁ, ï»ë³Ýù ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ 5 ѳۻñÁ, áñ ϳ˳ճÝÇ ¹³ï³å³ñïáõ³Í »Ý ¨ áñáÝó Ù»ç 14 ï³ñ»Ï³Ý å³ï³ÝÇ ÙÁ ϳۦ£31 ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ³Õ»ïÇÝ ß³ï»ñÝ »Ý ³Ý¹ñ³¹³ñӻɣ ¶ñí»É »Ý ï³ñ³μÝáõÛÃ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ·áñÍ»ñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹ñ³Ýó ß³ñùáõÙ ³é³ÝÓݳÝáõÙ »Ý ѳïϳå»ë ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ ·áñÍ»ñÁ£ лﳷ³ÛáõÙ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó Çñ μáÉáñ ïå³íáñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»É ¿ ³é³ÝÓÇÝ ·ñùáõÙ ¨ 1911 Ã. Î. äáÉëáõÙ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ï»É Çñ Ý߳ݳíáñ §²í»ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÝ Ù»ç¦ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÝ ³Û¹ ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¹»åù»ñÇÝ ÝíÇñí³Í ³Ù»Ý³Ï³ñ¨áñ ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÝ ¿£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ³Õ»ïÁ ¼³å»ÉÝ ³ñï³óáÉ»É ¿ ݳ¨ ·»Õ³ñí»ëï³Ï³Ý »ñÏ»ñáõÙ` §²Ý»ÍùÁ¦32 íÇå³ÏáõÙ, §ê³ýÇ»¦,33 §Üáñ ѳñëÁ¦34 å³ïÙí³ÍùÝ»ñáõÙ£ ²Ûë ëï»Õͳ·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõ٠ݳ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ ѳϳé³Ï ÏáÕÙÇó Ý³Û»É Ï³ï³ñí³ÍÇÝ` ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí á×ñÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏÇó ¹³ñÓ³Í Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ѻﳷ³ ׳ϳﳷñÇÝ£ ܳ ³Ù»Ýáõñ ÙÇ³Ï Ù»Õ³íáñ ï»ëÝáõÙ ¿ñ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý å»ïáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ¨ áã Ïáõñáñ»Ý Ýñ³Ý Ñ»ï¨áÕ Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ §ºñ»Ïá»³Ý Å³ÙáõÝ ïå³õáñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ²ï³Ý³Û¿¦ Ñá¹í³ÍÁ, áñÁ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí»É ¿ñ 1911 Ã. §²½³ï³Ù³ñïáõÙ¦ ݳ ³Ûëå»ë ¿ »½ñ³÷³ÏáõÙ Çñ ËáëùÁ` ÃáÕÝ»Éáí í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÙÇÙdzÛÝ ÁÝûñóáÕÇÝ. §Ð»ï½Ñ»ï» ÏÙûï»Ý³Ý... ѳٳã³÷ áõ 30 â³ñ»ÝóÇ ³Ýí. ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³ñí»ëïÇ Ã³Ý·³ñ³ÝÇ ýáݹ»ñ, ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ ýáݹ, ѳÙ. 248 (3)£ 31 ºë³Û³Ý ¼³å»É, ܳٳÏÝ»ñ, ¿ç 103-105£ 32 §²½³ï³Ù³ñï¦, 1911, ÃÇí 20, ¿ç 621-628£ 33 §²½³ï³Ù³ñï¦, 1911, ÃÇí 13, ¿ç 1028-1031 (4-6)£ 34 §²½³ï³Ù³ñï¦, 1911, ÃÇí 39, (¿ç 601-603, 3-5)£

12


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

½ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý ù³ÛÉ»ñáí ·Çß»ñ³å³Ñ çáϳï ÙÁ ÏÁ Û³é³ç³Ý³Û ³õ»ñ³Ï ù³Õ³ùÇÝ Ù¿ç... Ç ½áõñ ÏÁ ×·ÝÇÙ ïñ³Ù³μ³Ý»É, Ç ½áõñ ÏÁ Ó·ïÇ٠ϳéãÇÉ Ñ³ßïáõû³Ý ¨ ˳ճÕáõû³Ý ËáëïáõÙÝ»ñáõ... £ ²Û¹ ù³ÛÉ»ñáõÝ ³ÕÙáõÏÇÝ Ù¿ç Ñá·Çë, áõñ ³Û¹ å³ÑáõÝ ³å³ëï³Ý³Í »Ý μáÉáñ ³ñϳͻ³ÉÝ»ñáõ áË»ñÝ áõ ï³é³å³ÝùÁ, Ñá·Çë ÏÁ ϳñÍ¿ Éë»É ¹³ñ³õáñ ÃßݳÙÇÇÝ Û³é³ç˳ճóáõÃÇõÝÁ... ³Û¹ ù³ÛÉ»ñáõ ³ÕÙáõÏÁ ³õ»ñ³Ï ¨ Ññ¹»Ñáõ³Í ù³Õ³ùÇÝ Ù¿ç...¦£35 ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ ã¹³¹³ñ»ó Ñá· ï³Ý»É ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ÙÇÝ㨠1921 ã 1920 Ã. Ù³ñïÇÝ Édz½áñí»Éáí ö³ñÇ½Ç Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ³½·³ÛÇÝ å³ïíÇñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó, ݳ ųٳݻó ÎÇÉÇÏdz` áñå»ë ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÇ ùÝÝÇã£36 Üñ³ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ ½áõ·³¹Çå»ó Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ³½·³ÛÇÝ ß³ñÅÙ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹»å ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÏïñáõÏ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ üñ³ÝëdzóÇÝ»ñÇ ¨ ù»Ù³É³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»ñÓ»óáõÙÁ íï³Ý·Ç ï³Ï ¿ñ ¹ÝáõÙ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ 1920 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 2-ÇÝ ºë³Û³ÝÁ ѳٳӳÛÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ ·³ÉÇë ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ ·Ý¹³å»ï ´ñ»ÙáÝÇ Ñ»ï` áñμ»ñÇÝ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇó ¹áõñë μ»ñ»Éáõ ѳñóáõÙ£ 700 áñμ»ñ ï»Õ³÷áËíáõÙ »Ý Ø»ñëÇÝ£ üñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛ³Ý áñáßÙ³Ùμ ³Ûëï»Õ ëï»ÕÍíáõÙ ¿ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÙÇáõÃÛáõÝ, áñÇ ïÝûñÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÏñÏÇÝ ëï³ÝÓÝáõÙ ¿ ºë³Û³ÝÁ£ ÐáõÝÇë ³ÙëÇÝ Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ Ï»Ýïñáݳó³Í áñμ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ï»Õ³÷áËáõÙ »Ý ÎÇåñáë, ÇëÏ ³ñ¹»Ý 1921 Ã. Ùݳó³Í áñμ»ñÁ ѳݷñí³Ý »Ý ·ïÝáõÙ êÇñdzÛáõÙ ¨ ÈÇμ³Ý³ÝáõÙ:37 ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³½¹»óáõÃÛ³Ý ï³Ï ¼. ºë³Û³ÝÇ Ïñ³Í ï³é³å³ÝùÝ»ñÁ Ýñ³Ý áõÕ»Ïó»óÇÝ Çñ ³ÙμáÕç ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ£ ²ÛÝ, ÇÝã ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³í 1909 Ã. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ, óÝó»ó áÕç ѳÛáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ гñÛáõñ³íáñ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ·³ÉÇë ¿ÇÝ ³Û¹ §³í»ñǦ »ñÏÇñÁ, áñå»ë½Ç ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ï»ëÝ»Ý Ï³ï³ñí³ÍÁ, û·Ý»Ý ³Õ»ïÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³ÝÝ û·Ý»Éáõ ѳñóáõ٠ѳïϳå»ë Ù»Í ¿ñ Ñ³Û Ï³Ý³Ýó ¹»ñÁ£ ²Õ»ïÇó Ñ»ïá ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó ßÝáñÑÇí ÑÇÙÝí»óÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ, μ³óí»óÇÝ ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, áñï»Õ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåíáõÙ ¿ñ ѳۻñ»Ý É»½íÇ áõëáõóáõÙÁ£ ²Ûë ·áñÍáõ٠ѳïϳå»ë ³ÏïÇí ¿ñ §²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³ó ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦, áñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ Çñ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ ß³ñáõݳϻó ÙÇÝ㨠гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñÇÝ»ñÁ£ ػͳå»ë ¹ñ³ ßÝáñÑÇí ÏÇÉÇÏÇ³Ñ³Û Ù³ÝáõÏÝ»ñÇ ¨ áñμ»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ Ñݳñ³íáñ »Õ³í å³Ñå³Ý»É Ñ³Û ÇÝùÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ó»ñμ³Ï³ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ»ó ѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ£ ²Ûë μ³Ýï³ñÏÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ ѳñóáõ٠ѳïϳå»ë Ù»Í ¿ñ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ÏÇÝ ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ ¹»ñÁ£ Üñ³Ýù û·ïí»Éáí ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÇó, áñ Ãáõñù å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÝ ³é³ÝÓݳå»ë Éáõñç ã»Ý í»ñ³μ»ñíáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ϳñáÕ³ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ï»ë³Ïó»É μ³Ýï³ñÏÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ, û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ óáõó³μ»ñ»É ¨ ³Ý·³Ù ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É Ýñ³Ýó ÷³ËáõëïÁ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ Í³í³É³Í ÏÇÝ ³ÝÑ³ï ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇó ѳïϳå»ë ³é³ÝÓݳÝáõÙ ¿ñ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ, áí 1909 Ã.-Çó ³Ýѳí³ë³ñ å³Ûù³ñ ¿ñ ÙÕáõÙ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹»Ù Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÇ áõ Ýñ³Ýó ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³Ñå³ÝÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ:

35 ºë³Û³Ý ¼³å»É, ºñ»Ïá»³Ý Å³ÙáõÝ ïå³õáñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ, §²½³ï³Ù³ñï¦, Î.äáÉÇë, 1910, ÃÇí 4, ¿ç (52-56), (4-8); â³ñ»ÝóÇ ³Ýí. ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³ñí»ëïÇ Ã³Ý·³ñ³ÝÇ ýáݹ»ñ, ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ ýáݹ, ѳÙ. 677£ 36 ¸³ñ ÙÁ å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ Ð³Û μ³ñ»·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÙÇáõû³Ý£ Ðï. 1-ÇÝ, 1906-1940; ¶³ÑÇñ¿, 2006, ¿ç 120£ 37 î»°ë ²½³ï»³Ý È., Ýßí. ³ßË., 2002, ¿ç 84£

13


²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý ²Ýݳ

Anna Aleksanyan The Social Activities of the Armenian women in Cilicia after 1909 Massacres. (e.g of Z. Esayan and A. Teodik) Summary After 1909 massacres the Ottoman Armenians did their best to help those who suffered during Adana massacres. The Armenian women were also involved in the relief mission to help orphans, widows and prisoners. Many witnesses published voluminous works, articles trying to assess the situation and to find out real organizers and causes of the massacres. In this respect, the works of Zabel Esayan and Arshakuhi Teodik present very important sources as an eyewitness account. The authors refered the Western Armenian women, who played an active role in supporting Cilician Armenians after the disaster. Armenian female activists gave their own appreciation of the situation in their works, memoirs and letters.

14


1909Ã. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºì вȺäÆ ìÆȲںÂܺðàôØ îºÔÆ àôܺò²Ì Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ ÄàÔàì𸲶ð²Î²Ü кîºì²ÜøܺðÀ ²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý ¸³ñ»ñ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý í³ñ³Í Ñ³Û³Ñ³É³Í ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã Ù³ëÝ ¿ »Õ»É ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ï³ñ³ÍùÝ»ñÇ ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÁ` Ç Ýå³ëï Ãáõñù ¨ ùáõñ¹ ¿ÃÝá¹³í³Ý³Ï³Ý ï³ññÇ£ ¸»é XVI-XVIII ¹³ñ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ áÕç ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ Ñ»ï¨áճϳÝáñ»Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí»É ¿ ѳۻñÇ μéÝÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ£ ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó` ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý í³ñ³Í ³½·³ÛÇÝ, ëáódzɳϳÝ, ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý Ëïñ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ųٳݳÏÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ³ÝËáõë³÷»ÉÇáñ»Ý ѳݷ»óÝáõÙ ¿ñ »ñμ»ÙÝÇ Ñ³Û³μÝ³Ï ï³ñ³ÍùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Û³Ã³÷Ù³ÝÁ£ XIX ¹³ñÇ í»ñçÇÝ ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÏïñáõÏ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳é ѳ¹Çë³ó³Ý úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ ѳ۳μÝ³Ï í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ·ñ»Ã» ÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³ÝáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝÇó` ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ²ØÜ ëÏë³Í ³ñï³·³ÕÃÁ£ XX ¹³ñ³ëϽμÇÝ ¹»åÇ ²ØÜ ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇ ï»Ùå»ñÁ ÙÇ ÷áùñ Ýí³½»É ¿ÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ 1909 Ã. ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³í»ÉÇ áõ ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï ѳۻñ Éù»óÇÝ Çñ»Ýó μÝûññ³ÝÁ` ³å³ëï³Ý»Éáí ³ÛÉ »ñÏñÝ»ñáõÙ£ ²ñï³·³ÕÃÇ ï»Ùå»ñÝ ³×»óÇÝ áã ÙdzÛÝ ç³ñ¹Çó ïáõÅ³Í Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñÇó, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨ ÙÛáõë ݳѳݷݻñÇó, áõñ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÇ ë³ñë³÷Ý»ñÁ áñ¨¿ ÑáõÛë ã¿ÇÝ ÃáÕ»É ³å³·³ÛÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å£ æ³ñ¹Ý ¿³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý ³½¹»ó Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ áõ ѳ۳μÝ³Ï í³Ûñ»ñÇ Ñ³Û³Ã³÷Ù³Ý íñ³, áñÝ Çñ ·³·³ÃݳϻïÇÝ Ñ³ë³í 1915-1923 ÃÃ. гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí£ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç áñáß μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Ý ÅáÕáíÁñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý áñáß³ÏÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ³ñӳݳ·ñí»óÇÝ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ï»Õ³ß³ñÅ»ñ, áñáÝó ¿É Ï÷áñÓ»Ýù ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝ³É ³Ûë áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³ñӳݳ·ñí³Í ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³ñÏ »Ýù ѳٳñáõÙ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝ³É Ñ»Ýó ç³ñ¹Ç ½áÑ»ñÇ Ùáï³íáñ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ Ñëï³Ï»óÙ³Ùμ£ ²Ûëï»Õ ï»ë³Ï»ïÝ»ñÝ áõ μ»ñí³Í óáõó³ÝÇßÝ»ñÁ ï³ñμ»ñ »Ý, ù³Ý½Ç ËÇëï ѳϳë³Ï³Ý »Ý å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ¨` ÙÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó` ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ¨ ûï³ñ ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ£ æ³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ѳßí³ñÏ»ÉÇë ßñç³Ý³éí»ó 30000 ÃÇíÁ£ àñáß Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã»ñûñÇ Ñ³ßíáõÙÝ»ñáí ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ ½áÑ ¿ñ ·Ý³ó»É 35000-Çó ³í»ÉÇ Ù³ñ¹, ³Ûñí»É ¿ÇÝ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ï³ëÝÛ³Ï ·ÛáõÕ»ñ:1 Æß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ³Ûë ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ ³ñÓ³·³Ýù»óÇÝ ËÇëï μ³ó³ë³Ï³Ý Ï»ñåáí£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáõë³Ï³É Øáõëï³ý³ ¼»ÑÝÇÝ ÝßáõÙ ¿ñ, áñ ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ 30000 ѳßí»ÉÁ ½ñå³ñïáõÃÛáõÝ ¿` Ýß»Éáí, áñ ½áÑ»ñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÃÇíÁ 10000Çó ùÇã ¿:2 Îáïáñ³ÍÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»Éáõ ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó ϳñ¨áñíáõÙ »Ý ÝáõÛÝ 1909 Ã. ϳ½Ùí³Í ï»Õ»Ï³·ñ»ñÁ, áñáÝóÇó Ù»ÏÁ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ºñ»ë÷áË³Ý³Ï³Ý ÅáÕáíÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ÎÇÉÇÏÇá ³Õ»ïÇ ùÝÝÇã гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ÇñÝ ¿, áñáõÙ, Ëáë»Éáí ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃíÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿. §Àëï Ç٠ϳï³ñ³Í ùÝÝáõû³Ý ³ñ¹ÇõÝùÇÝ ³ÝÓ»ñáõ Ïáñáõë1 гۻñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ. ö³ëï³ÃÕûñÇ ¨ ÝÛáõûñÇ ÅáÕáí³Íáõ, ϳ½ÙáÕ` Ü»ñëÇëÛ³Ý Ø.¶., ê³Ñ³ÏÛ³Ý è.¶., ºñ., 1991, ¿ç 239£ 2 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 302£

15


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

ïÁ 25 ϳ٠30000 ÏÁ ѳëÝÇ. ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ å³ßïûݳå¿ë 2500 ùñÇëïáÝ»³Û ¨ 1900 Çëɳ٠ÏÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ¿ñ... æ³ñ¹áõáÕ ùñÇëïáÝ»³Ý»ñáõÝ ÃÇõÁ ͳÍÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ³Ù¿Ý ÙÇçáóÇ ¹ÇÙ³Í »Ý. ½³Ý³½³Ý í³Ûñ»ñáõ ù³Ñ³Ý³Ý»ñÁ, ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÁ ¨ ÙáõËóñÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ÙdzÛÝ åÇïÇ ÏÁñݳÛÇÝ ï³É ×Çß¹ ·³Õ³÷³ñ ÙÁ ç³ñ¹áõ³ÍÝ»ñáõÝ Ù³ëÇÝ, μáÉáñÁ ëå³ÝÝáõ³Í »Ý¦:3 ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ³ÝÑݳñ ¿ ï³É ½áÑ»ñÇ ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý ÃÇíÁ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ½³Ý³½³Ý Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ³·³ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ ¨ë Ï³Ý ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñ, áñáÝó ÃÇíÁ Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ Ñëï³Ï»óݻɣ ܳ Çñ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõÙ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §æ³ñ¹»ñÁ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í »Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ ¨ ³éáõïáõñÇ ³Ù»Ý¿Ý »éáõ½»é ßñç³ÝÇÝ, ²Ý³ïûÉáõÇ ½³Ý³½³Ý ݳѳݷݻñ¿Ý` ¨ ÝáÛÝ ÇëÏ ØáõëáõÉÇ ÝÙ³Ý ³ÛÝù³Ý Ñ»é³õáñ ݳѳݷ¿ ÙÁ ѳë³Í ·áñͳõáñÝ»ñáõ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÃÇõÁ 40 ϳ٠50 ѳ½³ñ¿Ý Ýáõ³½ å¿ïù ã¿ñ ÁÉɳɣ ²Ûë ÃÇõÇÝ ³éÝáõ³½Ý Ï¿ëÁ ϳ½Ùáõ³Í ¿ñ гۻñ¿` áñáÝó ٻͳ·áÛÝ Ù³ëÁ ç³ñ¹áõ³Í ¿¦£4 гÛáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ ²½·³ÛÇÝ í³ñãáõÃÛ³Ý ùÝÝÇã Ù³ëݳËÙμÇ Ï³½Ù³Í ï»Õ»- ϳ·ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ³Õ»ïÇÝ ½áÑ ¿ñ ·Ý³ó»É 18839 ѳÛ, 1250 ÑáõÛÝ, 1272 ³ëáñÇ, ÁݹѳÝáõñ ³éÙ³Ùμ` ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ` 21361, гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ` 1151 Ù³ñ¹, Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ` 22512 Ñá·Ç, Áݹ áñáõÙ` ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõÙ Ñëï³Ï»óíáõÙ ¿, áñ §³ëáÝó Ù¿ç ã»Ý ·ÁïÝáõÇñ å³Ý¹áõËïÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝó ÃÇõÁ ÙÇßï ³Ýáñáß Ùݳó³Í ¿¦:5 ²Ûë ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñáí` ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ³·³ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ 9780 Ù³ñ¹,6 ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ §²½³ï³Ù³ñïáõÙ¦ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí³Í íÇ׳ϳ·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ 18627 ѳÛ:7 10293 Ù³ñ¹, ѳٳӳÛÝ ³Ûë íÇ׳ϳ·ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ ßñç³Ï³ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ, 2762-Á` ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ë³Ý»ñáõÙ.8 å³ñ½ ¿, áñ ËáëùÝ ³Ûë »ñÏáõ ¹»åùáõÙ ¿É ³ÛÉ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇó ³ñﳷݳ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ Ù»ÏݳÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿, áíù»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏdz ¿ÇÝ Å³Ù³Ý»É Ð³×ÝÇó, λë³ñdzÛÇó, ê»μ³ëïdzÛÇó, ʳñμ»ñ¹Çó, سɳÃdzÛÇó£ ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ Ñ³ÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ Ï³½Ù³Í ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ óáõÛó ¿ ï³ÉÇë, áñ ³ÛÝ ³Ýϳï³ñ ¿ áã ÙdzÛÝ ³ÛÝ ³éáõÙáí` áñ ãÇ ï³ÉÇë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ½áÑ ·Ý³ó³Í å³Ý¹áõËïÝ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ, ³Ûɨ ³Ûëï»Õ ßñç³Ýóí³Í »Ý ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ÙÇ ß³ñù μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñ, áñáÝù ¨ë »ÝóñÏí»É »Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇ áõ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ áõÝ»ó»É£ سëݳíáñ³å»ë, ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõÙ ã»Ý ÑÇß³ï³ÏíáõÙ î³ñëáÝáõÙ ¨ Ýñ³ ßñç³Ï³ÛùáõÙ ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñÁ£ ²Ù»ñÇϳóÇ Éñ³·ñáÕ ¨ ¹»åù»ñÇ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë Ð. ²¹³Ù ¶ÇμμáÝëÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ 100 Ñá·Ç ëå³Ýí»É ¿ î³ñëáÝáõÙ, 400-Á` Ùáï³Ï³ ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ:9 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë â³ñɽ ìáõ¹ëÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` î³ñëáÝáõÙ ÑÇÙݳѳï³Ï ³í»ñí»É ¿ñ 800 ïáõÝ,10 ³í»ñí»É ¿ÇÝ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñ, óɳÝí»É ¿ñ ѳۻñÇ áÕç áõÝ»óí³ÍùÁ:11 ¶ñ»Ã» ÝáõÛÝ ïíÛ³ÉÝ ¿ ï³ÉÇë Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ, áñÇ Ñ³í³ëïÙ³Ùμ î³ñëáÝ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ 70, ßñç³Ï³ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï` 560 ѳÛ, áñÇó 160-Á` ¶á½áÉáõ· ·ÛáõÕáõÙ,12 áõñ ݳ¨ óɳÝí»É áõ ÑñÏǽí»É ¿ÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ßáõñç 75 ïÝ»ñÇó 68-Á:13 3 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 447£ 4 ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ. î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ Ú³Ïáμ ä³åÇÏ»³ÝÇ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1919, ¿ç 18£ 5 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 281£ 6 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 278£ 7 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 157£ 8 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 157£ 9 Gibbons Helen, The Red Rugs of Tarsus: A Women’s Story of the Armenian Massacres, Paris, 1919, p. 112. 10 Woods Ch., The Danger Zone of Europe. Changes and problems in the Near East, Boston, 1911, p. 148. 11 ìáõ¹ëÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` î³ñëáÝ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ 100, ßñç³Ï³ ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ` 500 ùñÇëïáÝÛ³£ 12 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 166£ 13 Woods Ch., Ýßí.³ßË., ¿ç 150:

16


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

²ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, ãÝ³Û³Í ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ ³ë»É, áñ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 30000 ѳÛ, áñÇó 18627-Á` ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¨ ßñç³Ï³ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ, 10000-Çó ³í»ÉÇ ¿É` ³ÛÉ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ£ »ñ¨ë ë³ Ñ³Û å³ïÙ³·ÇïáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ѳëï³ïí³Í` ç³ñ¹ÇÝ ½áÑ ·Ý³ó³Í ѳۻñÇ ³é³í»É Çñ³Ï³Ý ÃÇíÝ ¿£ ²ÛëåÇëáí, ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý ѻ勉ÝùÁ 30000-Çó ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ñ£ ºÃ» ï³ñμ»ñ ݳѳݷݻñÇó »Ï³ÍÝ»ñÇ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¿³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý ã¿ñ ³½¹áõÙ ³Û¹ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÇ íñ³, ³å³ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç Ñ³Ù³ñ ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ Ù»Í Ñ³ñí³Í ¿ñ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇÝ£ Êáë»Éáí ³é³ÝÓÇÝ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ ïí³Í Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñÇ ÃíÇ Ù³ëÇÝ` Ýß»Ýù, áñ ç³ñ¹Çó ïáõÅ»óÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÁ£ æ³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³ñӳݳ·ñí³Í ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ³é³í»É ï»ë³Ý»ÉÇ ¿ÇÝ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ã³ï»ñ³μ»Ù ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áõ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ ·³í³éÝ»ñáõÙ£ Ð. ²ß×Û³ÝÇ μ»ñ³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳßííáõÙ ¿ñ 66000, áñÇó 22000-Á Ñ³Û ¿ÇÝ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` 20000 Éáõë³íáñã³Ï³Ý, 1500 μáÕáù³Ï³Ý, 500 ϳÃáÉÇÏ:14 Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ ѳۻñÇ ù³Ý³ÏÁ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõ٠ѳßíáõÙ ¿ 30000:15 è. ¶¨áñ·Û³ÝÇ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ï³Í 1913-1914 ÃÃ. å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕç ·³í³é³Ïáõ٠ѳßííáõÙ ¿ñ 27990 ѳÛ:16 лï³ùñùÇñÝ ³ÛÝ ¿, áñ ·³í³é³ÏáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í í»ó ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÃÇíÁ ·ñ»Ã» ÝáõÛÝÝ ¿, ÇÝã 1908 Ã. ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ, ÇëÏ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ μݳÏíáÕ Ñ³Û»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ μ»ñí³Í ¿ Ýáñ ÃÇí. 1908 Ã. å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñ¹³Ñ³Ù³ñÇ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ³ñӳݳ·ñí³Í ¿ñ 17844 ѳÛ,17 1913 Ã. Ù³ñ¹³Ñ³Ù³ñÇ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñáí` 26430 ѳÛ:18 Ü³Ñ³Ý·Ç ÙÛáõë μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É ¨ë μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÙ »Ý Ýáñ` 1913-1914 ÃÃ. í»ñ³μ»ñáÕ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ ¨ 1908 Ã. ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ »Ý áñå»ë ݳ˳å³ï»ñ³½ÙÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝÇ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñ£ îíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹Åí³ñ³óÝáõÙ ¿ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÁ, ûñ¨ë, ÝáõÛÝå»ë ãÇ ïÇñ³å»ï»É Ýáñ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ, ³Û¹ ÇëÏ å³ï׳éáí Ý»ñϳ۳óí»É »Ý ÑÇÝ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ£ ÆÝã í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇÝ, ³å³ ³Ûë ¹»åùáõÙ, ûñ¨ë, Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í ÃÇíÁ Ùáï ¿ ×ßÙ³ñïáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ãÝ³Û³Í μ³½Ù³Ñ³½³ñ ½áÑ»ñÇÝ, ù³Õ³ùÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇó Ñ»ïá ¨ë Ùݳó áñå»ë ѳ۳߳ï Ï»ÝïñáÝ, ٳݳí³Ý¹ áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³Ûëï»Õ ѳëï³ïí»óÇÝ Ý³¨ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ÷áùñ³ÃÇí ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ áñáß μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ Ñ³Û»ñ£ êñ³Ýáí ¿ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÁ, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ù³Õ³ùáõ٠ѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÁ áã û Ýí³½»ó, ³ÛÉ 1908 Ã. ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù»Ù³ï ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ³×»ó£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç μ³½Ù³ÃÇí μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÝ ³ÛÝù³Ý ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ ¿ÇÝ, áñ ¹ñ³Ýó ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ ÷ñÏí»É ¿ÇÝ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ϳݳÛù, »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñ áõ ѳïáõÏ»Ýï ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ£ ²Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñáõÑÇ èááõ½ ȳÙμ»ñïÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ç³ñ¹Ç ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÝ §³í»ÉÇ ¹ÛáõñÇÝ ¿ å³ïÏ»ñ³óÝ»É, »ñμ ѳëϳÝáõÙ »ë, áñ Ýñ³Ýù ³åñáõÙ »Ý ÙÇ »ñÏñáõÙ, áñï»Õ ϳݳÛù ÙÇßï å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñÇù áõݻݦ£ ØÇëÇáÝ»ñáõÑÇÝ, Ëáë»Éáí ç³ñ¹Ç ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ, ûñÇݳÏ, ÙÇ ÁÝï³14 ²ß×»³Ý Ð., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ »õ ¶áÝdzۿ Ûáõß»ñ, ÜÇõ ºáñù, 1950, ¿ç 15£ 15 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 7£ 16 La Cilicie (1909-1921) Des massacres d’Adana au mandat Français, Volume préparé par Raymond H. Kévorkian, Paris, 1999, p. 25. 17 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, ¿ç 47£ 18 La Cilicie (1909-1921) Des massacres d’Adana au mandat français, p. 25.

17


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

ÝÇùáõÙ ëå³Ýí»É »Ý 23 ѳñ³½³ïÝ»ñÁ£ Ø»Ï ³ÛÉ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÇó, áñÝ áõÝ»ñ 32 »ñ»Ë³ áõ Ãáé, áÕç ¿ÇÝ Ùݳó»É ÑÇí³Ý¹ å³åÁ, Í»ñ ï³ïÁ, ÙÇ áñ¹Ç áõ Ù»Ï Ãáé:19 Üß»Ýù ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ãí³Ï³Ý ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñ, áñáÝù å³ñ½ å³ïÏ»ñ³óáõÙ Ïï³Ý ç³ñ¹Ç áÕç ë³ñë³÷Ý»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ·³í³é³ÏÇ ²åïûÕÉáõ ·ÛáõÕÝ áõÝ»ñ 130 ïáõÝ μݳÏÇã, áñÇó 100 ïáõÝÁ` ѳۣ æ³ñ¹Ç Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ·ÛáõÕáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ ßáõñç 400 å³Ý¹áõËï Ñ³Û Ùß³ÏÝ»ñ:20 ¶ÛáõÕáõÙ ëå³Ýí»ó 600 Ù³ñ¹. ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ·ÛáõÕÇ ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ Ñ³Û μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇó ÷ñÏí»É ¿ñ ÙdzÛÝ ÙÇ ïÕ³, áñÝ ¿É ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ٳѳó³í μÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³Ñáí:21 ÜáõÛÝ ·³í³é³ÏÇ ØÇëÇë ·ÛáõÕÇ 150 ïáõÝ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇó ÷ñÏí»óÇÝ ÙdzÛÝ ßáõñç 100 ³ÛñÇÝ»ñ áõ ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñ:22 §øÇõñïä³Õã¿, ²ñ÷³ÉÁ, οÙÇ-êÇõñ¿Ý, ²åÇïÇÝ-÷³ß³ Áëáõ³Í ·ÇõÕ»ñÁ ³Ûñ»ñ¿Ý ½³ï áã ïÕ³Û Ó·³Í »Ý áÕç ¨ áã ÏÇݦ,- ѳí³ëïáõÙ ¿ Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ:23 úëÙ³ÝÇ»Ý ç³ñ¹Çó ³é³ç áõÝ»ñ 1000 ïáõÝ μݳÏÇã, áñÇó 200 ïáõÝÁ ٻͳٳë³Ùμ ѳ×ÝóÇ μ³ñ»Ï»óÇÏ Ñ³Û»ñ ¿ÇÝ£ ²Ûëï»Õ ³ÝÓÇ ÏáñáõëïÁ ϳ½ÙáõÙ ¿ñ 1500 Ñá·Ç:24 Ø»Í Ãíáí ½áÑ»ñ ïí»ó ѳïϳå»ë гÙǹǻݣ â. ìáõ¹ëÇ Ñ³í³ëïÙ³Ùμ гÙÇ¹Ç»Ç 2000 ½áÑ»ñÇó 500-Á ëå³Ýí»óÇÝ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ, 1500-Á` ¹³ßï»ñáõÙ.25 ³Ûë ½áÑ»ñÇó ß³ï»ñÝ, ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝ Ñ³í³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ³ñﳷݳ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ »Ï³ÍÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ£ Àëï Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÇ μ»ñí³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ, гÙÇ¹Ç»Ç (Îá½³ÝÇ ·³í³é) 1003 ѳۻñÇó ÷ñÏí»É ¿ñ ÙdzÛÝ 90 ÏÇÝ, áñáÝóÇó »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹Ý»ñÁ Ïñáݳ÷áË ¿ÇÝ ³ñí»É:26 ¼áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÝ ³Ûëï»Õ ϳ½ÙáõÙ ¿ñ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßáõñç 91%-Á£ ÆÝã í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ ¿ г×ÁÝ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ, ³å³ ³Ûëï»Õ ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ßÝáñÑÇí û¨ ½»ñÍ Ùݳó Ïáïáñ³ÍÇó, μ³Ûó, ÇÝãå»ë ѳí³ëïáõÙ ¿ гÛáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ Î»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý ³ÛñdzËݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ùÝÝÇã-å³ïíÇñ³Ï Ä³Ï ê³Û³å³ÉÛ³ÝÁ, §³Ù¿Ý¿Ý Ù»Í ³ÝÓÇ Ïáñáõëï áõÝ»óáÕ ï»ÕÝ ¿ г×ÁÝ£ ¸áõñëÁ ·ïÝáõ»Éáí ç³ñ¹áõáÕÝ»ñáõÝ ÃÇõÁ (áñáÝó Ù¿ç Ï³Ý Ý³»õ ÏÇÝ»ñ áõ ïÕ³ùÝ»ñ) ÏÁ ѳëÝÇ Ñ³½³ñÝ»ñáõ¦:27 ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÇ Ýß³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` г×ÁÝáõÙ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝ ãϳñ 3000 ѳۻñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, áñáÝù ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ:28 гë³Ý ä»ÛÉÇÝ (æ»μ»É ´»ñ»ù»ÃÇ ·³í³é) 1908 Ã. å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñ¹³Ñ³Ù³ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ áõÝ»ñ 1848 Ñ³Û μݳÏÇã:29 ²Ûëï»Õ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÁ ϳ½Ù»ó 285 Ñá·Ç£ îáÏáë³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ñ³μ»ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ñ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßáõñç 15,4%-Á£ »¨ ³ÏÝѳÛï ¿ñ, áñ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñ¹³Ñ³Ù³ñÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ³Í ÃÇíÁ ã¿ñ ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïáõÙ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÁ, ³ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñÇ ù³Ý³ÏÁ ¿³Ï³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ Ï³ñáÕ ¿ñ áõÝ»Ý³É Ý³¨ ѳۻñÇ ³í»ÉÇ Ù»Í³ù³Ý³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åùáõÙ£ ê. ä³ñè۳ÝÇ μ»ñ³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` 2000 Ñ³Û ¿ñ ëå³Ýí»É ø»ë³åáõÙ:30 سñ³ßÇ ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇó ê³ñÁɳñáõÙ 15 ï³ñ»Ï³ÝÇó μ³ñÓñ μáÉáñ ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ÇÝ, ÎÛáù×»Ûǽ ·ÛáõÕáõÙ ÝáõÛÝå»ë Ù³ÝáõÏÝ»ñÇó áõ ϳݳÝóÇó ½³ï ÙÛáõëÝ»ñÁ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ÇÝ:31 19 Lambert R., Hadjin, and the Armenian Massacres, p. 87. 20 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 176 21 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 182£ 22 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 182£ 23 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 253£ 24 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 195, 202£ 25 Woods Ch., Ýßí.³ßË., ¿ç 156: 26 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 194£ 27 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ 1910 ë»åï.11-1912 ë»åï. 11, Ú³õ»Éáõ³Í î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ å³ïáõÇñ³Ï ä. ij· ê³Û³å³É»³ÝÇ, ԳɳÃdz, 1912, ¿ç 50£ 28 ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ. î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ Ú³Ïáμ ä³åÇÏ»³ÝÇ, ¿ç 19£ 29 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 202£ 30 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ, Î. äûÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 43£ 31 ¶³Éáõëï»³Ý ¶ñ., سñ³ß ϳ٠¶»ñÙ³ÝÇÏ »õ Ñ»ñáë ¼¿ÛÃáõÝ, ¿ç 759£

18


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ÇÝãå»ë гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ ³í»ÉÇ í³Õ` ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ μéÝÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ¹»åù»ñÁ£ 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇÝ ê. ä³ñè۳ÝÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹³ñ³ÝÇó »Ï³Í ·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ, Çëɳٳó³Í ϳݳÛù áõ ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÁ Ñ»ï »Ý μ»ñíáõÙ ³é¨³Ý·ÇãÝ»ñÇ ÙáïÇó áõ ѳÝÓÝíáõÙ »Ï»Õ»óáõÝ, û¨ ß³ï»ñÁ, áõÙ ÷ÝïñáÕ, ׳ϳﳷñáí Ñ»ï³ùñùñíáÕ ãϳñ, ¹»é¨ë ÙÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ³é¨³Ý·ÇãÝ»ñÇ Ùáï` ѳïϳå»ë ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ:32 ²Ûë Ù³ëÇÝ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝ Ï³ ݳ¨ ųٳݳϳÏÇó Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë, ÙÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ÑÇß³ï³ÏíáõÙ »Ý ãáñë ϳݳÛù, áñáÝù ·ïÝí»É »Ý Ãáõñù êÏÛáõï³ñ Âá÷³Ý»ÉÇ ûÕÉáõÇ ïÝÇó ¨ μ»ñí»É å³ïñdzñù³ñ³Ý áõ Ñ»ïá ѳÝÓÝí»É ´»ñ³ÛÇ îÇÏݳÝó ÙÇáõÃÛ³Ý Ëݳٳï³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ:33 ²Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` гë³Ý ä»ÛÉÇáõÙ ¨ë μ³½Ù³ÃÇí »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñ áõ ϳݳÛù ¿ÇÝ ³é¨³Ý·í»É ¨ ³ÙÇëÝ»ñáí å³Ñí»É Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ, áõñ Ýñ³ÝóÇó ß³ï»ñÁ μéÝÇ Ãñù³óí»É »Ý:34 ÜáõÛÝÝ ³ñӳݳ·ñí»É ¿ ݳ¨ ȳμ³×ÉÁ, ʳéÝÇ, î»ñïÛáõÉ, ¶áÛ³·, ÎÛáù â³ÛÇñ ѳ۳μÝ³Ï ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ, áñï»Õ ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÁ, ¹»é³ïÇ Ï³Ý³Ûù ³é¨³Ý·í»É ¿ÇÝ ËáõųÝÇ ÏáÕÙÇó. ³½³ïí»É »Ý ß³ï ùã»ñÁ, áñáÝù ÷³Ëã»Éáí ³å³ëï³Ý»É »Ý üÝïÁ׳·áõÙ:35 ²Ûë ³éÝãáõÃÛ³Ùμ â. ìáõ¹ëÁ ÑÇß³ï³ÏáõÙ ¿ ØÇëÇëÇ Ñ³ÛáõÑÇÝ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝóÇó áÙ³Ýù Çñ»Ýó Ý»ï»óÇÝ ·»ïÝ áõ ÇÝùݳëå³Ý »Õ³Ý` Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ѳñ»ÙÝ»ñ ãÁÝÏÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ:36 ¸Åí³ñ ¿ ³ë»É, û μéÝÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý³óí³Í ³Ûë ϳݳÝóÇó ù³ÝÇëÁ ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ ÙݳóÇÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ùáï, μ³Ûó áñ ³Û¹åÇëÇù ϳÛÇÝ, ¹³ ϳëϳÍÇó í»ñ ¿, û¨ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³ëÁ, ³ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, í»ñ³¹³ñÓ³í ѳÛÇ ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³ÝÝ áõ ùñÇëïáÝ»³Ï³Ý ѳí³ïùÇÝ£ ²Ù³Û³ó³Í μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ç³ñ¹Çó ÷ñÏí³Í μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳÛïÝí»ó ³Ýû·Ý³Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏáõÙ£ ê. ä³ñè۳ÝÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ 40000 ѳۻñ Ùݳó»É ¿ÇÝ Ù»ñÏ áõ ³ÝáÃÇ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` 15000-Á ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 3000-Á` î³ñëáÝáõÙ, 1500` Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ, 10000` ø»ë³åáõÙ áõ Ýñ³ ßñç³Ï³ÛùáõÙ, ·ñ»Ã» ÝáõÛÝù³Ý` ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñ»ïáõÙ áõ ¸ÛáñÃ-ÚáÉáõÙ:37 ²Ûë Ù³ëÇÝ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ Î.äáÉëÇ éáõë³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý ¶. ¼ÇÝáí¨Á` ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ ÙÇÝÇëïñÇ ï»Õ³Ï³É â³ñÇÏáíÇÝ Ñ³ëó»³·ñí³Í Çñ 1909Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ 2-Ç ×»å³·ñáõÙ` íϳ۳Ïáã»Éáí Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ éáõë³Ï³Ý ÷áËÑÛáõå³ïáë سíñáÙ³ïÇÇ ïñ³Ù³¹ñ³Í ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ ì»ñçÇÝÇë ѳí³ëïÙ³Ùμ` §Çñ»Ýó áÕç áõÝ»óí³ÍùÁ Ïáñóñ³Í ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÁ Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ ½ñÏí³Í »Ý ³å³ëï³ÝÇó, ¨ áñ ٳѳóáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ýñ³Ýó Ù»ç ËÇëï Ý߳ݳϳÉÇó ã³÷Ç ¿ ѳëÝáõÙ¦:38 ²ÛëåÇëáí, ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ãë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ïí»ó Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñáí, ѻﳷ³ ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ Ù³Ñ³óáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Í ³× Ýϳïí»ó μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý, ѳïϳå»ë` »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ£ ²¹³Ý³Ûáõ٠ѳٳ׳ñ³Ï³ÛÇÝ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝ ëÏëí»ó, áñÇÝ ûñ³Ï³Ý ½áÑ ¿ÇÝ ·Ýáõ٠ѳñÛáõñ³íáñ Ù³ÝáõÏÝ»ñ£ ØdzÛÝ 1909 Ã. ³Ùé³Ý ÁÝóóùáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ 2000 »ñ»Ë³ ٳѳó³í ¹Ç½»Ýï»ñdzÛÇó:39 øÇã ã¿ñ ݳ¨ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó, ëáíÇó ٳѳó³Í ٻͳѳë³ÏÝ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ, ÇÝãÁ ÑÇÙù ¿ ï³ÉÇë »½ñ³Ï³óÝ»Éáõ, áñ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÝ ³í»ÉÇÝ ¿ñ, ù³Ý íϳ۳Ïáãí³Í 30000-Á£

32 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ,¿ç 71£ 33 §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦, ² ï³ñÇ, ÃÇõ 305, ¿ç 3£ 34 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶., Ð³Û É»éÁ. γñÙÇñ ¹ñáõ³·Ý»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ï¿Ý, ¿ç 52£ 35 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 53-56£ 36 Woods Ch., The Danger Zone of Europe. Changes and problems in the Near East, p. 155. 37 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ, ¿ç 46-47£ 38 гۻñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ, ¿ç 232£ 39 La Cilicie (1909-1921) Des massacres d’Adana au mandat français, p. 101.

19


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

ØÛáõë ϳñ¨áñ ¨ μ³ó³ë³Ï³Ý ѻ勉ÝùÁ, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ áõÝ»ó³Ý Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³, ÙÇ ß³ñù μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ Ñ³Û³Ã³÷áõÙÝ ¿ñ£ ÊáëùÁ ѳïϳå»ë ÙÇÝ㨠ç³ñ¹Á ÷áùñ³ÃÇí ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿, áñáÝó μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ Ïáïáñí»ó, ÇëÏ ÙÛáõëÝ»ñÁ ³å³ëï³Ý»óÇÝ ³ÛÉ` ³í»ÉÇ Ëáßáñ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ` ³Ûɨë ãí»ñ³¹³éݳÉáí ÍÝݹ³í³Ûñ£ г۳ó÷Ù³Ý ³éáõÙáí ³é³í»É ½·³ÉÇ ¿ÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñÁ ÙÇÝ㨠Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ ë³Ï³í³ÃÇí ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ. ûñÇݳÏ` 14 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û μݳÏÇã áõÝ»óáÕ øÛáù â³ÛÇñáõ٠ϳñ 15 ½áÑ£40 àÕç Ùݳó³ÍÝ»ñÝ ³å³ëï³Ý»óÇÝ üÁÝïÁ׳·áõÙ:41 20 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û áõÝ»óáÕ ¶áÛ³ù ·ÛáõÕÁ ïí»ó 15 ½áÑ, 30 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û áõÝ»óáÕ øÇßÝ»½Á` 35 ½áÑ:42 ÆëɳÑÇ»Ç ßñç³ÝÇ ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇó 40 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û áõÝ»óáÕ ø»ÉÉ»ñÁ ïí»ó 15 ½áÑ, 30 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û áõÝ»óáÕ ¾ÛÝÃÇÉÇÝ` 38 ½áÑ:43 øÇÝ»ëÉ»ñ ·ÛáõÕÇ 16 ³Ûñ»ñÇó ç³ñ¹Çó ÷ñÏí»óÇÝ 2-Á, áñáÝóÇó Ù»ÏÁ ²ÛÝó÷áõÙ ¿ñ, ÙÛáõëÝ ¿É ٳѳó³Í ¿ñ ѳٳñí»É:44 ²ñï³·³ÕÃÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ÷áùñ³ÃÇí ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÁ í»ñçݳϳݳå»ë ѳ۳ó÷í»óÇÝ£ æ³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ Ù»Í Ï³ñ¨áñáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ, »Ã» áã ³é³çÇÝÁ, ³ÛÉ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ³å³ëï³Ý³Í μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³¹³ñÓÝ ¿ñ£ ê³ Ý³Ë` Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ù»Í ËݹÇñ ¿ñ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ÷ñÏí³ÍÝ»ñÇó ß³ï»ñÁ ã¿ÇÝ å³ïÏ»ñ³óÝáõÙ, û ÇÝãå»ë ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ í»ñ³¹³éÝ³É ³ÛÝï»Õ, áõñ áã í³Õ ³ÝóÛ³ÉáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ³ãùÇ ³é³ç ëå³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ѳñ³½³ïÝ»ñÇÝ£ ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó` í»ñ³¹³éݳÉáí Çñ»Ýó μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñ, Ýñ³ÝóÇó ß³ï»ñÁ ÙݳÉáõ ¿ÇÝ ³Ýûè³Ý, ³é³Ýó ·áÛáõÃÛ³Ý áñ¨¿ ÙÇçáóÇ£ ²Û¹ å³ï׳éáí ¿É ÙÇÝ㨠ï³ñ»í»ñç μ³½Ù³ÃÇí μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñ ³Û¹å»ë ¿É Ùݳó»É ¿ÇÝ ³í»ñ³Ï, ³é³Ýó ݳËÏÇÝ μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇ, áñáÝóÇó ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ í»ñçÝ³Ï³Ý μݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ѳëï³ï»É ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ Ï³Ù Ñ³Û³ß³ï ³ÛÉ Ï»ÝïñáÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ÙÛáõëÝ»ñÝ ¿É ³ñï³·³ÕÃ»É ¿ÇÝ »ñÏñÇó£ æ³ñ¹Ç ûñ»ñÇó ëÏë»ó ¨ ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ áõŻճó³í ³ñï³·³ÕÃÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ï³ñμ»ñ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇó£ гñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ ÙÇÝ㨠Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ, ³ñï³·³ÕÃÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Çó Ù»Í ã³÷»ñÇ ã¿ñ ѳëÝáõÙ áõ ³Ýѳٻٳï»ÉÇ ¿ñ ²ñ¨ÙïÛ³Ý Ð³Û³ëï³ÝÇó ѳïϳå»ë ³Û¹ ųٳݳϳѳïí³ÍáõÙ ³ñӳݳ·ñí³Í ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇ ï»Ùå»ñÇ Ñ»ï£ ê³, ûñ¨ë, ϳåí³Í ¿ñ ݳѳݷáõÙ ¨ ѳïϳå»ë ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ áõ ѳñ³ÏÇó μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ÝϳïíáÕ ï»ë³Ý»ÉÇ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ³×Ç Ñ»ï£ ²ñï³·³ÕÃÝ áõŻճó³í ³ñ¹»Ý ç³ñ¹Ç ûñ»ñÇÝ£ §¼Çݳ¹³¹³ñ¿Ý »ïùÁ Ù»ñ Ù¿ç¿Ý ß³ï»ñ` ·É˳õáñ³å»ë áõÝ»õáñÝ»ñÁ, ëÏë³Ý ËáõÙμ ËáõÙμ ÷³ËãÇÉ ß᷻ϳéùáí ¹¿å Ç Ø¿ñëÇÝ ¨ ³ÝÏ¿ º·Çåïáë ϳ٠ÎÇåñáë£ Î³é³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ϳñÍ»ë` Ýϳï»Éáí áñ »ñÏñáñ¹ ç³ñ¹ÇÝ »ÝóñÏáõ»ÉÇù Ù³ñ¹ ãåÇïÇ Ùݳñ, ËëïÇõ ³ñ·ÇÉ»ó ³Û¹ ·³ÕÃÁ ¨ ÝáÛÝ ÇëÏ ß᷻ϳéùÇ ³é ûñ»³Û »ñûõ»ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ ³É ¹³¹ñ»ó³õ å³ßïûݳå¿ë¦,- ³Ûë ³éÃÇí ·ñáõÙ ¿ Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ:45 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ` ÎÇåñáëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³å³ëï³Ý»É 2000 Ñá·Ç, Ýñ³Ýó Ù»ç` ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áõ î³ñëáÝÇ Ù»Í³Ñ³ñáõëï Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñÁ` Ù»Í Ù³ë³Ùμ ϳݳÛù áõ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñ:46 Î. äáÉëÇ å³ïñdzñùáõÃÛ³ÝÁ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 15-ÇÝ ø»ë³åÇó ·ñí³Í ݳٳÏáõÙ ÝßíáõÙ ¿, áñ ß᷻ݳíÁ 2500 ÷³Ëëï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ï»Õ³÷áË»É ¿ ´»ÛñáõÃ:47 ÎÇÉÇÏ40 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ 1910 ë»åï.11-1912 ë»åï. 11,¿ç 70-71£ 41 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶., Ð³Û É»éÁ. γñÙÇñ ¹ñáõ³·Ý»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ï¿Ý, ¿ç 56£ 42 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 70-71£ 43 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 72-73£ 44 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶., Ð³Û É»éÁ. γñÙÇñ ¹ñáõ³·Ý»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ï¿Ý, ¿ç 74£ 45 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 59£ 46 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ, ¿ç 51£ 47 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 312£

20


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

Û³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÇó ÷ñÏí³Í ßáõñç 500 Ñ³Û ÷³Ëëï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ¿É ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñdzÛÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óáõ μ³ÏáõÙ:48 700 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û μݳÏÇã áõÝ»óáÕ ø»ë³åÇó ÙÇ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý ß᷻ݳí, ßáõñç 6000 ѳÛÇ Ñ³í³ù»Éáí É»éÝ»ñÇó, ø»ë³åÇó ï»Õ³÷áË»ó ȳóùdz:49 êï³óíáõÙ ¿, áñ ÙdzÛÝ Ãí³ñÏ³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` 10000-Çó ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³Û»ñ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉ-Ù³ÛÇë ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ ³å³ëï³Ý ·ï³Ý ÎÇåñáëáõÙ, ´»ÛñáõÃáõÙ, º·ÇåïáëáõÙ£ ¶ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÝ áõ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÁ ÑÇß³ï³ÏáõÙ »Ý ³ÛÝ ãù³íáñ áõ ³Ýû·Ý³Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, áñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇó Ñ»ïá ѳÛïÝí»É ¿ñ áÕç ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ àõëïÇ ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ³ñï³·³ÕÃÁ ¹³ñÓ³í ³ñ¹»Ý áã ÙdzÛÝ ½áõï ·áÛ³ï¨Ù³Ý, ³Ýíï³Ý· Ï»Ýë³Ï»ñåÇ, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨ Ï»Ýë³å³ÑáíÙ³Ý ÙÇçáó£ §Ð³Û»ñÇ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏÁ, áñ ¹¿åù¿Ý ³é³ç ß³ï ³Õ»Ï áõ Çñ»Ýó Çëɳ٠¹ñ³óÇÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï μ³Õ¹³ïÙ³Ùμ ݳ˳ÝÓ»ÉÇ Ù³Ï³ñ¹³ÏÇ íñ³Û ÏÁ ·ïÝáõ¿ñ, ÑÇÙ³ ÇÝÏ³Í ¿£ ²ïáñ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·ÝáõÙÇÝ ³ñ·»Éù ѳݹÇë³óáÕ ·É˳õáñ μ³ÝÁ` ³Ý³å³ÑáíáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿£ ¸¿åù¿Ý Ç í»ñ ³ÙÇëÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç ·»ñ³½³Ýó³å¿ë ß»ßïáõ³Í ¿ Ýáñ¿Ý Ï»³ÝùÇ ¨ ÇÝãùÇ ³Ý³å³ÑáíáõÃÇõÝÁ¦- ÝßíáõÙ ¿ ²ÛñdzËݳÙÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõÙ£50 ²é³í»É ³Ýû·Ý³Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏáõÙ ¿ñ ѳÛïÝí»É ÙÇçÇÝ Ë³íÁ, áñÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ ½ñÏí³Í ¿ñ ïÝÇó, ³ñÑ»ëï³ÝáóÇó, ˳ÝáõÃÇó, ³Ý³ëáõÝÝ»ñÇó, ³ÛÉ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ³ñÑ»ëïÁ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»Éáõ ¹»åùáõÙ ãáõÝ»ñ ·Ýáñ¹, ù³ÝÇ áñ ѳۻñÇ áõݨáñ ˳íÁ ϳ٠ëå³Ýí³Í ¿ñ, ϳ٠áõÝ»½áõñÏ ¿ñ ¹³ñӻɣ ²Ýûè³Ý Ùݳó³Í Ñ³Û ³ñÑ»ëï³íáñÝ»ñÁ ¹»é »ñϳñ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Çñ»Ýó ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ å³Ñå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³ß˳ï»É Ñ»Ýó ÷áÕáóáõÙ` Çñ»Ýó ݳËÏÇÝ ³ñÑ»ëï³ÝáóÝ»ñÇ ³í»ñ³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ùáï£ Üñ³ÝóÇó áÙ³Ýù, áíù»ñ áñáß³ÏÇ ËݳÛáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ ³ÝáõÙ, ³Û¹ ·áõÙ³ñÝ û·ï³·áñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³ñï³·³ÕûÉáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí£ ÜÙ³Ý ¹»åù»ñÁ, â. ìáõ¹ëÇ Ñ³í³ëïÙ³Ùμ, ß³ï ã¿ÇÝ:51 ²ñï³·³ÕÃÇ ËݹñÇÝ å³ñμ»ñ³μ³ñ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ųٳݳÏÇ åáÉë³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÁ£ Æñ ݳٳÏÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ Ð. ²ß×Û³ÝÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ ¿ ³ÛÝ ÙÃÝáÉáñïÁ, áñáõ٠ѳÛïÝí»É ¿ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïᣠ²ÝÓ³Ùμ ¹»Ù ÉÇÝ»Éáí ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇÝ` ²ß×Û³ÝÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ §Ý»ñÏ³Û å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ÝϳïÇ áõݻݳÉáí` ³Ûë ·³Õ³÷³ñÁ áõÝ»óáÕÝ»ñáõÝ ÃáÛɳïáõ ·ïÝáõ»Éáõ »Ýù¦:52 ²Ù»ñÇÏ³Ñ³Û ·³ÕáõÃÇ Ó¨³íáñÙ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ÙÇ Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ Ñ»ÕÇÝ³Ï ²ñÇë Æëñ³Û»ÉÛ³ÝÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ³¹³Ý³óÇÝ»ñÝ ¿É ëÏë»óÇÝ Ù»Í ËÙμ»ñáí ·³ÕûÉ:53 1908-1910 ÃÃ. å³ïñ³ëï³Í ÙÇ íÇ׳ϳ·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` üñ»½ÝáÛáõ٠ѳëï³ïí³Í ßáõñç 2326 ѳۻñÇ Ù»ç 8 ÁÝï³ÝÇù (52 ³ÝÓ)` ²ØÜ ¿ñ »Ï»É ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó, 3 ÁÝï³ÝÇù (14 ³ÝÓ)` ²ÝïÇáùÇó áõ ѳñ³ÏÇó ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇó, 1 ÁÝï³ÝÇù (8 ³ÝÓ)` ²ÛÝó÷Çó:54 »ñ¨ë ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇ ³×áÕ ï»Ùå»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ, áñ ùÝݳñÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ ï»ÕÇù ïí»óÇÝ ï»ÕáõÙ` Ø»ñëÇÝáõ٠ϳ٠²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, ³ÛÉ áã ûñÇݳÏ` äáÉëáõÙ, ƽÙÇñáõ٠ϳ٠º·ÇåïáëáõÙ áñμ³Ýáó μ³ó»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ØÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ³ñӳݳ·ñí³Í ½áÑ»ñÇ, Ïáïáñ³ÍÇó Ñ»ïá ѳٳ׳ñ³Ï³ÛÇÝ ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ٳѳó³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ, ÙÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó` Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ïÇñáÕ ãù³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³Ù»Ý³Ï³ñ¨áñÁ` ³Ý³å³ÑáíáõÃÛ³Ý, í³ËÇ ÙÃÝáÉáñïÇ å³ï׳éáí ³í»É³ó³Í ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç μ³½Ù³ÃÇí μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ³ñÓ³-

48 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ, ¿ç 189£ 49 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 256-257£ 50 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ 1910 ë»åï.11-1912 ë»åï. ¿ç 5£ 51 Woods Ch., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 142: 52 ²ß×»³Ý Ð., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ »õ ¶áÝdzۿ Ûáõß»ñ,, ¿ç 90£ 53 Æëñ³Û»ÉÛ³Ý ², §²Ù»ñÇÏ³Ñ³Û ·³ÕóϳÝáõÃÇõÝÁ, §àëï³Ý¦, ² ï³ñÇ, ÃÇõ 2, 1 ³åñÇÉ 1911, ¿ç 399£ 54 ²Ù»ñÇÏ³Ñ³Û î³ñ»óáÛóÁ, ϳ½ÙáÕ` Øáõß»Õ »åÇëÏáåáë, ² ï³ñÇ, 1912, äáëïáÝ, ¿ç 62£

21


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

ݳ·ñí»óÇÝ ß»ßï³ÏÇ ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ` Ç íݳë Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ£ ²Ûëå»ë, ѳٳӳÛÝ Ð³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ Î»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý ³ÛñdzËݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ùÝÝÇã-å³ïíÇñ³Ï Ä³Ï ê³Û³å³ÉÛ³ÝÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ½Ùí³Í ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ, 1909 Ã-Çó ³é³ç øÁñù ʳÝÁ áõÝ»ñ 80 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û ¨ 30 ïáõÝ Çëɳ٠μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝ, ç³ñ¹Ç ѻ勉Ýùáí Ùݳó»É ¿ñ 30 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û, 80 ïáõÝ ÇëɳÙ:55 æ³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ѳ۳ó÷í»ó âáù³ù ·ÛáõÕÁ, áñÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳëï³ïí»ó êëáõÙ:56 ܳ׳ñÉÁ ·ÛáõÕÁ ç³ñ¹Çó ³é³ç ½áõï ѳ۳μÝ³Ï ¿ñ, ³ÛÝ 1908 Ã. Ù³ñ¹³Ñ³Ù³ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ áõÝ»ñ 437 Ñ³Û μݳÏÇã:57 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ³ÙμáÕç ·ÛáõÕÁ ÑñÏǽí»ó£ ¸ÛáñÃ-ÚáÉáõÙ ³å³ëï³Ý³Í ·ÛáõÕ³óÇÝ»ñÇó ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ܳ׳ñÉÁ í»ñ³¹³ñÓ³í 10-12 ÁÝï³ÝÇù£ ØÛáõëÝ»ñÁ ¹»åùÇó Ñ»ïá ·ÛáõÕ ¿ÇÝ ·³ÉÇë ÙdzÛÝ ÑáÕ»ñÁ Ù߳ϻÉáõ ѳٳñ, í»ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¸ÛáñÃ-ÚáÉ:58 æ³ñ¹Çó ³é³ç 150 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ úëÙ³ÝÇ»áõÙ ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ѳۻñÇ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÁ Ýí³½»É ¿ñ 30 ï³Ý ¨ ÙdzÛÝ ³ÛÉ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇó »Ï³Í ѳۻñÇ Ñ³ßíÇÝ ¹³ñÓ»É 100 ïáõÝ:59 ü³ëÁÉÁ ·ÛáõÕÁ ç³ñ¹Çó ³é³ç áõÝ»ñ 20, Ñ»ïá` 10 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û£ ØÛáõëÝ»ñÁ ·³ÕÃ»É ¿ÇÝ ¸ÛáñÃ-ÚáÉ:60 ¸»åùÇó ³é³ç ¶á½áÉáõ· ·ÛáõÕÝ áõÝ»ñ 80 ïáõÝ, ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá` 50 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û£ æ³ñ¹Çó ÷ñÏí»É ¿ñ Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ 20 ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹:61 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ²åïûÕÉáõ ·ÛáõÕÁ ç³ñ¹Çó ³é³ç áõÝ»ñ 100 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û, ÇëÏ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇó Ñ»ïá Ùݳó»É ¿ñ ÙdzÛÝ 30-Á:62 ÆÝ×ÇñÉÇÏÁ ç³ñ¹Çó ³é³ç áõÝ»ñ 80, Ñ»ïá` 30 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û£ ØÛáõëÝ»ñÁ ·ÛáõÕ ¿ÇÝ ·³ÉÇë ÙdzÛÝ ÑáÕ»ñÁ Ù߳ϻÉáõ ѳٳñ, Ñ»ïá í»ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ²¹³Ý³:63 ØÇëÇëÇ 80 ïáõÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇó Ùݳó»É ¿ñ ѳ½Çí 10 ïáõÝ, ÙÛáõëÝ»ñÁ Ñ»é³ó»É ¿ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³, ¸ÛáñÃ-ÚáÉ ¨ ³ÛÉ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñ:64 ò³íáù, ãïÇñ³å»ï»Éáí ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ, ã»Ýù ϳñáÕ ï³É Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÁݹѳÝáõñ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ íñ³ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ ³é³í»É ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÁ£ ²ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñÇó »ñ¨áõÙ ¿, áñ í»ñáÝßÛ³É μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÝ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý ÏÇëáí ã³÷ Ýí³½»É ¿ñ£ ²ÛëåÇëáí, 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ½·³ÉÇ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ó³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ íñ³£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ½áÑ ·Ý³óÇÝ Ñ³½³ñ³íáñ ѳۻñ, ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ß³ï»ñÁ ٳѳó³Ý ÑÇí³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó, ÇëÏ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇ ëïí³ñ ½³Ý·í³Í ¿É ³ñï³·³Õûó ³ÛÉ »ñÏñÝ»ñ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç μ³½Ù³ÃÇí μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Ýí³½»ó Ñ³Û ³½·³μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÃÇíÁ, ѳ۳ó÷í»óÇÝ ÙÇÝ㨠Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÷áùñ³ÃÇí ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÁ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Éáõñ»ñÁ ï³ñ³Íí»óÇÝ Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý áÕç ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ` ß³ï»ñÇ Ù»ç ³é³ç μ»ñ»Éáí í³ËÇ ¨ ³å³·³ÛÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ³Ýíëï³ÑáõÃÛ³Ý ½·³óáõÙÁ` áõŷݳóÝ»Éáí ¹»é¨ë ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ç í»ñ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ ³Ûë Ñá·»íÇ׳ÏÁ£ ²Ûë ÙÃÝáÉáñïÝ ¿É Çñ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇ ÙÇ Ýáñ ³ÉÇù ³é³ç³óñ»ó, áñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ÙÇÝ㨠1915 Ã. ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý áÕç ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ Ýáñ³Ýáñ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñ ѳ۳ó÷ »Õ³Ý£

55 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ 1910 ë»åï.11-1912 ë»åï. 11, ¿ç 5£ 56 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 54£ 57 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 47£ 58 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ, ¿ç 59£ 59 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 61£ 60 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ, ¿ç 75£ 61 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 77£ 62 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 78£ 63 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 79£ 64 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 79£

22


²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý

Arpine Bablumyan Demographic Changes After 1909 Massacres in Adana and Aleppo Vilayets Summary The article reveals the main features of population changes after Cilician massacres of 1909. After these massacres the number of Armenian population in the provinces of Adana and Aleppo decreased drastically. The Adana massacres resulted in: 1. mass killings, 2. deaths from starvation and illness 3. cases of forced conversion to Islam, 4. absolute loss of the Armenian population in some settlements with former large number of Armenians 5. immigration.

23


1909 Âì²Î²ÜÆ ÎÆÈÆÎƲÚÆ Ð²ÚÎ²Î²Ü Îàîàð²ÌܺðÜ Àêî Æî²È²Î²Ü ¸Æì²Ü²¶Æî²Î²Ü ö²êî²ÂÔºðÆ ²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñÇ Ñ³Û³μÝ³Ï ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñå³Í ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë Çï³É³óÇ ¹Çí³Ý³·»ïÝ»ñÝ, Çñ»Ýó ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï ï³ñíáÕ ·ñ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí ³Ûë ËݹñÇÝ, ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ý ѳÕáñ¹»É ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í áÕμ»ñ·³Ï³Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ Æï³É³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÁ, áñáÝù ÙÇÝã í»ñçÇÝ Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ѳë³Ý»ÉÇ ã¿ÇÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáÕÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, ³ÛÅÙ ßñç³Ý³éáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç »Ý ¹ñíáõÙ` Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ï³Éáí ËݹÇñÝ ³é³í»É ѳݷ³Ù³Ýáñ»Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ 1909 Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ËݹÇñÁ, û¨ μ³í³Ï³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñí³Í ¿, ·ñí»É »Ý μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí»É ¨ ѳۻñ»Ý óñ·Ù³Ýí»É »Ý ³Ûë ËݹñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ÙÇ ß³ñù »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, ³Û¹áõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, ³ÏÝѳÛï ¿, áñ ß³ï ÝáñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ý ¹»é¨ë Ç Ñ³Ûï ·³ÉÇë, áñáÝù Ýáñ ÉáõÛë »Ý ë÷éáõÙ ³Ûë ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝÇ íñ³ ¨ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ï³ÉÇë ³é³í»É ѳݷ³Ù³Ýáñ»Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ϳï³ñ»É ³Û¹ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Æï³É³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ñËÇíÝ»ñáõÙ å³ÑíáÕ ¨ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÇÝ áõ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³éÝãíáÕ ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÁ ÙÇÝ㨠í»ñç»ñë, áñáß μ³ó³éáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí, ·ñ»Ã» ³ÝѳÛï ¿ÇÝ Ñ³ÝñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ²Ñ³ Ñ»Ýó ³Û¹ ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý Ýå³ï³Ïáí 2005 Ã. Æï³ÉdzÛáõÙ ÐÐ ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³Ý ÙÇçÝáñ¹áõÃÛ³Ùμ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÇÝ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ÁÝÓ»éÝí»ó áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ëÏë»É Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ñËÇíáõÙ£ ²Û¹ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõ٠ϳ½Ùí»ó гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÇ »ñÏѳïáñ ÅáÕáí³Íáõ, áñÇ ³é³çÇÝ Ñ³ïáñáõÙ ï»Õ »Ý ·ï»É 1913-1917 ÃÃ. Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ 225, ÇëÏ »ñÏñáñ¹ ѳïáñáõÙ`1918-1923 ÃÃ. Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ í»ñ³μ»ñáÕ 241 ÷³ëï³ÃáõÕã1 »¨ ÅáÕáí³ÍáõÇ ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý »ñÏѳïáñÛ³ÏÝ Áݹ·ñÏáõÙ ¿ 1913-1923 ÃÃ. ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÁ, ³Ûëáõѳݹ»ñÓ Ýå³ï³Ï³Ñ³ñÙ³ñ ·ï³Ýù ³é³çÇÝ Ñ³ïáñÇ Ñ³í»Éí³ÍáõÙ` Ç Ýå³ëï 1909 Ã. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý, ½»ï»Õ»É ݳ¨ ³Û¹ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ 20 ÷³ëï³ÃáõÕã Ü»ñϳ۳óíáÕ ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÝ ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ ѳÝñáõÃÛ³ÝÝ »Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ ³é³çÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù£ ÆÝãå»ë ѳÛïÝÇ ¿, 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»óÇÝ ¨ Ññ³Ññ»óÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñÇ Ñ³Û³μÝ³Ï ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ, áñÇÝ ½áÑ ·Ý³óÇÝ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 30 ѳ½³ñ ѳۻñ£ ¸»åù»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë »íñáå³Ï³Ý, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ¨ Çï³É³óÇ ¹Çí³Ý³·»ïÝ»ñÝ ³Ñ³½³Ý·»É »Ý Çñ»Ýó ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, áñå»ë½Ç ¹ñ³Ýù ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ó»éݳñÏ»Ý Ñ³Û»ñÇ ¹»Ù áõÕÕí³Í μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ 1 Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ñËÇíÇ í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñÁ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, 1913-1923, гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõï, гïáñ ², 2008, гïáñ ´, ºñ¨³Ý, 2010£

24


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

ϳë»óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²Û¹ ßñç³ÝÇ Çï³É³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÁ íϳÛáõÙ »Ý, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ áõ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ïí»É ÙdzÛÝ í»ñáÑÇßÛ³É Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáí ¨ Áݹ·ñÏ»É »Ý úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÛÉ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñ ¨ë£ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÁ` »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ ³å³óáõóíáõÙ ¿ ÑÇßÛ³É ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñÇó, áñáÝóáõÙ ³ñӳݳ·ñíáõÙ ¿, áñ ù³Õ³ù³ÛÇÝ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñù»ñÝ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É ѳۻñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ·áõÛùÇ Ã³É³ÝÙ³ÝÝ áõ ³í»ñÙ³ÝÁ£ ºí ³Ûëå»ë. ¸»é¨ë 1908 Ã. ÑáÏï»Ùμ»ñÇ 29-ÇÝ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý ÆÙå»ñdzÉÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ñ»é³·ñáõÙ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §ä³ñáÝ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ, ä³ñáÝ ä³ÉɳíÇãÇÝÇÝ ÇÝÓ óáõÛó ïí»ó ³Ýó³Í ÏÇñ³ÏÇ ûñÁ üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ, èáõë³ëï³ÝÇ, ²íëïñá-ÐáõÝ·³ñdzÛÇ ¨ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ïÝ»ñÇ ëï³ó³Í ÙÇ Ñ»é³·Çñ, áñáí ê³ÙëáõÝÇ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ëË³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÁ ѳÛïÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ùñ¹»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ï»ÕÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý íï³Ý·Ç Ù³ëÇÝ ¨ ËݹñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ, áñå»ë½Ç ¹»ëå³Ý³ïÝ»ñÁ ßï³å ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ó»éù ³éÝ»Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÇó Ëáõë³÷»Éáõ ѳٳñ¦£2 ¸»ëå³Ý ÆÙå»ñdzÉÇÝ Çñ ³Ûë ѻ鳷ñáõÙ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨, áñ Çñ »íñáå³óÇ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï ¹ÇÙ»É ¿ Ø»Í ì»½ÇñÇÝ, áñå»ë½Ç í»ñçÇÝë ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ó»éݳñÏÇ ³ñѳíÇñùÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ л鳷ñÇÝ ÏÇó Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³ÝÝ Çñ ݳ˳ñ³ñÇÝ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏ»É Ï³ÃáÉÇÏ Ñ³Û»ñÇ å³ïñdzñùÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ÑáÏï»Ùμ»ñÇ 18-ÇÝ Çñ»Ý áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ý³Ù³ÏÇ ÏñÏÝûñÇݳÏÁ, áñáõ٠ϳñ¹áõÙ »Ýù. §âÝ³Û³Í ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ϳñ·ÇÝ, ìÇñ³Ý ù³Õ³ùÇ Ë³Õ³Õ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ »ÝóñÏíáõÙ ¿ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ½·³óÙáõÝùÝ»ñÝ ³Ý³ñ·áÕ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£ ´Ý³ÏÇãÝ»ñÁ óɳÝíáõÙ »Ý, Ýñ³Ýó å³ïÇíÝ ³Ý³ñ·íáõÙ ¿£ ¼ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ»ñÁ û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ óáõó³μ»ñ»Éáõó Ññ³Å³ñíáõÙ »Ý, áñÝ ¿É ϻջùÇãÝ»ñÇÝ ³éÇà ¿ ï³ÉÇë μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»É ³é³í»É μÇñï ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí£ ´Ý³ÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ѳÝáõÝ ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, Ïáã ¿ ³ÝáõÙ, áñ ѳßíÇ ³éÝí»Ý ³Ûë ÷³ëï»ñÝ áõ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ó»éù ³éÝí»Ý ϳñ· áõ ϳÝáÝÁ í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ï»Éáõ ¨ μéݳ½³íÃí³Í ·áõÛùÝ Çñ»Ýó ï»ñ»ñÇÝ í»ñ³¹³ñÓÝ»Éáõ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ù즣3 ºñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá, »ñμ Ýñ³Ýù ѳݹ»ë »Ï³Ý úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý μáÉáñ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ³½³ïáõÃÛ³Ý, Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ ¨ »Õμ³ÛñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ Ï³ñ·³ËáëÝ»ñáí, μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ¨` ѳۻñÁ, áñáÝù ³μ¹áõÉѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³É³Í³ÝùÝ»ñÇó ËáõÛë ï³Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí Éù»É ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÁ, ѳí³ï³óÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ ¨ ëÏë»óÇÝ í»ñ³¹³éݳÉ` ÷áñÓ»Éáí ûñ»ÝùÇ ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ ï»ñ Ï³Ý·Ý»É Çñ»Ýó áõÝ»óí³ÍùÇÝ ¨ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇÝ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Ý¹ÇåáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, ³Ûɨ` »ÝóñÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýáñ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£ ²Û¹ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ íϳÛáõÙ îñ³åǽáÝáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáëáõÃÛ³Ý ï»Õ³å³Ñ ¶áõÉÇ»ÉÙÇÇ ÏáÕÙÇó 1908 Ã. ÝáÛ»Ùμ»ñÇ 4-ÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ñ»é³·ÇñÁ, áñáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿. §ä³ñáÝ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ, å³ïÇí áõݻ٠һñ¹ ¶»ñ³½³ÝóáõÃÛ³ÝÝ áõÕ³ñÏ»Éáõ ¾ñ½ñáõÙÇó ëï³óí³Í ÙÇ Ñ»é³·ñÇó ѳïí³ÍÝ»ñ, áñ ÇÝÓ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏ»É ÙÇ íëï³Ñ»ÉÇ ³ÝÓݳíáñáõÃÛáõÝ£ ²Ûëï»Õ ¨ë ѳÛïÝÇ »Ý ¹³ñÓ»É ¸Ç³ñμ»ùÇñÇ Ùáï ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ¹»åù»ñÁ, μ³Ûó ¹ñ³Ýó

2 Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ñËÇí£ ²ÛëáõÑ»ï` Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ. LXVI, ÃÇí 551£ 3 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ£

25


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

³éÝãáõÃÛ³Ùμ í³ñϳÍÝ»ñÁ μ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ ß³ï »Ý£ àÙ³Ýù ³ëáõÙ »Ý, áñ ³Ýϳñ·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÁ ùáõñ¹ Æμñ³ÑÇÙ ÷³ß³ÛÇÝ μéÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í μ³ßÇμá½áõÏÝ»ñÝ »Ý »Õ»É£ ØÛáõëÝ»ñÝ ³ëáõÙ »Ý, áñ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ»É Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ£ ²Ù»Ý ¹»åùáõÙ` ½áÑ»ñÇ ¨ íÇñ³íáñÝ»ñÇ ù³Ý³ÏÁ ß³ï Ù»Í ¿, Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ óɳÝáõÙ, ëå³ÝáõÙ ¨ ³Ý³ñ·áõÙ »Ý ³Ý½»Ý ϳݳÝó áõ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ£ ´³óÇ ³Û¹` ÇÙ ßñç³ÛóÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, »ñμ ÑÛáõñÁÝϳÉíáõÙ ¿Ç ùáõñ¹ μ»Û»ñÇ Ùáï, ѳëϳó³, áñ »Õμ³ÛñáõÃÛ³Ý áõ ѳí³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñÁ ï»Õ ã»Ý ·ïÝáõÙ ³Û¹ μ³ñμ³ñáëÝ»ñÇ áõÕ»ÕÝ»ñáõÙ£ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ³½³ïáõÃÛ³Ý [·³Õ³÷³ñÝ] ³Û¹ ùáõñ¹ μ»Û»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ μéÝÇ áõÅáí Ó»éù μ»ñ³Í [Çñ»Ýó] Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ïáñáõëï ¿ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ£ ´Ý³Ï³Ý³μ³ñ, Ýñ³Ýù ã»Ý ѳٳϻñåíáõÙ Ýáñ ѳٳϳñ·ÇÝ£ ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó` ·³ÕÃ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Û»ñÝ ³ÛÅÙ í»ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ »Ý ѳÛñ»ÝÇù [¨,] ·Çï³Ïó»Éáí Çñ»Ýó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÁ, ÷áñÓáõÙ »Ý »ï í»ñóÝ»É Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇÝ Çñ»ÝóÇó ËÉí³Í áõÝ»óí³ÍùÁ` ÑáÕ»ñÁ, ³Ý³ëáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ܳËÏÇÝ Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³Û¹ áõÝ»óí³ÍùÝ ³ñ¹»Ý μ³Å³Ý»É ¿ñ èáõë³ëï³ÝÇó »Ï³Í ÙáõѳçÇñÝ»ñÇÝ£ ²ÛÅ٠DZÝã ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí å»ïù ¿ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·ÝíÇ ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ê³ ¨ë μ³í³Ï³Ý Ù»Í ¨ ËñÃÇÝ ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿£ ÆÝãå»±ë ¿ Ñݳñ³íáñ Ëáë»É ˳ճÕáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ Ý»ñ¹³ßݳÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, »ñμ ï»ÕÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ߳ѻñÇ ¨ Ùï³Í»É³Ï»ñåÇ Ù»ç ³Ûëù³Ý ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ϳݣ ... ºÃ» ¸Ç³ñμ»ùÇñÇ ¹»åù»ñÇ Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇÝ Áëï ³ñųݳíáõÛÝë ãå³ïÅ»Ý, ãå»ïù ¿ ½³ñÙ³Ý³É Ýáñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Éáõñ»ñÇó ...¦£4 Æëϳå»ë, Ýáñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¨ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Éáõñ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó »ñϳñ ëå³ë»É ãïí»óÇÝ£ »¨, ÇÝãå»ë ·Çï»Ýù, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ëÏÁëí»É »Ý 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ ëϽμÇÝ, μ³Ûó Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñËÇíÝ»ñáõÙ ³Û¹ ûñ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É ·ñ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ѻ鳷ñ»ñÁ ã»Ý å³Ñå³Ýí»É£ ²Û¹ ¹»åù»ñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»é³·ÇñÁ Ãí³·ñíáõÙ ¿ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 16-áí, áñáí Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³Ý ѳÝÓݳϳï³ñ êýáñó³Ý Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿. §Ø»ñëÇÝÇ Ù»ñ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáë³Ï³Ý ·áñͳϳÉáõÃÛ³Ý ï»Õ³å³ÑÝ »ñ»Ï ÇÝÓ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏ»É Ñ»ï¨Û³É ѳÕáñ¹³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ §ºñ»Ï »ñ»ÏáÛ³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ëÏëí»É ¿ ѳۻñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ£ ¼ÇÝíáñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ Ç íÇ׳ÏÇ ã»Ý ϳÝË»Éáõ ³ñѳíÇñùÁ£ ¼ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ëÏë»É »Ý óɳݻÉ. Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ã³÷³½³Ýó ͳÝñ ¿£ Ø»ñ ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÝ áõ áõÝ»óí³ÍùÁ íï³Ý·í³Í »Ý£ ÊݹñáõÙ »Ù å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ßï³å ÙÇ é³½Ù³Ý³í áõÕ³ñÏ»É ³Ûëï»Õ...¦£5 ÜáõÛÝ ûñÁ` ³åñÇÉÇ 16-ÇÝ, Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï·áñÍݳ˳ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ »ñÏáõ ѻ鳷Çñ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏáõ٠ݳ¨ гɻåáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáë ´»áõñ»·³ñ¹Á£ ²é³çÇÝ Ñ»é³·ñáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿. §²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ »ñ»Ïí³ÝÇó í»ñëÏëí³Í ѳۻñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ³Ûë ·Çß»ñ ѻ鳷Çñ ëï³ó³ Ø»ñëÇÝÇó£ ... Èáõñ»ñ »Ý ï³ñ³ÍíáõÙ, áñ áÕç »ñÏñáõÙ ³Ýϳñ·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ý ëÏëí»É£ ²Ûëï»ÕÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ë³ñë³÷³Ñ³ñ íÇ׳ÏáõÙ ¿£ ²ÛÅÙ ·ÝáõÙ »Ù ·É˳íáñ ϳé³í³ñãÇ Ùáï` íÇ׳ÏÁ ßïÏáÕ Ó»éݳñÏáõÙÝ»ñ å³Ñ³Ýç»Éáõ¦£6 ºñÏñáñ¹ ѻ鳷ñáõÙ ´»áõñ»·³ñ¹Á ·ñáõÙ ¿. §... Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ »Ý ëÏëí»É ݳ¨ ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñdzÛÇ Ùáï³Ï³ ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ, áñáÝóÇó »ñÏáõëÁ óɳÝí»É áõ ÑñÇ »Ý Ù³ïÝí»É£ ¸áñÃÛáÉ ·³ÕÃ³Í Ñ³Û»ñÁ å³ßïå³ÝíáõÙ »Ý£ Æñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ͳÝñ ¿£ ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñdzÛÇ áÕç μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ çÕ³·ñ·Çé íÇ׳ÏáõÙ ¿, ÇëÏ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ íëï³Ñ »Ý, áñ μ³í³ñ³ñ áõÅ

4 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.LXVI, ÃÇí 552£ 5 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2399£ 6 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2401£

26


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

áõÝ»Ý íÇ׳ÏÁ ßïÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ¦£7 ì»ñëÏëí³Í ³Ûë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó μÝáõÛÃáí ï³ñμ»ñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³Ëáñ¹ ßñç³ÝÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó£ ºÃ» ݳËÏÇÝáõ٠ѳɳͳÝùÝ»ñÇ ¿ñ »ÝóñÏíáõÙ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ³å³ ³ÛÅÙ ëå³éݳÉÇùÇ ï³Ï ¿ÇÝ μáÉáñ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÁ, ³Û¹ Ãíáõ٠ݳ¨` »íñáå³Ñå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ·ïÝíáõÙ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ μ»ñáõÙáí£ ¸³ ¿ å³ï׳éÁ, áñ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ÝѳݷëïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ Ó»éݳñÏ³Í ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó áñ³Ïáí ï³ñμ»ñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³ËÏÇÝáõÙ Ó»éݳñÏ³Í ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇó£ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³Ý ѳÝÓݳϳï³ñ êýáñó³Ý ³åñÇÉÇ 17-ÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ ·ñ³Í ѻ鳷ñáõ٠ѳÛïÝáõÙ ¿. §²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ íÇñ³íáñí»É ¿, ÇëÏ ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ù»Í íÝ³ë ¿ ѳëóí»É£ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³ÝÁ, áñÁ Édz½áñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ëï³ó»É û·ï³·áñÍ»É Ø³ÉóÛÇ Ý³í»ñÁ, ϳñ·³¹ñ»É ¿, áñ ÙÇ é³½Ù³Ý³í Ùáï»Ý³ Ø»ñëÇÝ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ£ ¶»ñÙ³ÝdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³ÝÝ ¿É ϳñ·³¹ñ»É ¿, áñ ØÇç»ñÏñ³Ï³ÝÇó ÙÇ Ñ³Í³Ý³í ÙïÝÇ ¸³ñ¹³Ý»É£ гßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáí ëï»ÕÍí³Í íÇ׳ÏÁ ßï³å ÙÇ é³½Ù³Ý³í ¿É Ù»Ýù å»ïù ¿ Ùáï»óÝ»Ýù Ø»ñëÇÝÇݦ£8 гçáñ¹ ûñÁ` ³åñÇÉÇ 18-ÇÝ, êýáñó³Ý ݳ˳ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏáõÙ Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáë³Ï³Ý ·áñͳϳÉáõÃÛáõÝÇó ëï³óí³Í ѻ鳷ÇñÁ, áñáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿. §²ñѳíÇñùÁ ·Ý³Éáí ë³ëïϳÝáõÙ ¿, ³½·³ÛÇÝ ÏÛ³ÝùÁ íï³Ý·í³Í ¿£ ²ÝÇß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ï׳éáí ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ»ï ÙdzëÇÝ ÑñÇ áõ ³ñÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¿ ݳ¨ î³ñëáÝÁ£ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ, áñ áõ½áõÙ ¿ñ ëï³ÝÓÝ»É ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, íÇñ³íáñí»É ¿£ ²Ý·ÉdzóÇÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó ѳٻñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ ÙÇ é³½Ù³Ý³í »Ý áõÕ³ñϻɣ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ ù³Õ³ù³å»ïÁ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ μáÉáñ Ñݳñ³íáñ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí ÷ñÏ»É ù³Õ³ùÁ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ î³ñëáÝÇ Ñ»ï ѳÕáñ¹³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ Áݹѳïí»É ¿¦£9 ÆëÏ Ð³É»åáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáë ´»áõñ»·³ñ¹Á ³åñÇÉÇ 20-ÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ Ñ»é³·ñ»É ¿. §²ÝïÇáùáõÙ »ñ»Ï Ù»Í Ïáïáñ³Í ¿ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó»É£ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ ѻ鳷ñ»É ¿, áñ íï³Ý·Ç Ù»ç ¿ ·ïÝíáõÙ£ ¼»ÛÃáõÝáõ٠ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ëÏëí»É£ øÇÉÇë ù³Õ³ùÁ ëå³éݳÉÇùÇ ï³Ï ¿£ øñ¹»ñÝ ³Ûëï»Õ »Ý ѳë»É, гɻåÁ íï³Ý·í³Í ¿, ÇëÏ ù³Õ³ùÇ í³ÉÇÝ Ñ³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ ãáõÝÇ ù³Õ³ùÇ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ ºÕ³Í áõÅ»ñÁ ·ïÝíáõÙ »Ý ù³Õ³ùÇó ¹áõñë` Ý»ñëáõÙ ÙdzÛÝ Ù»Ï ·áõÙ³ñï³Ï ¿ Ùݳó»É¦£10 ´»áõñ»·³ñ¹Á ÝáõÛÝ ûñÁ Ù»Ï ³ÛÉ Ñ»é³·Çñ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏ»É Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³Ý ѳÝÓݳϳï³ñ êýáñó³ÛÇÝ, áñÁ ÝáõÛÝ ûñÝ ³Û¹ ѻ鳷ÇñÝ áõÕ³ñÏ»É ¿ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ£ ²Û¹ ѻ鳷ñáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿. §²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ Çï³É³óÇÝ»ñÁ ëå³éݳÉÇùÇ ï³Ï »Ý, ù³Õ³ùÇó ¹áõñë Ýñ³ÝóÇó ß³ï»ñÁ ëå³Ýí»É »Ý£ î»ÕÇ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ѳí³ï ãáõÝ»Ýù£ úëÙ³ÝÇ»áõÙ 100 μáÕáù³Ï³Ý ù³ñá½ÇãÝ»ñ ³Ûñí»É »Ý Ñ»Ýó »Ï»Õ»óáõ Ù»ç£ ¶É˳íáñ ϳé³í³ñãÇÝ ÑÕ³Í Ù»ñ μáÕáùÝ»ñÝ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ã»Ý ï³ÉÇë£ ´áÉáñ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ѳۻñÝ ³ÝÑ»ï³ó»É »Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó ¨ ²ÝïÇáùÇó£ Þ³ï ·ÛáõÕ»ñ ÑñÇ áõ ëñÇ »Ý Ù³ïÝí»É£ êáí³Ñ³ñ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñÝ û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ËݹñáõÙ¦£11 Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇ Ð³Ûáó å³ïñdzñùÝ û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ ëï³Ý³Éáõ ³ÏÝϳÉÇùáí, ³åñÇÉÇ 19-ÇÝ ³Ûó»É»É ¿ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ£ ²Û¹ ѳݹÇåÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³Ý ѳÝÓݳϳï³ñ êýáñó³Ý ݳ˳ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ ³ÙëÇ 7 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2406£ 8 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2412£ 9 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2418£ 10 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2453 11 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2514£

27


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

20-ÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ñ»é³·ñáõÙ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §ä³ñáÝ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ, ¶ñÇ·áñÛ³Ý [²é³ù»É³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óáõ Ñ»ï¨áñ¹] ѳۻñÇ å³ïñdzñùÁ »ñ»Ï »Ï»É ¿ñ ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ ¨ ÇÝÓ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»ó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó ¨ ßñç³Ï³ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇó ëï³óí³Í ѻ鳷ñ»ñÁ£ ¸ñ³ÝóáõÙ ËáëíáõÙ ¿ñ ³Ûñí³Í ¨ óɳÝí³Í ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñÇ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨` ѳɳͳÝùÝ»ñÇ »ÝóñÏí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ ä³ïñdzñùÇÝ å³ï³ë˳ݻóÇ, áñ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ Ù»ñ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáë³Ï³Ý ·áñͳϳÉáõÃÛáõÝÇó ³é³çÇÝ ÇëÏ Ñ»é³·ÇñÁ ëï³Ý³Éáõó Ñ»ïá ѳݹÇå»É »Ù Ø»Í ì»½ÇñÇÝ, áñÇÝ Ñ³ëϳóñ»É »Ù, áñ Çñ»Ýó ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ñï³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ ßï³å ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ó»éݳñÏ»É, áñå»ë½Ç ³Ýѳå³Õ ϳë»óí»Ý ³ñÛáõݳÉÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ ... ²í»É³óñ»óÇ, áñ Ù»ñ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ñ¹»Ý ÙÇ é³½Ù³Ý³í ¿ áõÕ³ñÏ»É, áñÁ μ³óÇ Ù»ñ ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõó, ³Ýßáõßï, ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã ϳÝÇ, áñå»ë½Ç áõŻճóÝÇ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ñï³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý ½·³óáõÙÁ ¨ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·ÝÇ íëï³ÑáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ѳݹ³ñïáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦£12 Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ ¿ ³Ûó»É»É ݳ¨ ϳÃáÉÇÏ Ñ³Û»ñÇ å³ïñdzñùÁ£ ²Û¹ ѳݹÇåÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý ÆÙå»ñdzÉÇÝ Ù³ÛÇëÇ 5-ÇÝ Ñ»é³·ñ»É ¿ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ. §Î³ÃáÉÇÏ Ñ³Û»ñÇ å³ïñdzñùÝ ³Ûë ³é³íáï »Ï³í ÇÝÓ Ùáï ¨ Ëݹñ»ó, áñå»ë½Ç ÜáñÇÝ ¶»ñ³½³ÝóáõÃÛáõÝ Ã³·³íáñÇÝ ¨ Ýñ³ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÷á˳Ýó»Ù Çñ μ³ñÓñ ¨ ËáñÁ ѳñ·³ÝùÁ` Ñ³Û ÷³Ëëï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý §äÛ»ÙáÝï¦ é³½Ù³Ý³íáõÙ ï»Õ³Ï³Û»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ä³ïñdzñùÝ ³ë³ó, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óíáÕ ¹³Å³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¿ ëï³ó»É¦£13 1909 Ã. ·³ñݳÝÁ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ³Ûë ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ýϳñ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ¹ñ³Ýó Çñ³Ï³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇ ¨ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý ³éáõÙáí ã³÷³½³Ýó ϳñ¨áñ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ Ð³É»åáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáë ´»áõñ»·³ñ¹Ç ѻ鳷ÇñÁ, áñÁ Ù³ÛÇëÇ 8-ÇÝ Ý³ áõÕ³ñÏ»É ¿ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ£ гßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáí ѻ鳷ñÇ Ï³ñ¨áñáõÃÛáõÝÁ` Ýå³ï³Ï³Ñ³ñÙ³ñ »Ýù ·ïÝáõÙ ³ÛÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»É ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ. §ä³ñáÝ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ, Øáõѳٻ¹ V-Ç ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý ·³ÑÇÝ ·³Éáõó Ñ»ïá ÑÛáõå³ïáë³Ï³Ý ³Ûë ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ¹³¹³ñ»É »Ý£ ²ëïí³Í ï³, áñ ë³ ÙdzÛÝ Ñ»ñÃ³Ï³Ý ¹³¹³ñÁ ãÉÇÝÇ£ ²åñÇÉÇ 25-Çó 28-Á Ë»Õ× ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÁ ¹³ñÓÛ³É ë·áõÙ ¿ñ£ ºíë 8 ѳ½³ñ ½áÑ»ñ »Õ³Ý, ¨ ³ÛëåÇëáí 70 ѳ½³ñ³Ýáó ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ³ñ¹»Ý 25 ѳ½³ñ ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñ ϳݣ ÖǽíÇïÝ»ñÇ ¨ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý ÏáõÛë»ñÇ ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ³í»ñí»É »Ý, ëñÇ »Ý ù³ßí»É áã ÙdzÛÝ ³ÛÝï»Õ ³å³ëï³Ý ·ï³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨ áñáß ×ǽíÇïÝ»ñ£ ²ñ¹»Ý ³Ûëï»ÕÇ çñ»ñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ·ïÝíáõÙ »íñáå³Ï³Ý 鳽ٳݳí»ñÁ, »ñμ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Ý ²ÝïÇáùÇ, ø³ëë³μÇ, سñ³ßÇ ¨ ³ÛÉ ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ ëå³Ý¹Ý»ñÁ£ ÆÝãå»ë 1895-1896 Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ, Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ÍÇͳÕáõÙ ¿ÇÝ áõÅ»ñÇ ³Ûë Ïáõï³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ¨ ͳÕñáõÙ ³Ûɳѳí³ï ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù »Ï»É ¿ÇÝ ï»ëÝ»Éáõ, û ÇÝãå»ë »Ý ÏáïáñíáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ÏñáݳÏÇóÝ»ñÁ£ øñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ Ïáïáñ»Éáõ Ññ³Ù³ÝÁ ϳÛë»ñ³Ï³Ý å³É³ïÇó ï»ÕÇ ·É˳íáñ ϳé³í³ñãÇÝ Ñ³ë³í ³åñÇÉÇ 14-ÇÝ Ãí³·ñí³Í ѻ鳷ñáí£ ²Ù»Ý ÇÝã å³ïñ³ëï ¿ñ Çñ³·áñÍ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ³Û¹ Ññ»ß³íáñ Íñ³·ÇñÁ£ ´áÉáñ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ïÝ»ñÇÝ ³ñ¹»Ý Ýß³ÝÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ ³ñí³Í£ ²Û¹ ³Ù»ÝÇ Ù³ëÇÝ »ë ·Çï»Ç, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ã¿Ç ѳٳñÓ³ÏíáõÙ μ³ñÓñ³Ó³ÛÝ»É, ù³Ý½Ç Ñëï³Ï áãÇÝã ѳÛïÝÇ ã¿ñ£ î»ÕÇ í³ÉÇÝ, áñÁ ѳëï³ï³å»ë ѻﳹÇÙ³Ï³Ý ¿ ¨ ÙÇßï 12 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2507£ 13 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2580£

28


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

½ëåí³Í ¿ñ å³ÑíáõÙ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ, üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ ¨ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÇ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ §ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõݦ ÏáÙÇï»Ç ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó` ³Ýϳñ·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ññ³Ññ»Éáõ [Çñ»Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óíáÕ] Ù»Õ³¹ñ³ÝùÁ Ù»ÕÙ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ëï³óí³Í áñáßáõÙÁ ³ÙëÇ 28-ÇÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»ó ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ ÏáÙÇï»ÇÝ ³Ý¹³Ù³·ñí»Éáõ ó³ÝÏáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³ÛïÝ»ó, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ýñ³ Ëݹñ³ÝùÁ Ù»ñÅí»ó£ ìÇɳۻÃÇ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ·áñÍ»ñÇ ïÝûñ»Ý ܳñÙÇ μ»ÛÁ, áñ ³ÛÅÙ ÝáõÛÝ å³ßïáÝÝ ¿ ½μ³Õ»óÝáõÙ ê³ÉáÝÇÏáõÙ, ³ÛÉ ³ÝÓ³Ýó Ý»ñϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ »ñ»ù ³Ý·³Ù ѳëï³ï»ó, áñ ÝÙ³Ý Ññ³Ñ³Ý· ¿ ëï³óí»É£ ´»¹íÇÝ ³í³½³Ï³ËÙμ»ñÁ ϳ½Ù áõ å³ïñ³ëï ëå³ëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ù³Õ³ùÇ ßñç³Ï³ÛùáõÙ£ гɻåáõÙ [³Û¹ Íñ³·ÇñÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ] ѳٳñ ùñ¹»ñÁ, áñáÝù ³í»ÉÇ ßáõï ·áÕ»ñ »Ý, ù³Ý` Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝÝ»ñ, ã¿ÇÝ μ³í³Ï³Ý³óÝáõÙ ¨ ³Û¹ å³ï׳éáí μ»ñ»óÇÝ Ý³¨ ³Ý³å³ïÇ í³Ûñ³· ³ñ³μÝ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ·»ñ³·áõÛÝ Ñ³×áõÛù »Ý ëï³ÝáõÙ ³ñÛ³Ý ë³ñë³÷Ç Ù»ç£ âå»ïù ¿ Ùáé³Ý³É, áñ å³É³ïÇ ãáñë ·É˳íáñ ¿ÙÇë³ñÝ»ñÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ññ³Ññ»É »Ý, ³Ûɨ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ ¨ Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí»Éáõó Ñ»ïá ³½³ï »Ý ³ñÓ³Ïí»É£ ʳñμ»ñ¹Ç Ùáõó߳ñÇý ²áõÝáõÉɳ μ»ÛÁ, áñÝ ²ÝïÇáùÇ Ï³ÛٳϳÙÇ ¨ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ϳñÍÇùÇ ÏáÕÙÇó å³ßïáݳå»ë Ù»Õ³¹ñíáõÙ ¿ñ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»Éáõ ³ÛÉ Ý³¨` Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ·áÕáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ, ³½³ï ¿ ³ñÓ³Ïí»É` Çñ Ñ»ï ï³Ý»Éáí ·áÕ³óí³Í ÓÇ»ñÝ áõ ϳéù»ñÁ£ ijݹ³ñÙ»ñdzÛÇ Ï³åÇï³Ý ê³ñÑ³Ý ³Õ³Ý, áñÇÝ μáÉáñÁ Ù»Õ³¹ñáõÙ »Ý μ»¹íÇÝ ó»Õ»ñÇÝ Ñ³í³ù³·ñ»Éáõ ¨ ¹»åÇ ²ÝïÇáù áõ ø»ë³μ áõÕÕáñ¹»Éáõ Ù»ç, ¹»é¨ë ³½³ï ßñçáõÙ ¿ гɻåáõÙ£ ¾É ã»Ýù ³ëáõ٠гɻåáõÙ áõ سñ³ßáõÙ ³Ýϳñ·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»Éáõ ѳٳñ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇó Å³Ù³Ý³Í å³ßïáÝÛ³ سëëáõ¹ μ»ÛÇ ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ÝáÕϳÉÇ ÏáÙÇë³ñ Ü»μμÇ ¿ý»Ý¹áõ Ù³ëÇÝ£ ²ÝïÇáùáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ññ³Ù³ÝÁ ïñí»ó »ñ»ù ûñ ³é³ç` Ñ»Ýó ³ÛÝ ûñÁ, »ñμ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÝ ³Ûëï»Õ ¿ÇÝ »Ï»É, áñå»ë½Ç ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³ñ·»É»ÇÝ ÷áÕáó ¹áõñë ·³É ¨ μ³ó»É Çñ»Ýó ˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñÁ, ù³Ý½Ç ³Û¹åÇëáí ³í»ÉÇ Ñ»ßï ÏÉÇÝ»ñ Ïáïáñ»É Ýñ³Ýó£ 350 ëå³Ýí³Í ϳ£ â»Ý ËÝ³Û»É ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ Ï³Ý³Ýó áõ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ, ϳݳÝóÇó ß³ï»ñÝ ÇÝùݳëå³Ý ¿ÇÝ ÉÇÝáõÙ£ سñïÇñáë ¿ý»Ý¹ÇÝ, áñÁ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ù³ñïáõÕ³ñÝ ¿ñ, Çñ ÏÝáçÝ áõ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ ·ï³í ¹³Å³Ýáñ»Ý ëå³Ýí³Í£ гÝó³ÝùÁ ϳï³ñ»É ¿ÇÝ Çñ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏÇ ³ß˳ïáÕÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝó Ñ»ï ݳ ³ÛÝù³Ý μ³ñ»Ñ³ÙμáõÛñ ¿ñ »Õ»É£ ì»ñçáõÙ Ýñ³Ý ¨ë ÙáñûóÇÝ£ ºåÇëÏáåáë î»ñ ²ñë»ÝÁ, áñÇ Ý³Ë ³Ï³ÝçÝ»ñÁ Ïïñ»óÇÝ, Ñ»ïá ùÇÃÝ áõ ·ÉáõËÁ, »Ï»Õ»óáõó ù³ñß ïñí»ó ÙÇÝ㨠Íáí ¨ çáõñÁ Ý»ïí»ó£ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, ÙÇ ÏÝáç ëïÇå»óÇÝ áõï»É Çñ »ñ»Ë³ÛÇ ÙÇëÁ, ³å³ ëå³Ý»óÇÝ£ ´³óáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ÑÕÇ Ï³Ý³Ýó áñáí³ÛÝÁ ¨ åïáõÕÁ ѳݻÉáí óáõó³¹ñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ù³Õ³ùÇ ÷áÕáóÝ»ñáõÙ£ гïϳå»ë ͳÝñ ¿ñ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñÇ íÇ׳ÏÁ£ àï³μáμÇÏ Ï³Ý³Ûù ¨ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÁ ëáí³Ñ³ñ ßñçáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ` Ñáõë³Éáí ÙÇ Ïïáñ ѳó ·ïÝ»É, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹ñ³ μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ó³ïñíáõÙ ¿ñ »ñÏñáõÙ ³ÉÛáõñÇ μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ 1895-1896 Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ëÏëí»óÇÝ ´ÇÃÉÇëÇó ¨ ï³ñ³Íí»óÇÝ ¸Ç³ñμ»ùÇñáõÙ ¨ ¼»ÛÃáõÝáõÙ, áñï»ÕÇó ¿É` ¾ñ½ñáõÙáõÙ, ì³ÝáõÙ ¨ îñ³åǽáÝáõÙ£ ²Û¹Å³Ù Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ½áÑ ·Ý³ó 300 ѳ½³ñ Ù³ñ¹£ ²ÛÅÙ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ¿ñ ³í³ñïÇÝ Ñ³ëóÝ»É ëÏëí³Í ·áñÍÁ. Ññ³Ù³Ý ¿ñ ïñí»É Ïáïáñ»Éáõ г۳ëï³ÝÇ ³Ûë í»ñçÇÝ Ñ³ïí³ÍÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ²Û¹ ÝáÕϳÉÇ Íñ³·ÇñÁ Ñݳñ³íáñ ã»Õ³í ÉÇáíÇÝ Çñ³·áñÍ»É, ¨ áã μáÉáñÇÝ Ñݳñ³íáñ »Õ³í í»ñ³óݻɣ ØáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ѳϳ¹ñíáõÙ »Ý Ýáñ ëáõÉóÝÇÝ, áñÇÝ ³Ýí³ÝáõÙ »Ý ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ Ù³ñ¹£ лﳹÇٳϳÝÝ»ñÁ í³é »Ý å³ÑáõÙ ¹Å·áÑáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÉÇùÁ ¨ »ñ·»ñ 29


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

»Ý ÓáÝáõÙ ÆëɳÙÇ ÷³ÛÉáõÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã áõ ³Ýѳí³ïÝ»ñÇ ³Ñ³μ»ÏÇã ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÇÝ£ ¸áñÃÛáÉáõÙ, ãÝ³Û³Í Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ åݹáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, Ãáõñù»ñÇ áõ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ Ñ³ñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ³Û¹ù³Ý ¿É ɳñí³Í ã»Ý£ ²Ûë ³Ùëí³ 3-ÇÝ ù³Õ³ùÇ Ï³é³í³ñÇãÁ ï»ÕÇ Ñ³Û »åÇëÏáåáëÇó å³Ñ³Ýç»ó, áñå»ë½Ç ݳ ϳñ·³¹ñÇ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ í³Ûñ ¹Ý»É ½»ÝùÁ, μ³Ûó ݳ, ѳßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáí ³ÝóÛ³ÉÇ ¨ Ý»ñϳÛÇ ÷áñÓÁ, Ýñ³Ý å³ï³ëË³Ý»É ¿, áñ ÝÙ³Ý Ï³ñ·³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ ï³É, ÙÇÝ㨠áñ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýù ½»ÝùÁ í³Ûñ ã¹Ý»Ý£ ²Û¹Å³Ù è³ßǹ μ»ÛÁ ϳñ·³¹ñ»É ¿, áñ 50 Ñ»ÍÛ³ÉÝ»ñ ¨ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹Ý»ñÇ Ï»ë ·áõÙ³ñï³Ï ·Ý³Ý ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Ý ½Çݳó÷áõÙÁ£ ²Û¹ Ù³ëÇÝ ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë ï»Õ»Ï³óñÇ Ù»ñ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³ÝÁ, ÇëÏ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ÇÙ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÁ ½·áõß³óñ»ó ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñdzÛÇ Ùáï ·ïÝíáÕ Çñ»Ýó ݳí»ñÇÝ£ ÜáñÇÝ ¶»ñ³½³ÝóáõÃÛáõÝ ÆÙå»ñdzÉÇÇ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÝϳëÏ³Í ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù áõÝ»ó³í£ ¸áñÃÛáÉÇ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ñ³ÝÓݳϳï³ñÝ Çñ ջϳí³ñÇ ³ÝáõÝÇó ÇÝÓ ï»ÕÛ³Ï å³Ñ»ó, áñ ù³Õ³ùÁ ßñç³÷³ÏÙ³Ý Ù»ç ¿, ÇëÏ Ï³é³í³ñÇãÁ Ññ³Ñ³Ý·»É ¿ ½Çݳó÷»É û° ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ ¨ û° Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ´³óÇ Ýñ³ÝÇó, áñ Ù»ñ ¨ ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÁ ϳñáÕ³ó³Ý ³ñ·»É»É Ý»ñËáõÅáõÙÁ ù³Õ³ù, ³Ûɨ` Ù»ñ ݳí»ñÇó Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ»ñ áõÕ³ñÏí»óÇÝ` ù³Õ³ùÇ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÇÝ Í³ÝáóݳÉáõ ѳٳñ£ Øáõѳٻ¹ μ»ÛÝ ÇÝÓ ³ë³ó, áñ »Ã» »ñϳñ³ï¨ ˳ճÕáõÃÛáõÝ »Ýù áõ½áõÙ, ³å³ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ¿ å³ïųÙÇçáóÝ»ñ ÏÇñ³é»É£ ´³Ý³ÏÝ, Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÙ, ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿ ³Û¹ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ ·áñÍ»É, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ³ñ¹Ûá±ù Ïϳñáճݳ ×Çßï ·áñͻɣ ²ëïí³Í ï³ ³Û¹å»ë ÉÇÝÇ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ѳϳé³Ï å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ, ¹³ñÓÛ³É ³Ýï»ÕÇ ³ñÛáõÝ Ïó÷íÇ£ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇó ëï³óí³Í Ññ³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ, ²ÝïÇáùáõÙ Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí»É »Ý ·É˳íáñ Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ å³Ñ³ÝçáõÙ ¿, áñå»ë½Ç Ýñ³Ýó ³½³ï ³ñӳϻÝ, ù³Ý½Ç ãÇ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ å³ïÅ»É ëáõÉóÝÇ Ññ³Ù³ÝÁ ϳï³ñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ¶ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ ¨ ѳïϳå»ë ´»ÛɳÝáõÙ áõ سñ³ßáõÙ, ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÁ ç³ñ¹Ç »Ý ëå³ëáõÙ, ÇëÏ ¼»ÛÃáõÝÇ μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÁ í³Ë»ÝáõÙ »Ý, áñ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í ½áñùÁ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ ÏÇñ³·áñÍÇ ³ÛÝ, ÇÝã` ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¨ ø»ë³μáõÙ£ àã ÙÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ³ÝáõÙ ¹áõñë ·³É ïÝ»ñÇó, ù³Ý½Ç Ýñ³Ýó ëå³ÝáõÙ »Ý£ ²Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³é¨ïáõñÁ ÉÇáíÇÝ Ï³½Ù³ÉáõÍí»É ¿, ³Õù³ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ·Ý³Éáí ³í»ÉÇ ¿ ëñíáõÙ£ γñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝù, áñ ³ñѳíÇñùÁ Ïí»ñ³μ»ñÇ ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ïáõÅáõÙ »Ý ݳ¨ ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÁ£ Ø»ñ ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇó ß³ï»ñÁ ¨ë ͳÝñ ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É£ Ø»ñ ï»ÕÇ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏÇ »ñÏáõ óñ·Ù³ÝÇãÝ»ñÁ` ²ñٳݹá Îááõëë³Ý ¨ ÐáÙëÇÝ, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ññ¹»ÑÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ïáñóñ»É »Ý ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 130 ѳ½³ñ ýñ³ÝÏÇ Ï³ñáÕáõÃÛáõÝ£ ´áÉáñ ³ÛÝ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ, áíù»ñ ËÇÕ× áõÝ»Ý, Ùï³ÍáõÙ »Ý Ù»ÕÙ»É ³Ûë Ãßí³éÝ»ñÇ íÇ׳ÏÁ£ ²Ù»Ýáõñ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏÝ»ñ »Ý μ³óíáõÙ ³Ûë ³Ñ³íáñ ³ñѳíÇñùÇ íݳëÝ»ñÁ Ù»ÕÙ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²Ý·ÉÇ³Ý ¨ üñ³ÝëÇ³Ý ß³ï ³é³ï³Ó»éÝ »Ý, ¶»ñÙ³ÝÇ³Ý ¨ë ß³ï μ³Ý ¿ ³ÝáõÙ£ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ ¨ ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñdzÛÇ Ù»ñ ·ñ³ë»ÝÛ³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ ß³ï ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñ ³å³ëï³Ý ¨ ëÝáõݹ »Ý ëï³ÝáõÙ£ ²ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÷áËÑÛáõå³ïáë êáÉ³Ý ¹³ñÓ»É ¿ ß³ï ¹Åμ³ËïÝ»ñÇ å³Ñ³å³ÝÁ¦:14 î»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýóáõ٠ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñù»ñÇ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ íϳÛáõÙ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý ÆÙå»ñdzÉÇÇ ÏáÕÙÇó Ù³ÛÇëÇ 21-ÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ñ»é³·ÇñÁ. §...üñ³ÝëdzóÇ ÇÙ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÁ, áñ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ [ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ] ¿ ëï³ó»É Çñ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÇó ¨ é³½Ù³Ý³í»ñÇó, íëï³Ñ»óÝáõÙ ¿, áñ ß³ï í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ, Çñáù, ³Ñ³íáñ μÝáõÛà »Ý Ïñ»É£ гݷ³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñÁ ͳÝñ³óÝáõÙ ¨ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý 14 Ʋ¶Ü串, îå³·ñí³Í ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, Ñ.XVI, ÃÇí 2641£

30


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ ٻͳóÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÁ, áñ ϳñ· áõ ϳÝáÝÁ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ ²¹ñdzݳåáÉëÇó áõÕ³ñÏí³Í ½áñùÁ, ï»Õ ѳëÝ»ÉáõÝ å»ë Ùdzó»É ¿ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáÕÝ»ñÇÝ£ γñ»ÉÇ ¿ ³ë»É, áñ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó ·³·³ÃݳϻïÇÝ »Ý ѳëÝáõÙ, »ñμ ï»Õ »Ý ѳëÝáõÙ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ϳë»óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í ½áñù»ñÁ ...¦£ 15 àñù³Ý ¿É »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³½³ïáñ»Ý ¨ Ñ»ï¨áճϳÝáñ»Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáõÙ ¿ñ Çñ ³éç¨ ¹ñ³Í Íñ³·ñ»ñÁ, ³ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, »íñáå³Ï³Ý »ñÏñÝ»ñÇ ×ÝßáõÙÝ»ñÇó Ëáõë³÷»Éáõ ѳٳñ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ áÕç å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ñ¹»É ݳËÏÇÝ` ³μ¹áõÉѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç íñ³£ ¸ñ³ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ íϳÛáõ٠ݳ¨ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý ÆÙå»ñdzÉÇÝ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í ÑáõÉÇëÇ 9-Ç Çñ ѻ鳷ñáõÙ. §... ºñμ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ ³í³ñïí»óÇÝ ¨ ½áñùÁ Ùï³í Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë, ³Ûëï»Õ ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã ³ÝáõÙ »Ý, áñå»ë½Ç ϳñÍÇù Ó¨³íáñíÇ, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÙ å»ïù ¿ ï»ëÝ»É ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ... âå»ïù ¿ Ùáé³Ý³É, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ ãå»ïù ¿ ÷Ýïñ»É ݳËÏÇÝ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç, ϳ٠áñ¨¿ å³ßïáÝÛ³ÛÇ Ññ³ÑñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç£ ¸ñ³ å³ï׳éÝ ³ÛÝ ½³ÛñáõÛÃÝ ¿, áñáí Ãáõñù μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³μ»ñíáõÙ ¿ñ ѳۻñÇÝ, áñáÝù ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÁݹáõÝáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ѳݹ·ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ëáë»É, ·áñÍ»É ¨ Íñ³·ñ»ñ ϳ½Ù»É Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³í³ë³ñÇ å»ë£ ²ÝóÛ³É ³åñÇÉÇÝ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Ñû¹ë óݹ»óñÇÝ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ³ÛÝ å³ïñ³ÝùÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù Ýñ³Ýó ¿ÇÝ ïñí»É ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÁݹáõÝáõÙáí£...¦£16 ÜáõÛÝ Ñ»é³·ñáõÙ ¹»ëå³ÝÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ²¹³Ý³ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í å³ï·³Ù³íáñ³Ï³Ý Ñ»ï³ùÝÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇÝ, áñÇ Ï³½ÙáõÙ ¿ »Õ»É ݳ¨ ѳ۳½·Ç å³ï·³Ù³íáñ гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ£ ¸»ëå³ÝÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §...»Ïáõ½ Ñ»Ýó å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó ß³ï ϳñ¨áñ ¿ ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÁ, áñ Ý»ñϳ ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇó ÙÇ å³ï·³Ù³íáñ, ³ÛÝ ¿É ѳÛ, áõÕ³ñÏí»ó ²¹³Ý³` Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÇÝ Í³ÝáóݳÉáõ ѳٳñ£ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç Ñ³Ý¹»å áõÝ»ó³Í ³Û¹ å³ï·³Ù³íáñÇ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ó³ïñ»ÉÇ ¿, μ³Ûó ݳ, ï»ëÝ»Éáí Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ, ëïÇåí³Í ¿ñ ѳÛï³ñ³ñ»É, áñ ¹ñ³ÝóáõÙ ³μ¹áõÉѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛ³Ý áã ÙÇ Ñ»ïù ãϳ£ ÆÝã í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ ¿ Ý»ñϳÛÇÝ ¨ ³å³·³ÛÇÝ, å»ïù ¿ Ýß»É, áñ å³ï·³Ù³íáñ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ Ýáñ ³ñѳíÇñùÝ»ñ ¿ ϳÝ˳ï»ëáõÙ, ù³Ý½Ç ³Û¹ ßñç³ÝáõÙ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` ÉÇÝ»Ý ¹ñ³Ýù ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý, û 鳽ٳϳÝ, ѳí³ë³ñáõÃÛáõÝ ã»Ý å³ïÏ»ñ³óÝáõÙ£ ²ÛëÇÝùÝ, û° å³ßïáÝÛ³, û° ѳë³ñ³Ï Ãáõñù»ñÁ ã»Ý ϳñáÕ ÁݹáõÝ»É ³ÛÝ, áñ ѳۻñÝ Çñ»Ýó ѳí³ë³ñ »Ý£...¦£17 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇÝ Ã³ùóÝ»ÉáõÝ áõÕÕí³Í »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ñÃ³Ï³Ý ù³ÛÉÁ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ëï»ÕÍáõÙÝ áõ áõÕ³ñÏáõÙÝ ¿ñ ¹»åùÇ í³Ûñ»ñ£ ²Ûë ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý ¹»ñÇ ¨ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ áõß³·ñ³í ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ýù ϳñ¹áõ٠гɻåáõÙ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñù³Û³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáë ´»áõñ»·³ñ¹Ç` ÑáõÉÇëÇ 15-ÇÝ Æï³ÉdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ îÇïïáÝÇÇÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ñ»é³·ñáõÙ. §...ÆÝãå»ë ³ñ¹»Ý ï»Õ»Ï³óñ»É »Ù Ç٠ݳËáñ¹ ѳÕáñ¹³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ³Ûëûñí³ ÃáõñùÝ áõ »ñ»Ïí³ÝÁ` 1896 Ãí³Ï³ÝÇÝÁ, ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ áÕç Ù»ÕùÁ μ³ñ¹»É μ³ó³é³å»ë ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ¨, ѳïϳå»ë, Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç íñ³, ù³Ý½Ç Ýñ³Ýù

15 Ʋ¶Ü串, ø³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ß³ñù P, 1891-1916ÃÃ. ÃÕóå³Ý³Ï 332£ 16 Ʋ¶Ü串, ø³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ß³ñù P, 1891-1916ÃÃ. ÃÕóå³Ý³Ï 332£ 17 î»°ë ÝáõÛÝÁ£

31


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

³Ýå³ßïå³Ý »Ý ¨ Ñ»ßï ¿ Ýñ³Ýó Ù»Õ³¹ñ»É£ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¨ ³ÛÉ ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÙ í»ñçÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇÝ ã»Ý ³Ýѳݷëï³óÝáõÙ, ù³Ý½Ç å»ïù ¿ Ù»Õ³¹ñí»ñ áÕç ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý ¨ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ...ºÃ» é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ ¹»é¨ë ³í³ñïí³Í ãÇ Ñ³Ù³ñáõÙ Çñ ÝáÕϳÉÇ ·áñÍÁ ¨ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ó»éù ãÇ ³éÝáõÙ, áñå»ë½Ç ³½³ï ³ñÓ³Ïí»Ý ß³ï ³ÝÙ»Õ μ³Ýï³ñÏÛ³ÉÝ»ñ, áñáÝù å³ñ½³å»ë Ïïï³ÝùÝ»ñÇ »Ý »ÝóñÏíáõÙ áõ ëå³ÝíáõÙ, ³å³, ãÝ³Û³Í μáÉáñ ÑÝã³Í ·»Õ»óÇÏ ËáëïáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, ï»ÕÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳɳͳÝù ¿ ëå³ëíáõÙ£ ²Ûë ³ÙμáÕç ßñç³ÝáõÙ` гɻåáõÙ ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ã³÷³½³Ýó ϳï³Õ³Í ¿, áñáíÑ»ï¨ ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ Ññ³Å³ñíáõÙ ¿ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇÝ Ñ³ÝÓÝ»É Çñ Ùáï ³å³ëï³Ý³Í ãáñë ѳۻñÇÝ ¨ ѳÛï³ñ³ñ»É ¿, áñ Ýñ³Ýó Ϲ³ïÇ ÙdzÛÝ ³Ý·ÉÇ³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ` ³Û¹åÇëáí óáõÛó ï³Éáí Çñ í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝùÁ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å£ ØÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñ ³é³ç ²ÝïÇáùáõÙ Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí»óÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÝ áõ Çñ³·áñÍáÕÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù μáÉáñÇÝ ù³ç ѳÛïÝÇ ¿ÇÝ£ è³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÝ ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Éñ³ïí³Ï³Ý ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí ѳÛï³ñ³ñ»ó, áñ ºíñáå³Ý ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ áõ½áõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ßáõïáí ³½³ï ³ñӳϻÉáí Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ, ѳÛï³ñ³ñ»ó, áñ Ýñ³Ýù Ù»Õ³íáñ ã¿ÇÝ£ ²ÙμáÕç Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ñÑáõÙ ·áÑáõݳÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ »Ý ÝßáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÑdzݳÉÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ, ù³Ý½Ç ¹ñ³Ýó ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ áã ÙÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý áã ÙdzÛÝ ãëå³Ýí»ó, ³ÛÉ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ãíÇñ³íáñí»ó£ سñ³ßáõÙ ³ñ¹»Ý ÑÇÝ· ß³μ³Ã ¿, ÇÝã é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÝ Çñ ÝÇëï»ñÁ ëÏëáõÙ ¿ Ý߳ݳíáñ Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó Ó»ñμ³Ï³ÉáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¨ ëïÇåáõÙ, áñå»ë½Ç ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á ½»ÝùÁ í³Ûñ ¹ÝÇ£ ²ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨, ³½³ï»Éáí Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ¹³ï³å³ñïáõÙ ¿ áõñÇßÝ»ñÇÝ£ ÊáëùÁ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ Ý߳ݳíáñ Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ ¨ áã û Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ£ î»ÕÇ μ³Ýï»ñáõÙ »Ý ·ïÝíáõÙ Ñ³Û Ñá·¨áñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ, μáÕáù³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ, ¹åñáóÇ ¹³ë³ïáõÝ»ñ ¨ ³ÛÉù, áñáÝóÇó Ïïï³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí ÷áñÓáõÙ »Ý Ëáëïáí³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ Ó»éù μ»ñ»É, áñ ³Ý¹³Ù³Ïó»É »Ý Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÙ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ ãáõÝ»óáÕ ÏáÙÇï»Ý»ñÇÝ£ Þ³ï»ñÁ μ³Ýï »Ý Ý»ïíáõÙ ¨ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ »ÝóñÏíáõÙ£ Üñ³ÝóÇó å³Ñ³ÝçáõÙ »Ý ³ë»É, û á±í ¿ ½»Ýù μ»ñáõ٠سñ³ß£ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÁݹáõÝáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ½»ÝùÇ ³é¨ïáõñÁ ³½³ï ¿£ ØÛáõë ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñÁ ËݹñáõÙ »Ý, áñå»ë½Ç ³Û¹ ³ñÛáõݳñμáõ ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ ãÙïÝÇ Çñ»Ýó ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñÁ, ãݳ۳Í, áñ Çñ»Ýó Ùáï ¿É »Ý ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó»É ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ£ ²ÛÅÙ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ½Çݳó÷»Éáõ ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ·É˳íáñÝ»ñÇÝ ¹³ï³å³ñï»Éáõ ѳٳñ ³Û¹ ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ Ù»ÏÝáõÙ ¿ ¼»ÛÃáõÝ, áõñ ¹»é¨ë 9 ѳ½³ñ Ñ³Û Ï³£ ´áÉáñ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÁ ë³ñë³÷áõÙ »Ý, ù³Ý½Ç ³ÝóÛ³ÉÇ ÑÇßáÕáõÃÛáõÝÇó ½³ï, Ýñ³Ýó ³ãùÇ ³é³ç ¿ ݳ¨ Ý»ñϳݣ Üñ³Ýù ³ëáõÙ »Ý, áñ Ý߳ݳíáñÝ»ñÇÝ í»ñ³óÝ»Éáõó ¨ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ½Çݳó÷»Éáõó Ñ»ïá ëÏëíáõÙ ¿ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ£ سÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ ¿É, á·¨áñí»Éáí Çñ»Ýó ѳçáÕáõÃÛáõÝÇó, ³é³í»É μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï »Ý óáõó³¹ñáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ, áñÇó ¿É ù³Õ³ùÇ ¨, ѳïϳå»ë, ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõÕÕ³ÏÇ ë³ñë³÷áõÙ ¿¦£18 ÆÝãå»ë ï»ë³Ýù, úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ Çï³É³óÇ ¹Çí³Ý³·»ïÝ»ñÁ μ³í³Ï³Ý ³ÏïÇíáñ»Ý ³ñÓ³·³Ýù»É »Ý ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»óáÕ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ö³ëï³ÃÁÕûñÇó ³ÏÝѳÛï ¿ ¹³éÝáõÙ, áñ ѻ鳷ñ»ñÝ áõ ݳٳÏÝ»ñÝ ³í»ÉÇ ß³ï »Ý »Õ»É, áñáÝù, ó³íáù, ã»Ý å³Ñå³Ýí»É£ ²Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ϳñÍáõÙ »Ýù, áñ ÑÇßÛ³É í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñÝ ¿³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý ÏÉñ³óÝ»Ý Ù»ñ ·Çï»ÉÇùÝ»ñÝ áõ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñ۳ɣ

18 Ʋ¶Ü串, ø³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ß³ñù P, 1891-1916 ÃÃ. ÃÕóå³Ý³Ï 332£

32


²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý

Aramayis Baloyan The Italian Diplomatic Documents on the 1909 Massacres of Armenians in Cilicia Summary The Italian diplomats, who eyewitnessed the massacres of the Armenian population in the provinces of Adana and Aleppo in April of 1909, have passed very notable information to the Italian government. In their telegrams and diplomatic dispatches they have clearly emphasized the fact that the Armenian massacres had been organized and implemented by the Young Turkish government. These documents mostly unknown to the researchers until recently. Now by putting these documents into circulation, we’re sure that they will strongly contribute to the comprehensive study of the problem.

33


1909Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºô вȺäÆ ìÆȲںÂܺðàôØ îºÔÆ àôܺò²Ì Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ Ðය´²Ü²Î²Ü ¸ð¸²ä²îÖ²èܺðÜ àô кîºô²ÜøܺðÀ. ܲÊÜ²Î²Ü ¸Æî²ðÎàôØ Üºð гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý 1909 Ã. úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý Ð³É»åÇ áõ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ íÇɳۻÃÝ»ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ѳۻñÇ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¹ñ¹³å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ áõ ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³é³ÝÓݳѳïáõÏ Ï³ñ¨áñáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ù»Ù³É³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý, Ç Ù³ëݳíáñÇ, ѳۻñÇ ¹»Ù Çñ³·áñÍí³Í ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý, ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý, ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ¨ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ß³ñųéÇÃÝ»ñÇ Éáõë³μ³ÝÙ³Ý ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó£ ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí ϳñ¨áñ »Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë ¹³ñÓ³Í Ñ³Û ¨ ûï³ñ³½·Ç Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ ì»ñçÇÝÝ»ñÇë ѳÕáñ¹áõÙÝ»ñÁ, ÑÇß³ñÅ³Ý »Ý, ù³Ý½Ç ¹ñ³Ýù ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳ÝáõÙ »Ý ÏáÕÙݳÏÇ ³ÝÓ³Ýó (bystanders) íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ï»ëùáí£ ¸ñ³Ýó Ãíáõ٠ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ ÑÇß³ï³Ï»É ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñ ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ,1 ü»ñÇÙ³Ý ¸³ù»ÃÇ,2 èááõ½ ȳÙμ»ñïÇ,3 лÝñÇ ìáõ¹ëÇ4 ¨ ³ÛÉáó íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»ÉÇë ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ å»ïù ¿ ¹ñ³Ýù ¹Çï³ñÏ»É Ãñù³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ ÷á÷áËÙ³Ý, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÇ ÉáõÍÙ³Ý ¨ ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ »Õ³Í ÁݹѳÝáõñ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ·ÍÇ ³Ý÷á÷áË»ÉÇáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ï»ùëïáõÙ£ гÙÁݹѳÝáõñ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ, áñÁ ëï»ÕÍí³Í ¿ñ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ 1894-1896 ÃÃ. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ¨ ¹ñ³Ý ѳçáñ¹³Í ï»Õ³ÛÇÝ μÝáõÛà Ïñ³Í μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá, μÝáõó·ñíáõÙ ¿ñ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ½³Ý·í³ÍÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ßñç³Ý³éíáÕ` §Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ѳۻñÇÝ ïí»ù ùë³Ý ï³ñÇ ¨ Ýñ³Ýù å³ïñ³ëï ÏÉÇÝ»Ý Ñ³çáñ¹ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇݦ ѳÛïÝÇ Ï³ñ·³Ëáëáí£ ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí ѳïϳÝß³Ï³Ý ¿ ³½·áõÃÛ³Ùμ ÑáõÛÝ Ñ»ÕÇÝ³Ï ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç μ»ñíáÕ ³ÛÝ ¹ñí³·Á, »ñμ Ãáõñù å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇó Ù»ÏÁ Ëáë»Éáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ïÇñáÕ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÇ ¨ Ùáï³Éáõï ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ÝßáõÙ ¿. §êå³ëáõÙ »Ýù, áñ ÷»Ã³ÏÁ ÉóíÇ Ù»Õñáí ¨ ³Û¹Å³Ù ³ÛÝ Ñ³í³ù»Éáõ ³éÇÃÁ ÏÝ»ñϳ۳ݳ¦£5 ²ÛëåÇëáí ëï»ÕÍí³Í Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ μÝáõó·ñ»É ݳ¨ áñå»ë Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ÑáÍ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å »Õ³Í Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ëå³ëáõÙáí ¨ ݳ˳ïñ³Ù³¹ñí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Ð³ñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ½»ñÍ Ùݳó Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó áõ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó£ ²Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ ¿³å»ë Ýå³ëï»ó »ñÏñ³Ù³ëÇ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ ³×ÇÝ áõ μ³ñ»Ï»óáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³Ï³ñ¹³ÏÇ μ³ñÓñ³óÙ³ÝÁ, ÇÝãÝ ³ÝÝϳï ãÙݳó ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ Ñ»ï³Ùݳó áõ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹ áõ ³ÝѳݹáõñÅáÕ³Ï³Ý ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ áõÝ»óáÕ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ßñç³å³1 A. Adossidès. Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs: Les massacres de Cilicia, Paris, 1911. 2 Ferriman Duckett. Armenian Atrocities. Young Turks and the Truth about the Holocaust at Adana, Lon-don, 1913. 3 Rose Lambert. Hadjin and the massacres of Armenians. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1911. 4 Henry Charles Woods. The Danger Zone of Europe: Changes and Problems In The Near East. Fisher Unwin, 1911. 5 ². ²¹áëǹ»ë. гۻñ ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñ. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ºñ¨³Ý, ÐòÂÆ, 2012, ¿ç 8£

34


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

ïÇó£ ²Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ ϳñ¨áñ ¹»ñ ˳ճó Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÃÇñ³Ë³íáñÙ³Ý, ÇëÏ Ñ»ï³·³ÛáõÙ` Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³å³ïñ³ëïÙ³Ý, Ññ³ÑñÙ³Ý áõ Çñ³·áñÍÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ϳñ¨áñ ¹»ñ³Ï³ï³ñáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ó³í ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ÙÃÝáÉáñïÇ ëï»ÕÍáõÙÁ£ ²Û¹åÇëÇù ѳݹÇë³ó³Ý ë³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ÏÇñ³éáõÙÁ, ³å³ï»Õ»Ï³ïíáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñ³ÍáõÙÁ, ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹ ½³Ý·í³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ùáï ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ³ÝѳݹáõñÅáճϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ïñù»ñÇ μáñμáùáõÙÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ²Û¹åÇëÇ »ñ¨áõÛÃÝ»ñÇ ¨ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹ÇåáõÙ »Ýù ųٳݳÏÇÝ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¨ ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñ³ÛÇÝ ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇó ³Ý·ÉdzóÇ ¹Çí³Ý³·»ï ü»ñÇÙ³Ý ¸³ù»ïÁ ÑÇß³ï³ÏáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ï»ÕÇ Ãáõñù ÏñáݳíáñÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ѳïáõÏ ý»Ãí³Ûáí êñμ³½³Ý å³ï»ñ³½Ù ѳÛï³ñ³ñ»Éáõ ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ` ѳۻñÇ ¹»Ù Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ Ññ³Ññ»Éáõ Ù³ëÇÝ:6 ²Ûë ÷³ëïÁ ÝáõÛÝå»ë ËáëáõÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³Ýù ¿ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ݳË×ÇñÇ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ¹ñ¹³å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ Éáõë³μ³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÝ áõ ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÁ Ù³ïݳÝßáõÙ »Ý, áñ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ áã »ñÏñáñ¹³Ï³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ó³Ý ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ, Ç Ù³ëݳíáñÇ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý §ÆÃǹ³É¦ ûñÃáõÙ ³Û¹ ûñ»ñÇÝ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í ·ñ·éÇã Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñÁ, Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ëï³Ñá¹ Éáõñ»ñÇ ï³ñ³ÍáõÙÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ÙÇïáõÙݳíáñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ë³¹ñÇã ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ûñÇÝ³Ï Ù½ÏÇÃÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ íñ³ Ï»Õï ùë»ÉÁ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýáõ٠ѳۻñÇÝ Ù»Õ³¹ñ»ÉÁ£ êñ³Ýù ³ÏÝѳÛïáñ»Ý ÙÇïí³Í ¿ÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³å³ïñ³ëïÙ³Ý áõ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ áñáß³ÏÇ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ݳ˳¹ñÛ³ÉÝ»ñ ëï»ÕÍ»ÉáõÝ£7 ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ Ãíáõ٠ϳñ¨áñáõÙ ¿ Ãáõñù»ñÇ, áñå»ë ³ñïáÝÛ³É ï³ññÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³Û¹åÇëÇ Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳ÏÇ ÏáñáõëïÇ Ùï³Ñá·áõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñáí ÷³ëïáñ»Ý Ù»ñÅíáõÙ ¿ñ ѳۻñÇÝ áõ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏÙ³Ùμ ïñí»ÉÇù ѳí³ë³ñ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÁ£ Üñ³ ϳñÍÇùáí ë³ ïÇñ³å»ïáÕ é³ë³ÛÇ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ñ »Ýóϳ é³ë³ÛÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ£ ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ Ï³ñÍÇùáí, Ñ»Ýó ³Û¹ å³ï׳éáí ¿ñ, áñ ³Ûë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Ïáãí³Í ¿ÇÝ í³ñϳμ»Ï»Éáõ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝ ë»ñٳݻÉáí, áíù»ñ Ýáñ ·³Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ÃßÝ³Ù³Ï³Ý ½·³óáõÙÝ»ñ áõÝ»ÇÝ£8 ²Ûë ¹Çï³ñÏáõÙÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ñ 1908 Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»Õ³ßñçáõÙÇó ¨ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³ËÏÇÝáõ٠ѳɳÍÛ³É áõ Çñ³í³½áõñÏ Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳ÏáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý` ³Û¹ Ãíáõ٠ѳۻñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ïÇñáÕ Ñ³ÙÁݹѳÝáõñ ˳ݹ³í³éáõÃÛ³Ý áõ á·¨áñáõÃÛ³Ý »ñ¨áõÛÃÝ»ñáí£ ÜáõÛÝÇëÏ ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ¹Çí³Ý³·»ïÝ»ñÁ íϳÛáõÙ »Ý ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñμ»ñ ѳïí³ÍÝ»ñáõÙ ÝÙ³Ý ÏïñáõÏ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ áõ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Çñ³í³Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÇ íï³Ý·³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý áõ Ñݳñ³íáñ ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ:9 ²Ûë ³Ù»ÝÇ Ñ»ï Ù»Ïï»Õ, ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÁ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ³Ý·³Ù ÑÇß³ï³ÏáõÙ »Ý ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ѳٳÛÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñ³μ»ñ³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý Ë³Õ³Õ Ñ³Ù³Ï»óáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ£ ¸³Å³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ áñå»ë ³½¹³Ï ͳé³Û³Í ³ÛÉ Ñá6 Ferriman Dackett. The Young Turks and the Truth about the Holocaust at Adana in Asia Minor, during April, 1909, Yerevan, AGMI, pp. 16-17. 7 î»°ë Ú. ¿ñ½»³Ý. ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 11-12, 26£ 8 î»°ë A. Adosides, ¿ç 7, 8, 139-140. 9 î»°ë Èç äîíåñåíèÿ ðóññêîãî ãåíåðàëüíîãî êîíñóëà â Ýðçåðóìå ïîñëó â Êîíñòàíòèíîïîëå È. À. Çèíîâüåâó, ñì. Ãåíîöèä àðìÿí â Îñìàíñêîé èìïåðèè, Åðåâàí, Àéàñòàí, 1983. Ñ. 188.

35


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ¹ñ¹³å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕùÇÝ ûï³ñ ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÁ ݳ˳ÝßíáõÙ »Ý ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ùáï μéÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹»å μݳïáõñ ѳÏáõÙÁ ¹»åÇ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ÂáõñùdzÛÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÑáõßáõÙ ¿, áñ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ ÷á÷áË»ÉÇáõÃÛ³Ý å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÏÇñ³éáõÙÁ ¹Çïí»É ¿ áñå»ë ÙݳÛáõÝ áõ ³Ý÷á÷áË ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ£ гïϳÝß³Ï³Ý ¿, áñ ³Ûë ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÇ íñ³ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ Ññ³íÇñáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Ûáó ³é³çÝáñ¹ Øáõß»Õ »åÇëÏáåáëÁ, Çñ ѳÛïÝÇ ÏáãáõÙ Ýß»Éáí Ñ»ï¨Û³É §ø³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý áõ ÏñûÝ³Ï³Ý ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÛ³Ùμ ·³½³Ý³ó³Í Ãáõñù μéݳå»ïáõÃÇõÝÁ 1896-06-ÇÝ Çñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå³Í ç³ñ¹»ñáí г۳ëï³ÝÁ ëå³Ý¹³ÝáóÇ ÙÁ í»ñ³Í»É¿ í»ñç, ³åñÇÉ 1/14 ¿Ý Ç í»ñ ³Ù»Ý³ëáëϳÉÇ Ñ³ñõ³ÍÁ Ïáõï³Û ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ëñïÇÝ£ ºõ Ù»Ýù ³Ù»Ý³ïËáõñ ÷áñÓ³éáõÃÇõÝÁ áõÝ»ó³Ýù, ÿ ÂáõñùdzÝ, í³ñã³Ï³Ý ÇÝã ÷á÷áËáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ³É áñ Ïñ¿, ÁÉÉ³Û Ùdzå»ï³Ï³Ý ÿ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý, ѳ۳çÇÝç ëϽμáõÝùÁ Çñ ³ÛɳٻñÅ Íñ³·ÇñÝ»ñáõÝ ÑÇÙݳϿïÁ åÇïÇ Ï³½Ù¿...¦:10 ²ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿. §àã áù Ïñݳñ »ñ¨³Ï³Û»É, ÿ ³Ýó»³ÉÇÝ Ù»ç Ïñ³Í ³ÛÝù³Ý ½ñϳÝùÝ»ñÁ, ï³é³å³ÝùÝ»ñÁ, ó÷õ³Í ³ÛÝù³Ý ³ñÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ÙáéݳÉáõ ïñ³Ù³¹Çñ ѳÛáõû³Ý ѳݹ¿å, ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ñ¿ÅÇÙÇ ÙÁ ûñáí, Ï»¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõû³Ý, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáõë³Ï³Éáõû³Ý ¨ Çëɳ٠ËáõųÝÇÝ »Õμ³Ûñ³Ïóáõû³Ý ѳٳÏñ³Ï³Ý óáõÛóÁ ³Ûëù³Ý ³ñÇõÝáï åÇïÇ ÁÉɳñ...¦:11 ÜáõÛÝ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕμ»ñ·³Ï³Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ áñ³Ï»Éáí áñå»ë §Ï³Ý˳Ùï³Íí³Í á×Çñ¦ Çñ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ ÝßáõÙ ¿. §ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ñ¿ÅÇÙÇÝ ÂáõñùÇáÛ Ù¿ç Ñéã³Ïáõ»É¿Ý Û»ïáÛ Ð³Û»ñÁ »Ã¿ Û³Ýó³Ýù ÙÁ áõÝ»ó³Ý` Û³ãë ۻﳹÇÙ³Ï³Ý Âáõñù ï³ññÇÝ, áñ ¹Åμ³Ë¹³μ³ñ ³Ñ³õáñ ÃÇõ ÙÁ ÏÁ ϳ½Ù¿ ï³Ï³õÇÝ, ³ÛÝ ³É úëÙ. ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ð¿ÅÇÙÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÏ»ÕÍ »õ μáÉáñ³Ýáõ¿ñ ÷³ñáõÙÝ ¿ñ£ ºÃ¿ гۻñÁ Û³Ýó³Ýù ÙÁ áõÝ»ó³Ý Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÓÇÝ Ñ³Ý¹¿å, ³ÛÝ ³É ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ñ¿ÅÇÙÇÝ íñ³Û Çñ»Ýó ã³÷³½³Ýó íëï³ÑáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿ñ, íëï³ÑáõÃÇõÝ ÙÁ, ÿ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ñ¿ÅÇÙÇ ï³Ï ³ÛÉ»õë ç³ñ¹»ñÝ áõ ÏáÕáåáõïÝ»ñÁ ³Ýϳñ»ÉÇáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ¿Çݦ£12 âÝ³Û³Í áñáß ûï³ñ ¨ Ñ³Û Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñ ѳÏí³Í ¿ÇÝ Ï³ñÍ»Éáõ, áñ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñÁ ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ÙݳóáõÏÝ»ñÝ áõ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇó ëï³óí³Í Ññ³Ù³ÝÝ ¿ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Í³í³ÉÝ»ñÁ, ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ÏÝѳÛï å³ëÇí, ÇëÏ áñáß ¹»åù»ñáõÙ ¿É μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï Ññ³ÑñÇã ·áñͻɳá×Ý ³ÏÝѳÛïáñ»Ý ÙÕáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ»Ýó »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ӻ鳷ÇñÁ ï»ëÝ»É ¹Åݹ³Ï ³Ûë Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç£ ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí Ù»Ï ³ÛÉ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏ` Ð»É»Ý ¶ÇμμáÝëÁ, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ·ñáõÙ ¿. §²ÛÅÙ Ù»Ýù ѳëϳó³Ýù, áñ ÙÇ³Ï ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÑÇÝ áõ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Ãáõñù»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ ¹³ ³ÛÝ ¿, áñ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÝ ³í»ÉÇ ·áñÍáõÝÛ³ ¨ ϳï³ñÛ³É ¿ÇÝ ç³ñ¹»ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»ÉÇ릣13 ²Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÙ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÇÝ, ü»ñÇÙ³Ý ¸³ù»ÃÁ, ¹³ï³å³ñï»Éáí ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ù»ç »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÝßáõÙ ¿. §Üñ³Ýù, áíù»ñ ͳÝáà »Ý ÂáõñùdzÛÇÝ ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ ·Çï»Ý, áñ ³é³Ýó ϳé³10 î»°ë Îáã ѳٳÛÝ Ñ³Ûáõû³Ý ³ñÇõݳ½³Ý· ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ, §î³ñ³½¦,, 1909, No. 5-6, ï»ë Ð³Û Ánï³ÝÇù, ì»Ý»ïÇÏ, 1985, ¿ç 43£ 11 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ£ 12 Øáõß»Õ ºåÇëÏáåáë. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Á »õ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÁ, ¶³ÑÇñ¿, ²ñ³ñ³ï ïå³ñ³Ý, 1909, ¿ç 8£ 13 Helen Gibbons. The Red Rugs of Tarsus. A Woman’s Story of the Armenian Massacres. Paris, 1919, p. 127.

36


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë³Ó»éÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³Ù Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ »ñμ»ù Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ ã»Ý ÉÇÝáõÙ¦£14 ²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û áñáß Ùï³íáñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ÷áñÓ»óÇÝ Çñ»Ýó í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»É ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ ßáõñç, ³Ýáõß³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ãÙ³ïÝ»Éáí ݳ¨ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÇ ³ÝÑ»é³ï»ëáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ½·áõß³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ óáõó³μ»ñ»Éáõ ϳñ¨áñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ½³Ýó ³éÝ»Éáõ ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñÁ£ ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí μ³í³Ï³Ý ïå³íáñÇã í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ï³ÉÇë Ñ³Û Ù³ñÙݳٳñ½ÇÏ, §Ø³ñÙݳٳñ½¦ ѳݹ»ëÇ ËÙμ³·Çñ Þ³í³ñß øñÇëÛ³ÝÁ, áí Ç Ù³ëݳíáñÇ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃ»Ý¿Ý ³ë¹ÇÝ Ýáñ Ï»³Ýù ÙÁ ëÏë³õ ÂáõñùÇáÛ Ñ³Ù³ñ, μáÉáñ μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã ³½·»ñÁ ëÏë³Ý Çñ»Ýó μáÉáñ ó÷áíÁ ÇÝùݳ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý, ù³Õ³ù³ÏñÃáõû³Ý ¨ Û³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõû³Ý Ñ»ï³Ùáõï ÁÉɳÉ. ѳۻñë ³É ß³ñÅ»ó³Ýù, μ³Ûó μݳϳݳμ³ñ áã ³ÛÝ ³éáÕç ¨ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ó÷áí` áñáí å³ñï ¿ÇÝ ß³ñÅÇÉ, Ç Ñ³ñÏ¿ Ù»Ýù ³Ù»Ý¿Ý ³õ»ÉÇ ½·³ó³Í ÁÉɳÉáí μéݳå»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ßÕóݻñáõ ͳÝñáõÃÇõÝÁ, Ù»ñ áõñ³ËáõÃÇõÝÁ ¨ Û³é³ç³¹ÇÙ»Éáõ »é³Ý¹Á ³Ù»Ý¿Ý ³õ»ÉÇ åÇïÇ ÁÉɳñ, μ³Ûó ³Û¹ áõñ³Ëáõû³Ý ¨ ÇÝùݳÙáé³óÙ³Ý ûñ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç Ùáéó³Ýù ÝϳïÇ ³éÝ»É μÝ³Ï³Ý ¨ μݳËûë³Ï³Ý ûñ¿Ýù ÙÁ` áñáõÝ Ñ³Ù»Ù³ï, ß³ï ÝëïáÕ ÙÁ, »ñϳñ ³ï»Ý å³éÏ³Í ÑÇõ³Ý¹ ÙÁ, ³å³ùÇݻɿ í»ñç, å³ñï³õáñ ¿ ùÇã ÙÁ ³ï»Ýáõ³Ý ѳٳñ Û³Ùñ³μ³ñ ÁÝóݳÉ, Çñ áõÅ»ñÁ ãëå³é»É, ÙÇÝã»õ áñ μáÉáñáíÇÝ ³å³ùÇÝÇ, Ù»Ýù ³Ûë ×ßÙ³ñïáõÃÇõÝÁ Ùáéó³Ýù áõ áõ½»óÇÝù Ù¿Ï Ã³÷áí ÁÝÃ³Ý³É ¨ ÂáõñùÇáÛ ³é³ç³¹¿Ù ³½·Á ÁÉɳÉ, ë˳ɻó³Ýù áõ ã³ñ³ã³ñ ïáõÅ»óÇÝù, íϳÛ` ²ï³Ý³Ý, áñ Ù»ñ ÏáõñÍùÇÝ íñ³Û ·Çï³Ïóûñ¿Ý μ³óáõ³Í í¿ñù Ù’¿ Ù»½Ç ÛÇß»óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ÿ Ù»ñ Û³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõû³ÝÁ ݳ˳ÝÓáÕÝ»ñ ϳÝ, Ù»Ýù Ù»ñ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõû³Ý Ù¿ç Ù¿Ãáï ÙÁ Ç ·áñÍ ãÇ ¹ñÇÝù ¨ Ýٳݻó³Ýù ³ÛÝ í³×³é³Ï³ÝÇÝ` áñ ³é³Ýó ϳÝáݳõáñ ï»ïñ³ÏÇ Çñ ·áñͳéáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ÏÁ ϳï³ñ¿ ¨ Û»ïáÛ ÏÁ ½³ñÙ³Ý³Û Çñ ³Ý·Çï³Ïóûñ¿Ý Ïñ³Í íݳëÇÝ ¨ ·ÉËáõÝ »Ï³Í ÷áñÓ³ÝùÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ, ³Ñ³õ³ëÇÏ Ù»Ýù ³É ³½·³ÛÇÝ ï»ë³Ï¿ïáí ×Çß¹ ³Û¹ í³×³é³Ï³ÝÇÝ íÇ׳ÏÇ Ù¿ç ÏÁ ·ïÝáõÇÝù¦:15 îÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÝÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ñ μ³ñ»Ï»óÇÏ ÏÛ³Ýùáí ³åñáÕ áõ ½³ñ·³ó³Í ѳÝñáõÛÃÇ ¹»Ù Ïáõï³Ïí³Í ³ÝѳݹáõñÅáճϳÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¨ ³Û¹ ѳÝñáõÛÃÇ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ³é³í»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ í»ñ³óÝ»ÉáõÝ Ï³Ù ¹ñ³Ýó μéÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ ïÇñ»Éáõ ÙÕáõÙáí£ ä³ï³Ñ³Ï³Ý 㿠ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÁ, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»Ýó ëϽμáõÙ ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÁ, лÝñÇ ìáõ¹ëÇ ÑÇß³ï³ÏÙ³Ùμ, ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ áãÝã³óñ»óÇÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ å³ñï³óáõó³ÏÝ»ñÁ:16 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »ñ»ë÷áË³Ý ²ÉÇ ØÛáõÝÇý μ»ÛÝ Ñ»ï¨Û³É Ï»ñå ¿ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ. §... ¸áõù` øñÇëïáÝ»³Ý»ñ¹` ÏÁ Û³é³ç¹ÇÙ»ù, ÏñÃ³Ï³Ý »õ ³é»õïñ³Ï³Ý áõÕÕáõû³Ùμ Û³é³ç` Ï’³ÝóÝÇù. úï³ñÝ»ñÁ Ó»½Ç ѳٳñ ¹åñáóÝ»ñ Ïμ³Ý³Ý, ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÁ Ï’û·Ý¿ »õ ¹áõù Ͻ³ñ·³Ý³ù£ ´³Ûó Ù»ñ ÇëɳÙÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý Û³é³çÇÙ»ñ »õ »Õ³Í ï»Õ»ñÝÇÝ ÏÁ Ùݳݣ ºÃ¿ »ñÏñÇ ÙÁ Ù»ç ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ç ÙÁ Ù¿Ï Ù³ëÁ ۳鳹ÇÙ¿, ÇëÏ áõñÇß Ù¿Ï Ù³ëÁ ۻﳹÇÙ¿` ³Ñ³ ³Ûëå¿ë ÏÁÉɳۦ:17 úï³ñ³½·Ç ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë-íϳݻñÁ ¨ë Ù³ïݳÝßáõÙ »Ý, áñ §Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ·í³Í¦ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¨ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý å³ïñí³ÏÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÝ ¿ ѳݹÇë³ó»É 1895 Ã. ³ñѳíÇñùÝ»ñÇó Ëáõë³÷³Í ¨ ½·³ÉÇ ³½·³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ñëïáõÃÛáõÝ Ïáõï³Ï³Í ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ, 14 Ferriman Duckett, Ýßí. ³ß˳ï. ¿ç 6. 15 Þ³í³ñß øñÇëÛ³Ý. Ð³Û Ù³ñÙݳٳñ½³Ï³Ý ÙÇáõû³Ý ϳï³ñ»ÉÇù ·áñÍÁ, §Ø³ñÙݳٳñ½¦, ÃÇõ 17, û·áëïáëÇ 31, 1912, ¿ç 309£ 16 Henry Woods. The Danger Zone of Europe, p. 140. 17 гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ Ú. ²ß×»³Ý. ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ºÕ»éÝÁ »õ ¶áÝdzۿ Ûáõß»ñ, ÜÇõ ºáñù, ÎáãÝ³Ï ïå³ñ³Ý, 1950, ¿ç 79£

37


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

ù³Ý½Ç §ÑÇÝ Ãáõñù»ñÁ ³é³í»É ù³Ý »ñμ»ù ³ïáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýñ³Ýó ¨ ÙdzÛÝ ëå³ëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³éÇÃÇ Ã³É³Ý»Éáõ Ýñ³Ýó ÇÝãùÁ¦£18 гñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ½»ÝùÇ ³½³ï í³×³éùÁ ¨ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ³Ýݳ˳¹»å ͳí³ÉÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ëÝáÕ ½»ÝùÇ Ó»éùμ»ñáõÙÁ, ѳݹÇëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ ïáÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï å³ñμ»ñ³μ³ñ ÏñÏÝíáÕ Ññ³Ó·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ³ÝÝϳï ã¿ñ Ùݳó»É Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ½³Ý·í³ÍÇ áõ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ øñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³í³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Í³óáõÙÁ ³ñïáÝÛ³É áõ ݳ˳ѳñÓ³ÏÇ Çñ³íáõÝù áõ ϳñ·³íÇ×³Ï áõÝ»óáÕ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹ ѳïí³ÍÁ ã¿ñ ϳñáÕ³ÝáõÙ ÁݹáõÝ»É áõ ѳßïí»É ³Û¹ ÇñáÕáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï£ øñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ áõ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Çñ³í³Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÝÑݳñÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ѳçáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Éñ³óáõóÇã ÉÇóù ѳÕáñ¹»óÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ùáɳ·³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ëïÇ׳ÝÇ Ñ³ëÝáÕ ¹³Å³Ý ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Çñ³·áñÍÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ гïϳÝß³Ï³Ý ¿, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñ ³é³ç ÑáõÛÝ ÁÙμÇßÁ å³ñïáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ñ Ù³ïÝ»É Ãáõñù ÁÙμÇßÇÝ, ÇÝãÁ Éáõñç Áݹí½áõÙÝ»ñ ¿ñ ³é³ç³óñ»É ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ùáï£19 ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ Ï³ñÍÇùáí, ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ³½³ï³Ï³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ áñ¨¿ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ ã¿ÇÝ ÃáÕ»É Ãáõñù ѳí³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³£ ܳ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ Ýáñ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·ÇÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ½³Ý·í³ÍÝ»ñÁ û¨ ³é»ñ¨áõÛà »ÝóñÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÃßݳÙÇ ¹Çñù ¿ÇÝ μéÝ»É ¹ñ³ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ£ ²ÛÝ μݳ½¹³μ³ñ Ù»ñÅáõÙ ¿ ³Ù»Ý ϳñ·Ç μ³ñ»Ýáñá·áõÙ, áñÝ ûï³ñ ¿ñ ¨ ѳݹÇë³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ ÝٳݳÏáõÙ ùñÇëïáÝ»³Ï³ÝÇ Ñ»ï£ ²Ñ³ ³Ûë ÙÇç³í³ÛñÝ ¿, áñ Ñݳñ³íáñ ¹³ñÓñ»ó Ýáñ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ûñáù ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ³Ýå³ïÇÅ ÙݳóÇÝ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¨° ³é³ç, ¨° Ñ»ïá£20 üñ³ÝëdzóÇ Ñ»ÕÇÝ³Ï Ä³Ý ¹’²Ýݽ»Ý Áݹ·ÍáõÙ ¿ ³ñÙ³ï³ó³Í ÃßÝ³Ù³Ï³Ý í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝùÇ ¨ ѳϳÏñ³ÝùÇ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÝÇ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ 1909Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝÙ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ, áñÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ñ ѳۻñÇÝ μÝáñáß ³é³í»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí` ³ß˳ï³ëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¨ ³é¨ïñ³Ï³Ý Ùñó³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý áÉáñïáõÙ Ãáõñù»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Ýñ³Ýó ·»ñÇßËáÕ ¹Çñùáí, ÇÝãÁ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ ¹ñ¹»É ¿ ÏáÕáåáõïÇ ¨ ëå³ÝáõÃ۳ݣ21 гí³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÝÑݳñÇÝáõÃÛ³Ý íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳݹÇë³ó³í §²½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ, ѳí³ë³ñáõÃÛáõÝ, »Õμ³ÛñáõÃÛáõݦ ϳñ·³Ëáë»ñáí Çñ³·áñÍí³Í ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³Ýß³Ý Ñ³Ý¹Çë³óáÕ Ñ³ÕóϳٳñÇ áãÝã³óáõÙÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ¨ §Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Çñ³·áñÍÙ³Ùμ ѳí³ï³ñÙáõÃÛ³Ý áõ áÕçáõÛÝÇ áõÕ»ñÓÁ ÑÕáõÙ ëáõÉÃ³Ý ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÇݦ:22 Ð. ìáõ¹ëÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇó ÝßáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ѳñÛáõñ³ÙÛ³ÏÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ Áݹ¹ÇÙ³óáõÙÁ ѳí³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ³½·³ÙÇçÛ³Ý ³ï»ÉáõÃÛ³Ý ½·³óáõÙÁ (feeling of racial hatred):23

18 Alice Shepard Riggs’s Shepard of Aintab, Gomidas Institute Books, Princeton and London, 2001, p. 78. 19 Ferriman Duckett, op. cit. p. 67. 20 î»°ë A. Addossides. Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs:, pp. 8-9. 21 î»°ë ì. äáÕáëÛ³Ý. 1909Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·Ý³Ñ³ïÙ³Ùμ, ºñ¨³Ý, 2009, ¿ç 69£ 22 Henry Woods, The Danger Zone of Europe, p. 176. 23 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 140£

38


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

Ðá·»Ï³Ý óÝóáõÙÁ ¨ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÝ ³Ýݳ˳¹»å ¿ÇÝ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹³Å³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ áõ ³ÝÙ³ñ¹Ï³ÛÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Àëï ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ, ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ³åß»óÝáõÙ »Ý ÙÇ ³ÙμáÕç ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç áãÝã³óÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ áñ¹»·ñí³Í §¹³Å³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ³Ýѳí³ï³ÉÇ ÉÏïÇáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦:24 ²Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ññ»ß³íáñ ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ³ñÛáõݳÉÇ Ëñ³Ë׳ÝùÝ»ñÁ ·»ñ³½³ÝóáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ù³ñ¹áõ ÏáÕÙÇó Áݹ¹»Ù Ù³ñ¹ ³ñ³ñ³ÍÇ ÏÇñ³é³Í ¹³Å³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹ñë¨áñáõÙÝ»ñÁ£ ²Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÁ íϳÛáõÙ »Ý §ë³ñë³÷Çó ·áõÝ³ï ¨ ³Ñ³μ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó ѳÙñ ¹³ñÓ³Í Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó¦ Ù³ëÇÝ, áíù»ñ ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ͳÛñ³Ñ»Õ ³ÝÙËÇóñ íÇ׳ÏáõÙ£ ²Ûë ³Ù»ÝÇÝ Ñ³çáñ¹»ó ÇÝùݳëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ÉÇùÝ áõ í»ñ³åñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ë»É³·³ñí»Éáõ ¹»åù»ñÁ, áñáÝù »Ï³Ý Éñ³óÝ»Éáõ, Ð. ìáõ¹ëÇ ÏáÕÙÇó §ë³ï³Ý³Û³Ï³Ý¦ (diabolic)25 áñ³Ïí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³Ï³ëÁ£ ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí ѳïϳÝß³Ï³Ý ¿ ¼³μ»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ Ñ»ï¨Û³É ïáÕ»ñÁ, áñáÝóáõÙ å³ïÏ»ñ³íáñ Ï»ñåáí Ýϳñ³·ñíáõÙ ¿ ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇ Ñá·»Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏÁ. §à×ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ ½³ñÑáõñ»ÉÇ ³ñμ»óáõûݿ ÙÁ μéÝáõ³Í ¿ÇÝ. Ñéݹ³Éáí áõ áéݳÉáí ÏÁ Û³ñӳϿÇÝ ÝáÛÝ ÇëÏ ÙáÉáñ³Í ïÕáó íñ³Û, ³ãù»ñÝÇÝ ¹³ñÓ³Í, Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ áñ»õ¿. ½·³óáõÙ¿ ½ñÏáõ³Í, ³Ý³ÝáõÝ ·³½³ÝÝ»ñáõ å¿ë ¿ÇÝ£ ²Ûëûñ »ñμ ÏÁ í»ñÛÇ߻٠³Û¹ å³ïÏ»ñÝ»ñÁ, ¹Åáõ³ñë Ïáõ·³Û ѳõ³ï³Éáõ, ÝáÛÝ ÇëÏ ÇÝÍÇ áñ ³ãùáíë ï»ë³Û, ÿ Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃDZõÝ »Ý ³ÝáÝù¦£26 ÆëÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â»á¹ÇÏÇ Ùáï ³Ûëå»ë ¿ Ýϳñ³·ñáõÙ Ñá·»óÝóáõÙ ³åñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ íÇ׳ÏÁ. §²ÙÇëÝ»ñáõ ÁÝóóùÇÝ` ³éÇÃÁ ß³¯ï Ý»ñϳ۳ó³Í ¿ñ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñáõ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳñ¹³Éáõ ûñûñ¿, ²Õ¿ïùÇÝ áõ ³Ýáñ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝáõû³ÝÁ íñ³Ûûù£ ȳɳ·Ç¯Ý ÁÝûñóáõÙÝ»ñ` áñ - ·Çï»Ù – ÝáÛÝÇëÏ ³ñ·ÇÉáõ³Í ¿ÇÝ ß³ï ÙÁ ѳÛáõ ïáõÝ»ñ¿, í³ëÝ ½Ç ³ïáÝóÙáí Ëáñ³å¿ë ³½¹áõáÕÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ »Õ³Í, ½·³ÛÝÇÏ ³ÝÓ»ñ` ëáëÏáõÙ¿ óÝóáõÙ, óÝóáõÙ¿ ﳷݳå ͳͳÝáõï` ÑÇõ³Ý¹ ÇÝÏ³Í ¿Çݦ£27 ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ Ùáï ѳݹÇåáõÙ »Ýù Ñ»ï¨Û³É Ýϳñ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ. §ê³ñë³÷Çó, Ñá·Ý³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¨ ëáíÇó ÏÇë³Ù»é Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó Ù»Í Ù³ëÝ ³Ûɨë ß³ï μ³Ý ã¿ñ ÑÇßáõÙ£ ´³½Ù³ÃÇí Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÝóÇó »ñϳñ áõ ÓÇ· ûñ»ñ å³Ñ³Ýçí»ó ÑÇßáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ àÙ³Ýù ã·Çï»ÇÝ, û áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛáõÝÇó ³é³ç ù³ÝÇ Ñá·áõó ¿ μ³Õϳó³Í »Õ»É Çñ»Ýó ÁÝï³ÝÇùÁ ¨ Ñ³×³Ë ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï »Õ³Ý ß³μ³ÃÝ»ñ` áã û ù³Ý¹í³Í, ³ÛÉ å³ñ½³å»ë óñí³Í ûç³ËÁ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ...¦:28 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ áõß³·ñ³í ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇó ¿ñ ݳ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý Ùï³íáñ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ßáõñç μ³Ý³í»×Ç áõ ùÝݳ¹³ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ç Ñ³Ûï ·³ÉÁ£ ²Û¹åÇëÇ Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñáí ѳݹ»ë »Ï³Ý Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ÏÇÝ Ùï³íáñ³Ï³Ý ʳÉǹ» ê³ÉÇÑÁ ¨ ͳ·áõÙáí Ãáõñù ·ñáÕ ì³Éáõ ³¹ ¸ÇÝÁ, áíù»ñ Çñ»Ýó Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñáõÙ Ëëïáñ»Ý ¹³ï³å³ñï»óÇÝ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í á×ñ³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ:29 ä»ïù ¿ ³ñӳݳ·ñ»É, áñ »Õ³Ý ݳ¨ Ãáõñù ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ³ÛÉ å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñ áõ ß³ñù³ÛÇÝ ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñ, áíù»ñ ϳñáÕ³ó³Ý Çñ»Ýó ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý ç³Ýù»ñÇ Ï³Ù ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛ³Ý ßÝáñÑÇí ÷ñÏ»É μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ѳۻñÇ ÏÛ³Ýù»ñ, ¹ñ³Ýáí ÇëÏ Çñ»Ýó μáÕáùÝ ³ñï³Ñ³Ûï»Éáí ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ³ÝÙ³ñ¹24 ². ²¹áëǹ»ë. Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 26£ 25 î»°ë Henry Woods. Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 128. 26 ¼³å»É ºë³»³Ý. ²õ»ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç, ä¿ÛñáõÃ, îå³ñ³Ý ¾ïí³Ý, 1957, ¿ç 27 ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â¿á¹ÇÏ. ²ÙÇë ÙÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdz, ÎóÏïáõñ Üûûñ 1910, Î. äáÉÇë, ¿ç 24£ 28 ². ²¹áëǹ»ë. Ýßí. ³ßË,, ¿ç 83-84£ 29 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ£

39


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

ϳÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¹»Ù£ ØÛáõë ÏáÕÙÇó óÝóáÕ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ ÃáÕ»ó ݳ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ï³Ë³Õ³Ý Ñ³Ý»Éáõ ÷³ëïÁ` ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ¹»Ù Çñ³·áñÍ³Í á×ÇñÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ£ ÖÇßï ¿, ٳѳå³ïÅÇ »ÝóñÏí»óÇÝ Ý³¨ ³ÝÙ»Õ Ñ³Û»ñ, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ³Ûë ¹ñí³·Á Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý áñáß³ÏÇ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ ÃáÕ»ó Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ, áõñ ïÇñ³å»ïáÕ Ùï³ÛÝáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ÛÇ Çñ³í³½áõñÏ ÉÇÝ»ÉÁ, ѳïϳå»ë ¹³ï³Ï³Ý ³ïÛ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ¨ Çñ»Ýó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ£ §²Ýï³ñ³ÏáõÛë, ųٳݳÏÁ ¹»é ãÇ »Ï»É, ¨ ѳí³Ý³μ³ñ »ñμ»ù ¿É ãÇ ·³, »ñμ ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ÛÇ Çñ³íáõÝùÁ ѳí³ë³ñ Ïß»éùÇ íñ³ ϹñíÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÇ ß³Ñ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¦, - ·ñáõÙ ¿ñ ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ:30 ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ ¨ ÙÛáõë ûï³ñ³½·Ç Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ áõ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹áõÙÝ»ñÁ íϳÛáõÙ »Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ, óɳÝÇÝ, ÑñÏǽáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ áõ ¹Ç³ÏÝ»ñÇ åÕÍÙ³Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ£ Àëï áñáõÙ, ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, Ïïï³ÝùÝ»ñÝ áõ Ýí³ëï³óáõÙÝ»ñÁ áñáß³ÏÇ μ»Ù³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ï³ññ»ñ »Ý Ïñ»É, ÇëÏ ¹ñ³ÝóáõÙ, ëå³Ýí³Í ѳۻñÇ ¹Ç³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ³Ýѳñ·³ÉÇó í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝù »Ý óáõó³μ»ñ»É ݳ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÝ áõ ϳݳÛù, ÇÝãÁ íϳÛáõÙ ¿ ѳٳï³ñ³Í áõ í³Ûñ³· åëÇËá½Ç Ù³ëÇÝ£ ²Ù÷á÷»Éáí Ýß»Ýù Ñ»ï¨Û³É ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý »½ñ³Ï³óáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ.  ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ íÇɳۻÃÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÛáõë ѳïí³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ ß»ßï³ÏÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝ Ýϳïí»ó ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá ³é³ç »Ï³Í á·¨áñáõÃÛ³Ý áõ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹»å ï³Í³Í ѳí³ï³ñÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ ²é³ç ù³ßí»ó ³ÛÝ ï»ë³Ï»ïÁ, ѳٳӳÛÝ áñÇ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ ÷á÷áË»ÉÇáõÃÛ³Ý å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ, гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÇ ¨ ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ ѳë³ñ³Ï Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ùáï»óáõÙÁ ã»ÝóñÏí»ó ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ ³ñÙ³ï³Ï³Ý í»ñ³Ý³ÛÙ³Ý:  ²í»ÉÇ ½³ñ·³ó³Í áõ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý ѳÝñáõÛÃÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ϳëϳͳÙïáõÃÛ³Ý áõ ³ÝѳݹáõñÅáճϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹ñë¨áñáõÙÝ»ñÁ áñáß Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñ ¹Çï³ñÏ»óÇÝ ÇÝùݳùÝݳ¹³ïáõÃÛ³Ý ï»ëùáí:  ºñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ áõÕÕ³ÏÇ ¨ áã áõÕÕ³ÏÇ Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÙ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³é³ç μ»ñ»ó Ùï³í³ËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ Ùáï³Éáõï Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ýáñ ³ÉÇùÇ Ñ³í³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³éáõÙáí, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý áñáß ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý áõÅ»ñ ß³ñáõݳϻóÇÝ Ñ³Ù³·áñͳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»ï, ¹ñ³ÝáõÙ ï»ëÝ»Éáí áñáß³ÏÇ »ñ³ßËÇùÝ»ñ Ýáñ íï³Ý·Ý»ñÇó Ëáõë³÷»Éáõ ѳٳñ:  ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ³é³ç μ»ñ»óÇÝ Ý³¨ áñáß ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ï μáÕáùÇ ³ÉÇù Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý Ùï³íáñ³Ï³Ý ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ, ÇÝãÝ ³ñï³Ñ³Ûïí»ó ÙÇ ß³ñù Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñáí, áñáõÙ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÁ ¹³ï³å³ñïáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ³Ï³Ñ³Û ç³ñ¹»ñÁ` ¹ñ³Ýù áñ³Ï»Éáí ³ÝÙ³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ¨ ÇëɳÙÇ ¹ñáõÛÃÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³Ï³ëáÕ£

30 A. Adosides, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç142.

40


гÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý

Hayk Demoyan Psychological Causes and Consequences of 1909 Massacres in Adana and Aleppo Vilayets: Preliminary Analysis Summary 1909 Adana massacres heralded the real intention of the Young Turks for total annihilation of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire, seeing it as the only way to solve the Armenian question. The massacres left a great psychological impact on the Armenians, both in Ottoman Empire and worldwide, thus creating the athmosphere of insecurity and expectation of the forthcoming major massacres. It also created a huge wave of emigration of the Armenians from the Cilician region. Massacres touched the excitement of the Armenians who reacted positively to the overthrow of the §Red Sultan¦ Abdul Hamid II in 1908 who was a symbol of the Turkish tyranny and massacres. Inhuman treatment of the Cilician Armenians and, especially the participation of the Army of Revolution in the massacre led to the conclusion that the change in regime in the Ottoman Empire did not bring any positive alteration in the approach of the Turkish government towards the Armenians. Moreover, Young Turks continued the anti-Armenian policy of the Sultan which resulted in the state organized and implemented Genocide against the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire during 1915-1918.

41


LA GESTION POLITIQUE DES MASSACRES DE CILICIE Raymond Kévorkian L’une des premières prises de position du gouvernement ottoman concernant les massacres de Cilicie a consisté à minimiser le nombre des victimes, pour finalement s’aligner sur des chiffres voisins de ceux annoncés par les milieux arméniens et internationaux. On devine aisément que sa volonté affichée de dissimuler l’étendue des pertes humaines visait avant tout à maintenir valide la thèse officielle d’émeutes incontrôlées ayant fait un nombre limité de victimes dans les deux camps. Ses déclarations officielles, reprises dans une bonne partie de la presse ottomane, avaient du reste convaincu l’opinion publique, habituée à voir ce rôle dévolu aux Arméniens, que les principaux responsables des §troubles» étaient ces derniers. Il s’est donc trouvé fort peu d’hommes politiques ottomans pour exiger que la lumière soit faite sur l’affaire cilicienne, si ce n’est la dizaine de députés arméniens du parlement ottoman et une poignée de députés turcs et grecs qui, nous allons le voir, ont fait preuve d’un certain courage dans un environnement ouvertement hostile. Alors que l’implication des autorités civiles et militaires locales dans les massacres de Cilicie est connue, le rôle effectif du gouvernement ou des groupes politiques s’y rattachant, comme le Comité Union et Progrès, mérite d’être examiné afin de vérifier si ces violences ont été suscitées localement ou inspirées par des ordres venus du centre. Ce qui revient à soulever la question clé de la responsabilité du pouvoir dans ces événements et, dans son prolongement, des commanditaires éventuels de ces crimes. Véritables représentants de leur millet devant les autorités, les députés arméniens au parlement ottoman avaient là une tribune pour exprimer l’indignation de leur nation contre ces nouvelles violences et exiger des éclaircissements après les accusations faisant d’eux les responsables de leur propre massacre. Les accusations portées contre les Arméniens durant la période antérieure aux massacres — provocations et préparatifs secrets pour reconstituer un §royaume arménien de Cilicie» — peuvent avoir pour origine une mauvaise interprétation de l’attitude des Arméniens de Cilicie depuis le rétablissement de la Constitution. On peut tout aussi bien mettre sur le compte de l’héritage hamidien l’agressivité et la violence qui se sont alors exprimées à l’égard des Arméniens. On peut enfin imaginer que le monde tribal en mutation que constituait la Cilicie était traversé par des courants antagonistes menés par des hommes désireux d’asseoir localement leur pouvoir. Si tous ces paramètres sont fondés, ils ne peuvent toutefois suffire à expliquer l’embrasement soudain de la Cilicie le 14 avril 1909. Au tournant du XXe siècle, aucun acte de cette ampleur ne pouvait avoir lieu sans un ordre venu, ou supposé venu, des plus hautes autorités de l’état ou, pour le moins, d’un des centres du pouvoir. Le plus paradoxal est que, tout en minimisant la portée des événements et en faisant porter leur responsabilité sur les Arméniens, la classe politique turque, voire arménienne au début, a attribué ces massacres, tout comme la contre-révolution du 31 mars, à une conspiration ourdie par Abdülhamid et ses nostalgiques. Cette thèse est toutefois contredite par la situation effective du sultan, que les Jeunes-Turcs avaient progressivement isolé dans son palais de Yıldız en renvoyant une bonne partie de ses collaborateurs, en déplaçant ailleurs sa garde albanaise, réduisant ainsi sa capacité à maintenir en place ses réseaux et donc d’influer sur la situation politique intérieure. Même le P. Rigal, ce jésuite pragmatique, remarque que §l’auteur responsable de ces massacres est le même qui, treize ans auparavant, a immolé cent mille victimes et qui aujourd’hui, sentant le trône s’effondrer, a voulu, en tombant, faire disparaître de la terre ce 42


Raymond Kévorkian

peuple trop vivace dont le nom lui était odieux».1 Cette explication avait le mérite d’exempter la nouvelle classe politique issue de la révolution de juillet 1908 et de maintenir la crédibilité de sa volonté réformiste. Les premières réactions des autorités centrales Compte tenu de la brièveté du cabinet Tevfik pacha, nommé le 18 avril et démissionnaire le 26 du même mois, il est clair que celui-ci n’a pas eu le temps de prendre en main le pouvoir et encore moins de suivre le dossier cilicien. Ainsi que nous l’avons déjà souligné, c’est pratiquement le sous-secrétaire d’état à l’Intérieur, Adıl bey, qui a géré le dossier et rendu compte des événements au grand vizir et au parlement ottoman, mais c’est Mahmud Şevket pacha qui a décidé d’envoyer des troupes en Cilicie. On ne peut donc pas porter de jugement sur le comportement du cabinet Tevfik et encore moins lui attribuer une quelconque responsabilité. Au reste, le Parlement lui-même ne se saisit vraiment de l’affaire qu’au cours de sa séance du 2 mai 1909. Ahmed Rıza, qui préside de nouveau la chambre ottomane ce jour-là, ne trouve rien d’autre à faire que de lire le rapport qui lui a été adressé le 26 avril par le vali d’Adana révoqué, mais toujours en place. Usant d’un langage guère plus mesuré que dans ses premiers rapports, Cevad bey y écrit: §Nous avons appris de sources sûres que la responsabilité des derniers événements2 incombe à quelques fedaï arméniens». La réaction des députés arméniens, appuyés par quelques collègues turcs et grecs, est immédiate: ils soulignent tout d’abord que le rapport du vali est un tissu de mensonges, puis attaquent le sous-secrétaire d’état Haci Adıl bey [Arda] auquel ils rappellent que le fameux télégramme qu’il a adressé à Cevad bey se contentait de lui recommander de veiller à la §protection des sujets étrangers» et de §rétablir le calme», ce qui, sous l’Ancien régime, signifiait §massacrez les Arméniens, mais ne touchez pas aux étrangers».3 Nouvellement nommé, le ministre de l’Intérieur, Rauf bey, a laissé Adıl bey, par ailleurs membre du Comité central jeune-turc, s’exprimer au nom du ministère. Prudemment, celui-ci se contente de déclarer que le grand vizir Hilmi pacha et le général Mahmud Şevket se sont concertés et ont décidé d’envoyer sur place une commission spéciale pour enquêter. Le chef de file des députés arméniens, Krikor Zohrab, fait alors la déclaration suivante: "Il y a deux manières d’apprendre la vérité, soit par des mots, soit par des éléments matériels et des témoignages. Le conseiller [Adıl bey] nous a lu les télégrammes du préfet d’Adana et du gouverneur de Cebelbereket, comme s’il s’agissait de documents fiables. Il lui a été demandé combien de personnes avaient approximativement été massacrées, et ce conseiller tout-puissant4 qui est dix fois par jour en communication avec cette région, n’a pas été en mesure de nous donner l’information». Dans un article publié dans Le Temps, le correspondant du quotidien parisien commente ainsi les débats au Parlement: §Au cours de la séance d’hier, une vive discussion s’est engagée sur les massacres d’Adana. Plusieurs députés, notamment les Arméniens, ont attaqué le gouvernement et demandé la mise en jugement de l’ex-vali. Le sous-secrétaire d’État à l’Intérieur a défendu le gouvernement: il a lu les télégrammes des autorités attribuant les troubles aux révolutionnaires arméniens et représentant partout les Arméniens comme les

1 Raymond H. Kévorkian, §Les Massacres de Cilicie d’avril 1909 », in R. H. Kévorkian, La Cilicie (19091921), Revue d’Histoire Arménienne Contemporaine III (1999), p. 152. 2 Il évoque les seconds massacres d’Adana, qui sont en cours lorsqu’il écrit. 3 Kévorkian, §Les Massacres de Cilicie d’avril 1909 », art. cit., p. 57, n. 59, et p. 152. 4 Il fait allusion au fait qu’il était alors, de facto, en charge du ministère de l’Intérieur.

43


Raymond Kévorkian

agresseurs».5 Il est donc clair qu’au début du mois de mai, le gouvernement Hilmi pacha appuie toujours la thèse développée par ses hauts fonctionnaires. Une évolution de sa position, sans doute inspirée par les informations publiées dans la presse internationale et les notes verbales des puissances, est cependant perceptible lors de la séance parlementaire du 13 mai. Ce jour-là, il annonce aux députés qu’il a décidé d’envoyer en Cilicie, sous l’autorité du ministre de l’Intérieur, une commission d’enquête de quatre membres: deux Arméniens et deux musulmans, dont deux devront être fonctionnaires de l’état et deux députés. En conséquence, le gouvernement demande à l’assemblée de désigner en son sein deux parlementaires. Le débat qui s’en suit révèle toutefois qu’une partie de la représentation nationale est tout bonnement opposée à la formation de cette commission, qu’elle juge inutile. Elle finit néanmoins par élire un militant jeune-turc arménien, Hagop Babikian, et un autre député de ce parti, Şefik bey. Au cours de la séance parlementaire du 23 mai, ce dernier s’étant désisté, on suggère à Mehmed Talât d’accepter de le remplacer, mais celui-ci se déclare dans l’incapacité d’accepter l’offre et c’est finalement le député jeuneturc de Kastamonu, Yusuf Kemal, qui est élu. Durant la même séance, le président du Parlement, Ahmed Rıza, insiste sur le fait que §l’affaire d’Adana a donné lieu à une polémique avec les puissances européennes et le ministre des Affaires étrangères a quotidiennement des entrevues avec les ambassadeurs étrangers».6 Il exprime ainsi la préoccupation des autorités, soucieuses de garder une bonne image de marque en Occident, et donc contraintes de faire preuve d’une certaine transparence. C’est probablement plus pour répondre à ce souci que par respect pour les victimes arméniennes, que le gouvernement met en place la commission d’enquête. C’est dans son discours programme, prononcé devant le Parlement le 24 mai 1909, que le grand vizir Hüseyin Hilmi s’exprime enfin sur la crise ci-licienne. Sans jamais évoquer les points sensibles, il dresse un catalogue des mesures prises, comme la déclaration de l’état d’urgence dans la province et la mise en place de cours martiales à Adana, mais aussi à Marach et Ayntab. Il annonce aussi que l’acheminement sur place de dix brigades de soldats a permis de ramener le calme et que §les biens volés durant les événements sont progressivement récupérés et remis à leurs propriétaires» — les témoins indiquent qu’il s’agit de vњux pieux. Il rappelle enfin que pour évaluer le nombre des victimes et prendre la mesure de la responsabilité qui incombe notamment aux autorités locales, il a constitué une commission d’enquête composée de deux députés et de deux hauts magistrats, dont les conclusions serviront à la mise en jugement immédiate des coupables.7 Dès lors, le gouvernement et le Parlement ottomans ne font plus la moindre déclaration officielle, attendant les conclusions des rapports à venir de la commission d’enquête. En nommant deux députés jeunes-turcs réputés sûrs, l’ancien magistrat Hagop Babikian et l’avocat Yusuf Kemal, ainsi que deux hauts magistrats crédibles, Haroutiun/Artin Mosditchian et Fayk bey, le cabinet Hilmi pacha espère sans doute que ces hommes §responsables» vont livrer des conclusions dédouanant l’état et la classe politique turque favorable à la Constitution, et leur permettre de sortir ainsi blanchis de cette affaire aux yeux de l’opinion publique internationale. On ignore 5 Numéro daté du 3 mai 1909, p. 1, dans un article intitulé » La crise turque : les Arméniens se plaignent à la Chambre ». 6 Une traduction complète des minutes des séances du Parlement ottoman est publiée par la presse stambouliote du lendemain, notamment dans Puzantion, nos 3836 et 3837, datés des 24 et 25 mai, pp. 2-3 ; cf. aussi Hagop Terzian, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ²Õ¿ïÁ [La catastrophe de Cilicie], Constantinople 1912, pp. 611-615. 7 Ibidem.

44


Raymond Kévorkian

si Hilmi a donné des instructions dans ce sens aux membres de la commission, mais leur travail sur le terrain et les conclusions des deux rapports connus — celui des deux magistrats, officiellement remis le 10 juillet, l’autre rédigé par H. Babikian, mais conservé secret jusqu’en 1911 —, permettent d’évaluer jusqu’où le pouvoir était alors disposé à aller dans la mise en cause de la classe politique turque. Arrivés en Cilicie au début du mois de juin, les membres de la commission ont enquêté assez minutieusement durant plus d’un mois. Si les deux magistrats, Fayk et Mosditchian, ont travaillé de concert et remis un rapport commun, il n’en a pas été de même pour les deux députés, pourtant membres du même parti. Hagop Babikian, dont tout le monde s’accorde à dire qu’il était réputé pour son attachement à l’ottomanisme et son refus des cloisonnements communautaires, semble bien avoir été en désaccord avec son confrère turc. Le vice-consul de France à Mersine et Adana, Barré de Lancy, rapporte dans une dépêche adressée au chargé d’affaire à Constantinople, que Babikian §aurait eu des altercations assez vives avec son collègue musulman Yusuf Kemal qui se trouve encore à Adana ».8 Reparti de Mersine le 4 juillet en compagnie des membres de la commission, à l’exception notable de Yusuf Kemal,9 Babikian confirme lui-même, dans des interviews données à deux journaux jeunes-turcs durant son escale à Smyrne, qu’il y a eu quelques malentendus entre lui et son collègue. à une question du journaliste du quotidien smyrniote Ittihad10 sur les résultats de son enquête et les raisons de ce massacre, il répond: §Compte tenu des éléments recueillis au cours de mon enquête, [on peut dire] que depuis la proclamation de la Constitution, les partisans de la tyrannie ont donné des signes de mécontentement et ont projeté de massacrer les chrétiens : cela est évident et prouvé par des documents judiciaires officiels». A une autre question du même journaliste sur la participation aux massacres des autorités locales ou centrales, le député de Tekirdağ réplique: §Le pouvoir central n’y a pas participé, mais en a été la cause. Quant aux autorités locales, elles sont impliquées. Le vali Cevad bey, le commandant militaire Mustafa Remzi pacha, le mutesarif de Cebelbereket, Asaf bey, Abdülkadır Bağdadizâde, Salih effendi Boşnak et le propriétaire du journal Ittidal, Ihsan Fikri notamment y sont totalement impliqués». Dans la même interview, Babikian fait aussi allusion au manque d’objectivité de la cour martiale. H. Babikian est plus direct encore dans ses propos au correspondant du Tasviri Efkiar,11 annonciateurs de la tonalité de son rapport à venir. Il esquive la question concernant les rumeurs de désaccords avec son collègue Yusuf Kemal, lesquelles auraient provoqué son retour prématuré, en faisant valoir qu’il a achevé sa mission et que son confrère va rentrer très prochainement. Mais relativement à la situation sur place, après avoir pris quelques précautions oratoires, en soulignant d’emblée qu’il fallait entendre ses propos comme ceux d’un Ottoman convaincu, soucieux du bonheur et du développement de la patrie, il affirme que "les détails publiés dans les articles de la presse européenne concernant les événements d’Adana n’ont rien d’exagéré et sont même, par rapport à ce qu’il a observé lui-même, en dessous de la vérité». Ce faisant, il pointe une caractéristique vivace de la société turque qui a bien du mal à assumer ses actes et perçoit souvent les commentaires émanant d’étrangers comme des agressions. C’est cependant son analyse de l’origine des événements qui est de loin la plus pertinente : §L’affaire d’Adana 8 Archives du ministère des Affaires étrangères (dorénavant AMAE), Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol. 83, f° 159/2, datée du 3 juillet 1909, Barré de Lancy à Boppe. 9 Ibidem. 10 Azadamard, n° 13, daté du 7 juillet 1909, p. 3. 11 Azadamard, n° 15, daté du 9 juillet 1909, p. 3.

45


Raymond Kévorkian

a deux causes majeures: la réaction et la tyrannie.[...] L’ancien mufti de Bağçe a commencé à circuler ici et là en affirmant que liberté et constitution sont une invention des chrétiens, qui sont opposés à la charia, et il a ainsi commencé à exciter la population, à soulever les musulmans contre les chrétiens et la Constitution ». Relativement à une implication éventuelle du sultan Abdülhamid, Hagop Babikian souligne que, même si cette opinion circule, il n’y a aucune preuve de cela. Suivent trois questions qui forment ensemble la base des accusations distillées par les autorités locales ciliciennes dans l’opinion publique ottomane: §1) On maintient que les Arméniens ont été la cause des désordres: cela est-il exact? Les documents officiels que j’ai avec moi prouveront que cette hypothèse est totalement erronée; 2) On affirme que les Arméniens ont voulu proclamer leur indépendance en Cilicie : est-ce vrai? L’enquête a révélé que cette accusation était totalement infondée; 3) Le primat d’Adana, l’évêque Mouchègh, est-il impliqué dans cette affaire? Les résultats de notre enquête prouvent que le primat n’est pas impliqué, et qu’au contraire, dès le mois de janvier [1909], l’évêque Mouchègh avait remis des mémorandums à la préfecture dont notre enquête a révélé la teneur. Mgr Mouchègh a alors déclaré oralement au vali qu’il y avait des risques qu’à l’avenir des troubles éclatent et lui a suggéré de prendre les mesures qui s’imposaient, mais les propos du prélat ont été considérés excessifs et la mise en uvre de moyens inutile» Ces premières constatations forment une sorte d’illustration pratique des problèmes engendrés au sein de la société ottomane par la modernité jeune-turque. Elles donnent le sentiment que les opposants locaux se sont attaqués à la population arménienne comme au symbole de cette modernité qui les inquiétait. La réponse de Babikian à la question suivante, concernant le nombre de victimes et la proportion §des musulmans et des non-musulmans», est d’autant plus intéressante qu’elle fait pour la première fois allusion aux statistiques établies par le nouveau vali Zihni, mais soigneusement cachées par les autorités centrales, évaluant à un peu plus de vingt mille, dont six cent vingt musulmans, le total des morts. La dernière question concerne une autre affaire qui a prêté à controverse et a été abondamment exploitée pour diaboliser les victimes : la blessure reçue au bras par le consul anglais d’Adana que les autorités locales ont présentée comme un exemple de l’attitude criminelle des Arméniens. Voici ce qu’en dit Babikian: §J’ai personnellement interrogé le consul sur ce point et il m’a raconté ceci: §Les troubles venaient de commen-cer; la terreur régnait partout ; je suis sorti dans la rue; j’ai vu quelqu’un qui, par son regard, son comportement et ses faits et gestes donnait l’apparence d’être devenu complètement fou, et courait dans ma direction. Il fuyait. J’ai voulu aller vers lui pour lui demander ce qui se passait. Le fuyard a interprété mon mouvement comme révélateur d’une mauvaise intention de ma part et il a vidé son revolver sur moi et s’est enfui» 12 Il faut aussi noter que Tasviri Efkiar a peu après interviewé Fayk bey, qui a affirmé que ces événements n’étaient pas le fait des milieux réactionnaires, mais dus à l’ignorance des populations musulmanes et chrétiennes locales».13 Tout ceci donne déjà de claires indications sur la tonalité des rapports des enquêteurs, avant même que ceux-ci soient rendus publics. Ces interviews permettent aussi de se faire une idée du rôle de la presse jeune-turque de Constantinople qui, jusqu’alors, a grosso modo publié des informations reprenant les thèses développées par le vali Cevad bey et le sous-secrétaire d’état à l’Intérieur Adıl bey. Indéniablement, les conclusions des deux rapports d’enquête, y compris 12 Ibidem. 13 Azadamard, n° 18, daté du 13 juillet 1909, p. 3.

46


Raymond Kévorkian

celui déposé par Fayk et Mosditchian, viennent remettre en cause la ligne de défense adoptée jusqu’au mois de juillet par les milieux turcs en Cilicie comme à Constantinople : dans aucun des deux il n’est question d’une quelconque responsabilité des Arméniens, dont le statut est bien celui de victime. Cependant, il y a pour ces mêmes milieux turcs un abîme entre les propos très généraux, ménageant la classe politique en attribuant cette flambée de violence à une populace ignorante et à des hauts fonctionnaires locaux incompétents, et le discours tenu par Hagop Babikian. Ce dernier a, semble-t-il, transgressé une règle tacite qui interdit de dire ouvertement que des populations musulmanes locales ont reçu l’ordre de massacrer les Arméniens ; que les soldats de l’armée de Macédoine dépêchés sur place ont eux-mêmes procédé au second massacre d’Adana; que les dirigeants jeunes-turcs de Cilicie ont directement participé à l’organisation de ces exactions, etc. Car, si tel n’avait pas été le cas, on se demande pourquoi seul le rapport Fayk-Mosditchian, remis le 10 juillet, a été rendu public, et encore une vingtaine de jours plus tard, tandis que le manuscrit du rapport Babikian est resté dans un placard (du Patriarcat arménien) durant plus de trois ans. Plusieurs éléments viennent du reste confirmer qu’il y a eu des pressions dans les milieux parlementaires et probablement au niveau du gouvernement et de la direction du Comité Union et Progrès pour que le rapport Babikian ne soit pas rendu public. On note tout d’abord que Yusuf Kemal a tenté de discréditer et d’exclure de la commission son collègue Babikian en adressant un télégramme au Parlement ottoman le 3 juillet, informant les députés que celui-ci a prématurément quitté la Cilicie avant d’avoir achevé sa mission — nous avons vu que ce n’était pas l’avis de Babikian. Yusuf Kemal a même suggéré que le député juif de Salonique, Emmanuel Carasso, soit envoyé au plus vite à Adana pour le remplacer.14 Il semble que le Parlement ait effectivement songé à procéder au remplacement de Babikian. Dans une dépêche au chargé d’affaire à Constantinople, datée du 9 juillet,15 le vice-consul français à Mersine et Adana signale: "On attend à Mersine l’arrivée du député Carasso. Son collègue musulman est toujours à Adana. Il se déclare contraire à tout paiement d’indemnité en se basant sur le fait qu’il y a eu révolution et que le gouvernement ne peut être tenu responsable. Le vali en dit autant pour les sњurs [françaises] qui reconstruisent». Yusuf Kemal déclara d’ailleurs, dès la fin juin, que les désordres organisés par les Arméniens et quelques musulmans de Cilicie visaient à favoriser le parti Ahrar et à nuire au Comité jeune-turc, ce qui en dit long sur l’état d’esprit dominant parmi les militants ittihadistes,16 Les interviews de Babikian ont toutefois eu un certain effet et il est probable qu’après réflexion le Comité jeune-turc de Salonique a préféré éviter de mettre à l’écart l’un de ses militants, même s’il est arménien, pour éviter de prendre trop ouvertement position en faveur de la thèse de la responsabilité arménienne. L’évolution de la position du cabinet Hilmi sur l’affaire d’Adana En ce début du mois de juillet, un basculement est en train de se produire. Certes, dans ses numéros des 1er et 19 juillet, le quotidien jeune-turc Tasviri Efkiar a publié un article du député de Konya, Ebuzzia Tevfik bey, confirmant la position de son parti sur le fait que "les responsables sont uniquement les Arméniens», n’hésitant pas par ailleurs à féliciter la cour martiale

14 Compte rendu de la 105e séance du Parlement dans Azadamard, n° 11, daté du 5 juillet 1909, p. 2. 15 AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol. 83, f° 159/3. Gabriel-Georges Barre de Lancy (né le 8 Sept. 1865) ; vice-consul à Mersine et Tarse. 16 Foreign Office (dorénavant FO) 195/2306, lettre de Doughty-Wylie à son ambassadeur, datée du 30 juin 1909.

47


Raymond Kévorkian

pour son travail sur le terrain17 — nous verrons que cette première cour martiale s’appuie sur les rapports de Cevad pour déclarer les Arméniens coupables de leur propre massacre. On note aussi une déclaration de Hakkı bey, membre éminent de la direction jeune-turque, au Temps de Paris (daté du 28 mai). Sans doute soumis à la pression de l’opinion publique occidentale au cours de son séjour en Europe, celui-ci n’a pas hésité, pour dédouaner son parti et son pays, à affirmer: "On exagère. Votre presse ne nous montre pas toujours beaucoup de bienveillance. En fait, nous savons aujourd’hui que les troubles d’Adana furent fomentés de Constantinople. Nous avons saisi des dépêches qui prouvent que le comité arménien cherchait une intervention de l’Europe».18 Cette déclaration dans le plus pur style hamidien a évidemment provoqué une réaction des chefs de la FRA, officiellement alliée du parti jeune-turc, demandant au Comité central de Salonique de désavouer les propos de leur collègue de la direction ittihadiste. Ces déclarations semblent cependant avoir été une sorte de dernier baroud d’honneur des milieux jeunes-turcs. Après deux mois de campagne anti-arménienne, les membres de la commission d’enquête sont rentrés, y compris Yusuf Kemal qui a quitté Mersine le 14 juillet,19 et souhaitent présenter leurs rapports. Yusuf Kemal participe justement à la séance parlementaire du 20 juillet, au cours de laquelle il annonce qu’il va présenter ses conclusions à l’assemblée dans quelques jours.20 Durant la séance du 26 juillet, à laquelle Hagop Babikian assiste, on note les premiers effets du rapport Fayk-Mosditchian qui accuse nommément le vali d’Adana Cevad, le commandant militaire Mustafa Remzi pacha, Abdülkadır Bağdadizâde et Ihsan Fikri d’être les principaux responsables des massacres. Tous ces hommes ont pourtant été disculpés par la cour martiale formée au mois de mai, principalement constituée d’officiers jeunes-turcs.21 Les révélations des deux magistrats ne sont sans doute pas étrangères au durcissement perceptible chez certains jeunes-turcs, qui s’étaient jusqu’alors montrés assez discrets. Du haut de la tribune, İsmail Hakkı, le député de Gümülcina, reproche au gouvernement de s’être mêlé des affaires de la cour martiale d’Adana, dont le président et un membre éminent ont démissionné après l’ordre d’arrestation des responsables des massacres adressé par le gouvernement. Il est suivi en cela par la moitié des députés du Parlement qui votent une motion contre le cabinet Hilmi, lequel n’a fait, pour l’occasion, que mettre en њuvre les recommandations du rapport Fayk-Mosditchian. Il est alors clair que la moitié du Parlement refuse que les res-ponsables des boucheries d’Adana soient jugés. Hagop Babikian se lève et remarque: §Vingt et un mille personnes ont été tuées à Adana et vous vous levez à présent pour défendre deux personnes». S’en suit une assez violente passe d’arme au cours de laquelle on observe que des députés turcs contestent même le nombre des victimes et plus généralement le fait que les responsables de cette boucherie ne sont pas §les» Arméniens. Pour mettre fin à ce fort moment de tension, révélateur des clivages, l’assemblée accepte que le débat sur l’affaire d’Adana n’ait lieu qu’après présentation des rapports de la commission d’enquête parlementaire. Ainsi s’achève, ce 26

17 Azadamard, n° 10, daté du 3 juillet 1909, p. 3. 18 Repris dans Azadamard, n° 12, daté du 6 juillet 1909, p. 1. D’après l’éditorialiste de ce quotidien, les membres du gouvernement reconnaissent en privé que toutes ces accusations sont fausses, mais refusent de le déclarer publiquement. 19 AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol. 83, f° 159/7, dépêche datée de Mersine le 16 juillet 1909, de Barre de Lancy à Boppe. 20 Compte rendu dans Azadamard, n° 25, daté du 21 juillet 1909, p. 2. 21 Il est vrai que trois de ces personnages et bien d’autres meurtriers ont curieusement été nommés dans les commissions d’enquêtes locales chargées d’instruire les dossiers à charge les concernant eux-mêmes.

48


Raymond Kévorkian

juillet 1909, l’amorce de débat sur les événements de Cilicie.22 Des documents accablants sont cependant publiés dans la presse stambouliote dès le lendemain, comme deux télégrammes chiffrés adressés par le vali Cevad bey aux mutesarif et kaïmakam de sa province, ainsi qu’au ministère de l’Intérieur. Dans le second, on peut par exemple lire: §Les Arméniens ont attaqué ; le palais du gouvernement [comprenons la préfecture] est assiégé; les Arméniens sont armés et massacrent des Turcs désarmés. Venez nous en aide ».23 Affirmations qui ne laissent guère de doute sur la préméditation des massacres et mettent en évidence les manipulations auxquelles les autorités se sont livrées pour justifier des crimes auxquels elles ne semblent pas étrangères. En cette dernière semaine de juillet, la tension est à son comble. Tout indique que le débat est impossible dans ce pays où le massacre de non musulmans n’est pas considéré par la quasi totalité de la classe politique et l’écrasante majorité de l’opinion publique comme un crime. L’ambassadeur de France Bompard rapporte justement à son ministre Pichon que le gouvernement a dû suivre "les conseils du Comité Union et Progrès qui désirait voir donner satisfaction à l’opinion pour éviter à la chambre une discussion dangereuse à propos du rapport déposé par la commission d’enquête».24 Effectivement, le débat n’a pas eu lieu, notamment parce que le député Hagop Babikian est mort le dimanche 1er août, la veille de la présentation de son rapport.25 Le frère du défunt rapporte que ce jour-là Hagop Babikian s’est installé à son bureau pour mettre la dernière main à son texte ; que dans la matinée, il s’est plaint de douleurs au ventre et à la poitrine. Il a rapidement sombré dans un coma profond, suivi de mort. Compte tenu du contexte, ce décès subit d’un homme âgé de cinquante trois ans a alimenté la rumeur. Rien n’indique cependant que ce décès a été provoqué. On peut tout au plus constater que cette mort a évité que le rapport Babikian, dont on ne connaissait alors que les grandes lignes à travers les interviews données, ne soit rendu public.26 Au cours de la séance parlementaire du 5 août, le président de l’Assemblée a informé les députés que Yusuf Kemal avait remis son rapport d’enquête et le député arménien Vartkès a demandé à ce que le rapport Babikian soit également lu, mais l’assemblée a décidé d’entendre les conclusions des deux députés le samedi suivant, 7 août. Le lendemain, lorsque la question a été remise à l’ordre du jour, le président a proposé à l’assemblée de soumettre ces rapports à l’examen d’une commission parlementaire spéciale préalablement à leur lecture:27 l’affaire d’Adana venait d’être évoquée au parlement ottoman pour la dernière fois, car les deux rapports n’ont jamais été rendus publics et on ignore même jusqu’à présent le contenu de celui de Yusuf Kemal, dont on sait cependant, par les déclarations publiques de son auteur, qu’il était loin de conclure dans le sens de H. Babikian. Il semble en fait que, dans l’intervalle, des négociations ont eu lieu en coulisse pour, ainsi 22 Compte rendu dans la presse stambouliote du 27 juillet, notamment dans Azadamard, n° 29, daté du 27 juillet 1909, p. 2. D’après Şerif pacha, İsmail Hakkı faisait alors parti du Comité central jeune-turc : Mécheroutiette, n° 38, janvier 1913, p. 16. 23 Azadamard, n° 29, daté du 27 juillet 1909, p. 3. 24 AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, vol. 83, f° 162, Thérapia le 11 août 1909. 25 Azadamard, n° 34, daté du 2 août 1909, p. 3. 26 Azadamard, n° 34 et 36, datés des 2 et 4 août 1909, p. 3. Ses funérailles, le 4 août, donnèrent lieu à une cérémonie њcuménique de grande ampleur — parlementaires, sénateurs, membres du gouvernement, corps diplomatique étaient présents — au cours de laquelle Yusuf Kemal et Krikor Zohrab prirent la parole pour rendre hommage au courage politique et à l’altruisme du défunt. 27 Minutes de ces séances publiées dans la presse stambouliote et par Terzian, op. cit., pp. 621-623.

49


Raymond Kévorkian

que l’ambassadeur français l’a souligné, éviter le déballage public d’une affaire des plus embarrassantes. Le CUP et son gouvernement craignaient apparemment une réaction populaire — c’est du moins ce qu’ils ont dit en privé — et, surtout, que la responsabilité avérée des militants jeunes-turcs locaux dans les massacres soit trop soulignée. Confidentielles par nature, ces négociations semblent s’être déroulées entre les leaders jeunes-turcs et leurs alliés arméniens de la FRA, qui préparaient alors le fameux accord de coopération déjà évoqué.28 Il est probable que les députés arméniens ont accepté que les rapports ne soient pas rendus publics et que le débat parlementaire n’ait pas lieu. En se ralliant aux arguments de leurs collègues turcs, à savoir que le débat ne résoudrait rien et risquait plutôt d’envenimer les choses, ils ont implicitement admis que la majorité du Parlement ne voulait pas entendre une vérité aussi peu flatteuse. En échange, on a vraisemblablement promis aux Arméniens de faire une déclaration publique les lavant de toutes les accusations portées contre eux depuis les événements, de créer sur place un véritable climat de sécurité, d’aider les rescapés à récupérer au plus vite une partie de leurs biens pillés et, surtout, de faire justice en punissant les véritables coupables de ces crimes. Plusieurs éléments permettent en effet de constater un revirement de la politique officielle du gouvernement en ces premiers jours d’août 1909. 1) Un nouveau préfet d’Adana est nommé. Il s’agit du colonel Ahmed Cemal bey — le futur ministre de la Marine — membre très influent du Comité central Union et Progrès, réputé énergique et libéral.29 2) Un véritable budget est alloué pour venir en aide aux dizaines de milliers d’Arméniens restés sans toit.30 3) Les cours martiales installées en Cilicie procèdent enfin à à l’arrestation des principaux responsables des massacres, même si elles ne font pendre que de simples exécutants. 4) Le grand vizir Hilmi pacha publie, le 11 août, une circulaire officielle blanchissant les Arméniens de toutes les accusations portées contre eux.31 Une phrase résume le ton général de ce texte : §Il n’est pas douteux qu’au temps de l’Ancien Régime où se pratiquaient les abus du despotisme, certaines classes de la communauté arménienne travaillaient dans un but politique. Mais quelle que soit la forme dans laquelle ce travail s’opérait, il n’avait d’autre but que de s’affranchir des vexations et des méfaits insupportables d’un gouvernement despotique ». Propos en forme d’aveux qui sous-tendent que les Arméniens ont été massacrés parce qu’on continuait en 1909 à les considérer collectivement comme les fedaï, c’est-à-dire comme des § terroristes » et des révolutionnaires. 5) Le 12 août, le ministre de la Justice, Nail bey a déclaré publiquement : §Les Arméniens n’ont aucune responsabilité dans les causes de ces événements ».32 Phrase qui clôt cette campagne de réhabilitation. 28 Texte complet publié dans Azadamard, n° 63, daté du 5 septembre 1909, p. 1. 29 Azadamard, n° 38, daté du 6 août 1909, pp. 1-2, annonce la nomination de Cemal bey et publie une interview avec lui ; l’ambassadeur Bompard annonce également cette nomination dans une lettre au ministre Pichon du 11 août 1909 : AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol. 283, f° 162. 30 Les fonds furent remis à des commissions composées de notables locaux plus ou moins impliqués dans les massacres, qui détournèrent la plupart des fonds. On peut aussi signaler qu’on ne restitua que symboliquement quelques biens pillés pendant les massacres : FO 195/2306, lettre de Doughty-Wylie à Lowther, d’Adana à Constantinople, datée du 9 mai 1909. 31 Texte français dans AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol. 283, ff. 164/22-23v°; texte arménien dans Azadamard, n° 42, daté du 12 août 1909, p. 1. 32 Azadamard, n° 42, daté du 12 août 1909, p. 3.

50


Raymond Kévorkian

L’activité des premières cours martiales instituées en Cilicie Rien n’est plus significatif d’une volonté politique que la mise en њuvre par l’état d’une justice susceptible de punir des coupables et ainsi de rétablir la paix civile et le règne du droit. Or, concernant les événements de Cilicie, les activités des premières cours martiales locales ont donné lieu à des §abus » qui ont scandalisé plus d’un observateur, sans parler des victimes elles-mêmes. §Il n’est malheureusement que trop certain, dit un diplomate, que les nouveaux gouvernants s’occupent bien plus d’accuser les Arméniens que de rechercher les vrais coupables. C’est par centaines qu’on arrête les Arméniens, alors que les instigateurs des massacres restent impunis et dirigent même avec insolence l’uvre de la justice ».33 Ces cours avaient aussi une autre particularité : elles étaient constituées des principaux organisateurs des massacres et travaillaient toutes sur la base de rapports fournis par des commissions d’enquête locales dont les membres étaient eux-mêmes impliqués dans les massacres.34 Elles avaient ainsi le pouvoir de désigner les §coupables ». Les rapports Babikian et Fayk-Mosditchian soulignent du reste ces anomalies, ainsi que la pratique courante des faux témoignages et des aveux extorqués aux victimes. C’est à la suite de protestations diplomatiques et d’une vive réaction des milieux arméniens de Constantinople que le grand vizir Hüseyin Hilmi annonça finalement devant le Parlement, le 24 mai 1909, la formation d’une cour martiale composée de cinq membres, tous issus des rangs jeunes-turcs, présidée par Yusuf Kenan pacha. On note toutefois que cette instance était dépourvue de moyens d’enquête et a tout bonnement repris les dossiers préalablement instruits. Elle a en outre institué trois branches locales à Tarse, Erzin et Marach. La ligne directrice, probablement imposée du centre, de cette cour martiale consiste dans un premier temps à frapper indistinctement des deux côtés, chez les bourreaux comme chez les victimes, pour donner l’impression d’une justice équitable, ou plus exactement pour sauver la fiction d’une responsabilité arménienne. La meilleure preuve en est le rapport — que personne n’avait commandé — qu’elle rend public quelques jours avant celui de Fayk et Mosditchian. Une phrase extraite du rapport à charge contre les Arméniens de Cilicie — déjà évoqué pour illustrer le dossier d’accusation — résume l’état d’esprit des magistrats militaires : §Le fait qu’ils [les Arméniens] aient fait preuve d’autant de hardiesse en usant de la liberté et de l’égalité qu’ils venaient d’acquérir n’a pas été très apprécié par les musulmans ».35 Autrement dit, des propagandistes non identifiés ont §expliqué» à une population déjà exaspérée que le comportement des Arméniens était le premier signe d’un projet d’indépendance et de massacre des musulmans. à cet égard, la note verbale du ministre français Pichon au ministre des Affaires étrangères ottoman donne de précieuses indications sur les méthodes employées par la juridiction d’Adana : §Six Arméniens viennent d’être pendus à Adana par ordre de la cour martiale, avec neuf musulmans, comme provocateurs des massacres. Ainsi la cour martiale a adopté dans une large mesure la version des autorités d’Adana qui voulaient rejeter sur les Arméniens la responsabilité de la catastrophe. Nous protestons contre cet acte d’iniquité, par lequel six représentants de la population arménienne si cruellement frappée sont châtiés avec les représentants des massacreurs 33 FO 195/2306, lettres de Doughty-Wylie à Lowther, des 4 et 21 mai 1909. 34 A. Adossidès, Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs, les massacres de Cilicie, Paris 1910, p. 106, cite le rapport de la mission américaine. 35 Terzian, op. cit., pp. 689-699, publie l’intégralité du rapport, daté du 10 juillet 1909, également diffusé par la presse stambouliote à partir de la fin juillet (voir Azadamard, nos 33 et 34, datés du 31 juillet et du 2 août 1909).

51


Raymond Kévorkian

musulmans comme provocateurs des massacres. Nous savons en outre que ces musulmans châtiés ne sont que d’obscurs instruments et que les vrais coupables restent impunis. Le vali d’Adana n’a même pas été traduit devant la cour martiale. Le directeur du journal turc Ittidal d’Adana, qui a pris personnellement une part active au massacre et qui depuis lors publie des articles dangereusement calomnieux contre les Arméniens, n’est nullement inquiété et continue sa campagne ».36 Ce constat se vérifie sur le terrain, lorsque la cour martiale acquitte tous les responsables locaux. L’exécution de ces six Arméniens, ainsi que la remise du rapport Fayk-Mosditchian a, comme nous l’avons vu, obligé le gouvernement à changer de stratégie. Le cabinet Hilmi a donné l’ordre d’arrêter les personnes incriminées dans le rapport: le vali Cevad bey, le commandant militaire Mustafa Remzi, le président du Club jeune-turc d’Adana İhsan Fikri, l’influent notable Abdülkadır Bağdadizâde, le mutesarif du Cebelbereket, Adıl Asaf bey, le commissaire de police Kadri bey et leurs complices. Il a cependant fallu attendre plus de quinze jours, jusqu’au 27 juillet, pour que l’ancien vali Cevad soit arrêté, car le vali Zihni pacha et les membres de la cour martiale refusaient d’appliquer les ordres. Dès lors, le grand vizir n’a eu d’autre choix que de procéder, le 29 juillet, au remplacement simultané du vali Zihni37 par Ahmed Cemal et du président de la cour martiale Yusuf Kenan par İsmail Fazlı pacha, qui occupait jusqu’alors les fonctions de commandant militaire de Smyrne. Le même jour, toutes les personnes citées ci-dessus sont arrêtées. Au cours du mois d’août, la cour martiale réformée juge donc enfin les responsables des massacres. Il n’est évidemment plus question de responsabilité des Arméniens, mais les vieux réflexes semblent encore prédominer. Le Patriarcat arménien de Constantinople fait amèrement remarquer au grand vizir que, malgré cela, nombre d’Arméniens croupissent dans les prisons ciliciennes dans des conditions effroyables, soumis au bon vouloir et à la brutalité de leurs gardiens. Il se plaint aussi de la légèreté des peines infligées. Qu’on en juge : Cevad est condamné à six ans d’interdiction de toute fonction administrative — on lui attribue cependant une solde mensuelle — ; Mustafa Remzi à trois mois de prison — la peine ne sera pas appliquée — ; Asaf bey à quatre ans d’interdiction de fonction publique ; İhsan Fikri à une interdiction de séjour à Adana ; son collègue de l’Ittidal İsmail Safâ à un mois d’emprisonnement ; Osman bey, le commandant de la garnison d’Adana, à trois mois de prison ; Abdülkadır Bağdadizâde à l’exil au Hedjaz pour deux ans — il est amnistié à l’occasion de l’anniversaire de la Constitution.38 Le vice-consul de France à Mersine et Adana explique, dans ses rapports au ministre des Affaires étrangères Pichon, le mode de fonctionnement de la cour martiale et note qu’il est quasiment impossible pour un Arménien de témoigner et que certains membres de la Cour semblent sensibles aux cadeaux des inculpés. İhsan Fikri a même été convoqué à Constantinople, après un bref séjour au Caire, par ses collègues jeunes-turcs pour officiellement y faire son rapport, mais personne ne l’a publiquement désavoué pour son action. Pendant ce temps, sur le terrain, le nouveau vali Cemal bey fait pendre à tour de bras plus d’une centaine de massacreurs qui, comme l’indiquent les diplomates, ne sont que des seconds couteaux, de simples exécutants. Les limites de cette justice sont illustrées par l’entrevue que le patriarche a avec le président de la cour martiale, İsmail Fazıl pacha, le 4 septembre, alors que ce dernier vient de condamner 36 AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol 283, ff. 121-123, datée du 16 juin 1909. 37 Propriétaire terrien kurde réputé pour être particulièrement corrompu. 38 AMAE, Correspondance politique, Turquie, n. s., vol. 283, f° 16421, 24, 33, dépêches de Mersine, les 11 et 21 septembre 1909.

52


Raymond Kévorkian

à mort quarante Turcs et trois Arméniens. à une question du prélat arménien, le général turc réplique : " Certes, il est totalement acquis que les Arméniens étaient innocents, cependant, il y a des Arméniens qui ont commis des actes que les Turcs eux-mêmes ne se permettent pas ».39 En définitive, le gouvernement a, en changeant le président de la cour martiale, corrigé les excès les plus criants et fait appliquer des peines de principe assez révélatrices de ses préoccupations. Au-delà des bonnes intentions annoncées par le cabinet Hilmi, " les tribunaux militaires ont persisté à juger les Arméniens comme rebelles, sans permettre d’ailleurs à ceux-ci de faire la preuve du contraire ; à mener leurs enquêtes avec l’assistance des fonctionnaires les plus notoirement compromis ; à se laisser diriger par les provocateurs et les organisateurs des massacres ; enfin à se baser sur de fausses dépositions ». Un autre témoin américain remarque: " Bien des gens sont gardés en prison par suite des fausses accusations dont ils ont été l’objet. Il semble que chacun puisse être arrêté et emprisonné sur un mot prononcé par un musulman. Je ne connais aucun cas où le témoignage d’un Arménien appelé à témoigner a été accepté». " Dans cette hâte à inculper les Arméniens, on va jusqu’à assigner en justice des individus trépassés plusieurs mois avant les troubles ».40 Le cabinet Hilmi et les membres de la cour martiale se sont indéniablement plus souciés de sauver les apparences que de rendre justice. Ce faisant, ils se sont plus préoccupés des réactions occidentales que des plaintes formulées par leurs alliés arméniens. La gestion de la crise cilicienne par les cercles arméniens Les massacres de Cilicie ont, dans un premier temps, suscité une certaine perplexité au sein des instances arméniennes. Certains, tel Krikor Zohrab, pensent qu’il s’agit encore d’une " provocation hamidienne », mais d’autres sont plus sceptiques et s’interrogent sur le rôle des autorités. Ils observent à l’appui de leurs dires que l’arrivée en Cilicie des troupes " libératrices », contrôlées par des officiers jeunes-turcs, n’a pas fait cesser les tueries, mais qu’au contraire elles ont participé à la seconde vague de violences ; que les responsables bien connus de ces actes n’ont pas été emprisonnés ; que beaucoup de survivants ont été arrêtés sans motif, voire exécutés ; que les délégués arméniens dépêchés sur place n’ont pas été autorisés à entrer dans Adana ; que les sommes télégraphiées à l’archevêché de la ville par le Patriarcat ne sont jamais parvenues à destination et qu’enfin, pour l’essentiel, le gouvernement comme la presse turque attribuent la responsabilité de ces " événements » aux Arméniens, en les accusant de s’être révoltés.41 Les députés arméniens notent que ces violences sont prolongées par des mesures d’accompagnement : arrestation des notables, destruction des écoles, incendie des églises et des maisons, fouille et pillage des demeures épargnées, enlèvement de femmes et d’enfants, réclamation du fisc au lendemain des massacres, privation de nourriture pour les survivants, assimilation forcée dans certains villages, rappelant les méthodes hamidiennes.42 Ils constatent aussi que même la présence de plusieurs navires de guerre anglais, français, américains, russes et italiens à Mersine, à deux heures d’Adana, n’a pas empêché la deuxième vague de massacres opérés par l’armée ni même autorisé une aide alimentaire aux rescapés 39 Azadamard, n° 63, daté du 6 septembre 1909, p. 3. 40 Adossidès, op. cit., pp. 119-120. 41 Adénakroutiun Azkayin Joghovo [Minutes de la Chambre nationale], minutes de la séance du 8 mai 1909, pp. 322-327. 42 Ibidem, pp. 328-335.

53


Raymond Kévorkian

qui errent, hébétés, dans les rues.43 Pour les représentants arméniens, la priorité est clairement de venir au plus vite au secours des rescapés. La Chambre des députés arménienne organise immédiatement l’envoi d’unités médicales et d’une colonne de secours, chargée de distribuer nourriture et vêtements aux Ciliciens, ainsi que la prise en charge des milliers d’orphelins — on en recense environ sept mille en juin 1909, deux mois après le carnage.44 Mais elle songe, plus que tout, à demander des comptes au gouvernement, tout en menant sa propre enquête sur le terrain45. Dans le mémorandum qu’elle remet à la Porte, la Chambre exige: 1) la libération des Arméniens emprisonnés ; 2) la restitution des personnes islamisées de force ; 3) le retour des jeunes filles " mariées » à des musulmans; 4) l’indemnisation des survivants restés sans toit et la restitution des biens volés ; 5) la révocation du nouveau vali Mustafa Zihni ; 6) l’arrestation des coupables ; 7) une assistance alimentaire pour les survivants, etc.46 Début juin, le patriarche Eghiché Tourian, qui a succédé à Izmirlian — élu catholicos d’Arménie dans l’intervalle —, est fort courtoisement reçu par le sultan, le grand vizir et le ministre de l’Intérieur. La délégation arménienne formule un certain nombre de griefs : les tribunaux formés en Cilicie pour condamner les émeutiers et autres assassins sont constitués des principaux organisateurs des massacres et ont condamné à mort et fait pendre six Arméniens ; plusieurs archevêques, dont celui de Marach, qui a résisté, sont actuellement traduits en justice ; le gouvernement et la presse turque continuent à présenter ces massacres comme une révolte arménienne.47 En conséquence, le patriarche propose d’envoyer en Cilicie une commission d’enquête mixte du parlement ottoman, avec pouvoir exécutif, et demande que des tribunaux militaires siégeant à Constantinople soient chargés de faire justice. Au cours des débats de la Chambre arménienne du 21 août 1909, on apprend que si le rapport Babikian n’a pas été lu devant le Parlement, les quelques extraits publiés dans la presse ont mis dans l’embarras le gouvernement ; que ce dernier a confié, en aparté, aux représentants arméniens, qu’il lui est difficile de punir les responsables, car cela pourrait exciter les musulmans, qui ne tolèrent pas la moindre décision " favorable » aux Arméniens.48 En fait, tout indique que le dossier est directement géré avec le gouvernement et le CUP par le Conseil politique arménien et les députés au parlement ottoman, sans que la Chambre soit systématiquement informée de l’évolution des discussions. Dans la presse arménienne, on est naturellement beaucoup moins politique et on profite de la relative liberté dont on jouit encore. Un des éditorialistes de Puzantion, Sourèn Bartévian, est l’un des premiers journalistes arméniens à manifester clairement l’indignation qui domine dans sa communauté. Faisant allusion aux seconds massacres d’Adana, qui ont visé une popu43 M. Ormanian, Azkabadoum, III, Jérusalem 1927, col. 5432 ; des sources diplomatiques indiquent que certaines victimes originaires d’autres régions sont rapatriées. " Une soixantaine de personnes, veuves, jeunes filles et garçons, dont les parents furent massacrés durant les événements d’Adana et ses environs, ont été amenées à Sıvas dans un état lamentable par les autorités locales » et seront conduites " jusqu’au district de Terjan, dans le vilayet d’Erzerum, dont elles sont originaires. Fuyant la misère et la disette de leur pays, ces familles s’étaient rendues, l’automne dernier, au vilayet d’Adana pour y travailler dans les moissons » : Centre des Archives diplomatiques de Nantes, Ambassade de Constantinople, série E/129, lettre du vice-consul de France à Sıvas, Habib Edile, à Bompard, ambassadeur de France à Constantinople, datée du 17 juin 1909. 44 Adénakroutiun, op. cit., minutes de la séance du 12 juin 1909, pp. 404 et 409. 45 Sarkis Souin, délégué en compagnie d’un prélat, est mis sous " surveillance militaire » dès son arrivée en Cilicie, et empêché de circuler librement (cf. ibidem, p. 407). 46 Ibidem, minutes de la séance du 24 avril 1909, pp. 305-306. 47 Ibidem, minutes de la séance du 12 juin 1909, pp. 389-409. 48 Ibidem, minutes de la séance du 21 août 1909, pp. 484 et suiv.

54


Raymond Kévorkian

lation désarmée, il s’exclame: "Après cette sanglante duperie, comment peut-on accuser les cadavres allongés de personnes qui, cette fois-ci, n’ont même pas pu amorcer un mouvement d’autodéfense, tirer la moindre cartouche ou jeter même une pierre ? Comment qualifier, comment comprendre ces accusations mensongères ? Dites-nous [...] si vous ne voulez plus que nous habitions ce pays, que nous ne vivions plus sur cette terre. [...] Jusqu’à quand notre sang et nos larmes vont couler au nom d’une chimérique et délirante histoire de "royaume arménien" à laquelle vous ne croyez pas vous-mêmes, car vous ne pouvez imaginer que les Arméniens soient stupides au point d’y croire eux-mêmes ».49 Outre l’indignation, ces propos reflètent le désespoir qui s’est emparé de nombre d’Arméniens qui découvrent à cette occasion combien la situation a peu changé. D’autres, comme l’éditorialiste du quotidien Azadamard évoquant les activités de la commission d’enquête parlementaire, expriment plutôt un pessimisme cynique : " Il serait naïf, écrit-il, d’attendre que justice soit rendue. Tout le processus actuel n’est pas destiné à ce que la justice l’emporte, mais à dissimuler derrière un rideau une catastrophe qui a été aussi destructrice pour la population arménienne de Cilicie ».50 Mais, outre ces déclarations générales, on commence aussi à entendre des accusations visant directement le pouvoir. Le député K. Zohrab, manifestement excédé, explose à la tribune du parlement ottoman : " Le gouvernement reste fidèle aux vieilles traditions en niant les faits qui se sont produits, comme dans le cas des événements d’Adana, où il a longtemps réfuté le nombre des victimes qui a pourtant été confirmé par des informations officielles ultérieures ».51 La réaction de bon nombre de députés jeunes-turcs, en principe ouverts aux pratiques démocratiques, est à l’image de la réalité ottomane du temps : Zohrab est tout bonnement interrompu, tiré à bas de la tribune et molesté. On observe un autre fait révélateur au cours de la séance parlementaire du lendemain, 3 juillet : K. Zohrab et Vartkès Séringulian tentent ce jour-là de défendre, devant une assemblée majoritairement hostile, un projet de loi, pourtant déposé par le groupe jeune-turc, visant à instituer des syndicats ouvriers dans l’Empire ottoman.52 Le parallèle entre les arguments avancés par les deux députés arméniens et les réactions pour le moins conservatrices de certains de leurs collègues turcs illustre l’abîme culturel qui existe entre eux, y compris avec des députés réputés modernistes. Au début de l’automne, malgré les quelques progrès enregistrés dans l’affaire cilicienne — nous avons vu comment le gouvernement et le Parlement l’ont gérée —, les milieux arméniens continuent à réclamer la réparation des dommages subis et la restitution des biens pillés. Compte tenu du contexte, qu’ils connaissent mieux que quiconque, on peut s’étonner de cette obstination à vouloir absolument que justice soit rendue dans un pays qui avait, jusqu’à un passé récent, une interprétation restrictive de ce mot. Mais les Arméniens sont manifestement décidés à mener à son terme cette affaire et à ne pas céder. Après avoir fait preuve d’une certaine souplesse en négociant directement avec le gouvernement ou les dirigeants jeunes-turcs durant tout l’été, ils refusent de se contenter de bonnes paroles, car l’affaire leur paraît trop lourde de menaces pour l’avenir et en trop flagrante contradiction avec les principes officiellement défendus par les Jeunes-Turcs. Le 25 septembre, en séance publique de la Chambre, N. Djivanian, par ailleurs député au

49 Puzantion, n° 3823, daté du 10 mai 1909, p. 1. 50 Azadamard, n° 2, daté du 24 juin 1909, p. 1. 51 Azadamard, n° 9, daté du 2 juillet 1909, p. 2, compte rendu de la 104e séance. 52 Azadamard, n° 10, daté du 3 juillet 1909, p. 2, compte rendu de séance.

55


Raymond Kévorkian

parlement ottoman et membre de l’Ittihad, défend les positions du gouvernement jeune-turc et reprend la thèse selon laquelle après l’" affaire d’Adana » les autorités ont évité de justesse les débordements et des massacres dans les provinces de l’Est. Interrompu dans sa démonstration par un tollé général, Djivanian a cédé sa place à la tribune au responsable dachnakiste H. Chahriguian, qui s’exprime au nom du Conseil politique. Après une analyse de la situation, le député révèle qu’en concertation avec leurs collègues arméniens du parlement ottoman, les membres du Conseil ont préféré éviter la discussion en séance du rapport de la commission parlementaire (de Babikian), car la majorité des députés était manifestement opposée à toute déclaration publique mettant clairement en cause les autorités turques, et qu’ils pensaient, en agissant ainsi, laisser les mains libres au gouvernement pour qu’il puisse travailler dans le sens souhaité.53 Immédiatement après, le chef hentchakiste Hmayag Aramiants intervient et tente de démontrer qu’il y a continuité entre les régimes hamidien et jeune-turc, mais que la politique de ce dernier, sans être divergente, est beaucoup mieux " maquillée » et menée sous couvert de la loi, comme cela fut le cas lors des procès d’Adana, dont les jugements ne peuvent, paraît-il, être légalement cassés par le gouvernement. Malgré certaines opinions contraires, la grande majorité des députés a cherché à trouver une issue à la crise en maintenant le contact avec la Porte. Cependant, pour mieux signifier qu’il n’est pas disposé à céder devant les arguments ou les menaces de massacres avancés par les autorités, le Conseil politique demande au patriarche Eghiché Tourian de démissionner. Ce que ce dernier fait le 4 septembre, en signe de protestation contre l’inertie du gouvernement.54 En marge de ces débats, libéraux et dachnakistes continuent à entretenir des relations avec la direction de l’Ittihad, qu’ils savent influente. Le manque de résultats concrets et, selon ses opposants, l’inadéquation des démarches effectuées par le Conseil politique provoquent la chute de la direction libérale-dachnak de la Chambre, qui élit un nouveau Conseil majoritairement constitué de conservateurs, avec comme chef l’inamovible Minas Tchéraz.55 Ainsi, le " ventre mou » de la Chambre semble avoir pris au sérieux les mena-ces du gouvernement. Au cours des débats qui suivent ce changement de direction, H. Aramiants, soutenu par K. Zohrab, fait remarquer à l’assemblée réunie que ce n’est pas en élisant des gens de la vieille école qu’elle peut obtenir de meilleurs résultats. Qu’en outre, ceux-ci ignorent absolument tout des réalités quotidiennes des provinces et que, dorénavant, il n’est plus possible d’exclure les partis de la direction des affaires. Plus consensuel, Krikor Zohrab rappelle qu’il a essayé, à son retour d’exil, l’année précédente, de constituer un bloc entre les partis et l’intelligentsia, afin de les faire participer à la vie politique nationale dans le cadre prévu à cet effet, et qu’en définitive ce n’est pas faire du Conseil une annexe des partis que d’y élire certains de leurs militants, mais plutôt un moyen de les canaliser dans un cadre consensuel.56 La crise suscitée au sein des instances arméniennes par l’affaire cilicienne exprime en fait une inquiétude profonde dans la classe politique. Le Puzantion rapporte des propos révélateurs tenus par Zohrab devant la Chambre : " On ne peut pas contester le comportement bienveillant du gouvernement actuel à notre égard, car nous savons fort bien que cinq mois auparavant il y avait un réel danger de voir les massacres d’Adana s’étendre à l’ensemble de l’Arménie, comme le prouvent les télé-

53 Adénakroutiun, op. cit., minutes de la séance du 25 septembre 1909, pp. 517-518 et 522-524. 54 Ibidem, minutes de la séance du 4 septembre 1909, pp. 493-494. 55 Ibidem, minutes de la séance du 30 octobre 1909, pp. 46-47. 56 Ibidem, pp. 49-50.

56


Raymond Kévorkian

grammes et les lettres qui sont parvenus entre les mains de la direction nationale ».57 Menaces qui sont confirmées par les informations communiquées par les réseaux consulaires européens en Anatolie. L’éditorial de Puzant Kétchian, le patron de Puzantion, résume en quelques lignes le dilemme auquel sont confrontés les cercles arméniens : " Depuis un certain temps, une sorte de phénomène pessimiste se diffuse parmi nous, qui dit que le Comité ottoman [comprenons le CUP], s’il n’en a pas été l’organisateur, n’était pour le moins pas opposé aux massacres d’Adana, dont il a été grandement satisfait. Il est de la plus haute importance de clarifier cette question, car il est incontestable que le Comité ottoman contrôle la direction actuelle du pays et que ses orientations, ses décisions ont une signification vitale pour le peuple arménien. Si, à l’avenir, le Comité ottoman veut matériellement et moralement détruire les Arméniens, il serait souhaitable que nous en soyons dès à présent informés, pour que nous songions dès lors à notre avenir, c’est-à-dire à nous lever et à quitter ce pays. Pour notre part, cela fait six mois que nous nous occupons d’examiner cette question. Nous avons connaissance des télégrammes et des rapports reçus par le Patriarcat, et nous recevons nous-mêmes, sans cesse, des correspondances des régions à population arménienne, provenant de milieux très divers. Cependant, nous ne sommes pas parvenus à la conviction que le Comité ottoman a voulu faire massacrer les Arméniens ».58 Si l’éditorial de P. Kétchian ne tranche pas la question clé que tout le monde se pose, à savoir l’implication ou non du CUP dans ces massacres, il n’en traduit pas moins un doute pesant et le sentiment diffus que la présence des Arméniens dans l’empire est déjà contestée. En décembre de la même année, H. Khosrovian présente, au nom de la nouvelle direction du Conseil, un rapport sur les suites données par le gouvernement à ses requêtes et demandes de réparation. Il annonce ainsi que cinq autres condamnés à mort arméniens ont été graciés et quarante-deux massacreurs pendus ; qu’une partie des prisonniers a été libérée, mais que, sur le fond, les organisateurs de la boucherie n’ont pas été inquiétés et que rien n’a été fait pour faciliter le retour dans leurs familles des enfants enlevés.59 Malgré tout, le catholicos de Cilicie Sahag II Khabayan, qui avait démissionné en signe de protestation, en même temps que le patriarche, est revenu sur sa décision et a demandé à son homologue stambouliote, Eghiché Tourian, d’en faire autant. Ainsi se trouve indirectement posée la question essentielle qui anime les débats de la Chambre au cours des années 1908-1909 : à savoir jusqu’où demander réparation et le rétablissement de la sécurité des biens et des personnes sans provoquer de nouveaux massacres ? C’est précisément sur ce sujet que K. Zohrab fait une nouvelle intervention d’une heure, après avoir demandé le huis clos et la non transcription de son discours.60 On le comprend, car l’exécution de quarante-deux assassins de Cilicie a provoqué dans l’opinion publique turque une émotion considérable. Certes, les véritables responsables n’ont pas été visés, mais l’exécution de comparses est suffisante pour provoquer la chute du premier ministre, Hilmi pacha, remplacé par Hakkı, l’auteur de la fameuse déclaration faisant porter la responsabilité des massacres sur les Arméniens.61 Certains députés considèrent que l’affaire cilicienne est un cas exemplaire et que si la Chambre ne mène pas le combat jusqu’au bout pour obtenir réparation, il ne faut pas compter sur une amélioration du sort des populations arméniennes dans les provinces, qu’il

57 N° 3924, daté du 20 septembre, p. 1, éditorial. 58 Ibidem, p. 1. 59 Adénakroutiun, op. cit., minutes de la séance du 18 décembre 1909, pp. 127-129. 60 Ibidem, p. 130. 61 Déclaration au Temps reprise dans Azadamard, n° 12, daté du 6 juillet 1909, p. 1.

57


Raymond Kévorkian

s’agisse de la restitution des terres confisquées ou du contrôle des tribus kurdes. En définitive, la Chambre charge les députés au parlement ottoman et notamment Krikor Zohrab, Hampartsoum Boyadjian et Vartkès Séringulian de tenter une nouvelle démarche auprès de leurs collègues turcs. Geste significatif, le Conseil politique demande en même temps au patriarche Tourian de reprendre ses fonctions.62 Les cercles arméniens ont manifestement décidé de renoncer à demander des comptes par crainte de nouvelles violences.

è³ÛÙáݹ ¶¨áñ·Û³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÙÁ ³Ù÷á÷áõÙ Ðá¹í³ÍáõÙ ùÝÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ ³éÝíáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³Ý ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ù»ç ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ¨ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñ·ñ³íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ£ ²Ý¹ñ³¹³ñÓ ¿ ϳï³ñíáõÙ ³ÛÝ Ï³ñ¨áñ ѳñóÇÝ` ³ñ¹Ûá±ù ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí»É ¿ñ Ï»Ýïñáݳóí³Í ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, û± ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ î³ñ³μÝáõÛà ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇ û·ï³·áñÍÙ³Ý ¨ ¹»åù»ñÇ ûμÛ»ÏïÇí Ý»ñϳ۳óÙ³Ý ÙÇçáóáí ¨ë Ù»Ï ³Ý·³Ù ³å³óáõóíáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ ¹»ñÁ ¨ Ñ»ñùíáõÙ ³ÛÝ Ï»ÕÍ ¹ñáõÛÃÁ, û Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ »Õ»É »Ý ³Ýϳñ·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ¨ áã ÙÇ Ï³å ãáõÝ»Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï£

62 Kévorkian, "Les Massacres de Cilicie d’avril 1909 », art. cit., pp. 143-153 et 161.

58


²¸²Ü²ÚÆ 1909 Ã. Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ ²è²æÆÜ ²ðÒ²¶²ÜøܺðÜ ²ðºìØî²Ð²Ú زØàôÈàôØ î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý 1908 Ã. ·³ñݳÝÁ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ýí»ó 1876 Ã. ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ,1 ¨ »ñÏñáõÙ ³éÅ³Ù³Ý³Ï Ñ³ëï³ïí»ó Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ£ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÁݹáõÝáõÙÁ ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù ϳé³í³ñáÕÝ»ñÇ ßé³ÛÉ ËáëïáõÙÝ»ñÝ ÁݹѳÝñ³Ï³Ý ѳÛñ»ÝÇùÇ, úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý μáÉáñ ³½·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³½³ïáõÃÛ³Ý áõ Çñ³í³Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ É³í³ï»ëáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ÇÝ Ý»ñßÝãáõÙ Ñ³Û Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ¨` Ñ³Û Éñ³·ñáÕÝ»ñÇÝ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ ³Ûë μ³ñ»Ýå³ëï ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝÁ ßáõïáí ³í³ñïí»ó, ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ, Ùáé³Ý³Éáí ѻճßñçÙ³Ý ÁÝóóùáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ë³ï³ñ³Í ³½·³ÛÇÝ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÇÝ ïí³Í ËáëïáõÙÝ»ñÁ, ³ñ³·áñ»Ý ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏáõÙÝ»ñ Ùïóñ»óÇÝ ËáëùÇ ³½³ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç:2 ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ Çñ³í³Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñ·³ËáëÝ»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ѳí³ïÝ áõ íëï³ÑáõÃÛáõÝÁ Éñçáñ»Ý ë³ë³Ýí»ó 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõ٠ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáí, áñáÝó ѻ勉Ýùáí ½áÑí»óÇÝ Ùáï 30000 ѳۻñ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ßñç³¹³ñÓ³ÛÇÝ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ó³Ý åáÉë³Ñ³Û ¨ ÁݹѳÝñ³å»ë ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, áñÝ ³½³ïí»ó »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý` »ñÏÇñÁ ù³Õ³ù³ÏñûÉáõ ¨ »íñáå³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ »ñ¨áõÃ³Ï³Ý áõ Ï»ÕÍ Ó·ïáõÙÝ»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ áõÝ»ó³Í å³ïñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇó£ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ²¹³Ý³Ûáõ٠ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³çáñ¹áÕ ³é³çÇÝ ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ óáõÛó »Ý ï³ÉÇë, áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ѳۻñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³Ýëå³ë»ÉÇ ¿ÇÝ (û¨ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ëï³ïáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ¿É Ùßï³å»ë ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ)£ »å»ï Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÝ ³ãùÇ ¿ÇÝ ÁÝÏÝáõÙ ³é³í»É ï»Õ»Ï³ïí³Ï³Ý, ù³Ý í»ñÉáõÍ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃáí, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí»óÇÝ Ý³¨ ËÇëï ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ÝÛáõûñ (Ñ³Û ¨ ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ), áñáÝù Ñ³Û Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óñÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ áÕç ÁÝóóùÝ Çñ ³Õ»ï³ÉÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñáí` ³ÛÝ ÑÇÙݳíáñ »½ñ³Ï³óáõÃÛ³Ùμ, áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÝ »Ý: ØÇÝ㨠ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ÏÛ³ÝùÝ ÁÝóÝáõÙ ¿ñ ѳٻٳï³μ³ñ ˳ճÕ` ³é³Ýó ëáíáñ³Ï³Ý ³ÛÝ Ñ³É³Í³ÝùÝ»ñÇ, áñáÝù ³éϳ ¿ÇÝ ÙÛáõë ݳѳݷݻñáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹ñ³ÝÇó Ñ»ïá Ýϳïí»ó áñáß³ÏÇ É³ñí³ÍáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇ ÙÇç¨, ÇÝãÁ ѻ勉Ýù ¿ñ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏÙ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í μ³½Ù³ÃÇí óÝÍáõÃÛ³Ý

1 1876 Ã. §Üáñ ûëÙ³ÝÝ»ñÁ¦ ·³ÑÁÝÏ»ó ³ñ»óÇÝ ëáõÉÃ³Ý ²μ¹áõÉ ²½Ç½ÇÝ ¨ Ýáñ ·³Ñ³Ï³É ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³Ùǹ II-ÇÝ Ñ³ñϳ¹ñ»óÇÝ ÁݹáõÝ»É Çñ»Ýó å³ñ³·ÉáõËÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ` Øǹѳï ÷³ß³ÛÇ Ï³½Ù³Í ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³Ùǹ II-Á 1878Ã. í»ñ³óñ»ó ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Á ¨ ëï»ÕÍ»ó ÙÇ³Ñ»Í³Ý μéÝ³Ï³É³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝ£ ºñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ ï»°ë Шпилькова В., Младотурецкая революция 1908-1909 гг., М., 1977, سݹ»Éßï³Ù ²., ºñÇï³ë³ñ¹ ÃÛáõñù»ñÇ å»ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ¾çÙdzÍÇÝ, 1916, Feroz Ahmad, The Yong Turks. The Commitee of Union and Progress in Turkish politics 1908-1914, London, 1969, Buxton R. C., Turkey in Revolution, London-Leipzig, 1909: 2 ê³Ñ³ÏÛ³Ý î., سÙáõÉÇ ·ñ³ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ Éñ³ÑáëÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ÏÇñ³éíáÕ ³ñ·»ÉùÝ»ñÁ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ 1914-1916ÃÃ., гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñó»ñ, ÐòÂÆ, ÃÇí 6, ºñ. 2002, ¿ç 35£

59


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

ѳí³ùÝ»ñÇ ¨ ѳۻñÇ Ù»Í³ñÙ³Ý, áñáÝó ÇÙ³ëïÁ Ñ»ï³Ùݳó ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ëË³É ÁÝϳɻóÇÝ ¨ Ù³ëݳÏó»óÇÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ áõ óɳÝÇÝ:3 à·¨áñáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ ÂáõñùdzÛÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ³Ýݳ˳¹»å ѳۻñÇ ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇ Ñ³Ù»ñ³ßËáõÃÛ³Ý óáõÛó»ñ ¿ÇÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåíáõÙ, Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ûñûñáõÙ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏíáõÙ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç Ù³ëÇÝ, ÑÝãáõÙ ÷á˳¹³ñÓ μ³ñ»Ù³ÕóÝùÝ»ñ£ ºñμ 1908 Ã. ³ßݳÝÁ ÑÇÙÝí»ó ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃÁ, ßáõñç ï³ëÁ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ûñûñ (§ê³å³Ñ¦, §Æ·¹³Ù¦, §Ú»ÝÇ ·³½»ï³¦, §ê³³ï»Ã¦, §Â³ÝÇݦ, §Ðáõ·áõ·Á áõÙáõÙÇ»¦, §Â»ñ×ÇÙ³ÝÁ ѳ·Ç·³Ã¦) áÕçáõÝ»óÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÇÝ` μ³ñÓñ ·Ý³Ñ³ï»Éáí ѳۻñÇ ¹»ñÁ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõÛÃÇ ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍáõÙ ¨ ³½³ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ÙÕí³Í å³Ûù³ñáõÙ:4 ÜÙ³Ý ÙÇçáó³éáõÙÝ»ñÝ ³éÇà ѳݹÇë³ó³Ý Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻﳹÇÙ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ùáï ݳ˳ÝÓÇ ¨ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛ³Ý μáñμáùÙ³ÝÁ ѳۻñÇ ¹»Ù£ ¸³ñ³ëϽμÇÝ` ÙÇÝ㨠²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç μéݳå»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ³í³ñïÁ, Î. äáÉëáõÙ ¨ ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛáõÙ ÉáõÛë ¿ÇÝ ï»ëÝáõÙ ßáõñç »ñÏáõ ï³ëÝÛ³Ï Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ, ÇëÏ 1908 Ãí³Ï³ÝÇó ÙÇÝã¨ Ø»Í »Õ»éÝÁ` ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 120 ûñûñ ¨ ³Ùë³·ñ»ñ:5 1908-1914 ÃÃ. ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ³é³ÝÓÇÝ ÷áõÉ ¿£ ²Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ Î. äáÉëáõÙ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»É Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³Ëáë³Ï³Ý áõ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ³ñÅ»Ïßéáí ³é³ÝÓݳóáÕ §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ (1886-1918, ïÝûñ»Ý` ´. ø»ãÛ³Ý) ¨ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ»-Ç ¿ýùÛ³ñ¦ (§ØïáñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ß³ñù¦, 1866-1919, Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ñ ѳۻñ»Ý, ïÝûñ»Ý` Ð. ¶³Ûë»ñÛ³Ý) ûñ³Ã»ñûñÁ£ Æñ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý áõ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ï³ñ¨áñ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ñ å³ÑáõÙ §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³Ùáõɦ ß³μ³Ã³Ã»ñÃÁ (Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»É ¿ ÙÇÝ㨠1909 Ã)£ лճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá ëÏë»óÇÝ ÉáõÛë ï»ëÝ»É Î. äáÉëáõÙ` §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦ (1908-1914), §ÎáѳϦ (1909-1914), ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛáõÙ` §¸³ßÇÝù¦ (1909-1919) ¨ §²ß˳ï³Ýù¦ (1910-1914) ûñûñÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ Üϳï»ÉÇ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ²ñ¨ÙïÛ³Ý Ð³Û³ëï³ÝáõÙ ¨ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáÕ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ ß»ßï³ÏÇ ³×:6 ²Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ ÙdzÛÝ Î. äáÉëáõÙ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ï³ëÇó ³í»ÉÇ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û »ñ·ÇÍ³Ï³Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ, áñáÝó ÍÝáõÝ¹Ý ÇëÏ ³½³ï Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ëϽμݳíáñÙ³Ý ÛáõñûñÇÝ³Ï óáõóÇã ¿ñ£ ä³ÉÙÇñ³ ´ñáõÙ»ÃÁ 1908-1911 ÃÃ. Î. äáÉëÇ »ñ·ÇÍ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í Çñ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç óáõÛó ¿ ï³ÉÇë, áñ »ñ·ÇÍ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÝ ³Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³ÛÝù³Ý ³ÏïÇí ¨ ³Ýϳßϳݹ ¿ñ, áñ Çñ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ͳÕñ³ÝϳñÝ»ñÇ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝÙ³Ý ÙÇçáóáí ×ÝßáõÙ ¿ñ ·áñͳ¹ñáõÙ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³Ùǹ II-Ç íñ³` ÁݹáõÝ»Éáõ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Á:7 ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³é³çÇÝ ûñ»ñÇÝ Ñ³Û Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ãáõÝ»ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó å³ßïáݳûñûñÁ, μ³í³ñ³ñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ·»ñ³½³Ýó³å»ë μ³Ý³íáñ ù³ñá½ãáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¨ Çñ»Ýó ·³-

3 î»°ë С. З., Аданские черные дни, издание Х. А. Вермишева, Баку, 1909, с. 5: 4 î»°ë êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý ¶., àõñí³·ÇÍ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û óïñáÝÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý, Ñï. III, ºñ., 1975, ¿ç 12 5 úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ·ñ³ùÝÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ë»óÙ³Ùμ ѳñÛáõñ³íáñ Ýáñ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»óÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ¹³ ѻ層ó üñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³÷áËáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ (Tülay Keskin, Feminist/Nationalist discourse in the first year of the Ottoman Revolutionary (1908-1909) Reedings from the magazins of Demwt, Mehashi an Kadin (Salonica), The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, Ankara, 2003) лճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá ÉáõÛë ÁÝͳÛí³Í å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÃÇíÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáõ ѳ-Ù³ñ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ Ù»çμ»ñáõÙ ¿ ï³ñμ»ñ ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñ. Áëï ¹ñ³ÝóÇó Ù»ÏÇ, »Ã» 1879-1907 ÃÃ. ÉáõÛë ¿ÇÝ ï»ëÝáõÙ 103 Ãáõñù³É»½áõ ûñûñ, ³å³ ÙdzÛÝ 1908à Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»óÇÝ 240 Ýáñ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ, ÇëÏ, Áëï Ù»Ï ³ÛÉ ³ÕμÛáõñÇ` 1908 Ã. Ýáñ ûñûñÁ 353-Ý ¿ÇÝ, 1910 Ã.` 130, 1911Ã.` 124 (¹ñ³ÝóÇó ß³ï»ñÁ ÙdzÛÝ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ïå³·ñí»óÇÝ)£ 6 î»°ë ʳé³ïÛ³Ý ²., ²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÁ XX ¹³ñÇ ëϽμÇÝ, ÄáõéݳÉÇëïÇϳ (î»ëáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý, ѳñó»ñ), å. ², º., 1999, ¿ç 79-80£ 7 Tülay Keskin, Feminist/Nationalist discourse in the first year of the Ottoman Revolutionary (1908-1909)..., p. 9.

60


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñÁ` ï³ñ³ÍáõÙ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ Ã»ñûñáí:8 1908 Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»Õ³ßñçáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ëÏëí³Í μ³ñ»Ýå³ëï ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝÁ` å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ·ñ³ùÝÝ³Ï³Ý ÑëÏáÕáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³óÙ³Ùμ, Ù»Í á·¨áñáõÃÛáõÝ ³é³ç³óñ»ó ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ùï³íáñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ£ §ÆÝã ͳÝñ ³Ý³ñ·³Ýù ¿ñ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ Ñ³Ý׳ñáõÝ ³ÛÝ ³ï»ÉÇ ¨ ³ÝÙÇï ·ñ³ùÝÝáõû³Ý Ý»ñϳÛáõÃÇõÝÁ Ù³ÙÉáõÝ ùáí£ ²Û¹ ˳õ³ñÇ å³ßïûݳÛù ËáÛë ïáõÇÝ ÉáÛë¿Ý, ÏÁ Ûáõë³Ýù, áñ ³É ãí»ñ³¹³éݳݦ,- ·ñáõÙ ¿ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ·ñáÕ-Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³Ëáë »á¹ÇÏÁ (»á¹áñáë ȳμ×ÇÝ×Û³Ý) 1909 Ã. §²Ù»ÝáõÝ ï³ñ»óáõÛóáõÙ¦:9 §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃÇ ³é³çÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ñáõÙ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í §Î³ëϳÍáïÝ»ñÁ¦ Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ ·ñáÕ-Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³Ëáë ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ 1908 Ã. ÑáõÉÇëÇ 11(24)-Á å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ¹³ñÓ³Í Ãí³Ï³Ý ¿ ѳٳñáõÙ, áñÇó Ñ»ïá ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÁ, áñÁ ÙÇÝã ³Û¹ ÉéáõÙ ¿ñ, μ³ñÓñ³Ó³ÛÝ»ó ѳٻñ³ßËáõÃÛ³Ý, »Õμ³ÛñáõÃÛ³Ý, ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï å³Ûù³ñÇ ¨ ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý å³ñï³íáñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ ¼. ºë³Û³ÝÁ, Ëáë»Éáí ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý ßÝáñÑ³Í ³½³ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, ³÷ëáë³Ýù ¿ ѳÛïÝáõÙ, áñ Ï³Ý Ñáé»ï»ëÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ϳëϳÍÝ»ñ »Ý ë»ñÙ³Ýáõ٠ѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ Ð»ÕÇݳÏÁ íëï³Ñ»óÝáõÙ ¿, áñ ÑÇÝ ûñ»ñÝ ³Ûɨë ã»Ý í»ñ³¹³éݳ, ¨ Ñáé»ï»ëáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹ÇïáõÙ ¿ áñå»ë ïËáõñ »ñ¨áõÛà Ýáñ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ Ù»ç:10 ²Ûë ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ Ñ³×³Ë ¿ÇÝ ÑÝãáõ٠ϳñÍÇùÝ»ñ, áñ Ñ»Ýó Ù³ÙáõÉÁ å»ïù ¿ óáõÛó ï³ñ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç í»ñù»ñÁ μáõÅ»Éáõ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÁ ¨ ³ÛÝ áõÕÇÝ, áñÇÝ å»ïù ¿ ѻ層ñ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á, ¨ áñ Ù³ÙáõÉÁ å»ïù ¿ ÉáõÛë ë÷é»ñ ˳í³ñáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕÝ»ñÇ íñ³£ ØÇÝã¹»é ÁÝûñóáÕ Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹³ï³å³ñïí³Í ¿ñ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï»É Ï³ñ¹³É ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý åáéÃÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ¹³ñÓ³Í Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñ:11 Àëï ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Éñ³·ñáÕ ºÝáíù ²ñÙ»ÝÇ` åáÉë³Ñ³Û ¨ áã ÙÇ Ã»ñÃ, μ³ó³éáõÃÛ³Ùμ §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝǦ, ãϳñáÕ³ó³í Ñ»é³ï»ëáñ»Ý ¨ ³Ýϳßϳݹ í»ñÉáõÍ»É ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ¹»åù»ñÁ. §Èñ³·ñáõÃÇõÝÁ, ÇÝãå»ë μéݳå»ïáõû³Ý ßñç³ÝÇÝ, ÝáÛÝå¿ë ³½³ï Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ßñç³ÝÇÝ ³É, ãÏñó³õ ѳݹÇë³Ý³É ջϳí³ñ áõÅ ÙÁ` áñ ï¿ñ ÁÉɳñ Ùï³õáñ³Ï³Ý Ñáë³ÝùÇÝ, ½³ÛÝ í³ñ¿ñ ·Çï³Ïóûñ¿Ý ¨ áõÕÕ¿ñ Çñ ³ñųÝÇ ¹»ñÇݦ:12 ø³ÝÇ áñ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇëÝ áõ ¼ÙÛáõéÝÇ³Ý ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ÙïùÇ Ï»ÝïñáÝÝ»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ, áñï»Õ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ñ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ·»ñ³ÏßÇé Ù³ëÁ, ³å³ Ñ»Ýó ³Û¹ ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÁ å»ïù ¿ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ 먻é»ñ ·³í³éáõÙ ëÏëí³Í μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ËݹñÇ íñ³£ ºñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»Õ³ßñçáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ûñûñáõÙ ½·³ÉÇ ï»Õ ¿ñ ѳïϳóíáõÙ μéݳïÇñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³åñáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, ïå³·ñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ù»Í ù³Ý³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ñáõß»ñ£ Üϳï»ÉÇ ¿ ݳ¨ Ñ³Û ³½·Ç ûñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç Ëáñ³ÙáõË ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ùÝݳ¹³ï³Ï³Ý Ó·ïáõÙÁ, ÙÇÝã¹»é »ñÏñáñ¹³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ïñíáõÙ »ñÏñáõÙ ûñ»óûñ ³Ñ³·Ý³óáÕ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý áõ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ (·³í³éÇ ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý í³ïóñ³óáõÙ, ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÁÝïñ³Ï³Ý Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í áïݳѳñáõÙ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ)£ §üñáõ-ýñáõ¦ ß³μ³Ã³Ã»ñÃÇ ïÝûñ»Ý ì³Ñ³Ý ö³÷³½Û³ÝÁ, ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éݳÉáí Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ ³ñͳñÍíáÕ` ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, íÇɳۻÃÝ»ñáõÙ áã Ñ³Û Ïáõë³Ï³ÉÝ»ñ Ý߳ݳϻÉáõ ¨ ³ÛÉ ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Ñ³Û ÁÝûñóáÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ·ñáõÙ ¿. §... Ó»ñ Ç￳ÉÝ ¿ ³ß˳ñÑÁ 8 î»°ë êÇñáõÝÇ Ú., §²½³ï³Ù³ñï¦Ç ë»ñáõݹÁ, §Ð³Ûñ»ÝÇù¦, ´áëïáÝ, 1924, ÃÇõ 7, ¿ç 81£ 9 ²¹³Ý³ÉÛ³Ý Ø., »á¹ÇÏÇ §²Ù»ÝáõÝ ï³ñ»óáõÛóÁ¦ 1907-1929, ºñ., 1981, ¿ç 27£ 10 î»°ë §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 15-18.X.1908£ 11 î»°ë §öÇõÝÇϦ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ÃÇõ 4, ¿ç 1£ î»°ë ݳ¨ §²Ý¹ñ³ÝÇϦ, ê»μ³ëïdz, 5-18.XII. 1909£ 12 ºÝáíù ²ñÙ¿Ý, Âñù³Ñ³Û ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ³½³ïáõû³Ý Ãõ³Ï³ÝÇÝ, ԳɳÃdz, 1909, ¿ç 12£

61


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

Ùáõà ï»ëÝ»É, Ûáõë³Ñ³ï³Ï³Ý ·ïÝ»É Çñ³ó í³Ë׳ÝÁ »õ ÏáÏáñ¹ÇÉáëÇ Ï»ÕÍ ³ñóáõÝùÝ»ñ ó÷»É Ó»ñ ³ÛÝù³Ý ëÇñ³Í ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñáõ Ãßáõ³éáõû³Ý íñ³Û¦:13 ê³Ï³ÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ 1909 Ã. ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÁ ¹áõñë μ»ñ»óÇÝ ³Ûë ÃÙμÇñÇó. Ù³ÙáõÉÇ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝáõ٠ѳÛïÝí»ó ·³í³éáõÙ ëÏëí³Í μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñóÁ£ §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉǦ Ñá¹í³Í³·Çñ ȨáÝ ØÏñïÇãÛ³ÝÁ ó³íáí ¿ ÝßáõÙ, áñ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á ã³ñ³ã³ñ ë˳Éí»É áõ ˳μí»É ¿` ÙÇ å³Ñ Ñáõë³Éáí, û Ãáõñù ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ³ñÙ³ï³å»ë åÇïÇ Ñ»Õ³ßñç»ñ »ñÏÇñÁ. ³ÛÝ ÝáõÛÝ ÑÇÝ, Ïáñͳݳñ³ñ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ß³ñáõݳÏáÕÝ ¿ñ, áñÇ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ »Õ³í ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Á:14 §ÎáѳϦ ß³μ³Ã³Ã»ñÃÁ 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ 30-ÇÝ Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³Í Ñá¹í³Íáõ٠ѳÕáñ¹áõÙ ¿, áñ §ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõû³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙ¿Ý Ç í»ñ Ù»ñ Ãßáõ³é³ó³Í ѳÛñ»ÝÇùÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ Çñ áñ¹ÇÝ»ñáõ ëï»Õͳ·áñÍ áõ ßÇݳñ³ñ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÇ åïáõÕÝ»ñÁ í³Û»É»Éáõ μ³Õ¹Á ãáõÝ»ó³õ, ³ÛÉ ë³ñë³÷Ç, Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Ï»³Ýù ÙÁÝ ³É ³Ýóáõó ¨ ³ÛÅÙ ã·Çï¿, ÿ DZÝã åÇïÇ ·³Û Çñ ·ÉËÇÝ£ ...ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ »õ ÝÙ³Ý ¹¿åù»ñÁ ½ûñ³õáñ å³ï׳éÝ»ñ »Ý, áñáÝù ³é³ç³óÝáõÙ »Ý ³Ýíëï³Ñáõû³Ý áõ ÃßݳÙáõû³Ý ½·³óáõÙÝ»ñ¦:15 ÆëÏ §Î³é³÷Ý³ï¦ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý-»ñ·ÇÍ³Ï³Ý ß³μ³Ã³Ã»ñÃÇ §æ³ñ¹³μ»ñ ÑáÕÙáõÝù¦ Ñá¹í³Íáõ٠ϳñ¹áõÙ »Ýù. §àñá±õÝ Ùïù¿Ý Ï’³ÝóÝ¿ñ ÿ Ù¿Ï ÇÛÝáÕ Ð³ÙÇïÇ ÷á˳ñ¿Ý μÇõñ³õáñ гÙÇïÝ»ñ åÇïÇ μáõëÝ¿ÇÝ. áñá±õÝ Ùïù¿Ý Ï’³ÝóÝ»ñ ÿ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõû³Ý í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïáõÙÁ ³õ»ÉÇ ÷áñӳݳõáñ åÇïÇ ¹³éݳñ ù³Ý ´éݳϳÉáõû³Ý ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙÁ¦:16 Ð³Û Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³Ýáõ٠ѳí³ï³ó »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ³ÝÑÇÙÝ Ñ³í³ëïdzóáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, û ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É »Ý ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç Ñ»ï¨áñ¹Ý»ñÁ£ §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝáõÙ¦ ïå³·ñí³Í Éñ³ïíáõÃÛáõÝÇó ï»Õ»Ï³ÝáõÙ »Ýù, áñ ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛÇ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ ³Ûó»É»É ¿ Î. äáÉëÇ Ñ³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù ºÕÇß» »å. ¸áõñÛ³ÝÇÝ ¨, Ëáë»Éáí ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ í»ñçÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ѳëï³ï»É, áñ ³ÛÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñå»É »Ý μéݳå»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙݳÏÇóÝ»ñÁ:17 êϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ §Ä³Ù³Ý³ÏÁ¦ ¨ë ѳí³ïáõÙ ¿ñ, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Á §ÑÇÝ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýù ¿¦, ¨ íëï³Ñ»óÝáõÙ ¿ñ ÅáÕáíñ¹ÇÝ, áñ ѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ áñ¨¿ Ù³ëݳíáñ ÃßݳٳÝù ãϳ, ù³ÝÇ áñ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ׳ϳﳷÇñÁ ϳåí³Í ¿ »ñÏñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ׳ϳﳷñÇ Ñ»ï:18 ÆëÏ §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÁ¦ ³ñ¹»Ý ³åñÇÉÇ 28-ÇÝ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §²Û¹ ³Ù¿Ý ³Ñé»ÉÇ »õ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ ¹¿åù»ñÝ áõ ÇñáÕáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ù»Í Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝÇÝ í»ñ³·ñáõ»ó³Ý »õ Ù»½Ç Ï’Ùݳñ Û³Ùá½íÇÉ áõ ÁݹáõÝÇÉ ³Ûë í»ñ³·ñáõÙÁ, Çμñ»õ ³Ù¿Ý¿ Ù»ÕÙ³óáõóÇãÁ »õ Ýå³ï³Ï³Ñ³ñÙ³ñÁ` ÙËÇóñáõû³Ý ³Ù»Ý³÷áùñ »½ñ ÙÁ ·ïÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ¦:19 гïϳÝß³Ï³Ý ¿, áñ ³Ûë Ññ³å³ñ³ÏÙ³Ý Ù»ç Áݹ·ÍíáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ, áñ ѳۻñÁ ã¿ÇÝ ó³ÝϳÝáõ٠ѳí³ï³É »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ºñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ѳۻñÇ íëï³ÑáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ Ëáëíáõ٠ݳ¨ §ÜÛáõ Úáñù óÛÙë¦-Ç 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 23-ÇÝ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí³Í ѳÕáñ¹³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç. §Ð³Û»ñÁ, ÁݹáõÝ»Éáí, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É ¨ Çñ³·áñÍ»É »Ý ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç Ñ»ï¨áñ¹Ý»ñÁ, ѻﳷ³ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ëå³ëáõÙ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇó¦:20 13 §üñáõ-ýñáõ¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ÃÇõ 5, ¿ç 1£ 14 §²ñ»õ»É»³Ý Ù³Ùáõɦ, ¼ÙÛáõéÝdz, 1909, ÃÇõ 23, ¿ç 53£ 15 §ÎáѳϦ, Î. äáÉÇë, 30.V.1909£ 16 §Î³é³÷ݳï¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 1910, ÃÇõ 9, ¿ç 132£ 17 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, Î.äáÉÇë, 23.IV-6.V.1909£ 18 §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦, 4-17.IV.1909£ 19 §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³Ùáõɦ, 1909, ÃÇõ 18, ¿ç 509-510£ 20 Kloian R.,The Armenian Genocide. News Accounts from the American Press 1915-1922, USA, 2004,

62


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

æ³ñ¹»ñÁ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç Ñ»ï¨áñ¹Ý»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»ÉÁ ѳí³Ý³Ï³Ý ¿ñ ÃíáõÙ ³ÛÝ å³ï׳éáí, áñ ÑÇÝ å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇó ß³ï»ñÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ¿É, ѳïϳå»ë ·³í³éÝ»ñáõÙ, å³Ñå³ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ¹ÇñùÝ áõ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ Ï³ñ× Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³Ýó` Ù³ÛÇë-ÑáõÝÇë ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ, åáÉë³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇÝ Ñ³ÛïÝÇ ¹³ñÓ³í ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ³Ûɨ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇã ¹»ñ³Ï³ï³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ γé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÇÝ å³ïÅ»Éáõ ÷á˳ñ»Ý áã ÙdzÛÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ áÕç Ù»ÕùÁ μ³ñ¹»ó ѳۻñÇ íñ³, ³Ûɨ ³ñ·»É»ó ³Ý·³Ù ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ ѳÕáñ¹»É Çñ»Ýó ѳñ³½³ïÝ»ñÇÝ` ÃáõÛɳïñ»Éáí ÑÇß³ï³Ï»É ÙdzÛÝ áÕç Ùݳó³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ£ î³ñûñÇÝ³Ï ã¿, áñ Ñ³Û Ïáïáñ»ÉÁ ã¿ñ ³ñ·»ÉíáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ëå³Ýí³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝ»ÉÝ ³ñ·»ÉíáõÙ ¿ñ:21 سÛÇëÇ 13–ÇÝ §Ä³Ù³Ý³ÏáõÙ¦ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³í ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë ȨáÝ ö³÷³½Û³ÝÇ Ñá¹í³ÍÁ, áñáõÙ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³Ý ÁÝóóùáõÙ ³Ýáõñ³Ý³ÉÇ ¿ñ ѳٳñáõÙ §ÆÃÇï³É¦ (§ºñ¨³Ï³ÛáõÃÛáõݦ) Éñ³·ñÇ ËÙμ³·ñ³å»ï ÆÑë³Ý üÇùñÇÇ ¹»ñÁ, áñÁ, ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ç³ñ¹»ñ Ññ³Ññ»Éáõ ·áñÍáõÙ ÆÃÃÇѳïÇÝ û·ÝáÕ ³Ù»Ý³Ù»Í áõÅÁ ÉÇÝ»Éáí, ïå³·ñáõÙ ¿ñ ѳۻñÇÝ ½ñå³ñïáÕ ëáõï Éáõñ»ñ:22 ÜÙ³Ý Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ Ýå³ï³Ï áõÝ»ÇÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ·ñ·é»Éáõ ѳۻñÇ ¹»Ù. §Þ»ñdzóå³ßïÝ»ñáõÝ ¹ñ¹ÇãÝ»ñáõ μáõÝ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÁ ÿ»õ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ¿ÇÝ, μ³Ûó ³ÝáÝù ÏñûÝ³Ï³Ý ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÇõÝÁ ·ñ·é»Éáí ÙdzÛÝ ÏñݳÛÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ³Û¹ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ³ëÝÇɦ:23 ²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ ûñ ûñÇ ·»ñ³ÏßéáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñéã³Ïí³Í ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ùÝݳ¹³ï³Ï³Ý ¨ ³Ýíëï³Ñ í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝù áõÝ»óáÕ ÝÛáõûñÁ£ ÆëÏ ³í»ÉÇ áõß §´áõóÝdz¦ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝáõÙ Ñá¹í³Í³·Çñ ². 䳽峽۳ÝÁ, Ëáë»Éáí ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá Ëáëï³óí³Í ѳٻñ³ßËáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³Û¹ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ áã ÙÇ ù³ÛÉ ã³ñ³Í »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ѳÙá½í³Í ¿, áñ §áñ¨Çó¿ ·³Õ³÷³ñ ÙÁ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»É ÑáÝ` áõñ ½³ÝÇϳ ÁÙμéÝ»Éáõ, Ù³ñë»Éáõ ϳñáÕáõÃÇõÝÝ áõ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ϳۣ ...³Ûɳå¿ë, DZÝãáí μ³ó³ïñ»É ³ÛÝ μáÉáñ ë³ñë³÷Ý»ñÝ áõ ³ï»ÉáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ` áñ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõû³Ý ³é³çÇÝ ûñ»ñáõÝ ÇëÏ ³Ýó³õ ѳ۳μÝ³Ï ·³õ³éÝ»ñáõ, ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõ íñ³Û¿Ý...£ ÆÝã忱ë Ù»ÏÝ»É, áõ DZÝãáí ³ñ¹³ñ³óÝ»É í»ñç³å¿ë ²ï³Ý³Û³Ï³Ý Ø»Í ºÕ»éÝÁ, áñ ³Ù¿Ý¿Ý Ëáßáñ í»ñùÁ μ³ó³õ гÛáõû³Ý ÏáÕÇÝ íñ³Û...¦:24 ²Ûë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ã¿ÇÝ ÁÝϳÉíáõÙ áñå»ë ³é³ÝÓÇÝ ¹»åù»ñ, ³ÛÉ` ß³ñáõÝ³Ï³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇ Ù³ë£ ²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ ³Ûë ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï ѳٻٳï»ÉÇë ¿É ³í»ÉÇ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ ¿ÇÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ ¨ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ μÝáñáßíáõÙ áñå»ë Ø»Í »Õ»éÝ, »ñμ»ÙÝ ³ÏݳñÏíáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ëå³ëíáÕ ³í»ÉÇ Ù»Í ³ñѳíÇñùÇ Ù³ëÇÝ:25 ²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ ï»Õ ·ï³Ý ݳ¨ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ·»Õ³ñí»ëï³Ï³Ý Ýϳñ³·ÇñÁ ÏñáÕ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñ£ §îËáõñ ËáÑ»ñ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ÏáñáõëïÇÝ ³éÃÇí¦ Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ, Ýϳñ³·ñ»Éáí §³ñÇõÝáï ѳÛñ»ÝÇùÝ áõ ïËñ³ï»ëÇÉ Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ¦, ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ѳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëïÇåí³Í ¿ §³åñÇÉ ³é³Ýó ³å³·³ÛÇ, ³åñÇÉ ³é³Ýó ÅåÇïÇ, ³åñÇÉ ó³õáï áõ ÷ßáï ëñïáí, ÙÇßï Ó»éùÁ ÏáõñÍùÇÝ... ÙÇßï ëáõñÁ ·ÁÉËáõÝ...¦:26 ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ë³ëïϳóñÇÝ Ý»ñ¹Çñ, p. 17. 21 ²ß×»³Ý Ð., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ »õ ¶áÝdzۿ Ûáõß»ñ, ÜÇõ ºáñù, 1950, ¿ç 22£ 22 §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦, 13-26.V.1909£ 23 §ê³ëáõݦ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ÃÇõ 3, ¿ç 1-2£ 24 §´áõóÝdz¦, ²ï³μ³½³ñ, 1910, ÃÇõ 7, ¿ç 1-2£ 25 §²í»ï³μ»ñ¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 1910, ÃÇõ 1, ¿ç 21£ 26 §²Ý¹ñ³ÝÇϦ, ê»μ³ëïdz, 16.V. 1909£

63


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙÝ»ñÁ£ §Ò³ÛÝ Ñ³Ûñ»ÝÛ³ó¦ ß³μ³Ã³Ã»ñÃÁ ѳÕáñ¹áõÙ ¿, áñ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ»Ç ¿ýùÛ³ñáõÙ¦ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí³Í §ÀݹѳÝáõñ ç³ñ¹¦ Ñá¹í³ÍÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ². øÛáõñù×Û³ÝÁ ¨ ûñÃÇ ³ñïáݳï»ñÁ »ÝóñÏí»É »Ý Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙÝ»ñÇ, ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ·áñÍ»ñÁ ѳÝÓÝí»É »Ý ä³ï»ñ³½Ù³Ï³Ý ³ïÛ³Ý, ÇëÏ §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃÇ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹³¹³ñ»óí»É ¿ (ïáõ·³ÝùÝ»ñÇ »ÝóñÏí»ó ¨ áñáß Å³Ù³Ý³Ïáí ¹³¹³ñ»óí»ó ݳ¨ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ»Ç ¿ýùÛ³ñÁ¦):27 ²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ í»ñëÏëí³Í Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙÝ»ñÇ ³éÇÃáí »á¹ÇÏÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §îå³·ñ³Ï³Ý ï»ëãáõû³Ý ÙáÉ»·Ýáï ѳñÏ»ñÇ ï³Ï í»ñëïÇÝ Çñ ϻճϳñÍ Ý»ñϳÛáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿ñ ¹ñ»É¦ ·ñ³ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÇ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ ¿ñ §ë³ÝÓ»É Ù³ëݳõáñ³å¿ë Çñ»ñ³å³ñë³õ å³Ûù³ñÁ¦ ¨ ѳïϳå»ë §Çñ»Ýó ϳå³ÝùÝ»ñÁ Ãûó÷³Í... ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇ μéݳϳÉáõû³Ý ¹¿Ù ùÇݳÛáõÛ½ Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñ¦ ·áñÍáÕ Éñ³·ñáÕÝ»ñÇÝ:28 æ³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»Ýó ëϽμÇó Î. äáÉëÇ áõ ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ ïå³·ñí»óÇÝ ³Õ»ï³ÉÇ ¹»åù»ñÁ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ Ýϳñ³·ñáÕ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ гë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇã ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â»á¹ÇÏÁ (Ö»½í»×Û³Ý), áñÁ §²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³ó ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃ۳ݦ ÏáÕÙÇó ³Õ»ïÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇÝ û·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ Ù»ÏÝ»É ¿ñ ÎÇÉÇÏdz, ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ß³ï ѳۻñÇ ïÝ»ñáõÙ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ³ñ·»Éí³Í ¿ñ ûñûñáõÙ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí³Í ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳñ¹³É, ù³ÝÇ áñ §³ÝáÝóÙáí Ëáñ³å¿ë ³½¹áõáÕÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ »Õ³Í, ½·³ÛÝÇÏ ³ÝÓ»ñ` ëáëÏáõÙ¿ óÝóáõÙ, óÝóáõÙ¿ ﳷݳå ͳͳÝáõï` ÑÇí³Ý¹ ÇÝÏ³Í ¿Çݦ:29 ²åñÇÉÇ 2-ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó ÷³Ëëï³Ï³Ý ÙÇ ÑáõÛÝ å³ïÙáõÙ ¿. §...гÛáó óÕÁ Ïñ³ÏÇ Ù¿ç ¿ñ. ïáõÝ ÙÁ ³Ûñ»óÇÝ, áñáõÝ Ù¿ç 250 Ñá·Ç É»óáõ³Í ¿ÇÝ, ݳ»õ áõñÇß ß³ï ÙÁ ïáõÝ»ñ, »õ ¹»é Ïñ³ÏÇ Ù¿ç ¿ñ... ׳ÙμáõÝ íñ³Û 500 ïáõÝÝáó Ð³Û ·ÇõÕ ÙÁ ³Ûñ³ó³õ»ñ Áñ³Í ¿ÇÝ. سñ¹ ã¿ñ Ùݳó³Í... æ³ñ¹Ý ëÏë³õ »ñ»Ï ÇñÇÏáõÝ Å³Ù 3ÇÝ, »õ ¹»é Éñ³ó³Í ã¿ñ ³Ûë ³é³õûï£ ¼ûñù»ñÝ û·Ý»óÇÝ ³Ù¿Ý Ï»ñåáí. Æñ»Ýó Ññ³ó³ÝÝ»ñáí ÿ° Ù³ñ¹ ½³ñÏÇÝ »õ ÿ° ˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñáõ ¹áõéÝ»ñÁ Ïáïñ»Éáí û·Ý»óÇÝ, »õ Çñ»Ýù ³É Éóáõ»ó³Ý ³õ³ñáí£ ¾ßñ³ýÝ ¨ áõɻٳÝ30 ÏñݳÛÇÝ ³é³çùÝ ³éÝ»É, μ³Ûó Ãáõñù»ñÁ Ï’Áë¿ÇÝ Ã¿ í»ñ¿Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý ϳñ áñ ãÙÇç³Ùï»Ý£ ... ²ëïáõ³Í áÕáñÙÇ ³Ûë μ³½Ù³ã³ñã³ñ ²½·Çݦ:31 æ³ñ¹»ñÇ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë гÏáμ »ñ½Û³ÝÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ Î. äáÉëÇ ÙÇ ûñ³Ã»ñÃÇ ó³Ýϳó»É ¿ ѻ鳷Çñ áõÕ³ñÏ»É §ë³ñ³÷»ÉÇ ç³ñ¹, óɳÝ, Ññ¹»Ñ, ëáëϳÉÇ Ãßáõ³éáõÃÇõÝ, å³ß³ñÙ³Ý íÇ׳Ϧ μáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ñ»é³·ñ³ï³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÁ ã¿ÇÝ ÁݹáõÝ»É` ³ë»Éáí, áñ Ïáõë³Ï³ÉÝ ³ñ·»É»É ¿ ç³ñ¹Ç Ù³ëÇÝ Ñ»é³·Çñ áõÕ³ñÏ»É, ¨ Çñ»Ýó ïñí³Í Ññ³Ù³ÝÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` ËÙμ³·ñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ÝÙ³Ý Ñ»é³·ñ»ñÁ §áÕç ³éáÕç »Ýù¦ Ëáëù»ñáí:32 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ¨ Ñ»ïá Î. äáÉëÇ ¨ ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛÇ Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí»óÇÝ Ý³¨ ûï³ñ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¨ ³Û¹ ûñ»ñÇÝ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í ÝÛáõûñ£ §²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÝ ³Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ÙÇëÇáݳñÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ³Ù»Ù³ï¦ Ëáñ³·ñáí §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝÁ¦ ïå³·ñ»ó ѻ鳷ñ»ñÇ ß³ñù£ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ³Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñÝ»ñÇ Õ»Ï³í³ñ àõÇÉÛ³Ù â»Ùμ»ñëÁ Ù³ÛÇëÇ 1-ÇÝ Ø»ñëÇÝÇó ÈáݹáÝ áõÕ³ñÏ³Í Ñ»é³·ñÇ Ù»ç ·ñáõÙ ¿. §... æ³ñ¹Á ϳï³Õ³μ³ñ í»ñëÏë³õ ÏÇñ³ÏÇ ûñÁ£ ²åñÇÉ 12(25)ÇÝ, ½ûñù»ñÝ áõ å³ßÁåá½áõ·Ý»ñÁ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Ññ³ó³Ý³Ó·áõÃÇõÝ ÙÁ ëÏë³Ý гÛáó í³ñųñ³ÝÇ íñ³Û, áõñ Çμñ »ñÏáõ ѳ½³ñ ³ÝÓÇÝù ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ£ ÆëÏáÛÝ Ññ¹»Ñ»ó³õ ß¿ÝùÁ, »õ 27 î»°ë §Ò³ÛÝ Ñ³Ûñ»Ý»³ó¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 10-23.IV.1909£ 28 §²Ù»ÝáõÝ ï³ñ»óáÛóÁ¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 1916-1920 ÃÃ., ¿ç 270£ 29 ¿á¹ÇÏ ²., ²ÙÇë ÙÁ Ç ÎÇÉÇÏdz, Î. äáÉÇë, 1910, ¿ç 24£ 30 Âáõñù »ñ¨»ÉÇÝ»ñ ¨ Ñá·¨áñ ¹³ëÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñ (eşraf, ulema)£ 31 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, Î.äáÉÇë, 8.IV-21.V.1909£ î»°ë ݳ¨ §Ò³ÛÝ Ñ³Ûñ»Ý»³ó¦, 10-23.IV.1909£ 32 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 58£

64


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

ß¿Ýù¿Ý ÷³ËãáÕ ³å³ëï³Ý»³ÉÝ»ñÁ ¹áõñë »ñ»õ³ÉáõÝ å¿ë Ññ³ó³ÝÇ μéÝáõ»ó³Ý£ Þ³ï»ñÝ ³É Ïáñ³Ý μáó»ñáõ Ù¿ç£ ²õ»ñÇã Ññ¹»ÑÝ ³Ý˳÷³Ý ß³ñáõݳϻó³õ ÙÇÝã»õ ¶ß. ³é³õûï, ÑñáÛ ×³ñ³Ï ÁÉɳÉáí ãáñë »Ï»Õ»óÇù »õ ³ÝáÝó ¹åñáóÝ»ñÁ, »õ ѳñÇõñ³õáñ ïáõÝ»ñ...¦:33 ´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ ø»ãÛ³ÝÁ Ññ³å³ñ³Ï»ó î³ñëáÝÇ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ùáÉ»çÇ Ý³Ë³·³Ñ ÂáÙ³ë øñÇëïÇÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñÁ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ³é³çÇÝ ûñÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¿ñ »Õ»É ¨, ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ßñç»Éáí Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ, ϳ½Ù»É μ³½áõÙ íÇ׳ϳ·ñ»ñ, óáõó³ÏÝ»ñ áõ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñ»ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ øñÇëïÇÝ ¹³ï³å³ñïáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáõë³Ï³É 樳¹ μ»ÛÇÝ` ѳۻñÇÝ ç³ñ¹»Éáõ å³ïñ³ëïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ãϳÝË»Éáõ, ϳï³ñí³ÍÇÝ áñ¨¿ ³ñ·»Éù ã¹Ý»Éáõ, ³ÛÉ Áݹѳϳé³ÏÁ` ·ñ·éÇã ѻ鳷ñ»ñáí ßñç³Ï³ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ë ѳۻñÇ ¹»Ù ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ:34 ²Ý·ÉdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáë³ï³Ý ³é³çÇÝ Ã³ñ·Ù³ÝÇã ä. üÇóÙáñÇëÁ, ÉÇÝ»Éáí ѳ۳ë»ñ ¨ Ù³ñ¹³ë»ñ ³ÝÓݳíáñáõÃÛáõÝ, Ëáñ³å»ë ³½¹í³Í ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ³ñÛáõÝ³Ñ»Õ ¹»åù»ñÇó, ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ³é³çÇÝ ûñ»ñÇÝ Ñ³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÙ ¿. §²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ËéáíáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ³ñ¹¿Ý ݳ˳å¿ë å³ïñ³ëïáõ³Í Íñ³·ñÇ ÙÁ Ñ»ï»õ³ÝùÝ»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ »õ ³ÝáÝù μݳõ áñ»õ¿ ϳå ãáõÝÇÝ é»³ùëÇáÝ»é³Ï³Ý ³ÛÝ ß³ñÅáõÙÇÝ áñ å³Ûûó³õ ³Ýó»³É ß³μ³Ãáõ Ù¿ç:35 ²Ûë ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ûñûñÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ ëÏë»óÇÝ ïå³·ñí»É ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ÁÝóóùÁ Ýϳñ³·ñáÕ ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ£ §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉǦ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 28-Ç Ñ³Ù³ñáõÙ Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ ¨ Æëϻݹ»ñáõÝáõÙ (²É»ùë³Ý¹ñ»ï) ѳí³ï³ñÙ³·ñí³Í ûï³ñ³Ñå³ï³Ï ÷áËÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÁ36 Ññ³å³ñ³Ï»óÇÝ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ å³ñáõݳÏáÕ »ñÏáõ ݳٳÏ. §ä³ïÙáõÃÇõÝÁ ³Ûë ¹¿åù»ñÁ åÇïÇ ³ñӳݳ·ñ¿ ³Ù»Ý³ë»õ ·áÛÝ»ñáí... æ³ñ¹, óɳÝ, Ññ¹»Ñ ¨ μéݳμ³ñáõÙ ³é³Ýó ËÕ׳ѳñáõû³Ý£ سñ¹ÏáõÃÇõÝÁ Ï’³Ñ³μ»ÏÇ ³Ûë ï»ë³ñ³ÝÝ»ñ¿Ý£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ßñç³Ï³Ý»ñÁ (г×ÁÝ, î»áñà ºáÉ ¨Ý) ÇÝãå¿ë ݳ¨ ³ñëáõë, ½áÑ»ñáí É»óáõ³Í ¿, Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ, ϳݳÛù »õ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñ »õ ³ëáÝó Ù»é»É³Ï³Ý ÉéáõÃÇõÝÁ óáÛó Ïáõï³Û ³Õ¿ïÇÝ Ù»ÍáõÃÇõÝÁ¦,- ·ñáõÙ ¿ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ ÷áËÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ (13(26).IV.1909) ¨ í»ñçáõÙ ³í»É³óÝáõÙ, áñ ó³ÝϳÉÇ ¿` ù³Õ³ù³ÏÇñà ºíñáå³Ý ѳßíÇ ³éÝÇ XX ¹³ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ³Ûë ³ÝûñÇÝ³Ï ¹»åù»ñÁ ¨ Áëï ³Û¹Ù ·áñÍÇ:37 ºñÏñáñ¹ ݳٳÏáõÙ (12(25).IV.1909) ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñ»ïÇ ÷áËÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ³ñÓ³·³ÝùÁ ßñç³Ï³ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ¨ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ, áñ ¸Ûáñà ÚáÉÇ 5000 Ñ³Û μݳÏÇã áõÝ»óáÕ ·ÛáõÕ»ñÁ å³ß³ñí³Í »Ý ½ÇÝí³Í 15000 ùáõñ¹ É»éݳϳÝÝ»ñáí ¨ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³ñÛáõñ ã»ñù»½Ý»ñáí, ´³Û³ëÇ μ³ÝïÇ μ³Ýï³ñÏÛ³ÉÝ»ñÁ ³½³ï »Ý ³ñÓ³Ïí»É ¨ ç³ñ¹áõÙ, óɳÝáõÙ áõ Ññ¹»ÑáõÙ »Ý ï»ÕÇ ·ÛáõÕ»ñÝ áõ ³·³ñ³ÏÝ»ñÁ, ݳ¨ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿, áñ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ÙÇ Ý³í` 550 Ñá·³Ýáó ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñùáí, áõÕÕí»É ¿ ¹»åÇ ¸Ûáñà ÚáÉ (âáù سñ½å³Ý) ³Ý¹áññáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ï»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ¨ ÑáõÛë ¿ ѳÛïÝáõÙ, áñ Ýñ³Ýù ã»Ý Ùdzݳ ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³Û ³½·Á Ù»ÏÁݹÙÇßï áãÝã³óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ:38 æ³ñ¹Ç μáõÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ` Ýáñ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÁ å»ïù ¿ Ç Ñ³Ûï ·³ñ ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ μ³ÝÇó Ñ»ïá, »ñμ Ýñ³Ýù, ×Çßï ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý á·áí, Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ÙμáÕç Ù»ÕùÁ ëÏë»óÇÝ μ³ñ¹»É ѳۻñÇ íñ³` Ýñ³Ýó Ù»Õ³¹ñ»Éáí ½ÇÝí³Í ÏáÙÇï» ëï»ÕÍ»Éáõ, ³é³ÝÓÇÝ §Ã³·³íáñáõÃ۳ݦ »ñ³½³ÝùÝ»ñ ÷³Û÷³Û»Éáõ ¨ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ÂáõñùÇ³Ý ³Ý¹³33 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 25.IV-8.V.1909£ 34 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, 14-27.VII.1909£ 35 §²ñ»õ»Éù¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 9.IV.1909£ 36 ò³íáù, Ù»½ ãÇ Ñ³çáÕí»É å³ñ½»É Ýñ³Ýó ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ áñ »ñÏñÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã ÉÇÝ»ÉÁ£ 37 §²ñ»õ»É»³Ý Ù³Ùáõɦ, 1909, ÃÇõ 18, ¿ç 519-521£ 38 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 521-522£

65


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

ٳѳï»Éáõ ¹³í³×³Ý³Ï³Ý Ó·ïáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ä³ï»ñ³½Ù³Ï³Ý ³ïÛ³ÝÇ` ´. ¸é³ÝÝ áõÕÕí³Í ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõ٠ѳۻñÁ Ù»Õ³¹ñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ áñå»ë ³ÝϳËáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙݳÏÇóÝ»ñ. ²¹³Ý³Ý, Áëï ³Û¹ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ, ѳۻñÝ ÁÝïñ»É ¿ÇÝ áñå»ë ËéáíáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ³é³í»É ѳñÙ³ñ í³Ûñ ¨ Ç ëϽμ³Ý» ³Ûëï»Õ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ Ó»éݳñÏ»É ¨ ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëïí»É:39 ØÇçáóÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõÙ ÝßíáõÙ ¿ñ ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñμ»ñ ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇó Ù»Í Ãíáí Ñ³Û Ùß³ÏÝ»ñÇ ²¹³Ý³ ·³ÉÁ, áñÁ ·³ñÝ³Ý ¨ ³Ùé³Ý ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ ëáíáñ³Ï³Ý »ñ¨áõÛà ¿ñ£ §²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç Ï’³Ù÷á÷áõ¿ñ ³Ù»Ý³ëïáõ³ñ ѳÛáõÃÇõÝÁ Çñ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý áõ ÑáÕ³·áñÍ³Ï³Ý μ³ñ·³õ³× Ï»³Ýùáí¦, áõëïÇ ³Ûë ³Ý·³Ù ·É˳íáñ ѳñí³ÍÁ ѳëóí»ó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ, §ù³ÝÇ áñ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇÝ ïñáõ»ÉÇù ѳñõ³ÍÁ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ëñïÇÝ ïñáõ³Í ٳѳóáõ ѳñáõ³ÍÁ åÇïÇ ÁÉɳñ¦:40 ÐáõÝÇëÇ 6-ÇÝ í»ñÁ Ýßí³Í ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ μáÉáñ Ï»ï»ñÇÝ Ñ³Ï³¹³ñÓáÕ ÷³ëï³ñÏÝ»ñ ¿ μ»ñáõÙ Çñ í»ñÉáõÍ³Ï³Ý Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ ´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ ø»ãÛ³ÝÁ:41 §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃáõÙ ïå³·ñí³Í §ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ¦ Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ êáõñ»Ý ä³ñè۳ÝÁ ¨ë, Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáí ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ å³ïÏ»ñÁ, ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ μéÝ³Í ¹ÇñùÇÝ. §²ëáÝù Ï’³ñ¹³ñ³óÝ»Ý Ï³ï³ñáõ³Í áõ ß³ñáõݳÏáõáÕ ëáëϳíÇÃ˳ñ Ññ»ßáõÃÇõÝÁ£ ...»õ ÏÁ ѳٳñÓ³ÏÇÝ ³ñÇõÝÇ Ù»ç ÉáÕ³óáÕ ÎÇÉÇÏ»óÇÝ ³Ùμ³ëï³Ý»É Çμñ»õ ³åëï³Ùμ áõ ³Ýç³ï³Ï³Ý Ó·ïáõÙÝ»ñáõ ·áñÍÇùÝ áõ ³ñï³Û³ÛïÇãÁ£ ...ØÇÝã»õ »±ñμ Ù»ñ ³ñÇõÝÝ áõ ³ñóáõÝùÁ åÇïÇ ÑáëÇ §Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³·³õáñáõû³Ý¦ ÙÁ óÝáñ³Ï³Ý, ½³é³Ýó³Ï³Ý í³ñϳÍÇÝ ³ÝáõÝáí...¦:42 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇë-ÑáõÝÇë ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉǦ ¿ç»ñáõÙ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ¿ÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ùÝݳ¹³ïáÕ Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ μáõÝ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ëáëïáí³Ý»Éáõ ÷á˳ñ»Ý, Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ÁÝïñ»É ¿ÇÝ Ù»ÕùÁ ѳۻñÇ íñ³ μ³ñ¹»Éáõ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ:43 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Ñ»ïá áñå»ë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñ Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ѳۻñ μ³Ýï³ñÏí»óÇÝ£ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ»Ç ¿ýùÛ³ñ¦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃÇ Ù³ÛÇëÇ 4-Ç Ñ³Ù³ñáõÙ ï»Õ»Ï³ÝáõÙ »Ýù, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ³ñ¹»Ý 300-Çó ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³Û»ñ μ³Ýï³ñÏí³Í »Ý, ÇëÏ §Ø»ñëÇÝÇ Ù¿ç μ³Ýï³ñÏ»³É áõÝÇÝù Øáëï»Õ»³ÝÁ, áñáõÝ Û³Ýó³ÝùÝ ¿ ïáõÝ¿Ý È»õáÝ Ã³·³õáñÇÝ ëáõñÇÝ å³ïÏ»ñÁ »õ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÝ»ñ »ÉÝ»ÉÁ, ¾õ»ñ»ÏóÇ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ ÙÁ, áñáõÝ ùáí¿Ý Ýٳݳå¿ë å³ïÏ»ñÝ»ñ »õ ·ñù»ñ »É³Í »Ý...¦:44 ÜÙ³Ý ³ÝÑÇÙÝ Ù»Õ³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá §²ñ¨»ÉÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÁ¦, §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝÁ¦, §Ä³Ù³Ý³ÏÁ¦, §Ø³Ý½áõÙ»Ç ¿ýùÛ³ñÁ¦, §Ò³ÛÝ Ñ³Ûñ»ÝÛ³óÁ¦ ¨ ³ÛÉ Ã»ñûñ Ññ³å³ñ³Ï»óÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇÝ` »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ, Ù»ñϳóÝáÕ ÝÛáõûñ£ àõß³·ñ³í »Ý Ýßí³Í ûñûñÇ ³ÛÝ ÝÛáõûñÁ, áñáÝù í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ »Ý гë³Ýμ»Ï ·ÛáõÕÇ, ¸Ûáñà ÚáÉÇ, г×ÁÝÇ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»ñáë³Ï³Ý ÏéÇíÝ»ñÇÝ£ γ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ßÝáñÑÇí ѳçáÕí»ó ϳë»óÝ»É ËáõųÝÇ áõ ½áñùÇ Ñ³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÁ ¨ ÷ñÏí»É ç³ñ¹Çó£ §Ä³Ù³Ý³ÏǦ Ù³ÛÇëÇ 12-Ç Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿, áñ û¨ ¸Ûáñà ÚáÉÇ »ñ»ù ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇ 15000 ѳۻñ, »ñϳñ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï å³ß³ñí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáí 30000 Ãáõñù»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, Ç í»ñçá ϳñáÕ³ó»É »Ý ÷ñÏí»É, ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ¿, ѳۻñÇ ³å³·³Ý

39 î»°ë ´Çõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝ, 3-16. VII. 1909£ 40 Øáõß»Õ »åÇëÏáåáë ê»ñáíμ»³Ý, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 11£ 41 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 6-19. VII. 1909£ 42 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, 27. IV-10. V. 1909£ î»°ë ݳ¨ ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳõÇñùÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 39£ 43 î»°ë §²ñ»õ»É»³Ý Ù³Ùáõɦ, 1909, ÃÇõ 24, ¿ç 553£ 44 §Ø³Ý½áõÙ¿Ç ¿ýù»³ñ¦, 4.V. 1909£

66


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

Ùáõà ¿, ù³ÝÇ áñ ï»ÕÇ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ §Ñ³Û³Ï»ñÝ»ñ¦ »Ý:45 γñ»ÉÇ ¿ »½ñ³Ï³óÝ»É, áñ ãÝ³Û³Í ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ÁÝϳÉíáõÙ ¿ñ áñå»ë Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ÙÇ³Ï áõÕÇ, ³ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ѻﳷ³ ׳ϳﳷÇñÝ ³Ýáñáß ¿ñ ÃíáõÙ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÷ñÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ ßñç³Ý³éíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ·³ÕûÉáõ, ¹³í³Ý³÷áË ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ¨ ûï³ñ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝÇó û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ ³ÏÝϳɻÉáõ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÁ:46 ¸³ßݳÏóáõÃÛ³Ý å³ßïáݳûñà §¸ñáß³ÏÁ¦ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇÝ Ïáã ¿ñ ³ÝáõÙ ·áñͳ¹ñ»É μáÉáñ áõÅ»ñÁ ³ñï³·³ÕÃÇ íï³Ý·³íáñ ·áñÍÁÝóóÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³Ý·³Ù ³ÛÝ ³Ûëù³Ý Ù»Í ã³÷»ñÇ ã¿ñ ѳëÝáõÙ:47 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ å³ïñ³ëï³Í Çñ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõ٠гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ ó³íáí »½ñ³Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿, áñ ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõÝ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÁ Ù³ëݳÏó»É »Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éݳ·áñÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³ÝÝ áõ Çñ³·áñÍÙ³ÝÁ ¨ ÝßáõÙ, áñ ³Ûë ÇñáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳëï³ïí³Í ¿ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ï³ñμ»ñ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÇ, ³Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñÝ»ñÇ ¨ ³ÛÉ ³ÝÓ³Ýó ÏáÕÙÇó, ÇëÏ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ³ñÓ³·³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ßÝáñÑÇí ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ϳñÍÇùÁ ¨ë ·ñ»Ã» ѳÙá½í³Í ¿, áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ Çñ³·áñÍ»É »Ý »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ:48 Øáõß»Õ »åÇëÏáåáëÁ §Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÙÕÓ³í³ÝçÁ¦ ·ñùáõÙ Çñ³í³óÇáñ»Ý ÷³ëïáõÙ ¿. §ÆÃÃÇÑ³ï ³ñÇõÝÇ ×³ÙμáõÝ íñ³Û Çñ ѳݹÇë³õáñ ÙáõïùÁ Áñ³Í ¿ñ ²ï³Ý³Ûáí£ ¸Åáõ³ñÃÇõÝÁ ÏÁ ϳ۳ݳñ ëϽμݳõáñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³é³çÇÝ å³ï³ë˳ݳïõáõÃ»Ý¿Ý Ñ³çáÕ Ëáõë³÷áõÙÇÝ Ù¿ç£ ºñÏáõùÇÝ Ù¿ç ³É Û³çáÕ³Í ¿ñ¦:49 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó ³ÙÇëÝ»ñ ³Ýó Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ ɳñí³Í ÙݳÉ, ¨ û¹áõ٠ϳËí³Í ¿ñ ç³ñ¹Ç ëå³éݳÉÇùÁ£ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ»-Ç ¿ýùÛ³ñ¦-Ç Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ Áݹ·ÍíáõÙ ¿ñ ³Ûë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÏñÏÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³í³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ѳÕáñ¹íáõÙ, áñ í³ËÇ ÙÃÝáÉáñïÝ ³ñ¹»Ý ³éϳ ¿ γñÇÝáõÙ, ØáõßáõÙ ¨ îÇ·ñ³Ý³Ï»ñïáõÙ£ гßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáí ³ÛÝ, áñ íï³Ý·Á ¹»é ãÇ ³Ýó»É, ³ã³ÉñçáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ³Ùáõñ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹ÇïíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ áñå»ë Ýáñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ÙÇ³Ï Ñáõë³ÉÇ ÙÇçáó:50 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ³é³çÇÝ ³ñÓ³·³ÝùÝ»ñáõ٠ûå»ï ·»ñÇßËáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý é»ÅÇÙÇ Ñ»ï¨áñ¹Ý»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ñ³çáñ¹áÕ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇÝ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ù»Í Ù³ëÁ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ μ»ñ»ó ³ÛÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý ѳÙá½Ù³ÝÁ, áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ¨ Ññ³Ññí³Í »Ý »Õ»É »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Ïáõë³Ïó³Ï³Ý áõ ϳé³í³ñ³Ï³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝÝ»ñÇó, ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó Çñ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ý Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ μ»ñ»É ݳ¨ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñùÁ£ г׳Ë, û¨ ùáÕ³ñÏí³Í, Ù³ïݳÝßíáõÙ ¿ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ß³ñáõݳϻÉÇ ÉÇÝ»ÉÁ ϳ٠ѳۻñÇ ½·áÝáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åùáõÙ Ýáñ, ³í»ÉÇ Ïáñͳݳñ³ñ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ³í³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Üßí³Í ųٳݳϳѳïí³ÍáõÙ Ù³ÙáõÉÁ ѳϳ¹³ñÓ»ó ѳïϳå»ë »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý` ѳۻñÇÝ áñå»ë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù»Õ³íáñ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáõ ³ÝÑÇÙÝ ÷áñÓ»ñÇÝ£ гñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý μáÉáñ ³½·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ áõÕÕí³Í` ѳٻñ³ß45 §Ä³Ù³Ý³Ï¦, Î. äáÉÇë, 12-25 Ù³ÛÇëÇ, ÃÇõ 174, 1909, ¿ç 2£ 46 î»°ë §ÎáѳϦ, 30.V.1909£ 47 î»°ë §²½¹³Ï¦, 12/25. IX. 1909£ 48 ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ, î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ Ú³Ïáμ ä³åÇÏ»³ÝÇ ûëٳݻ³Ý »ñ»ë÷áË³Ý ¾ïÇñÝ¿Ç, Î. äáÉÇë, 1919, ¿ç 42£ 49 Øáõß»Õ ³ñù»åÇëÏáåáë, гÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÙÕÓ³õ³ÝçÁ, ´áëïáÝ, 1916, ¿ç 41£ 50 §Ø³Ý½áõÙ¿Ç ¿ýù»³ñ¦, 4. IV. 1909£

67


î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóËãÛ³Ý

ËáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáã»ñ å³ñáõݳÏáÕ Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñ, áñáÝù, ûñ¨ë, Ýå³ï³Ï áõÝ»ÇÝ Ýå³ëï»Éáõ Ãáõñù»ñÇ ¨ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ë³Õ³Õ ·áÛ³ÏóáõÃ۳ݣ Àݹ áñáõÙ, ÝÙ³Ý Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñáõÙ Áݹ·ÍíáõÙ ¿ñ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Ù»ñ³ßËáõÃÛ³Ý ëï»ÕÍÙ³Ý áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³Ý·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ³Ûɨ Ýáñ ç³ñ¹»ñ Ññ³Ññ»Éáõ Ýñ³Ýó ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²ÛëåÇëáí, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇ ¨ ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛÇ Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ` ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Éáõë³μ³ÝáÕ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ ϳñáÕ³ó³Ý ÉáõÛë ë÷é»É 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ íñ³, ÇëÏ áñáß ¹»åù»ñáõÙ` Ù³ïݳÝß»É Ý³¨ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇÝ` »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ£

Tatevik Ghaltakhchyan The First Reflections of the 1909 Adana Massacres in the Western Armenian Press Summary The Armenian massacres of April 1909 organized in Adana and surrounding regions were covered intensivly in the Western Armenian press. The media outlets show that the information on the massacres in Adana and neighboring regions, organized by the Hamidian regime, were dominant in the Western Armenian press. Later most of the publications in the Western Armenian press tried to convince the society that the massacres were organized and provoked by the leaders of Young Turks and the government itself. In addition, Turkish regular army directly participated in the massacres of these period. In response to the baseless attempts of Young Turks’ government to represent the Armenians as guilty in the massacres the Armenian press published many opposing articles. The Young Turks ignoring their promises given during the revolution limited the freedom of speech by resuming the persecution of the Western Armenian printed media.

68


вÚÎ²Î²Ü ²ð¸Æ²Î²Ü²òàôØÀ àðäºê вÚàò òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü ä²îÖ²è (²¸²Ü²ÚÆ úðÆܲÎàì) êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý XX ¹³ñÇ ëϽμÇÝ å³ñ½áñáß áõñí³·ÍíáõÙ ¿ñ ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ñ»ï³Ùݳó ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ¨ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óáÕ, Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ó·ïáÕ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýù ѳçáÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ûáõñ³óÝáÕ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ稣 ²Ûë ˽áõÙÝ Çñ Ñ»ï μ»ñ»ó ³ÝѳݹáõñÅáճϳÝáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ, ÇÝãÁ ¹³ñÓ³í ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ 1909 Ã. ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ѳۻñÇ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ£ ¶³Õ³÷³ñ³Ï³Ý ٳϳñ¹³Ïáí ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³é³í³ñÇãÝ»ñÁ ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ¨ áõŻճóÙ³Ý Ù»ç ï»ëÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý íï³Ý·, ÁݹÑáõå ë»÷³Ï³Ý ·áÛáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, áõëïÇ ³ß˳ïáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ»Ýó ëϽμÇó ˻չ»É ÇÝùÝáõñáõÛÝáõÃÛ³Ý ó³Ýϳó³Í ¹ñë¨áñáõÙ` ÉÇÝ»ñ ¹³ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý, û ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý£ ²ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ËݹÇñÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ XX ¹³ñÇ ëϽμÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ûɳ¹³í³Ý, áã ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ï»ÕÇ ¿ÇÝ áõÝ»ÝáõÙ ·áñÍÁÝóóÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ¹áõñë ¿ÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ÁݹѳÝáõñ ïñ³Ù³μ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ Ðñ»³Ý»ñÁ, ÑáõÛÝ»ñÁ ¨ ѳۻñÁ ³ñ³·áñ»Ý Ùá¹»éÝǽ³óíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ,1 ÇÝãÁ Ýñ³Ýó ëáódzÉ-ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý ³í»ÉÇ μ³ñÓñ ³ëïÇ׳ÝÇ íñ³ ¿ñ ¹ÝáõÙ ï»ÕÇ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù»Ù³ï£ ä³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÂáõñùdzÛÇ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõ٠ϳåáõÙ ¿ ѳÝñ³å»ï³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÇ ¨ Øáõëóý³ ø»Ù³ÉÇ μ³ñ»÷áËáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï, ÇÝãÁ ³Ý»ñÏμ³Ûáñ»Ý ×Çßï ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ ѳٳñ»É, ù³ÝÇ áñ XX ¹³ñÇ ëϽμÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ ß³ï ÃáõÛÉ ¿ÇÝ£ ²é³ÝÓÇÝ ¹ñë¨áñáõÙÝ»ñ ϳ٠³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ÷áñÓ»ñ û¨ ³ñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹ñ³Ýù ÁݹѳÝáõñ ѳßíáí ³å³ñ¹ÛáõÝ ÷áñÓ»ñ ¿ÇÝ ¨ áã û ïñ³Ù³μ³Ý³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýù£ ¸ñ³Ýó ÃíÇÝ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ ¿ ¹³ë»É, ûñÇݳÏ` 1858 Ã. §ÐáÕ³ÛÇÝ Ïá¹»ùëǦ ÁݹáõÝáõÙÁ, áñÝ ÁݹɳÛÝ»ó Ù³ëݳíáñ ë»÷³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³Ý¹Çë³óáÕ ÑáÕ³ÏïáñÝ»ñÇ ßñç³Ý³ÏÁ, §²Ýß³ñÅ ·áõÛùÇ ¨ ÑáÕÇ Å³é³Ý·Ù³Ý Çñ³íáõÝùÇ Ù³ëÇݦ 1859 Ã. ûñ»ÝùÁ, §²Ýß³ñÅ ·áõÛùÇ í³×³éùÇ Ï³ñ·Ç Ù³ëÇݦ 1871 Ã. ûñ»ÝùÁ, 1839 Ã. ¨ 1856 Ã. ³ݽÇÙ³ÃÇ μ³ñ»÷áËáõÙÝ»ñÁ áõ 1876 Ã. ØǹѳïÛ³Ý ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ Ñéã³ÏáõÙ ¿ñ áñáß μáõñÅáõ³Ï³Ý ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ` ³ÝÓÇ, ËÕ×Ç, ë»÷³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ÝáõÛÝå»ë Ùݳó ÃÕÃÇ íñ³ ¨ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ãÏáãí»ó£ ¸³ñ³ëϽμÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹»é¨ë Ñ»ï³Ùݳó, ³ñï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ëÇ³Ï³Ý Ó¨Ç íñ³ ÑÇÙÝí³Í, ³í³ï³ïÇñ³Ï³Ý ϳñ·»ñáí ³åñáÕ, é³½Ù³-μÛáõñáÏñ³ï³Ï³Ý ¨ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý í»ñݳ˳íÇ ³½¹»óáõÃÛ³Ùμ ½³ñ·³óáÕ å»ïáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ£ ´ÝáõÛÃáí ÉÇÝ»Éáí é³½Ù³Ï³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝ, áñÇ μ³ñÇùÝ»ñÁ Ó»éù ¿ÇÝ μ»ñíáõÙ Ù»Í Ù³ë³Ùμ é³½Ù³í³ñÇ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ»õ »Ýóϳ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ Ñ³ñϳѳÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇçáóáí, ³ÛÝ ß³Ñ³·ñ·éí³Í ã¿ñ ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³÷áËÙ³Ý Ï³Ù ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ù»ç£ ²Ûë 1 Àëï سùë ì»μ»ñÇ` ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý Ùá¹»éÝǽ³óáõÙÁ ݳ˳ï»ëáõÙ ¿ ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý ½·³ÉÇ ÇÝï»ÝëÇí³óáõÙ ¨ Ù³ëßï³μ³ÛÇÝ ÇݹáõëïñdzÉǽ³ódz, ïñ³Ýëåáñï³ÛÇÝ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇ, ϳåÇ ¨ ÏáÙáõÝÇϳódzݻñÇ ½³ñ·³óáõÙ, ßáõÏ³Û³Ï³Ý ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý ëï»ÕÍáõÙ, ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¨ áõñμ³Ýǽ³ódzÛÇ ³×£ Øß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ùá¹»éÝǽ³óÇ³Ý »Ýó¹ñáõÙ ¿ ³ÛÉ ï»ë³ÏÇ Ù³ñ¹áõ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ, áñÁ Ýå³ï³Ï³áõÕÕí³Í ÏÉÇÝÇ áã û ³í³Ý¹³Ï³Ý ³ñÅ»ùÝ»ñÇ, ³ÛÉ é³óÇáݳÉǽÙÇ íñ³... æ³Ý³ëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ³ß˳ï³ëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹³éÝáõÙ »Ý Ýáñ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ·É˳íáñ ³ñÅ»ùÝ»ñÁ ( î»°ë Вебер М. Избранные произведения, М., 1990):

69


êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý

ÇñáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ ٻͳå»ë ³½¹áõÙ ¿ñ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ѳñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý íñ³£ γåÇï³ÉÇëï³Ï³Ý ѳñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ϳåÇï³ÉÁ ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¿ÇÝ Ùáõïù ·áñÍáõÙ »ñÏÇñ£ âϳñ ë»÷³Ï³Ý³ïÇñáç áõÝ»óí³ÍùÇ ¨ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ³Ýíï³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý »ñ³ßËÇù£ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ý»ñùÇÝ ¿áõÃÛ³Ý å³ï׳éáí ã¿ñ ÁݹáõÝáõÙ å»ï³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃÇ Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ Àݹ áñáõÙ` ³Ûë ѳñóáõÙ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ñ³ë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Í Ù³ëÇ Ùáï ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ áñáß³ÏÇ ÷áËѳٳӳÛÝáõÃÛáõÝ£ âϳñ ³ÛÝ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ϳÙùÁ, áñÁ ½³ñÏ Ïï³ñ í»ñ¨Çó Ý»ñù¨ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ³Û¹ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ñëï³Ï ³½¹³ÏÝ»ñ ãϳÛÇÝ Ñ»Ýó ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñëáõÙ:2 ²Ûëå»ë, Ãáõñù å³ïÙ³μ³Ý гÉÛáõù æÇÉáíÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ó³Íñ ï»Ùå»ñÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ÇÝ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ·»ñÇßËáÕ å³Ñå³ÝáÕ³Ï³Ý Ùï³Í»É³Ï»ñåáí:3 ØÇ ß³ñù Ãáõñù Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñ ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñëáõÙ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ ϳåáõÙ ¿ÇÝ μ³ó³é³å»ë ºíñáå³ÛÇ ³½¹»óáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï` Ëáë»Éáí §Ï³åÇï³ÉǽÙÇ Ý»ñÏÁñٳݦ Ù³ëÇÝ£ Àëï Ýñ³Ýó` »íñáå³Ï³Ý ϳåÇï³ÉǽÙÁ ÂáõñùdzÛÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ μݳϳÝáÝ »ñ¨áõÛà ã¿ñ ¨ ã¿ñ ѳٳå³ï³ë˳ÝáõÙ »ñÏñÇ Ý»ñùÇÝ å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³ÝÁ:4 ²Ûë å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ³é³ÝÓÇÝ ¹ñë¨áñáõÙÝ»ñÁ Ñëï³Ï Áݹ·Íí³Í ³½·³ÛÇÝ-ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛà áõÝ»ÇÝ` ³ñï³Ñ³Ûïí»Éáí μ³ó³é³å»ë ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ¨ ½³ñ·³Ý³Éáí áã û Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ó»éݳñÏ³Í ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÇ ßÝáñÑÇí, ³ÛÉ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ Ç Ñ»×áõÏë ¹ñ³Ýó£ Âáõñù Ñ»ÕÇÝ³Ï æ»É³É ÜáõñÇÝ ÝßáõÙ ¿ »ñÏáõ ѳݷ³Ù³Ýù, áñáÝù Ù»Í ¹»ñ áõÝ»ó³Ý Ãáõñù ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ×³Ï³ï³·ñÇ Ù»ç. ݳË` ³í»ÉÇ Ñ»ßï ¿ñ Ó»éù μ»ñ»É ³åñ³ÝùÝ»ñ ¨ ѳñëïáõÃÛáõÝ ÃßݳÙáõ »ñÏñáõÙ` å³ï»ñ³½ÙÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳÏó»Éáí ¨ ѳÕóݳÏÝ»ñ ï³Ý»Éáí, ¨, μ³óÇ ³Û¹, ³ñí»ëïÝ áõ ³ñÑ»ëïÝ»ñÁ ·ñ³íÇã ã¿ÇÝ Ãíáõ٠ѳÕóݳÏÝ»ñÇó ³ñμ»ó³Í ³ñïáÝÛ³É ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç é³½Ù³ï»Ýã çáϳïÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ:5 ²Ûë å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñï³¹ñ³Ï³Ý »õ ³é¨ïñ³Ï³Ý ³ÙμáÕç Ý»ñáõÅÁ Ï»ÝïñáݳÝáõÙ ¿ñ Ñ»Ýó ³Ûɳ¹³í³Ý ËÙμ»ñÇ Ó»éùáõÙ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ùá¹»ÉÁ£ ²Ûɳ¹³í³Ý μáõñÅáõ³½Ç³Ý ¨ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÐáõݳϳÝÇ ¨ Ññ»³Ï³ÝÇ Ñ»ï ÙdzëÇÝ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý μáõñÅáõ³½Ç³Ý Ý߳ݳϳÉÇ ¹»ñ ¿ñ ˳ÕáõÙ XX ¹³ñ³ëϽμÇ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ£ гۻñÇ ³Ýí³Ý Ñ»ï ¿ñ ϳåíáõÙ ³ñï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ³ñÑ»ëïÝ»ñÇ ¨ ³é¨ïñÇ ß³ï áÉáñïÝ»ñÇ ½³ñ·³óáõÙÁ£ ²¹³Ý³Ý ³Ûë å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ μ³ó³éáõÃÛáõÝ ã¿ñ, ³í»ÉÇÝ` áñáß Ñ³ñó»ñáõÙ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ûñÇÝ³Ï Ï³ñáÕ ¿ñ ͳé³Û»É£ ¶áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ áñáß³ÏÇ ÙdzϳñÍáõÃÛáõÝ ³é ³ÛÝ, áñ ²¹³Ý³Ý áã ÙdzÛÝ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóí³ÛñÇ ³Ù»Ý³Ï³ñ¨áñ ù³Õ³ùÝ ¿ñ, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ù»Ý³Ñ³ñáõëï íÇɳۻÃÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ Ï»ÝïñáÝÁ:6 XX ¹. ëϽμÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÁ μáõéÝ Ã³÷áí ½³ñ·³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ£ ²ÛÝ Ã»¨ ÑÇÝ ¨ å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù ¿ñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ XX ¹. ëϽμÇÝ Ï³ñ¨áñáõÃÛ³Ý ³×Ç Ñ»ï Ù»Ïï»Õ ϳéáõó³å³ïí»É 2 Turhan Mumtaz, Gerplilasmanin naresindeyiz? Istanbul, 1961, s. 19-20: Ø»çμ»ñíáõÙ ¿ Áëï` Инджикян О., Буржуазия Османской империи, Ереван, 1977, стр.120 3 Äæèëëîâ Õ., Ýêîíîìèêà Òóðöèè, Ì.,1971, ñòð. 30. 4 Cem I., Turkiye’de geri kalmiskigin tarihi, Muzaffer Sencer, Osmanli toplum, yapisi, Istambul, 1969; Fisek Kurthan, Turkiye`de kapitalizmin gelismesi ve isce sinif, Ankara, 1969£ àõß³·ñ³í ¿, áñ ³Ûë Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ Ï³ñÍÇùáí` »íñáå³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ ¨ ³½³ï³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ μ»ñ»óÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ß³Ñ³·áñÍÙ³ÝÁ ¨ Ýñ³ μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï ÏáÕáåáõïÇÝ£ ºí, ѻ勉μ³ñ, Áëï æ»ÙÇ` §»íñáå³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ ¹³ñÓ³í ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ÷Éáõ½Ù³Ý ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇó¦£ 5 Nuri Celal, Tarihi tedenniati Osmaniye, Ist,1912, s. 56. Ø»çμ»ñíáõÙ ¿ Áëï` Инджикян О., Буржуазия Османской империи, Ереван, 1977, стр. 36. 6 Woods H. Charles, The Danger Zone of Europe, Boston, 1911, p.126.

70


êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý

¿ñ Ýáñ ß»Ýù»ñáí ¨ ëï³ó»É »íñáå³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ùÇ ï»ëù:7 ²¹³Ý³Ý »½³ÏÇ Ñ³Û³μÝ³Ï ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇó ¿ñ, áñÁ ·ñ»Ã» ½»ñÍ Ùݳó XIX ¹³ñ³í»ñçÇ Ñ³ÙÇ¹Û³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇó ¨ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ áõ ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ ãÏñ»ó£ ä³ï׳éÝ ³ÛÝ ¿ñ, áñ ³ÛÝ ã¿ñ ÁÝϳÉíáõÙ Çμñ¨ íï³Ý·, ù³ÝÇ áñ ßñç³å³ïí³Í ¿ñ μ³½Ù³ù³Ý³Ï ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ´³óÇ ³Û¹, ù³Õ³ùÝ ³Ù÷á÷í³Í ¿ñ É»éݳÛÇÝ ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ, áñáÝù Ýí³×»ÉÁ μ³í³Ï³Ý ¹Åí³ñ ÏÉÇÝ»ñ£ êñ³Ý å»ïù ¿ ·áõÙ³ñ»É ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÁ, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ·ñ»Ã» ã¿ÇÝ ·áñÍáõ٠ѻճ÷áË³Ï³Ý Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳ٠߳ï å³ëÇí ¿ÇÝ£ Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ ݳ¨ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ 1895 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ íñ³ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ ãáõÝ»ó³Ý ßÝáñÑÇí ï»Õ³óÇ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ³½¹»óÇÏ Ãáõñù »ñ¨»ÉÇÝ»ñÇ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë ß»ÛË Ô³ñÇå ½³¹» г×Ç Ö»Ù³É ¿ý»Ý¹ÇÇ ç³Ýù»ñÇ:8 гÙÇ¹Û³Ý ßñç³ÝÇ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ½»ñÍ ÙݳÉáõ ßÝáñÑÇí íÇɳۻÃÇ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý, ³Û¹ Ãíáõ٠ݳ¨` ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ãÁݹѳïí»ó ¨ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ Çñ μáõéÝ ½³ñ·³óáõÙÁ£ 1909 Ã. ݳËûñ»ÇÝ ù³Õ³ùÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³Õϳó³Í ¿ñ 20 ѳ½³ñ ïÝ»ñÇó ¨ ÉÇÝ»Éáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ï»ÝïñáÝÁ, Çñ íñ³ ¿ñ Ï»ÝïñáݳóÝáõÙ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ßñç³Ï³ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³ß˳ï³Ýù ·ïÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ݳËÁÝïñ»ÉÇ í³Ûñ ¿ñ£ 껽áݳÛÇÝ ³ß˳ïáÕÝ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ѳëÝáõÙ ¿ñ ÙÇçÇÝÁ 20 ѳ½³ñÇ£ ÒÙ»éÝ ³ÛÝ ³í»É³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ ßñç³Ï³ ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñÇó, ·É˳íáñ³å»ë г×ÁÝÇó, λë³ñdzÛÇó ¨ Ø³ñ³ßÇó »ÏáÕ ³ñÑ»ëï³íáñÝ»ñÇ ¨ Ù³Ýñ³í³×³éÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ßíÇÝ, ÇëÏ ·³ñݳÝÁ` ³í»ÉÇ Ñ»é³íáñ í³Ûñ»ñÇó` ʳñμ»ñ¹Çó, îÇ·ñ³Ý³Ï»ñïÇó, ØáõßÇó, ¾ñ½ñáõÙÇó ¨ ³ÛÉ ï»Õ»ñÇó »ÏáÕ Ñ³Û ¨ ùáõñ¹ Ùß³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ßíÇÝ:9 ø³Õ³ùÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý ½μ³ÕÙáõÝùÁ »ñÏñ³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ñ:10 ²Ùé³ÝÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ñ»é³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ ßñç³Ï³ ·ÛáõÕ»ñ ¨ ³·³ñ³ÏÝ»ñ áõ μ³Ùμ³Ï ѳí³ùáõÙ£ àñå»ë í³ñÓ³í׳ñ` ëï³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ ѳí³ù³Í μ»ñùÇ Ù»Ï áõûñáñ¹Á ϳ٠ï³ëÝ»ñáñ¹Á ¨ ³ÛÝ Í³Ë»Éáí` ·áõÙ³ñ í³ëï³ÏáõÙ£ ÆëÏ ÓÙé³ÝÁ ³åñáõëïÇ ÙÇçáó ¿ÇÝ Ñ³ÛóÛÃáõÙ μ³Ùμ³Ï ½ï»Éáí: ²¹³Ý³Ûáõ٠ϳÛÇÝ ÙÇ ß³ñù μ³Ùμ³Ï³·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ·áñͳñ³ÝÝ»ñ, áñáÝó ëáõÉáóÝ»ñÁ ¨ ѳ½³ñ³íáñ ³ß˳ïáÕÝ»ñÁ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ùÇ ï»ëù ¿ÇÝ ï³ÉÇë£ Ä³Ù³Ý³ÏÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »ñÏñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ Ù»Í ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¿ÇÝ í³×³éáõÙ Çñ»Ýó μ»ñùÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ XIX ¹. í»ñçÇÝ ¨ XX ¹. ëϽμÇÝ íÇ׳ÏÁ ÷áËí»ó£ ºíñáå³Ï³Ý ³é¨ïñ³Ï³Ý ïÝ»ñÁ, ٳݳí³Ý¹ ·»ñٳݳóÇÝ»ñÁ, ï³ñμ»ñ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳ×ÛáõÕ»ñ ¿ÇÝ Ñ³ëï³ï»É ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, áñáÝù »ñÏñ³·áñÍÇ μ»ñùÁ ¹»é ãëï³óí³Í` ÑÇÝ·-í»ó ³ÙÇë ³é³ç Ù»Í ·áõÙ³ñÝ»ñ í׳ñ»Éáí, ·ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ï³ï³ñáõÙ »ñÏñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÇó£ ºÃ» úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ Ùßï³å»ë ³ñ·»É³ÏáõÙ ¿ñ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÝ»ñÁ, ³å³ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ ß³ï ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ÃáÕÝáõÙ£ ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÝ` áñå»ë Íáí³÷ÝÛ³ ßñç³Ý, Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ ³ÝÙÇç³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý ß÷í»Éáõ ¨ Ý»ñ³½¹í»Éáõ£ ø³Õ³ùÁ 67 ÏÇÉáÙ»ïñ³Ýáó »ñϳ÷Íáí ÙdzÝáõÙ ¿ñ Ø»ñëÇÝÇÝ` î³ñëáÝ ù³Õ³ùÇ ÙÇçáóáí£ ²Ûë ׳ݳå³ñÑÝ ³å³ÑáíáõÙ ¿ñ ù³Õ³ùÇ »ÉùÁ ¹»åÇ Íáí£ XX ¹³ñ³ëϽμÇÝ ù³Õ³ù ¿ ÙïÝáõÙ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ϳåÇï³ÉÁ, ÇÝãÁ ÏïñáõÏ ÷áËáõÙ ¿ íÇ׳ÏÁ ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý ß³ï ×ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ£ ºíñáå³óÇÝ»ñÁ ÙÇ ß³ñù Ù»Í Ó»éݳñÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ý ÑÇÙÝáõÙ` μ³Ùμ³Ï³½ïÙ³Ý, ÑÛáõëÙ³Ý ¨ ·áñÍ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ »¨ ³Ù»Ý³Ù»Í ·áñͳñ³ÝÁ å³ïϳÝáõÙ ¿ñ ÑáõÛÝ îñÇå³ÝÇ »Õμ³ÛñÝ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù μ³Ùμ³Ï³·áñÍáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙݳ¹Çñ7 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, Î.äáÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 6£ 8 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶ñÇ·áñ, Ð³Û É»éÁ. γñÙÇñ ¹ñáõ³·Ý»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ï¿Ý, Î.äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 29-30£ 9 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 7£ 10 ²¹³Ý³Ý ݳ¨ í³×³é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝ ¿ñ£ ì³×³é³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ·ñ»Ã» ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ ѳۻñÇ Ó»éùáõÙ ¿ñ` μ³ó³éáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ãáõñù ¨ ÑáõÛÝ í³×³é³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ£

71


êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý

Ý»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÙÇ ËáõÙμ ³íëïñdzóÇ, ßí»Ûó³ñ³óÇ ¨ ·»ñٳݳóÇ ýÇݳÝëÇëïÝ»ñ, áñáÝù Ùdzíáñí»É ¿ÇÝ ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý È¨³Ýï³Ï³Ý μ³Ùμ³ÏÇ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç, Çñ»Ýó ·áñÍÁ ÑÇÙÝ»óÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ£ ²Ûë ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³Ù»Ý ï³ñÇ Ý»ñÏñáõÙ ¿ñ Ù»Í ù³Ý³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ μ³Ùμ³ÏÇ ë»ñÙ ¨ í³ñÏÇ ï»ëùáí ï³ÉÇë ¿ñ ·ÛáõÕ³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝóÇó ¿É ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ ·ÝáõÙ ¿ñ μ»ñùÁ, ¹³ñëáõ٠ѳϻñÇ Ù»ç ¨ í³×³éùÇ áõÕ³ñÏáõÙ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ßáõϳݻñ:11 ²ñï³ùÇÝ ßáõϳÛÇ Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ù»Í á·¨áñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ³é³ç³óñ»É. ѳۻñÇÝ ¨ ÑáõÛÝ»ñÇÝ å³ïϳÝáÕ μ³Ùμ³Ï³·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ·áñͳñ³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñ¨³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ ·ñ»Ã» ³Ù»Ý ïáõÝ ëÏëáõÙ ¿ ½μ³Õí»É ³Ûë ·áñÍáí£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ ³Ûë ½³ñ·³óáÕ ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý ×ÛáõÕÁ ¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ˳ÝÓÇ ³é³ñϳ, ¨ å³ï³Ñ³Ï³Ý ã¿, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ å³ïϳÝáÕ ·áñͳñ³ÝÝ»ñÇó ÙdzÛÝ ²ßÁ·Û³Ý »Õμ³ÛñÝ»ñÇ ·áñͳñ³ÝÝ ³Ýíݳë Ùݳó, ù³ÝÇ áñ ½áñ³ÝáóÇÝ Ùáï ¿ñ, ÇëÏ ÙÛáõëÝ»ñÝ ³ÙμáÕçáíÇÝ ³Ûñí»óÇÝ:12 ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ëÏëáõÙ »Ý ѳëï³ïí»É »íñáå³Ï³Ý í³×³é³Ï³Ý³Ï³Ý ѳÛïÝÇ ïÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳ×ÛáõÕ»ñ ¨ ·áñͳϳÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ ê³ Ýå³ëïáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ³ñÑ»ëï³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³ÝÁ, áíù»ñ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí å³ïí»ñÝ»ñ »Ý ëï³ÝáõÙ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ïÝ»ñÇ ïÝûñ»ÝÝ»ñÇó ¨ ·áñͳϳÉÝ»ñÇó£ ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ Ù³ëݳ×ÛáõÕ μ³ó»Éáõ áñáßáõÙ ÁݹáõÝ»Éáõó Ñ»ïá, »íñáå³Ï³Ý ïÝ»ñÁ äáÉëÇó Ñ»ïá ß³ï Ñ³×³Ë Ù³ëݳ×ÛáõÕ»ñ ¿ÇÝ μ³óáõÙ Ñ»Ýó ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ£ ´³½Ù³ï»ë³Ï ³åñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ³ñï³Ñ³ÝÙ³Ý Ñ»ï Ù»Ïï»Õ ²¹³Ý³Ý Ù»Í Í³í³ÉÇ Ý»ñÙáõÍáõÙ ¿ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáõÙ ºíñáå³ÛÇó£ ÀÝóóáÕ ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ï³ñ¨áñ³·áõÛÝ óáõóÇãÝ»ñÇó ¿ Ý³¨ ³ñï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ù»Ý³Û³óáõÙÁ ¨ ³ñï³¹ñ³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóáõÙ Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñ¹ñáõÙÁ£ Ø»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÇ Ý»ñÙáõÍáõÙÁ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó ÙÇçáóáí ³ñï³¹ñ³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóó ËóݻÉáõ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßïáõÃÛáõÝÝ ÁݹáõÝáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ¸»é 1874 Ã. ÝáÛ»Ùμ»ñÇÝ ëáõÉóÝÇ Ñ³ïáõÏ Çñ³¹»áí Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÇ ¨ ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇùÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñÙáõÍáõÙÝ ³½³ïíáõÙ ¿ñ Ù³ùë³ÛÇÝ í׳ñÝ»ñÇó:13 ê³Ï³ÛÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ù»Í ½·áõß³íáñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¿ñ í»ñ³μ»ñíáõÙ ó³Ýϳó³Í Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, ³Û¹ Ãíáõ٠ݳ¨` ³ñï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ù»Ý³Û³óÙ³ÝÁ£ î»ÕÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý å³Ñå³ÝáճϳÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ½·³ÉÇáñ»Ý ³ñ·»É³ÏáõÙ ¿ñ ³Ûë ·áñÍÁÝóóÁ£ ²ÛÝ §ã³÷³½³Ýó Ù»Í ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ »Ý Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝáõÙ ÷áË»É ÑáÕÇ Ùß³ÏÙ³Ý ÑÇÝ Ó¨»ñÁ¦:14 ². ÜáíÇã¨Á ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ï»ËÝÇϳÛáí ѳٳÉñáõÙÁ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ï»ÕÇ ¿ñ áõÝ»ÝáõÙ ³ÛÝù³Ý ¹³Ý¹³Õ, áñ ÁݹÑáõå ÙÇÝ㨠²é³çÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ å³ï»ñ³½ÙÁ áñáßÇã ·áñÍáÝ ¿ñ Ó»éùÇ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÁ:15 ÆëÏ ³Ñ³ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ·áñͳñ³ñ ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÁ ß³ï ³ñ³· ¨ Ù»Í Ë³Ý¹³í³éáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÁݹáõÝ»óÇÝ ³Ûë Ýáñ ÇñáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ëÏë»óÇÝ ³ÏïÇíáñ»Ý ÏÇñ³é»É ³ÛÝ£ ²Ûëå»ë` ѳۻñÇó ëï³óíáÕ å³ïí»ñÝ»ñÝ ³ÛÝù³Ý ß³ï ¿ÇÝ, áñ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ 1901 Ã. ʳñμ»ñ¹áõÙ ëï»ÕÍ»óÇÝ ÑáÕ³·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÇùÝ»ñÇ í³×³éùÇ Ï»ÝïñáÝ£ ²¹³Ý³Ý ³ÛÝ ßñç³ÝÝ ¿ñ, áñï»Õ ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ï»ËÝÇÏ³Ý û·ï³·áñÍíáõÙ ¿ñ ³é³í»É ÇÝï»ÝëÇí Ï»ñåáí£ î³ñ»óï³ñÇ »ñÏñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ ëï³ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýáñ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñ£ ²Ûëå»ë, ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý §¸áÛã» μ³ÝÏÁ¦ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ëï»ÕÍ»É ¿ñ ÙÇ ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ μ³Ùμ³ÏÇ ³ñï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ 1906 Ã. ³ÛÝ ·ÛáõÕ³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 2 ÙÇÉÇáÝ ýñ³ÝÏ ³ñÅáÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñ ¿ñ Çñ³óñ»É£ ¶»ñٳݳóÇÝ»ñÁ ݳ¨ ½μ³Õí»óÇÝ ³Ûë ßñç³ÝÇ áéá·Ù³Ý ËݹÇñÝ»ñáí£ ²Ûëï»Õ ³ß˳ïáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý 11 Woods H. Charles, The Danger Zone of Europe, Boston, 1911, p.128. 12 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 9£ 13 Инджикян О., там же, стр. 76-77. 14 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 77: 15 Новичев А.Д., Очерки экономики Турции до мировой войны, стр. 81.

72


êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý

áÉáñïÇ ß³ï Ù³ëݳ·»ïÝ»ñ£ ²Ûë ÑÇÙùÇ íñ³ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ëï»ÕÍíáõÙ ¿ ³½¹»óÇÏ ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ` ¹áÏïáñ λٳÏÇ ·É˳íáñáõÃÛ³Ùμ, áñÁ ѳïáõÏ Ñ»ï³½áïáõÃÛáõÝ ·ñ»ó ³Û¹ ßñç³ÝÁ áéá·»Éáõ Ù³ëÇÝ:16 1906 Ã. §´Ûáõñ³ÏÝÁ¦ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ÑëÏ³Û³Ï³Ý μ»ñù³ïáõ ÑáÕ³ï³ñ³ÍùÝ»ñáõÙ §58-60 ϳÉëÇã Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÝ ûñ³Ï³Ý ³ñï³¹ñáõÙ »Ý 850-900 ïáÝݳ ѳó³Ñ³ïÇÏ, ÇÝãÝ ³ñ³·³óÝáõÙ ¿ μ»ñù³Ñ³í³ùÁ ݳËáñ¹ ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù»Ù³ïáõÃÛ³Ùμ »ñ»ù ³Ùëáí£ Î³ ݳ¨ 500-600 ÑÝÓÇã Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñ¦:17 ²Ù»Ý ³ëå³ñ»½ ½³ñ·³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ »íñáå³Ï³Ý Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ßÝáñÑÇí, »ñÏñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ ï³ñ»óï³ñÇ ëï³ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýáñ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ê³ ³ÝÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ ¿ñ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ, áñÁ Ù»Í ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¿ñ Ññ³Å³ñíáõÙ ÑáÕÇ Ùß³ÏÙ³Ý ÑÇÝ, ³í³Ý¹³Ï³Ý Ó¨»ñÇó ¨ Ãßݳٳμ³ñ ¿ñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñíáõÙ Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ³ÏïÇíáñ»Ý ÏÇñ³éáÕ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ£ È»÷ëÇáõëÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ãáõñù ·ÛáõÕ³óÇÝ»ñÁ áõÕÕ³ÏÇ ç³ñ¹áõ÷ßáõñ ³ñ»óÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ å³ïϳÝáÕ §ºíñáå³ÛÇó μ»ñí³Í ѳñÛáõñ³íáñ ϳÉëÇã ßá·Çáí ³ß˳ïáÕ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñ ¨ »ñϳÃÛ³ ·áõóÝÝ»ñ¦:18 ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ, Ëáë»Éáí ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ѳïáõÏ ß»ßïáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ѳۻñÇ Ïñ³Í ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý íݳëÁ §ù³Ý¹í³Í ûç³ËÝ»ñÁ¦, ³Ù³Û³ó³Í ¹³ßï»ñÁ, ·áÕ³óí³Í ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÁ, ³Ý³ëáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ³åñ³ÝùÝ»ñÁ, ß³ñÅ³Ï³Ý ·áõÛùÁ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõÙ ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿ ï³ñ³Í³ßÁñç³ÝÇ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ μ³ñ»Ï»óÇÏ íÇ׳ÏÁ, μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ³å³ÑáíáõÃÛáõÝÁ:19 ܳ Ù»Í Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ï³ÉÇë Ãáõñù»ñÇ Ù»ç ³ñÙ³ï³íáñí³Í ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ áõÝ»óí³ÍùÇ Ã³É³ÝÇ ÙáÉáõóùÇÝ ¨ ϳñ¨áñáõ٠ѳۻñÇ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý áÉáñïáõÙ Ý߳ݳϳÉÇó Ó»éùμ»ñáõÙÝ»ñÁ,20 áñå»ë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ£ Ø»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÁ Ù»ñÅ»ÉÁ ϳåí³Í ¿ñ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ùáï ³éϳ ³ÛÝ Ñá·»μ³Ý³Ï³Ý μ³ñ¹áõÛÃÇ Ñ»ï, áñ Ýñ³Ýù áõÝ»ÇÝ Ýáñ ϳñ·»ñÇ Ñݳñ³íáñ ѳëï³ïÙ³Ý å³ï׳éáí£ Üñ³Ýó ϳñÍÇùáí Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÁ` áñå»ë Ýáñ³ÙáõÍáõÃÛáõÝ, Çñ»Ýó ݳËÏÇÝ ³ñïáÝÛ³É íÇ׳ÏÇ Ë³ËïÙ³Ý å³ï×³é ¿ÇÝ ¹³ñӻɣ êñ³Ý ·áõÙ³ñíáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ, áñ Ù»ù»Ý³Ý»ñÁ ϳåíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ »íñáå³óÇÝ»ñÇ ÙáõïùÇ Ñ»ï, ÇÝãÁ ÝáõÛÝå»ë μ»ñáõÙ ¿ñ ݳËÏÇÝ §»ñ³Ý»ÉÇ Ï³ñ·»ñÇ Ë³Ã³ñÙ³ÝÁ¦£ γëÏ³Í ãϳ, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÃÇñ³ËÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨ Ýñ³Ýó ÏáÕÙÇó û·ï³·áñÍíáÕ Ýáñ ï»ËÝáÉá·Ç³Ý»ñÁ` ïñ³ÏïáñÝ»ñÁ ¨ Ù»ù»Ý³Û³óí³Í å³ñ³·³Ý»ñÇ ³ÛÉ Ó¨»ñÁ:21 ²ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»óáÕ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ²ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ ¨ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ³é³çÁÝóóÁ ½áõ·áñ¹íáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ áñáß³ÏÇ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ áõ ï»Õ³ß³ñÅ»ñÇ Ñ»ï£ Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ ÙÇÝã Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ñ³ñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ μ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ É³í ¿ÇÝ£ гñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ùï»ñÙ³Ï³Ý áõ μ³ñ»Ï³Ù³Ï³Ý ¿ÇÝ, ¨ §·Û³íáõñ¦ μ³éÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ù»ç ·ñ»Ã» ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ ãáõÝ»ñ, ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇ áõ ѳۻñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ñ³ñ·³ÝùÁ ÷á˳¹³ñÓ ¿ñ£ 16 Avni Huseyin, Bir yarim mustemleke olus tarihi, Istanbul, 1937, s. 42. Ø»çμ»ñíáõÙ ¿ Áëï` Инджикян О., Буржуазия Османской империи, стр. 205. 17 ´Ûáõñ³ÏÝ, 1906, # 19£ Ø»çμ»ñíáõÙ ¿ Áëï` Инджикян О., Буржуазия Османской империи, стр. 70 . 18 Adossides, p.105. 19 äáÕáëÛ³Ý ì., 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·Ý³Ñ³ïÙ³Ùμ, ¿ç 51£ 20 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ£ 21 î»°ë Akçam T., A Shameful Act, p.63.

73


êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý

ê³Ï³ÛÝ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÝ ³ëïÇ׳ݳμ³ñ ÷áËí»ó, ¨ ¹ñ³ ѳٳñ ϳÛÇÝ ÙÇ ß³ñù å³ï׳éÝ»ñ£ ܳË` 1895 Ã. ¹»åù»ñÇó Ñ»ïá λë³ñdzÛÇó ¨ ³ÛÉ í³Ûñ»ñÇó ·³ÕÃáÕ ¨ óɳÝÇ áõ ç³ñ¹Ç Ù³ëݳÏó³Í Ãáõñù»ñÁ ÙÇßï ï»Õ³óÇ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ Ù»Õ³¹ñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ɳí í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝù óáõó³μ»ñ»Éáõ Ù»ç ¨ Ïáã ³ÝáõÙ Ûáõñ³óÝ»É í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñÇë ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ѳçáÕáõÃÛ³Ý åïáõÕÝ»ñÁ£ ¸ñ³Ý ·áõÙ³ñí»ó ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÁݹáõÝáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ѳۻñÇ Ë³Ý¹³í³éáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ гۻñÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ §ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõݦ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ù»Ý³³ÏïÇí ÏáÕÙݳÏÇóÝ»ñÇó ¨ ³ç³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇó ¿ÇÝ, ¨ ï³ñ³μÝáõÛà ٻÏݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ¿ÇÝ Ç Ñ³Ûï ·³ÉÇë, û Çμñ Ýáñ ϳñ·»ñÁ ѳۻñÇÝ μ³ó³éÇÏ ¹Çñù »Ý ßÝáñÑáõÙ, áñÁ íï³Ý·áõÙ ¿ñ ˳ÉÇý³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙù»ñÁ£ 1908 Ã. ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ¹ñë¨áñ³Í Ù»Í Ë³Ý¹³í³éáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÃáõÛÉ ãïí»ó ï»ëÝ»É Ñ»ï½Ñ»ï» Ëáñ³óáÕ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ÃßݳÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ:22 ÆëÏ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Û»ñÁ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï ¨ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ óáõó³¹ñ³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙݳÏÇóÝ»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ£ Üáñ Ó»éù μ»ñ³Í ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí ³ñμ³Í` Ýñ³Ýù ã³÷Çó ³í»ÉÇ ¿ÇÝ ³ãùÇ ÁÝÏÝáõÙ, ÇÝãÁ Éñçáñ»Ý ³Ýѳݷëï³óÝáõÙ ¿ñ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ã¿ÇÝ Ï³ñáÕ Ñ³Ù³Ï»ñåí»É ³ÛÝ ÙïùÇ Ñ»ï, áñ ݳËÏÇÝ §³Ýѳí³ï¦ Ñå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÇÝ å»ïù ¿ í»ñ³μ»ñí»É Çμñ¨ ѳí³ë³ñÝ»ñÇ:23 Üñ³Ýù Ç íÇ׳ÏÇ ã¿ÇÝ ÁݹáõÝ»Éáõ, áñ ѳۻñÁ ϳñáÕ »Ý Çñ»Ýó ѳí³ë³ñ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñ áõÝ»Ý³É ³éûñÛ³ ÏÛ³ÝùáõÙ, ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ѳñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ¹³ï³ñ³ÝáõÙ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ μ³ñ·³í³×áõÙÁ ¨ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óáõÙÁ ï³ÉÇë ¿ ³ÛÝ Ñ³ñóÇ å³ï³ë˳ÝÁ, û ÇÝãá±õ Ñ»Ýó ²¹³Ý³Ý ¹³ñÓ³í Ñ³Ï³Ñ³Û Ñ³ñí³ÍÇ ÃÇñ³Ë£ îÝï»ë³å»ë ³ñ³· ½³ñ·³Ý³Éáí` ݳ Çñ ÏáÕÙÝ ¿ñ Ó·áõÙ Ñ³Û ·áñͳñ³ñ ï³ññÁ, áõñ ųٳݳÏÇ ÁÝóóùáõ٠ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÑáÍ μ³½ÙáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ Ï»ÝïñáݳÝáõÙ£ ê³ Ëáñ³óÝáõÙ ¿ñ Ãáõñù»ñÇ Ï³ëϳͳÙïáõÃÛáõÝÁ, û ѳۻñÁ Ó·ïáõÙ »Ý ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ Ï»ÝïñáݳݳÉ` »ñÏñ³·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ¨ í³×³é³Ï³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»é³Ýϳñ³ÛÇÝ Íñ³·ñ»ñáí:24 ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñéã³ÏÙ³ÝÁ ѳçáñ¹³Í ѳۻñÇ á·¨áñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳñÍ»ë ѳëï³ïáõÙ ¿ñ ³Ûë ϳëϳÍÝ»ñÁ£ úñÇݳÏ` ²ñÇëï³Ï»ë ¶³ëå³ñÛ³ÝÁ äáÉëÇ §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ ûñÃáõ٠ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Ñ»ïá ·ñáõÙ ¿ ÙÇ Ñá¹í³Í³ß³ñ §¸»åÇ ÎÇÉÇÏdz¦ Ëáñ³·ñáí` ѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ï»ÝïñáݳóÝ»Éáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ñ³ñáõëï ݳѳݷݻñáõÙ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ½áñ³óÝ»Éáõ Ýå³ï³ÏÇ íñ³:25 ºñμ Ù³ñïÇ 31-ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ ѳë³í ÉáõñÝ ³ÛÝ Ù³ëÇÝ, áñ §ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõݦ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ñ»é³óí»É ¿ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó, ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ¹»Ù ¿ÇÝ Ñ»Õ³÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý μ»ñ³Í ³ñ¹Ç³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ï³ññ»ñÇÝ, ³é³çÇÝÁ ѳñí³Í»óÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ` Çμñ¨ Ýáñ ·³Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñÇ ³Ù»Ý³»é³Ý¹áõÝ Ëñ³ËáõëáÕÝ»ñÇ ¨ ï³ñ³ÍáÕÝ»ñÇ:26 ¸ñ³Ý ·áõÙ³ñíáõÙ ¿ñ ϳñ¨áñ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÝÁ£ î»ÕÇ Ñ³Û»ñÁ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³Ýáõ٠ѳݹÇë³ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³Ù»Ý³Ñ³ñáõëï ¨ ³Ù»Ý³Ñ³çáÕ³Ï ¹³ëÁ£ ²¹³Ý³Ûáõ٠ѳۻñÝ áõÝ»ÇÝ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ³Ù»Ý³μ³ñÓñ ٳϳñ¹³ÏÁ£ ´áÉáñ áÉáñïÝ»ñáõÙ Ýñ³Ýù Ãáõñù»ñÇó ³é³ç ¿ÇÝ£ гۻñÇ Ñ³çáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ Ýñ³Ýó ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ¹ÇñùÇ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ, áíù»ñ íñ¹áíí³Í ¿ÇÝ ¨ ³åñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³Ë³ÝÓÇ ½·³óÙ³Ý Ù»ç:27 22 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶., ÝáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 30£ 23 Дадрян В., История армянского геноцида, Ереван – 2007, стр. 232-233. 24 ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Ûáó å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ, ËÙμ. ´Çõ½³Ý¹ ºÕdzۻ³Ý, ²ÝÃÇÉdzë, 1970, ¿ç 220£ 25 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ£ 26 Akçam T., A Shameful Act, p.63. 27 Akçam T., A Shameful Act, p.63.

74


êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý

ÐÇÙ³ ³ñ¹»Ý Ãáõñù ·áñͳñ³ñ ï³ññÁ ï»Ý¹³·ÇÝ »Éù ¿ñ ÷ÝïñáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ѳٳñ ëï»ÕÍí³Í ³Ýμ³ñ»Ýå³ëï ϳóáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ Âáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ó·ïáõÙ ¿ñ ÃáõɳóÝ»É ÑáõÝ³Ï³Ý ¨ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý μáõñÅáõ³½Ç³Ý£ ¸ñ³ÝÇó û·ïí»Éáí` Ãáõñù»ñÁ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýáñ ¹Çñù»ñ ·ñ³í»É ïÝï»ëáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ ²Ûë Ùï³ÛÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÷á˳ÝóíáõÙ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ѳë³ñ³Ï Ãáõñù μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇÝ£ гçáÕ³Ï Ñ³Û»ñÝ ÁÝϳÉíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ áñå»ë ³Ù»Ý³Ù»Í íï³Ý· ¨ ËáãÁݹáï ë»÷³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ â³ñɽ ìáõ¹ëÁ ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ ѳۻñÇ Ë³ÝáõÃÝ»ñÁ ÏáÕáåï»Éáõó Ñ»ïá Ù³Ýñ³ÏñÏÇï ÷ÝïñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ å³ñï³óáõó³ÏÝ»ñ, áñå»ë½Ç ѳÙá½í»ÇÝ, áñ ¹ñ³Ýù áãÝã³óí»É ¿ÇÝ£ ê³ ³ñíáõÙ ¿ñ ³ÛÝ μ³ÝÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, áñå»ë½Ç ç³ñ¹»ñÁ í»ñ³åñ³Í ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÁ ãϳñáÕ³Ý³Ý ëï³Ý³É ³ÛÝ å³ñïù»ñÁ, áñáÝù ųٳݳÏÇÝ ïí»É ¿ÇÝ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇÝ:28 ¸³ñ»ñ Ç í»ñ Ãáõñù»ñÁ í³ñÅí»É »Ý ѳۻñÇÝ ÁÝÏ³É»É Çμñ¨ ÙÇ ½³Ý·í³ÍÇ, áñÁ ïÇñ³å»ïáÕ ï³ññÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ ¿ ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ñÇùÝ»ñÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý ³éáõÙáí áã ÙÇ Çñ³íáõÝù ãáõÝÇ£ ¸³ ß³ï ѳñÙ³ñ³í»ï íÇ×³Ï ¿ñ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ, »ñμ Ãáõñù ³½·Á ½μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ñ Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ å³ï»ñ³½Ù»Éáí, ϳé³í³ñ»Éáí ¨ ѳñÏ»ñ ѳí³ù»Éáí, ÇëÏ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý μáÉáñ Ñá·ë»ñÁ ¹ñí³Í ¿ÇÝ ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ¨ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³£ ÐÇÙ³, »ñμ ³Ûë μ³Å³ÝáõÙÁ í»ñ³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ, ³ÝÇÙ³ëï ¿ñ ¹³éÝáõ٠ݳ¨ ѳۻñÇ, ÑáõÛÝ»ñÇ ¨ ³ÛÉ ³½·»ñÇ ·áÛáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßïáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ²Ûëï»Õ å»ïù ¿ ï»ëÝ»Ýù Ýáñ ÂáõñùdzÛÇ ï»ëɳϳÝÇ ÑÇÙù»ñÁ, áñáÝù ¹ñí»óÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ, ÑáõÛÝ»ñÇ ¨ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ÙÛáõë ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ ¹»Ù Çñ³·áñÍí³Í ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï»ëùáí£

Suren Manukyan Armenian Modernization As A Reason For The Armenian Genocide (Case Of Adana) Summary In the beginning of XX century the difference between retarded Moslem and modernized, innovative Armenian communities was clearly visible. This gap brought envy and hatred against the Armenians and became one of the reasons of 1909 Adana massacres. For centuries, the Turks perceived Armenians as subjugated, second-class citizens, who created goods and treasures for the Empire. However after the proclamation of 1908 Constitution this superiorinferior division de jure disappeared and the existence of Armenians and other non-Turkish nations became "useless". As long as Armenians accepted their old status and avoided claiming for equality with Muslims they could hope to remain secure and safe. The spread of capitalism, modernization, and reimplementation of the Constitution opened up new opportunities for Armenians. Possible change of public status reasoned violence.

28 Woods H. Charles, The Danger Zone of Europe, Boston, 1911, p.140.

75


REPORTS ON THE MASSACRES IN ADANA BY AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN NEWSPAPERS Éva Merénics The following analysis of the articles available about the massacres in Adana tries to reconstruct a general perspective from which the Austro-Hungarian readers of the examined newspapers were able to understand the events. Even though the examined newspapers had different orientations, common features can be observed. These mean first of all solidarity with Armenians. There may be also conclusions made about the start of the massacres which exclude Armenian provocation. Concerning responsibility, Abdul Hamid II’s involvement cannot be excluded, but that of the Young Turks’ is clear. It also turned out that the great powers intervened mainly because their citizens and properties were endangered. The massacres of Adana are reported in a detailed way and in an extensive quantity in Austro-Hungarian newspapers. The way how the reports describe the events of internal politics in the Ottoman Empire shows a vital interest of journalists and probably also that of the readers. Within the descriptions of the events there is a relatively high proportion of articles dedicated to the situation of Armenians in the Empire. The following analysis of the articles available about the Adana massacres tries to reconstruct a general perspective from which the readers of the examined newspapers were able to understand the events. First the common features of the three examined dailies and the general ideological orientation of the examined articles. In this framework there can be analysed in a more detailed way how this tragic episode of Armenian history had happened, based on the newspapers. The sources of reconstruction are purely contemporary articles of the examined newspapers written in German. Despite this fact the titles of unrelated articles certainly illustrate main political debates within the Monarchy in the examined period. In case of such cases also historical analyses will be used without analysing the related news. Concerning the events in Turkey – as the newspapers call the Ottoman Empire1 – and the massacres, sampling of the articles is needed. The reasons for this are the quantity of news and that the newspapers observed are not digitalised as texts. Thereupon a purely manual elaboration of them is possible at the moment. The examined period takes from 13 April 1909 – the start of the rebellion in Constantinople2 – to 20 June 1909 – the day when two of the given newspapers had not reported anything about Armenians for five days. The method of the selection is the following£ One daily newspaper from three of the capitals of the AustroHungarian Monarchy’s states is selected. These are Neue Freie Presse from Vienna, Pester Lloyd from Budapest and Prager Tagblatt from Prague. All of them were issued more times a day, and the first daily issues of the examined period are elaborated. Within these the first article handling with the events in the Ottoman Empire, further ones dealing with situation in the provinces, massacres, Ottoman state leaders committed to solve the situation, Armenians, Christians and the great powers’ actions connected to the Ottoman Empire – are taken into account. In some cases when the sample indicates other important topics related to Armenians – like freedom of press, actions of diplomatic corps or reactions of foreign states – will be also relied on. These will be marked. 1 According to this fact the expressions are exceptionally used in this study as synonyms. 2 None of the analysed newspapers use a clear term for the events; describe them as riot, rebellion, revolution, counterrevolution and crisis inconsistently.

76


Éva Merénics

The overall appearance of the articles is slightly different from the average ones of today’s printed press products. Most of the articles’ authors are not known, while the issuer of the source on which the given article relies on, is marked. In some cases, articles do not even have a title, which is especially characteristic in case of the leading articles. This is the reason why the data of references may seem incomplete. The examined newspapers have a similar structure. The leading article usually deals with a significant internal or external affair. This is followed by a part analysing internal affairs, and in the end external events are dealt with. The news documenting the massacres of Adana are usually in the final chapter of the news about the Ottoman Empire. The reports are based on telegraphs by own reporters of the newspapers, by diplomatic corps, official reports of Ottoman state institutions or sometimes on reports of other press agencies or newspapers. To understand the importance of the news from the Ottoman Empire and the ones dealing with the Armenian massacres, a quantitative analysis was made, but also the qualitative relations between the used indexes are analysed. Measuring the significance (see also as interest, popularity and importance) of the affairs of the Ottoman Empire and the massacres is carried out as it follows£ The page number of the beginning of the first articles in these given two topics will be relied on. The highest page number dealing with the massacres is page 11.3 Henceforth the interest will be measured on an 11-grade scale where the page number is inverted. Furthermore if Armenian news is mentioned before general news on the Empire, that means 0.5 grade more to the Armenian one. In case there are not any articles published in the given topic, the popularity grade of it is 0. In case of missing or damaged newspapers, the grade is -1 .4 If the tendency of increasing or decreasing of the page number of the chosen articles can be clearly stated then the importance of their topic can also be judged. The events in the Ottoman Empire can be divided into three phases. The first means approximately the first two weeks of the whole examined period. This was characterised by a high popularity of the events in the Ottoman state. The second phase took approximately until the end or minimally until the last week of May when the situation of the Ottoman Empire did not seem to be as important as it had been in the first stage but the massacres are constantly reported. The third and final phase took from the end of May when the massacres were relatively rarely reported and the Empire was getting into the focus of the news again rather due to the question of Crete. A further common feature of the popularity of the news from the Ottoman Empire is that due to a given occasion the importance of the related reports grows radically and after this a gradual sinking can be observed. This process usually divides the three phases into cycles which are entirely different in all of the three newspapers. The first one analysed is Pester Lloyd in which the first report on the massacres in Adana was published on 16 April. This phase when the Ottoman Empire enjoyed a high significance ended on 1 May. In this period the massacres’ popularity moved parallel with that of the general Ottoman proceedings and three cycles were present. The first took until 21 April. The general articles dealt with the background and chronology of the events while the massacres were appearing usually among the last news on the Empire. Only the leading article on 17 April may be connected to Armenians which states that the unionists would mean the right solution for the nationalities of the Empire because they are against the centralisation of the 3 Neue Freie Presse 30 May 1909, p. 11. 4 For popularity rates see the annexes.

77


Éva Merénics

Ottoman state system. Therefore the author does not agree with the minorities’ supporting the Young Turks.5 This criticism may indicate the newspaper’s sympathy towards Abdul Hamid II in this cycle. From 22 until 27 April the interest level of the descriptions about the Ottoman Empire lost of its height because of a serious crisis within the Hungarian government, which heavily affected the relations between Austria and Hungary, thereby the foreign affairs of the Monarchy as well. On the other hand there was a relative closeness between the importance of the general Ottoman and Armenian reports. This was due to the possible intervention of the European Powers.6 From 28 April to 1 May the situation of the Armenians reached a high grade of importance while the general news on the Empire gained back the same popularity that they had at the beginning of the events. The latter was due to the dethronement of sultan Abdul Hamid II. His person guided attention towards the massacres, as he was indicated by Pester Lloyd as responsible for the massacres of the 1890’s.7 The number and detailed description of victims and damaged properties also supported the Armenian issue’s popularity.8 Along with foreign citizens’ and therefore foreign powers’ further involvement.9 The second period took in Pester Lloyd from 3 till 20 May. Gaining relative importance of the Armenian affairs compared to the ones of the Ottoman Empire in general featured these days. The cause of these proceedings was that the dethronement of sultan Abdul Hamid seemed to stabilise the general situation. Articles about Armenians were leading the news about the Empire in five cases. Among other frequently handled topics Austria-Hungary’s annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina was mentioned in connection with the Monarchy’s rival, Serbia. To counterbalance this tense situation, friendly relation with the Ottoman Empire was required for the Monarchy.10 After the new sultan was inaugurated the general events and thereby also the ones in the Armenian vilayets repeatedly gained interest as the new emperor had mentioned the need for a peaceful interethnic and interreligious life in the Empire.11 The news about Armenians was still grave and mentioned the international connections of the issue. There is another frequently described question found in these Articles, the efforts of the Ottoman state bodies to handle the bloodshed.12 The five leading articles are mainly tied to foreign intervention. The one on 4 May is about the possible intervention of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Asia Minor. Its title is ‘Protection of Austro-Hungarian citizens’, while the text itself only mentions the fact that the cruiser Zenta had started its journey to Mersina, joining cruisers of other states.13 Zenta’s Hungarian ties are evident. 14 These are clear reasons why the report became that important, although 5 Article 1 (For exact data of the articles see the bibliography) 6 Article 2; Article 3; Article 4; Article5; Article 6 7 Article 7; Article 8; Article 9 8 Article 10; Article 11; Article 9; Article 12 9 Article 7; Article 10; Article 11; Article 9 10 DIÓSZEGI István Az Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia külpolitikája (The Foreign Policy of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) (Budapest; Vince Kiadó, 2001) p. 124. 11 See for example Article 13 12 Article 14; Article 15; Article 16; Article 17; Article 18; Article 19; Article 20; Article 21 13 Article 22 14 "Zenta cirkáló története" (History of Cruiser Zenta), http://hajomakett.hu/content/view/655/41/

78


Éva Merénics

many articles discuss other great powers’ announced inactivity parallel with their intervention in reality. The next leading article one on 10 May relied on Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung which also denied a possible intervention justifying this as it follows£ ‘[s]uch a big juncture as the one that took place in Turkey has rarely resulted in such a small number of victims and blood[...]’’15 and stated that the new power still needed time to stabilise its power even in the problematic parts of the empire.16 This contradicts to the foreign battleships’ presence at the coast of Asia Minor. The further leading articles were about the French lower house’s debate, an interpellation by deputy Denis-Cochin. The conclusion according to them is that France was willing to save the Armenians while the country must have not accused the Young Turks of the massacres because the bloodshed was tied to the reign of Abdul Hamid, and France needed to maintain a good relationship with the Ottoman Empire. France had connected the possibility of an intervention to the collective will of the great powers. The cycle from 10 until 16 May within the period furthermore can be described as a one that opposes the magnitude of the bloodsheds exactly by mentioning them primarily. This means that the graveness of the situation was denied by leading articles’ titles, contradicting their content. Beside this fact the events are described as ones that will be solved if the new power becomes stable. Despite this on May 11 it was mentioned in the leading article of Pester Lloyd that Armenians were the only ones in the empire who did not welcome the new Sultan enthusiastically. It was also stated that the massacres were bound to the name of Abdul Hamid II., therefore the author implicitly forecasted that the situation would ameliorate.17 On the contrary Shefket pasha told that£ ‘[t]he Turkish side hopes that due to the mentioned assurance and similar others the excited Armenian nation would calm down, so the further chase of them could be prevented.’18 This opinion warns of a retrospective accusation of Armenians for the massacres. Furthermore the issue of 11 May emphasises also critics about data related to the massacres which are alleged to be manipulated by the Ottoman authorities. The last phase was introduced by an intermediary cycle – 20-22 May – which added a new element to the news known in the former period. The insult of Armenians by Kurdish groups in Van, Mush, Bitlis and even again near Aleppo was also reported parallel with criticising the passiveness or inefficiency of the local authorities.19 The Armenians also appealed to Russia, France and England for help.20 This highlights again that the international involvement gave importance to the problem. In the last stage the general events of the Empire had quite a constant popularity. Even a new analysis dealt with the change of the sultan in a leading article which is also similar to the former ones.21 The main topics concerning the Ottoman Empire described in the newspaper 15 Article 23 16 Own translation, original phrase: "Eine so große Umwälzung, wie es sich jetzt in der Türkei vollzogen hat, hat wohl nur selten so wenig Opfer und Blut gefordert[...]" Article 23 17 Article 24 18 Own translation, original phrase: "Türkischerseits hofft man, daβ durch die erwähnte Versicherung und ähnliche andere die erregte armenische Nation sich beruhigen werde, so daβ die weitere Verfolgung der Armenier verhindert werden wird.§ Article 25, p. 5. 19 Article 25 p. 4. 20 Article 26 21 Article 27

79


Éva Merénics

are the programme of the government, the diplomatic affairs in connection with the inauguration of Mohamed V.,22 the consequences of the crisis and of the massacres. The Armenian massacres were mentioned with almost the same importance as the general articles about the empire, but there were not any reports published on 13 days of 28. The relative calmness was only contradicted by the riots following the planned disarmament of Zeytun’s and Van’s Armenians,23 Furthermore the reports from Dortyol were mentioned, where according to the newspaper a sergeant had fired against his own troop and there had been a panic due to this. On 25 May the article dealing with the new governmental programme expressed that the state power treat the massacres of Adana as events connected to the general reactionary movement in the country, and the newspaper started to do the same. The daily only reported the events and did not criticise them or parallel them with news from critical sources any more. In this period there was only one article which opposed the Ottoman state bodies because of the massacres and this even relied on the Russian and English diplomacy.24 Furthermore it was also expressed in an Ottoman politician’s opinion that the difference between the Ottoman state statistics and the Armenian and foreign estimations about the massacres would put an inconvenient impression on European powers.25 As a conclusion Pester Lloyd expressed a kind of solidarity during the massacres which was embodied in the criticism towards the experiments to solve the problem. Putting emphasis on the difference between Ottoman and foreign data about the massacres26 may be seen as such an effort. Another such attempt is the one which reports about the massacres stating that there were many children and women victimised or harassed,27 or the articles which express the similarity between the massacres of 1909 and of 1895-96,28 furthermore the ones dealing with the cruelty of the Kurds.29 On the other hand the Ottoman state rhetoric, the fading of the events and the alleged ties between the massacres and Abdul Hamid II. caused that the newspaper had less frequently criticised the situation of Armenians and the passivity of the authorities as the time was passing by. The next newspaper to be analysed is Prager Tagblatt. It has to be stated that the Czech Kingdom was politically drawn back in the dualist system of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy30 therefore the events concerning the whole Monarchy had to be completed with the local news in a greater proportion than in Hungary for example. This might draw back the importance of the articles’ about foreign affairs. The three main phases can be found in Prager Tagblatt, too. The first period between 13 April and 1 May shows homogenous and vivid interest towards the events in the Ottoman Empire. The political background was analysed in the greatest proportion. The Young Turk 22 Article 28; Article 29; Article 30; Article 31; Article 32; 23 Article 33 24 Article 120 25 Article 33 26 Article 33; Article 121 27 See for example Article 34; Article 35 28 See for example Article 34; Article 7 29 See for example Article 10; Article 9; Article 15; Article 36; Article 37 30 DIóSZEGI István A nagyhatalmi politika másfél évszázada (One and a Half Century of the Politics of Power) (Budapest; História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete, 1997.)

80


Éva Merénics

regime is described as the one which had satisfied the West in the previous year.31 Although Prager Tagblatt stated based on information from a diplomat that the liberals planned a federal state, where the minorities might have equal rights.32 The daily did not agree or disagree with this plan. Later also the topic of Abul Hamid’s dethronement appeared in the news who was frequently mentioned in a pejorative manner.33 See for example the following expression£ ‘The old wish for full power remained in his heart and grained down the burning wish for revenge.’34 On 22 April the leading article pictured reconciliation between the sultan and the Young Turks which would lead to the further reign of Abdul Hamid II. The newspaper roughly criticised this possible case.35 The significance of the Adana massacres was also similar to that of the general affairs, although the bloodshed was not mentioned 5 times after their first occurrence in the newspaper. On the other hand they were mentioned three times in leading articles. The first report on the massacres is a short article based on a consular telegraph describing the danger which was surrounding also foreign citizens residing in the given area. The report furthermore stated that the slaughter of Armenians was constant since 15 April and that the local authorities were not in position to stop the events.36In two cases the bloodshed was mentioned in connection with the intervention of the great powers.37 This signals, that the international involvement caused an increased level of popularity. One more article with one of the highest popularity described the massacres of 1895-96 as ones which were alleged to have connections to Abdul Hamid and this caused that the Armenians had been taking part constantly in activities against the sultan.38 The second significant period in Prager Tagblatt took from 3 to 22 May. The feature of this is that the Armenian affairs were mainly published on the same page as the Ottoman general issues, while the news generally take only some paragraphs, if any. The reports about the Empire described the stabilisation of the Young Turks’ power and Abdul Hamid’s fate. The cause for the visible but not real cycles is that more topics from inside the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were reported in a differently detailed way. Concerning Armenians, their hard situation was described. The Newspaper reported continuous riots from Asia Minor. It is also stressed that ‘[t]he massacres keep on gaining a greater extent, and the details which are reported here mock at all descriptions.’39 The newspaper communicated also that military troops and a courtmartial was sent to the problematic region, and that the massacres were not spreading which is a serious contradiction compared to the former citation. Between 15 and 22 May the articles about Armenians depicted further planned measures to stop the bloodshed. These were a circular letter promised by the Sheikh ul-Islam to calm down the Muslims in the region thanks to former complaints of the Armenian 31 Article 38 32 Article 39 33 See for example: Article 40; Article 41 34 Article 42 35 Article 43 36 Article 44 37 Article 45; Article 46; Article 47; Article 48 38 Article 49 39 Own translation, original phrase: "Die Massakers nehmen noch immer an Umfang zu, und die Einzelheiten, über die hierher berichtet wird, spotten jeder Beschreibung." in Article 50

81


Éva Merénics

notabilities.40 Furthermore disarmament was also in view, but the article does not mark whom the measures should rely on.41 The Armenian issue was mentioned also frequently together or because of the great powers. 42 After this Prager Tagblatt also emphasised that the situation was ameliorating although the Austro-Hungarian cruiser, Zenta had to leave Mersina for Alexandretta because riots were reported from there. The same caused that English marines had landed at the same place to protect the English consulate. Shefket pasha had even mustered the Ottoman navy.43 This had happened despite the fact that on 10 May the news described that according to Germany the international intervention was unnecessary which was also agreed by the Porte.44 In these days a denial of the situation’s graveness was not denied by articles mentioned in the first row. The last period took from 23 May till 7 June in case of the Armenian news and 20 June in case of the news About the Ottoman Empire. The news about Armenians highlighted the fact again that the activity of the court-martials and of the troops sent to the problematic areas45 was not as efficient as it had been planned to be. The newspaper did not criticise this, only communicated reports about their incapability without any comments. On the other hand Prager Tagblatt did not state in this fading period, that Abdul Hamid was responsible for the massacres while the events were echoed in a gradually fading way. Concluding Prager Tagblatt’s picture about the massacres, the relatively small quantity of articles dealing with the issue does not result in an as representative image as in Pester Lloyd. But paying attention to the fact that the Czech newspaper had more internal issues to deal with, the significance of the news from the Ottoman Empire is quite noteworthy. The daily did not have strongly contradictory phases, and the massacres were tied to Abdul Hamid II. only in the earlier phase of the events, but the earlier opinions about his responsibility might contribute to the disappearing importance of the events. The last newspaper which dealt with the Ottoman Empire in the greatest quantity is Neue Freie Presse. The daily’s three phases are also clearly visible though the newspaper had its own perspective, too. The first period took from 13 to 27 April when the general news on the Empire were at a quite homogenous importance level, almost always leading articles, but the massacres’ significance did not parallel with this. At the beginning of the massacres there was a unique speculation present, that the incident of Adana had been only due to the fact that the local Muslim mob had heard about the situation in the capital. One of the articles states that the sultan must have not risked his situation by his having been suspicious for supporting a reactionary movement, so his responsibility is denied. Furthermore the international balance of power might cause Russia’s and Britain’s intervention in favour of Christians.46 The government was also unsuspected according to the newspaper, for they must have not provoked international intervention, therefore they also had

40 Article 51 41 Article 52 42 Article 53 43 Article 54 44 Article 55 45 Article 56; Article 57; Article 58; Article 59; Article 60; 46 Article 61

82


Éva Merénics

to make confident steps in order to stop the massacres.47 Between 19 and 22 April the Armenians’ issue was dealt with a higher importance than in the previous days. The articles about the massacres reported their cruelty, but the efforts to stop them were often mentioned, like the debate by the Chamber of Deputies was described together with the attempts for examination of the case and sending military forces to the Adana Vilayet.48 There was also a sign of the start of an international intervention, but the news stated that the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was about to send one cruiser to protect Austro-Hungarian citizens and the embassy in Constantinople and further actions were in sight only in accordance with the great powers.49 From 23 till 26 April the news signalled loss of popularity of the Armenian news, while the Ottoman Empire was treated in leading articles. An author underlined the opinion that the victory of the Young Turks was inevitable, for ‘[y]outh always wins because she is the maintainer of folks and is the mark of vital vigour deepest inside [in them].’50 Hereby the newspaper expressed solidarity with the Young Turks like in other articles.51 The leading article on 24 April article stated that the conflict in Adana showed the bloodshed’s mainly religious roots.52 After this the newspaper alleged ties between Abdul Hamid and the events by comparing the current massacres to the ones of 1895-96.53 The other occurrences of the bloodshed were usually connected to foreign intervention while mainly reports from Ottoman state sources denied any tensions.54 Such contradictions were commented in only one case, but the article is important, because it is present in all of the three examined newspapers. This reported for the first time the retrospective accusation of Armenians having provoked the massacres. This is a clear sign of solidarity in all of the newspapers. Neue Freie Presse Furthermore stated that the ‘civilised world’ must not have left this issue unsolved.55 On the other hand on 25 April also a report by the Ottoman Embassy in Vienna was published without any comments stating that armed Armenians had insulted Muslims in Dortyol and the English vice-consul in Mersina, but the authorities had done everything they could in order to protect foreign properties.56 The next phase took from 27 April to 24 May. From 5 to 9 May the importance of the Ottoman Empire was decreasing because the newspaper also tended to report and analyse the crisis in Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina is mentioned, together with other unrelated issues. Generally the significance of news on the Ottoman Empire tended to have more visible cycles while the popularity of reports on Armenians were following the importance of general articles about the Ottoman Empire. The latter ones signalled growing distrust towards Abdul Hamid II in parallel with Mohamed V’s inauguration.57 An article even stated that Ab47 Article 62 48 Article 63; Article 64; Article 65 49 Article 66; Article 67; Article 68; Article 69; Article 70; Article 71; Article 72; Article 64 50 Article 73 51 Article 74; Article 61 52 Article 75 53 Article 76 54 Article 77 55 Article 76 56 Article 78 57 Article 79; Article 80; Article 81

83


Éva Merénics

dul Hamid or people in his confidence had ordered the massacres, as the soldiers sent to the region had gotten serious financial supports from them. He was also accused of his keeping the current massacres quiet. At the same time the new leadership’s chances to solve the problem seemed to be low although the massacres were described as the first test for the Young Turks.58 In spite of this fact even military troops which had the task to re-establish order took part in slaughtering people and Kurdish participation was also evident.59 Local authorities’ reports were shown to the Chamber of Deputies which reports were said to prove Armenian provocation and were opposed by Armenian deputies.60 The latter ones had even organised a solidarity march where Young Turk leaders had also taken part,61 which indicates the lightmindedness of their presence if we take their future leading role during the genocide into account. The author of the report had chosen the title ‘Young Turks’ demonstration against the Armenian Massacres’. Meanwhile the organisers were of Armenian origin, irrespective of their political orientation. The first comment indicating the responsibility of the current rulers was published on 30 April£ ‘It is noteworthy that the circles of the Porte are going on ascribing the events in Vilayet Adana to the Armenian [Revolutionary] Commission.’ This appeared after having stated that Adana was only a pile of ash and the Armenians were extirpated.62 After these controversial statements Neue Freie Presse based on the opinion of a professor not named, wrote on the responsibility of western press in case of such a massacre.63 The articles mentioned also some efforts of the state power to intervene. The Ottoman authorities made symbolic measures to stop the massacres, for example Mahmud Shefket’s visit to the Armenian patriarch or the lecture of Niazi Bey in an Armenian school.64 The real intervention had been characterised by handling the aftermath of the massacres, not its roots. This means charity, troop-sending, strong censorship of press, and restriction of telegrams from the region.65 In these days the rulers started to deny still humiliating actions against Armenians and to emphasise Muslim inhabitants’ much graver situation.66 Neue Freie Presse on the contrary remarkably started to rely on Armenian sources at a greater extent. Meanwhile foreign intervention was one of the least important issues in the newspaper among the articles on the massacres as they were mentioned in the last row and in a small quantity. 67 In the last period after 24 May the Armenian massacres appeared only on 13 days. Turkey was mentioned more in connection with the international share of power and within this with the Crete question. The news already known from Pester Lloyd and Prager Tagblatt was nearly the same,68 but Neue Freie Presse did not take into account the statement of Hilmi pasha that 58 Article 82; Article 83; Article 84; Article 85; Article 86; Article 87 59 Article 88; Article 89; Article 87; Article 90; Article 91; Article 92 60 Article 93 61 Article 94 62 Own translation, original phrase: "Bemerkenswert ist, daβ die Pfortenkreise fortfahren, die Ereignisse in Vilajet Adana dem Armenischen Kommittee zuzuschreiben" Article 89 63 Article 95 64 Article 96; Article 97 65 Article 98; Article 99; Article 100; Article 101; Article 102; Article 103; Article 104; Article 105; Article 106; Article 104 66 Article 107 67 Article 99; Article 108; Article 109; Article 110; Article 111; Article 112; Article 113; 68 See for example Article 114; Article 115; Article 116; Article 117; Article 118; Article 119;

84


Éva Merénics

the massacres had been caused by Abdul Hamid and the Armenians tied the events to his reign. Therefore greater neutrality can be stated in this case. The conclusion about the newspaper is that it was generally less influenced by the great powers’ and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy’s opinion. The vivid international attention did not even cause growing importance of the events in the daily. While in the beginning it was understating the graveness of the massacres by describing them as a local religious conflict, this started to be balanced by giving more reliability to Armenian sources. Hereby also the incapability of the state bodies was more visible. Concerning Abdul Hamid’s responsibility, the newspaper stated it was proven, but expressed that the situation was not solved by the change of power. Now that all newspapers are described there are still factors of the events which can only be reconstructed from all three newspapers. Such is the direct cause of the events. Pester Lloyd described that the massacres had started because of a murder.69 Prager Tagblatt wrote that an Armenian had wounded two Muslims for self-defence and due to this, local Muslims started to slaughter Armenians.70 Finally Neue Freie Presse published the report of the Ottoman Embassy in Vienna stating that an Armenian had been attacked by two Muslims because of an incident in connection with a woman. After this the Armenian had wounded them and one of them died. This event had been followed by scattered fights, and armed Armenians had rallied in the surroundings, Muslims had resisted, and the local authorities had intervened.71 Paying attention to the frequent official distortion of reports, and the beginning of the Ottoman embassy’s report overlap Prager Tagblatt’s version, the latter seems to be the most probable. The dailies had found proofs of Abdul Hamid’s direct responsibility. This might be true, but could also signal the witnesses’ fear from being impeached by the new reigning power. After this non-excludable accountability of Abdul Hamid II also the responsibility of the Young Turks has to be stated. All newspapers made visible, that the new authorities had remained passive, had distorted reports and had accused Armenians in a retrospective manner. External actors in the events have to be mentioned, too. The great powers intervened mainly because their citizens and properties were endangered. Though, there was a sign of solidarity, the personnel of the battleships and of diplomatic bodies often helped Armenians. Among these the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy frequently expressed its passivity, but this had been probably possible because of annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina, as it was already analysed in the part about Pester Lloyd.72 Despite these the newspapers signalled that there must have been social solidarity towards Armenians in the Ottoman Empire if the significance of this issue was this high. The origins of sympathy exceed the framework of this analysis. Despite it may be stated or mentioned as questions to be answered later, that the probable cause could be the common Christian traditions of the different peoples and by the historical presence of Armenians in the Monarchy. It remains also a question how some years later this solidarity and the memory of the massacres of 1909 influenced the situation of Armenian refugees after the genocide.

69 Article 122 70 Article 123 71 Article 68 72 DIöSZEGI István Az Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia külpolitikája (The Foreign Policy of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) (Budapest; Vince Kiadó, 2001.) p. 124.

85


Éva MerÊnics

Annexes Annex I. Significance of the first articles connected to the topics indicated in Pester Lloyd First article about the Ottoman Empire x First article about Armenians

86


Éva Merénics

Annex II. Prager Tagblatt

Annex III. Neue Freie Presse

87


Éva Merénics

Bibliography DIÓSZEGI István A nagyhatalmi politika másfél évszázada (One and a Half Century of the of Great Power Politics) (Budapest; História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete, 1997.) DIÓSZEGI István Az Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia külpolitikája (The Foreign Policy of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) (Budapest; Vince Kiadó, 2001.) p. 124. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Zenta cirkáló története" (History of Cruiser Zenta) http://hajomakett.hu/content/view/655/41/ Article 1 Leading article in Pester Lloyd, 17 April 1909 p. 1. Article 2 "Unterredung mit einem Diplomaten" in Pester Lloyd, 23 April 1909. p. 3. Article 3"Die Lage in den Provinzen" in Pester Lloyd, 22 April 1909 p. 4. Article 4 "Die Situation in der Türkei" in Pester Lloyd, 23 April 1909 Article 5 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd, 26 April 1909 p. 5. Article 6 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd, 27 April 1909 p. 7. Article 7 VÁMBÉRY Ármin "Die Absetzung des Sultans" in Pester Lloyd, 28 April 1909 pp. 1-3. Article 8 Leading article in Pester Lloyd 29 April 1909 p. 1. Article 9 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd, 30 April 1909 p. 4. Article 10 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd, 28 April 1909. p. 6. Article 11 "Christen- un Fremdenfeindliche Bewegung" in Pester Lloyd, 29 April 1909 p. 5.; Article 12 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd1 May 1909 p. 5. Article 13 "Die Vorgänge im Orient" in Pester Lloyd, 3 May 1909 p. 3. Article 14 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd 3 May 1909 p. 5. Article 15 "Die Armenischen Massakers" in Pester Lloyd 4 May 1909 p. 4. Article 16 "Maßrichtungen gegen die Presse" (not part of the described sample) p. 3. in Pester Lloyd 5 May 1909, Article 17 "Die Armeniermassakers" p. 4. in Pester Lloyd 5 May 1909 Article 18 "Maßregelung der Presse" (not part of the sample) Pester Lloyd 6 May 1909 p. 3. Article 19 Die Ereignisse in der Türkei in Pester Lloyd 7 May 1909 p. 4. Article 20 "Vorstellungen der Mächte wegen der Gefährdung der Christen" in Pester Lloyd 8 May 1909 p. 5. Article 21 Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd 9 May 1909 p. 4. Article 22 "Schutz Österreich-Ungarischen Untertanen" in Pester Lloyd 4 May 1909 p. 4.

88


Éva Merénics Article 23 "Die Intervention der Mächte" in Pester Lloyd 10 May 1909 p. 3. Article 24 Leading article in Pester Lloyd 11 May 1909 p. 1. Article 25 "Die Lage in den Provinzen" in Pester Lloyd 16 May 1909 p. 5. Article 26 "Ansuchen der Armenier um Hilfe" in Pester Lloyd 21 May 1909 p. 2. Article 27 Leading article in Pester Lloyd 26 May 1909. p. 1. Article 28 "Audienz des Botschafters Markgrafen Pallavicini beim König" in Pester Lloyd 26 May 1909 p. 6. Article 29 "Die Ereignisse in der Türkei" p. 7. in Pester Lloyd 26 May 1909 Article 30 Leading Article in Pester Lloyd 8 June 1909. p.1. Article 31 Die Kretische Frage in Pester Lloyd 14 June 1909. p. 2. Article 32 Leading article in Pester Lloyd 16 June 1909. p. 1. Article 33 "Die armenischen Unruhen"in Pester Lloyd 24 May 1909 p. 2. Article 34 "Die armenischen Massakers" in Pester Lloyd 23 April 1909 p. 4. Article 35 "Die Armeniermassakers" 13 May 1909, p.3. Article 36 "Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd 12 May 1909. p. 3. Article 37 "Die Lage in den Provinzen" in Pester Lloyd 15 May 1909., p. 6. Article 38 "Der Sturz der Jungtürken" in Prager Tagblatt 15. April 1909 p. 1. Article 39 "Berliner Regierungskreise über die Gegenrevolution" in Prager Tagblatt, 15 April 1909. p. 3. Article 40 "Abdul Hamid" in Prager Tagblatt 25 April 1909 p. 2. Article 41 "Der Gerettete Sultan" in Prager Tagblatt 24 April 1909 p. 1. Article 42 "Der Triumph der Jungtürken" in Prager Tagblatt 20 April1909 p. 1. Article 43 "Der pardonierte Despot" in Prager Tagblatt 22 April 1909, p.1. Article 44 "Massacre zwischen Mohammedanern und Armeniern" in Prager Tagblatt 17 April 1909 p. 3. Article 45 "Die Ereignisse in der Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 18 April 1909 p. 1. Article 46 "Die Ergebnisse in der Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 19 April 1909. p. 1. Article 47 "Massacres in Kleinasien und Syrien" in Prager Tagblatt 22 April 1909 p. 2.; Article 48 "Christenverfolgungen in Kleinasien und Syrien" in Prager Tagblatt 23 April 1909 pp. 2-3. Article 49 "Der Thronwechsel in der Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 21 April 1909 pp. 1-2. Article 50 "Massakers in Syrien" in Prager Tagblatt 3 May 1909 p. 3. Article 51 "Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 18 May 1909 p. 3. Article 52 "Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 15 May 1909 p. 4. Article 53 "Die Armenier flehen um Hilfe" in Prager Tagblatt 21 May 1909. p. 4. Article 54 "Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 12 May 1909. p.4. Article 55 "Die Lage in der Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 10 May 1909. p. 2. Article 56 "Das Strafgericht in Adana" in Prager Tagblatt 23 May 1909. p. 3. Article 57 "Türkei" in Prager Tagblatt 24 May 1909 p. 3. Article 58 "Unruhen in Armenien und Albanien" in Prager Tagblatt 29 May 1909 p. 3. Article 59"Tätigkeit der Kriegsgerichte" in Prager Tagblatt 3 June 1909. p. 2. Article 60 "Zu den Metzleien von Adana" in Prager Tagblatt 7 June 1909. p. 2. Article 61 Leading article in Neue Freie Presse 17 April 1909 p. 1. Article 62 "Die Jungtürken vor Konstantinopel’ 18 April 1909 p.2. Article 63 "Debatte in der Kammer über die Vorgänge in Adana" in Neue Freie Presse 19 April 1909 p. 4. Article 64 "Unterredungen mit zwei Syrischen Politikern" in Neue Freie Presse 21 April 1909 p. 4. Article 65 "Maßnahmen von Verhütung von Blutvergießen" in Neue Freie Presse 22 April 1909. p. 4. Article 66"Die eventuelle Entsendung von Kriegsschiffen nach Konstantinopel" in Neue Freie Presse 16 April 1909 p. 4. Article 67 "Die Metzleien in Adana" in Neue Freie Presse 19 April 1909. p. 4.

89


Éva Merénics Article 68 "Die Armeniermetzleien in Kleinasien" p. 5. in Neue Freie Presse 20 April 1909 Article 69 "Entsendung amerikanischer Kriegesschiffe" in Neue Freie Presse 21 April 1909 p. 7. Article 70 "Einigung der Mächte für den Fall einer Intervention" p. 5. Article 71 "Die Metzleien in Syrien" p. 7. in Neue Freie Presse 22 April 1909 Article 72 "Die Haltung Österreich-Ungarns" in Neue Freie Presse 20 April 1909 p. 6. Article 73 Leading article in Neue Freie Presse 25 April 1909 p. 1. Article 74"Die Katastrophe in der Türkei" in Neue Freie Presse 21 April 1909 p. 1. Article 75 Leading article in Neue Freie Presse 24 April 1909 p. 1. Article 76"Das Armeniermetzlei in Kleinasien" in Neue Freie Presse 23 April 1909 p. 5-6. Article 77 See for example: "Eine Zuschrift der Türkischen Botschaft" in Neue Freie Presse 23 April 1909 p. 6. Article 78 "Die Unruhen in Adana" in Neue Freie Presse 25 April 1909 p. 6. Article 79 "Der Thronwechsel in der Türkei" in Neue Freie Presse 5 May 1909 p. 2. Article 80 "Der Thronwechsel in der Türkei" in Neue Freie Presse 7 May 1909 p. 6. Article 81 "Der Thronwechsel in der Türkei" in Neue Freie Presse 8 May 1909 p. 5. Article 82"Das Schicksal des Sultans" in Neue Freie Presse 27 April 1909. p. 2. Article 83 Leading article in Neue Freie Presse 28 April 1909. p. 1. Article 84 "Der Sultan und die Armenier" p. 4. in Neue Freie Presse 28 April 1909. Article 85 "Die Christenmetzleien in Syrien" p. 6. in Neue Freie Presse 28 April 1909..; Article 86 "Der Gefangene von Saloniki" in Neue Freie Presse 30 April 1909. p. 2. Article 86 "Die erste Kraftprobe des Jungtürkentums" in Neue Freie Presse 1 May 1909 p. 2. Article 87"Die Christenmetzleien in Syrien" in Neue Freie Presse 27 April 1909 p. 5.; Article 89 "Das Armenierblutbad in Adana" in Neue Freie Presse 30. April 1909, p. 2.; Article 88 "Das Gemetzel in den Vilajets Adana und Aleppo" in Neue Freie Presse 3 May 1909 p. 4 Article 89 "Bedrohung der Armenier in Kleinasien" in Neue Freie Presse 3 May 1909 p. 4.; Article 92 "Die Armeniergemetzel" in Neue Freie Presse 4 May 1909 p. 5. Article 90 "Eine Debatte über die Armeniergemetzel" in Neue Freie Presse 3 May 1909 p. 4. Article 91 "Demonstration der Jungtürken gegen die Armeniermetzleien" in Neue Freie Presse 4 May 1909 p. 5. Article 92 "Sultan Abdul Hamid und die Christen im Orient" in Neue Freie Presse 1 May 1909 p. 2. Article 93 "Zur Beruhigung der Armenier in Neue Freie Presse 16 May 1909 p. 8.; Article 97 Die türkischen Behörden und die Armenier" in Neue Freie Presse 17 May 1909 p. 3. Article 94"Maßregeln gegen die Presse" (not part of the sample) in Neue Freie Presse 5 May 1909 p. 3. Article 95 "Die Aufschreitungen gegen die Armenier" in Neue Freie Presse 5 May 1909 p. 3. p. 4. Article 96 "Anordnungen des Generalissimus Schefket Pascha" in Neue Freie Presse 6 May 1909 p. 4. Article 97 "Verlängerung des Terminus für die Waffenabsetzung" in Neue Freie Presse 9 May 1909 p. 7. Article 98 "Das Programm des neuen Kabinetts in Neue Freie Presse 13 May 1909. p. 8., Article 103 "Kriegsgerichtliche Verfolgung von Zeitungsherausgebern" in Neue Freie Presse 19 May 1909. p. 5. (not part of the sample) Article 99 "Die Lage in Syrien" in Neue Freie Presse 20 May 1909. p. 5. Article 100"Verschärfungen des Preßgesetzes" (not part of the sample) Article 101"Weisungen Mahmud Schefket Paschas an die Presse" in Neue Freie Presse 21 May 1909 p. 5. Article 102"Die Aufschreitungen gegen die Armenier" in Neue Freie Presse 12 May 1909. p. 5. Article 103 "Die Metzleien in Adana" in Neue Freie Presse 6 May 1909 p. 5. Article 104 "Die angebliche Intervention fremder Mächte" in Neue Freie Presse 9 May 1909 p. 7. Article 105 Intervention des Russischen Botschafters für die Armenier in Musch" in Neue Freie Presse 16 May 1909. p. 8. Article 106 "Die Vereinigten Staaten für den Schutz der Christen im Orient" in Neue Freie Presse 17 May 1909 p. 3. Article 107 "Bitte der türkischen Armenier um Hilfe" in Neue Freie Presse 21 May 1909 p. 5.

90


Éva Merénics Article 108 "Minister Pichon über die Armeniergemetzel" in Neue Freie Presse 18 May 1909 p. 4. Article 109 "Befürchtungen über Armeniermetzleien in Zeitun" in Neue Freie Presse 24 May 1909 p. 3. Article 110"Das Regierungsprogramm Hilmi Paschas" in Neue Freie Presse 25 May 1909 p. 3. Article 111 "Furcht vor einem Angriff der Kurden" in Neue Freie Presse 27 May 1909 p. 6.; Article 117 "Kriegsgerichtliche Urteile und Verhaftungen" in Neue Freie Presse 3 June 1909 p. 5. Article 112 "Ein Blutiger Vorfall in Adana" in Neue Freie Presse 6 June 1909 p. 8. Article 113 "Russische und englische Ratschläge an die Pforte" in Neue Freie Presse 13 June 1909, p. 6. Article 114 "Die Lage in Adana" in Pester Lloyd 13 June 1909. p. 5. Article 115 "Die Armeniermassakers" in Pester Lloyd 11 May 1909 p. 5. Article 116 "Beunruhigung in der Provinz" in Pester Lloyd 16 April 1909 p. 4.; Article 117 "Die Schreckenherrschaft des Moslims" in Prager Tagblatt 18 April 1909 p. 2. Other related issues of the newspapers are from 13 April 1909 till 20 June, available at: http://anno.onb.ac.at

¾í³ Ø»ñ»ÝÇã ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ Áëï ³íëïñá-ÑáõÝ·³ñ³Ï³Ý ûñûñÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹áõÙÝ»ñÇ ³Ù÷á÷áõÙ Ðá¹í³ÍáõÙ ùÝÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ ³éÝíáõÙ ³íëïñá-ÑáõÝ·³ñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ñÓ³·³ÝùÁ£ лﳽáïáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ÁÝïñí»É ¿ »ñ»ù ûñÃ` ìÇ»ÝݳÛÇ §Neue Freie Presse¦–Á, ´áõ¹³å»ßïÇ §Pester Lloyd¦–Á ¨ äñ³Ñ³ÛÇ §Prager Tagblatt¦–Á£ ijٳݳϳ·ñ³Ï³Ý ³éáõÙáí ùÝÝáõÃÛ³Ý »Ý ³éÝíáõÙ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 13-Çó ÙÇÝ㨠1909 Ã. ÑáõÝÇëÇ 20-Á ÁÝÏ³Í Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ£ Ðá¹í³ÍÁ, ÑÇÙÝ³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáí ·»ñ³½³Ýó³å»ë ³íëïñá-ÑáõÝ·³ñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹³Í ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ íñ³, áõß³·ñ³í ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ѳÕáñ¹»Éáõó μ³óÇ, ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý ÙÇïáõÙÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ÁÝÏ³Í ¿ÇÝ ³Û¹ ûٳÛÇ Éáõë³μ³ÝÙ³Ý ÑÇÙùáõÙ` ϳåí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ¨ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ÂáõñùdzÛÇ Ý»ñëáõÙ ³Ýóáõ¹³ñÓ»ñÇ ßáõñç ²íëïñá-ÐáõÝ·³ñdzÛÇ ¹ÇñùáñáßÙ³Ý Ñ»ï£

91


àð´²ÊÜ²Ø ¶àðÌàôܺàôÂÚàôÜÀ 1909 Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºì вȺäÆ Ü²Ð²Ü¶ÜºðàôØ îºÔÆ àôܺò²Ì æ²ð¸ºðÆò кîà ²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý àñå»ë ϳÝáÝ, ó³Ýϳó³Í å³ï»ñ³½ÙÇ, μÝ³Ï³Ý ³Õ»ïÇ Ï³Ù ³ÛÉ ³ñï³Ï³ñ· Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÇ å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ³Ù»Ý³Ëáó»ÉÇ ¨ ³Ýå³ßïå³Ý ËáõÙμÁ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÝ »Ý£ ´³ó³éáõÃÛáõÝ ãϳ½Ù»óÇÝ Ý³¨ 1909Ã. úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÁ£ ¸»é¨ë 1894-1896ÃÃ. ÁÝóóùáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí áñμ³ó³í ßáõñç 60.000 Ñ³Û »ñ»Ë³£1 úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ϳñ·»ñÇ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·ÝáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á ÏñÏÇÝ »ÝóñÏí»ó Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ` Ññ³ï³å ¹³ñÓÝ»Éáí áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá, ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ½³ï, áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñÝ»ñÁ£ æ³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá μ³óí»óÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ, áñï»Õ ³å³ëï³Ý ·ï³Ý Ù»Í Ãíáí Ñ³Û áñμ»ñ£ ²Ûë Ñá¹í³Íáõ٠ϳݹñ³¹³éݳÝù ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ 1908Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçáõÙÇó ¨ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³Ñéã³ÏáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ²½·³ÛÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ½Ù»ó àñμ³Ëݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáí, áñÇ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ ¿ñ Ñá·³É Ñ³ÙÇ¹Û³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí áñμ³ó³Í »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ËݳÙùÁ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ 1909Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá àñμ³Ëݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ÙÇ³Ï ·áñÍÁ ¹³ñÓ³í ³Û¹ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí áñμ³ó³Í Ñ³Û »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ËݳÙùÝ áõ ¹³ëïdzñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ£2 ²Û¹ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ²½·³ÛÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛáõÝÁ 1909Ã. û·áëïáëÇÝ Ï³½Ù»ó ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ áñμ³Ëݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÁ£3 гÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñ ¹³ñÓ³Ý 13 Ñá·Ç, áñáÝóÇó ÁÝïñí»ó гÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ¹Çí³ÝÁ, áñÇ Ï³½ÙáõÙ ÁÝ·ñÏí»óÇÝ ²ñß³Ï ÞÙ³íáÝ»³ÝÁ` ³ï»Ý³å»ï, Ú³Ïáμ ¶áñ»³Á` ÷á˳ï»Ý³å»ï, ê³ñ·Çë êáõÇÝÁ` ³ï»Ý³¹åÇñ, Ü»ñë¿ë úѳݻ³ÝÁ` ÷á˳ï»Ý³¹åÇñ, ²ÉÇùë³Ý Âû÷³É»³ÝÁ` ·³ÝÓ³å»ï£4 ²ÛÝ Çñ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³çáÕ ÁÝóóùÇ »ñ³ßËÇùÝ»ñ ѳٳñáõÙ ¿ñ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ³½ÝÇí ½·³óáõÙÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ §úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ñÛ³ó³Ï³ÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦£5 ܳËù³Ý ѳ½³ñ³íáñ áñμ»ñÇ û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍÇÝ ³ÝóÝ»ÉÁ ѳñϳíáñ ¿ñ å³ñ½»É Ýñ³Ýó ëïáõÛ· ÃÇíÝ áõ ËݳٻÉáõ Ñݳñ³íáñ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñÁ£6 ²Û¹ ÇëÏ å³ï׳éáí áñáßáõ٠ϳ۳óí»ó Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÇÝ ï»Õáõ٠ͳÝáÃ³Ý³É ¨ ³ÝËݳ٠Ùݳó³Í áñμ»ñÇÝ ï»Õ³íáñ»É Çñ»Ýó ÙÇç³í³ÛñÇ ³Ù»Ý³Ñ³ñÙ³ñ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ£7 î»ÕáõÙ áñμ»ñÇÝ Ñ³í³ù»Éáõ ¨ áñμ³Ýáó1 Raymond H. Kévorkian, La Cilicie (1909-1921). Des Massacres d’Adana au Mandat Français, 1999, p.102. 2 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠۳ÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ, 1910 ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 11 – 1912 ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 11£ Ú³õ»Éáõ³Í ï»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ùÝÝÇã-å³ïáõÇñ³Ï ä. ij· ê³Û³å³É»³Ý£ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 8£ 3 ÎÇÉÇÏÇá áñμ³Ëݳ٠ϻ¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý Û³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí£ î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ 1909 û·áëïáë 7 – 1910 ¹»Ïï»Ùμ»ñ 31, Î.äáÉÇë, 1911, ¿ç 3£ 4 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 5-6£ 5 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 8£ 6 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 6£ 7 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 7£

92


²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý

Ý»ñ ÑÇÙÝ»Éáõ ·áñÍÁ ϳñ·³íáñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ÁÝïñí»ó ʳã³ïáõñ ¶éáõ½Û³ÝÁ, áí ³ß˳ï»É ¿ñ ì³ÝÇ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý áñμ³ÝáóáõÙ ¨ áõÝ»ñ áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý ÷áñÓ£ àñμ»ñÁ ¹³ë³Ï³ñ·í»óÇÝ »ñÏáõ ËÙμÇ` 1. Æ Ñáñ» ¨ Ç Ùáñ» áñμ 2. ØdzÛÝ Ç Ñáñ» áñμ êϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ áñáßáõÙ ¿ñ ϳ۳óí»É áñμ»ñÇÝ ï»Õ³÷áË»É ¨ ³å³ëï³Ý ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»É Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇ, ¼ÙÛáõéÝdzÛÇ ¨ º·ÇåïáëÇ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÁ í»ñçÇÝ å³ÑÇÝ Ï³ñ·³¹ñáõÙ ¿ ï»Õáõ٠ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ£8 ²Û¹ áñáßáõÙÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ñ ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³Ýùáí, áñ áñμ»ñÝ ³Ûë ¨ ³ÛÝ ÏáÕÙ ãóñí»ÇÝ, ãÑ»é³Ý³ÛÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ѳÛñ»ÝÇ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇó ¨ Çñ»Ýó ûç³ËÝ»ñÇó£9 àñμ»ñÇÝ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë ï»Õ³÷áË»Éáõ ·³Õ³÷³ñÇ ¹»Ù ÙÇ áõß³·ñ³í Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙ ¿ ½»ï»Õí³Í §´Çõáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝǦ ѳٳñÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏáõÙ` §ÎÇÉÇÏ»óÇ áñμ»ñáõÝ ËݹÇñÁ¦ Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ, ÝßíáõÙ ¿, áñ åáÉë³Ñ³Û»ñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ïÇñáÕ Ï³ñÍÇùÝ ³ÛÝ ¿ñ, áñ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ áñμ»ñÇÝ ³í»ÉÇ Ýå³ï³Ï³Ñ³ñÙ³ñ ¿ñ ï»ÕáõÙ å³ïëå³ñ»É ¨ Ïñûɣ àñå»ë ÑÇÙݳíáñáõÙ ÝßíáõÙ ¿ñ ѳÛñ»ÝÇ í³Ûñ»ñÇó ãÏïñ»ÉÁ ¨ ï»ÕáõÙ áñμ³ËݳÙÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³Ý Ù³ïã»ÉÇáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ÇÝãÁ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ÏÁÝÓ»é»ñ ³í»ÉÇ Ù»Í Ãíáí áñμ»ñ ËݳٻÉáõ£ ´³óÇ ³Û¹, ÷áñÓÁ óáõÛó ¿ñ ï³ÉÇë, áñ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ áñμ»ñÇÝ å³ïß³× ËݳٻÉáõ ¨ ÏñûÉáõ ϳñáÕáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ó³ÝÏáõÃÛáõÝ ãϳñ£ гÙÇ¹Û³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³ñÛáõñ áñμ»ñ μ»ñí»óÇÝ Ù³Ûñ³ù³Õ³ù, áñï»Õ §Ï³Ù Ãáù³Ëï ÁÝÏ³Ý Ï³Ù, ëï³Ñ³Ï ¹³ñӳݦ£ Ðá¹í³Í³·ÇñÁ »½ñ³Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿, áñ ³í»ÉÇ Ýå³ëï³íáñ ÏÉÇÝÇ, »Ã» åáÉë³Ñ³Û»ñÁ Ù³ëݳÏó»Ý Ýå³ëï³Ù³ïáõÛóÇÝ` ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»Éáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ ÑÇÙÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£10 ²Ûë ѳñóÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ ݳ¨ ѳϳé³Ï ϳñÍÇù£ Ð³Û ·ñáÕ, Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³Ëáë êáõñ»Ý ä³ñè۳ÝÁ ¹»Ù ¿ñ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ áñμ»ñÇÝ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ å³Ñ»Éáõ ·³Õ³÷³ñÇÝ` ÑÇÙݳíáñ»Éáí Çñ ï»ë³Ï»ïÁ Ýñ³Ýáí, áñ Ýñ³Ýó ѳٳñ ã³÷³½³Ýó ͳÝñ ÏÉÇÝ»ñ μݳÏí»É ³ÛÝ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ, áñï»Õ ëå³Ýí»É ¿ÇÝ Ýñ³Ýó ÍÝáÕÝ»ñÁ, ³Ù»Ý ûñ ï»ëÝ»É Ýñ³Ýó ëå³ÝáÕÝ»ñÇÝ, ï»ëÝ»É, ÇÝãå»ë »Ý Ñ»é³ÝáõÙ Çñ»Ýó ѳٻñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÁ£11 àõëïÇ Ý³ ³é³ç³ñÏáõÙ ¿ñ áñμ»ñÇÝ ï»Õ³÷áË»É ÎÇåñáë£12 ¶³Éáí áñμ»ñÇ ÃíÇÝ` ѳñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»Ý ï³ñμ»ñ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñ£ ²Ûëå»ë, ѳٳӳÛÝ ê³ñ·Çë êáõÇÝÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ` 1910Ã. û·áëïáëÇ ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõÙ »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ϳ½ÙáõÙ ¿ñ 8206, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` 4296 ïÕ³, 3910 ³ÕçÇÏ£13 è³ÛÙáݹ ¶¨áñ·Û³ÝÇ §ÎÇÉÇÏdz, 1909-1921ÃÃ.¦ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ гɻåÇ íÇɳۻÃÝ»ñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ùݳó³Í áñμ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ÝßíáõÙ ¿ 7903£14 1910 Ã. ÑáõÝí³ñÇ 13-ÇÝ ²Ù»Ý³ÛÝ Ð³Ûáó γÃáÕÇÏáëÇÝ áõÕÕí³Í ݳٳÏáõÙ Îáëï³Ý¹-

8 ä³ñûõ»³Ý êáõñ»Ý, ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý áñμ»ñÁ£ §²ñ»õ»É»³Ý Ù³Ùáõɦ, ÃÇí 26, 23 ÛáõÝÇë 1909, ¿ç 602£ 9 ÎÇÉÇÏÇá áñμ³Ëݳ٠ϻ¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý Û³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí£ î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ..., ¿ç 27£ 10 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃ, Î.äáÉÇë, 15 Ù³ÛÇëÇ 1909, ÃÇí 3838, ¿ç 3£ 11 êáõñ»Ý ä³ñûõ»³Ý, ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý áñμ»ñÁ..., ¿ç 603£ 12 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 604£ î»°ë ݳ¨, ä³ñûõ»³Ý êáõñ¿Ý, ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳíÇñùÁ£ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë, 1910, ¿ç 99£ 13 ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ áñμ³Ëݳ٠ϻ¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý Û³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí. î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ 1909 û·áëïáë 7 – 1910 ¹»Ïï»Ùμ»ñ 31 ¨ 1911 háõÝí³ñ 1 – 1911 háõÝÇë 30£ Î.äáÉÇë, 1911£ 14 λ¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÇõÝ. ¸³ñ ÙÁ å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ Ð³Û ´³ñ»·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ÀݹѳÝáõñ ØÇáõû³Ý. Ðï. 1. 1906-1940. ¶³ÑÇñ»-ö³ñǽ-ÜÇõ ºáñù, 2006£ Raymond H. Kévorkian, La Cilicie..., ¿ç 103£

93


²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý

ÝáõåáÉëÇ Ð³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù ºÕÇß» ¸áõñÛ³ÝÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿ 7-10.000 »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£15 Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ §úï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Édz½áñÝ»ñÇ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹Ç¦ ·³ÝÓ³å³Ñ àõÇÉÛ³Ù öÇÃÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿ñ, áñ, ѳٳӳÛÝ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñÝ»ñÇ ½»ÏáõÛóÝ»ñÇ, ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ËݳÙùÇ ¨ ³ç³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñáï 3-4.000 áñμ»ñ ϳݣ16 àñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍÁ å³ïß³× Ù³Ï³ñ¹³Ïáí ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»Éáõ ѳٳñ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ¿ñ ³å³Ñáí»É ËݹñÇ ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÁ£ 1908 Ã. ÝáÛ»Ùμ»ñÇ ëϽμÇÝ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõ٠ϳ½Ùí»ó Üå³ëï³Ù³ïáõÛó ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáí, áñÇ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ ¿ñ û·Ý»É ²ñ¨ÙïÛ³Ý Ð³Û³ëï³ÝÇ ¨ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ³Ýûè³Ý ¨ ÁÝã³½áõñÏ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÁ ¹³ñÓ³í ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³óáõÙÁ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ ÙdzÛÝ ³Û¹ ϳéáõÛóÇ Ñ³í³ù³Í ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí ³ÝÑݳñ ¿ñ ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ñá·³É μáÉáñ ϳñÇùÝ»ñÁ, áõëïÇ Üå³ëï³Ù³ïáõÛó ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ ³é³ç³ñÏ»ó ²½·³ÛÇÝ í³ñãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ` ϳ½Ù»É ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí£17 γÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñëáõÙ ¨ ¹ñ³ ë³ÑÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇó ¹áõñë Ýå³ëï³Ñ³í³ù ·áñÍÁ ϳÝáݳíáñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»Éáõ ѳٳñ ëï»ÕÍí»ó ØÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ Ýå³ëï³Ù³ïáõÛó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝ, áñÇ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óíáõÙ ¿ñ ëáõÉÃ³Ý Ø»ÑÙ»¹ 5-ñ¹Ç Ñáí³Ý³íáñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Ð³ÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ³é³çÇÝ ÝÇëïÁ ϳ۳ó³í 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ 9-ÇÝ£ гÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ áõÝ»ñ »ñÏáõ ËáõÙμ£ ØÇ ËáõÙμÁ ½μ³Õí»Éáõ ¿ñ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÇó Ýå³ëïÝ»ñÇ Ñ³í³ùÙ³Ý ·áñÍáí, ÙÛáõëÁ` ѳí³ùí³Í Ýå³ëïÝ»ñÇ μ³ßËٳݣ18 ØǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ áñμ³Ëݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ýÇݳÝë³Ï³Ý ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ ѳÛóÛûÉáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ѳٳñí»ó, áñå»ë½Ç áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ ѳëï³ï»Éáõ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó Ù³ï³Ï³ñ³ñÙ³Ùμ ½μ³Õí»Éáõó ½³ï ³ÛÝ Ý³¨ ѳëáõÛÃÇ ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñ ÷Ýïñ»Éáõ ¨ ¹ñ³Ù³Ñ³í³ù ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ Çñ³í³ëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ áõݻݳ£ êï³Ý³Éáí ²½·³ÛÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñïáÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ` гÝÓݳÅáÕáíÁ Ïáãáí ¹ÇÙ»ó ѳٳÛÝ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, áñáí Ñáñ¹áñáõÙ ¿ñ ³ç³Ïó»É áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍÇÝ£ ²í»ÉÇÝ, Ýå³ëï³Ñ³í³ùÇ ·áñÍÝ ³Ù»Ýáõñ»ù ϳÝáݳíáñ ÑÇÙù»ñÇ íñ³ ¹Ý»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí гÝÓݳÅáÕáíÁ áñáß»ó Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ, ·³í³éÝ»ñáõÙ, ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝáõÙ, ³Ù»Ýáõñ»ù, áõñ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ Ï³ñ, ÑÇÙÝ»É àñμ³Ëݳ٠ٳëݳËÙμ»ñ£19 ¸ñ³ Ñ»ï Ù»Ïï»Õ ³½·³ÛÇÝ Ù³ÙáõÉÁ ÝáõÛÝå»ë ç³Ý³ëÇñ³μ³ñ ù³ñá½áõÙ ¿ñ ³ÙμáÕç ³ß˳ñÑÇ Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³ÝÁ` û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ó»éù Ù»ÏÝ»Éáõ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ áñμ»ñÇÝ£ ²Û¹ ÏáãÁ ÝáõÛÝå»ë ³Ýå³ï³ëË³Ý ãÙݳó, ãÝ³Û³Í áñáß ï»Õ»ñáõÙ ëå³ë»ÉÇùÝ»ñÇó ³é³í»É ù³Ý ѳٻëï ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ïí»óÇÝ£ ²Ûëå»ë, ²ëïñ³Ë³ÝÇ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñáõÙ »ñ»ù ÏÇñ³ÏÇÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ѳݷ³Ý³Ïí»É ¿ñ Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ 70 éáõμÉÇ£20 γé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ë ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»ó ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÁ í»ñ³óÝ»Éáõ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ êϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ áñáßí»ó ÑÇÝ· ï³ñÇ Å³ÙÏ»ïáí ï³ñ»Ï³Ý 25.000 ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý áëÏÇ /Ñ»ï³Ûëáõ` û.á./ ѳïϳóÝ»É ²½·³ÛÇÝ å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇÝ` áñμ»ñÇ ¨ ³ÛñÇÝ»ñÇ Ï³ñÇùÝ»ñÁ Ñá·³Éáõ ѳٳñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ßáõïáí ³Û¹ ·áõÙ³ñÁ Ýí³½»óñ»ó ÙÇÝ㨠ï³ñ»Ï³Ý 10.000 û.á.£ ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÝ ³Û¹ ·áõ15 ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý èáõμ»Ý, гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ£ ºñ., 2005, ¿ç 82£ 16 Der Christliche Orient. Monatsschrift der Deutschen Orient-Mission. Schriftleiter: Dr. J. Lepsius und P. Klein. X. Jahrgang, 1909, ¿ç 124: 17 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ (å³ïÏ»ñ³½³ñ¹)£ ä¿ÛñáõÃ, 1964, ¿ç 693£ 18 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 696-697£ 19 ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ áñμ³Ëݳ٠ϻ¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý Û³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí, ¿ç 8-9£ 20 §Èñ³μ»ñ¦ ß³μ³Ã³Ã»ñÃ, ²ëïñ³Ë³Ý, 1909Ã. ÑáÏï»Ùμ»ñÇ 10, ÃÇí 38, ¿ç 3£

94


²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý

Ù³ñÝ»ñÁ μ³ßËáõÙ ¿ñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠¨ àñμ³Ëݳ٠ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí£21 êϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ áñμ»ñÁ ëÏë»óÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ý³É Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ, áõëïÇ ¶¨áñ· Ì. ìñ¹. ²ëɳÝÛ³ÝÇ ¨ ê³ñ·Çë êáõÇÝÇ ç³Ýù»ñáí ³é³çÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÁ μ³óí»ó Ñ»Ýó ³Û¹ï»Õ` ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ³Õ»ïÇó Ñ»ïᣠàñμ»ñÇÝ ï»Õ³íáñ»É ¿ÇÝ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ ³½·³ÛÇÝ í³ñųñ³ÝáõÙ£ êϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝáõÙ ³ÛÝï»Õ ѳßííáõÙ ¿ñ 410 »ñÏë»é áñμ£ àñμ³ÝáóÁ ïÝûñÇÝáõÙ ¿ñ ¶³éÝÇÏ ¸³íÃÛ³ÝÁ, ÇëÏ ÑëÏáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝáõÙ ¿ñ ¼³å»É ºë³Û³ÝÁ£22 ê³Ï³ÛÝ 1910 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ áñμ³ÝáóÁ ÷³ÏíáõÙ ¿, ù³ÝÇ áñ ï»ÕÇ ÏÉÇÙ³Ý ³Ýμ³ñ»Ýå³ëï ¿ñ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ³éáÕçáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ£ ²ÛÝï»Õ å³ÑíáÕ áñμ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ ѳÝÓÝí»ó Çñ»Ýó Ù³Ûñ»ñÇÝ, ÇëÏ ÙÛáõë Ù³ëÁ ï»Õ³÷áËí»ó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áñμ³Ýáó£ лﳷ³ÛáõÙ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñ μ³óí»óÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, г×ÁÝáõÙ, سñ³ßáõÙ, ²ÛÝó÷áõÙ, ¸áñà ÚáÉáõÙ ¨ гë³Ýμ»ÛÉÇáõÙ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áñμ³ÝáóÁ ÝáõÛÝå»ë μ³óí»ó ¼³μ»É ºë³Û³ÝÇ Ý³Ë³Ó»éÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ 1909Ã. û·áëïáëÇ 15-ÇÝ£ Æ ëϽμ³Ý» ³ÛÝï»Õ å³ÑíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ 100 »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñ, áñáÝó ÃÇíÁ ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ ³í»É³ó³í` ¹³éݳÉáí 233£ سñ³ßÇ áñμ³ÝáóÁ μ³óí»ó 1909 Ã. ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 1-ÇÝ£ ²Ûëï»Õ ·ïÝíáÕ »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ѳëÝáõÙ ¿ñ 178-Ç£ ʳã³ïáõñ ¶éáõ½Û³ÝÝ ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ϳï³ñ»ó áñμ»ñÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ μ³ó»ó áñμ³ÝáóÁ£ г×ÁÝÇ áñμ³ÝáóÁ μ³óí»ó 1909 Ã. ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 15-ÇÝ£ ²Ûëï»Õ å³ÑíáÕ »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÃÇíÁ ѳëÝáõÙ ¿ñ 350£ ²ÛÝó÷Ç áñμ³ÝáóÁ ÑÇÙÝí»ó 1909 Ã. ÑáÏï»Ùμ»ñÇ 1-ÇÝ, áñï»Õ ËݳÙíáõÙ ¿ñ 185 »ñÏë»é áñμ£ ²é³çÝáñ¹³Ï³Ý ÷á˳Ýáñ¹ î. гñáõÃÛáõÝ ù³Ñ³Ý³Ý áõÕ³ñÏí»ó ²ÝïÇáù ¨ ßñç³Ï³ í³Ûñ»ñ, ѳí³ù»ó ³ÛÝï»Õ ·ïÝíáÕ áñμ»ñÇÝ ¨ ï»Õ³÷áË»ó Ýñ³Ýó Ýáñ³μ³ó áñμ³Ýáó£ гë³Ýμ»ÛÉÇÇ áñμ³ÝáóÁ ÑÇÙÝí»ó 1909 Ã. ÑáÏï»Ùμ»ñÇ 10-ÇÝ, áñï»Õ å³ÑíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ 207 »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñ£ ì»ñç³å»ë, ¸áñà ÚáÉáõÙ áñμ³ÝáóÁ μ³óí»ó 1909 Ã. ÝáÛ»Ùμ»ñÇ 15-ÇÝ, ³ÛÝï»Õ å³ÑíáÕ »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ϳ½ÙáõÙ ¿ñ 273£ ÀݹѳÝáõñ ³éÙ³Ùμ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ, سñ³ßÇ, г×ÁÝÇ, ²ÛÝó÷Ç, гë³Ýμ»ÛÉÇÇ ¨ ¸áñà ÚáÉÇ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ 1426 »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñ, áñáÝóÇó 817` ïÕ³, 609` ³ÕçÇÏ£ àñμ»ñÇ ÁÝïñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳï³ñíáõÙ ¿ñ ËݳÙùáí ¨ Ù»Í ËݳÛáÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ÜϳïÇ ¿ÇÝ ³éÝíáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó ÁÝï³Ý»Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏÁ, Ù³Ûñ áõݻݳÉáõ å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ Ùáñ íÇ׳ÏÁ, ³éáÕçáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ²Û¹ ³Ù»ÝÁ ѳßíÇ ³éÝ»Éáõ ѻ勉Ýùáí г×ÁÝáõÙ, ûñÇݳÏ, 1000-Çó ³í»ÉÇ áñμ»ñÇó ÁÝïñí»É ¿ÇÝ Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ 350-Á£ ØÛáõë í³Ûñ»ñáõ٠ѳñ³μ»ñ³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ùáï³íáñ³å»ë ÝáõÛÝÝ ¿ñ£23 ²½·³ÛÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ³åñáõëïÁ Ñá·³Éáõó ½³ï ½μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ Ýñ³Ýó ÏñûÉáõ ·áñÍáí£ ²Û¹ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ ëï³ÝÓÝ»É ¿ÇÝ ²½·³Ýí»ñ ѳÛáõÑÛ³ó ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ØdzóÛ³É ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ¸åñáó³ë»ñ ïÇÏݳÝó ÁÝÏ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£24 ò³íáù, ³½·³ÛÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÇ íÇ׳ÏÁ ¨ ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ³å³ÑáíáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ãÝ³Û³Í Ó»éݳñÏí³Í ÙÇçáó³éáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, ½ÇçáõÙ ¿ñ å»ï³Ï³Ý ¨ ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Í áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÇÝ£

21 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 690£ 22 ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ áñμ³Ëݳ٠ϻ¹ñáÝ³Ï³Ý Û³ÝÓݳÅáÕáí, ¿ç 13-14£ 23 ÎÇÉÇÏÇá áñμ³ËݳÙ..., ¿ç 25£ 24 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 714£

95


²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý

Þáõïáí ²½·³ÛÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛáõÝÁ áñáßáõÙ ¿ ÷áùñ-ÇÝã ÷áË»É áñμ³Ëݳ٠³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñáõÙ áñ¹»·ñ³Í ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ гñϳíáñ ¿ñ ³ß˳ï³Ýùáí ³å³Ñáí»É Ñݳñ³íáñÇÝë ß³ï ³ÛñÇÝ»ñÇ, ÇÝãÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ñ í»ñ³¹³ñÓÝ»É áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ å³ÑíáÕ Çñ»Ýó »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ£ ¸ñ³ ßÝáñÑÇí Ñݳñ³íáñ ÏÉÇÝ»ñ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ å³Ñ»É ¨ ï»Õ ï³É »ñÏÏáÕÙ³ÝÇ áñμ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇÝ£25 1911 Ã. í»ñçÇ ïíÛ³ÉÝ»ñáí` ³ÛñÇÝ»ñÇ Ùáï ·ïÝíáÕ 3-18 ï³ñ»Ï³Ý »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÇ ÃÇíÝ ¿ñ` ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ` 2092 ïÕ³, 1551 ³ÕçÇÏ, гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ` 684 ïÕ³, 553 ³ÕçÇÏ, Àݹ³Ù»ÝÁ` 2776 ïÕ³, 2104 ³ÕçÇÏ, ³ÛëÇÝùÝ` 4880 »ñÏë»é áñμ£26 Àëï ê³ñ·Çë êáõÇÝÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ` áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ å³ÑíáÕ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ÃÇíÁ 3367 ¿ñ, áñáÝóÇó, ÇÝãå»ë ³ñ¹»Ý Ýßí»ó, ÙdzÛÝ 1426-Ý ¿ÇÝ ·ïÝíáõÙ ³½·³ÛÇÝ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ£ Øݳó³Í 1941 »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñÁ, áñáÝóÇó 978-Á` ïÕ³ ¨ 963-Á` ³ÕçÇÏ, ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ å»ï³Ï³Ý, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇ ÑÇÙÝ³Í áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ£ г×ÁÝÇ ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ å»ï³Ï³Ý áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ßáõñç 430 »ñÏë»é áñμ»ñ£ ´³óÇ ³Û¹ Ù»Í Ãíáí áñμ»ñ ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ»ï¨Û³É áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ` ²ÛÝó÷Ç ³Ý·ÉÇ³Ï³Ý áñμ³ÝáóáõÙ` 100, سñ³ßÇ ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý áñμ³ÝáóáõÙ` 727, سñ³ßÇ ³Ý·ÉÇ³Ï³Ý áñμ³ÝáóáõÙ` 200, г×ÁÝÇ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý áñμ³ÝáóáõÙ` 350£ ¶»ñٳݳϳÝ, ýñ³ÝëdzϳÝ, ³Ý·ÉdzϳÝ, ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ Ñ³Û áñμ»ñÁ, ×Çßï ¿, ëï³ÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ËݳÙù áõ Ñá·³ï³ñáõÃÛáõÝ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ñ³×³Ë ÏïñíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ³ñÙ³ïÝ»ñÇó£27 гۻñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ ¹Å·áÑáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Í ï»ÕÇù ¿ñ ï³ÉÇë ݳ¨ å»ï³Ï³Ý áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñÇ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ£28 ÀݹѳÝñ³óÝ»Éáí` ѳñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ 1909Ã. ³åñÇÉÛ³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á ϳñáÕ³ó³í ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É áñμ³Ëݳ٠·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛáõÝ, ÇÝãÇ ßÝáñÑÇí μ³½Ù³ÃÇí áñμ»ñ ÷ñÏí»óÇÝ ëïáõÛ· Ù³ÑÇó£ ´³óÇ ³Û¹, ³ÛÉ áñμ³ÝáóÝ»ñáõÙ ¨ë ËݳÙíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ½·³ÉÇ Ãíáí Ñ³Û áñμ»ñ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ ³Û¹ áñμ»ñÇ Ù»Í Ù³ëÇÝ Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ í»ó ï³ñÇ ³Ýó íÇ׳Ïí³Í ¿ñ ÏñÏÇÝ í»ñ³åñ»É ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³ÝùÝ»ñÁ£

25 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃ, Î.äáÉÇë, 4 ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 1910, ÃÇí 4225, ¿ç 2£ 26 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠۳ÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ... ï»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ùÝÝÇã-å³ïáõÇñ³Ï ä. ij· ê³Û³å³É»³Ý, ¿ç 95£ 27 Ü»ñë¿ë »åëÏ. ¸³ÝÇ¿É»³Ý (êë³Ï³Ý í³ñ¹³å»ï), γÃÇÉ ÙÁ çáõñ ³Ûñ³Í ëñï»ñáõ£ Î.äáÉÇë, ·ñ³ïáõÝ Ú. ¶ÁÉÁ×»³Ý, 1912, ¿ç 68£ 28 §²ñ³·³Í¦ å³ïÏ»ñ³½³ñ¹ ѳݹ¿ë, ÜÇõ ºûñù, û·áëïáë 17, 1911, ÃÇõ 13, ¿ç 193-194£

96


²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý

Aram Mirzoyan Orphan Care After 1909 Massacres in Provinces of Adana and Aleppo Summary Coup d’etat of Young Turks in 1908 raised a wave of hope among the subjected nations of the Ottoman Empire including Armenians who suffered the most during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid known as "Red Sultan". But the Cilicia massacres in April 1909, when 30.000 Armenians were killed, made them to rethink their expectations. As a result many Armenian children became orphans. Unlike the Armenian massacres of 1894-1896 Ottoman government allowed Armenians to launch relief work. Furthermore, it allocated some money for this work and opened several state orphanages. This article presents Armenian relief activities after the Adana massacres in 1909.

97


ØÞ²Îàô²ÚÆÜ òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü Æð²¶àðÌØ²Ü ØºÊ²ÜÆ¼Ø ÜºðÀ 1909 Â. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ ºì вð²ÎÆò Þðæ²ÜܺðÆ Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆ ÀܲòøàôØ ºì ¸ð²Üò кîºì²ÜøܺðÀ 껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý` Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù Çñ³·áñÍí³Í ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõÕ»Ïóí»ó ݳ¨ ѳ½³ñ³ÙÛ³ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Å³é³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ áãÝã³óÙ³Ùμ ϳ٠³Û¹ ³ñÅ»ùÝ»ñÝ ³ÛÉ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ»ñáí ÏÇñ³é»Éáõ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñáí, áñáÝù ÉÇáíÇÝ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë˳ÝáõÙ »Ý §Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõݦ μÝáñáßÙ³ÝÁ:1 سëݳíáñ³å»ë, ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÏñóÙß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ, Ñá·¨áñ ѳëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` áñå»ë ³½·³ÛÇÝ ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³Ñå³ÝÙ³Ý Ï³ñ¨áñ³·áõÛÝ ÙÇçáó úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñ³ÍùáõÙ, ãÝ³Û³Í ·áÛ³ï¨Ù³Ý ѳٳñ ÙÕ³Í Çñ»Ýó Ùßï³Ï³Ý å³Ûù³ñÇÝ` ß³ñáõÝ³Ï ·ïÝí»É »Ý áãÝã³óÙ³Ý íï³Ý·Ç Ù»ç ¨ ѳñí³ÍÇ ï³Ï ³éÝí»É ³é³çÇÝ ÇëÏ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åùáõÙ£ ´³½Ù³ÃÇí ÷³ëï»ñ íϳÛáõÙ »Ý, áñ ÇÝãå»ë 1894-1896 ÃÃ. ѳÙǹ۳Ý, 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ, ³ÛÝå»ë ¿É 1915-1923 ÃÃ. гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ áõÕ»Ïóí»É »Ý ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ³ñÅ»ùÝ»ñÇ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë` å³ßï³ÙáõÝù³ÛÇÝ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïٳ׳ñï³ñ³å»ï³Ï³Ý Ñáõß³ñÓ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÏñÃûç³ËÝ»ñÇ áãÝã³óÙ³Ùμ£ êïáñ¨ ÏËáëíÇ 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõ٠ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ³ñÅ»ùÝ»ñÇ áãÝã³óÙ³Ý »Õ³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÇ, ¹ñ³Ýó ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ áõ ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ, ѳïϳå»ë ·ÛáõÕ³Ï³Ý μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ Ñ³×³Ë Ñ³Ý¹Çë³ó»É ¿ áñå»ë ³å³ëï³ñ³Ý£ Êáõ׳å³Ñ³ñ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÷ñÏí»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ í³Ýù»ñáõÙ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñáõÙ` ϳñÍ»Éáí, áñ Ñá·¨áñ ³Û¹ ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ½»ñÍ ÏÙÝ³Ý ³í»ñ³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹³ áã ÙdzÛÝ ãÇ Ï³Ý·Ý»óñ»É, ³Ûɨ Ýå³ëï³íáñ å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñ ¿ ëï»ÕÍ»É ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ` Ññ¹»Ñ»Éáí »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ` ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï áÕç³Ïǽ»É Ý»ñëáõ٠óùÝí³Í μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ÜÙ³Ý ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñÁ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí »Ý Ý³¨ 1909 Ã. ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï£ ØdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ ³Û¹åÇëÇ ³å³ëï³ñ³ÝÝ»ñ ѳݹÇë³ó³Ý êμ êï»÷³Ýáë »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, áõñ ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ ßáõñç 2000 ѳۻñ, êμ ²ëïí³Í³ÍÇÝ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ` 1500 ѳۻñáí, Ñ³Û μáÕáù³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ¨ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý Ç·³Ï³Ý í³ñųñ³ÝÁ` ßáõñç 1000-³Ï³Ý ³å³ëï³ÝáÕÝ»ñáí, ×ǽíÇïÝ»ñÇ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ áõ ѳñ³ÏÇó ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` 6000 ѳۻñáí:2 ²Ûë ³éáõÙáí áõß³·ñ³í ¿ ²ÝïÇáùáõÙ Çéɳݹ³Ï³Ý-ßí»¹³Ï³Ý »ñÇó³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óáõ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ý¹³Ù ì»ñ. ê. ø»Ý»¹áõ ѻ鳷ñ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ, áñáõ٠ݳ ѳÕáñ¹áõÙ ¿. §²ÝïÇáùÇ Ù¿ç гÛù ç³ñ¹áõ»ó³Ý... Ðáë ϳóáõÃÇõÝÝ ÛáÛŠͳÝñ ¿£ ºÏ»Õ»óÇù ÉÇ »Ý ³å³ëï³Ý»³ÉÝ»ñáí... Ïå³ßïå³ÝáõÇÝ Î³é³í³ñáõûݿݦ:3 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇó å³ßïå³Ýí»Éáõ í»ñáÝßÛ³É Ù»Ãá¹Á ѳïáõÏ ¿ μáÉáñ ³ÛÝ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ½»ñÍ ãÙݳóÇÝ ³ñѳíÇñùÇó, ¨ ·ñ»Ã» ³Ù»Ýáõñ»ù ³å³ëï³ÝÛ³ÉÝ»ñáí É»óáõÝ ³Û¹ ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ áãÝã³óí»óÇÝ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ ²Ù»Ý³ÛÝ Ñ³Ûáó ϳÃáÕÇÏáëÇ ï»Õ³å³Ñ î. ¶¨áñ· ³ñù»åÇëÏáåáë êáõñ»ÝÛ³Ý1 î»°ë, Lyndel V. Prott, Ethnocide, Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Dinah L. Shelton [editor in chief], vol. 1, Thomson Gale, 2005, p. 309-310. 2 î»°ë §²ñ³ñ³ï¦, ä³ßïûÝ³Ï³Ý ³Ùë³·Çñ гÛñ³å»ï³Ï³Ý ³ÃáéáÛ ê. ¾çÙdzÍÝÇ, ÛáõÉÇë-û·áëïáë, ê. ¾çÙdzÍÇÝ, 1909, ¿ç 663, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú. Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ². Ù³ë, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 44£ 3 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 3818, ³åñÇÉ 21-4 Ù³ÛÇë, 1909, ¿ç 3£

98


껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý

óÇÝ áõÕÕí³Í (Î. äáÉÇë, 4-Á Ù³ÛÇë 1909 Ãí³ÏÇñ) å³ï³ë˳Ý-ݳٳÏáõÙ ÐáíѳÝÝ»ë »åÇëÏáåáë ²ñß³ñáõÝÇÝ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §ØÇÝã ó³ñ¹ ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³Ýë ѳë³Í μ³½Ù³ÃÇõ ѻ鳷ñ»ñ áõ ÃáõÕûñ ÏÁ·áõÅ»Ý ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ½³Ý³½³Ý ÏáÕÙ»ñÁ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ³Ñ³ñÏáõ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ¿Ý... ³½·³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÇõÝù ¨ ³éѳë³ñ³Ï μáÉáñ ß¿Ýù»ñ Ññ¹»Ñáõ³Í »Ý` ÙáËÇñÝ»ñáõ ˳éÝáõ³Í μ³½Ù³ÃÇõ ³ÝÓ»ñáõ ³×ÇõÝÝ»ñáí, áñáÝù ³å³ëï³Ý³Í ¿ÇÝ ³Û¹ ß¿Ýù»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç` Ïáïáñ³Í¿ Ëáõë³÷»Éáí...¦:4 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõ٠ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñá·¨áñ, ÏñóÙß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³é³í»É Ù»Í Í³í³ÉÇ áãÝã³óáõÙ ³ñӳݳ·ñí»ó Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë »ñÏñáñ¹ ç³ñ¹Ç ÁÝóóùáõÙ` ³åñÇÉÇ 12-Çó ëÏë³Í, »ñμ ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñ³çáϳïÝ»ñÁ ѳٳÉñí»óÇÝ ¨ Ýáñ áõÅáí ѳñÓ³ÏÙ³Ý ³Ýó³Ý:5 ²Û¹ ѳëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÃíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ êμ êï»÷³Ýáë »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ¨ Ýñ³ μ³ÏáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ ²ßË»ÝÛ³Ý Ç·³Ï³Ý ½áõÛ· í³ñųñ³ÝÝ»ñÁ, Øáõß»ÕÛ³Ý (ݳËÏÇÝáõÙ` ²μ·³ñÛ³Ý) í³ñųñ³ÝÁ,6 Ñ³Û Ï³ÃáÉÇÏ Â»ñ½Û³Ý í³ñųñ³ÝÝ áõ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, Ñ³Û μáÕáù³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÝ áõ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ,7 ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ ÑÇëáõëÛ³ÝÝ»ñÇ (×ǽíÇïÝ»ñ) ¹åñáóÁ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ8 ¨ ³ÛÉ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ ø³Õ³ùÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ÙdzÛÝ êμ ²ëïí³Í³ÍÇÝ Ø³Ûñ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ¨ Ýñ³ μ³ÏáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ ²½·³ÛÇÝ ³é³çÝáñ¹³ñ³ÝÝ áõ ²ñ³ÙÛ³Ý Ý³Ë³Ïñóñ³ÝÝ ³½³ïí»óÇÝ ÑñÏǽáõÙÇó:9 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Û μáÕáù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³é³çÝáñ¹ гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ Ð. ²ß×Û³ÝÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ýáí ³é³çÇÝ ç³ñ¹Ç ѻ勉Ýùáí íÇñ³íáñí³Í ѳۻñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ` Ãáõñù ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÝ Çμñ¨ ·»ñÇÝ»ñÇ, ï»Õ³÷áË»óÇÝ ù³Õ³ùÇ ²ßË»ÝÛ³Ý, ÇëÏ ½·³ÉÇ Ãíáí í»ñ³åñáÕÝ»ñÇ` ²μ·³ñÛ³Ý í³ñųñ³ÝÝ»ñ` ³é³çÇÝÁ áñå»ë ÑÇí³Ý¹³Ýáó, »ñÏñáñ¹Á` ³å³ëï³ñ³Ý ·áñͳͻÉáí£ ºñÏáõ í³ñųñ³ÝÝ»ñÝ ¿É, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ »ñÏñáñ¹ ç³ñ¹Ç ÁÝóóùáõÙ ³ÙμáÕçáíÇÝ ÑñÏǽ»óÇÝ` Ý»ñëáõÙ ·ïÁÝíáÕ Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó Ñ»ï Ù»Ïï»Õ,10 áñáÝó ÃíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ ³é³çÇÝ ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá Ëáõ׳å³Ñ³ñ ù³Õ³ù ï»Õ³÷áËí³Í ѳñ³ÏÇó ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇ` ÆÝ×ÇñÉÇÏÇ, Þ»ÛË-Øáõñ³ïÇ, ²åïûÕÉáõÇ, ¶Û³íáõñ-ùÛáÛÇ Ñ³ñÛáõñ³íáñ μݳÏÇãÝ»ñ:11 ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñáõÃÛ³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñ àõ. Ü. â»ÙμÁñëÁ Ø»ñëÇÝÇó 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ 1-ÇÝ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ÈáݹáÝ Ñ»é³·ñ»Éáí` ÷³ëïáõÙ ¿ Ñ»ï¨Û³ÉÁ. §æ³ñ¹Á ϳï³Õ³μ³ñ í»ñëÏë³õ ÏÇñ³ÏÇ ûñÁ£ ²åñÇÉ 12/25ÇÝ, ½ûñù»ñÝ áõ μ³ßÇμá½áõÏÝ»ñÁ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Ññ³ó³Ý³Ó·áõÃÇõÝ ÙÁ ëÏë³Ý гÛáó í³ñųñ³ÝÇÝ íñ³Û, áõñ »ñÏáõ ѳ½³ñ (2000) ³ÝÓÇÝù ³å³ëï³Ý³Í ¿ÇÝ£ ÆëÏáÛÝ Ññ¹»Ñ»ó³õ ß¿ÝùÁ... ²õ»ñÇã Ññ¹»ÑÝ ³Ý˳÷³Ý ß³ñáõݳϻó³õ ÙÇÝã»õ ³é³õûï, ÑñáÛ ×³ñ³Ï ÁÉɳÉáí ãáñë »Ï»Õ»óÇù ¨ ³ÝáÝó ¹åñáóÝ»ñÁ¦:12 êáõñ»Ý ä³ñè۳ÝÁ, áñ Î. äáÉëÇ Ð³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ç³ñ¹»ñÇó ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Ñ»ïá ²¹³Ý³ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ÝÓݳËÙμÇ ³Ý¹³Ù ¿ñ ¨ ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë ¿ »Õ»É ϳï³ñí³ÍÇÝ, ³åñÇÉÇ 17/30-ÇÝ ·ñáõÙ ¿. §... ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç Ð³Û ïáõÝ, ßáõÏ³Û ¨ ³½·³ÛÇÝ

4 §²ñ³ñ³ï¦, Ù³ÛÇë-ÛáõÝÇë, 1909, ¿ç 525£ 5 úñٳݻ³Ý Ø., ²½·³å³ïáõÙ, Ñï. ¶., ¾çÙdzÍÇÝ, 2001, ¿ç 5869£ 6 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú. Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 23£ 7 ²ß×»³Ý Ð. Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ »õ ¶áÝdzۿ Ûáõß»ñ, ÜÇõ ºáñù, 1950, ¿ç 138£ 8 Brézol G., Les Turcs ont passé là..., Recueil de documents, dossiers, rapports, requétes protestations, suppliques et enquétes, établissant la vérité sur les massacres d’Adana en 1909, Paris, 1911, p. 22-23. 9 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú. Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, ¿ç 23,46£ 10 ²ß×»³Ý Ð. Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 22, ï»°ë ݳ¨ ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 59£ 11 îûÝÇÏ»³Ý Î. Ú., λ³ÝùÇë Úáõß»ñÁ 1900-1972, ä¿ÛñáõÃ-ÈÇμ³Ý³Ý, 2004, ¿ç 20, ݳ¨ ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÝáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 102-103£ 12 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 3,822, ³åñÇÉ 25-8 Ù³ÛÇë, 1909, ¿ç 3£

99


껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý

ѳëï³ïáõÃÇõÝ ·ñ»Ã¿ ã¿ Ùݳó³Í... Øáõ߻ջ³Ý ¹åñáóÝ áõ Ýáñ ßáõϳÝ, áñ ¹¿åù¿Ý ëÏǽμÁ íñÇå³Í ¿ÇÝ Ññ¹»Ñ¿Ý, ³Ûñáõ»É ÙáËñ³ó»É »Ý, Çñ»Ýó Ù»ç ³å³ëï³Ý³Í ѳñÇõñ³õáñ ¿³ÏÝ»ñ ³Í˳óÝ»Éáí£ ºÏ»Õ»óÇÝ»ñ¿Ý Ù¿ÏÁ ÙdzÛÝ ¹»é ÏÁÙÝ³Û ²é³çÝáñ¹³ñ³ÝÇÝ Ñ»ï...¦:13 гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ³ÛÝ ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ñ ÑñÏǽ»É, Ãáõñù»ñÝ Çñ³·áñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝ §ù³ñÛáõÕǦ (ݳíÃ) û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ, Áݹ áñáõÙ` »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ áõ Ù½ÏÇÃÝ»ñÇ μ³ñÓáõÝùÝ»ñÇó çñѳÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí áã û çáõñ, ³ÛÉ §ù³ñÛáõÕ¦ ÉóÝ»Éáí,14ÇëÏ ³ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ñ ÑñÏǽ»É, ÇÝãå»ë ûñÇݳÏ` î³ñëáÝÇ êμ. äáÕáë ù³ñ³ß»Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÁ ·áñÍÇ ¿ÇÝ ¹ÝáõÙ Çñ»Ýó μ³ñμ³ñáë³Ï³Ý í³ñù³·ÇÍÁ` ³í»ñ»Éáí ϳ٠åÕÍ»Éáí Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ:15 úï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` §Îñ³ÏÁ Ù³ñ»Éáõ ÷á˳ñ¿Ý Ññß¿çÝ»ñÁ ջϳí³ñáõû³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ýáí μáÉáñ ù³ñ¿ ßÇÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ` ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñ, áÕáÕ»óÇÝ ù³ñÇõÕáí ¨ ßáõñç ùë³Ý ѳ½³ñ μݳÏãáõû³Ý ïÝùáóÝ»ñÇÝ, ³Õ³Õ³ÏÝ»ñÇÝ áõ ½¿Ýù»ñÇ ã¹³¹³ñáÕ Ññ³Ó·áõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ½áõ·³Ñ»é ù³Õ³ùÁ Ù³ïÝáõ»ó óɳÝÇ ¨ í»ñ³Íáõ»ó ³õ»ñ³ÏÝ»ñǦ:16 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõ٠ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ³ñÅ»ùÝ»ñÇ áãÝã³óÙ³Ý μ³ñμ³ñáë³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹ÇåáõÏ Ýϳñ³·ÇñÁ ï³ÉÇë ¿ ø»ë³åÇ (·ÛáõÕ³ù³Õ³ù гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ) ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë áÙÝ ´»Ý-Æμñ³ÑÇÙÁ, áí, íϳۻÉáí ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Çñ³·áñÍ³Í Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý áãÝã³óÙ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, ÷³ëïáõÙ ¿ Ñ»ï¨Û³ÉÁ. §ì³Ûñ»ÝÇ Ë³ßݳñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ Û³ïáõÏ í³Ûñ³·áõû³Ùμ... ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÁ ³ÛñáõÙ »Ý ïÝ»ñÁ, ¹åñáóÝ»ñÁ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ, μ³ó³éáõÃÇõÝ ã³Ý»Éáí ¨ ûï³ñ³Ñå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ...¦:17 Âáõñù³Ï³Ý ½áñù»ñÁ ãËݳۻóÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù Ö³ÙÁ½-¶ÛáÉÇ Ùáï ·ïÝíáÕ ³ëáñ³Ï³Ý ³ÛÝ ÙÇ³Ï »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ áõ ÏÇó ¹åñáóÁ, áõñ ³ëáñÇ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ ½·³ÉÇ Ãíáí ѳۻñ. ëå³Ý»Éáí ³ëáñÇ ù³Ñ³Ý³ÛÇ ÙÇ³Ï áñ¹áõÝ áõ íÇñ³íáñ»Éáí Ýñ³Ý` Ãáõñù»ñÁ ÑñÏǽ»óÇÝ ¹åñáóÝ áõ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ:18 ²Ý·³Ù ³å³ëï³ÝÛ³ÉÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇó å³ñ½³Í ëåÇï³Ï ¹ñáßÝ»ñÇ ³éϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ ˳ճÕáõÃÛ³Ý ³Õ»ñë ¿ñ »Ýó¹ñáõÙ, ãϳݷݻóñ»ó ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹ ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇÝ£ ²Ûë »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ Ù³ëÇÝ »Ý ÷³ëïáõÙ ÇÝãå»ë г×ÝáõÙ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñáõÑÇ èááõ½ ȳÙμ»ñ¹Ç,19 ³ÛÝå»ë ¿É г×ÝáõÙ üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ ·É˳íáñ ÑÛáõå³ïáë ¸Ûáõå³ñÑÇ20 ѳÕáñ¹³Í ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ Àëï ¸Ûáõå³ñÑÇ` §Ð³çÇÝáõ٠ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ íñ³Û å³ñ½³Í ¿ ëåÇï³Ï ¹ñûß³Ï (ËݳۻÉáõ ³Õ»ñë), μ³Ûó ϳï³Õ³Í ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹Ý»ñÁ ¹ñ³Ý áõß³¹ñáõÃÇõÝ ã»Ý ¹³ñÓÝáõÙ »õ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ »Ý ·Áݹ³Ï³Ñ³ñ»É£ Îñ³ÏÁ ɳ÷áõÙ ¿ Ù¿Ï Ã³Õ ÙÇõëÇ Û»ï»õÇó£ ²åñÇÉÇ 21ÇÝ (Ý. ïáÙ.) ³Ûñáõ»É ¿ ѳÛáó í³ÝùÁ ¨ ³ÛÝï»Õ ³å³ëï³Ý³Í μáÉáñ ѳۻñÁ Ïáïáñáõ»É »Ý. áã áù ãÇ Ï³ñáÕ³ó»É ÷ñÏáõ»É...¦:21 гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ³ÛÝ ßÇÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ñ ÑñÏǽ»É, Ãáõñù»ñÝ Çñ³·áñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝ §ù³ñÛáõÕǦ (ݳíÃ) û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ, Áݹ áñáõÙ` »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ áõ Ù½ÏÇÃÝ»ñÇ μ³ñÓáõÝùÝ»ñÇó çñѳÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí áã û çáõñ, ³ÛÉ §ù³ñÛáõÕ¦ ÉóÝ»Éáí, ÇëÏ ³ÛÝï»Õ, áñï»Õ Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ñ ÑñÏǽ»É, ÇÝãå»ë ûñÇݳÏ` î³ñëáÝÇ êμ. äáÕáë ù³ñ³ß»Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, 13 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳõÇñùÁ, Î. äûÉÇë, 1909, ¿ç 31£ 14 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 103£ 15 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 165£ 16 Аданские чернiе дни, издание Х.А.Вермишева, Баку, 1909, стр. 8. 17 î»°ë, §²ñ³ñ³ï¦, Ù³ÛÇë-ÛáõÝÇë, 1909, ¿ç 538-539£ 18 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 44,105£ 19 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 3818, ³åñÇÉ 21-4 Ù³ÛÇë, 1909, ¿ç 3£ 20 §²ñ³ñ³ï¦, Ù³ÛÇë-ÛáõÝÇë, 1909, ¿ç 526-528£ 21 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 527£

100


껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý

ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÁ ·áñÍÇ ¿ÇÝ ¹ÝáõÙ Çñ»Ýó μ³ñμ³ñáë³Ï³Ý í³ñù³·ÇÍÁ` ³í»ñ»Éáí ϳ٠åÕÍ»Éáí Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ: úï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` §Îñ³ÏÁ Ù³ñ»Éáõ ÷á˳ñ¿Ý Ññß¿çÝ»ñÁ ջϳí³ñáõû³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ýáí μáÉáñ ù³ñ¿ ßÇÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ` ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñ, áÕáÕ»óÇÝ ù³ñÇõÕáí ¨ ßáõñç ùë³Ý ѳ½³ñ μݳÏãáõû³Ý ïÝùáóÝ»ñÇÝ, ³Õ³Õ³ÏÝ»ñÇÝ áõ ½¿Ýù»ñÇ ã¹³¹³ñáÕ Ññ³Ó·áõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ½áõ·³Ñ»é ù³Õ³ùÁ Ù³ïÝáõ»ó óɳÝÇ ¨ í»ñ³Íáõ»ó ³õ»ñ³ÏÝ»ñǦ: àñáß ¹»åù»ñáõÙ Ãáõñù ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ݳËù³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ³í»ñ»ÉÁ` åÕÍ»É Ï³Ù Ï»ÕÍ ÝٳݳÏÙ³Ý ÙÇçáóáí ͳÕñ»É »Ý ùñÇëïáÝ»³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óáõ ËáñÑáõñ¹Ý áõ »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ²Ûëå»ë, 1909 Ã. î³ñëáÝáõÙ μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ç³ñ¹Ý ³í³ñï»Éáõó ¨ êáõñμ ²ëïí³Í³ÍÇÝ (äáÕáë ²é³ùÛ³É) ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ³ÙμáÕçáíÇÝ ÏáÕáåï»Éáõó Ñ»ïá Ãáõñù ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ÷áñÓ»É »Ý μáÉáñ ÏáÕÙ»ñÇó Ññ¹»Ñ»É ³ÛÝ£ âϳñáճݳÉáí Ññ¹»Ñ»É ù³ñ³ß»Ý ³Û¹ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ` í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñë ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ùÇݳËݹñáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ý³Ë ù³Ý¹»É »Ý »Ï»Õ»óáõ Ëáñ³ÝÁ, ³å³` åÕÍ»É ³ÛÝ` Ëáñ³ÝÝ û·ï³·áñÍ»Éáí áñå»ë ³ñï³ùÝáó:22 Âáõñù ³ÙμáËÇ ÏáÕÙÇó î³ñëáÝÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ëÇ ¨ »Ï»Õ»óáõ ³í»ñÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ ÷³ëïáõ٠ݳ¨ ³Ù»ñÇϳóÇ Éñ³·ñáÕ, Çñ³í³μ³Ý лñμ»ñï ²¹³Ùë ¶ÇμμáÝëÁ, áí ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë ¿ »Õ»É 1909 Ã. Ãáõñù»ñÇ í³Ûñ³·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ¶ÇμμáÝëÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` §î³ñëáÝÇ Ñ³Ûáó Ù»Í å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, áñ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ ³Ù»Ý³Ï³ñ»õáñ ß¿ÝùÝ ¿ñ, óɳÝáõ»ó³õ, Ù³ñÙ³ñÇáÝ¿ ³ñÓ³Ýù ù³Ý¹áõ»ó³Ý, å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ë»Õ³Ýù ù³ñ áõ ù³Ý¹ »Õ³Ý, ¨ ï³Ý»ÉÇ ³Ù¿Ý μ³Ý ³õ³ñÇ ïñáõ»ó³õ£ ´³Ûó ß¿ÝùÁ ¹ÇÙ³¹ñ»ó ÑñÓÇ·áõû³Ý ÷áñÓ»ñáõݦ:23 Àëï áñáß ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ` î³ñëáÝÇ ÑÇßÛ³É »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ í»ñçÝ³Ï³Ý ³í»ñáõÙÇó ÷ñÏí»ó áõ ϳݷáõÝ Ùݳó ï»ÕÇ Ãáõñù μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ßÝáñÑÇí, áñáÝù, Ñdzó³Í ³Û¹ ßÇÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·»Õ»óÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ áõ ³ÙñáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ÷áñÓ»óÇÝ å³Ñå³Ý»É ³ÛÝ` ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ Ù½ÏÇÃÇ í»ñ³Í»Éáõ ³ÏÝϳÉÇùáí:24 ²ñӳݳ·ñí»É »Ý ¹»åù»ñ, »ñμ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñá·¨áñ Ñáõß³ñÓ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ³í»ñáõÙÁ Ãáõñù ³ÙμáËÇ ÏáÕÙÇó í»ñ³ÍíáõÙ ¿ñ Ëñ³Ë׳ÝùÇ` ¹ñ³Ý ѳÕáñ¹»Éáí ÍÇë³Ï³Ý-³ñ³ñáÕ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛã æ³ñ¹»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë ¶ñÇ·áñ ¶áõïáõÉÛ³ÝÇ (áõëáõóÇã ´³Ëã»áõÙ` æ»μ»É-´»ñ»ù»ÃÇ ·³í³é) íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` ȳμ³×ÉÁ ·ÛáõÕáõÙ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹ ËáõųÝÁ ÙÛáõ¹Çñ ÆëÙ³ÛÇÉ ¾ý»Ý¹ÇÇ` §êáõÉÃ³Ý Ð³ÙÇï ãû°· »³ß³¦ (Ï»óó»¯ ëáõÉÃ³Ý Ð³ÙǹÁ) ³½¹³Ýß³ÝÇó Ñ»ïá Ý³Ë ÑñÏÇ- ½»É ¿ ï»ÕÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÁ, ³å³` »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ` å³ñ μéÝ»Éáí ¹ñ³Ýó ßáõñç:25 ÆëÏ úëÙ³ÝÇ» ·ÛáõÕáõÙ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ½áñù»ñÁ, å³ß³ñ»Éáí ï»ÕÇ Ñ³Û Éáõë³íáñã³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, áõñ ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ñ ßáõñç 500 ѳÛ, §ù³ñÛáõÕáí¦ ÑñÏǽ»É »Ý ³ÛÝ ¨ ¹ÑáÉ-½áõéݳÛÇ Ýí³·³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ å³ñ μéÝ»É Ýñ³ ßáõñçÁ:26 ¸»åùÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë-í»ñ³åñáÕÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` §¸áõñëÁ ¹ÑáÉ-½áõéÝ³Ý ÏÁ ½³ñÝáõ¿ñ ¨ ËáõųÝÁ å³ñ μéÝ³Í Ëñ³Ë׳ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ÏÁ ϳï³ñ¿ñ... ¼¿Ýù»ñáõ ·áéáõÙÝ»ñÁ, ½ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý ÷áճѳñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ, Ññ¹»ÑÝ»ñáõ Ù³ñ¹³Ï»ñ μáó»ñáõÝ ×³ñ׳ïÇõÝÝ»ñÁ, ¹ÑáÉ ½áõéݳݻñáõ Ó³ÛÝ»ñÁ, ³ÛñáõáÕÝ»ñáõ ëñï³ÏëÏÇÍ ×Çã»ñÝ áõ ËáõųÝÇÝ í³ÛݳëáõÝÝ»ñÁ, Çñ³ñ ˳éÝáõ³Í ³Ñé»ÉÇ íÇ×³Ï ÙÁ ëï»ÕÍ³Í ¿Çݦ:27 ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ÑÇí³Ý¹³ÝáóÇ μáõÅùáõÛñ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` ÝáõÛÝ úëÙ³ÝÇ» ·ÛáõÕÇ Ñ³Û μáÕáù³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ Ãáõñù»ñÁ ÑñÏǽ»óÇÝ »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý ³ñ³ñáÕáõÃÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï` Ý»ñëáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ 17 Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýóáí, áñáÝó ÃíáõÙ ¨ Ù»Ï ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñ ¨ Ù»Ï μáÕáù³Ï³Ý ù³ñá½Çã:28 22 î»°ë ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 165, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ §²ñ³ñ³ï¦, ÛáõÉÇë-û·áëïáë, 1909, ¿ç 673£ 23 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 3818, ³åñÇÉ 21-4 Ù³ÛÇë, 1909, ¿ç 3£ 24 ¿á¹ÇÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ, ²ÙÇë ÙÁ Ç ÎÇÉÇÏdz, Î. äûÉÇë, 1910, ¿ç 205-207£ 25 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶.¶., Ð³Û É»éÁ. ϳñÙÇñ ¹ñáõ³·Ý»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ»ï¿Ý, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 42-43£ 26 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 197-199£ 27 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 197£ 28 ê³ñ·Çë»³Ý Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ »Õ»éÝÁ. ï»Õ»Ï³·Çñ Ú³Ïáμ ä³åÇÏ»³ÝÇ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1919, ¿ç 15, ï»°ë ݳ¨

101


껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý

1909 Ã. Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý μ³ñμ³ñáë³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ½»ñÍ ãÙݳóÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ·»ñ»½Ù³ÝáóÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ûñÇݳÏ` Ø»ñëÇÝÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ·»ñ»½Ù³Ý³ïáõÝÁ, áñÁ ï»ÕÇ ÙÛáõûë»ñÇýÇ (ë³Ýç³ÏÇ Õ»Ï³í³ñ) ϳñ·³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ½»Ýù ÷Ýïñ»Éáõ å³ïñí³Ïáí Ëáõ½³ñÏí»ó áõ ³Ý³ñ·í»ó£ êáõñ»Ý ä³ñè۳ÝÇ íϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ` §¶»ñ»½Ù³ÝÝ»ñÁ μ³óáõ»ó³Ý, Ù»é»ÉÝ»ñÁ ¹áõñë ѳÝáõ»ó³Ý, áñå¿ë½Ç ó·Ýáõ³Í ½¿Ýù»ñ ·ïÝáõÇÝ ³ÝáÝó å³ï³ÝùÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç¿Ý... ²Ûë ³Ý³ñ·áõÃÇõÝÁ ϳï³ñáõ»ó³õ, ³é³Ýó ·áÝ¿ ϳÝ˳õ ÇÙ³ó ïñáõ»Éáõ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ Ð³Ûáó Ã³Õ³Ï³Ý ËáñÑáõñ¹ÇÝ Ï³Ù ï¿ñï¿ñÇݦ:29 Âáõñù»ñÇ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ ³é³í»É ¹ñë¨áñí»É ¿ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³, ïíÛ³É ¹»åùáõÙ` Ñ³Û Ñá·¨áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÇ ç³ñ¹Ý Çñ³·áñÍ»ÉÇë` ¹³ñÓÛ³É ¹ñ³Ý ѳÕáñ¹»Éáí ÍÇë³Ï³Ý-³ñ³ñáÕ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛã ÜÙ³Ý ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñÁ ß³ï »Ý »Õ»É ݳ¨ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï£ È³í³·áõÛÝ ûñÇݳÏÁ ³åñÇÉÇ 3-ÇÝ ´³Ëã» ·ÛáõÕáõÙ î»ñ ì³Ñ³Ý (êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý) ù³Ñ³Ý³ÛÇ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ñ, áñÁ ·ÛáõÕÇ μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÇ Ù»Í Ù³ëÇ Ñ»ï ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ñ ï»ÕÇ Ù½ÏÇÃáõÙ£ ØÛáõýÃÇÇ (μ³ñÓñ³ëïÇ×³Ý Ñá·¨áñ³Ï³Ý, ÏñáݳÇñ³í³Ï³Ý ѳñó»ñáõÙ Ù»Í Ñ»ÕÇݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ í³Û»ÉáÕ) ϳñ·³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ù³Ñ³Ý³ÛÇÝ ëå³ÝáõÙ »Ý μéÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ù½ÏÇÃÇó ¹áõñë μ»ñ»Éáõó áõ ¹³Å³Ý ã³ñã³ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇ »ÝóñÏ»Éáõó Ñ»ïᣠ¸»åùÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë Üáõýáõë Ø»ÙáõñáõÝ, áñ ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏÇó ãÇ »Õ»É, Çñ Ñáõß³ï»ïñáõÙ ·ñ»É ¿. §ØÇõýÃÇÝ Ñ³ë³Í ¿ñ Çñ Ýå³ï³ÏÇÝ, Çñ áË»ñÇÙ î. ì³Ñ³ÝÁ ãϳñ ³ÛÉ»õë. ÙÇõýÃÇÝ áõñ³ËáõÃ»Ý¿Ý ½·ÉË³Í ÏÁ ëÏëÇ å³ñ»É »õ Ù½ÏÇÃÇÝ ³éç»õ »ñÇóë §÷³ïÇß³ÑÁÙ ãû· »³ß³¦ ·áã»É ÏÁ Ññ³Ù³Û¿ ³ñÇõÝϽ³Ï ËáõųÝÇݦ:30 ²ÝïÇáùáõÙ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 6-ÇÝ ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÁ ï»ÕÇ Ð³Û ³é³çÝáñ¹³ñ³ÝÁ ßñç³÷³Ï»Éáõó, »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý ·áõÛùÝ ³ÙμáÕçáíÇÝ ÏáÕáåï»Éáõó ¨ Ñá·¨áñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ (ϳÃáÕÇÏáëÇ ÷á˳Ýáñ¹ î. ²ñë»Ý í³ñ¹³å»ï, Îïáõó ³Ý³å³ïÇ í³ÝùÇ Ùdzμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó ÑÛáõñ »Ï³Í î. ¸³ÝÇ»É í³ñ¹³å»ï, î. ²ñÙ»Ý³Ï ù³Ñ³Ý³ îáݳÃáëÛ³Ý ¨ ³ÛÉù) ·³½³Ý³μ³ñ ëå³Ý»Éáõó Ñ»ïá í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñÇë ¹Ç³ÏÝ»ñÁ ù³ñß »Ý ïí»É ù³Õ³ùÇ ÷áÕáóÝ»ñáí` Ïá㠳ݻÉáí ѳí³ùí³Í ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³ÝÁ μݳçÝç»É ï»ÕÇ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ:31 ²ÛëåÇëáí, 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ ½·³ÉÇ ¿ñ ݳ¨ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Å³é³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ÏáñáõëïÁ£ гٳӳÛÝ Ø³Õ³ùdz úñÙ³ÝÛ³ÝÇ (1896-1907 ÃÃ. Î. äáÉëÇ Ñ³Ûáó å³ïñdzñù) ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ` ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç Ñ³ßí³éí³Í 37 ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ áõ ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÙ 1909 Ã. ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ÑñÏǽí»É ϳ٠³í»ñí»É »Ý 50-Çó ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñ áõ ¹åñáóÝ»ñ,32 áñáÝóÇó ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ` 6 »Ï»Õ»óÇ, 5 ¹åñáó, ÇëÏ æ»μ»É-´»ñ»ù»ÃÇ ·³í³éáõÙ (²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·)` 6 »Ï»Õ»óÇ, 12 ¹åñáó:33 гٻٳïáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñ·áí Ýß»Ýù, áñ 1901-1902 ÃÃ. ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ ·áñÍáÕ Ñ³Û ³½·³ÛÇÝ í³ñųñ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ Ýí³½³·áõÛÝÁ 36-Ý ¿ñ` 3973 ³ß³Ï»ñïÝ»ñáí (Ý»ñ³éí³Í ã»Ý Ñ³Û Ï³ÃáÉÇÏ ¨ μáÕáù³Ï³Ý ѳٳÛÝùÝ»ñÇÝ å³ïϳÝáÕ ¹åñáóÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ¨ë ½·³ÉÇ ÃÇí »Ý Ï³½Ù»É),34 ÇëÏ 1904 Ã. ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ݳѳݷáõÙ ·áñÍáÕ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý í³Ýù»ñÇ áõ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ (³é³ù»É³Ï³Ý, ϳÃáÉÇÏ, μáÕáù³Ï³Ý) ÃÇíÁ` 82-Á:35

¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 314£ 29 ä³ñûõ»³Ý ê., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 79£ 30 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶.¶., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 45-46£ 31 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 255£ 32 úñٳݻ³Ý Ø., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 5869-5870£ 33 Adossidès A., Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs. Les massacres de Cilisie, Paris, 1910, p. 104-105. 34 гßíáõÙÝ»ñÁ ϳï³ñí³Í »Ý Ù»ñ ÏáÕÙÇó£ î»°ë ìÇ׳ϳóáÛó ·³õ³é³Ï³Ý ³½·³ÛÇÝ í³ñųñ³Ý³ó ÂáõñùÇáÛ, ï»ïñ ´., íÇ×³Ï 1901-1902 ï³ñõáÛ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1903£ 35 Ð³Û »Ï»Õ»óõáÛ Ã»Ù»ñÁ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ »õ í³Ýù»ñÁ Áëï §ê. öñÏÇã ÐÇí³Ý¹³ÝáóÇ Àݹ³ñÓ³Ï úñ³óáÛóÇݦ, 1904, Î. äáÉÇë, ï»°ë Ð³Û ÁÝï³ÝÇù, 1985, ê. Ô³½³ñ-ì»Ý»ïÇÏ, ØËÇóñ»³Ý Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÃÇõÝ, ¿ç 36-41£

102


껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý

²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç ³é³çÝáñ¹³Ï³Ý íÇ׳ÏÝ»ñÇ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý ï»Õ»Ï³·ñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ` 1909 Ã. ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ ݳѳݷáõÙ ÑñÏǽí»É ¿ 24 »Ï»Õ»óÇ, 16 ¹åñáó36£ гñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý ³Ûë ï»Õ»Ï³·ñáõÙ Ï³Ý μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ³Ý×ßïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ áõ μ³óÃáÕáõÙÝ»ñ. Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë` ÑñÏǽí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ áõ ¹åñáóÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõÙ μ³ó »Ý ÃáÕÝí³Í æ»ÛÑ³Ý (ݳËÏÇÝáõÙ` гÙǹǻ)37, Þ»ÛË-Øáõñ³¹ (Ð³Û ·ÛáõÕ, ÑñÏǽí»É »Ý ¨° ¹åñáóÁ, ¨° »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ)38, ÆÝ×ÇñÉÇÏ39, ȳμ³×ÉÁ (¨° ¹åñáóÁ, ¨° »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ÑñÏǽí»É »Ý)40, ø»ÉÉ»ñ (ÆëɳÑÛ» ·³í³é³ÏáõÙ)41, гñáõÝÇ» (ʳéÝÇ)42, ¶á½áÉáõ·43, ØÇëÇë (سٻëïdz, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ³í»ñí³Í ¿, ¹åñáóÁ` ÑñÏǽí³Í)44 ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇ »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÝ áõ ¹åñáóÝ»ñÁ£ î»Õ»Ï³·ñáõÙ Áݹ·ñÏí³Í ã»Ý ݳ¨ гɻåÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ Çñ³·áñÍí³Í ç³ñ¹Ç ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÁ. ³Ûëå»ë` ³ÙμáÕçáíÇÝ ÑñÏǽí»É ϳ٠³í»ñí»É »Ý ²ÝïÇáùÇ (²Ýóùdz) Ñ³Û ³é³ù»É³Ï³Ý ¨ μáÕáù³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ45, ø»ë³åÇ Ñ³Û Ï³ÃáÉÇÏ áõ μáÕáù³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ46 ¨ ³ÛÉ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ ì»ñáÝßÛ³É å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý óáõó³Ï³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó μ³óÇ, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí»É »Ý Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ¨ ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáÕ Ï»ÕÍ óáõó³ÏÝ»ñ, áñáÝóáõÙ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõ٠ѳۻñÇ Ïñ³Í ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñÁ ·ñ»Ã» ÏñÏݳÏÇ Ýí³½»óí³Í »Ý47£ ²ëí³ÍÇ É³í³·áõÛÝ ûñÇݳÏÁ 1909 Ã. ÑáõÉÇëÇÝ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý §Â³ÝÇݦ ûñÃáõÙ ïå³·ñí³Í óáõó³ÏÝ ¿, áñï»Õ Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñÁ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ¨ ³í»ñí³Í áõ ÑñÏǽí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ áõ ¹åñáóÝ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ѳëóí³Í ¿ Ýí³½³·áõÛÝÇ48£ гñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ û° 1894-1896 ÃÃ. ¨ û° 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÑñÏǽí³Í áõ ù³Ý¹í³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ, í³Ýù»ñÇ áõ ¹åñáóÝ»ñÇ ½·³ÉÇ Ù³ëÁ ѻﳷ³ ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ ·»ñ³½³Ýó³å»ë Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë³Ó»éÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ áõ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí í»ñ³Ýáñá·í»É ϳ٠í»ñ³Ï³éáõóí»É ¿,49 ë³Ï³ÛÝ 1915 Ã. ¨ ѳïϳå»ë μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ï»Õ³Ñ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá í»ñçݳϳݳå»ë áãÝã³óí»É£

36 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 254£ 37 î»°ë §î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíǦ, ùÝÝÇã-å³ïáõÇñ³Ï` ä. ij· ê³Û³å³É»³Ý, 1910, ë»åï. 11-1912 ë»åï. 11, ԳɳÃdz, ¿ç 63, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ Â¿á¹ÇÏ, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç141-142, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ Brézol G., Les Turcs ont passé là..., p. 341. 38 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 215-216, ݳ¨ ¼³å¿É ºë³Û»³Ý, ²õ»ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç, ä¿ÛñáõÃ, 1957, ¿ç 90- 91£ 39 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú. Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ, ¿ç 23£ 40 ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶.¶., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 42-43, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ §î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíǦ, ¿ç 69, 72£ 41 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ, ¿ç 72£ 42 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 83£ 43 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 77£ 44 ¿á¹ÇÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 135£ 45 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, ¿ç 255-256 46 î»Õ»Ï³·Çñ ²ÛñdzËݳ٠ڳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ, ¿ç 16£ 47 Brézol G., Les Turcs ont passé là..., p. 381-385 48 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 381-383£ 49 1912-1913 ÃÃ. ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ ·áñÍ»É ¿ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý 44 »Ï»Õ»óÇ, 5 í³Ýù, 63 ¹åñáó` 5834 ³ß³Ï»ñïÝ»ñáí, ÇëÏ Ð³É»åÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·áõÙ` 93 »Ï»Õ»óÇ, 16 í³Ýù, 113 ¹åñáó` 8451 ³ß³Ï»ñïÝ»ñáí£ î»°ë, Kèvorkian R. H., Paboudjian P. B., Les Armèniens Dans L'Empire Ottoman Ala Veille Du Gènocide, Paris, 1992, p. 57-60. î»°ë ݳ¨ ê³ýñ³ëïÛ³Ý ². Ê., Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇ Ð³Ûáó ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ÂáõñùdzÛÇ ²ñ¹³ñ³¹³ïáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ¸³í³Ý³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ÙÇÝÇëïñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÇ ¨ í³Ýù»ñÇ óáõó³ÏÝ»ñÝ áõ óùñÇñÝ»ñÁ (1912-1913 ÃÃ.), §¾çÙdzÍÇݦ, ² (ÐáõÝí³ñ), 1965, ¿ç 40-42£

103


껹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý

Seda Parsamyan The Mecanisms of Implementation of Cultural Genocide During the 1909 Massacres in Adana and Adjacent Regions and its Consequences Summary Numerous facts testify that during the Hamidian massacres of 1894-1896, and the Adana massacres of 1909, as well as during the Armenian Genocide (1915-1923) massacres were accompanied by the destruction of the Armenian cultural monuments, values; namely, the demolition of schools and historical-architectural monuments, which completely fits with the description of the cultural genocide. This article observes the methods of the destruction of the educational-cultural and religious buildings in Adana and its consequences. During the 1909 massacres the Turkish perpetrators saw the Armenian religious-cultural buildings as appropriate places for implementing their genocidal action, which though uncontrollable, yet included certain ceremonial, religious and ritual elements and by targeting them, the Turkish perpetrators also aimed to disgrace the Armenian religious-cultural establishments.

104


THE POETICS OF VIOLENCE IN LITERARY RESPONSES TO THE ADANA MASSACRES Rubina Peroomian The literary responses to the 1894-96 Hamidian massacres in their entirety can be seen as the struggle of the Armenian literati to conceptualize Turkish atrocities against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire, atrocities unexpected and unprecedented in scale and momentum. The old paradigm of responses to historical catastrophes was ruptured. The ancient concepts of sin and punishment, or the soothing image of martyrdom for the sake of Christianity rewarded by the gift of immortality fell short of explaining the widespread destruction and loss of life. Even the secularized concept of martyrdom underlying the Armenian Renaissance ideology of romantic patriotism and political optimism, advocating armed struggle, eulogizing the exploits of fedayees, and exalting the liberation movement could not withstand the shock. New literary tools were needed to portray and explain the calamity; a language of violence had to be crafted befitting the indescribable brutality. The literary responses to the 1894-96 massacres, in particular Siamanto’s (1878-1915) and Daniel Varuzhan’s (18841915) poetic representations of the calamity, laid the foundation to eventually achieve this language in the most effective way in these two great poets’ ever-during, timeless portrayal of Adana massacres. My focus in this paper and my dedication to the centenary of the 1909 massacres of Adana is that dimension of the literary responses to this calamity that has not been observed and studied before, namely the language of violence. A language that, as Stanley Fish puts it in his argument for the Readers Response literary theory limits our subjectivity as a reader and gives us an internalized understanding of the language, as native speakers of it, to experience these poems always controled by normative boundaries set by the text. I will discuss this language, the discourse of violence and its use both to facilitate the actions of the perpetrators and to lay bare these horrible actions and their effects. I will demonstrate the binary opposition inherent in these two manifestations of the language of violence and their powerful effect, the reason why this poetic tool remained unparalleled in the literary responses to the Great Catastrophe of 1915 still ahead. But first, the beginnings of the language of violence. xxx The initial response in Western Armenian literature to the massacres of 1894-96 was silence which gradually dissipated into lamentation, an old poetic device, a cathartic tool to vent out frustration and unleash the shackles of the language, or as Ulrike Bail puts it §a textual space of survival.¦ In effect, the initial responses to the calamity are characterized by the painful struggle to represent, as closely as possible, the morbid scenes of blood and death, coupled with helpless confessions to the inadequacy of language to do justice to the collective suffering and devastation beyond human imagination. For Hagop Oshagan the period during and after the massacres of 1894-96 §symbolized the brutal violence imposed upon our literature.¦ §Kotorats¦ (Massacre, written in 1898) by Siamanto exemplifies that struggle to confront the catastrophe and find a proper discourse to encompass the reality in whole.

105


Rubina Peroomian

Massacre! Massacre! Massacre! In the cities and outside the cities in our land. And the barbarians, with booty and blood, Return leaving the dead and the dying. Flocks of ravens hover above. Bloody is their mouth; they chortle like drunks... ..................... Listen! Listen! Listen! The sinister howling of horrified dogs Reaching me from the valleys and the graves. O! Close your windows and your eyes too, Massacre! Massacre! Massacre! Siamanto has no alternative to offer, no solution to alleviate the pain. The only way out is to escape from the torrent of images, to close your mind against them to be able to survive and go on living. The poem §Kotorats¦ with a changed title of §Mahvan Tesilk¦ (Phantom of Death) opens Siamanto’s collection of poems published in 1907 as Hogevarki ev Huysi Jaher (Torches of Agony and Hope). Characteristically, the mood of the poems gradually changes from morbid despair and agony and mourning and lamentation over the loss to a yearning for a better future and a searching for a spark of hope. §Aspetin erge¦ (The Song of the Knight) is the turning point. It is the author’s imaginary journey mounted on a winged white steed, back into the land of blood, suffering, and death, once his happy and thriving birthplace£ §For my native valley I yearn, I yearn the valleys/that hold my home¦.1 In keeping with the mood of the first poem, §The Phantom of Death,¦ Siamanto shuns direct contact with the scenes of devastation and death. They are still insurmountable, still causing him fear and agony, and he has no answer to it. §I shudder at the ruins, helpless bangs¦ (p. 145). Oh, do not halt, my courser, where these corpses scattered lie! Fly far away from graveyards, where white shades of dead men be. I cannot bear, I tell thee, I cannot bear again The death of my dear native land with anguished eyes to see! (p. 145) The journey continues into a sudden embrace of Hope (hope with a capital H connotating the concept and the ideal that the word suggests)£ §From this time onward, I will burn Hope’s torches blazing bright¦. The poem ends in a vision of the masses marching toward victory£ What a procession, what a host, all glad and full of might! ‘Tis Freedom pioneers; their swords flash out life giving rays, And Brotherhood they celebrate in morning’s glorious light.¦ (p. 145) This vision of the future is a marked influence of Claude Henry de Saint-Simon who regarded artists as the cultural avant-garde who will lead §the triumphant march of mankind toward its glorious socialist future.¦ But also, since the poem is dated 1897-1907, the passage speaks of Siamanto’s hope and confidence toward the Young Turk movement that was 1 Alice Stone Blackwell, tr. Armenian Poems Rendered into English Verse (1917), facsimile ed. (Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, 1978), p. 144.

106


Rubina Peroomian

very much alive and active in Europe at that time. There is hope in the future; however, the memory of gruesome scenes of murder and rape, burning homes and churches and wiped out villages are very much alive and expressed as lamentations in Siamanto’s poignant poetic representations.2 Daniel Varuzhan was very young when the massacres of 1894-96 occurred. He was personally affected by it, since his pandukht (self-exiled) father in Constantinople was falsely accused and imprisoned. After years of searching Varuzhan and his mother found him a tormented, emaciated man who died shortly after his son’s visit in the prison. Varuzhan’s §Hors bantin mej¦ (In my Father’s Prison, written between1906 and 1909) is a tribute to his father and all those who were thrown in Turkish prisons to die a prolonged and torturous death. It is in this poem that we come to witness the transformation in the 12-year-old boy’s heart£ spite and rancor against the perpetrators of a gross injustice done to his father and the whole nation. And gazing long after you O, my father, I cried there, alone, (While within my chest a new rancor was shaking its head) I wringed my heart out from my eyes. The dilemma of the brutal massacres reverberated in Varuzhan’s first poems in the collection titles Sarsurner (Shiverings), published in 1906 in Venice; however, his most dramatic response to the massacres echoes in a long poem §Jarde¦ (The Carnage) that he published in 1907. The literary piece does not intend a realistic portrayal of the event; descriptions are mostly abstract, shocking the reader with vivid colors or, as he later remarks, with §barbarian colors of Flemish masters.¦ The poem is fashioned after the Lamentations of the Old Testament—with personification of the victimized Armenia—mixed with the elements of Armenian songs of mourning, yeghererg, lauding the victim, anathematizing the victimizer. The piece is also a psycho-political analysis of the event, reflecting upon the instinctive drive of the Turk to kill and destroy, the insensitivity of the Big Powers and their Silence and failure to intervene to stop the carnage, but also the unpreparedness of the majority of the Armenian masses to resist and halt a catastrophe of such magnitude. The latter is pictured in the metaphoric image of Armenian men with the yellow mud of the wheat-fields on their feet and their chests smelling incense instead of gun powder. Varudzan has not been able to reconcile with the memory of the traumatic past of the nation. In his mind’s eye he still sees the evil and barbarian Spirit of Alp Aslan mounted on his white horse, leading the hordes of murderers. As in Siamanto, Varudzan’s response, too, ends with an optimistic note, a vision of the approaching footsteps of victory, again, an arbitrary ending, in stark contrast with the mood of the poem. What is evident, however, is that Varuzhan is engaged in concocting the language of violence wrought up with metaphoric images and laconic strokes of his powerful pen painting gruesome scenes£ Their sabers cutting open streams of blood, Rolling young heads Some with dark others with blond hair 2 This poem is significantly the last in the 1907 Paris publication of Hogevarki ev Huysi Jaher. Ten others have been added in the later edition published in Boston.

107


Rubina Peroomian

Crushed in the mud. They hold on tight to the old men’s throats And crush their sculls against the wall. They cut open our mothers’ sacred bellies, And our yet unnamed brothers, Armenians without shapes fall out, And are trampled, crushed. Under foot, under truncheon, or horseshoe. Ribs, and sculls, sculls, innumerable sculls Are filling the cracks of the pavement with marrow and brain. Varuzhan’s Hayhoyank (Curse, written in 1907), is another poem in response to the massacres, integrating the spirit of ancient concepts but with a new twist. The unnamed old woman, the lyric heroine stands above the crowd of wretched survivors of a mass slaughter, and raising her clenched fists, curses God for what befell the Armenian nation. She challenges the covenant between man and God; she questions God’s judgment, protests His indifference toward the persecution of a people who faithfully worshipped Him and sacrificed their lives for Him. But the old woman is alone in her outburst as a lone champion of this strange uprising. The frightened youngsters in the crowd begin to cry; women pray. In a state of utter frustration and anguish, she walks to the edge of the abyss and hurls herself down. With her demise, the angry voice of protest is stifled in the seed. It was the early 1900s and the passing of time and the innate spirit of revival of the nation had appeased the pain. Streaks of hope of a brighter future had already crept in. Optimism had grown back slowly. National pride and integrity lost in the widespread submission to the enemy’s sword was being restored. The unabated memory of the massacres, however, still preoccupied creative minds and gave birth to literary works. Siamanto had found the solution to the dilemma of crafting a literary response to the massacres. Distancing in time, overcoming the urge to describe the gruesome scenes as they were, he devised a unique poetic tool£ recourse to the past, but not to borrow the old concepts to help him respond to the unexplained and indigested disaster. He found his inspiration in the heroic deeds in the Armenian pagan past, and with renewed enthusiasm began to eulogize the revolutionary acts of reprisal and armed resistance carried out by the fedayees of the present. His collection of poems titled §Diutsaznoren¦ (Heroically, 1902) epitomize the author’s view of collective trauma of the recent past, the present situation, and the future course of action. Siamanto idealizes the Nietzschean hero and hopes to see his spirit grow in every Armenian young and brave. Once again, it is the spirit of Hope encouraging action£ §Take the lightning sword bravely in your hand.¦ Nothing new, just an underscored idealization of the Armenian Renaissance themes£ armed struggle, revenge, revolt, retaliation. Then, §Dareru vrezh¦ (Revenge of the Centuries, written in 1902 in Geneva) resonating Siamanto’s credo, a credo that was adopted by the devotees of the Armenian armed struggle for the liberation of the nation from the oppressive yoke of the Ottoman rulers£ §Justice must be created and freedom fiercely seized.¦ xxx In such an atmosphere, the Young Turk revolution of 1908 was received with enthusiasm. Equality, Brotherhood, and Justice to all, ideas adorning the promises of the Young Turk 108


Rubina Peroomian

leaders, were turned into slogans in the streets. After years of wandering in different cities in Europe, Siamanto too, like many other Armenian intellectuals, returned to Constantinople. He was physically weakened and ill with tuberculosis but full of optimism and plans for the future. The Adana massacres of 1909, only a few months after the reinstatement of constitution and the proclamation of Hurriet, were a blow to the ideal of a peaceful coexistence with the Turk and a detrimental shock to all literary conventions that could ever help to devise responses to the new calamity. The road that extended from silence to lamentation, to descriptive expressions, to call for action in order to reverse the fate of the nation, reaching eventually to Hope for a better future bumped onto a dead end. Standards collapsed. Poetic expressions were once again condemned to impotency. The 1909 catastrophe occurred one-hundred years ago beginning March 31st (Old Calendar). And today with a spirit of commemoration and reevaluation of the event and its aftereffects, we look back to scrutinize once again the powerful literary responses, to marvel over the tools, the poetic strategies that remained unsurpassed, armed with the potency to respond even to the catastrophes of yet to come. Zapel Esayan and Suren Partevian recorded the accounts as they witnessed them in the immediate aftermath of the catastrophe. I have studied their responses at length in two chapters dedicated to their work in Literary Responses to Catastrophe£ A Comparison of the Armenian and the Jewish Experience (1993). They had indeed undertaken a difficult task to confront the disaster head-on and to assess its scale and aftereffects in order to recommend the scope of assistance needed. I have shown instances when they stopped stupefied unable to overcome the torrent of emotions£ helplessness toward the victims, rage against the perpetrators, and praise for those who took arms and stood up in defense of their homes, city quarters, and villages. I have shown instances of total submission and inability to describe the scenes leading these writers to resort to lamentation or confession to paralysis of diction£ §This is the first time, I discover so brutally the impotence of my pen, the painful struggle, the inadequacy of all meanings of the word to capture the scenes around me... the horrifying reality that crushes my soul.¦3 Or §I cannot find words accurate enough, dramatic and tragic enough, to describe the depressing, suffocating scenes of misery that I have witnessed these days.¦4 And,§Words are incapable of expressing the dreadful and unspeakable sights that my eyes witnessed.¦5 In another paper, titled §The Tears and Laughter of Cilician Armenians,¦ I have revisited the responses of these writers and havecompared them to the burning intensity of Siamanto’s and Varuzhan’s poetic responses to that same calamity. I have stated, and I repeat here again that, §History documents and even tries to explain the massacres of 1909, but memoirs, testimonies, and eyewitness accounts mix fact and imagination to paint the horrifying truth the way it was. Poetry [on the other hand] captures one moment, one image, and the impact is incomparable.¦6 In this comparison, I contend, it is not only the power of poetry or the 3 Suren Partevian, Kilikian Arhavirke, p. 69. 4 Ibid., p. 44. 5 Zapel Esayan, Amidst the Ruins, pp. 39-40. 6 In this paper, presented at a conference on Cilician Armenians, 2000, I have done a close reading of Siamanto’s poems in his collection titled Karmir lurer barekames (Bloody News from my Friend), "Kheghtamah" (Strangled), "Pare" (The Dance), "Khache" (The Cross), and then I have briefly discussed Varuzhan’s and

109


Rubina Peroomian

extraordinary talent and deep knowledge of the boundaries and possibilities of the language. It is the immediacy of the catastrophe, the on-the-scene, head-on experience for Esayan and Partevian impeding the language to overcome all boundaries and the imagination rising above the actual scenes of misery and atrocity. In looking at the Adana massacres from the vantage point of the perpetrator and using Michael Foucault’s terminology suggesting a broader meaning of government, the governmentality of the Young Turks depended on the promise of change of techniques and rationalities used by the Ottoman Sultans to rule over the multiethnic, multi-religious Empire. The events that unfolded in Adana and spread over all of Cilician Armenian towns and villages and beyond were in absolute negation of these promises, but they proved compatible with the subsequent policies and practices, in other words, compatible with the governmentality adopted by the Young Turks. It is a common knowledge that the massacres were instigated by reactionary forces as another manifestation of their counter-revolutionary activities. However, the Young Turk government’s handling of the atrocities and their aftermath leaves no doubt about its conspiracy at least to continue what the reactionaries started. In that stage, it did not take extra effort by the government to introduce their true mentality and not the one they pretended to have espoused in relation to the ethnic minorities, Armenians in particular. The society willingly absorbed that mentality aspect or dimension of governmentality because the culture of violence, an intrinsic characteristic in the Turkish-Armenian centuries-long relationship and absolute domination, never showed a sign to ease. The culture of violence had to find its expressions in language in order to instigate action. And we have witnessed its use in the massacres of 1894-96 as manifested in the Armenian literary responses to them. That language, powerful and unsurpassed, echoes in the poetic responses to the 1909 catastrophe. xxx The entire series of Siamanto’s poems in Karmir lurer barekames (Bloody News from my Friend) makes us realize today the intensity, the dreadfulness of these massacres more than any statistics or a document could. To use Louise Rosenblatt’s formulation, these are poems in which we live through, in this case through the massacres of 1909, §under the guidance of the text and experiences as relevant to the text.¦7 The following are excerpts of the perpetrator’s language in utterances and portrayals of the crime through which the smooth flow of the operation and full participation of the populace was ensured. Captured by Siamanto in §Irents erge¦ (Their Song)£ I sow corpses in the garrets of slavery And these bodies I snatched because they are infidels, Allah says£ turn the vally of the infidels into graves, Butcher the children, fuck all the virgins. ..................... In the air like stars I spread cut heads, I spread death like a caravan of clouds.

Ruben Sevak’s equally powerful poetic responses immediately after the Cilician massacres. The paper was published in a volume containing the proceedings of the Conference, titled The Armenian Cilicia, in 2008, Richard G. Hovannisian ed. 7 "Definition of Reader-Response Criticism" by Ross Murfin.

110


Rubina Peroomian

What are you waiting for? It’s all yours. Strike and eat and dance and get drunk... ..................... Drink from my cup the blood of young virgins. Time runs. Justice changes its course. Drink from this virgin’s scull. What’s gold or silver next to this?8 Siamanto, §Kuyre¦ (The Blind) -- is an absolute manifestation of hatred and drive to murder the infidel. The blind man is applauding those who have spread death and devastation in the neighboring Armenian village and is burning with the desire of participating in the carnage. How badly I want to feel a dead body with my hands. I smell the ashes— May you live a thousand years blessed ones. While walking, my sleepers suddenly stick to the earth.... I know what it is ... I smell it. The blood of sinners is so hot It’s like fire flowing over the roads.... A young man approaches dragging an Armenian beauty by her hair£ I chose this girl from nearby village, but she wouldn’t become a Muslim, and refuses to be my wife. I am terrified by her eyes, I’m afraid she’ll strangle me in my bed. A thousand pities that you’re blind, but feel her body first, The young man gives him his dagger and helps him to drive it in that naked virgin’s heart. The wish is accomplished; he feels the warm blood of that virgin splashing on his face. That was heaven; the blind man shouts in ecstasy as if he had seen the light. §A thousand cheers, I’m ready. Where is her heart my son?¦ §Wait, let me guide your hand.¦ As the blood splattered his face like flaming poppies, he shouted to the crowd£ §My eyes are clear. I’ve seen the light.¦ Studying the cycles of violence in early American West, Ned Blackhawk speaks of violence in New Mexican colony in the 16th and 17th centuries and how violence from both sides had their public rituals and symbols including §the formal presentation of the scalps and 8 With some reservation, I use the published translation in this and the following excerpts from Siamanto’s collection of poems titled "Karmir lurer barekames" (Bloody News from My Friend). In some passages, the meaning of the poems is compromised, as the reader can see, to the poetic qualities the translators have striven to achieve or the poem is abbridged. See, Bloody News from My Friend, Poems by Siamanto, translated by Peter Balakian and Nevart Yaghlian (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1996). I have quoted the translations as they were without making necessary changes to convey the true meanings. Incidentally, the word sow (in I sow corpses -- »ë ¹Ç³ÏÝ»ñ ÏÁ ó³Ý»Ù) is misprinted (I saw corpses) in the book.

111


Rubina Peroomian

ears of enemy Indians to the governor of colonial New Mexico and the mass, public rape of indigenous women captives,¦ or the §display of enemy body parts as trophies.¦ Well, this is happening in the Twentieth Century Ottoman Empire. In the last days of his life, the old Turk, seeking paradise after death, remembers the only sin he has committed in life. Once, in his young age, infatuated with the beauty of a young Armenian girl, he had failed to deliver his everyday prayer to God. He had to repent, and his plans were diabolical£ Then two black men took a fair Armenian boy from Darson to the cellar and with a scimitar slashed off his clothes. His death shriek shook the house, But to complete the ritual the old man was to drink the blood of that Armenian boy. And who should hand him the cup of atonement? §There’s no doubt,¦ he said£ §The last child of that Armenian girl who cost me my place in paradise.¦ So that grandchild brought him a silver tray With a gold cup filled with blood. §You unlucky ones, this cup is a symbol of your defeat,¦ and he bit into the cup and on the threshold of his paradise he smiled as he died. The dream of paradise was realized. Violence turned into ritual performed with awe and piety. [Siamanto, §Kavutiun¦ (Atonement)] In a rich Armenian’s house, the Turkish executioner is standing with a dagger in his hand, the dagger he has found in the house of this rich Armenian, the dagger with which he has killed the young master, and now it is the turn of the beautiful lady of the house. But the murderer has gathered an audience to applaud the performance and share the booty. The man orders the lady to take the dagger in her hand and thrust it in the heart of her two year old boy clinging to her chest and crying in terror. The audience is impatient. It is time for the evening prayers and the infidel woman is refusing to obey. Eventually, she takes the dagger, raises it in the air and down into her own heart£ The woman swung her dagger heavenward, Then collapsed dead her eyes open. But some blood-thirsty punk took her dead hand With the dagger in it, and stabbed her son seven times. [Siamanto, "Dashuyne" (The Dagger)] A perverted religious ritual is being performed in an Armenian church. A mother is begging the Turk to spare his son. But this is an opportunity for the murderers to turn the killing into a pleasurable entertainment. They ask the woman to take off her flowery dress. In a minute the men came running out of the vestibule with a blood-soaked dress. §Isn’t this your dress? 112


Rubina Peroomian

Doesn’t it smell familiar? What kind of mother are you? Smell it, go ahead! Don’t be mad; we sacrificed your son on the altar with white cloths and candles. Now we’ll paint your cross... The executioners have turned the killing of their victims into a mystical performance adorned with a powerful script to match the formidable violence. [Siamanto, §Khache¦ (The Cross)] In a marble bath of the Muslim lady a ritual is being conducted by the wicked witch of the town. The scene describes the slaughter of seven young Armenian virgins and spilling their blood in the bath, the blood running from the feet to the womb of the naked lady standing proudly as the goddess accepting human sacrifice. The witch has promised that the blood of Armenian virgins will bestow her the power of giving birth to conquerors and heroes of the race. Behind the curtains, an old Muslim clergy is reading a mysterious prayer to the Muslim God. Looking toward heaven, the petrified barren beauty Rose to her feet, As the warm blood began to rise Up her leggs to her womb. [Siamanto, §Loganke¦ (The Bath)] Seeing leftovers still lurking in that Armenian village, the mob rises shouting, §We need to attack once again. There are people who still breathe... We sought graveyard yet there is life in there. We all want ashes and death, infidels!¦ Siamanto, §Zavake¦ (The Son).9 Siamanto’s §Pare¦ (The Danse) is in itself the epitome of Turkish atrocities against innocent women. It is an episode related to the author by a German missionary woman who had witnessed a most horrific practice of public violence and incredible utterances of the Muslim murderers£ a dark crowd standing in a vineyard Lashing twenty brides and singing filthysongs. ....................... ‘Dance,’ they raves, ‘dance till you die infidel beauties. with your flapping tits, dance! Smile for us. You’re abandoned now, you’re naked slaves, so dance like a bunch of fuckin’ sluts. We’re hot for your dead bodies,’ These are masterful representations of images that remained unparalleled even in Hagop Oshagan’s Mnatsordats (Remnants). The language befitted the crime, provided a tool, a strategy that worked better than any command from above to turn the mob into the cruelest 9 I have skipped citing excerpts from the translation of this poem. It does not match the original. It is too short and does not do justice to the torrent of imagery, diabolical scenes, and horrifying dialogs Siamanto created in this poem.

113


Rubina Peroomian

and most sadistic murderers to shore up the Young Turk governmentality. In the case of Zapel Esayan, except for a few instances of cynical utterances by Turkish murderers, such as §You don’t have God! Just as your Christ died by torture, so will each one of you die by torture¦ (p. 169), she takes the language of violence to the level of metaphoric expressions, where objects and symbols signify human behavior. §I have witnessed the arrogant and shameless Turkish quarters standing tall amongst Armenian ruins ... I noticed the cynical expressions of unpunished criminals¦ (p. 18-19). Or, the scene of Muslim minarets §rising arrogantly amongst the ruins of Armenian homes burnt to ashes by the fire of hatred¦ (p. 25). Zapel Esayan too, in her own way tried to explore the character of the Turk and what made him a murderer. She views the Turks with the eyes of orphaned children who have witnessed the killing of their parents as cold-blooded murderers whose eyes burn with evil passion to destroy and kill (p. 40). She attributes this behavior to the nature of the Turk who §nurtures bloody aspirations and destroys.¦10 A woman recounts how the Turks killed her husband and son. §The Turkish neighbor women stood there laughing at my sorrow. The more I cried the louder they laughed¦ (pp. 75-76). A Turkish woman had loaded wounded men, women, and children in a carriage with a promise to take them to safety, but instead, she had pushed them into the river to drown. Another Turkish woman was seen crushing the head of a child kneeling over his mother’s dead body. The two women were brought to court and tried. Ironically, they were sentenced to death by hanging and then pardoned. The thrill of bloodshed had intoxicated women so much, Esayan observes, as to forget the friendship and hospitality of their Armenian neighbors. (p. 218). And now contrast this discourse with its binary opposition the crushing, heartrending, tragic images of the catastrophe the executioners accomplished to fulfill. New literary critics following the Readers Response theory believe that our experience reading a text and responding to it is not so much under the guidance of the text, but more so it is motivated by deep-seated, personal, psychological needs. Yes, it is the psychology of a survivor of a great collective catastrophe that draws us to reread and relive the experience of our predecessors’ dreadful struggle of survival through the hell that burned in Cilicia in 1909 and once again in Western Armenia and the entire Ottoman Empire in 1915. Once again examples from Siamanto’s §Bloody News from My Friend¦ elucidate the flip side of the coin, images of utter tragedy, the unparalleled results of unprecedented atrocities that the language of violence achieves to depict. A man returns to his village to find his house ruined, the body of his wife at the threshold, and his young son still clinging to her. The Turks have noticed him from a distance and are coming to finish him off too to complete the carnage of the entire village. The man has to rescue his son, the only Hope of the future, and bury his wife. The scene describes his morbid struggle giving his dead wife the funereal ritual within the raging waves of the river and fighting with the waves and the incoming corpses to reach the sea holding his son high, clenching his belt by his teeth. He finally reaches the sea and puts his son down on the shore to notice stupefied that his wife’s corpse had accompanied them to the sea shore as if to make sure that her son is saved. Siamanto, §Zavake¦ (The Son).11 The corpses were piled high as trees. and from the from the springs, from the streams and the road,

10 This is an excerpt from a letter written from Mersin to her husband in Paris, discussed in Literary Responses to Catastrophe: A Comparison of the Armenian and the Jewish Experience, p. 107. 11 For the same reasons mentioned in note #9, I have skipped the translation.

114


Rubina Peroomian

the blood was stubborn murmur, and still calls revenge in my ear. . . . Siamanto, §Pare¦ (The Dance) And the meaningful synthesis of it all in that same poem£ §so people will understand/ the crimes men do to men.¦ a prototype of the renowned and much quoted phrase §man’s inhumanity to man.¦ And another poetic outburst that has endured through time to become the ultimate defiance against humanity, its principles and values£ §Human justice/ I spit in your face.¦ Siamanto’s §Kheghtamah¦ (Strangled) is a classic in the Armenian genocide literature and the embodiment of the Armenian collective suffering. How many wretched Armenian women on the road of deportation have gone crazy after strangling their crying infant to save others or after hurling their daughters in the river to save them from Turkish molesters? How many of these wretched women have wandered seeking death when surviving the horrifying experience had been impossible? In the darkness we heard the flash-dance crackling, flaring in the sun— guns, spears, bayonets, and swords. Corpses like uprooted trees fell on the roof of our cellar. Through the walls we heard shrieks, mute breathing, the ghost given up. Blood seeped through earth ceiling and trickled [down] our faces. This is human tragedy in a sinister landscape of violence and murder. Then another sinister image in that same poem£ In the dark, the mother offered her throat, then her son’s . . . Then like snakes, two arms found the infant, and the silence in the cellar was a storm. I thought we had all died. Then we heard the man above cursing and the killers left. Was this salvation? Can slaves be saved? Every day that mother half-naked stands by the road delirious, Hanging on the skirt of a stranger, the enemy, the passerby [--See these hands of mine? Do you see these hands? It was I who strangled my newborn in that cellar... Believe me, it was I who strangled him, what unfair people you are, strangle me at least. I have no strength in my hands. It was I, in that cellar, who strangled my newborn with all my strength... Have you no heart? Strangle me. My hands

115


Rubina Peroomian

have no strength any more...]12 Varuzhan’s textualization of the catastrophe is more complex and abstract. In §Kilikean mokhirnerun¦ (To the Ashes of Cilicia), he guides a foreign visitor (otarakan) to the disaster stricken land to show him the wounded left dying, to listen to their painful sighs and moaning, the unburied corpses scattered in the smoking ruins of their houses, crucified men, naked, their blood running down to make streams gushing down the hill. §Behold! The Turk ignited the pyres of his amusement/ Sobbing skeletons are burning grandly.¦ §Arevangiche¦ (The Abductor), is the painstaking struggle of an Armenian man, his fight to save a virgin from her abductor and eventually his victory. The poem ends with the grateful prayers of all the virgins of the same fate whose innocence and purity had fallen victim to the lustful crime. Varuzhan’s synthesis of Turkish Armenian relationship is also captured in §Derenik¦ (a boy’s name in Armenian), a poem that has significantly found its way into the Armenian language primary school textbooks. The mother drives out his son who has come inside crying with his head bleeding. Ali, the Turkish boy has hit him. §Get out, and don’t come home until you hit him back and wash your blood with his...¦ The boy is scared. Ali is Turkish and there is evil in his eyes. §And you are Armenian,¦ the mother replies; §go fight your fight with whichever you want.¦ Surprisingly, however, Varuzhan does not end the poem with the boy’s victory over his Turkish opponent. That would have been too mundane and unrealistic. There, in the yard, a big stone in his hand, the blood flowing down his cheek, Derenik is long awaiting the enemy at his door. And once again, metaphoric images by Esayan and Partevian, synthesized in formulations like §beyond the gallows of Adana, can a road to justice still exist?¦ They both believed that the Turkish-Armenian relationship had suffered a detrimental shock that would never heal. Esayan sees the lingering mistrust for the Turks£ What will not be replaced or compensated in the aftermath of this inexplicable catastrophe is not so much the houses that were turned to ashes, or the ruined orchards, or the vast number of dead. Rather, it is the paralyzing and hopeless sensation reflected in the eyes of the survivors. It is the feelings of a nation trampled and crushed under brutal heels. Those who rose yearning for light and freedom were crushed with pitiless cruelty.13 Partevian doubted if the faith Armenians once had in their Turkish neighbors would ever be restored£ The bodies of the dead will be buried; the wounds will heal, the tears will dry up, the blood will be wiped away, the ruins will be rebuilt, the catastrophe will be redressed. But there is something broken, something sunken in our souls; there is a ravage of faith, a pain of frustration that will remain incurable.14 xxx 12 The translation of this poem too is abridged and schematic. It hardly conveys the tension, the meaning, and the impact building up within the original. Furthermore, some inaccuracies in translation have distorted the original meaning. I have inserted my own translation in brackets in the last six lines. The Balakian-Yeghlian translation goes, "I strangled my baby. It’s true. / Have pity on me, for I’m a coward. / You could wring my neck in a second. / Have you no heart?" 13 Esayan, Averaknerun mej, p. 28. 14 Partevian, Kilikian arhavirke, p. 200, from the essay "Andarmanelin" [The Incurable].

116


Rubina Peroomian

Norman Holland suggested that when we read, and I would say especially when we read about our people’s tragic past, we find our own §identity theme¦ in the text by using §the literary work to symbolize and finally replicate ourselves.¦ The catalyst in this reading is the language of violence, an aesthetic counter-violence to portray the landscape of the most striking and sinister acts of mob violence, torture, and murder in the literature of atrocity, a shocking encounter for the reader, to see the truth about the nature and the motive of the perpetrators, the magnitude of the atrocities and the resulting disaster. In her study of Wallace Steven’s poetry, Jaqueline Vaught Brogan asserts that §he is acutely aware of .... the constitutive power of language in shaping the structures and experiences of our actual world.¦ By being aware, Brogan meant to say that Stevens achieved that function in his poetry, not many have. The Armenian poets and writers of the Adana massacres, in their difficult, self-imposed task of textualizing the catastrophe sought to achieve that goal and found the solution in devising the language of violence befitting the world of catastrophic atrocities around them. Zapel Esayan did not venture to create art after 1915. She could not surpass the mastery by which she had created the morbid images of the 1909 massacres. Suren Partevian composed two pieces, mediocre in comparison to his Kilikian Arhavirke. Siamanto and Varuzhan did not survive the Genocide of 1915 to immortalize in their greatness, the truth of the Genocide as it occurred. But take any of the pieces they created in response to the massacres of 1909 and change the date they were written, you will have a landscape of the atrocities of the 1915 before your eyes. These literary gems served the survivors of the 1915 Genocide to commemorate and mourn their dead, to express anger, sorrow, and vengeance. It can be easily said that in terms of magnitude, extent, duration, and participation of the populace, the massacres of 1909 present a microcosm of the genocide of 1915. But the literary responses to the massacres of 1909, the poetic tools, the language, and the intensity of images in literature remained unsurpassed and shadowed the immediate responses to the 1915 Genocide. They became powerful sources of inspiration for new art forms to introduce the truth about the Armenian Genocide. They built a paradigm to last and to assist the poets and the writers of the future in their struggle to portray the Catastrophe, the genocide of Armenians at the hands of the Turks. èáõμÇݳ öÇñáõÙÛ³Ý ´éÝáõÃÛ³Ý åá»ïÇÏ³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ·ñ³Ï³Ý ³ñÓ³·³ÝùÝ»ñáõÙ ³Ù÷á÷áõÙ Ðá¹í³ÍáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ ¿ 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Û»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ã»Ù³ÛÇ ³ñï³óáÉáõÙÁ ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£ Ð»ÕÇݳÏÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ êdzٳÝÃáÛÇ, ¸³ÝÇ»É ì³ñáõųÝÇ ¨ Ñ³Û ÙÛáõë ·ñáÕÝ»ñÇ ëï»Õͳ·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, í»ñÉáõÍáõÙ ¹ñ³Ýù ¨ óáõÛó ï³ÉÇë ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý Ï³åÁ ¹ñ³Ýó Ñ»ï` ѳٻٳï»Éáí ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ ¨ 1915-1923 ÃÃ. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ñÓ³·³ÝùÝ»ñÁ ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç: лÕÇݳÏÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ѳÏí³Í ¿ ¹Çï»Éáõ áñå»ë 1915 Ã. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ëï³óí³Í ¹ñë¨áñáõÙ£ лÕÇݳÏÇ ÙÛáõë ϳñ¨áñ »½ñ³Ï³óáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÛÝ ¿, áñ ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ ³ñï³óáÉáõÙÁ áñáß³ÏÇáñ»Ý ëïí»ñáõÙ ¿ Ùݳó»É` Ç Ñ³Ù»Ù³ïáõÃÛáõÝ 1915 ÃÃ. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³ñÓáÕ ·ñ³Ï³Ý ëï»Õͳ·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£

117


1909 Â. ÎÆÈÆÎÚ²Ü Îàîàð²ÌܺðÀ üð²ÜêÆ²Î²Ü ä²îز¶ðàôÂÚ²Ü øÜÜ²Î²Ü ÈàôÚêÆ Üºðøà (вزèàî ¸Æî²ðÎàôØ Üºð) ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý 1909 Ã. ·³ñݳÝÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ1 гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÇ (1894-1922) μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã Ù³ëÝ »Ý£ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï³½áïáÕÝ»ñÝ ³Ýѳٻٳï Ýí³½ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ¹³ñÓñ»É ³Ûë ϳñ¨áñ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ѳí³Ý³μ³ñ, ³ÛÝ å³ï׳éáí, áñ ³ÛÝ ã»Ý ¹Çï»É Çμñ¨ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ýù³Ïï»ÉÇ ûÕ³ÏÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Ùï³ÑÕ³ó»É, ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ»É ¿ 1908 Ã. ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý »Ï³Í ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý Ýáñ áõÅ»ñÇ` »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Á, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ¹ñ³Ýó Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³ÝÝ ³ÝÙ³ë ã»Ý Ùݳó»É ݳ¨ Çñ Ù³Ûñ³ÙáõïÝ ³åñáÕ Ñ³ÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÁ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ûëÙ³ÝÝÛ³Ý μ³ñÓñ³ëïÇ×³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÁ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÝ Ç ëϽμ³Ý» ³é ³Ûëûñ, ß³ï ³í»ÉÇ Ù³Ýñ³ÏñÏÇï ¿ áõëáõÙݳëÇñí»É üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ, ù³Ý áñ¨¿ ³ÛÉ »ñÏñáõÙ£ ¸ñ³Ýó å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ³é³çÇÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ å³ïϳÝáõÙ »Ý ¹»é¨ë Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇó ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ Ùï³íáñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ·ñãÇÝ£ 1910-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ ÉáõÛë ÁÝͳÛí³Í å³ïÙ³·Çï³Ï³Ý ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳñÏ ¿ μ³Å³Ý»É »ñ»ù ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý ËÙμ»ñÇ` ÷³ëï³·ñ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃÇ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, μáõÝ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ Éáõë³μ³ÝáÕ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ѻﳽáïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, áñáÝóáõÙ ³Ûë ϳ٠³ÛÝ ã³÷áí Ù»Ïݳμ³Ýí»É ¿ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²é ³Ûëûñ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ÙÇ³Ï ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÇ ÅáÕáí³ÍáõÝ ÉáõÛë ¿ ÁÝͳÛí»É 1911 Ã. ÄáñÅ ´ñ»½áÉ Ï»ÕͳÝí³Ùμ ѳݹ»ë »Ï³Í ѳ۳½·Ç ä»ïñáë ²½Ý³íáõñÇ ³ß˳ï³ëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ` §²Ûëï»ÕÇó Ãáõñù»ñÝ »Ý ³Ýó»É¦ Ëáñ³·ñáí:2 ²ÛÝ Áݹ·ñÏáõÙ ¿ Ù»Í Ù³ë³Ùμ Ñ³Û ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ ¨ ·É˳íáñ³å»ë Ñ³Û Ñá·¨áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` ½»Ïáõó³·ñ»ñ, ݳٳÏÝ»ñ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ, áñáÝù Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ÁÝÓ»éáõÙ å³ïÏ»ñ³óáõ٠ϳ½Ù»Éáõ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç μݳçÝçÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÇ í»ñ³μ»ñ۳ɣ ´ñ»½áÉÁ ½»ï»Õ»É ¿ ݳ¨ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÁ ˻ճÃÛáõñáÕ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ£ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñÁ, áñáÝó ·»ñ³ÏßéáÕ Ù³ëáõÙ ãÏ³Ý í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ³Ýëïáñ³·Çñ »Ý ¨ Ýϳñ³·ñáÕ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃÇ »Ý£ ¸ñ³Ýó Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÁ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏíáõÙ »Ý ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ÁݹѳÝáõñ μÝáõÛÃÇ ¹ÇïáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáí, ÇÝãÁ íϳÛáõÙ ¿, áñ Ýñ³Ýù áã ÙdzÛÝ ¹»é¨ë ã»Ý ÁÙμéÝ»É Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ, ³Ûɨ Ç íÇ׳ÏÇ ã»Ý »Õ»É Ñëï³Ïáñ»Ý ÏáÕÙÝáñáßí»É Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý` ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ¹»é¨ë ËñÃÇÝ Ñ³ñóáõÙ, ù³Ý½Ç ¹ñ³Ýù ѳçáñ¹»É »Ý 1 ¼áÑ»ñÇ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇ ßáõñç å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ѳÛïÝ»É »Ý Çñ³ñ³Ù»ñŠϳñÍÇùÝ»ñ£ ÀݹѳÝáõñ ³éÙ³Ùμ Ýñ³Ýù ϳñÍáõÙ »Ý, áñ ½áÑí³Í ѳۻñÇ ÃÇíÁ ï³ï³ÝíáõÙ ¿ 25.000-Çó 30.000-Ç ÙÇç¨ (ï»°ë, ûñÇݳÏ, Dadrian V., Histoire du génocide arménien. Conflits nationaux des Balkans au Caucase, Paris, 1996, p. 305; Kévorkian R.H., Le génocide des Arméniens, Paris, 2006, p. 100): öáùñ-ÇÝã ³ÛÉ ¿ ³Ï³¹»ÙÇÏáë Ð. êÇÙáÝÛ³ÝÇ Ùáï»óáõÙÁ. Áëï Ýñ³ ѳßí³ñÏÝ»ñÇ` ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ѳëÝáõÙ ¿ 40.000-Ç£ î»°ë êÇÙáÝÛ³Ý Ð., гۻñÇ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ (1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉ), ºñ., 2009, ¿ç 206£ 2 Brézol G., Les Turcs ont passé là… Recueil de documents, dossiers, rapports, requêtes, protestations, suppliques et enquêtes établissant la vérité sur les massacres d’Adana en 1909, Paris, 1911.

118


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ 31-Ç ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³ÝÁ ¨ ¹ñ³ ×ÝßÙ³ÝÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ Üñ³Ýù, Áëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, μ³í³ñ³ñíáõÙ »Ý ·É˳íáñ³å»ë ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ íÇɳۻÃÇ Ïáõë³Ï³É 樳¹ μ»ÛÇ ¨ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñ Øáõëóý³ è»Ù½Ç ÷³ß³ÛÇ Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍ ¹ÇñùáñáßÙ³Ý ¹³ï³å³ñïÙ³Ùμ£ ÀݹѳÝáõñ ³éÙ³Ùμ, Ñ³Û ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ Ùáï»óÙ³ÝÁ μÝáñáß ¿ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ß³ÕϳåáõÙÁ ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³ÝÁ£ Üñ³Ýó Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ËáñÑñ¹³Ýß³Ï³Ý »Ý í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÇ ËáñÑñ¹³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝóÇó ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ Ïé³Ñ»É, áñ ÙdzÛÝ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ý ¿ñ Çñ³í³ëáõ ÉáõÍáõÙ ï³É å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ³éç¨ Í³é³ó³Í ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇÝ, áõëïÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳñÏ ¿ í»ñ³·ñ»É ÙdzÛÝ ëáõÉóÝÇÝ£ Ð³Û Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` Ñá·¨áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÇ, ßñç³ÝáõÙ Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ ³ÏÝѳÛï ¿ 1908 Ã. ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Õ»ÏÁ ëï³ÝÓÝ³Í »ñÇïÃáõñù å³ñ³·ÉáõËÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÇó ½»ñÍ å³Ñ»Éáõ ÙÇïáõÙÁ, ÇÝãÁ ѻ勉Ýù ¿ Ýñ³Ýó Ùáï ³ñÙ³ï³ó³Í ³ÛÝ ÃÛáõñ Ùï³ÛÝáõÃÛ³Ý, û Çμñ 1908 Ã. ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñë Ñ»ï³Ùáõï »Ý »Õ»É 1908 Ã. í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïí³Í` 1876 Ã. ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ñéã³Ïí³Í ¹ñáõÛÃÝ»ñÇ Ï»Ýë³·áñÍÙ³ÝÁ£ àõëïÇ Ñ³Û Ñá·¨áñ ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ å³ÛٳݳíáñáõÙ »Ý ÙdzÛÝ Ù³ñïÇ 31-ÇÝ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³Ùμ ¨ ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ßñç³ÝóáõÙ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Õ»Ï³í³ñ ¹»ñÁ£ âÇ μ³ó³éíáõÙ, áñ »ñÇïÃáõñù å³ñ³·ÉáõËÝ»ñÇÝ ÑÕ³Í ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñáõÙ Ýñ³Ýù ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ñ¹»É »Ý ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³ÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç íñ³ ·áõó»¨ ·Çï³Ïó³μ³ñ, ù³Ý½Ç ·»ñ³¹³ë»É »Ý Ó»éÝå³Ñ ÙÝ³É Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý »Ï³Í ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý Ýáñ áõÅ»ñÇ Ñ³ëó»ÇÝ μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï ùÝݳ¹³ï³Ï³Ý Ëáëù»ñ áõÕÕ»Éáõó` Ýñ³Ýó ѳϳѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ïñ³Ù³¹ñí³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³í»ÉÇ ãμáñμáù»Éáõ Ùï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Ø³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»Ýù, áñ Ñ³Û Ñá·¨áñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ, »ÉÝ»Éáí Çñ»Ýó ³ß˳ñѳ۳óùÇó, ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ í»ñÉáõÍ»É »Ý ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ï Ïïñí³Íùáí, áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ï»ÝïñáݳóÝ»Éáí Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ ½³Ý³½³ÝáÕ ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ³é׳ϳïÙ³Ý íñ³, ÇÝãÁ μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï ß»ÕáõÙ ¿ å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ ²ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, Ýñ³Ýó ѳçáÕí»É ¿ Ù»Ïݳμ³Ý»É Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ ÙÇ ß³ñù ¿³Ï³Ý ÑÇÙݳËݹÇñÝ»ñ£ гïϳÝß³Ï³Ý ¿, áñ Ýñ³Ýó ·ñ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ μ³½ÙÇóë Áݹ·ÍíáõÙ ¿ ¨ ÑÇÙݳíáñíáõÙ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý` Çμñ¨ »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ, ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý μÝáñáßÇãÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÇ` ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý å³ñ³·³Ûáõ٠ϳÝ˳Ùï³Íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ³éϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ (Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ½»Ýù ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»ÉÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ)£ гñÏ ¿ Áݹ·Í»É, áñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ï³ÃáÉÇÏ Ñ³Û»ñÇ Ñá·¨áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹ гÏáμ »åÇëÏáåáë »ñ½Û³ÝÁ μ³ó³éáõÙ ¿ ѳۻñÇ` Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍÙ³ÝÁ å³ï×³é ¹³éݳÉáõ ѳí³Ý³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ÇÝãÁ ËÇëï ϳñ¨áñ ¿, ù³Ý½Ç ¹ñ³Ýáí ݳ ÑáõÅÏáõ ѳϳѳñí³Í ¿ ѳëóÝáõÙ áã ÙdzÛÝ Çñ ųٳݳϳÏÇó Ãáõñù å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ, ³Ûɨ ѻﳷ³ ï³ëݳÙÛ³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ³Õ³í³ÕÙ³ÝÁ ÙÇïí³Í` гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ ݻݷ³÷áËáÕ ï³ñμ»ñ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ ³é³ç³¹ñ³Í ëï³Ñá¹ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³éÝãáõÃÛ³Ùμ Ýß»Ýù, áñ Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõ٠ݳ¨ ÅáÕáí³ÍáõáõÙ ½»ï»Õí³Í ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ·ñ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ ¸»é¨ë 樳¹ μ»ÛÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÉÏïdzμ³ñ Ù»Ïݳμ³Ý»Éáí ëáëÏ Çμñ¨ §Ñáõ½áõÙÝ»ñ¦, ¹ñ³Ýó å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ ¿ ѳٳñáõÙ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³Û ýǹ³ÛÇÝ»ñÇ£ Àëï Ýñ³` ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ å³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³Ï »Ý ·ïÝí»É áã ÙdzÛÝ ûëٳݳÑå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ã³Õ³Ù³ë»ñÁ, ³Ûɨ »íñáå³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ å³ïϳÝáÕ Ñ³ëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãÁ μ³ó³ñӳϳå»ë ãÇ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë119


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

˳ÝáõÙ Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ²ñ¹³ñ³óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý μ³Ý³ÏÇ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ »ñÏñáñ¹ ÷áõÉÇÝ` ݳ ¹»é¨ë ¹ñ³Ýó ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍÙ³Ý ³é³çÇÝ ûñ»ñÇÝ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ϳñ·³íáñ»Éáõ ÙÇ³Ï Ñݳñ³íáñ ÙÇçáóÁ ѳٳñáõÙ ¿ μ³ó³é³å»ë ½ÇÝí³Í áõÅ»ñÇ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ лï³ùñùñ³Ï³Ý ¿ Ýß»É, áñ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ÙdzÛÝ, Ç ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ Ý³Ëáñ¹ ѳÕáñ¹³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, 樳¹ μ»ÛÝ ³é³çÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù û·ï³·áñÍáõÙ ¿ §Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ¦ μ³éÁ, ÇÝãÁ å³ï³Ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝù ã¿£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ݳ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÙ ¿ ³ÛÝ §³ÝÇñ³½»ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ¦, áñáõÙ ·ïÝíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÁ (ÇÝãÁ, Áëï Ýñ³, å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ »Õ»É μéÝ³Ï³É³Ï³Ý ¹³ñ³ßñç³Ýáí), ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ï³ñμ»ñ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ` ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³Ýáõ٠ѳٳËÙμÙ³Ý ó³ÝÏáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ó³Ï³ÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ѳٳϻóáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ýμ³í³ñ³ñ Ó·ïáõÙáí£ ²ÏÝѳÛï ¿, áñ ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ï³å³ÉáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá 樳¹ μ»ÛÝ ÁݹáõÝáõÙ ¿ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÷³ëïÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹ñ³Ýó å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ñ¹áõÙ ¿ ÙdzÛÝ Ý³ËÏÇÝ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç íñ³£ ÄáÕáí³ÍáõáõÙ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí³Í »Ý ݳ¨ ï³ñμ»ñ ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñ, áñáÝù ³éÝãíáõÙ »Ý ѳۻñÇ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ѳۻñÇÝ óáõÛó ïñí³Í û·ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý ½»Ïáõó³·ñ»ñ, ûñÇݳÏ` Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï³ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ í³ñ³Í ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ ³Ý¹³Ù, »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³Ý¹³Ù³·ñí³Í ѳ۳½·Ç å³ï·³Ù³íáñ гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÇ ½»Ïáõó³·ñÇó áñáß Ñ³ïí³ÍÝ»ñ£ ´ñ»½áÉÁ, Ç ¹»å, ßñç³Ýó»É ¿ ½»Ïáõó³·ñÇ í»ñçÇÝ Ù³ëÁ, áñï»Õ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ó³Ñ³Ûïáñ»Ý μ³ñ¹»É ¿ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç íñ³£ ÜÙ³Ý ¹ÇñùáñáßáõÙÁ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ Ù³ë³Ùμ Ù»Ïݳμ³Ý»É ³ÛÝ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³Ýùáí, áñ ݳ, ûñ¨ë, ÑáõÛë»ñ ¿ ϳå»É ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳۻñÇ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÇ μ³ñ»É³íÙ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý »Ï³Í ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý áõÅ»ñÇ Ñ»ï ¨, ѳí³Ý³μ³ñ, ãÇ ó³Ýϳó»É Ýñ³Ýó ³í»ÉÇ μáñμáù»É£ âÇ μ³ó³éíáõ٠ݳ¨, áñ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ³ÏÝϳÉÇùÝ»ñáí ÉÇ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏÇãÁ ·»ñ³¹³ë»É ¿ ëùáÕ»É Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ áõÝ»ó³Í Ýñ³Ýó í×é³Ï³Ý ¹»ñÁ` ·»ñɳñí³Í Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÁ ÉÇóù³Ã³÷»Éáõ Ùï³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Â»¨ ´ñ»½áÉÁ ç³Ýù»ñ ¿ ·áñͳ¹ñ»É Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù³å³ñ÷³Ï å³ïÏ»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáõ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, Ýñ³ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó íñÇå»É »Ý ÙÇ ß³ñù ϳñ¨áñ ѳñó»ñ, ÇÝãåÇëÇù »Ý, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë, Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ, »íñáå³Ï³Ý ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïáõÙÁ£ âÝ³Û³Í ³Ûë μ³óÃáÕáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ áñáß ÑÇÙݳѳñó»ñÇ ßáõñç, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` ËÇëï ¿³Ï³Ý (Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ Éáõë³μ³ÝÙ³Ý, å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÇ ¹ÇÙ³½»ñÍÙ³Ý), ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ` Áݹ·Íí³Í ÙdzÏáÕÙ³ÝÇ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ, ´ñ»½áÉÇ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ï³Í ÅáÕáí³ÍáõÇ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ù»Í ¿£ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ³ÛÝ ³é ³Ûëûñ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ÙÇ³Ï ÷³ëï³·ñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿, áñÁ ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ѻﳷ³ ë»ñáõݹݻñÇÝ, Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ÁÝÓ»é»É ï³ñ³ï»ë³Ï ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³¹ñÙ³Ý ÙÇçáóáí å³ïÏ»ñ³óáõ٠ϳ½Ù»É áã ÙdzÛÝ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÝ»ñáõ٠ͳí³Éí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ, ³Ûɨ ѳ۳½·Ç ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ ¨ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñÝ»ñÇ` Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ïí³Í Çñ³ñ³Ù»ñÅ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ Àëï ³Û¹Ù` ´ñ»½áÉÇ ÅáÕáí³ÍáõÝ ÙÇÝã ûñë å³Ñå³ÝáõÙ ¿ Çñ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ¨ ׳ݳãáÕ³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³ñÓ»É »Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý ë³Ï³í³ÃÇí ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñ` ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ, Ä. ¹’²Ý½»Ý ¨ Ä. ì»ëÇ»Ý, áñáÝó 120


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÁ å³ïÙ³·Çï³Ï³ÝÇó ½³ï áõÝ»Ý Ý³¨ ³ÕμÛáõñ³·Çï³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ:3 Üñ³Ýó ÃíáõÙ μ³½Ù³½³Ý ÑÇÙݳËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ Áݹ·ñÏÙ³Ý ³éáõÙáí ³é³í»É Ñ»ï³ùÁñùÇñ ¿ ². ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ܳ Ñ»ñùáõÙ ¿ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ³é³ç³¹ñ³Í` ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ËéáíáõÃÛ³Ý Ï»ÕÍ í³ñϳÍÁ, Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳۻñÇ íñ³ μ³ñ¹»Éáõ Ñ»ñÛáõñ³ÝùÁ, ß»ßïáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ï³Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÙÇïí³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÁ, Ñ³Û ïÕ³Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó ѳݹ»å ¹ñë¨áñí³Í ³é³ÝÓݳѳïáõÏ ¹ÅÝÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝùÁ£ ²¹áëǹ»ëÇ ³ñųÝÇùÝ»ñÇó Ýß»Ýù ݳ¨ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç Ïñ³Í ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý íݳëÝ»ñÇ ùÝݳñÏáõÙÁ, ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý å³ñ³·³Ûáõ٠ϳÝ˳Ùï³Íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ³éϳÛáõÃÛ³Ý ÷³ëïáõÙÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÃáÕïíáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ Ýñ³Ýó ջϳí³ñ ¹»ñÇ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïáõÙÁ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÇ ï³ñμ»ñ í³Ûñ»ñáõ٠ͳí³Éí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëï»Éáõ ·áñÍáõÙ£ ²í»Éáñ¹ ã»Ýù ѳٳñáõÙ å³ñ½³μ³Ý»É, áñ ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³Ý˳Ùï³Íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëïí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ßáõñç ³é³ç³¹ñáõÙ ¿ ³ÝѳñÇñ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ ö³ëï»Éáí, áñ §Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ ݳ˳å»ë ï»ÕÛ³Ï ¿ »Õ»É Íñ³·ñí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇݦ, ݳ, ³ÛÝáõ³Ù»Ý³ÛÝÇí, ·»ñ³¹³ëáõÙ ¿ ³Ûë ѳñóÁ ÃáÕÝ»É §û¹áõ٠ϳËí³Í¦, ù³Ý½Ç Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ í»ñëïÇÝ ¿³Ï³Ý ¿ ѳٳñáõÙ ëáëÏ §Ï³ÛÍǦ μéÝÏáõÙÁ£ àõëïÇ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ ϳÝ˳Ùï³Íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³, ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ, Áëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, ÁÙμéÝáõÙ ¿ ËÇëï ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ï Ïïñí³Íùáí ¨ ³ÛÝ ùÝݳñÏáõ٠ѳۻñÇ ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇ ¹³í³Ý³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ½³Ý³½³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í` Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÙÇç¨ ³éϳ ѳϳٳñïáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñÃáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³£ ÆÝã í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ ¿ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ Éáõë³μ³ÝÙ³ÝÁ, ³å³ Ýñ³ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ëå³éÇã ã»Ý£ Ü³Ë Ý³ »ñμ»ÙÝ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ ß÷áÃáõÙ ¿ ß³ñųéÇÃÝ»ñÇ, ûñÇݳÏ` ѳۻñÇ ³Ý½·áõÛß å³Ñí³ÍùÇ Ñ»ï, μ³óÇ ³Û¹, Áëï Çñ ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·Ç, ¹ñ³Ýó ÃíáõÙ Ù»Í Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ѳïϳóÝáõÙ ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ½³Ý³½³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, áñÁ, ³Ýï³ñ³ÏáõÛë, ãÇ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ ¹³ë»É å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùÁ£ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ï³ñμ»ñ` ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·»ñÇ` 1909 Ã. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ËݹñáõÙ Ïñ³Í å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÇ ßáõñç ¨ë Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ¨ Ýñ³ ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ·»ñ³ÏßéáÕ Ù³ëÁ, ãÇ áõÝ»ó»É Ñëï³Ï ¹ÇñùáñáßáõÙ£ Ü³Ë ÷³ëï»ñáí ݳ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïáõÙ ¿ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ã³ñ³·áõß³Ï ¹»ñÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ. §²Ûë í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Á, áñÇó Ýñ³Ýù (ѳۻñÁ – ì. ä.) ³ÏÝϳÉáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ÷ñÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ¹³ñÓ³í... Ýñ³Ýó ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý Ã»° å³ï׳éÁ ¨ û° ³éÇÃÁ¦£ лÕÇݳÏÇ ³Ûë »½ñ³Ñ³Ý·áõÙÁ Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ ÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ ¿£ ØdzųٳݳÏ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Ù»Ï ³ÛÉ ³éÇÃáí ݳ ÝßáõÙ ¿. §ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ÑáÉáùáëïÁ, ³Ýï³ñ³ÏáõÛë, »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ·áñÍÁ ã¿£ ²Ûë Ññ»ß³íáñ ѳÝó³÷áñÓÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ μ³ñ¹íáõÙ ¿ ѻﳹÇÙáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç íñ³¦£ ²ÛëåÇëáí, Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ ³ÏÝѳÛï ¿, áñ ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ ˳ñ˳÷áõÙ ¿ ½³Ý³½³Ý ѳϳëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç£ ²ÝÏ³Ë »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ¹»ñÇ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý ³éÝãáõÃÛ³Ùμ ³é³ç³¹ñ³Í ³ÝѳñÇñ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ` ݳ, μ³½ÙÇóë ß»ßï»Éáí 1909 Ã. áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍÙ³Ý ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍáõÙ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` ï»Õ³Ï³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ¹»ñÁ, ³ÝáõÕÕ³ÏÇáñ»Ý ѳí³ëïáõÙ ¿ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý` å»ï³3 Adossidès A., Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs. Les massacres de Cilicie, Paris, 1910 ; d’Annezay J., Au pays des massacres, saignée arménienne de 1909, Paris, 1910 ; Vayssié G., Les vêpres ciliciennes // § La Revue ¦ (Ancienne § Revue des revues ¦), 1er novembre 1909, N 21.

121


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³Ï³ñ¹³Ïáí Íñ³·ñí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ýñ³ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ»ï¨áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ, Ç í»ñçá, ³ÝѳñÇñ ¿ ³Ûë Çñ³ï»ë³Ï³Ý ѳí³ëïÙ³ÝÁ£ ¸’²Ý½»Ý μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ѳÙá½Çã ÷³ëï»ñáí ³å³óáõó»É ¿ 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ å»ï³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³Ï³ñ¹³Ïáí` Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇó ëï³óí³Í ϳñ·³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ϳÝ˳Ùï³Íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý μ³ñÓñ³ëïÇ×³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ·áñÍáõÝ ³ç³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÇÝ ãÇ Ñ³çáÕí»É ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï å³ñ½áõÃÛáõÝ ÙïóÝ»É ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý Ï³å³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²Ûë ѳñóáõÙ ¹’²Ý½»ÝÇ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ë ËÇëï ûñÇ »Ý, ù³Ý½Ç áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ·ñ»Ã» ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ 쨻éáõÙ ¿ »ñÏñáñ¹³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃÇ ³ÛÝåÇëÇ ÙÇ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÇ íñ³, ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ ¿ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ¨ ѳïϳå»ë ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ï³Í³Í ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Àëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ ÑÇÙݳíáñ³å»ë μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïáõÙ ¿ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ëáëÏ ß³ñųéÇÃÁ` ϳåí³Í 1908 Ã. ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ßé³ÛÉ³Í ËáëïáõÙÝ»ñÇ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõ٠ѳۻñÇÝ Ñ³Ù³Ï³Í á·¨áñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ÇÝãÁ ËÇëï ϳñ¨áñ ¿, ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Çñ³í³Ùμ Ù³ïݳÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ 1908 Ã.` 1876 Ã. ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïÙ³ÝÁ ѳçáñ¹³Í ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝáõÙ, Øáõß»Õ »åÇëÏáåáë ê»ñáμÛ³ÝÇ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç §Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ ·ïÝ»É á°ã ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ¹³í³×³Ý»Éáõ ¨ á°ã Çñ³Ï³Ý ¹³í³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ïù¦, ÇÝãÁ μ³½ÙÇóë ¹³ñÓ»É ¿ ߳ѳñÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ ³é³ñϳ û° Ãáõñù ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ¨ û° ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ï»Õͳñ³ñÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, áñáÝù ç³Ýù áõ »é³Ý¹ ã»Ý ËݳۻÉ` ³ÝÇñ³í³óÇáñ»Ý Ýñ³ íñ³ μ³ñ¹»Éáõ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍÙ³Ý å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Æ í»ñçá, ¹’²Ý½»Ý Çμñ¨ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ §Çñ³Ï³Ý å³ï×³é¦ ³é³ÝÓݳóÝáõÙ ¿ ³Ûë §Ë»Õ× ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç¦ ѳݹ»å ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³Ùǹ II-Ç ï³Í³Í ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²ÏÝѳÛï ¿, áñ ݳ μ³ó³ñӳϳå»ë ãÇ ÏáÕÙÝáñáßí»É 1908 Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý μ³ñ¹ ï»Õ³ß³ñÅ»ñáõÙ, ÇÝãÁ å³ï×³é ¿ ¹³ñÓ»É ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛ³Ý Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ãѳٳå³ï³ë˳ÝáÕ ³Ûë ³ÝÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ Ñ»ï¨áõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳݷ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ºÉÝ»Éáí Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÇ ß³ñ³¹ñ³ÝùÇó` Çñ³í³ëáõ »Ýù ѳí³ëï»É, áñ Áëï Ýñ³ ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·Ç` ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñÙ³ÝÁ áñ¨¿ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ ã»Ý áõÝ»ó»É, ÇëÏ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ »ñÏñáõÙ ÙdzѻͳÝáñ»Ý ß³ñáõÝ³Ï»É ¿ ïÝûñÇÝ»É ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÁ£ ²Ûë å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ûñÇݳã³÷ ¿, áñ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³Ý å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ ݳ μ³ñ¹áõÙ ¿ μ³ó³é³å»ë ëáõÉóÝÇ íñ³` ¹ñ³ÝÇó ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ ½»ñÍ å³Ñ»Éáí Çñ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ½ëå³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó Ó»éùáõÙ Ï»Ýïñáݳóñ³Í »ñÇïÃáõñù å³ñ³·ÉáõËÝ»ñÇÝ£ àõëïÇ ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ¹’²Ý½»Ý ³Ýù³Ïï»ÉÇáñ»Ý ß³ÕϳåáõÙ ¿ ÙÇÙdzÛÝ ¹Çñù»ñÁ ½ÇçáÕ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ å³Ñå³Ý»Éáõ ³Ýë³ëï»ÉÇ ó³ÝÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ ѳٳÏí³Í ëáõÉóÝÇ Ùï³ÑÕ³ó³Í §ë³ï³Ý³Û³Ï³Ý¦ Íñ³·ñÇÝ£ ²ÛëåÇëáí, ¹’²Ý½»Ý 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ѳÝÇñ³íÇ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÙ ¿ Çμñ¨ ÙdzÛÝ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç Ý³Ë³Ó»éÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝ, áñÁ, Ýñ³ ϳñÍÇùáí, Áݹ³Ù»ÝÝ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý áõÅ»ñÇ` »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ¹»Ù ëáõÉóÝÇ í³ñ³Í ѻﳹÇÙ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã Ù³ëÝ ¿ñ£ ÜáõÛÝù³Ý ³ÝÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ »Ý ݳ¨ Ýñ³` ѳۻñÇ μݳçÝçáõÙÁ ϳë»óÝ»Éáõ ·áñÍÁÝóóÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ϳñÍ»óÛ³É Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³éÝãíáÕ ÙïáñáõÙÝ»ñÁ, Áëï áñáÝó` Ýáñ ·³Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñÇÝ ïáõñù ïí³Í ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý §Ñ½áñ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦ ϳñáÕ³ó»É »Ý ųٳݳÏÇÝ Ã³÷³Ýó»É ëáõÉóÝÇ Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍ Íñ³·ñ»ñÇ ¿áõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¨ ¹ÇÙ³Ï³Û»É ¹ñ³Ýó£ 122


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

Ä. ì»ëÇ»Ç Ñá¹í³ÍÁ ÑÇÙÝí³Í ¿ ëáëÏ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ` º·ÇåïáëáõÙ, êÇñdzÛáõÙ ¨ ÎÇåñáëáõ٠ѳݷñí³Ý³Í ѳÛ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ Ãáõñù ¨ »íñáå³óÇ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³£ Æ ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ Ý³Ëáñ¹ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ` ݳ, Áëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, í»ñ³ß³ñ³¹ñáõÙ ¿ Çñ ½ñáõó³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ Ð³Û ·³ÕóϳÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ Ãáõñù ųٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÁ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý áãÝã³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÁ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÙ »Ý í»ñÁ Ýßí³Í ³ÝѳñÇñ Ùáï»óáõÙÝ»ñÇ ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ£ Üñ³Ýó ÃíáõÙ ³í»ÉÇ Ñ»ï³ùñùÇñ »Ý »íñáå³óÇÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïáõÙ »Ý ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ï»Õ³Ï³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë, 樳¹ μ»ÛÇ ¨ è»Ù½Ç ÷³ß³ÛÇ ·Çï³Ïó³μ³ñ áñ¹»·ñ³Í` ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳۻñÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ Ýϳï»ÉÇ ËÙáñáõÙÝ»ñÇ Í³í³ÉÙ³ÝÁ Ýå³ëïáÕ ¨ í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñÇë ѳٳñ Ïáñͳݳñ³ñ ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý·»óñ³Í Ëáñ³Ù³ÝÏ Ù³ñï³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, Ýñ³Ýó ÷áõûé³Ý¹ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ջϳí³ñ ¹»ñÁ ¹ñ³Ýó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÙ³Ý ·áñÍáõÙ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ Ù»ñϳóÙ³Ý ËݹñáõÙ Ýñ³Ýù ¨ë, ÇÝãå»ë ¹’²Ý½»Ý, ѳÝÇñ³íÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ »Ý ѳٳñáõÙ ÙdzÛÝ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÇÝ£ ÐÇÙݳíáñ³å»ë ÷³ëï»Éáí Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ »ñÏñáñ¹ ÷áõÉÇ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³å³ïñ³ëï³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ѳçáñ¹»É »Ý ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³Ý ×ÝßÙ³ÝÁ, Ýñ³Ýù, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ßñç³ÝóáõÙ »Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Õ»ÏÝ Çñ»Ýó Ó»éùáõÙ ³ñ¹»Ý ÙdzѻͳÝáñ»Ý Ï»Ýïñáݳóñ³Í »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ å³ñ³·ÉáõËÝ»ñÇ` Çμñ¨ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ Ïñ³Í å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²ÛëåÇëáí, ÁݹáõÝ»Éáí, áñ ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍáõÙÁ ï»ÕÇ ¿ áõÝ»ó»É §å³ßïáݳå»ë¦` Ýñ³Ýù, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ¹ñ³ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ñ¹áõÙ »Ý, Ç í»ñçá, áã û Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³Ý ×ÝßáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ·ñ³í³Í ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý Ýáñ áõÅ»ñÇ, ³ÛÉ ÙdzÛÝ ëáõÉóÝÇ Ñ³Ù³ËáÑÝ»ñÇ` ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ï»Õ³Ï³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ¨ §Ñ»ï³¹ÇÙáõÃ۳ݦ íñ³` ÝϳïÇ áõݻݳÉáí, ѳí³Ý³μ³ñ, ¹Çñù»ñÁ í»ñçݳϳݳå»ë ½Çç³Í ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ÏáÕÙݳÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ£ Æ ¹»å, ì»ëÇ»Ç ë³Ï³í³ÃÇí Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ íϳÛáõÙ »Ý, áñ ³Ûë ѳñóáõÙ Ýñ³ ¹ÇñùáñáßáõÙÝ ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ ѳٳÑáõÝã ¿ Ýñ³ »íñáå³óÇ ½ñáõó³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ï»ë³Ï»ïÝ»ñÇÝ£ øÝݳñÏíáÕ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³ÝáõÙ 1909 Ã. ÈÇáÝáõÙ ³Ýëïáñ³·Çñ ÉáõÛë ¿ ÁÝͳÛí»É §²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ¨ Ù»ñ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñÝ»ñÁ£ ²Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõݦ ·ñùáõÛÏÁ,4 áñÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ ÙÇëÇáÝ»ñ ¿, ¨ Áëï ³Û¹Ù` Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ·»ñ³¹³ëáõÙ ¿ Ù»Ïݳμ³Ý»É Ñá·¨áñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ËÇëï μÝáñáß Ñ³Û»ó³Ï³ñ·³ÛÇÝ ¹Çñù»ñÇó, ³ÛÝ ¿` Çμñ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÙÇç¨ ³éϳ ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ï³Ù³ñïáõÃÛ³Ùμ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í` ùñÇëïáÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù áõÕÕí³Í Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝ£ 1910-1918 ÃÃ., ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³çáñ¹³Í ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇó ÙÇÝ㨠»ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³å³ÉáõÙÁ, ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ³Ûɨë ѳíáõñ å³ïß³×Ç ã»Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»É£ öá˳ñ»ÝÁ` ãËáñ³Ý³Éáí Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³éÝãíáÕ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç, Ýñ³Ýù μ³í³ñ³ñí»É »Ý 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ` ÁݹѳÝáõñ μÝáõÛÃÇ ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñáí£ Àëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, Ýñ³Ýó ·»ñ³ÏßÇé Ù³ëÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ¨ ݳËáñ¹ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÝ ³ÝϳñáÕ »Ý »Õ»É μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï»É û° Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÁ ¨ û° ¹ñ³Ýó Çñ³Ï³Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇÝ` »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ£ ä. ÈáõÇÝ, è. ØáõÉ»ÝÁ, Ä. ê³ÙÝ»Ý ¨ Æ. ¶áμÉ»Ý ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÙ »Ý μ³ó³é³å»ë ѳۻñÇ ¨ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¹³í³Ý³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ½³Ý³½³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ÝùÇ íñ³:5 4 Les massacres d’Adana et nos missionnaires. Récit de témoins, Lyon, 1909. 5 Louis P., Essai sur la Révolution turque // § Mercure de France », 16 mai 1909, N 286, p. 240 ; Moulin R.,

123


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

²ÛÉù ç³ÝáõÙ »Ý μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï»É 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇÝ. »Ã» ². ê³ñáõÝ, ïáõñù ï³Éáí ³ÝѳñÏÇ Í³Ûñ³Ñ»ÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, ¹ñ³Ýó å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ ¿ ѳٳñáõÙ μ³ó³é³å»ë ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Á,6 ³å³ ÏáÙë ¹Á ȳݹ»ÙáÝÁ ¨ ÈÛáõ¹áíÇÏáë ¹Á ÎáÝï³ÝëáÝÁ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ñ¹áõÙ »Ý ÙÇÙdzÛÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ íñ³, ÇÝãÁ ¨ë ÙdzÏáÕÙ³ÝÇ Ùáï»óÙ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýù ¿7£ Üßí³Í Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ ÃíáõÙ ³é³í»É Áݹ·ñÏáõÝ Ùáï»óáõÙ ¿ óáõó³μ»ñ»É Æ. äáÉÁ` 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõÙ ³ÝáõÕÕ³ÏÇáñ»Ý ¹³ë»Éáí û° ëáõÉóÝÇÝ ¨ û° »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ:8 ²é³çÇÝ ³ß˳ñѳٳñïÇ μéÝÏÙ³ÝÁ ѳçáñ¹³Í ųٳݳϳßñç³ÝáõÙ ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ Ïñ»É »Ý ³ÏÝѳÛï ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ 1914 Ã. Ñ»ïá ѳݹ»ë »Ï³Í ÙÇ ß³ñù Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñ` ¾. ¸áõÙ»ñ·Á, Ä. ´ñÇÏáÝ, è. äÇÝáÝÁ, ². ´³ñμÇÝ, ü. سÏÉ»ñÁ ѳñóÁ ùÝݳñÏáõÙ »Ý ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý áãÝã³óÙ³Ý å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÙdzÛÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ í»ñ³·ñ»Éáõ ¹Çñù»ñÇó` ßñç³Ýó»Éáí ݳËÏÇÝ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ¹»ñÇÝ ¨ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛ³ÝÝ ³éÝãíáÕ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñÁ:9 ²Ûë Ëݹñáõ٠ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·³ÛÇÝ ÝÙ³Ý Ñëï³Ï ¹ÇñùáñáßÙ³Ý áñ¹»·ñáõÙÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ ¶»ñÙ³ÝdzÛÇ ¨ Ýñ³ ¹³ßݳÏÇó úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝ ¹»Ù üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ` å³ï»ñ³½ÙÇ Ù»ç Áݹ·ñÏÙ³Ùμ£ ²Ûë ÇëÏ å³ï׳éáí ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÁ ߳ѳ·ñ·éáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ¹ñë¨áñ»É ݳ¨ ³Ûë ÙÇçáóáí í³ñϳμ»Ï»Éáõ üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ ·É˳íáñ ³ËáÛ³ÝÇ ¹³ßݳÏóÇÝ£ Üß»Ýù ݳ¨, áñ å³ï»ñ³½ÙÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³ÝáõÙ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ ùÝݳñÏ³Í Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇó ¾. ¸áõÙ»ñ·Á, è. äÇÝáÝÁ ¨ ². ´³ñμÇÝ ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý áãÝã³óáõÙÁ ѳٳñáõÙ »Ý гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÇ μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã Ù³ë,10 ÇÝãÁ Ù»Ýù ѳٳñáõÙ »Ýù Ýñ³Ýó ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³ÝÅËï»ÉÇ ³ñųÝÇùÁ:11 ØdzųٳݳÏ, í»ñáÝßÛ³É ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇó áÙ³Ýó ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ ÑÇÙݳíáñíáõÙ »Ý ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý` Çμñ¨ »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇó Ù³ëݳ·»ïÝ»ñÇ ³é³ç³¹ñ³Í ÙÇ ß³ñù ¿³Ï³Ý ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·³ÛÇÝ ¹ñáõÛÃÝ»ñÇ` å»ï³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ϳÝ˳Ùï³Íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý ³éϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÁ, 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçÙ³Ý å³ñ³·³ÛÇÝ Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ μÝáñáß ÉÇÝ»Éáõ ³Ý³é³ñÏ»ÉÇ ÷³ëïÁ£ 1920-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ëϽμÇó Ç í»ñ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ Ù³ñáõÙ ¿ Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝÁ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ, ù³Ý½Ç 1923 Ãí³Ï³ÝÇó ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ å»ï³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³Ï³ñ¹³Ïáí гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÷³ëïÁ ßñç³Ýóí»É ¿ ÉéáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²Û¹ ÇëÏ å³ï׳éáí ³ñ¨ÙïÛ³Ý Ï³åÇï³ÉÇëï³Ï³Ý Ù»Í ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, »ÉÝ»Éáí Çñ»Ýó é³½Ù³í³ñ³Ï³Ý ߳ѻñÇó, ߳ѳ·ñ·éáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ѳݹ»ë μ»ñ»É ÂáõñùdzÛÇÝ ÊáñÑñ¹³ÛÇÝ ØÇáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳϳ¹ñ»Éáõ ѳñóáõÙ ¨, ѻ勉μ³ñ, Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Force et faiblesse de la Jeune Turquie, Paris, 1910, p. 26-28 ; Samné G. & Goblet Y.M., La vie politique orientale en 1909, Paris, 1910, p. 79. 6 Sarrou A., La Jeune-Turquie et la Révolution, Paris-Nancy, 1912, p. 90. 7 Landemont c[om]te de, L’Europe et la politique orientale, 1878-1912, Paris, 1912, p. 279 ; Contenson L. de, Les réformes en Turquie d’Asie. La question arménienne. La question syrienne. Deuxième édition, Paris, 1913, p. 35. 8 Paul I., La rénovation de l’Empire ottoman. Affaires de Turquie, Paris, 1909 p. 268. 9 Doumergue E., L’Arménie. Les massacres et la question d’Orient. Conférence, études et documents, Paris, 1916, p. 24 ; Bricaud J., L’Arménie qui agonise, Paris, 1916, p. 9 ; Pinon R., La suppression des Arméniens. Méthode allemande-travail turc, Paris, 1916, p. 16 ; Barby H., Au pays de l’épouvante. L’Arménie martyre. Préface de M. Paul Deschanel, Paris, 1917, p. 13 ; Macler F., Autour de l’Arménie, Paris, 1917, p. 286-287. 10 Doumergue E., Ýßí. ³ßË., 24; Pinon R., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 16; Barby H., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 13£ 11 1909-1918 ÃÃ. ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ ï»°ë äáÕáëÛ³Ý ì., 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·Ý³Ñ³ïÙ³Ùμ, ºñ., 2009£

124


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

ϳé³í³ñáÕ ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÇÝ Ñ³×á۳ݳÉáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí Ùáé³óáõÃÛ³Ý »Ý Ù³ïÝ»É Ð³Ûáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ:12 î³ëݳÙÛ³ÏÝ»ñ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï ëïí»ñáõÙ ¿ ÙÝáõ٠ݳ¨ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝÁ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ ÏñÏÇÝ ³×áõÙ ¿ ÙdzÛÝ 1960-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ï»ëÇó` ϳåí³Í Ø»Í »Õ»éÝÇ 50-³ÙÛ³ ï³ñ»ÉÇóÇ Ñ»ï£ àõëáõÙݳëÇñáÕÝ»ñÝ áõß³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ 쨻éáõÙ »Ý ·É˳íáñ³å»ë 1915 Ã. Ø»Í »Õ»éÝÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙݳѳñó»ñÇ íñ³£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý` 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ·Çï³Ï³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ ÙÇÝ㨠XX ¹³ñÇ ³í³ñïÁ ѳïáõÏ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý ÝÛáõà ãÇ ¹³éÝáõÙ:13 ²Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, 1970-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇó ï³ñμ»ñ å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ûÏáõ½¨ ÃéáõóÇÏ, ³ñŨáñáõÙ »Ý ݳ¨ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Àëï ³Û¹Ù ÇÙ³ëï áõÝÇ ëïáñ¨ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝ³É ÙdzÛÝ Ýñ³Ýó ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·³ÛÇÝ Ùáï»óáõÙÝ»ñÇÝ£ üñ³ÝëdzóÇ ³Ýí³ÝÇ å³ïÙ³μ³Ý Æ. î»ñÝáÝÁ 1977 Ã. ï³ñ³ÏáõëáõÙ ¿ ¿³Ï³Ý ÙÇ ÑÇÙݳѳñóÇ ßáõñç. ³ñ¹Ûá±ù 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ѳñÏ ¿ ·Ý³Ñ³ï»É Çμñ¨ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç ³í³Ý¹³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñçÇÝ ¹ñë¨áñáõÙ, û± 1915 Ã. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë»ñ·³Ýù:14 ²í»ÉÇ áõß Ýñ³ ѳ۳óùÝ»ñÝ ³Ûë ѳñóáõÙ μ³ñ»ßñçí»É »Ý. áã Ñ»é³íáñ ³ÝóÛ³ÉáõÙ ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçáõÙÁ ݳ μÝáñáᯐ ¿ Çμñ¨ §ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³Í¦,15 áñáí ÝϳïÇ áõÝ»ñ ÙÇ §ÙÇïáõÙ, ѳÛï³ÝÇßÝ»ñÇ ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛáõÝ, áñáÝù ÑÇÙù »Ý ï³ÉÇë »ñÏÛáõÕ»Éáõ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÇó¦:16 îáÕ»ñÇë Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ Ç ëϽμ³Ý» §ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³Í¦ ï»ñÙÇÝÇÝ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ϳñ¨áñáõÃÛáõÝ ãÇ ïí»É, ù³Ý½Ç ³ÛÝ ³é³ç³¹ñ³Í ¨ áñ¹»·ñ³Í Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÁ, ³ÝÏ³Ë ³Ûë ϳå³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ ³ÙμáÕçáõÃÛ³Ùμ ãѳÙÁÝÏÝáÕ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý·³Ù³ÝùÇó, Áëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, ³Ûë ϳ٠³ÛÝ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÁ` Çμñ¨ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ μÝáõó·ñáõÙ »Ý` »ÉÝ»Éáí ½áÑ»ñÇ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ï Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÇó, ÇÝãÁ ãÇ ¹³ëíáõÙ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý` Çμñ¨ »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ μÝáñáßÇãÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùÁ£ ì»ñ³Ý³Û»Éáí Çñ Ùáï»óáõÙÁ` Æ. î»ñÝáÝÁ í»ñç»ñë, ÷³ëïáñ»Ý, Çñ ï³ñ³Ïáõë³ÝùÝ ¿ ѳÛïÝ»É §ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³Í¦ ³ñï³Ñ³ÛïáõÃÛáõÝÝ û·ï³·áñÍ»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ï³Ñ³ñÙ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ßáõñç` ³ÛÝ ³Ýí³Ý»Éáí §Ëáõë³÷áճϳݦ (dérobade),17 ¨ Áëï ³Û¹Ù 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ïí»É ¿ ÷áùñ-ÇÝã ³ÛÉ ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³Ý. §ò»Õ³ëå³Ý³ÛÇÝ μÝáõÛà áõÝ»óáÕ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ß³ñùáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ѳïáõÙ »Ý Ýáñ ѳñÃáõÃÛáõݦ18 (Áݹ·ÍáõÙÁ Ù»ñÝ ¿ – ì. ä.), ³ÛÝ ¿` ¹áõñë »Ý ·³ÉÇë ëáíáñ³Ï³Ý ë³ÑÙ³ÝÇó£ ÎÉ»ñ Øáõñ³¹Û³ÝÇ Ñ³Û³óùÝ»ñÁ ÷á÷áËáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý Ïñ»É. û¨ Çñ ï³ñμ»ñ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõ٠ݳ 1909 Ã. Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ μÝáñáßáõÙ ¿ ëáëÏ áñå»ë Ïáïáñ³Í,19 ³Û12 Margossian N., L’avant et l’après du génocide des Arméniens.–– §¶ÇïáõÃÛ³Ý ·Éáμáõë¦, ºñ., 2005, Ñ. 5, ¿ç 44-45£ 13 ØdzÛÝ 1999 Ã. ÉáõÛë ÁÝͳÛí»ó ³Ûë ѳñóÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ³é³çÇÝ Ù»Ý³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ. Kévorkian R.H., Les massacres de Cilicie d’avril 1909.– La Cilicie (1909-1921). Des massacres d’Adana au mandat français. Volume préparé par Raymond H. Kévorkian, Paris, 1999. 14 Ternon Y., Les Arméniens. Histoire d’un génocide, Paris, 1977, p. 174. 15 Ternon Y., L’État criminel. Les génocides au XXe siècle, Paris, 1995, p. 183. 16 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 235£ 17 î»°ë Ternon Y., Guerres et génocides au XXe siècle. Architecture de la violence en masse, Paris, 2007, p. 12, 87: 18 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 114£ 19 Mouradian C., L’Arménie, Paris, 1996. p. 53 (2e éd.: Paris, 2002, p. 56) ; idem : La question d’Orient où la sanglante agonie de l’homme malade // § Revue d’histoire de la Shoah ». Le monde juif, N 177-178, janvier-

125


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ². ¸³ëï³ÏÛ³ÝÇ Ñ»ï Ù»Ïï»Õ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ï³Í ·Çï³Ñ³Ýñ³Ù³ïã»ÉÇ ·ñùáõÛÏáõÙ ¹ñ³Ýù ¹ÇïáõÙ ¿ Çμñ¨ §ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóǦ μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã Ù³ë, áñÁ ëÏÇ½μ ¿ ³é»É 1894-1896 ÃÃ. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍÙ³Ùμ:20 ². ÎñÇÏáñÛ³ÝÁ ¨ ². ²ëáÝ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ μÝáñáßáõÙ »Ý Çμñ¨ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë»ñ·³Ýù:21 Àëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ¹Çñù»ñÇó »Ý ѳñóÁ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÙ ². î»ñ-ØÇݳëÛ³ÝÁ ¨ Ð. ä»ïñáëÛ³ÝÁ, áñáÝù ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ μÝáõó·ñáõÙ »Ý Çμñ¨ 1915 Ã. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë³ïÇå:22 Æ ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ Ýñ³Ýó` Ä.-ä. ²É»ÙÁ ¨ è. ¶¨áñ·Û³ÝÁ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏíáõÙ »Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëáëÏ Çμñ¨ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ μÝáñáß»Éáí:23 è. ¶¨áñ·Û³ÝÇ Ï³ñÍÇùáí` §Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ýǽÇÏ³Ï³Ý μݳçÝçáõÙÁ... Ùï³ÑÕ³óí»É ¿ Çμñ¨ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ³½·³ÛÇÝ å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³éáõóÙ³Ý ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ݳ˳å³Ûٳݦ,24 áõëïÇ Ð³Ûáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ݳ å³ñ÷³ÏáõÙ ¿ 1915-1916 ÃÃ. ë³ÑÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ£ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ ݳ μ³ñ¹áõÙ ¿ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ íñ³` ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ç ¹»ñ¨ μ»ñ»Éáí ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÇ ¹»ñÁ, ÇÝãÁ íϳÛáõÙ ¿ ³Ûë ËÇëï ¿³Ï³Ý ËݹñáõÙ Ýñ³ óáõó³μ»ñ³Í Áݹ·ñÏáõÝ ¨ Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ ÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ Ùáï»óÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ£ Ä.-Ø. γñ½áõÝ ¨ë Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÁ μÝáñáßáõÙ ¿ Çμñ¨ Ïáïáñ³Í, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Ç ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ è. ¶¨áñ·Û³ÝÇ, ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ ¿ ѳٳñáõÙ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ ÁݹѳÝñ³å»ë, ³é³Ýó Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»Éáõ, û ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý DZÝã áõÅ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ ËáëùÁ:25 1890-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ ëϽμݳíáñí³Í гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÷³ëïÁ ÅËïáÕ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ý ¹ñá߳ϳÏÇñÁ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ XX ¹³ñÇ í»ñçÇÝ ù³éáñ¹áõÙ ä. ². Øá½»ñÝ ¿, áñÁ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÑÇÙݳËݹÇñÝ»ñÁ Éáõë³μ³ÝáõÙ ¿ Çñ Ãáõñù ¨ ³Ûɳ½·Ç ݳËáñ¹Ý»ñÇ ¹ÇñùáñáßÙ³ÝÁ ѳٳÑáõÝã` ëáëÏ Ï³ñÍ»óÛ³É Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ³åëï³ÙμáõÃÛ³Ý ×ÝßÙ³Ý ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßïáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ï³·Çï³Ï³Ý ѳñÃáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³`26 ã³é³ç³¹ñ»Éáí, Ç ¹»å, áñ¨¿ Ýáñ ϳ٠ÇÝùݳïÇå Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ Ñå³ÝóÇÏ ÑÇß³ï³ÏáõÙ ¿ ÅËïáÕ³Ï³Ý áõÕÕáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ùáÕ³ñÏí³Í Ó¨áí ïáõñù ïíáÕ Ñ³ÛïÝÇ Ãáõñù³·»ï ü. ÄáñÅ»áÝÁ£ Æ ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ Øá½»ñÇ` ݳ ÷³ëïáõÙ ¿ 1909 Ã. Ù³ñïÇ 31-Ç Ñ»Õ³ßñçÙ³Ý Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí ·³í³éÝ»ñáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í §³ñÛáõݳÉÇ ËéáíáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ¦, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ (Ç ¹»å, ÙdzÛÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ)£ ¾³Ï³ÝÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ß˳ñѳ·ñ³Ï³Ý ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÇ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏáõÙÁ ã¿£ лÕÇݳÏÇ Ëáñ³Ù³ÝÏ Ù³ñï³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÇÙ³ëïÁ ѳݷáõÙ ¿, Ç í»ñçá, ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý ßñç³ÝóÙ³ÝÁ£ ÄáñÅ»áÝÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ ãÇ ÑÇß³ï³ÏáõÙ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ` Çμñ¨ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ ¨ ջϳí³ñÝ»ñÇ ¹»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, ³Ûɨ, Áëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÇÝ ³Ýí³ñ³Ý ½»ñÍ ¿ å³ÑáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ` Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í å»ï³Ï³Ý août 2003. Ailleurs, hier, autrement : connaissance et reconnaissance du génocide des Arméniens, p. 81. 20 Dastakian A., Mouradian C., 100 réponses sur … Le génocide des Arméniens, Clamecy, 2005, p. 13. 21 Krikorian A., Dictionnaire de la Cause arménienne, Créteil, 2002, p. 15, 22 ; Asso A., Le cantique des larmes. Arménie, 1915. Paroles des rescapés du génocide, Paris, 2005, p. 27. 22 Ter-Minassian A., 1918-1920, La République d’Arménie, 2006, p. 12 ; Bedrossian H.G., Préface // Duckett Ferriman F.Z., Les Jeunes-Turcs et la vérité sur l’Holocauste d’Adana en Asie Mineure en avril 1909, Chamigny, 2008, p. 8. 23 Alem J.-P., L’Arménie, Paris, 1959, p. 54 ; Kévorkian R.H., Le génocide des Arméniens, p. 10. 24 Kévorkian R.H., Le génocide des Arméniens, p. 9. 25 Carzou J.-M., Un génocide exemplaire. Arménie 1915, Paris, 1975, p. 93, 95. 26 Moser P.A., Arméniens, où est la réalité ? Saint-Aquilin-de-Pacy, 1980, p. 58-61.

126


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý

ѻճßñçÙ³Ý ³ÝѳçáÕ ÷áñÓÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÇó, ÇÝãÁ Ùdzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ μÝáñáß ¿ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ·³Ñ³Ï³ÉÇÝ ³éѳë³ñ³Ï μ³ñ»Ñ³× ÉáõÛëÇ Ý»ñùá Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáõ` ·Çï³Ïó³μ³ñ áñ¹»·ñ³Í Ýñ³ ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·ÇÝ£ ²ñ¹ÛáõÝùáõÙ` ÄáñÅ»áÝÝ ³ÝáõÕÕ³ÏÇáñ»Ý ÅËïáõÙ ¿ §μ³½áõ٠ѳ½³ñ³íáñ ѳۻñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñǦ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óáõÙÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ å»ï³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³Ï³ñ¹³Ïáí:27 öá˳ñ»ÝÁ` ÅËïáÕ³Ï³Ý áõÕÕáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳñáÕ ³ÛÉ å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñ ·»ñ³¹³ëáõÙ »Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ å³Ñå³Ý»É ÉéáõÃÛáõÝ:28 »å»ï ·áñͳ¹ñ³Í ç³Ýù»ñÇÝ` Ýñ³Ýó ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñÁ ãáõÝ»Ý Éáõñç ï»ë³Ï³ñ³ñ ÏßÇé£ Ø»ñ áõñí³·Í³Í, ³ÝϳëϳÍ, ËÇëï ѳٳéáï »ïݳËáñùÇ íñ³, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ³ÏÝѳÛï ¿, áñ ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇó å³ïÙ³μ³ÝÝ»ñÁ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý ѳٳñáõÙ Çμñ¨ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÇ μ³ÕϳóáõóÇã Ù³ë, ÇÝãÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹»å Ýñ³Ýó áñ¹»·ñ³Í ѳۻó³Ï³ñ·³ÛÇÝ Ùáï»óÙ³Ùμ, Áëï áñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí»É ¿ 1915-1916 ÃÃ.` »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ áñ¹»·ñ³Í ÃáõñùǽÙÇ ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³, ÇÝãÁ Ù»ñ ÏáÕÙÇó ³ÝÁݹáõÝ»ÉÇ ¿£ ²Ù÷á÷»Ýù. 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ, ÇÝãå»ë ¨ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ÏÇó å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ÁݹѳÝñ³å»ë, ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ ÙÝ³É Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ëáñà ½³í³ÏÁ£

Varuzhan Poghosyan The 1909 massacres of Cilicia in the French historiography (brief observations) Summary This article refers to the elucidation of the 1909 massacres of Cilicia in French historiography. The author divides the French historiographical literature into three main groups£ documentary publications, works elucidating the history of the main event and researches dedicated to the history of the Ottoman Empire where the history of the massacres of Cilicia was interpreted to some extent. The author concludes that the history of the 1909 massacres of the Armenians in Cilicia, in general, remains the step-child of the history in France as well as in the modern historiography of the Armenian Genocide.

27 Georgeon F., Abdülhamid II. Le sultan calife (1876-1909), Paris, 2003, p. 420. ÜáõÛÝ Ùáï»óáõÙÝ ¿ ݳ óáõó³μ»ñ»É ݳ¨ ¹»é¨ë 1989 Ã. è. سÝïñ³ÝÇ ËÙμ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÉáõÛë ÁÝͳÛí³Í úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ÅáÕáí³ÍáõáõÙ. Dumont P. et Georgeon F., La mort d’un empire (1908-1923).– Histoire de l’Empire ottoman. Sous la direction de R. Mantran, Paris, 1989, p. 583. 28 î»°ë ûñÇݳÏ` Mantran R., Histoire de la Turquie, Paris, 1952 ; Garnier J.-P., La fin de l’Empire ottoman à

127


²î²Ü²ÚÆ Îàîàð²ÌÀ ºõ Ð²Ú ²ôºî²ð²Ü²Î²ÜܺðàôÜ ÎàðàôêîÀ гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý ²åñÇÉ 2009-Á ѳñÇõñ»ñáñ¹ ³Ù»³ÏÝ ¿ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇÝ, áñáõÝ ½áÑ ·³óÇÝ ²ï³Ý³Û¿Ý »õ ßñç³Ï³Ûù¿Ý ßáõñç 30,000 ѳۻñ£ ²ëÇϳ 1894-96 гÙÇï»³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñ¿Ý »ïù »õ êáõÉÃ³Ý Ð³ÙÇïÇ ·³ÑÁÝÏ»óáõÃ»Ý¿Ý »ïù ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍáõ³Í ³é³çÇÝ É³Ûݳͳõ³É Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ ¿ñ, áñ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³õ 1909-Ç ²åñÇÉÇÝ£ ÆÃÃÇѳï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ÚáõÝÇë 10, 1908-ÇÝ §²½³ïáõÃÇõÝ »õ ѳõ³ë³ñáõÃÇõݦ Éû½áõÝ·Ý»ñáõÝ Ý»ñùáÛ Ï³Ûëñáõû³Ý ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÁ á·»õáñ»Éáí ïÇñ³ó³Í ¿ÇÝ Çß˳Ýáõû³Ý, ëϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÇÝ Ó»õ³óáõóÇÝ Ã¿ Çμñ Çñ»Ýù Ñ³Û »õ Ãáõñù ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñáõ »Õμ³Ûñáõû³Ý ç³ï³·áíÝ »Ý, ÇÝãÁ ½³ÛñáÛà »õ ³ï»ÉáõÃÇõÝ Û³é³ç³óáõó Ãáõñù ͳÛñ³Ñ»Õ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñáõ ùáí, áñáÝù ³åñÇÉ 1909-ÇÝ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñå»óÇÝ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ£ ØÇÝã»õ ³Ùëáõ³Ý í»ñçÁ, ½áÑáõ³ÍÝ»ñáõÝ ÃÇõÁ ѳë³õ 30,000-Ç, ÇëÏ ÇÝãá±õ Û³ïϳå¿ë ²ï³Ý³Ý ÁÝïñáõ»ó³õ ³ÝËÝ³Û Ïáïáñ³Í Çñ³·áñÍ»Éáõ áñå¿ë í³Ûñ£ ´³½Ù³½· ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç, áõñ ÏáÕù-ÏáÕùÇ Ï°³åñ¿ÇÝ` гۻñ, Âáõñù»ñ, ÐáÛÝ»ñ, سϻÃáݳóÇÝ»ñ »õ³ÛÉÝ£ гۻñÁ áõÝ¿ÇÝ Í³ÕÏáõÝ ·ÇõÕ»ñ »õ μ³ñ·³õ³×áÕ ïÝï»ëáõÃÇõÝ, áñÁ ݳ˳ÝÓÇ »õ ³ï»Éáõû³Ý ³éÇà ѳݹÇë³ó³õ ï»ÕõáÛÝ Ãáõñù ³½·³ÛݳÙáÉÝ»ñáõÝ ùáí£ ²ï»Éáõû³Ý ½áÑ ¹³ñÓ³õ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û ³½·³μݳÏãáõÃÇõÝÁ, ³ÛÉ ³ÝáÝó ÇÝãùÝ áõ áõÝ»óáõ³ÍùÁ£ гۻñë ÏÁ ëå³ÝÝáõ¿ÇÝ ³Ù¿Ý áõñ` ·ÇõÕ»ñáõÝ, ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÝ, Çñ»Ýó ³ñï»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç£ ¶áñÍÁÝóóÁ ß³ï Ûëï³Ï ¿ñ Ãáõñù»ñáõÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ. ѳۻñáõÝ ³Ýáõ³Ý³ó³ÝÏÁ ·ïÝ»É, ëå³ÝÝ»É μáÉáñÁ, ¹Ç³ÏÝ»ñÁ ѳßáõ»É, ·ïÝ»É å³ÏëáÕ ³ÝÓ»ñÁ, ½³ÝáÝù »õë áãÝã³óÝ»É, ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ çÝç»É ó³ÝÏ¿Ý, ³Ûñ»É ÷³ëï³ÃáõÕûñÝ áõ ïÇñ³Ý³É ³ÝáÝó ÇÝãù»ñáõÝ£ Âáõñù»ñÁ ÝáÛÝÇëÏ áãÝã³óáõó³Í ¿ÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñáõÝ μáÉáñ ¹ñ³Ù³ïݳÛÇÝ ÷³ëï³ÃáõÕûñÁ, áñå¿ë ½Ç ç³ñ¹»É¿Ý »ïù áã áù ϳñ»Ý³ñ Çñ Çñ³õáõÝùÁ å³Ñ³Ýç»É£ ²ÛëåÇëáí` ½ñÏ»Éáí ѳÛáõÃÇõÝÁ Çñ ³Ù¿Ý ï»ë³ÏÇ ë»÷³Ï³ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ¿Ý »õ Ó»ñμ³½³ïáõ»Éáí ³ÝáÝóÙ¿£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç ϳï³ñáõ³Í í³Ûñ³·áõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÝ ¹¿Ù å³Ûù³ñÇÉÁ ³Ýϳñ»ÉÇ »Õ³õ ÷áùñ ·ÇõÕ»ñáõ Ù¿ç, áõñ ѳۻñÁ í³Ûñ³·ûñ¿Ý ÙáñÃáõ»ó³Ý£ ºñÏáõ ·ñ»Ã¿ ³ÙμáÕçáõû³Ùμ ѳ۳μÝ³Ï ·ÇõÕ³ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñ` г×ÇÝÝ áõ î¿ûñÿûÉÁ ÙdzÛÝ Ïñó³Ý å³Ûù³ñÇÉ »õ Ëáõë³÷ÇÉ ³Ýï³ñ³ÏáÛë Ïáïáñ³Í¿Ý£ ²ÝáÝó ï³ëÁ ѳ½³ñ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÇõÝÁ Ñ»ñáë³μ³ñ Ïñó³õ Ñ»éáõ å³Ñ»É »ûà ѳ½³ñ Ãáõñù ½ÇÝ»³É ËáõųÝÇÝ, áñáÝù ßñç³å³ï³Í ¿ÇÝ ßÁñç³ÝÝ áõ ³Ýç³ï³Í çáõñÇ Ù³ï³Ï³ñ³ñáõÙÁ£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ Ç Û³Ûï μ»ñ³õ ÆÃÃÇѳï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñáõÝ ÇëÏ³Ï³Ý ¹ÇÙ³·ÇÍÁ, áõñ ³½³ïáõÃÇõÝ, ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÇõÝ, »Õμ³ÛñáõÃÇõÝ Éû½áõÝ·Ý»ñáõÝ ï³Ï μ³ó³Û³Ûïáõ»ó³õ úëٳݳóÇÝ»ñáõ ÇëÏ³Ï³Ý ÃßÝ³Ù³Ï³Ý Ï»óáõ³ÍùÁ ùñÇëïáÝ¿³Ï³Ý ÷áùñ³Ù³ë³ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ »õ ³ÝáÝó ɳÛݳÙÇï áõ Û³é³ç¹ÇÙ³Ï³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ³Ý¹¿å£ γÛëñáõû³Ý Ù¿ç ѳϳé³Ï ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ϳñ·Ç í»ñ³Ï³Ý·ÝÙ³Ý, í³Ûñ³·áõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ áõñáõ³Ï³ÝÁ í»ñëïÇÝ Û³ÛïÝáõ»ó³õ, ³Ûë ³Ý·³Ù å»ï³Ï³Ý áõÅÇ Ï³éáõóáõ³Í ï»ëùáí£ ÆÃÃÇѳï ì¿ Â³ñ³ùù¿Ç (ØÇáõÃÇõÝ »õ Ú³é³ç¹ÇÙáõÃÇõÝ) »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Âáõñù»ñáõ í³ñã³Ï³½ÙÁ ÿ»õ ³é »ñ»õáÛà ³½³ïáõÃÇõÝ, ѳõ³ë³ñáõÃÇõÝ »õ »Õμ³ÛñáõÃÇõÝ ÏÁ ù³ñ὿ñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Áëï ¿áõû³Ý ³Ý ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ ѳϳé³Ï ¿ñ£ ºñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Âáõñù»ñáõ ͳÍáõÏ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ ¿ñ ÓáõÉ»É áã-Çëɳ٠ï³ññ»ñÁ »õ ѳٳÃñù³Ï³Ý ÑëÏ³Û Ï³ÛëñáõÃÇõÝ ÙÁ ëï»Õͻɣ ²Û¹ å³ï׳éáí ¿ñ áñ »ñμ 1909-Ç ²åñÇÇÉ 1-ÇÝ Ãáõñù»ñáõ ³é³çÇÝ Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÁ ëÏë³õ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ»ñáõÝ íñ³Û, Ãáõñù áëïÇϳÝáõÃÇõÝÁ Ùdzó³õ ËáõųÝÇÝ »õ Ù³ëݳÏó»ó³õ ç³ñ¹»ñáõÝ£ ²Ýï³ñ³ÏáÛë, ÆÃÃÇѳï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ Éé»É»³Ý Çñ»Ýó ѳõ³128


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ ïáõ³Í ¿ÇÝ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Îáïáñ³ÍÇÝ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ£ ºñ»õáÛÃÝ»ñÁ ÷ñÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ¿ñ, áñ ³ÝáÝù ¹³ï³å³ñï»óÇÝ å³ï³Ñ³Í ³Õ¿ïÁ£ ºñμ Ñ³Û »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý »õ ³ß˳ñÑ³Ï³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñÝ»ñ Çñ»Ýó μ³ñÏáõÃÇõÝÁ Û³ÛïÝ»óÇÝ »õ Çñ»Ýó μáÕáùÇ Ó³ÛÝÁ μ³ñÓñ³óáõóÇÝ, ³ÝáÝù áõñ³ó³Ý ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÇ ¹»ñÁ »õ ѳٳӳÛÝ»ó³Ý ùÝÝÇã Û³ÝÓݳËáõÙμ ÙÁ Ý߳ݳϻÉ` ³ï»Ý³å»ïáõû³Ùμ »ñ»ë÷áË³Ý Ú³Ïáμ ä³åÇÏ»³ÝÇ£ ä³åÇÏ»³ÝÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ÇñÁ ¹ÁÅμ³Ëï³μ³ñ ÉáÛë ãï»ë³õ, ù³ÝÇ áñ ï»Õ»Ï³·Çñ å³ïñ³ëïáÕ Ñ³Û »ñ»ë÷á˳ÝÁ ³é³õûï ÙÁ Çñ ÝÝç³ñ³ÝÇÝ Ù¿ç ³ÝÛ³Ûï å³ÛÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç ˻չ³Ù³Ñ ·ïÝáõ»ó³õ£ ²õ»ÉÇ áõß, 1909 Ã-Ç ÚáõÉÇëÇ 17-ÇÝ, Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ѻ鳷Çñ-Ý³Ù³Ï ÙÁ ÏÁ ëï³Ý³Ý, ëïáñ³·ñáõ³Í ½³Ý³½³Ý »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³ÝÝ»ñáõ ÏáÕÙ¿, áñáõÝ å³ñáõݳÏáõÃÇõÝÁ Ñ»ï»õ»³ÉÝ ¿ñ. ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ áõ ßñç³Ï³ÛùÇÝ Ù¿ç, ³é³Ýó ÑÇÙݳõáñ å³ï׳éÝ»ñáõ, Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ áõ ë»÷³Ï³Ý ëï³óáõ³ÍùÝ»ñ ³Ñ³õáñ íݳëÇ Ï’»ÝóñÏáõÇÝ£ øñÇëïáÝ»³Ý»ñáõÝ ÑáÝ ÙݳÉáõ »õ ³å³Ñáíáõû³Ý ѳñóÁ ½ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇ ËݹÇñÝ ¿£ Ø»Ýù Ûáõë³Ñ³ï »Ýù, ù³ÝÇ áñ á×ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ μ³ó³ñӳϳå¿ë ã»Ý ¹³ï³å³ñïáõÇñ, Ñ»ï»õ³μ³ñ, Çñ»Ýó ³Ýå³ïÅ»ÉÇáõÃÇõÝÁ ³õ»ÉÇ ÏÁ á·»õáñ¿ ã³ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ£ ä»ïáõÃÇõÝÁ ѳϳé³ÏÁ` á×ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñ Ï’áñë³Û, áñáÝù ÇëɳÙ, ï·»ï áõ ³Õù³ï ·ÇõÕ³óÇÝ»ñ »Ý áõ ³ÝáÝóÙ¿ ÏÁ å³Ñ³Ýç¿ Çñ»Ýó ïáõ³Í Ññ³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï»õÇÉ »õ ³ÝáÝù ³É ³Ý·Çï³Ïó³μ³ñ á×ÇñÝ»ñ ÏÁ ·áñͻݣ öá˳ñ»ÝÁ ³ÝÙ»Õ Ð³Û»ñÝ »Ý, áñ ½ñå³ñïáõû³Ý ϳ٠å³ñ½³å¿ë ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³Ýáõû³Ý ³ñ¹ÇõÝùÇÝ Ù¿ç ÏÁ ¹³ï³å³ñïáõÇÝ£ ¼ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ ¹Åμ³Ëï³μ³ñ Û³Ýó³õáñ ÏÁ ·ïÝ¿ ½³ÝáÝù£ ²Ûë å³ñ³·³ÛÇÝ áñáõ± ÏñݳÝù ¹ÇÙ»É áõ å³ïÙ»É Ù»ñ í³ï ϳóáõû³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ£ ÇÝã忱ë ÏñݳÝù Ù»ñ ³Ýû·Ý³Ï³Ý ÅáÕáíáõñ¹ÇÝ Ñ³Ý·ÇëïÁ ³å³Ñáí»É£ Æ ë¿ñ ²ëïáõÍáÛ, ËÕ׳ó¿’ù£ -êáõñÇáÛ Î³ÃáÕÇÏ¿ ä³ïñdzñùÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇ㣠¶É˳õáñ ù³Ñ³Ý³Ûª гÛñ üÇÉÇ÷áë -´áÕáù³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý å»ïª гÙμÁñëÁÙ -Ð³Û Ï³ÃáÕÇÏ¿ »åÇëÏåáë` ºåÇëÏáåáë äûÕáë -êáõñÇáÛ Èáõë³õáñã³Ï³Ý ä³ïñdzñùÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã` гÛñ سÝëáõñ -ÚáÛÝ Î³ÃáÕÇÏ¿ ÏÕ»ñ³Ï³Ý å»ïª гÛñ ÆÉdzë -гÛÏ³Ï³Ý »åÇëÏáåáë³Ï³Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã ª гÛñ ²ñ³ë -øÇÉï³ÝÇÝ»ñáõ ä³ïñdzñùÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇã` гÛñ êï»÷³Ý ÚáõÝÇë 17.1909

129


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- äáÉëáÛ èáõë ¸»ëå³ÝÁ Ï°Áë¿£ Âáõñù³Ï³Ý ÊáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇ Ý³ËÏÇÝ ³Ý¹³Ù ¼áÑñ³å, »õ ѳÛáó å³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ Ë³éÝ ÅáÕáíÇ ³Ý¹³Ù سñïÇÏ»³Ý ÇÝÍÇ Ïáõ·³Ý Áë»Éáí ÿ` ÝáÛÝÇëÏ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ 1909 Ã-Ç ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ Ý»ñáõ»ó³õ Ãáõñù»ñáõÝ áõ Ù»ÕùÁ ÑÇÝ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·ÇÝ í»ñ³·ñáõ»ó³õ£ ڻﳷ³Û ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñÁ ѳۻñáõÝ ëïÇå»óÇÝ ¹³éÝûñ¿Ý ½Õç³É Çñ»Ýó ¹Çõñ³Ñ³õ³ïáõû³Ý ѳٳñ£ øÇõñï»ñÁ ³é³çáõ³Û å¿ë ÏÁ óɳݻÝ, ÏÁ μéݳμ³ñ»Ý áõ ÏÁ ëå³ÝÝ»Ý ³Ýå³ßïå³Ý Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÇõÝÁ, ÇëÏ Ãáõñù»ñáõÝ í³ñãáõÃÇõÝÁ »ñÏ»ñ»ë³ÝÇûñ¿Ý Ý»ñÏ³Û Ï°ÁÉÉ³Û ³Û¹ μáÉáñ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÝ` áã Ù¿Ï ÙÇçáóÇ ã¹ÇÙ»Éáí ³ïáÝó ³é³çùÁ ³éÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ... Ï°áõÅ·Ý³Ý³Ý Ýáñ ç³ñ¹»ñáõ Ù³ëÇÝ ã³ñ³·áõß³Ï Éáõñ»ñÁ ... гÛáó ·³õ³éÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç μ³ñ»Ýáñá·áõÙÝ»ñáõ Ù³ëÇÝ Ñéã³Ï³·ÇñÁ, áñ Ññ³å³ñ³Ï»ó 130


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

êáõÉÃ³Ý ²åïáõÉ Ð³ÙÇï 1895 Ã-Ç ÐáÏï»Ùμ»ñ 20-ÇÝ` èáõë³ëï³ÝÇ, üñ³Ýë³ÛÇ áõ ²Ý·ÉÇáÛ ×ÝßÙ³Ý ï³Ï, Ùݳó áñå¿ë Ù»é³Í ï³é ... ²ÝϳëϳÍ, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Îáïáñ³ÍÁ, ݳ˳÷áñÓÁ ¹³ñÓ³õ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Ãáõñù»ñáõ ѳٳÃáõñ³Ý³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ýáõû³Ý£ ø³ÝÇ ÙÁ ï³ñÇ »ïù` ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ø»Í ºÕ»éÝÁ, ÉñáõÙÁ åÇïÇ ÁÉɳñ Çñ»Ýó ϳÝ˳Ùï³Í³Í ó»Õ³ëå³Ýáõû³Ý, áñáí ÏÁ Ûáõë³ÛÇÝ ÉáõÍ»É Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ£ ¸Åμ³Ëï³μ³ñ, Ù»ñ »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý »õ ³ß˳ñÑ³Ï³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñáõû³Ý ٻͳٳëÝáõÃÇõÝÁ ÙdzÙï³μ³ñ ˳μáõ»ó³õ Ï»Õͳõáñ »õ ݻݷ³ÙÇï ÆÃÃÇѳï³Ï³Ý ºñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Âáõñù»ñ¿Ý »õ ãÏñó³Ý ݳ˳ï»ë»É í»ñ³Ñ³ë íï³Ý·Á£  ²ñ»õÙï³Ñ³Ûáó ä³ïñdzñù ÚáíѳÝÝáõ ²ñù»åÇëÏáëåáë ²ñß³ñáõÝÇÝ` γÃáÕÇÏáë ¶¿áñ· êáõñ¿Ý»³ÝÇÝ£ ÎÁ ëå³ë¿ÇÝù ³½·áíÇÝ »õ ÉÇ ÛáÛëáí, áñ úëٳݻ³Ý ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõû³Ý Ñéã³ÏáõÙ¿Ý »ïùÁ, áñ ù³Ý¹»ó ѳÛáó ³ñ»³Ùμ áÕáÕáõ³Í μéݳå»ï³Ï³Ý ݳËáñ¹ ¹ñáõÃÇõÝÁ, ³ÛÉ»õë í»ñç ·ïÝ»Ý ³Û¹ ³ÝÉáõñ ã³ñÇùÝ»ñÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ó³õûù ëñïÇ, ÏÁ ѳñϳ¹ñáõÇÝù ѳëï³ï»Éáõ, áñ ѳÛáó ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ áñ»õ¿ Ýå³ëï³õáñ ÷á÷áËáõÃÇõÝ ã»Õ³õ, »õ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ³Ñ³õáñ Ïáïáñ³Íáí ëÏë³õ ³ÛÝåÇëÇ Ýáñ ßñç³Ý ÙÁ, áõñ ³Ýå³Ï³ë »Õ³Ý ³Ù¿Ýáõñ»ù Ýáñ³Ýáñ ã³ñ³·áñÍáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ... Àëï ëáíáñ³Ï³ÝÇÝ, ¹³ñÓ»³É ËáëïáõÙÝ»ñ »Õ³Ý ³½¹áõ Ññ³Ù³ÝÝ»ñ áõÕÕ»Éáõ ·³õ³é³Ï³Ý Çß˳Ýáõû³Ýó, å³ïÅ»Éáõ »õ ½ëå»Éáõ ã³ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñÁ, Ññ³Ù³ÝÝ»ñ, ½áñë ÷áõóóÇÝù ѳÕáñ¹»É Ù»ñ ³é³çÝáñ¹³ñ³ÝÝ»ñáõÝ, »õ ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ç å³ï³ëË³Ý Øáõß¿Ý, ´³Õ»ß¿Ý »õ êÕ»ñ¹¿Ý ·áõÅÏ³Ý Ñ»é³·ÇñÝ»ñ ѳë³Ý Ù»½Ç, Ýáñ Ç ÝáñáÛ Í³ÝáõóáÕ, ÿ áã Ù¿Ï ·áñͳ¹ñáõÃÇõÝ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ¿, ÿ íÇ׳ÏÁ ÏÁ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÇ »õ ÿ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á ÝáÛÝÇëÏ ÁݹѳÝáõñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ íï³Ý·ÇÝ Ù³ïÝáõ³Í ¿£ ºñμ Âáõñù ËáõųÝÁ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ»ñáõ íñ³Û Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙ ·áñÍ»ó 1909-Ç ²åñÇÉ 1 Ãáõ³Ï³ÝÇÝ, ѳۻñÁ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³Ýáõû³Ý ¹ÇÙ»óÇÝ£ ²Û¹ ³ï»Ý, ºñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Âáõñù»ñáõ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ³Ý·ÉÇ³Ï³Ý ÑÇõå³ïáëÇÝ ÙÇçÝáñ¹áõÃÇõÝÁ Ëݹñ»ó áñ, ËéáíáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÝ í»ñç ¹Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ѳۻñÁ Çñ»Ýó ½¿Ýù»ñÁ Û³ÝÓÝ»Ý Ï³é³í³ñáõû³Ý£ ÐÇõå³ïáëÁ Çñ ïËáõñ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÇõÝÁ ϳï³ñ»ó »õ ѳۻñ Û³ÝÓÝ»óÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ½¿Ýù»ñÁ£ Âñù³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ß³ñáõݳÏáõ»ó³Ý »õ ºñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Âáõñù»ñáõ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ·áñÍݳå¿ë ãÙÇç³Ùï»ó£ ²ñ¹ÇõÝùÁ ³Ñ³õáñ »õ »Õ»é³Ï³Ý »Õ³õ£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·ÇÝ Ù¿ç ï³ñμ»ñ ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõ, ·ÇõÕ»ñáõ »õ ³õ³ÝÝ»ñáõ Ù¿ç Ùûï³õáñ³å¿ë 30,000 ³ÝÙ»Õ Ñ³Û»ñ ½áÑ ·³óÇÝ£ ºÏ»Õ»óÇÝ»ñ, ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, μ³ñ»ëÇñ³Ï³Ý »õ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Ï»¹ñáÝÝ»ñ ù³Ý¹áõ»ó³Ý£ ´³½Ù³ÃÇõ áñμ»ñ »õ áñμ»õ³ÛñÇÝ»ñ ³Ýå³ïëå³ñ ÙݳóÇÝ£  §ÂÇýÉÇë»³Ý Â»ñÃÇϦ-Á Çñ 1909Ã-Ç 93-ñ¹ ÃÇõÇÝ Ù¿ç ÏÁ ѳÕáñ¹¿. Î. äáÉÇë, 26 ²åñÇÉ, 1909 Ã. »ñûñÁ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ, ²ÝïÇáùÇ »õ êáõñÇáÛ ½³Ý³½³Ý í³Ûñ»ñáõ Ù¿ç »Õ³Í ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ Ýϳñ³·ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ Ïáõ ï³Ý£ Àëï ѳßáõ³éáõÙÝ»ñáõÝ, 35,000-¿Ý ³õ»ÉÇ Ù³ñ¹ ëå³ÝÝáõ³Í ¿ »õ ï³ëÝ»³ÏÝ»ñáí ·ÇõÕ»ñ ³Ûñ³Í áõ ³õ»ñáõ³Í »Ý£ ²ï³Ý³Ý μáÉáñáíÇÝ áãÝã³ó³Í ¿ ... í³ñã³Ï³Ý Ï»¹ñáÝ, μ³Ùå³ÏÇ áõ ѳóÇ ³ßËáÛÅ ³é»õïáõñÇ ù³Õ³ù ²ï³Ý³Ý... 1909 Ã-Ç ²åñÇÉ 1-Ç »ñ»ÏáÛ»³Ý, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ÷áÕáóÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç ÇëɳÙÝ»ñÁ ËÇëï ³Ýμ³ñ»³ó³Ï³Ù áõ Ïéáõ³ñ³ñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ÏÁ ¹ñë»õáñ»Ý£ Âáõñù³Ï³Ý óջñ¿ å³ï³Ñ³μ³ñ ³ÝóÝáÕ Ñ³Û»ñ, ÏÁ ëå³ÝÝáõÇÝ ... ÉáõñÁ ϳÛͳÏÇ ³ñ³·áõû³Ùμ ÏÁ ï³ñ³ÍáõÇ »õ ѳۻñÁ ³ñ³· ÏÁ ·áó»Ý Çñ»Ýó ˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñÝ áõ ³ñÑ»ëï³ÝáóÝ»ñÁ£ سñ¹ÇÏ ÏÁ å³ïñ³ëïáõÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ïáõÝ»ñáõÝ Ù¿ç£ ²é³õûï ϳÝáõË ÏÁ ëÏëÇ ËáõųÝÇÝ Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÁ ·áó 131


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñáõÝ íñ³Û£ ¶áñÍáÕáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ³Ýíñ¿å ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñáõ ˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñÝ ¿ áñ Ï°áãÝã³óÝ»Ý, Ûëï³Ïûñ¿Ý ½³Ýó ³éÝ»Éáí ÇëɳÙÝ»ñáõÝ áõÝ»óáõ³ÍùÁ£ ʳÝáõÃÝ»ñ¿Ý` ϳñ·Á ïáõÝ»ñáõÝ ÏÁ ѳëÝÇ ... ÏÁ Û³ñÓ³ÏÇÝ Ï³óÇÝÝ»ñáí, ٳѳÏÝ»ñáí áõ ½¿Ýù»ñáí »õ ÏÁ Ïáïáñ»Ý ÙáÉáõóùáí, ³é³Ýó ËݳٻÉáõ£ Þ÷áÃ³Í áõ ˻ɳÏáñáÛë ѳۻñÁ å³ßïå³Ýáõû³Ý ÏÁ ¹ÇÙ»Ý Çñ»Ýó Ùï»ñÇÙ ÇëɳÙÝ»ñáõÝ, ݳ»õ Û³ïáõÏ¿Ý »õñáå³óÇÝ»ñáõ ... ³ÝáÝù, áñáÝù ½¿Ýù áõÝ¿ÇÝ, ÙáéݳÉáí ˳Ýáõà áõ ë»÷³Ï³ÝáõÃÇõÝ, ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ë»ñáõ Ù¿ç ¹Çñù»ñ ÏÁ ·ñ³õ»Ý áõ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³Ýáõû³Ý Ï°³ÝóÝÇÝ£ Ú³çáñ¹ ûñÁ ³ëáÝó íÇ׳ÏÁ ÏÁ í³ïóñ³Ý³Û ¹ñ³óÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ·ÇõÕ»ñÝ áõ ³·³ñ³ÏÝ»ñáõÝ ³õ»ñáõÙáí, áõñÏ¿ 5-7 ѳ½³ñ ÏÇÝ áõ »ñ»Ë³Û Ïáõ ·³Ý ù³Õ³ù` ²ï³Ý³£ 1909 -ÇÝ,ÎÇåáÝë ÁÝï³ÝÇùÁ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÁ Ï’ÁÉÉ³Û ÂáõñùÇáÛ Ù¿ç ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÝ, áñáÝó Ù³ëÇÝ ³õ»ÉÇ áõß Ð¿É¿Ý ÎÇåáÝë ,²Ù»ñÇϳóÇ Ñ»ÕÇÝ³Ï áõ ÃÕóÏÇó, 1917- ÇÝ ·Çñù ÙÁ ÏÁ ·ñ¿ ³ñëáõëÇ Î³ñÙÇñ ¶áñ·»ñÁ Ëáñ³·ñáí, áñ Çñ ݳٳÏÝ»ñáõ ѳõ³ù³ÍáÝ ¿, áõñ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ ÏÁ Ýϳñ³·ñ¿ ³Û¹ ûñ»ñáõ ¹¿åù»ñÁ£ §Îñ³ÏáóÝ»ñÁ ëÏë³Ý áõ ß³ñáõݳÏáõ»ó³Ý ³ÙμáÕç ûñÁ£ Ðñ³ó³Ý³Ó·áõû³Ý Ó³ÛÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï Ùdzï»Õ, ÏÁ Éëáõ¿ÇÝ Ù»éÝáÕÝ»ñáõÝ ³Õ³Õ³ÏÝ»ñÁ£ Þ³ï»ñ íÇñ³õáñáõ³Í ¿ÇÝ. Ù»Í Ù³ëÁ Çñ»Ýó ³ÙáõëÇÝÝ»ñÝ áõ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÁ ÏÁ ÷Ýïñ¿ÇÝ áõ ã¿ÇÝ ·ïÝ»ñ£ îÕ³Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ ÇñÝ»Ýó ïϳñ ÏÇÝ»ñÁ ÏñݳÏÝ»ñáõÝ íñ³Û ß³ÉϳÍ, Ñá·Ý³Í »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñ ã³÷³Ñ³ëÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï ¹Åáõ³ñáõû³Ùμ ÏÁ ÷áñÓ¿ÇÝ ù³ÛÉ å³Ñ»É£ ÊáõÙμ»ñÁ É»óáõÝ ¿ÇÝ ï³ñ»óÝ»ñáí, ÑÇõ³Ý¹Ý»ñáí, ³Ý¹³Ù³ÉáÛÍÝ»ñáí áõ ³Ýû·Ý³Ï³ÝÝ»ñáí, áñáÝù ³Ûë μáÉáñáí ѳݹ»ñÓ, ²ëïáõ³Í³ïáõñ áõÅáí ÙÁ ûÅïáõ³Í ÁÉɳÛÇÝ Ï³ñͻ룦 ºñ»ù ûñ áõ ·Çß»ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ áõ ³õ»ñ³ÍáõÃÇõÝÁ ù³Õ³ùÁ ¹Åá˳ÛÇÝ Ë³éݳñ³ÝÇ ÏÁ í»ñ³Í»Ý£ Îáïáñ³Í, Ññ¹»Ñ, óɳÝ, ÏÇÝ-»ñ»Ë³Û, Ù»Í áõ å½ïÇÏ ... ÙÕÓ³õ³ÝçÁ ÏÁ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÇ, ÇëÏ Çß˳ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÝ ÙÇ³Ï û·ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ Ï°ÁÉÉ³Û ëå³ÝÝáõ³Í ѳۻñáõÝ ¹Ç³ÏÝ»ñÁ ë³ÛÉ»ñáõÝ íñ³Û μ³ñÓñ»ÉÝ áõ ·»ïÁ ó÷»ÉÁ... ²åñÇÉÇ 14-ÇÝ, Çñ³Ó·áõÃÇõÝ ÏÁ ëÏëÇ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ëÇ μáÉáñ ÏáÕÙ»ñ¿Ý£ Ðñ¹»ÑÇ Ëáßáñ Ïñ³Ï¿ É»½áõÝ»ñÁ ÏÁ ɳ÷»Ý ù³Õ³ùÁ, ÇëÏ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ջϳí³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ Ññß¿çÝ»ñáõ ÙÇçáó³õ áã ÿ çáõñ, ³ÛÉ Ý³íà ÏÁ É»óÝ»ñ ù³ñ³ß¿Ý ïáõÝ»ñáõÝ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñáõÝ áõ ¹åñáóÝ»ñáõÝ ßáõñç ... ø³Õ³ùÁ Ï°³õ»ñáõÇ, ÏÁ ÏáÕáåïáõÇ, μݳÏÇãÝ»ñÁ ÏÁ ëå³ÝÝáõÇÝ ... ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ ³½¹³Ýß³Ý ¿ñ ϳñÍ»ë, áñ Ï»¹ñáÝ¿Ý ï³ñ³Íáõ»ó³õ áõ ѳë³õ ·³õ³éÇÝ Ëáñ»ñÁ... ²ï³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ Ù¿ç ÑñáÛ ×³ñ³Ï ¹³ñÓ³Í »Ý 1190 ïáõÝ, 6 »Ï»Õ»óÇ »õ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ù»Í ßáõϳݣ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Îáïáñ³ÍÁ Ù»Í ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ å³ï׳é»ó ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ μáí³Ý¹³Ï ѳÛáõû³Ý£ Ð³Û »ñ»ù Û³ñ³Ýáõ³ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÝ ³É Ù»Í ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ áõÝ»ó³Ý£ ´³Ûó μ³Õ¹³ï³μ³ñ ³õ»ÉÇ Ù»Í »Õ³õ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ßñç³ÝÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ýáõû³Ý ÏáñáõëïÁ, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñÁ, ѳëï³ïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ »õ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ÏáñëÝóáõóÇÝ Çñ»Ýó Ñá·»õáñ »õ ³ß˳ñÑ³Ï³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñÝ»ñ 50 ³é ѳñÇõñÁ£ úëÙ³ÝÇ¿ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ Ù¿ç, Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óõáÛ Ù¿ç ²åñÇÉ 14-Ç ³ñß³ÉáÛëÇÝ ÑñÏǽáõ»ó³Ý 7 Ñá·»õáñ ÑáíÇõÝ»ñ »õ 4 ³ß˳ñÑ³Ï³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñÝ»ñ£ ºñ»ù ³ÛÉ í³Ûñ»ñáõ Ù¿ç ³Ý·Ãûñ¿Ý ëå³ÝÝáõ»ó³Ý 13 ³ÛÉ ÑáíÇõÝ»ñ »õ 9 ³Ûñ »õ ÏÇÝ »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý å³ïáõÇñ³ÏÝ»ñ »õ »ñÏáõ ³Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ÙÇëÇáݳñÝ»ñ£ ²Ûë ³Õ¿ïÁ ÏÁ ½áõ·³¹Çå¿ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý ØÇáõû³Ý 1909-Ç ï³ñ»Ï³Ý ѳٳÅáÕáíÇÝ£ ܳ˳å¿ë áñáßáõ³Í ¿ñ ³Ûë ѳٳÅáÕáíÁ سñ³ß ·áõÙ³ñ»É ÚáõÝÇë ³ÙëáõÝ í»ñç³õáñáõû³Ý£ ´³Ûó áñáß ÝϳïáõÙÝ»ñáí, ÅáÕáíÇÝ í³ÛñÝ áõ Ãáõ³Ï³ÝÁ 132


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

÷áËáõ»ó³õ£ àñáßáõ»ó³õ ѳٳÅáÕáíÁ ·áõÙ³ñ»É ²ï³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÇÝ Ù¿ç 1909-Ç ²åñÇÉÇ ÏÇëáõÝ£ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ï³ñμ»ñ ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñ¿Ý ׳Ùμ³Û »É³Í ¿ÇÝ å³ïáõÇñ³ÏÝ»ñÁ ¹¿åÇ ²ï³Ý³£ ²ÛÝóåÇ »õ سñ³ßÇ ÏáÕÙ»ñ¿Ý Ù»ÏÝáÕ Ï³ñ³õ³ÝÝ»ñÁ ²åñÇÉ 13-Ç »ñÏ»áÛ»³Ý, úëÙ³ÝÇÛ¿Ç Ù¿ç Çñ³ñ ѳݹÇå»ó³Ý ³ÛÝ ÛáÛëáí áñ Û³çáñ¹ ûñÁ ׳Ùμ³Û åÇïÇ »ÉÉ¿ÇÝ ¹¿åÇ Çñ»Ýó ųٳ¹ñ³í³ÛñÁ£ ´³Ûó ³Û¹ ùëïÙÝ»ÉÇ ·Çß»ñÁ, Ãáõñù á×ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñáõ áÑÙ³ÏÁ Û³ñӳϻó³õ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ ß¿ÝùÇÝ íñ³Û, áõñ ûûõ³Ý³Í ¿ÇÝ ØÇáõû³Ý å³ïáõÇñ³ÏÝ»ñáõ Ù¿Ï Ù³ëÁ, »õ Ïñ³Ï ï³Éáí ß¿ÝùÇÝ ³Ù¿Ý ÏáÕÙ»ñ¿Ý, ÑñÏǽ»ó ³ÝÙ»Õ ³ÝÓ»ñ£ ØÇõë ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñ¿ ׳ݳå³ñÑÇ íñ³Û ·ïÝáõáÕ »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý »õ ³ß˳ñÑ³Ï³Ý å³ïáõÇñ³ÏÝ»ñÁ ³ÝËÕ×ûñ¿Ý Ëáßï³Ýùáõ»ó³Ý áõ ëå³ÝÝáõ»ó³Ý »ñ»ù ³ÛÉ í³Ûñ»ñáõ Ù¿çª â³ÛÁñ ²Õ½Á, ê³Û ÎÇãÇï »õ гÙÇïÇÛ¿£  Ø¿çμ»ñ»Ýù γñ³å»ï ¶. î³ÕÉ»³ÝÇ 1917-Ç ÜÛáõ ºûñùÇ ²Éüñ¿ï гٳÉë³ñ³ÝÇ Ù¿ç ïáõ³Í ¹³ë³Ëûëáõûݿݣ §ºñμ ÏÁ ßñç¿Ç »ñÏñÇ ³ÛÝ Ù³ëÇÝ Ù¿ç, áõñ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ¿ÇÝ, ß³ï ÙÁ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏÙ³ËùÝ»ñ ï»ë³Û Ñáë áõ ÑáÝ£ ¶ÇõÕ»ñ¿Ý Ù¿ÏáõÝ Ù¿ç, ϳݷ ³éÇ Ñ³Ý·ÇëïÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, áõ ÃûÝÇÇ ÙÁ ï³Ï Ýëï»ó³Û ... ¹ÇÙ³óë ³Ûñ³Í μáÕáù³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇ ÙÁÝ ¿ñ, áõñ ï³ëÁ ÏÕ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ѳٳÅáÕáíÇ Ù»ÏÝáõÙÇ Çñ»Ýó ׳ÙμáõÝ íñ³Û, ÝáÛÝå¿ë ³Ûñ³Í ¿ÇÝ£ гٳÉë³ñ³ÝÇ ¹³ë³ËûëÝ»ñ¿Ý ÙÇÝ ³É ³Û¹ ËáõÙμÇÝ Ù¿ç ¿ñ, ½Çë ï³ñÇÝ ³ÛÝ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ, áõñ 250 Ù³ñ¹ ³Ûñ³Í ¿ÇÝ, å³ï»ñáõÝ íñ³Û ¹»é ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ñ Ù³ñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ×³ñåÇÝ Ñ»ïù»ñÁ ï»ëݻɦ£  êïáñ»õ ÏÁ ·ïÝ¿ù ݳѳï³ÏÝ»ñáõÝ ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ, å³ßïûݳí³Ûñ»ñÁ »õ Çñ»Ýó ݳѳï³Ïáõû³Ý í³ÛñÁ£ úëÙ³ÝÇÛ¿Ç Ù¿ç ݳѳï³Ï ÐáíÇõÝ»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ£ öñáü. ê³ñ·Çë È»õáÝ»³Ý - ²ÛÝóåÇ Î»¹ñ. ÂáõñùÇáÛ ¶áÉ¿×ÇÝ áõëáõóã³å»ïÁ, ì»ñ. ÎÇñ³Ïáë ijÙÏá㻳Ý- ÐáíÇõ` ê»õ»ñ»ÏÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ì»ñ. ܳ½³ñ¿Ã лÕÇÝ»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` سñ³ßÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºññáñ¹ ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ì»ñ. ¼³ù³ñdz ä»ïñá뻳Ý- ÐáíÇõ` àõñü³ÛÇ Ùûï γñÙáõ×Ç Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ì»ñ. Ü»ñë¿ë ¶áõÛáõÙ×»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` àõñü³ÛÇ ²ëáñÇ ´áÕáù³Ï³Ý ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ì»ñ. 껹ñ³Ï ¾ùÙ¿ù×»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` àõñü³ÛÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ²é³çÇÝ ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ£ â³ÛÁñ ²Õ½Á Ïáãáõ³Í í³ÛñÁ (úëÙ³ÝÇ¿Ç »õ гÙÇïÇÛ¿Ç Ù¿çï»Õ) ݳѳï³Ï ÐáíÇõÝ»ñÝ ¿ÇÝ. ì»ñ. Ú³Ïáμ ¶áõÝï³ù×»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` гë³Ýå¿ÛÉÇÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ì»ñ. êï»÷³Ý ÚáíѳÝݿ뻳Ý- ÐáíÇõ` ʳéÝ¿Ç Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. ³·õáñ Ú³Ïáμ»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` ä³Õã¿Ç Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. γñ³å»ï øÇõ÷¿É»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` úëÙ³ÝÇ¿Ç Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ£ ê³Û οãÇïÇ Ù¿ç ݳѳï³Ïáõ»ó³Ý. ä³ï. È»õáÝ êáÕáíÙ¿»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` г×ÝáÛ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. »ñÏñáñ¹ ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. ²ë³ïáõñ Âû÷³É»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` ü¿ù¿Ç Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. Ø»ÉÇïáÝ Ø³É»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` êÇëÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. ²ñï³ß¿ë äûÛ³×»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` Þ³ñÇ (Îáٳݳ) Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. Ú³Ïáμ ²Éå³ñ»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` γå³ÝÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. Îáëï³Ý¹ÇÝ êÇ۳ѻ³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` γñë-å³½³ñÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ,

133


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

гÙÇïÇÛ¿Ç Ù¿ç ݳѳï³Ïáõ»ó³Ý. ä³ï. سñ·³ñ ¶³ÉáõëﻳÝ- ÐáíÇõ` гÙÙÇïÇÛ¿Ç Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, ä³ï. Úáí³ÏÇÙ ¶³Û³»³Ý- ÐáíÇõ` ²ÉåáõëóÝÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ, Ð³Û ²õ»ï. ݳѳï³Ï ÑáíÇõÝ»ñáõ Ñ»ï ݳ»õ ݳѳï³Ïáõ»ó³Ý »ñÏáõ ³Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ÙÇëÇáݳñÝ»ñª ì»ñ. ¸³ÝÇ¿É ð³×Áñë, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ßñç³ÝÇ ²Ù»ñÇϳÛÇ ²õ»ï³ñ³Ýã³Ï³Ý ϳ½ÙÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÁ »õ ì»ñ. лÝñÇ Ø³áõñÁñ, г×ÁÝÇ ßñç³ÝÇ ÙÇëÇáݳñÁ£ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------úëٳݻ³Ý ջϳí³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ μ³ó³ñӳϳå¿ë Ñ»ñù»ó Çñ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõáõÃÇõÁ ϳåáõ³Í ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç ϳ۳ó³Í ²Ù»ñÇϳóÇ »ñÏáõ ØÇëÇáݳñÝ»ñáõÝ ëå³ÝÝÝáõû³Ý Ñ»ï áõ Áë³õ, ÿ гۻñÝ ¿ÇÝ áñ ëå³Ý»óÇÝ ´áÕáù³Ï³Ý ØÇëÇáݳñÝ»ñ î.Ø. ðá×»ñ½ »õ пÝñÇ ØáñÁñ` § ÙÇÝã ³ÝáÝù Ï’û·Ý¿ÇÝ Ãáõñù ³ÛñÇ ÏÝáç ÙÁ, Çñ ³ÛñáõáÕ ï³Ý Ïñ³ÏÁ Ù³ñ»Éáõ£¦1 ²õ»ÉÇ áõß, úëٳݻ³Ý ϳñÍÇùÇÝ Ñ³Ï³¹ñáõ»ó³õ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÇ ÙÁ` ²Ù»ñÇϳóÇ ù³Ñ³Ý³Û êÃÇõÁÝ ÂñáåñÇ×ÇÝ (äñáõùÉÇÝ¿Ý) íϳÛáõÃÇõÝÁ£ ²Ý ÏÁ Ýß¿ñ, ÿ ØÇëÇáݳñÝ»ñÁ ëå³Ýáõ»ó³Ý §ØáõëÉáõÙ³ÝÝ»ñáõ Ó»éùáí, »ñμ ÏÁ ÷áñÓ¿ÇÝ Ïñ³ÏÁ Ù³ñ»É, áñ ÏÁ ëå³éݳñ ³ñ·»Éù ѳݹÇë³Ý³É Çñ»Ýó ³é³ù»Éáõû³Ý£¦ Àëï ¾Éǽ³å¿Ã ê. àõ¿åÇ, áñ ÝáÛÝå¿ë ¹åñáóÇÝ ÏáÕÙ¿ ØÇëÇáݳñ ÙÁÝ ¿ñ, ìÇ׳ÏÁ ³Ñ³õáñ ¿ñ£ §Þ¿ÝùÇÝ Ù¿ç ÏÇÝ»ñÝ áõ ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÁ ³é³ÝÓÇÝ áõ ³Ýå³ßïå³Ý ¿ÇÝ, ÙÇÝã ¹áõñëÁ ¹³Å³Ý á×ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñáõ ËáõÙμ»ñ, áñ ¹³Ý³ÏÝ»ñ áõ ÷³Ù÷áõßïÝ»ñ ÏÁ Ïñ¿ÇÝ Ð³Û»ñáõÝ ¹¿Ù û·ï³·áñÍ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ݳ»õ ç³Ñ»ñ ³ÝáÝó ïáõÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ£’’ ´³ó ³ëïÇ, ݳѳï³Ïáõ»ó³Ý 13 ³ß˳ñÑ³Ï³Ý å³ïáõÇñ³ÏÝ»ñ (9 ³Ûñ »õ 4 ÏÇÝ)£ ²Ýï³ñ³ÏáÛë, ³ëÇϳ Ù»Í Ñ³ñáõ³Í ÙÁ »Õ³õ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý ØÇáõû³Ý ѳٳñ, áñáõÝ Õ»Ï³í³ñáõû³Ý Ï¿ë¿Ý ³õ»ÉÇÝ μݳçÝçáõ»ó³õ ...£ Ðñ³ßùáí í»ñ³åñáÕ Ñá·»õáñ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñ¿Ý Ù¿ÏÝ ¿ñ ì»ñ. гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ ²ß×»³Ý (1863-1938), ÑáíÇõÁ` ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ£ ÆÝù ³ÛÝ μ³Ëï³õáñÝ»ñ¿Ý Ù¿ÏÁ »Õ³õ, áñ ³Õ¿ïÇ ûñ»ñáõÝ ½áÑÁ ã¹³ñÓ³õ Ãáõñù μ³ñμ³ñáëáõû³Ý£ Îáïáñ³Í¿Ý »ïùÝ ³É ÿ»õ ÃÇñ³Ë ¹³ñÓ³õ Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÇ, μ³Ûó Ù³½³åáõñÍ ³½³ï»ó³õ ëïáÛ· ٳѿݣ àñå¿ë Ñ»é³Ñ³Û»³ó, Ëáѻ٠»õ ѳëáõÝ »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý ջϳí³ñ` ²ß×»³Ý ÁÝïÇñ ³é³çÝáñ¹áõÃÇõÝ Ñ³ÛóÛûó Ù³ëݳõáñ³å¿ë Çñ í»ñ³åñáÕ Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñáõÝ »õ ÁݹѳÝñ³å¿ë Çñ ﳷݳåáÕ »õ μ³ñáÛ³Éùáõ³Í Ñ³Û Ñ³Ûñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñáõÝ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÇÝ Û³çáñ¹áÕ ûñ»ñáõÝ ä³ïáõ»ÉÇ ²ß×»³ÝÁ Ù»Í ¹»ñ ˳Õó³õ »ñμ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ñá·»õáñ ä»ï»ñÁ ÅáÕáíÇ ÙÁ ѳٳñ ѳٳËÙμ»ó ³Õ¿ïÁ ¹ÇÙ³·ñ³õ»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí, »õ ³Ûëå¿ë Ñá·»õáñ ä»ï»ñáõ Ù³ñÙÇÝ ÙÁ ÍÝáõݹ ³é³õ ²ß×»³ÝÇ ³ï»Ý³¹åñáõû³Ùμ£ ²Ý ÃÕóÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ÏÁ ϳï³ñ¿ñ ³Ù¿Ý³ÛÝ ËáÑ»Ùáõû³Ùμ£ ²Ý ¹ÇåáõÏ Ý³Ù³ÏÝ»ñ áõÕ³ñÏ»ó ûñáõ³Ý ÂáõñùÇáÛ å»ï³Ï³Ý ջϳí³ñÝ»ñáõÝ áõ μ³Ý³ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ϳï³ñ»ó å»ï³Ï³Ý å³ßïû»³Ý»ñáõ Ñ»ï£ ì»ñáÛÇß»³É Ùdzó»³É ÅáÕáíÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï»õ³Ýùáí ÍÝáõݹ ³éÇÝ Ñ»ï»õ»³É ¹ñ³Ï³Ý Ï¿ï»ñÁ Ç Ýå³ëï Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíáõñ¹ÇÝ£ 1) 2) 3)

ØÇç-ѳٳÛÝù³ÛÇÝ ·áñͳÏóáõû³Ý ëù³Ýã»ÉÇ ÙÃÝáÉáñï ²ñ¹Çõݳμ»ñ ѳÛ-Ãáõñù Û³ñ³μ»ñáõÃÇõÝ Ð³Û ¹³ïÇ Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙ

1.ØÇç-ѳٳÛÝù³ÛÇÝ ·áñͳÏóáõû³Ý ëù³Ýã»ÉÇ ÙÃÝáÉáñï ÙÁ ëï»ÕÍáõ»ó³õ£ ²Õ¿ïÇÝ áñå¿ë Ñ»ï»õ³Ýù, Ñ³Û Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÝ»ñÁ Ùáéó³Ý Çñ³ñ ѳݹ¿å áõÝ»ó³Í Çñ»Ýó ³Ý134


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

ѳßïáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ë»ñï ϳå»ñ ѳëï³ï»óÇÝ£ ²Ù»Ý³ß³ï íݳëáõ³ÍÁ Ð³Û ²õ»ï. »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ ¿ñ, Ñ»ï»õ³μ³ñ, Ñ³Û ²é³ù»É³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ Çñ »Ï»Õ»ó³ß¿ÝùÁ ïñ³Ù³¹ñ»ó Çñ ùáÛñ »Ï»Õ»óÇÇÝ ³½Ýáõûñ¿Ý áñÁ ûñÇÝ³Ï Í³é³Û»ó ÷á˳¹³ñÓ Ñ³Ù³·áñͳÏóáõû³Ý£ Î. äáÉëáÛ Ññ³Å³ñ»³É å³ïñdzñù ºÕÇß¿ ²ñù. ¸áõñ»³ÝÇ »õ Ø»ÍÇ î³ÝÝ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ Î³ÃáÕÇÏáë î.î. ê³Ñ³Ï ʳå³Û»³ÝÇ ëÇñáÛ ë»ñï ϳå»ñÁ ì»ñ. ²ß×»³ÝÇ Ñ»ï ëñï³éáõã ûñÇݳÏÝ»ñ ѳݹÇë³ó³Ý ÙÇç- ѳٳÛÝù³ÛÇÝ ·áñͳÏóáõû³Ý£ 2. Îáïáñ³Í¿Ý ï³ëÁ ³ÙÇëÝÝ»ñ »ïù, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ýáñ Ïáõë³Ï³É` Ö¿Ù³É ä¿ÛÁ ѳßïáõû³Ý ׳ßÏ»ñáÛà ÙÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»ó (ö»ïñáõ³ñ 5- 1910-ÇÝ) áõñ ì»ñ. Ð. ²ß×»³Ý Çñ áõÕ»ñÓÇÝ Ù¿ç Áë³õ£ §Ò»ñ ³½ÝÇõ Ý»ñáÕ³ÙïáõÃÇõÝÁ ѳÛó»Éáí Ï°áõ½»Ù Ñ»ï»õ»³É Ëݹñ³ÝùÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óݻɣ ܳË, ÏÁ Ëݹñ»Ù Ù»ñ ϳé³í³ñáõÃ»Ý¿Ý ã¹³ï³å³ñï¿ù ³ÙμáÕç ³½·Á ·áñÍáõ³Í á×ÇñÇÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ£ ¼³ÛÝ ·áñÍáÕ ë³Ï³õ³ÃÇõ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏÝ »Ý ÙdzÛÝ Ù»Õ³õáñ£ ºñÏñáñ¹, åÇïÇ Ëݹñ¿Ç Ù»ñ Çëɳ٠ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñ¿Ý Çñ»Ýó ß³ÑÁ ã÷Ýïé»Ý áõñÇßÝ»ñáõ ÏáñáõëïÇÝ Ù¿ç£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ³Õ¿ïÇÝ å³ï׳éáí Ù»Ýù ùñÇëïáÝ»³Ý»ñë Ù»Í ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ ³ñӳݳ·ñ»óÇÝù£ ²ñ¹»ûù Ù»ñ Çëɳ٠ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÁ ³Ûë ¹Åμ³Ëï å³ï³Ñ³ñ¿Ý íë»Ù³ó³±Ý ÿ Ýáõ³ëï³ó³Ý£ ºññáñ¹, Ù»Ýù ³ÝÏ»ÕÍûñ¿Ý ³Ûë »ñÏÇñÁ ÏÁ ëÇñ»Ýù, »õ Ç ë¿ñ ²ëïáõÍáÛ ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÇõÝ ÏÁ å³Ñ³Ýç»Ýù£ ... ºÃ¿ ÏÁ ëÇñ¿ù Ó»ñ ѳÛñ»ÝÇùÁ, »Ã¿ ÏÁ ëÇñ¿ù Ó»ñ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ, »Ã¿ ÏÁ ëÇñ¿ù Ó»ñ ²ëïáõ³ÍÁ, ³ÛÉ»õë í»ñç ïáõ¿ù ³ÛëåÇëÇ í³ñÙáõÝùÝ»ñáõ, »õ ѳٻñ³ßËáõû³Ùμ ³åñÇÝù »õ ³Ûë ѳÛñ»ÝÇùÇÝ ïϳñ³óÙ³Ý å³ï׳é ãÁÉɳÝù ... Ù¿Ï Ýå³ï³Ïáí »õ Ù¿Ï ëñïáí ³Ûë ÝáõÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳÛñ»ÝÇùÁ ³Ùñ³óÝ»Ýù »õ ÷³é³õáñ»Ýù, áñáíÑ»ï»õ ÙÇáõû³Ùμ ѳëï³ï ÏÁ ÙݳÝù, μ³Å³ÝáõÙáí Ï°ÇÛݳÝù¦: 3. ºÏ»Õ»óõáÛ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÁ å³Ñ³Ýç»óÇÝ - Ú³Ýó³õáñÝ»ñáõÝ å³ïÅáõÇÉÁ - ÜÇõÃ³Ï³Ý íݳëÇó ѳïáõóáõÙ - ä³ßïûÝ³Ï³Ý Û³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÃÇõÝ ÙÁ ÿ ѳۻñÁ ½áÑ»ñ ¿ÇÝ »õ áã Û³Ýó³õáñÝ»ñ£ ì»ñáÛÇß»³É å³Ñ³ÝçùÝ»ñÁ ѻ鳷ñáí ѳÕáñ¹áõ»ó³Ý êáõÉóÝÇÝ, Ù»Í »å³ñùáëáõû³Ý »õ »ñ»ë÷áË³Ý³Ï³Ý ÅáÕáíÇÝ£ ²Ûë μáÉáñÇÝ áñå¿ë ³ñ¹ÇõÝù ѳ½³ñ³õáñ á×ñ³·áñÍÝ»ñ¿Ý å³ïÅáõ»ó³Ý 50 Ñá·Ç, áñå¿ë ÝÇõÃ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ïáõóáõ٠ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ »ñÏáõ ³éÇÃÝ»ñáí ïáõ³õ 350,000 úëÙ. àëÏÇ, ÇëÏ áñå¿ë å³ßïûÝ³Ï³Ý Û³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÃÇõÝ, Ù»Í »å³ñùáë ÐÇõë¿ÛÝ ÐÇÉÙÇ ö³ß³Ý Û³Ûï³ñ³ñ»ó ÿ ѳۻñÁ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ¹¿åùÇÝ Ù¿ç ³ÝÙ»Õ ½áÑ»ñ ¿ÇÝ å³ñ½³å¿ë£ ¸Åμ³Ëï³μ³ñ, ºñÇïÃáõñù»ñ ãÁݹáõÝ»óÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ¹»ñ³Ï³ï³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Îáïáñ³ÍÇÝ Ù¿ç£ Öáõ³ï ä¿Û ²ï³Ý³ ìÇɳۿÃÇ Ý³Ñ³Ý·³å»ïÇ Ý³Ë³·³Ñáõû³Ùμ, ËáñÑáõñ¹Ç ÝÇëï ï»ÕÇ Ï°áõݻݳÛ, áõñ áñáßáõÙ Ï°³éÝáõÇ å³ïÅ»É Ñ³Û»ñÁ (1909 ³åñÇÉÇ 13,) ... ç³ñ¹»ñ ï»ÕÇ Ï°áõÝ»Ý³Ý ½³ïÏ¿Ý Û»ïáÛ, ²åñÇÉÇ 14,15,16-ÇÝ ... ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç Ù¿Ï Éû½áõÝ· ÏÁ Éëáõ¿ñ. §êå³ÝÝ»É Ùdz°ÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñÁ¦... ºñÇïÃáõñù ÆëÙ³ÛÇÉ ê»ü³Ý ѳݹ¿ë Ïáõ·³Û Ñ»ï»õ»³É ÉÏïÇ Ëûëùáí. §²ÛÝ ÇÝã ϳï³ñáõ³Í ¿, ¹»é ³Ýμ³õ³ñ³ñ ¿ áõ ³Ù¿Ý ÇÝã ã¿£ Ø»Ýù ÙdzÛÝ Ï³ñ× ¹³¹³ñ ÙÁ ³é³Í »Ýù, μ³Ûó ¹»é ÏÁ ï»ëÝ»Ýù, ÿ ³Ù¿ÝÁ ÇÝãáí Ï°³õ³ñïÇ ...¦£ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------²åñÇÉ 1909-¿Ý - ²åñÇÉ 2009-Á ѳñÇõñ ï³ñÇ ...£ ²Ûëûñ ѳñÇõñ ï³ñÇ »ïù, Ù»Ýù Çμñ»õ ѳٳÛÝù »õ Çμñ»õ ³½·` ϳÝù áõ ÏÁ ÙݳÝù, ½áÑÇ Ñá·»μ³ÝáõÃ»Ý¿Ý ¹áõñë »É³Í` í»ñ³ÍÝ³Í »Ýù£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Îáïáñ³ÍÇÝ 100-³Ù»³ÏÁ í»ñ³Ýáñá·Ù³Ý ï³ñ»¹³ñÓ ÙÁÝ ¿, Ù»ñ Ïáñëáõ³Í Çñ³õáõÝùÝ»ñáõ å³Ñ³Ýç³ïÇñáõû³Ý, Ù»ñ í»ñ³Ýáñá·Ù³Ý, Ù»ñ Ï»ÝëáõݳÏáõû³Ý »õ í»ñ³Ï»ñïÙ³Ý í×é³Ï³ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ íϳÛáÕ Ñ³Ý·ñáõ³Ý ÙÁ£ Ødzݷ³Ù³ÛÝ, ëáÛÝ Ñ³135


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

ñÇõñ³Ù»³ÏÁ ³Ýó»³É¿Ý ¹³ë»ñ ëáñí»Éáõ ¹ÇåáõÏ ³éÇà ÙÁÝ ¿ ,ÿ` Ù»ñ ³½·³ÛÇÝ Ï»Ýë³Ï³Ý ѳñó»ñáõ Ù¿ç ÙdzÙÇï »õ å³ïñ³Ý³Ë³μ ãÁÉɳÝù, ³ÛÉ ÙÇßï Çñ³ï»ë »õ Ñ»é³ï»ë, ßñç³Ñ³Û»³ó »õ ÇÙ³ëïáõÝ£ úï³ñÝ»ñáõ û·ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ ѳÛó»Ýù, μ³Ûó ûï³ñÝ»ñ¿Ý ÷ñÏáõÃÇõÝ ãëå³ë»Ýù, áñáíÑ»ï»õ í»ñçÇÝ Ñ³ßáõáí Ù»ñ ë»÷³Ï³Ý ÙÇçáóÝ»ñáí ÙdzÛÝ ÏñݳÝù ïÇñ³Ý³É Ù»ñ Çñ³õáõÝùÝ»ñáõÝ£ àõñ»ÙÝ, ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ¿ Ùdzμ³Ý áõ Ùdzϳ٠ÁÉɳɣ ´³õ³ñ³ñ ã¿ ÙdzëݳϳÙáõû³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ ï³ñÇÝ ûñ ÙÁ ϳ٠ѳ½áõ³¹¿å á·»ÏáãÙ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹Çëáõû³Ý ³éÇÃÝ»ñáí ÙdzÛÝ Ùï³Í»É, ³ÛÉ Ñ³ñÏ ¿ ½³ÛÝ Ù»ñ ³éûñ»³ÛÇÝ Ñ»ï ß³Õϳå»É, ÙdzëÝ³Ï³Ý ×³Ï³ïáí ÃÇÏáõÝù ϳݷÝÇÉ Ñ³Û ¹³ïÇÝ£ ²ñ¹, á·»Ïáã»Ýù ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Îáïáñ³ÍÇÝ 100-³Ù»³ÏÁ, Û³ñ·³Ýùáí ËáݳñÑÇÝù Ù»ñ ݳѳï³ÏÝ»ñáõ ÛÇß³ï³ÏÇÝ ³éç»õ, μ³Ûó ²ëïáõÍáÛ íÁëï³Ñ»Éáí, ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý Û³ÝÓݳéáõû³Ùμ, ³ñÅ»õáñ»Ýù Ù»ñ Ý»ñÏ³Ý »õ ³ÝÛáÕ¹áÕ¹ ѳõ³ïùáí ù³É»Ýù ¹¿åÇ ³å³·³Ý£ ú·ï³·áñÍáõ³Í ²ÕμÇõñÝ»ñ §ÆëÉ³Ù³Ï³Ý æ³ñ¹»ñáõÝ ¼áÑ Î’»ñÃ³Û ÐÇݷѳ½³ñ λ³Ýù¦, ÜÛáõ ºûñù ³ÛÙ½, ²åñÇÉ 21, 1909. §äñáõùÉÇÝ¿Ý Ø³ñ¹ ÙÁ ²Ï³Ý³ï»ë Î’ÁÉÉ³Û ØÇëÇáݳñÇ ÙÁ êå³Ýáõû³Ý¦, ÜÛáõ ºûñù ³ÛÙ½ , سÛÇë 2,1909. §ÎÇÝ ÙÁ ÏÁ Üϳñ³·ñ¿ ÊéáíáõÃÇõÝ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ø¿ç¦, ÜÛáõ ºûñù ³ÛÙ½, سÛÇë 3, 1909. ì»ñ. Ð. ²ß×»³Ý. §²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ºÕ»éÝÁ¦ ÜÇõ ºáñù1950, ѳïÁÝïÇñ ѳïáõ³ÍÝ»ñ, ¿ç 108-112£ îÇ·ñ³Ý ÊñÉáμ»³Ý, àëϻٳﻳÝ, ä¿ÛñáõÃ, 1950 гïáñ ´. 124-125 ì»ñ. гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ Ú. ²ß×»³Ý, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ºÕ»éÝÁ »õ ¶áÝdzۿ Úáõß»ñ, (ÜÇõ ºáñù, ÎáãÝ³Ï ïå., 1950) ¿ç»ñ` 15-120 ì»ñ. ºÕdz ê. ø³ëáõÝÇ, Èáõë³ß³õÇÕ (ä¿ÛñáõÃ. ²Ù»ñÇÏ»³Ý îå³ñ³Ý ) ¿ç»ñ` 263269. ì»ñ. Î. ä. ²ï³Ý³É»³Ý, Úáõß³ñÓ³Ý (üñ¿½ÝáÛ, 1952), ¿ç»ñ 330, 339 ¶ñÇ·áñ Ú. ¶³ÉáõëﻳÝ, سñ³ß ϳ٠¶»ñÙ³ÝÇÏ »õ лñáë ¼¿ÛÃáõÝ (ÜÛáõ ºûñù, ÎáãÝ³Ï ïå., 1934), ¿ç 929 г۳ëï³ÝÇ ÎáãÝ³Ï (ÜÇõ ºáñù, ÎáãÝ³Ï ïå., 1938), ¿ç»ñ` 81-82 ¸áÏï.Ú³Ïáμ â³·Ù³ù×»³Ý, Ð³Û ²õ»ï³ñ³Ý³Ï³Ý Þ³ñÅáõÙÁ (üñ¿½ÝáÛ, 1985), ¿ç»ñ 81-82 ì»ñ. гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ Ú. ²ß×»³Ý, ÚÇß³ï³Ï³ñ³Ý 70-³Ù»³ÏÇ îûݳϳï³ñáõû³Ý (Èáë ²Ý׿Éáë, 193 6) ¿ç»ñ` 17-53 ì»ñ. ä³ñ·»õ Ü. î³ñ³·×»³Ý, §ì»ñ. гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ Ú. ²ß×»³Ý¦, æ³Ý³ë¿ñ, ÚáõÉÇë- ú·áëïáë, 1974, ¿ç»ñ` 254, 259 ê»åï. - ¸»Ïï. 1997 ¾ç»ñ` 365-37 ÂÇýÉÇë»³Ý Â»ñÃÇÏ , 26 ²åñÇÉ ,1909. îÇ·ñ³Ý ÊñÉáμ»³Ý, àëϻٳﻳÝ,ä¿ÛñáõÃ,1950, гïáñ ´. ¸³ë³ËûëáõÃÇõݪ γñ³å»ï ¶. î³ÕÉ»³ÝÇ , ²Éýñ¿ï гٳÉë³ñ³ÝÇ ³ß³Ï»ñïáõ- û³Ýó,ÜÛáõ ºûñù, ö»ïñáõ³ñ 21,1912. гۻñÇ ò»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÇõÝÁ úëٳݻ³Ý γÛëñáõÃÇõÝáõÙ, ËÙμ³·Çñª Ø. ø. Ü»ñëÇ뻳Ý, 1991, ºñ»õ³Ý. ¾ÙÙ³ Îáëï³Ý¹»³Ý, §Ð³ñÛáõñ î³ñÇ ²é³ç,γ٠ÇÝã ¹³ë»ñ ù³Õ»É ä³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÇó¦, §²½· úñ³Ã»ñæ, ²åñÇÉ 1, 2009. http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1915/bryce/a14.htm ѳïáõ³Í §The Treatment of 136


гñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire¦ ·Çñù¿Ý, (÷³ëï³ÃáõÕûñ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõ³Í Viscount Bryce-ÇÝ.) ÎÇåáÝë, Ð¿É¿Ý î¿õ¿Ýμáñ¹, ³ñëáõëÇ Î³ñÙÇñ ¶áñ·»ñÁ£ ÎÝáç ÙÁ ·ñ³éáõÙÝ»ñÁ 1909-Ç Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÝ . ÜÛáõ ºûñù£1917, ¶ÉáõË 8, ¿ç£ 115-116. ¸áÏï. ð³Ëá îáÝ¿ý, 1909£ Ottoman Archives related to the Adana Massacres, êÇïÝÇ,²õë¹ñ³Édz, 2008

Harutyun Selimyan The Massacre of Adana and the Losses of the Armenian Evangelics Summary This article shows the losses of the Armenian evangelics as a consequence of Adana massacres. The author presents the details of the Adana massacres, human and material losses, the pain and grief of the Armenian people; he exhorts not to be naive in essential national questions, on the contrary always to be realistic and long-sighted, reasonable and wise. The author advises to ask for help from the foreigners, but not to expect a salvation and to acquire rights by own means; to be united and to have will, to evaluate the present and to step towards the future with unshakable belief.

137


вÚÎ²Î²Ü æ²ð¸ºðÆ ²ðî²òàÈàôØÀ вڲî²è ÂàôðøºðºÜ ¶ð²Î²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü Øºæ гëÙÇÏ êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý Ð³Û³ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ù»ñ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Å³é³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý ³Ýù³Ïï»ÉÇ Ù³ëÝ ¿, áñÁ ÙÇÝã ûñë ß³ï ùÇã ¿ áõëáõÙݳëÇñí³Í£ ²ÛÝ Çñ Ù»ç Ý»ñ³éáõÙ ¿ ÑëÏ³Û³Ï³Ý í³í»ñ³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÝÛáõà úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý, Ýñ³ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ μáÉáñ áÉáñïÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ ²ÛÝ Ý³¨ Ù»ñ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ³½³ï³·ñ³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý ÷³ÛÉáõÝ ¿ç»ñÇ áõ »Õ»ñ³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É Ï³ñ¨áñ ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñ ¿, áñÁ ãå»ïù ¿ ³Ýáõß³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ïÝíÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáÕÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ һ鳷ñ³Ï³Ý 600-³ÙÛ³ áõ ïå³·ñ³Ï³Ý 250-³ÙÛ³ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»óáÕ ³Ûë ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³å³óáõÛóÝ ¿ áÕμ»ñ·³Ï³Ý ÙÇ »ñ¨áõÛÃÇ, áñÝ ³ÛÝù³Ý ï³ñ³Íí³Í ¿ñ áÕç úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ£ ²ÛÝ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ñ ëáódzÉ-ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý, ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý, ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹ Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí μéÝÇ Ãáõñù³É»½áõ ¹³ñÓ³Í Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý Ï»ë ÙÇÉÇáÝ ÙÇ Ñ³ïí³ÍÇ ·áÛáõÃ۳ݣ §Ø»Ï ³½·, Ù»Ï Ïñáݦ ëáõÉÃ³Ý³Ï³Ý Ï³ñ·³ËáëÇ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³é³çÇÝ ù³ÛÉ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ (Ñå³ï³Ï ï³ñμ»ñ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ ¹»Ù Çñ³Ï³Ý³óíáÕ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ ½áõ·³Ñ»é)ª Ù³Ñí³Ý ëå³éݳÉÇùáí Ãáõñù³Ëáë ¹³ñÓÝ»ÉÁ, Ù³ë³Ùμ åë³Ïí»É ¿ñ ѳçáÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²Ûë ëïí³ñ ѳïí³ÍÇ áÕç ëï»Õͳ·áñÍ³Ï³Ý ÙÇïùÁ Ù»½ ¿ ѳë»É Ù³ë³Ùμ ϳ٠ÉÇáíÇÝ Ñ³Û³ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí£ Ð³Û³ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»ÝÁ Ù»Í ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ó³í Ýñ³Ýó áõͳóáõÙÇó ÷ñÏ»Éáõ, ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ í»ñ³¹³ñÓÝ»Éáõ, ѳ۳ËáëáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»Éáõ ¨ ³é³ù»É³Ï³Ý ÏñáÝÇÝ Ñ³í³ï³ñÇÙ ÙݳÉáõ ·áñÍáõÙ£ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí ëï»ÕÍí»ó Ñëϳ۳ͳí³É ӻ鳷Çñ áõ ïå³·Çñ ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ, áñÁ ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ ³ÛÝù³Ý ï³ñ³Íí»ó áõ ÇÝùݳμ³í ¹³ñÓ³í, áñ ëÏë»ó ͳé³Û»É áã ÙdzÛÝ Çñ ëϽμÝ³Ï³Ý ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ³Ûɨ ¹³ñÓ³í ϳñ¨áñ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ·áñÍáÝ Ñ³Û»ñ»ÝÇÝ áõ Ãáõñù»ñ»ÝÇÝ ïÇñ³å»ïáÕ ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ£ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí³Í 2000-Çó ³í»ÉÇ ³ÝáõÝ ·ñù»ñÁ, ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý 120 ³ÝáõÝ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÝ ³ÛÝåÇëÇ Ñ³ñáõëï áõ ѽáñ áõÅ ¹³ñÓ³Ý, áñ ³Ï³Ù³ ëÏë»óÇÝ ³½¹»É ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý áÕç Ãáõñù³Ëáë μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý Ùß³ÏáõÛÃÇ íñ³£ ¸³ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ÁݹѳÝáõñ ½³ñÃáÝùÇ ßñç³ÝÇ μáõéÝ ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ËóÝÁ ѳݹÇë³ó³í, ¹³éݳÉáí ݳ¨ »íñáå³Ï³Ý Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ÙÃÝáÉáñïÇ, Ùß³ÏáõÛÃÇ, ³é³ç³¹ÇÙ³Ï³Ý ·³Õ³÷³ñÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñó÷³ÝóÙ³Ý ·áñÍÇù ¨ ÙÇçáó£ ä»ïù ¿ ÷³ëï»É, áñ ³Ù»Ý³Ù»Í û·áõïÝ ³Ûë ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó áõÝ»ó³í ݳ˨³é³ç Ãáõñù ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Á£ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³ï»ñ³ËÙμ»ñÇ Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óáõÙÝ»ñÁ áÕç ϳÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáí Ù»Ï Ñ»Õ³÷áË³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ó³Ý ¨° Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ¨° ·³Õ³÷³ñ³Ëáë³Ï³Ý ³éáõÙáí, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ·ÇïáõÃÛ³Ý, ï»ËÝÇϳÛÇ, ·ñ³Ï³Ý Ýáñ Ãáõñù»ñ»ÝÇ, Éáõë³íáñ³Ï³Ý ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý áõ Ýñ³ ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³íáñÙ³Ý, ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Éñ³·ñáÕ³Ï³Ý ³ñí»ëïÇ, »ñ³ÅßïáõÃÛ³Ý áõ óïñáÝÇ, ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ³Ù»Ý³ï³ñμ»ñ ×ÛáõÕ»ñÇ ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó£ γÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý μáÉáñ ³ÝÏÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ëÏë³Í å³É³ï³Ï³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇó ÙÇÝ㨠·³í³éÇ ³Ûɳ½·ÇÝ»ñÁ, ݳËÁÝïñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ï³ñ¹³É ³Ûë å³ñ½ áõ ѳëϳݳÉÇ É»½íáí Ù³ÙáõÉÁ` ë»Õ٠ųÙÏ»ïáõÙ ëáíáñ»Éáí ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ï³é»ñÁ£ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»ÝÇ ÅáÕáíñ¹³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ »Õ»É ųٳݳÏÇ ³Ù»Ý³½³ñ·³ó³Í Ù³ñ¹Ï³Ýó ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Ðñ³ß³ÉÇ ÏñÃáõÃÛáõÝ ëï³ó³Í, μ³½Ù³ÃÇí É»½áõÝ»ñÇ ·Çï³Ï ³Ûë ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó áõë»ñÇÝ ¿ÇÝ í»ñóñ»É úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý μ³½Ù³É»½áõ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ïå³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý áÕç ͳÝñáõÃÛáõÝÁ. ßáõñç »ñÏáõ 138


гëÙÇÏ êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý

ѳñÛáõñ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý, ûëٳݻñ»Ý, »é³É»½áõ, ù³é³É»½áõ Ù³ÙáõÉ, »ñÏáõ ï³ëÝÛ³ÏÇ Ñ³ëÝáÕ ýñ³Ýë»ñ»Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ£ ºí ¹ñ³Ýù μ³Å³Ýáñ¹Ý»ñ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É »ñÏñÇ ï³ñμ»ñ ͳÛñ»ñáõÙ áõ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝáõÙ, ÃÕóÏÇóÝ»ñ áõÝ»ó»É ³Ý·³Ù Ñ»é³íáñ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ·³í³éÝ»ñáõÙ£ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ·ñù»ñ áõ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ϳñ¹áõÙ ¿ÇÝ å³É³ïáõÙ, ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ áõ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ, ï³ñμ»ñ ³½·»ñÇ ÁÝï³ÝÇùÝ»ñáõÙ, ëñ׳ñ³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ ¨ ³Ý·³Ù ѳñ»ÙÝ»ñáõÙ£ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»Í³·áõÛÝ ³ñųÝÇùÝ ³ÛÝ ¿ñ, áñ ÝáñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ (ٳݳí³Ý¹ ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÛ³Ý) 1-2 ûñ ³Ýó ÁÝûñóáÕÇ ë»Õ³ÝÇÝ ¿ÇÝ ÉÇÝáõÙ£ ÆëÏ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ¹ñ³Ýù ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ûñÇݳÏáí` áõݻݳÉáí μ³½Ù³ÃÇí »Ýóí»ñݳ·ñ»ñ, áñáÝù áã ÙÇ μ³ó ³ÝÏÛáõÝ ã¿ÇÝ ÃáÕÝáõÙ ÁÝûñóáÕÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³í³ñ³ñ»Éáõ ѳñóáõÙ£ ²Ù»Ý³Ñ³ÛïÝÇ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇó ¿ÇÝ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ¿Ç ¾ýù»³ñ¦-Á, §Ø¿×Ùáõ³ÛÇ ²Ëå³ñ¦-Á, §Ø¿×Ùáõ³ÛÁ гí³ïÇë¦-Á, §ØÇõݳïÇÇ ¾ñ×dzë¦-Á, §Â¿ñ×Ù³ÝÁ ¾ýù»³ñ¦-Á, §Ö¿ñÇï¿Ç Þ³ñùÇ¿¦-Á1 ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ²Ûë ¹»åùáõÙ Ù»½ ѳٳñ ϳñ¨áñ »Ý μáÉáñ ³ÛÝ Ëáñ³·ñ»ñÁ, áñáÝù Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»É »Ý ·³í³éÁ£ ÜáõÛÝù³Ý ϳñ¨áñ »Ý ·³í³éáõÙ ÉáõÛë ï»ë³Í å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ëª §¾Ýí³ñÁ Þ³ñ·ÇÛ»¦ (γñÇÝ), §ÎÇõɽ³ñÁ ¶³Ûë»ñǻǦ (λë³ñdzÛÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ïå³·ñí»É ¿ äáÉëáõÙ), §Ø»Ýïáñ¦ (²ÛÝóå) ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ºÃ» ÝϳïÇ áõݻݳÝù, áñ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ßáõñç 40 ï³ñÇ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ÇÝ, ³å³ ϳñáÕ »Ýù å³ïÏ»ñ³óÝ»É ³ÛÝ ÑëÏ³Û³Ï³Ý Í³í³ÉÁ, áñÝ ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³ÛáõÃÛ³Ý áõ äáÉëÇ ³Ù»ÝûñÛ³ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ÛáõñûñÇÝ³Ï ÙÇ Ñ³Û»ÉÇ ¿ñ, áñáõÙ ³ñï³óáÉíáõÙ ¿ñ ³éûñÛ³Ý, Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ¨ Ñá·¨áñ ÏÛ³ÝùÁ, Ýñ³ ½³ñÃáÝùÁ, »íñáå³Ï³Ý³óÙ³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý ÙÇïáõÙÝ»ñÁ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ²ÛÝ ³ñï³Ñ³Ûï»É ¿ μáÉáñ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁª ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ¨ ѳٳϳÛë»ñ³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃ۳ݣ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÝ Çñ μáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ, Çñ ˳ճó³Í ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ýù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ¹»ñáí ³Ýù³Ïï»ÉÇáñ»Ý ϳåí³Í ¿ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï£ Ð³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý áñáß å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñ ³Ý·³Ù áõÝ»ó»É »Ý ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõù»ñ»Ýáí ѳí»Éí³ÍÝ»ñ ϳ٠ïå³·ñ»É »Ý ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñ (ÝϳïÇ áõݻݳÉáí Ãáõñù³Ëáë ÁÝûñóáÕÝ»ñÇÝ), »ñμ»ÙÝ ¿É ³Ý÷á÷áË Ó¨áí Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»É »Ý Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ÃÕóÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ г۳ï³é ³Ûë å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ Ñ³×³Ë ÷³Ïí»É »Ý, ËÙμ³·ÇñÝ»ñÁ` μ³Ýï³ñÏí»É£ §Ø³Ý½áõÙ¿Ç ¾ýù»³ñ¦ ûñÃÇ ïÝûñ»Ý γñ³å»ï ö³ÝáëÛ³ÝÁ, áñÁ μáÉáñÇó Ñ»ï¨áÕ³Ï³Ý ¿ å³Ûù³ñ»É Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹ÇÝ ëïñϳóÝ»Éáõ, çɳï»Éáõ, ÓáõÉ»Éáõ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù ¨ ïå³·ñ»É ͳÝñ³·áõÛÝ ÷³ëï»ñáí ÃÕóÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ·³í³éÇó, μ³½ÙÇóë μ³Ýï³ñÏí»É ¿, ë³Ï³ÛÝ í»ñëïÇÝ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï»É Çñ ·áñÍÁ£ ÈáõÛë »Ý ï»ë»É Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ³ÕÙáõÏ »Ý ³é³ç³óñ»É Ù³Ûñ³ù³Õ³ùÇ áã ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³ÛϳϳÝ, ³Ûɨ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ¹Çí³Ý³·Çï³Ï³Ý ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñáõÙ, ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ£ ²Û¹ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ É³í³·áõÛÝ ¹»åùáõ٠ϳñáÕ³ó»É »Ý í»ñ³μ³óí»É ݳËÏÇÝ Ï³Ù Ýáñ ³Ýí³ÝÙ³Ùμ` ß³ñáõݳϻÉáí Çñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ·áñÍÁ£ ºÃ» ¹ñ³Ýó ѳí»É»Ýù äáÉëáõÙ Ùáï »ñÏáõ ï³ëÝÛ³Ï ûëٳݻñ»Ý áõ »é³É»½áõ, ù³é³É»½áõ ûñûñÁ, ݳ¨ ýñ³Ýë»ñ»Ýáí ÉáõÛë ï»ëÝáÕ ßáõñç Ù»Ï ï³ëÝÛ³Ï å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ÝÛáõûñÁ, áñáÝù Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÁ, ³å³ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ å³ïÏ»ñ³óÝ»É, û ÇÝã ѳñáõëï ÝÛáõà ¿ å³ñ÷³Ïí³Í ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ¿ç»ñáõÙ ³½·³ÛÇÝ-³½³ï³·ñ³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñÇ, Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹ÇÝ å³ïáõѳë³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó Éáõë³μ³ÝÙ³Ý ¨ Ñ»ï³åÝ¹Ù³Ý ·áñÍáõÙ£ 1 г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ·ñù»ñÇ ¨ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ï»°ë êï»÷³Ý»³Ý Ú³ëÙÇÏ ²., г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ¿Ý ·ñù»ñÇ »õ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ¿Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ Ù³ï»Ý³·ÇïáõÃÇõÝ. êï³ÙμáõÉ, §Âáõñùáõ³½¦ Ññ³ï., 2005Ã.

139


гëÙÇÏ êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý

ÜÙ³Ý áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛáõÝ ¹³ñÓ³í 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ, áñÁ ݳ¨ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇ ÙÇçáóáí Çñ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»ñáí ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Ññ³å³ñ³Ï Çç³í` Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»Éáí ÷³ëï³Ï³Ý ÑëÏ³Û³Ï³Ý ÝÛáõÃ, áñÁ ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ¹»ëå³Ý³ïÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí ï³ñ³Íí»ó ³ñï»ñÏñáõÙ£ ÆëÏ ²¹³Ý³Ý ³Û¹ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Éáõë³íáñ³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝÝ»ñÇó ¿ñ£ ²ÛÝï»Õ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ¹³ë³Ï³Ý Ýí³·³ËÙμ»ñ ¿ÇÝ ·áñÍáõÙ (1901 Ã. ³é³çÇÝ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ýí³·³ËáõÙμÁ ê³Ñ³Ï î»ñ-ê³Ñ³ÏÛ³ÝÇ áõ ²É»ùë³Ý âáñ»ùãÛ³ÝÇ Õ»Ï³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¨ 1902 Ã.ª ì³Ñ³Ý ´»¹»ÉÛ³ÝÇ 13 »ñ³ÅÇßïÝ»ñÇó ¹³ë³Ï³Ý Ýí³·³ËáõÙμÁ), μ³½Ù³ÃÇí μ³ñ»ëÇñ³Ï³Ý, Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ÙÇáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ÍÝíáõÙ£ ºñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá (1908 Ã.) ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ, ³í»ÉÇ, ù³Ý ѳ۳ɻ½áõ å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ³ñï³ïåí»É »Ý ³ñï³ë³ÑÙ³ÝÛ³Ý, ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ` ýñ³ÝëdzϳÝ, ëáõÉóݳϳÝ, ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ»ñÇ ï³ñμ»ñ ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ý ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùÝ»ñÁ£ ä³ïϳé»ÉÇ ÃÇí ¿ÇÝ Ï³½ÙáõÙ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÇÝ ÝíÇñí³Í ·ñù»ñÁ ³ÛÝåÇëÇ μ³ó³ë³Ï³Ý í»ñݳ·ñ»ñáí, ÇÝãå»ë §Î³ñÙÇñ ·³½³ÝÇ áñçÁ¦ (1909), §ÎáßÙ³ñÝ»ñ¦ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ£ ²Û¹ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñ³éáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ý³¨ ä³ïñdzñù³ñ³ÝÇ, ²½·³ÛÇÝ ÄáÕáíÇ ³ï»Ý³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ ÎÇÉÇÏÇá áñμ³Ëݳ٠áõ ³ÛÉ Ñ³ÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ñ»ñÁ£ ÈáõÛë ï»ë³Ý ѳۻñ»Ý áõ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ·ñù»ñ, áñáÝù ÑÇÙݳϳÝáõÙ Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»óÇÝ º·ÇåïáëáõÙ, üñ³ÝëdzÛáõÙ£ äáÉëáõÙ ïå³·ñí»óÇÝ ·ñù»ñ,2 áñáÝó ѳëáõÛÃÁ ïñ³Ù³¹ñí»ó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áñμ»ñÇÝ£ Ø»ñ ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ ³Ýí³ÝÇ Ùï³íáñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³ñÓ³Ý ³Ûë ËݹñÇÝ` ·áñÍáõÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ áõݻݳÉáí §ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ï»³ÉÝ»ñáõ¦ ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ ³ß˳ï³ÝùÝ»ñáõÙ£ гñÏ ¿ Ýß»É, áñ Ù»ñ ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç áÕμ»ñ·³Ï³Ý ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇ áõ ûï³ñÝ»ñÇ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ μ³½Ù³É»½áõ ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕùÇÝ å³Ñå³Ýí»É »Ý ݳ¨ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí ÝÛáõûñ ¨ í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñ, áñáÝó Ù»Í Ù³ëÁ ÙÇÝã ûñë£ ´³½Ù³ÃÇí ³Ý·³ÙÝ»ñ ³éÇà »Ýù áõÝ»ó»É ѳÙá½í»Éáõ, áñ ¹»é ³Ûëûñ ¿É ë÷Ûáõéù³Ñ³Û Ù»ñ ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ûç³ËÝ»ñáõÙ ëñμáõÃÛ³Ùμ »Ý å³Ñíáõ٠ѳۻñ»Ý, ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý É»½áõÝ»ñáí ӻ鳷Çñ ï»ïñ³ÏÝ»ñ, ·ñù»ñ, áñáÝù »Õ»éÝÝ ³Ýó³Í ï³ñ³μ³Ëï Ù»ñ ѳÛñ»Ý³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ë¨ ûñ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ »Ý£ ¸ñ³Ýó ÙÇ Ù³ëÁ ÉáõÛë ¿ ï»ë»É Ñ»Ýó ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ, ÙÛáõë Ù³ëÁª Ýñ³Ýó ųé³Ý·Ý»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ Ø»½ íÇ׳Ïí»É ¿ ݳ¨ ï»ëÝ»É ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³Û»ñ»Ý áõ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ӻ鳷Çñ Ñáõß³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ£ ¸ñ³Ýó Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ ³Ûëûñí³ Å³é³Ý·Ý»ñÁ ëñμáõÃÛ³Ùμ »Ý å³ÑáõÙ ¹ñ³Ýù` óñ·Ù³Ý»Éáõ, Ññ³ï³ñ³Ï»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ سï»Ý³¹³ñ³ÝÇ Ó»é³·ñ³Ï³Ý Ýáñ ѳí³ù³ÍáõÇ 361 ѳٳñÇ Ó»é³·ÇñÁ ·ñí»É ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, ÏáãíáõÙ ¿ §ÂáõñùÇÛ³¹³ ¿ñÙ»ÝÇ Ñ³Û³ÃÁ¦ (гۻñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ)£ 1950-³Ï³Ý ÃÃ. ·ñí³Í »ñÏÙ³ë, 80 ûñÃÇó μ³Õϳó³Í ӻ鳷ÇñÁ å³ïϳÝáõÙ ¿ ȨáÝ ¾å»Û³ÝÇ ·ñãÇÝ£ һ鳷ÇñÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕμ»ñ·³Ï³Ý ¹»åù»ñÇÝ£ ²é³çÇÝ Ù³ëÁ 2 î»°ë ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ·ñù»ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ. ³峷»³Ý ØÇÑñ³Ý, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ÍÝݹ»³Ý ͳéÁ, Î.äáÉÇë, 1910: ¿á¹ÇÏ ²ñß³ÏáõÑÇ, ²ÙÇë ÙÁ Ç ÎÇÉÇÏdz, ¸³ï³ëï³Ý, Î.äáÉÇë, 1910: ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú³Ïáμ, ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, Î.äáÉÇë, 1912., ïå. ²ë³ïáõñ»³Ý ¨ áñ¹Çù: ÜáõÛÝÇ` §²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÁ¦,1909, Î.äáÉÇë: ¶áõïáõÉ»³Ý ¶ñÇ·áñ. Ð³Û É»éÁ. γñÙÇñ ¸ñí³·Ý»ñ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ»ï¿Ý. Î.äáÉÇë, îå. îáÕñ³Ù³×Û³Ý, 1912: Øáõß»Õ »åÇëÏ., ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Á ¨ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÁ, Î.äáÉÇë, 1909: гÏáμ »ñ½Û³Ý, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ï»³ÝùÁ (Î.äáÉÇë, 1909): êáõñ»Ý ä³ñûõ»³ÝÇ, ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ³ñѳõÇñùÁ (Î.äáÉÇë, 1909): ²ëɳݻ³Ý Ú³ñáõÃÛÇõÝ ²ÛÝóåóÇ, ÆÝãå¿ë ¹³ïáõ»ó ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÇõÝÁ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ù¿ç, 1909Ã.: г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí, ä»ÑëÝÇÉÛ³Ý º., ܳѳï³ÏÝ»ñÇ Ñáõß³·Çñù, ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí, Î.äáÉÇë, 1910: â³ÉÛ³Ý Î. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¹»åù»ñÁ ¨ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÁ, Î.äáÉÇë, 1910 Ã. ¨ ³ÛÉÝ:

140


гëÙÇÏ êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý

μ³Õϳó³Í ¿ »ñ»ù μ³ÅÇÝÇó, ëáõÉóÝÝ»ñÇ »ñÏñáõ٠ѳۻñÇ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ áõ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ½áõÉáõÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ 47-ñ¹ ûñÃÇó ëÏëíáõÙ ¿ ӻ鳷ñÇ »ñÏñáñ¹ Ù³ëÁ, áñÁ ã³÷³Íá ¿` μ³Õϳó³Í ù³éÛ³ÏÝ»ñÇó` ·³½»É, ¹Çí³Ý, ùáßÙ³... ´áÉáñÝ ¿É ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ »Ý ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ£ ²ÛëåÇëÇ »Õ»ñ»ñ·»ñ Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ ·ïÝ»É ²ñ¨ÙïÛ³Ý Ð³Û³ëï³ÝÇ Ù³Ý³í³Ý¹ ÃÁñù³Ëáë ßñç³ÝÝ»ñÇ μ³Ý³íáñ áõ ·ñ³íáñ Ùß³ÏáõÛÃáõÙ` Ñ»ÕÇݳϳÛÇÝ Ï³Ù ÅáÕáíñ¹³Ï³Ý£ г۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ýáí ѳÛïÝÇ »Ý ݳ¨ ÙÇ ß³ñù ³ÛÉ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ³Û¹ ÃíáõÙ ã³÷³Íá ·áñÍ»ñ ²ÛÝóåÇ §å³ï»ñ³½ÙÝ»ñǦ Ù³ëÇÝ£ ²Ûëûñ ³÷ëáë³Ýùáí å»ïù ¿ Ýß»É, áñ Ù»ñ Ùß³ÏáõÛÃÇ ³Ûë ѳïí³ÍÁ μ³í³ñ³ñ³ñ áõëáõÙݳëÇñí³Í ã¿£ âáõëáõÙݳëÇñ»É ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÁ` Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ ÉdzñÅ»ù ãáõëáõÙݳëÇñ»É Ù»ñ ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ѳïí³ÍÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ¶áõó» Ù»Ýù Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ¨ ÙÇçáóÝ»ñ Ï·ïÝ»Ýù` Ù»ñ ³½³ï³·ñ³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅáõÙÝ»ñÇ å³Ãáëáí áõ »Õ»éݳ·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ó³íÇó ÑÛáõëí³Í ³ñÓ³Ï áõ ã³÷³Íá ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ß³ñù Ññ³å³ñ³Ï»Éáõ ѳٳñ` ¹áõñë ѳݻÉáí ³ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³ÏÇ áõ Ù³ñ¹ÏáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ÑÇßáÕáõÃÛ³Ý Ùáé³óáõÃÛáõÝÇó£

Hasmik Stepanyan The Representation of the Armenian Massacres in the Turkish Literature Written in Armenian Letters Summary The author highlights the necessity of a research of the Turkish literature written in Armenian letters which includes the Armenian documentary material on the history of the Ottoman Empire, different spheres of its peoples life. He reverts to the role of Turkish in Armenian letters to save it from estrangement, to reestablish the Armenian originality and the speaking of the Armenian language and to be faithful to the apostolic religion. Information about the 1909 massacre in Adana spread in abroad through the Turkish press printed in armenian letters.

141


1909Ã. ²¸²Ü²ÚÆ æ²ð¸ºðÆÜ Âàôðø²Î²Ü ´²Ü²ÎÆ Ø²êܲÎòàôÂÚ²Ü Ð²ðòÆ Þàôðæ ²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý 1908Ã. »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ѻճßñçáõÙÇó Ù»Ï ï³ñÇ ³Ýó ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÇ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë` ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí»ÉÇù Íñ³·ñÇ ³é³çÇÝ Ý³Ë³Ýß³ÝÁ ѳݹÇë³ó³í£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ, áñÇÝ ½áÑ ·Ý³ó ßáõñç 30 ѳ½. ѳÛ, ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí»ó Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó£ Æß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ññ³Ñ³Ý·áí μ³óí»óÇÝ ½Çݳå³Ñ»ëïÝ»ñÁ, ½ÇÝí»ó ³ÙμáËÁ, ÇëÏ ³í»ÉÇ Ù»Í ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñ å³ï׳é³Í »ñÏñáñ¹ ç³ñ¹Ý Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí»ó §Ï³ñ· áõ ϳÝáݦ ѳëï³ï»Éáõ ѳٳñ ²¹³Ý³ μ»ñí³Í ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ³½³ï³ñ³ñ μ³Ý³ÏÇ ÙÇçáóáí, áñÝ ÇÝùÝÇÝ ËáëáõÝ ÷³ëï ¿ å»ï³Ï³Ý ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ£ γé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Çñ³·áñÍáõÙÁ ѳÝÓݳñ³ñí»ó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ í³ÉÇ æ¨³¹ μ»ÛÇÝ ¨ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñ Øáõëï³ý³ è»Ù½Ç ÷³ß³ÛÇÝ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ýáñ ϳé³í³ñÇãÝ áõ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÁ ëÏë»óÇÝ ·³ÕïÝÇ ËáñÑñ¹³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ·áõÙ³ñ»É, ½áñ³Ù³ë»ñ ï»Õ³÷áË»É ÎÇÉÇÏdz, ½ÇÝ»É ËáõųÝÇÝ ¨ Ùß³Ï»É Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Íñ³·ñ»ñ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñá·¨áñ ³é³çÝáñ¹ Øáõß»Õ ºåÇëÏáåáëÁ ÝßáõÙ ¿, áñ Ù»Í ù³Ý³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ ½»Ýù ¨ ½ÇݳÙûñù ¿ ï»Õ³÷áËí»É ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ½áñ³ÝáóÝ»ñÁ, ¨, áñ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙǹÁ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ñ³½³ñ áëÏÇ ¿ ÝíÇñ»É ѳÙǹ»³Ï³Ý ½áñ³·Ý¹»ñÇÝ:1 æ³ñ¹»ñÇ Ý³Ëûñ»ÇÝ §ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõݦ ÏáÙÇï»Ç ³Ý¹³Ù ÆÑë³Ý üÇùñÇÇ ËÙμ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ Ññ³ï³ñ³ÏíáÕ §ÆÃǹ³É¦ ûñÃÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí»ó ÅáÕáí, áñÇÝ, ÇÝãå»ë ѳí³ëïáõÙ ¿ Ð. ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ,2 Ù³ëݳÏóáõÙ ¿ÇÝ §μáÉáñ Çëɳ٠¹³ë³Ï³ñ·»ñÁ - å³ßïûÝ»³Û, ÏñûݳϳÝ, ½ÇÝáõáñ ¨ ·áñͳõáñ¦:3 ²ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨ μáÉáñÁ ÉÍí»óÇÝ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ñÓ³Ïáõ٠ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëï»Éáõ ·áñÍÇÝ£ ì»ñáÑÇßÛ³É ÅáÕáíÇó Ñ»ïá, ·ñ·éí³Í ³ÙμáËÁ` Ùßï³å»ë ³ÛÝï»Õ ·ïÝíáÕ å³Ñ³Ï³½áñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ³é³Ýó áñ¨¿ ¹ÇÙ³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹Çå»Éáõ, óɳÝáõÙ ¿ ½Çݳå³Ñ»ëïÁ£ ê³ ÇÝùÝÇÝ íϳÛáõÙ ¿ §... áñ ½¿Ýù»ñÁ μ³ßËáõ³Í »Ý »Õ»É ϳé³í³ñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ýáí¦, ù³ÝÇ áñ §...ÙÇ»õÝáÛÝ μ³ÝÁ å³ï³Ñ³Í ¿ ݳѳݷÇÝ μáÉáñ ³ÛÝ Ù³ë»ñáõÝ Ù»ç` áõñ ³Ûë å³ï׳éÝ»ñáí ç³ñ¹»ñ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í »Ý¦:4 ¼»Ýù»ñÁ μ³Å³Ý»Éáõ Ù³ëÇÝ ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ` ·ñ»Éáí. §ºñϳÃáõÕÇÇ Ï³Û³ñ³ÝÁ å³ß³ñáÕ í³Ûñ³· ËáõųÝÁ` μ³ñÓñ³Ó³ÛÝ ·áã»ñáí ½ûñ³Ýáó í³½»ó ¨ ÑáÝ μ³ßË»óÇÝ Ùݳó³Í ½¿Ýù»ñÝ ¿É¦:5 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛ³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñ ÞÛáõùñÇÝ ¨ë, ½Çݳå³Ñ»ëïÁ μ³ó»Éáí, áÕç ½»ÝùÁ μ³Å³Ý»É ¿ Ãáõñù ³ÙμáËÇÝ:6 ¼»ÝùÇ Ýå³ï³Ï³ÛÇÝ μ³Å³ÝÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ íϳÛáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ³ÛÝ, áñ ³í»ÉÇ áõß, »ñμ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹ÇÙ³Í Ñ³×ÝóÇ Ñ³Û»ñÁ ½ÇݳÙûñù Ó»éù μ»ñ»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ѳñÓ³ÏíáõÙ »Ý ½Çݳå³Ñ»ëïÇ íñ³, ³ÝѳçáÕáõÃÛ³Ý »Ý Ù³ïÝíáõÙ,7 ¨ Ñ»ï ßåñïíáõÙ å³Ñ³Ï³½áñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ 1 Øáõß»Õ ºåÇëÏáåáë, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Á ¨ å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÁ, ¶³ÑÇñ¿, 1909, ¿ç 56£ 2 гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ »Õ»É ¿ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇ å³ï·³Ù³íáñ ¨ ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇ ÏáÕÙÇó` ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Ñ»ï³ùÝÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ëï»ÕÍí³Í ѳÝÓݳËÙμÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ£ 3 Ú. ä³åÇÏ»³Ý, ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ºÕ»éÝÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1919, ¿ç 25£ 4 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 26£ 5 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ³Õ¿ïÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1912, ¿ç 164£ 6 ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý è., гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ, ºñ¨³Ý, 2005, ¿ç 67£ 7 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 76£

142


²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý

سñïÇ 31-ÇÝ, »ñμ ¹»é¨ë ç³ñ¹Ç ݳ˳ù³ÛÉ»ñÝ »Ý ϳï³ñíáõÙ, ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ áãÇÝã ãÇ Ó»éݳñÏáõÙ ·³ÉÇù ³Õ»ïÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²åñÇÉÇ 1-ÇÝ ËáõųÝÁ ßáõϳÛáõÙ ¨ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý óջñáõ٠ѳۻñÇÝ Ïáïáñ»Éáõó Ñ»ïá ѳñÓ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ë»ñÇ íñ³£ γñ· å³Ñå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ ϳÝãí³Í 黹ÇýÝ»ñÁ (å³Ñ»ëï³ÛÇÝ ½ÇñÝíáñÝ»ñ) ˳éÝíáõÙ »Ý ³ÙμáËÇÝ ¨ ³í»ÉÇ í³ïóñ³óÝáõÙ ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Øáõß»Õ ºåÇëÏáåáëÁ íϳÛáõÙ ¿. §...¼ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý çáϳï ÙÁ, áñáõÝ Çμñ ÿ å³ßïûÝÁ ѳÝñ³ÛÇÝ ³å³Ñáíáõû³Ý ÑëÏ»ÉÝ ¿ñ, Çñ»Ý ïñáõ³Í ·³ÕïÝÇ Ññ³Ñ³Ý·Ý»ñáõ ѳٳӳÛÝ, ½ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý ÷áÕÇ ³½¹³Ýß³Ýáí ¨ Éëáõ³ÍÇÝ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ ð¿ÛÇë ê¿ÉÇÙ μ»ÛÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñáõû³Ùμ, ÏÁ å³ß³ñ¿ Þ³å³ÝÇÛ¿ óÕÁ ¨ ϳÝáݳíáñ ·Ý¹³Ï³Ñ³ñáõû³Ùμ Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙ ÏÁ ·áñÍ¿ øñÇëïáÝ¿³μÝ³Ï Ã³ÕÇ ÙÁ íñ³Û...¦:8 ØÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñ ß³ñáõݳÏíáÕ ç³ñ¹Á ¹³¹³ñ»óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ` Ç ¹»Ùë í³ÉÇÇ, ϳ۳½áñÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÇ ¨ áëïÇϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ, áãÇÝã ãÇ Ý³Ë³Ó»éÝáõÙ£ ØÇ³Ï μ³ÝÁ, áñáí ½μ³Õí³Í ¿ÇÝ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, Ïáïáñí³Í ѳۻñÇÝ Ñ³í³ù»Éáí áõ ë³ÛÉ»ñÇ íñ³ ÏÇï»Éáí ·»ïÁ Éó»ÉÝ ¿ñ:9 »¨ ö³ñǽáõÙ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³Ý ѳÛï³ñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿ñ, áñ. §Æñ³Ï³Ýáõû³Ý Ù¿ç ³É, Ëéáíáõû³Ýó Áݹ³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÁ μ³õ³Ï³Ý³ã³÷ å³ïñ³ëï ½ÇÝáõáñ ã·ïÝ»ÉáõÝ ¨ Ùûï ݳѳݷݻñÁ áõ½³Í ½ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý áõÅÇÝ ëå³ëáõ³Í ųٳݳÏÇÝ áñáß»³É í³Ûñ»ñ ѳëÝ»É ãϳñ»Ý³ÉáõÝÝ ³ñ¹ÇõÝù ¿ñ¦,10 ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÙ, ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ëÏë»Éáõ ³é³çÇÝ ûñÁ` ³åñÇÉÇ 1-ÇÝ, ¨ ¹ñ³Ýù ¹³¹³ñ»óÝ»Éáõ ûñÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ÝáõÛÝù³Ý ½ÇÝíáñ ϳñ£ §¼ÇÝáõáñÝ»ñÁ, áñ ç³ñ¹¿Ý ³é³ç Çμñ ÿ ÷áùñ³ÃÇí ËáõųÝÁ ã¿ÇÝ Ïñó³Í ½ëå»É, ç³ñ¹¿Ý »ïùÁ ³Ýáñ ï³ëݳå³ïÇÏÁ »ÕáÕ ËáõųÝÁ ½ëå»óÇÝ Ï¿ë ųÙáõ³Û Ù¿ç¦,11 ·ñáõÙ ¿ Ð. »ñ½Û³ÝÁ£ ²ÛÉ ÷³ëï»ñ ¨ë ѳí³ëïáõÙ »Ý, áñ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ó³ÝÏáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»åùáõ٠ϳñáÕ³ó»É »Ý ϳÝË»É Ï³Ù Ï³ë»óÝ»É ç³ñ¹»ñÁ. §...гÝϳñÍ ØÇëÇëÇ Ñ³½³ñ³å»ï ÈáõÃýÇ å¿ÛÁ` ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ½ÇÝáõáñÝ»ñáí ßáõÏ³Ý »Ï³õ ¨ ½ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³Ý ÷áÕ»ñáí ¨ ÙáõÝ»ïÇÏÝ»ñáí ËáõųÝÇÝ Ññ³Ù³Û»ó, áñ ç³ñ¹Á ¹³¹³ñ»óݻݣ ì³Ûñ³· ËáõųÝÁ` í»ñÇ Ã³ÕÇ Ù¿ç í³ÃëáõÝ Ñá·Ç ç³ñ¹»É¿Ý »ïùÁ ¹³¹ñ»óñ»ó Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÁ¦:12 â³÷³½³Ýó Ñ»ï³ùñùÇñ ¿ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý 3-ñ¹ μ³Ý³ÏÇ ëå³Ý»ñÇ ¨ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ³åñÇÉÇ 6-7/19-20 ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ³é³çÇÝ ç³ñ¹Ç í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É, áñÇÝ Ýñ³Ýù ¹»é¨ë ã¿ÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏó»É. §ØÇÿ ÇÝÝ ³Ùë¿ Ç í»ñ ÆÃÃÇѳïÁ ùÇã ³ß˳ï»ó »ñÏñÇÝ Ù¿ç ѳݹ³ñïáõÃÇõÝ å³Ñå³Ý»Éáõ£ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ÏáÕÙ»ñÝ ³Û¹ù³Ý ³ñÇõÝÑ»ÕáõÃÇõÝ Ï’Éɳñ, »Ã¿ ÆÃÃÇѳïÝ ³Ýó»³É ß³μ³ÃáõÝ Ç íÇ׳ÏÇ ÁÉɳñ ·áñÍ»Éáõ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ íÇɳۻÃÇÝ Ù¿ç£ ÆÝÝ ³ÙÇë¿ Ç í»ñ ù³ÝÇ ù³ÝÇ Ëéáíáõû³Ý, ³Ýϳñ·áõû³Ý ³é³çÝ ³éÝáõ»ó³õ ²Ý³ïáÉáõÇ Ù»ç ÙÇ ÙdzÛÝ ÆÃÃÇѳïÇ ·áñͳϳÉÝ»ñáõÝ ³ñ³·³÷áÛà û·Ýáõû³Ý ßÝáñÑÇí¦:13 γÙ, ÇÝãå»ë ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿ ´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝÁ, §ê»É³ÝÇÏÇ ¨ ²¹ñ. äáÉëáÛ ½ûñùÝ ¨ Çñ»Ýó ëå³Ý»ñÝ, áñ äáÉÇë Ùï³Ý Þ³μ³Ã ûñáõ³Ý ³ñÇõݳÉÇ Û³ÕóݳϿ »ïùÁ` ç»ñ٠ѳٳÏñ³Ýùáí Ï’í³ñáõÇÝ Ù³Ý³õ³Ý¹ гۻñáõÝ Ñ»ï ¨ ó³õ ÏÁ Û³ÛïÝÇÝ ÎÇÉÇÏÇáÛ ç³ñ¹»ñáõÝ Ñ³Ù³ñ¦:14 8 Øáõß»Õ ºåÇëÏáåáë, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 50-51£ 9 Геноцид армян в Османской империи, сборник документов и материалов, под редакцией М. Г. Нерсисяна, Ереван, 1966, N 99. ст.175. 10 ²ß×»³Ý Ú., ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ ºÕ»éÝÁ ¨ ¶áÝdzۿ Úáõß»ñ, ÜÇõ ºáñù, 1950, ¿ç 42£ 11 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 55£ 12 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 183£ 13 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇõ 3,807, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ 7-20£ 14 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇõ 3,812, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ14£

143


²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý

Þ³ñÅáõÝ μ³Ý³ÏÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñ ÐÛáõë¿ÛÝ ÐÛáõëÝÇ ÷³ß³ÛÇ` ÅáÕáíñ¹ÇÝ áõÕÕí³Í ѳÛï³ñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ ³ëíáõÙ ¿ñ. §²½³ï³ñ³ñ ´³Ý³ÏÇÝ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ ¿ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÇõÝ Ùdzݷ³Ù Áݹ ÙÇßï ³½³ï»É ³Ù¿Ý íï³Ý·¿ ¨ Ñéã³Ï»É û ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÇõÝ¿Ý í»ñ áñ¨¿ áÛÅ ·áÛáõÃÇõÝ ãáõÝÇ ³Ûë »ñÏñÇÝ Ù¿ç¦:15 ÆëÏ ¶. ½áñ³μ³Ý³ÏÇ ¨ ß³ñÅáõÝ μ³Ý³ÏÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñ ². Ü»ñÇ· سÑÙáõï Þ¨ù»ÃÇ 1325Ã. ³åñÇÉÇ 12 Çñ ѳÛï³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç, ·ñ»Ã» ÝáõÛÝÇÝ Ñ³í»ÉáõÙ ¿, áñ §³Ù¿Ý áù å³ïñ³ëï ¿ Áëï ³ÛÝÙ ËáÑ»Ùáõû³Ùμ ¨ ³ÏݳÍáõû³Ùμ í³ñáõÇɦ:16 »¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÁ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï ËáëáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÇó, Ù³ïݳÝßáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó áõ ݳËÏÇÝ μéݳå»ï³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇç¨ »Õ³Í ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÇÝãå»ë óáõÛó ïí»ó ¹»åù»ñÇ Ñ»ï³·³ ÁÝóóùÁ, Ýñ³Ýù ·áñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ÝáõÛÝ Ù»Ãá¹Ý»ñáí£ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ÇÃÃÇѳ¹³Ï³Ý ³½³ï³ñ³ñ μ³Ý³ÏÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ»ó ѳۻñÇ Ïáñïáñ³ÍÁ, ³Ûɨ Ýñ³ μáÉáñ ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ջϳí³ñíáõÙ ¿ñ »ñÏñÇ μ³ñÓñ³·áõÛÝ Ù³ñÙÝÇ` Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó£ ¼Çݳ¹³¹³ñÇ ãáññáñ¹ ûñÁ Î. äáÉëÇ ²½³ï³ñ³ñ Þ³ñÅáõÝ ´³Ý³ÏÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñ سÑÙáõï Þ¨ù»Ã ÷³ß³Ý ѻ鳷ñáí ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿, û §äáÉëáÛ íñ³Û ù³ÛÉáÕ ²½³ïáõû³Ý μ³Ý³Ï¿Ý í³ßï ÙÁ Ù»ÏÝ³Í ¿ î¿ï¿-²Õ³×¿Ý ¹¿åÇ ²ï³Ý³¦:17 ²åñÇÉÇ 12-ÇÝ ê³ÉáÝÇÏÇó ²¹³Ý³ ųٳݻó ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý 3-ñ¹ μ³Ý³ÏÇ »ñÏáõ ½áñ³·áõݹ` áõÕÕ³ñÏí³Í ÆÃÃÇѳ¹Ç Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó §Ï³ñ· áõ ϳÝáݦ ѳëï³ï»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ 11/24 ³åñÇÉÇ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ í³ÉÇ æ¨³¹ μ»ÛÇ ·³Õïݳ·Çñ ѳñóÙ³ÝÁ` ÇÝãå»ë ·áñÍ»É, ÆÃÃÇѳ¹Ç Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý í³ñãáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ïñí»ó ·³ÕïÝÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý. §ÀÝïñ»ù ϳñ× ×³Ý³å³ñѦ:18 ²ÛÉ ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñ ¨ë ѳëï³ïáõÙ »Ý, áñ. §²Ûë ³Ý·³Ù Ýñ³Ýù (½ÇÝíáñÝ»Á à. ².) Ññ³Ù³ÝÝ»ñÁ ¿ÇÝ ëï³ÝáõÙ ÇÃÃÇѳ¹Ç ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó¦:19 ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý μ³Ý³ÏÇ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ¹»é ã¿ÇÝ Ñ³ëóñ»É øÁßɳ ػ۹³ÝÇ ßñç³ÝáõÙ` ù³Õ³ùÇ ¹³ñå³ëÝ»ñÇ Ùáï, ï»Õ³íáñí»É, »ñμ Ýñ³Ýó áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÑÝã»óÇÝ Ïñ³ÏáóÝ»ñ£ Îñ³ÏáóÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ѻﳷ³ÛáõÙ óáõÛó ïí»ó Ñ»ï³ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, å³ï³Ñ³μ³ñ, ³é³í»É ¨ë` ѳۻñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ٠¿É ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ѳñÓ³Ïí»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ã¿ÇÝ ÑÝã»É£ Îñ³ÏáóÝ»ñÁ ѳݹÇë³ó³Ý ³ÛÝ ó³ÝϳÉÇ ³éÇÃÁ, áñÁ ½áñùÇÝ` ·áñÍ»Éáõ, ÇëÏ Øáõëï³ý³ è»Ù½Ç ÷³ß³ÛÇÝ` ³é³çÇÝ ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá ¹»é¨ë áÕç Ùݳó³Í ѳۻñÇ íñ³ ѳñÓ³ÏÙ³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý ï³Éáõ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ïí»ó£ §Øáõëï³ý³ ð»Ù½Ç ÷³ß³Ý` ³é³Ýó ³Û¹ ëáõï ½ñáõÛóÝ»ñÁ ùÝÝ»Éáõ ¨ ëïáõ·»Éáõ` ÷áÕѳñáõû³Ùμ ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë Û³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý ïáõ³Í ¿ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñáõݦ,20 áíù»ñ (½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ-à. ².) ³ñ¹»Ý ¹Å·áÑ ¿ÇÝ, áñ å»ïù ¿ ëïÇåí³Í ÉÇÝ»Ý å³ßïå³Ý»É ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ѳí³ï³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇó:21 ²åñÇÉÇ 12-Ç ÉáõÛë 13-Ç ·Çß»ñÁ ˳éݳÙμáËÁ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý μ³Ý³ÏÇ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ ·É˳íáñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ѳñÓ³Ïí»ó ²å·³ñÛ³Ý í³ñųñ³ÝÇ íñ³, áñï»Õ ³å³ëï³Ý»É ¿ÇÝ ³é³çÇÝ ç³ñ¹Çó ÷ñÏí³Í ßáõñç 2000 ѳۻñ:22 ¼áñùÁ ßñç³å³ïáõÙ ¿ ѳëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ 15 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇí 3,807, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ 7-20£ 16 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇí 3,811, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ 13£ 17 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 94£ 18 Тунян В.Г. Младотурки и армянский вопрос, ч. 1, 1908-1912, Ереван, 2004, стр. 111 19 ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý è., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 65£ Duckett F., Turkish Atrocities. The Young Turks and the Truth About Holocaust at Adana in Asia Minor, During April, 1909, 1911, p.32. 20 ²ß×»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 25, 62£ 21 гۻñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ, (÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÇ ¨ ÝÛáõûñÇ ÅáÕáí³Íáõ Ø. ¶. Ü»ñëÇëÛ³ÝÇ ËÙμ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ), ºñ¨³Ý, 1991, ¿ç 254£ 22 Adossidès A., Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs. Les massacres de Cilicie, Paris, 1910, p. 54.

144


²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý

³ÛÝ áÕáÕáõÙ »Ý ݳíÃáí ¨ ÑñÏǽáõÙ:23 ²ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨, ³ÛñíáÕ ß»ÝùÇó ãÑ»é³Ý³Éáí, ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý μ³Ý³ÏÇ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ·Ý¹³Ï³Ñ³ñáõÙ »Ý Ûáõñ³ù³ÝãÛáõñÇÝ, áí ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ Ïñ³ÏÇ μáó»ñÇó ¹áõñë ÷³Ëã»É£ ²å·³ñÛ³Ý ¹åñáóÇó Ñ»ïá ÑñÏǽíáõÙ ¨ ³í»ñíáõÙ »Ý ³ÛÉ ¹åñáóÝ»ñ, »Ï»Õ»óÇÝ»ñ, ï³ñμ»ñ ѳëï³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, áñï»Õ ÷áñÓ»É ¿ÇÝ ³å³ëï³Ý ·ïÝ»É Ñ³Û»ñÁ£ ²Ï³Ý³ï»ëÁ íϳÛáõÙ ¿, áñ ÇÃÃÇѳïÇ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ. §³é³çÇÝ ³Õ¿ï¿Ý ³í»ÉÇ ëáëϳÉÇ ³Ñ áõ ¹áÕÇ Ù³ïÝ»óÇÝ ½Ù»½¦:24 »ñ¨ë »ñÏñáñ¹ ç³ñ¹Ý ³é³í»É ëáëϳÉÇ ¿ñ áã ÙdzÛÝ ³ÛÝ å³ï׳éáí, áñ ç³ñ¹ÇÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÙ ¨ ç³ñ¹Ý Çñ³Ï³ÝóÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ï³Ýáݳíáñ ½áñ³Ù³ë»ñÁ, ³ÛÉ Ý³¨` áñ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ݳ˳å»ë ѳۻñÇÝ ½Çݳó÷»Éáí, ½ñÏ»É ¿ñ Ýñ³Ýó å³ßïå³Ýí»Éáõ áñ¨¿ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ ²Ûë ³Ý·³Ù ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ë»ñÁ ÑñÏǽáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ýáñ Å³Ù³Ý³Í ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù §íñ»ÅÇ ÙdzÛÝ ³Û¹ ÙÇçáóÝ ¿ÇÝ ·ï»É, áñáíÑ»ï¨ Ãáõñù ¨ ùáõñ¹ ËáõųÝÁ ÙÇÝã ³Û¹ ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã Ã³É³Ý»É ¿ñ¦:25 ¸»é¨ë Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ ·Ý³óù Ýëï»Éáõó ³é³ç Ýñ³Ýù ëå³éݳó»É ¿ÇÝ. §ºÃ» Ù»ñ ųٳÝÙ³Ý å³ÑÇÝ áñ¨¿ ëå³Ýí³Í Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ·ïÝ»ù, ·Çï»Ýù û ÇÝã ϳݻÝù¦:26 ÆÝãå»ë ÝßáõÙ ¿ Î.äáÉëÇ éáõë³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³ÝÁ. §Î³ñ× Å³Ù³Ý³Ïáí Áݹѳïí³Í ËŹÁÅáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùáõÙ í»ñëÏëí»É »Ý` Ñ»Ýó áñ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñ·³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ³Ý¹áññÁ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ ³ÛÝï»Õ ¿ Å³Ù³Ý»É éáõÙ»ÉÇ³Ï³Ý ½áñù»ñÇ ÙÇ çáÏ³ï£ ¼ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÝ ³Ýó»É »Ý ï»ÕÇ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý å³ñ³·ÉáõËÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÁ ¨ ëÏë»É Ïáïáñ»É ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ` ËïñáõÃÛáõÝ ã¹Ý»Éáí áã° ë»éÇ, áã° ï³ñÇùÇ Ù»ç, ¨ Ã³É³Ý»É áõ Ññ¹»Ñ»É Ýñ³Ýó ïÝ»ñÁ¦:27 ÆÝãå»ë Çñ³í³Ùμ ÝϳïáõÙ »Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Û »ñ¨»ÉÇÝ»ñÁ. §²åñÇÉÇ 12 ¨ 13 ûñ»ñáõÝ Ï³ï³ñí³Í ³õ»ñ³ÍáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÁ ³é³çõ³Ý¿Ý ³õ»ÉÇ Ù»Í áõ ³Ñ³íáñ »Õ³Í »Ý...¦:28 ijٳݳϳÏÇóÝ»ñÁ ³ñӳݳ·ñáõÙ »Ý, áñ ³Ù»Ý³ó³í³ÉÇÝ ³ÛÝ ¿, û §Ù»Ýù Ñáë ѳ½³ñáõ ÙÁ ×Ç· Ëݹñ»Éáí ó˳ÝÓ»Éáí, áñ ³ÝÙÇç³å»ë ½ûñù ÷áõóóáõÇ, í³Ûñ³·áõÃÇõÝÁ ų٠³é³ç ¹³¹³ñ»óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ÑáÝ Ï³Ýáݳõáñ ½ÇÝáõáñÝ»ñÝ ÇëÏ ÏÁ’Ù³ëݳÏó»ÇÝ Ð³Û»ñÁ ï»ÕõáÛÝ íñ³ ç³ñ¹»Éáõ, óɳݻÉáõ¦:29 ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ½áñùÇ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ áã ÙdzÛÝ ·áñÍáõÝ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý áõÝ»ÝáõÙ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ, ³Ûɨ ³ÝÙ³ëÝ ã»Ý ÙÝáõÙ ³í³ñ Ó»éù μ»ñ»Éáõ ·áñÍáõÙ£ §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ÇáÝݦ ³ñӳݳ·ñáõÙ ¿, áñ §¼ÇÝáõáñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÝ û·Ý³Í »Ý ÿ° ³Ûë ѳ÷ßï³ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ¨ ÿ° ëå³ÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ¨° ³õ³ñ³éáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõÙ¦:30 §ÞáõϳÛÇ ³ÙμáÕç »ñϳÛÝùÝ Ñ³Ûáõ ˳Ýáõà 㿠Ùݳó³Í áñ ãóɳÝáõÇ, ¹ñ³Ù³ñÏÕ»ñÁ ½ÇÝáõáñÝ»ñáõ û·Ýáõû³Ùμ Ññ³ó³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñí³ÍÝ»ñáí Ëáñï³Ïáõ³Í »Ý¦:31 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹Çó ÷³Ë³Í ÙÇ ÑáõÛÝ Ñ»ï¨Û³ÉÝ ¿ å³ïÙ»É. §¼áñùÝ û·Ý»ó ³Ù¿Ý Ï»ñå. Çñ»Ýó Ññ³ó³ÝÝ»ñáí ÿ Ù³ñ¹ ½³ñÏÇÝ, »õ ÿ ˳ÝáõÃÝ»ñáõÝ ¹éÝ»ñÁ Ïáïñï»Éáí û·Ý»óÇÝ »õ Çñ»Ýù ³É Éóáõ»ó³Ý ³í³ñáí¦:32 ²í»ÉÇ áõß, 23 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, p. 55. 24 ¿ñ½»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 34£ 25 ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý è., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 65, §¶áñͦ, ÂÇýÉÇë, 28 ³åñÇÉ, 86, 1909£ 26 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 64£ 27 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 231£ 28 ²ß×»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 44£ 29 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇõ 3,816, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ18-Ù³ÛÇë 1£ 30 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇõ 3,814, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ 16-29£ 31 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇõ 3,815, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ17-30£ 32 §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, ÃÇõ 3,808, Î. äáÉÇë, 1909, ³åñÇÉ 8-21£

145


²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý

ç³ñ¹Çó Ñ»ïá §Üñ³Ýù (½ÇÝíáñÝ»Á ². à.) ëå³Ý»ñÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñùá ³ÝóÝáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ ÷áÕáóÝ»ñáí, ¨ ÷á˳¹ñ³ÙÇçáó μ³ñÓñ³ÝáõÙ` óɳÝí³Í Çñ»ñÁ Ó»éùÝ»ñÇݦ:33 æ³ñ¹Çó ¨ Ã³É³ÝÇó ½³ï ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ·Çß»ñÝ»ñÁ ßñçáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ß»Ýù»ñÇ ßáõñçÁ` ç³Ý³Éáí ³é¨³Ý·»É »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñÇÝ:34 ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ½áõ·ÁÝóó ç³ñ¹»ñ ¿ÇÝ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ÝáõÙ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ï³ñμ»ñ ѳ۳μÝ³Ï í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ£ ²åñÇÉÇ 1-ÇÝ Ñáõ½áõÙÝ»ñ ëÏëí»óÇÝ î³ñëáÝáõÙ£ ²Ý·ÉÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³ÝÇ ½»Ïáõó³·ñÇó å³ñ½íáõÙ ¿, áñ ³Ûëï»Õ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ɳÛÝ Ã³÷ ëï³ó³Ý, »ñμ ˳ųÙáõÅÇÝ Ùdzó³í 400 ½ÇÝíáñ,35 áñáÝù ѳïáõÏ ·Ý³óùáí »Ï»É ¿ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó, »ñμ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ ³ÛÝï»Õ ³ñ¹»Ý ³í³ñïí»É ¿ñ:36 ÜáõÛÝ ûñÁ ѳñÓ³ÏÙ³Ý ¿ »ÝóñÏíáõ٠ݳ¨ гÙǹǻݣ гۻñÁ` ÐáíѳÝÝ»ë ¨ ê³ñ·Çë ²Õ³½³ñÛ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ·É˳íáñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¹ÇÙáõÙ »Ý ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, áñÁ ×ÝßíáõÙ ¿ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ³ÙμáËÇ ¨ ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñ³Ù³ë»ñÇ û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ:37 ²åñÇÉÇ 2-ÇÝ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý áõÅ»ñÁ 20-30 ѳ½. 黹ÇýÝ»ñáí ¨ μ³ßÇμá½áõÏÝ»ñáí ßñç³å³ïáõÙ »Ý ¸Ûáñà ÚáÉ ·ÛáõÕÁ:38 ØǨÝáõÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï í³ÉÇÝ ß³ñáõÝ³Ï ¹ÇÙáõÙ ¿ Ù³Ûñ³ù³Õ³ù ¨ Éñ³óáõóÇã ½áñù»ñ å³Ñ³ÝçáõÙ` ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý §ËéáíáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦ ½ëå»Éáõ ѳٳñ,39 áñÁ, ÇѳñÏ», áã û §ËéáíáõÃÛáõÝÁ¦ ½ëå»Éáõ ¨ §³Ýϳñ·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ¦ í»ñ³óÝ»Éáõ, ³ÛÉ Ãáõñù ËáõųÝÇÝ ³í»ÉÇ áõŻճóÝ»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ï ¿ñ Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÇó Ñ»ïá û° ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý, ¨ û° ѳñó³ùÝÝíáÕ §³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñǦ ÏáÕÙÇó μ³½ÙÇóë ÷áñÓ»ñ ³ñí»óÇÝ áñå»ë ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñ ¹Çï³ñÏ»É Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ£ Üñ³Ýù Ù»Õ³¹ñí»óÇÝ Ý³¨ ³åëï³Ùμ»Éáõ ÷áñÓ»ñÇ Ù»ç ϳÙ, í»ñç³å»ë, ѳݹ»ë »Ï³Ý áñå»ë ë³¹ñÇãÝ»ñ, áíù»ñ Ññ³Ññ»É ¿ÇÝ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ÏáÕÙÇÝ ÙïÝ»É ÏéíÇ Ù»ç£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ ÇÝãå»ë ·ñáõÙ ¿ ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë êáõñ»Ý ä³ñè۳ÝÁ, §Â¿ гۻñÁ ·ñ·é³Í ÁÉÉ³Ý Çëɳ٠ËáõųÝÇÝ ³ï»ÉáõÃÇõÝÝ áõ ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÇõÝÁ Çñ»Ýó ß³ñÅáõÓ»õáíÁ, Ëûëù»ñáíÁ... Âáõñù³Ï³Ý Çñ»ñáõÝ Ùûï¿Ý ï»Õ»³Ï áñ»õ¿ ³ÝÓ ã·Çï»ñ ÿ áã Ù¿Ï ï»Õ Ãáõñù ËáõųÝÁ, áñù³Ý ¿É ·ñ·éáõ³Í ÁÉɳÛ, ç³ñ¹»ñáõ ã»Éɳñ »ñμ»ù` »Ã¿ ݳ˳å¿ë ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Çß˳Ýáõû³Ýó ù³ç³É»ñ³ÝùÁ ãáõÝ»Ý³Û ¨ Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ áõ ³ç³ÏóáõÃÇõÝÁ ã³å³Ñáí¿£ ²é³Ýó ³¹áñ ç³ñ¹ »Õ³Í ã¿ ÂáõñùÇáÛ Ù¿ç ¨ ãÇ Ïñݳñ ÁÉɳɦ:40 лﳷ³ÛáõÙ Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»ñÁ å³ñ½»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ϳ½Ùí»ó í»ñ³ùÝÝÇã ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáí, ÇëÏ Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÇÝ å³ïÅ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ëï»ÕÍí»ó è³½Ù³Ï³Ý ³ï۳ݣ ¼ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ, áñ μ³Õϳó³Í ¿ñ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇó, ջϳí³ñÝ»ñÇó áõ Ù³ëݳÏÇóÝ»ñÇó, Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ³½³ï»ó, ÇëÏ ÙÛáõëÇÝ ¹³ï³å³ñï»ó ï³ñμ»ñ ųÙÏ»ïÝ»ñáí μ³Ýï³ñÏáõÃ۳ݣ ¸»åù»ñÇÝ ù³ç³ï»ÕÛ³Ï éáõë å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇó Ù»ÏÁ, 1909Ã. ÑáõÝÇëÇÝ ÉÇÝ»Éáí ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, ·ñáõÙ ¿. §ÆëÏ³Ï³Ý Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñÝ áõ Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝÝ»ñÁ, ³ÛëÇÝùÝ` Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõ ٳϻ¹áÝ³Ï³Ý (»ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý) ½áñù»ñÁ, ã»Ý ¿É Ùï³Íáõ٠óùÝí»É, ¹ñ³ ϳ33 гۻñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ, Ýßí ³ßË., ¿ç 256£ 34 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 261£ 35 ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý è., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 67£ 36 гۻñÇ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ, Ýßí ³ßË., ¿ç 259£ 37 ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý è., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 70£ 38 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 72£ 39 Arikoğlu Damar, Hatıralarım, Milli Mücadele Çukurovada, İstanbul, 1961, s. 48. 40 ä³ñû³Ý ê., ÎÇÉÇÏ»³Ý ²ñѳíÇñùÁ, Î. äáÉÇë, 1910, ¿ç À£

146


²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý

ñÇùÁ Ýñ³Ýù ã»Ý ½·áõÙ, ù³ÝÇ áñ Ñ»Ýó Çñ»Ýù »Ý é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇ ¨ Ñ»ï³ùÝÝã³Ï³Ý ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñ¦41, Ñ»Ýó Çñ»Ýù ¿É ³ÛÅÙ å³ßïå³ÝáõÙ »Ý ϳñ·Ý ³ÛÝ »ñÏñáõÙ, áñï»Õ Çñ»Ýó Ó»éùáí Ïáïáñ³Í Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñÇÝ£ ÆëÏ ÷áËÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÝ ³ñӳݳ·ñáõÙ ¿. §ÂáÕ ÑÇÙ³ áñ¨¿ Ù»ÏÁ ÷áñÓÇ Ñ»ñù»É, û μáÉáñ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÝ ³Ûë ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇ, áñÇ áñáßáõÙÝ»ñÁ μáÕáù³ñÏÙ³Ý »Ýóϳ ã¿ÇÝ, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó ã»Ý Ù»ÏÝ»É áëÏáí ÉÇ ·ñå³ÝÝ»ñáí£ Îáïáñ³ÍÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³Û¹ áëÏÇÝ ÇѳñÏ» ËÉí»É ¿ñ ѳۻñÇó... гë³ñ³Ï ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÝ ¿É ëï³ó³Ý Çñ»Ýó μ³ÅÇÝÁ, ã¿ áñ Ýñ³Ýù §μ³ñÇ ·áñͦ ¿ÇÝ Ï³ï³ñ»É` û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝ óáõÛó ï³Éáí Çñ»Ýó ѳí³ï³ÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ ³Û¹ ËݹñÇ Ï³ï³ñÙ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï£ ²Ûëï»Õ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ÇÝ ÏáÍÏ»É ³Û¹ ¨ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ³ñ¹³ñ³óÝ»É ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ ³Û¹ù³Ý ˳Ûï³é³Ï ³ñ³ùÝ»ñÁ¦42£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ë гÙμ³ñÓáõÙ ²ß×Û³ÝÁ Çñ³í³Ùμ ÝßáõÙ ¿. §²ÛÉ»õë áñ å³ï»ñ³½Ù³Ï³Ý ²ï»³ÝÁ Ïñݳñ ½Çñ»Ýù å³ïŻɣ àí åÇïÇ Ïñݳñ ¹³ï³å³ñï»Éáõ ѳٳñÓ³ÏÇÉ ³Ûë ùÇ㠳ݷ³Ù å³ï³Ñ³Í ÏáñͳÝáõÙÁ` »ñμ ½ÇÝõáñÇÝ å³ïÇõÁ ËݹñáÛ ³é³ñÏ³Û ¿ñ¦43£ 1909 Ã. ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ ѳۻñÇÝ áãÝã³óÝ»Éáõ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ùá½Çã íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ¿£ ²¹³Ý³Ý ¹³ñÓ³í »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»ï³·³ ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý Íñ³·ñ»ñÝ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ Ù»ÏݳñϳÛÇÝ Ï»ï, ÇëÏ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý μáÉáñ ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ ëï»ÕÍí³Í μ³Ý³ÏÝ ³å³óáõó»ó, áñ å³ïñ³ëï ¿ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»É ó³Ýϳó³Í á×ñ³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝ£

Ani Voskanyan On the Question of the Participation of the Army in 1909 Adana Massacres Summary 1909 Adana massacres during which more than 30 thousand Armenians fell victim were organized and perpetrated by the central government of Young Turks. During the massacres the arsenals were opened and the crowd was armed by the instruction of the government. The second carnage which happenned under the pretext of the establishment of a §law and order¦ was committed by the assistance of the Liberation army, which itself confirmed the direct involvement of the government in the organization of the massacres. Thus, the constitutional liberation army committed Adana massacres by the order of the central government.

41 гÙμ³ñÛ³Ý ²., ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ 1909Ã. гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ä³ïÙ³-μ³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë, 1988, N 4, ¿ç 29£ 42 Геноцид армян в Османской империи, сборник документов и материалов, с. 206. 43 ²ß×»³Ý Ú., Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç,62£

147


THE ADANA MASSACRE AND THE PEOPLE’S HISTORICAL MEMORY Verjiné Svazlian Beginning from as early as 1955, I have written down, tape- and video-recorded, academically studied and published the testimonies (memoirs, Armenian and Turkish-language songs) communicated by eyewitness survivors, who were miraculously saved from the Adana massacre and the Armenian Genocide, were forcibly deported from about 100 localities of Western Armenia, Cilicia, Anatolia and resettled in Armenia and the Diaspora. The originals of these materials are kept at the archives of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute NAS RA. These popular testimonies communicated by the eyewitness survivors, become, owing to their historico-cognitive value, authentic, objective and documental evidences, which are not only attestations of the past, but are also a warning for the future. Beginning from as early as 1955, during more than 50 years, I have written down, tape- and video-recorded (remaining faithful to the popular speech), academically studied and published the testimonies (700 units: memoirs, Armenian and Turkish-language songs) communicated by eyewitness survivors, who were miraculously saved from the Adana massacre (1909) and the Armenian Genocide (1915-1923), were forcibly deported from about 100 localities of Western Armenia, Cilicia, Anatolia and resettled in Armenia and the Diaspora (Greece, France, Italy, Germany, USA, Canada, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt, the Balkan countries, Turkey, etc.). The originals of these testimonies are kept at the archives of the Museum-Institute of the Armenian Genocide of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia. The popular testimonies, narrated by the eyewitness survivors, saturated with expressive depth and descriptiveness has been created under the immediate impressions of those historicopolitical events. The representatives of the senior generation even remembered the establishment of the Turkish Constitution in 1908, which had the motto: “Hürriyet, Adalet, Müsavat, Yaşasın Millet” (Liberty, Justice, Equality, Long Live the People – Turk.). A nationwide exultation prevailed in the country, since equal rights were to be secured by law to all the nations living in the Ottoman Empire. A survivor from Harpoot, Sargis Khachatrian (b. 1903), has told me about this unprecedented event: “I remember in 1908 when the Sultan’s reign was overthrown, people were singing in the streets”:1 “Kalkın, hey vatandaşlar! 1 Sevinelim yoldaşlar! İşte size Hürriyet: Yaşasın Osmanlılar!”2

“Get up, compatriots!2 Let us rejoice, friends! Liberty has come to you: Long live the Ottomans!”3

While a survivor from Bitlis, Hmayak Boyadjian (b. 1902), has testified in his memoir: “... When Hurriyet was declared in 1908, everybody, in the beginning, was of the opinion that Armenians and Turks would live like brothers. There were even festivities in our village and

1 Svazlian, Verjiné. The Armenian Genocide. Testimonies of the Eyewitness Survivors. Yerevan, “Gitutiun” Publishing House of the NAS RA, 2000, Testimony 110, p. 223 (in Armenian).

148


Verjiné Svazlian

fusillades were performed.”2 A survivor from Eskishehir, Hovhannes Gasparian (b. 1902), has added: “…In 1908, when the new constitution was proclaimed, the party of the Young Turks was headed by Talaat, Enver, Djemal, Dr. Nazim, Behaeddin Shakir and thousands of young Turks became government members in 1908. They organized a Parliament. Sultan Reshad was the ruler, but he was deprived of any royal rights…”3 An eyewitness survivor born in Sassoun as far back as in the 19th century, Yeghiazar Karapetian (b. 1886), remembering the historical events of the past, has noted: “...The Hurriyet offered freedom to all the political prisoners, after which the Armenians, Turks and Kurds would have equal rights. Everywhere cries of joy were heard. The law of Hurriyet put an end to the humiliation, beating, blasphemy, robbery, plunder and contempt of the Armenians. Anyone involved in a similar behavior would be subject to the severest punishment; he would even be liable to be sent to the gallows. The two nations were put in a state of complete reliance. The Armenians would have the right of free voting, were allowed to elect and propose their delegate. This was a new renaissance in the life of the Western Armenians...”4 That was the awakening from the obscurity of the Orient. However, the Turkish reactionary forces, dissatisfied with the constitutional orders, began to accuse the Armenians for bringing the “Hürriyet” (the Constitutional orders), which allegedly pursued the object of seizing the power from the Turks and of reestablishing “the Armenian Kingdom.” Taking that circumstance into account the Armenians have woven the following Turkish-language song: Padişah oturmuş tahtından bakar, Tahtının altında al kanlar akar, Baltayı vurunca yattı ölüler, Acayip hallere düştü Ermeni.

The king seated is watching from his throne, Red blood is flowing under his throne, Struck by axes, corpses are falling, The Armenians’ condition is lamentable.

Şefketlim oturmuş tahtından bakar, Gâvurun kanları sel gibi akar, Hürriyet isteyenler derede kokar, Acayip hallere düştü Ermeni.3

The kind ruler is watching from his throne, The gâvurs’ blood is flowing like a torrent, The freedom-wishers are stinking in the valley, The Armenians’ condition is lamentable.7

In the environs of Sis, a Mullah even sermonized: “We can not be brothers with the gâvurs; to get united with them is not possible. The Sharia strictly forbids that. We can not cherish snakes in our bosom, whose biting we have no doubt about.”5 On the 31st of March, 1909, a session of the Provincial Council took place under the chairmanship of the valy (governor) of Adana, where a decision to exterminate the Armenians was made. Special secret orders to start the massacre were sent to the provinces. On the eve of the massacre the authorities distributed large quantities of arms and ammunition to the Mohammedan population. Hundreds of criminals were released from the prisons.

2 Ibid., Testimony 17, p. 77. 3 Ibid., Testimony 205, p. 340. 4 Ibid., Testimony 1, p. 42. 5 Keleshian, Missak. Sis-Register. Beirut, 1949, p. 544 (in Armenian).

149


Verjiné Svazlian

Nevertheless, a year had not elapsed since the declaration of the Turkish Constitution, when the town of Adana and the neighboring Armenian-inhabited villages, which had been saved from Abdul Hamid’s massacres (1894-1896), became the target of the hatred of the Ittihat officials. During the Holy Week of 1909, from the 1st to the 3rd and the 12th to the 14th of April, Adana and its environs were on fire. The blood-thirsty crowd attacked the Armenian-inhabited quarters of Adana and the neighboring villages, plundered all the shops, slaughtered the unarmed and unprotected Armenians, not sparing even the women and the children. The massacre of Adana was premeditated. This fact is testified by the telegram sent by the councilor of Internal Affairs of Turkey, Adil bey, to all the Turkish officials of the region of Cilicia, where it was written: “Great care should be taken that no damage is caused to the foreign religious institutions and consulates.”6 The Turkish government commissioned the Ottoman Armenian deputy of Edirné, Hakob Papikian, to go to Adana, to investigate the situation on the spot and to prepare an official Turkish-language report for the Legislative Assembly. H. Papikian left for Adana, scrupulously investigated the events and noted in his detailed “Report” in Turkish, that “...not only did the number of victims exceed 30,000 Armenians, but it was an evident fact that the massacres had been organized with the knowledge and by order of the local authorities.”7 The eyewitness of that turmoil historian-novelist, Smbat Byurat, has, under the immediate impressions of those sad events, created the following poem of great popularity as a truthful reproduction of the event, which has been communicated to me by the eyewitness survivor from Zeytoun, Karapet Tozlian (b. 1903): “Let the Armenians cry, the cruel massacre Turned magnificent Adana into a desert, The fire and the sword and the merciless plunder Ruined, alas, the House of Roubiniants! Unarmed Armenians, in a moment Fell before the mob under the swords, Churches and schools were lost in flames, Thousands of Armenians ruthlessly died. The merciless Turks deprived The child of his mother, the bride of her groom, Smashed everything on their way, Swallowed and got repleted with Armenian blood. Three days and nights the fire from inside, The enemy’s sword and bullet from outside, Wiped out the Armenians from the face of the earth Blood ran down the Armenian streets…”8

6 Jizmejian, Manuk. History of the Armenian-American Political Parties. 1890-1925. Fresno, 1930, p. 174 (in Armenian). 7 Papikian, Hakob. The Massacre of Adana. “Report.” Constantinople, 1919, p. 28 (in Armenian). H. Papikian had just completed his historical “Report,” when the Young Turks managed to poison and kill him, and thus the report was not published. After the author’s death, the rough copy was translated into Armenian and published in 1919 in Constantinople. 8 Svazlian, V. The Armenian Genocide, Testimony 342, pp. 413-414.

150


Verjiné Svazlian

The Cilician Armenians in distress have formulated the following malediction under these historical events: “May you lose your sight, Satan, You came and entered Adana.” I have succeeded in writing down from the survivors, rescued from the Adana massacre, and thus sawing from total loss also other Armenian- and Turkish-language popular songs, which artistically reproduce those historic events: “In the morning at dawn They encircled us on four sides, Thousands of bullets Scattered like hail. Poor Adana was stained Red with blood, And the corpses of Armenians Were sprawled here and there. They broke doors and windows, Striking with axes, They didn’t leave a resplendent house And burned them all down.”9 Or else, were woven other short notes, depicting scenes of the tragic massacre of Adana, which have been transformed into mournful songs: “Seven girls fled and went away, Ah, alas! They shot three of them and caught the other four, Ah, alas! They burned little Tigranouhi’s house, Ah, alas! A rich girl like her was given to the mullah, Ah, alas! Three mullahs dug the ground, Ah, alas! They buried the Armenian young man all alive, Ah, alas! They took away the boy’s sister and crucified her, Ah, alas! They brought her down the cross and threw her into the sea, Ah, alas! They entered the school and caught the school-mistress, Ah, alas! They opened her mouth and cut her tongue, Ah, alas!”10 Those historico-political events have remained in the memory of the Cilician Armenians 9 Ibid., Testimony 341, p. 413. 10 Ibid., Testimony 347-352, p. 415.

151


Verjiné Svazlian

as “Kıyma (Slaughtered – Turk.) Adana,” and they have composed the following Turkishlanguage song: “Hey, çamlar, çamlar, alnı-açık çamlar! Her güneş vurunca sakız damlar, Sakız damlarsa: yüreğim ağlar: Adana ırmağı sel gibi akar, Íşte geldim sana, kıyma Adana! Of, of, işte gördüm sizi, kıyma çocuklar!

“Hey, cedars, cedars, variegated cedars! The resin drips whenever the sun strikes, When the resin drips, my heart sheds tears, The Adana River flows like a torrent, I’ve come to see you, slaughtered Adana! Alas! I’ve seen you, massacred children!

Adana köprüsü tahtadır, tahta, Ermeni muhaciri gelir bu hafta, Adana ırmağı leş ilen kanlar, Kaldırın leşleri, Adana kokar, Íşte geldim sana, kıyma Adana! Of, of, işte gördüm sizi, kıyma çocuklar!”4

The bridge over Adana is wooden, The Armenian refuges will arrive this week, The Adana River is full of blood and corpses, Take the corpses away, Adana will stink, I’ve come to see you, slaughtered Adana! Alas! I’ve seen you, massacred children!”14

An eyewitness survivor from Adana, Mikayel Keshishian (b. 1904), has told me with emotion about that fact: “In 1909, at the time of the massacre of Adana, I was five years old. That horrible night was named in Turkish ‘Camuz dellendi’ (The buffalo went mad). And indeed, the Sultan had gone mad. According to his order, people were slain, about thirty thousand Armenians were killed, their houses were demolished and burnt to ashes. ...They gathered all the remaining people and took them to the bank of the Adana River, they sent a message to Sultan Hamid, saying that they had gathered all the Armenians and had brought them to the riverbank and were waiting for his orders. There was water on one side and fire on the other. My father was clasping me in his arms. I remember, I was looking over his shoulder. My mother was also with us. We were all gathered on the riverbank. Then an order of pardon came from the Sultan. They compelled us to shout ‘Padişahim çok yaşa!’ (Long live the King! – Turk.). We returned home, but those who were killed were no longer alive.”11 The following popular song also tells about miserable condition of the victims of the Adana massacre: “Şimdi Adana’ya gitmeli değil, Gidip de o halları görmeli değil, Çorekşapti5* günü koçnak6** çekildi, Bütün Ermeniler jama7*** döküldü.

“We shouldn’t go to Adana now, We shouldn’t go and see that condition, On Wednesday* they rang the bell,** And gathered all the Armenians in the church.***

Beni öldüren doydu mu ola? Liralarımı saydı mı ola? Benim burda vurulduğumu Anam, babam duydu mu ola?

I wonder whether my killer was sated, Whether he counted my gold coins, Whether my mother and father Heard that I was shot here.

Adana’nın yolları taşlık, Cebimizde kalmadı beş para harçlık, Aman, Adanalı, canım Adanalı, Cebimizde kalmadı, beş para harçlık.”8

The roads of Adana are stony, We all became stony-broke, Alas, citizen of Adana, my dear, We all became stony-broke.”16

11 Ibid., Testimony 182, p. 318.

152


Verjiné Svazlian

During the massacres of Adana, dozens of Armenian towns and villages were ravaged and burnt down, while Moussa Dagh, Deurtyol, Hadjn, Sis, Zeytoun, Sheikh Mourad, Fendedjak and a number of other localities stopped the attack of tens of thousands of Turks with their heroic self-defense and were saved from the slaughter. A survivor from Moussa Dagh, Tonik Tonikian (b. 1898) has also referred to the Adana calamity: “Respect and honor are the highest values in the world. We, the people of Moussa Dagh, love to live our lives with respect and honor. The massacre of Adana started in 1909. The Turks attacked the Armenians’ houses, shops. They plundered, killed, slaughtered, and raped. They did such things! One could not think of them! We, the Armenians of the seven villages of Moussa Dagh, took precautions; we assigned guards at night. In many places in Cilicia, the Turks attacked, broke-in, and plundered. People escaped with their lives. The Armenians fled and took refuge in churches, but the Turks entered their houses and plundered. They saw that the Armenians had entered their churches, so they attacked the churches and slaughtered them there. First, they slaughtered babies, right before their parents’ eyes, and then killed the parents: men and women. They were slaughtering whole families. Blood flowed like water from the thresholds of the houses. I was in our village when we heard all about it. Until now, Arabs and Turks remember these massacres…”12 Hovhannes Abelian (b. 1903), a survivor from Kessab, has also testified: “In 1909, when the massacres in Adana took place, Shaghban agha gathered a mob of forty thousand people and came to pillage Kessab. They reached Ordu. We started to resist. In the village of Lower Esgyuran a battle waged that lasted four to five hours. At the end, our side said: “It’s impossible to resist any further. There is no ammunition: let’s escape.” We went to the Kessab seashore. I was six years old. “Father, the killers are coming,” I said. And they really came. They captured my father in the bushes, pulled him out, lay him on the ground. I cried out, “Oh, dad, dad,” fell on him and started crying. The men stopped and said: “We also have children: if we kill you, the wild beasts will devour you. We grant your life for this child, you will find your death from someone else. Go, live.”…”13 In actual fact, that was the beginning of the Armenian Genocide, when the Young Turks, following the decisions of the secret meeting, organized in 1911, in Salonica, by the party “İttihat ve Terakki,” feverishly prepared the total extermination of the Armenian nation, waiting for a propitious occasion. That occasion presented itself when the First World War broke out. Turkey entered into the war, having expansionistic objectives and a monstrous scheme of realizing the annihilation of the Armenians. Thus, the popular testimonies: memoirs and songs of historical character, communicated by the eyewitness survivors, saved, in this manner, from a total loss and entrusted to the coming generations, become, owing to their historico-cognitive value, authentic, objective and documental evidences, which are not only attestations of the past, but are also a warning for the future.

12 Ibid., Testimony 159, p. 285. 13 Ibid., Testimony 172, p. 309.

153


Verjiné Svazlian

Photos: 1. Prof. Verjine Svazlian writing down the testimonies from the eye-witness survivor 2. Yeghiazar Karapetian (b. 1886) 3. Tonik Tonikian (b. 1898) 4. Hmayak Boyadjian (b. 1902) 5. Hovhannes Gasparian (b. 1902) 6. Hovhannes Abelian (b. 1903) 7. Karapet Tozlian (b. 1903) 8. Sargis Khachatrian (b. 1903) 9. Mikayel Keshishian (b. 1904) (Footnotes) 1. In the various Turkish-language original songs I have recorded, it is possible to observe deviations from the grammatical and phonetic rules of the Turkish language or to encounter Armenian words and morphemes in them. With a view to keeping unaltered the information communicated by the survivors, I have remained faithful to their oral speech. 2. Svazlian, V. The Armenian Genocide, Testimony 337, p. 412. 3. Ibid., Testimony 339, p. 413. 4. Ibid., Testimony 340, p. 413. * The Armenian word “çorekşapti/chorekshabpti” (Wednesday) has been used in the Turkishlanguage song. ** The Armenian word “koçnak/kochnak” (bell) has been used in the Turkish-language song. *** The Armenian word “jama/zham” (church) has been used in the Turkish-language song. 8. Svazlian, V. The Armenian Genocide, Testimony 458, p. 430.

ì»ñÅÇÝ» êí³½ÉÛ³Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÁ ¨ ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ÑÇßáÕáõÃÛáõÝÁ ²Ù÷á÷áõÙ Ðá¹í³ÍáõÙ Ý»ñϳ۳óíáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕμ»ñ·áõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³åñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ »ñ·»ñÇ áõ ã³÷³Íá ëï»Õͳ·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí£ ²Û¹ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõÝ»Ý å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ¨ ׳ݳãáÕ³Ï³Ý Ï³ñ¨áñ Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ£ ÐÇÙÝí»Éáí ³Û¹ »½³ÏÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³, áñáÝù å³ÑíáõÙ »Ý гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïáõÙ, Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ óáõÛó ¿ ïñíáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³ñï³óáÉáõÙÁ Ñ³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ÑÇßáÕáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç£

154


ÎÆÈÆÎƲ 1909 Â.£ Ðܲð²ìà±ð ¾ð ²ð¸Úàø βÜʲ¼¶²È òºÔ²êä²ÜàôÂÚ²Ü êä²èܲÈÆøÀ Æí î»ñÝáÝ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ μ³ó³éÇÏ ¹³Å³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ Ïáïáñí»óÇÝ 25000-Çó 30000 ѳۻñ: úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïÙ³Ý ï³ñ»ÉÇóÇÝ Ý³Ëáñ¹³Í ³Ûë Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÝ»ñÁ ¨ ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ϳñÍÇùÁ ãϳñáÕ³ó³Ý ϳÝ˳½·³É Çμñ¨ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ñ³Û»ñÇ áãÝã³óÙ³ÝÁ ÙÇïí³Í ëå³éݳÉÇù£ XX ¹³ñáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í ³ÛÉ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù»Ù³ïáõÃÛ³Ùμ` á±ñ å³ÑÇÝ ¿ Ñݳñ³íáñ Çμñ¨ ÃÇñ³Ë ÁÝïñí³Í ËÙμÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ϳÝ˳½·³É ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳ٠Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³ ˳ñëËí³Í ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ` Çμñ¨ Çñ μݳçÝçÙ³Ý Ñ³Ù³ñ »ñÏÛáõÕ Ý»ñßÝãáÕ ³Ñ³½³Ý·Ý»ñ£ ÆÙ³ëï ѳÕáñ¹»Éáõ ѳٳñ 1948 Ã. ¹»Ïï»Ùμ»ñÇ 9-Ç ÏáÝí»ÝódzÛÇ` ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³Ý˳ñ·»ÉÙ³Ý ¨ ¹ñ³ ѳٳñ å³ïÅÇ Ó¨³Ï»ñåáõÙÇÝ, Ñݳñ³íáñ ¿ñ ³ñ¹Ûá±ù ϳÝ˳ñ·»ÉáõÙÁ£ ²Ûë ѳñó»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ÝÁ å³Ñ³ÝçáõÙ ¿ Ëáõë³÷»É ó³Ýϳó³Í ųٳݳϳíñ»åáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¨ áõëáõÙݳëÇñ»É 1909-1911 ÃÃ. ÷³ëï³ÃÕûñÁ (íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳ٠³ñËÇí³ÛÇÝ ÝÛáõûñÁ), ÙÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³ÝÇ, »ñμ ³½·áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ϳñÍáõÙ ¿ÇÝ, û »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ í×é»É ¿ÇÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³Í»É ÅáÕáíñ¹³í³ñ³Ï³Ý ¨ ųٳݳϳÏÇó å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý, ïå³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ, áñÇ ëï»ÕÍÙ³ÝÁ ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõÝ ÏáÙÇï»Ý (زÎ) Ù»Í Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ñ ï³ÉÇë£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ý³ËÝ³Ï³Ý ÁÝϳÉáõÙÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ï»ÕÇ »Ý áõÝ»ó»É ÛáõñûñÇÝ³Ï Ñ»ÝùÇ íñ³£ ÄáÕáíñ¹³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳëï³ïí³Í ¿, Ù³ÙáõÉÝ ³½³ïáñ»Ý ³ñï³Ñ³Ûïí»Éáõ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ, ûëٳݳÑå³ï³ÏÝ»ñÁ` ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÁ ϳ٠Ññ»³Ý»ñÁ, ϳñÍáõÙ »Ý, áñ ϳñáÕ »Ý áõÝ»Ý³É ÙǨÝáõÛÝ Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÝ, ÇÝã Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ£ Æñ³Ï³ÝáõÙ, ݳѳݷݻñáõÙ, áãÇÝã ãÇ ÷áËí»É£ ÎÇÉÇϳÛáõÙ` ѳñáõëï ÙÇ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝáõÙ, áñï»Õ ѳۻñÁ ÑÇÙÝ³Ï³Ý ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ÇÝ Ï³½ÙáõÙ, ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý ÏáÙÇï»Ý 1908 Ã. ÑáÏï»Ùμ»ñÇÝ Ñ³çáÕáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ ѳëÝáõÙ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ Ñ³Ù³Ïñ»Éáõ Ù»ç Ù»Õ³¹ñíáÕ í³ÉÇÇ å³ßïáݳÝÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóáõÙ£ Üñ³Ý ÷á˳ñÇÝáÕ æ¨³¹ μ»ÛÁ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ μ³ó³Ñ³Ûïáñ»Ý Ãßݳٳμ³ñ ¿ ïñ³Ù³¹ñí³Í£ àõݻݳÉáí زÎ-Ç ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÇ ³ç³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ` ݳ ï³ñ³ÍáõÙ ¿ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ³ÝÏ³Ë å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ëï»ÕÍÙ³Ý Ýå³ï³Ï Ñ»ï³åݹáÕ ¨ §Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý ¹³í³¹ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ¦ í»ñ³μ»ñíáÕ Ï»ÕÍ ³ë»Ïáë»Ý»ñ£ ¸ñ³Ýù ï³ñ³ÍíáõÙ »Ý ³ÙμáÕç ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáí ٻϣ 1908-1909 ÃÃ. ÓÙé³ÝÁ ÙÇç³¹»å»ñÁ μ³½Ù³å³ïÏíáõÙ »Ý, ëå³ÝíáõÙ »Ý μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ѳۻñ£ ²åñÇÉÇ 14-Çó 16-Á, û·ï³·áñÍ»Éáí ÙÇ »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ ѳÛÇ ÏáÕÙÇó »ñÏáõ ÃáõñùÇ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÝ ³ÝÓ³Ùμ ¿ñ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ»É ³ñ¹³ñ³¹³ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ù³Ý½Ç ûñÇÝ³Ï³Ý ×³Ý³å³ñÑáí ¹ñ³Ý ѳëÝ»É Ñݳñ³íáñ ã¿ñ, Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ` ϳÝáݳíáñ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ ¨ å³Ñ»ëï³ÛÇÝÝ»ñÇ ûųݹ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ùμ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ëÏëáõÙ ¿ ÏáÕáåï»É, ÑñÏǽ»É ¨ Ïáïáñ»É£ Ðáç³Ý»ñÁ ù³ñá½áõÙ »Ý ëñμ³½³Ý å³ï»ñ³½Ù ¨ ³ÙμáËÇÝ Ññ³ÑñáõÙ áã ÙÇ Ñ³ÛÇ Ï»Ý¹³ÝÇ ãÃáÕÝ»Éáõ Ïáãáí£ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáëÁ, ÙÝáõÙ »Ý Éé³ÏÛ³ó£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ñ³Û»ñÁ ¹Çñù³íáñíáõÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó óճٳë»ñáõÙ ¨ ¹ÇÙ³¹ñáõÙ, ÇÝãÁ ϳÝËáõÙ ¿ ³í»ñ³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Í³í³ÉáõÙÁ£ ´³Ý³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ¨ »ñ³ßËÇùÝ»ñ ëï³Ý³Éáõó Ñ»ïá Ýñ³Ýù í³Ûñ »Ý ¹ÝáõÙ ½»Ýù»ñÁ£ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ¹³¹³ñáõÙ »Ý, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ÏáÕáåáõïÁ ¨ Ññ¹»ÑÝ»ñÁ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ »Ý£ 155


Æí î»ñÝáÝ

²Ý·ÉÇ³Ï³Ý ¨ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý é³½Ù³Ý³í»ñÁ ˳ñÇëË »Ý Ó·áõÙ Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ ³åñÇÉÇ 18-ÇÝ, áñáÝó Ñ»ï¨áõÙ »Ý ³ÛÉ ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ é³½Ù³Ý³í»ñ£ Ìáí³ÛÇÝÝ»ñÝ Çñ»Ýó ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ë³Ñٳݳ÷³ÏáõÙ »Ý ¹Çï³ñÏáõÙÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ý·áÕ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ßñç³Ý³ÏáõÙ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Çñ³½»Ï ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÝ ³åñÇÉÇ 17-ÇÝ ÙÇ å³ïíÇñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ áõÕ³ñÏáõ٠سÑÙáõ¹ Þ¨ù»Ã ÷³ß³ÛÇ Ùáï, áñÁ â³Ã³Éç³ÛáõÙ å³ïñ³ëïíáõÙ ¿ñ ×Ýᯐ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ ³ÙëÇ 13-ÇÝ μéÝÏí³Í ѳϳѻճ÷áËáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Âáõñù ½áñ³Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÁ ¸³Ù³ëÏáëáõÙ ¨ ´»ÛñáõÃáõÙ ï»Õ³Ï³Ûí³Í سϻ¹áÝ³Ï³Ý μ³Ý³ÏÇó ÎÇÉÇÏdz ¿ áõÕ³ñÏáõÙ 850 ½ÇÝíáñ£ ²åñÇÉÇ 25-ÇÝ, ÏÇñ³ÏÇ ûñÁ, ²¹³Ý³ ųٳݻÉáõÝ å»ë` Ýñ³Ýó ¹ÇÙ³íáñáõÙ »Ý Ïñ³ÏáóÝ»ñáí£ Èáõñ»ñ »Ý ï³ñ³ÍíáõÙ, û ¹ñ³Ýó Ù»Õ³íáñÁ ѳۻñÝ »Ý£ γÝáݳíáñ μ³Ý³ÏÝ ³Û¹ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÙdzÝáõÙ ¿ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ³ÙμáËÇÝ` Ïáïáñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ³Ý½»Ý ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ` áã ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ, ³Ûɨ ù³Õ¹»³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ, ѳÏáμÇÝÛ³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ, ³ëáñÇ Ï³ÃáÉÇÏÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ ÑáõÛÝ»ñÇÝ£ Àëï ³Ý·ÉdzóÇ íϳݻñÇó Ù»ÏÇ` Ð. â³ñɽ ìáõ¹ëÇ, §»ñμ¨¿ áñ¨¿ ù³Õ³ù ûÕ³ÏÇ Ù»ç ãÇ ë»ÕÙí»É ³ÛÝåÇëÇ Ï³ÝáݳíáñáõÃÛ³Ùμ, ÇÝãå»ë ²¹³Ý³Ý 1909 Ã.£ ܳíÃÝ ³Ýϳßϳݹáñ»Ý û·ï³·áñÍí»É ¿ ÑñÇ ×³ñ³Ï ¹³ñÓÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ ïÝ»ñÁ¦:1 ´éÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ³í³ñïíáõÙ »Ý ³åñÇÉÇ 27-ÇÝ, ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ëÁ í»ñ³ÍíáõÙ ¿ ÙáËñÇ ¨ ³í»ñ³ÏÝ»ñÇ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ñ³ñáõëï ѳñóí³Ûñáõ٠ѳñÛáõñ³íáñ ³·³ñ³ÏÝ»ñ, ·É˳íáñ³å»ë ѳÛϳϳÝ, ³Ù³Û³óíáõÙ »Ý, ¨ ѳۻñÁ ëå³ÝíáõÙ »Ý ѳ½³ñ³íáñ Ãáõñù ϳ٠ùáõñ¹ μ³ÝíáñÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, áñáÝù ³åñÇÉÇÝ Çç»É ¿ÇÝ [ë³ñ»ñÇó] μ³Ùμ³ÏÇ μ»ñùÁ ѳí³ù»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²åñÇÉÇ 16-Çó Ç í»ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ͳí³ÉíáõÙ »Ý ³ÙμáÕç ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ¨ ³Û¹ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç Ñ³ñ³ÏÇó ï³ñ³ÍùÝ»ñáõÙ£ ´³½Ù³ÃÇí ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÙ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ (ϳÙ) Ãáõñù »ñ¨»ÉÇÝ»ñÁ å³ßïå³ÝáõÙ »Ý ѳۻñÇÝ£ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõ٠¨ýÇÏ ÷³ß³ÛÇ Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ Ý߳ݳÏí»É ¿ñ ³åñÇÉÇ 18-ÇÝ, ·³ÑÁÝÏ»ó ¿ ³ñíáõÙ ³ÙëÇ 26-ÇÝ` ϳñ· áõ ϳÝáÝÇ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·ÝáõÙÇó ¨ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç å³ßïáݳÝÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïᣠ²åñÇÉÇ 16-Ç ¨ 26-Ç ÙÇç¨ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ·áñÍÁ ïÝûñÇÝáõÙ ¿ Ü»ñùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³Ï³Ý ²¹ÇÉ μ»ÛÁ£ ܳ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ í³ÉÇÇÝ Ññ³Ù³ÛáõÙ ¿ §í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»É ϳñ·Ý áõ ϳÝáÝÁ¦ ¨ Ñáí³Ý³íáñ»É ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ, ÇÝãÁ 樳¹ μ»ÛÇÝ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ÁÝÓ»éáõÙ ³½³ïáñ»Ý ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÏáÕáåáõïÇ Ï³ñ·³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ³ñӳϻɣ Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ´³ñÓñ ¸áõéÁ ç³ÝáõÙ ¿ ÃáõɳóÝ»É ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ϳñÍÇùÇ íñ³ ÃáÕ³Í ¹ñ³Ýó ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ܳ Ýí³½»óÝáõÙ ¿ ½áÑ»ñÇ Ãí³ù³Ý³ÏÁ ¨ ÅËïáõÙ §ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý¦ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ²¹ÇÉ μ»ÛÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ³å³ÏáÕÙÝáñáßí³Í ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÝ ëÏëáõÙ ¿ ³Ûë ·áñÍáí ½μ³Õí»É ÙdzÛÝ Ù³ÛÇëÇ 2-ÇÝ£ ²¹³Ý³Ûáõ٠ѳëï³ïíáõÙ ¿ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³Ý, áñÇ Ï³½ÙáõÙ Áݹ·ñÏí³Í μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ëå³Ý»ñ Ù³ëݳÏó»É ¿ÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ£ ¸³ï³ñ³ÝÁ ë³ï³ñáõÙ ¿ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ»Õ³÷áË³Ï³Ý ß³ñÅÙ³Ý Ã»½Ý áõ ϳËáõÙ í»ó ѳÛÇ ¨ ÇÝÁ ÃáõñùÇ:2 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ Ý»ñϳ ·ïÝíáÕ ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙÁ ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ Ù³ÙáõÉáõÙ å³ñï³¹ñáõÙ ¿ ¸é³ÝÝ ÁÝÏñÏ»É ¨ ³ñ³·³óÝ»É ùÝÝÇã ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³íáñáõÙÁ:3 ºñÏáõ μ³ñÓñ³ëïÇ×³Ý ¹³ï³íáñ1 Woods H. Charles, La Turquie et ses voisins, Paris, 1909, p. 149. 2 Âáõñù»ñÇ ³Ûë ٳѳå³ïÇÅÁ ѳÝϳñͳÏÇÇ ¿ μ»ñáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ãáõñù»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ѳÙá½í³Í ¿ÇÝ, áñ û·ïí»Éáõ ¿ÇÝ ³Ýå³ïÅ»ÉÇáõÃÛ³Ý ³ñïáÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ 3 ºíñáå³óÇÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ñëï³Ï »Ý. ݳË×ÇñÁ ϳÝ˳Ùï³Íí³Í ¿ñ ¨ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í` Ýí³½³·áõÛÝÁ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ٳϳñ¹³Ïáí, ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõ å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, áñáÝù ³ãùÇ »Ý ÁÝÏ»É ³Ùμ³ñï³í³ÝáõÃÛ³Ùμ ¨ »ñÏ»ñ»ë³ÝÇáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ é³½Ù³Íáí³ÛÇÝ ¹ÇíǽdzݻñÇ ëå³Ý»ñÝ ÇëÏáõÛÝ ¨»Ã ѻ鳷ñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çñ»Ýó ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ѳٳñ ²¹³Ý³ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í ½áñù»ñÁ Ù³ëݳÏó»É »Ý ¹ñ³Ýó í»ñëÏëÙ³ÝÁ£ سÛÇëÇ 17-ÇÝ å³ï·³Ù³-

156


Æí î»ñÝáÝ

Ý»ñ` ü³ÛÇÏ μ»ÛÁ ¨ гñáõÃÛáõÝ ØáëïÇãÛ³ÝÁ, ϳ½ÙáõÙ »Ý ѳٳï»Õ ï»Õ»Ï³·Çñ, áñÁ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏíáõÙ ¿ ÑáõÉÇëÇ 10-ÇÝ£ ºñÏáõ »ñÇïÃáõñù å³ï·³Ù³íáñÝ»ñ, ݳËÏÇÝ ¹³ï³íáñ` гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ ¨ ¹³ï³Ë³½` Úáõëáõý ø»Ù³ÉÁ, ÑáõÝÇëÇÝ ³é³ÝÓÇÝ-³é³ÝÓÇÝ ëÏëáõÙ »Ý Çñ»Ýó Ñ»ï³ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ Üñ³Ýó ï»Õ»Ï³·ñ»ñÁ ã»Ý Ññ³å³ñ³ÏíáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÇÝ ïí³Í ѳñó³½ñáõÛóÝ»ñáõÙ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ ѳëϳóÝáõÙ ¿, áñ Çñ»Ýó Ñ»ï¨áõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý ѳÙÁÝÏÝáõÙ£ ܳ ѳí³ëïáõÙ ¿, áñ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïáõÙÇó Ç í»ñ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ñ»ï³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõÝÁ Íñ³·ñáõÙ ¿ñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñ, ¨ »Ã» Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ãÇ Ù³ëݳÏó»É, ³å³ ¹³ñÓ»É ¿ ¹ñ³Ýó å³ï׳éÁ, áñ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ý»ñ·ñ³íí³Í »Ý, ¨ áñ ѳۻñÝ ³ë»Ïáë»Ý»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí ï³ñ³ÍíáÕ Ù»Õ³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ñ»ï ³éÝãáõÃÛáõÝ ãáõÝ»Ý áõ ϳï³ñ»É³å»ë ³ÝÙ»Õ »Ý:4 ü³ÛÇÏ-ØáëïÇãÛ³ÝÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ÇñÁ ¨ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÇ Ù»ñϳóáõÙÝ»ñÁ μ³í³Ï³Ý »Ý »Õ»É ѳÙá½»Éáõ زÎ-ÇÝ ßñç³¹³ñÓ Ï³ï³ñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ. ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ Ý߳ݳÏíáõÙ ¿ Ýáñ í³ÉÇ, Ó¨³íáñíáõÙ ¿ Ýáñ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³Ý£ ܳ Ó»ñμ³Ï³ÉáõÙ ¿ ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÇ Ù³ïݳóáõÛó ³ñ³Í å³ï³ë˳ݳïáõÝ»ñÇÝ` í³ÉÇÇÝ, íÇɳۻÃÇ ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÇÝ, ²¹³Ý³Ûáõ٠زÎ-Ç Édz½áñ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóãÇÝ, §ÆÃÃǹ³É¦ Éñ³·ñÇ ë»÷³Ï³Ý³ïÇñáçÁ` ÆÑë³Ý üÇùñÇÇÝ, áñÁ Ññ³Ññ»É ¿ñ ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ÙÇ »ñ¨»Éáõ, ÙÇ Ùáõóë³ñÇýÇ ¨ áëïÇϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇ ÏáÙÇë³ñÇ£ è³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ Ýñ³Ýó ¹³ï³å³ñïáõÙ ¿ ÙdzÛÝ Ã»Ã¨ å³ïÇÅÝ»ñÇ£ öá˳ñ»ÝÁ, Ýáñ í³ÉÇ æ»Ù³É μ»ÛÁ Ï³Ë»É ¿ ï³ÉÇë ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý ѳñÛáõñ Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝÇ:5 ú·áëïáëÇ 11-ÇÝ Ù»Í í»½ÇñÁ Ññ³å³ñ³ÏáõÙ ¿ ÙÇ ßñç³μ»ñ³Ï³Ý, áñÁ ѳۻñÇÝ ½»ñÍ ¿ å³ÑáõÙ Ýñ³Ýó íñ³ μ³ñ¹íáÕ μáÉáñ Ù»Õ³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇó. §²Ý³é³ñÏ»ÉÇáñ»Ý ѳëï³ïí³Í ¿, áñ Ñ³Û ³½·áõÃÛáõÝÁ ãÇ Ó»ñμ³½³ïí»É úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ý¹»å Ùßï³å»ë ¹ñë¨áñ³Í 㻽áùáõÃÛáõÝÇó¦:6 ú·áëïáëÇ 12-ÇÝ ²ñ¹³ñ³¹³ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë³ñ³ñÁ Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³ÛÝáñ»Ý ѳÛï³ñ³ñáõÙ ¿. §Ð³Û»ñÁ áñ¨¿ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝ ã»Ý ÏñáõÙ ³Ûë Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ï׳éÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ¦£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ³é³ç³¹ñí³Í ѳñóñ»ñ è³ÛÙáݹ ¶¨áñ·Û³ÝÁ ÉáõÛë ¿ ë÷é»É زÎ-ÇÝ (ØÇáõÃÛáõÝ ¨ ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛáõÝ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝ)` úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáÕ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó ¨ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó, Ç ëϽμ³Ý» ï³ñ³Ýç³ïáÕ ÃÛáõñÇÙ³óáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³£ ºñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ¹³ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ §»ñÏñÇ ÙdzíáñáõÙ ÃáõñùǽÙÇ ¨ Ýáñ³óí³Í ÇëɳÙÇ ¹ñáßÇ Ý»ñùá, ųٳݳϳÏÇó å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÝáóáõÙ ³Ýç³ïáճϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÝÑ»ï³óáõÙ¦, ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ Ýñ³Ýó ٻͳٳëÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ³Û¹ Ãíáõ٠ѳۻñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ` áñáÝó ݳËÏÇÝáõÙ μÝáñáßáõÙ ¿ÇÝ Çμñ¨ §¹ÑÇÙǦ,* ¹³ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ §Ñ³í³ë³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñ·³íÇ׳ÏÇ Ó»éù μ»ñáõÙ [...], ³í»ÉÇ ³ß˳ñÑÇÏ ÅáÕáíñ¹³Ï³Ý ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³½Ù³íáñÝ»ñÇ å³É³ïáõÙ üñ³ÝëdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñ êï»ý³Ý äÇßáÝÇ ÙÇç³ÙïáõÃÛáõÝÁ, Áëï áñÇ` §Ñ³Ýó³÷áñÓ»ñÁ ϳÝË»Éáõ ¨ ×Ýß»Éáõ ѳٳñ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í¦ ½áñù»ñÁ ëå³Ý»É »Ý, í×éáñáß ¿ñ` ѳÙá½»Éáõ ´. ¸é³ÝÝ ÁÝÏñÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ 4 гÏáμ ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÁ í³Ë׳Ýí»É ¿ û·áëïáëÇ 1-ÇÝ, ³ÛÝ ûñí³ Ý³Ëûñ»ÇÝ, »ñμ å»ïù ¿ ïå³·ñ»ñ Çñ ï»Õ»Ï³·ÇñÁ£ ²Ûë Ù³ÑÁ, áñÝ Áëï ѳݷ³Ù³ÝùÝ»ñÇ` »ñÏÙï³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ï»ÕÇù ¿ ïí»É, ³ÝϳëϳÍ, ûñÇݳã³÷ ¿ñ£ Üñ³ ï»Õ»Ï³·ÇñÁ ïå³·ñí»É ¿ ÙdzÛÝ 1912 Ã., ÇëÏ Úáõëáõý ø»Ù³ÉÇ ï»Õ»Ï³·ÇñÁ »ñμ¨¿ ãÇ ïå³·ñí»É£ 5 æ»Ù³É μ»ÛÝ ³å³·³ è³½Ù³Íáí³ÛÇÝ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñÝ ¿ñ, ÇëÏ ²é³çÇÝ ³ß˳ñѳٳñïÇ ï³ñÇÝ»ñÇÝ 4-ñ¹ μ³Ý³ÏÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ ¿ñ£ 6 La Cilicie (1909-1921). Des massacres d’Adana au mandat français, Revue d’histoire arménienne contemporaine, Tome III, 1999. (Première partie: Les massacres de Cilicie d’avril 1909, Raymond Kévorkian, avec kla collaboration de Paul B. Paboudjian), citation, p. 179-180.

157


Æí î»ñÝáÝ

íáñáõÙ¦:7 Æñ ϳ½Ù³íáñáõÙÇó Ç í»ñ زÏ-Á ûå»ï ùáÕ³ñÏíáõÙ ¿ñ ûëÙ³ÝǽÙÇ ¹ÇÙ³ÏÇ ï³Ï, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, Áëï ¿áõÃÛ³Ý, Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ³½·³ÛݳÙáɳϳÝ, ³ñÙ³ï³Ï³Ý ¨ ³ÛɳïÛ³ó ß³ñÅáõÙ ¿ñ£ ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ïáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá ѳۻñÁ ϳñÍáõÙ »Ý, û ϳñáÕ »Ý û·ïí»É Çñ»Ýó Çñ³íáõÝùÝ»ñÇó, ÇÝãÁ Ýñ³Ýó ¹»Ù ¿ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÙ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ÙÇßï å³ïñ³ëï ¿ÇÝ ï³ñ³Í»É ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç ûñáù ³ñ³ñáճϳñ·Ç í»ñ³Íí³Í` ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ³åëï³ÙμáõÃÛ³ÝÁ í»ñ³μ»ñáÕ ³ë»Ïáë»Ý»ñÁ£ 1909 Ã. û·áëïáëÇÝ, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ѳëï³ïíáõÙ ¿, áñ ³Û¹ ³ë»Ïáë»Ý»ñÁ ÑÇÙݳ½áõñÏ ¿ÇÝ£ öá˳ñ»ÝÁ, ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÁ ß³ñáõݳÏáõÙ ¿ñ Ù»Ïݳμ³Ý»É ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ áñå»ë ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç í»ñçÇÝ å³ÛÃÛáõÝ, ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ ãϳ áñ¨¿ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÙ ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç Ý»ñ·³ñíí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ£ زÎ-Á ç³ÝáõÙ ¿ñ ѳÙá½»É, áñ ÇÝùÁ ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿ñ ÷ñÏ»É Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ, áñ §ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý¦ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ ¹³ñÓ»É »Ý ë³¹ñ³ÝùÇ ½áÑ»ñ, ¨ áñ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÝÏ»ÕÍáñ»Ý ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿ ×ß·ñï»É ÷³ëï»ñÇ ÇëÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ³å³Ñáí»É ³ÝÏáÕÙÝ³Ï³É ³ñ¹³ñ³¹³ïáõÃÛáõÝ, ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ áõÝÇ Ù»Ï ³é³í»ÉáõÃÛáõÝ, ³ÛÝ ¿` Ëáõë³÷»É ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ˳Ûï³é³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý áñáß Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñ, ÑÇÙÝí»Éáí Çñ»Ýó ѳë³Í ³é³çÇÝ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³ ¨ Ýß»Éáí Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇ áõ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ÙÁÝÏÝáõÙÁ, ¹»é¨ë ÁݹáõÝáõÙ »Ý ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ñ»ï³¹ÇÙáõÃÛ³Ý ï»ëáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²ÛÉù` ³í»ÉÇ Ñ»é³ï»ëÝ»ñÁ, ѳí³ëïáõÙ »Ý, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Ó»éÝïáõ »Ý »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ, áñáÝù ³Ûë Ï»ñå ËáãÁݹáï»É »Ý ϳÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ù»Ý³Ñ³ñáõëï ݳѳݷݻñÇó Ù»Ïáõ٠ѳۻñÇ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³ÝÁ (ѳÙá½ÙáõÝù, áñÝ ³Ùñ³åݹí»É ¿ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ »ñÏñáñ¹ ³ÉÇùÇÝ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ), ¨ áñ μ³½Ù³½· ݳí³ïáñÙÇ Å³Ù³ÝáõÙÁ Ø»ñëÇÝ ãÇ Ï³ë»óñ»É ³Ûë Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ »åÇëÏáåáë ÜáñÇÝ ëñμ³½ÝáõÃÛáõÝ Øáõß»ÕÁ, áñÁ í³ÉÇÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ½ñå³ñïí»É ¿ ¨ Ù»Õ³¹ñí»É ³åëï³ÙμáõÃÛ³Ý ·ÉáõËÝ ³ÝóÝ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ÑÇÝ º·ÇåïáëáõÙ ¿ñ£ üñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉáõ٠ݳ Ù»ñϳóÝáõÙ ¿ ³Ûë Ù»ù»Ý³ÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ 1909 Ã. ÉáõÛë ÁÝͳÛí³Í ÷áùñ³Í³í³É ÙÇ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝáõ٠ݳ Çñ ³ÝѳݷëïáõÃÛáõÝÝ ¿ ѳÛïÝáõÙ ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÙdzÙïáõÃÛ³Ý ³éÇÃáí. §Î³é³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ μ³ñ»Ñ³×áõÃÛáõÝÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å ѳëÝáõÙ ¿ ͳÛñ³Ñ»Õ ³ëïÇ׳ÝÇ£ ²ñ¹Ûá±ù Ýñ³Ýù ³Ï³Ù³ÛÇó ϳñÍáõÙ »Ý, áñ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ ÏϳñáÕ³Ý³Ý Ñ³çáÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ åë³Ï»É ³ÝÏáõÙ ³åñáÕ ÂáõñùdzÛÇ μ³ñ»Ýáñá·Ù³Ý ¨ í»ñ³ÍÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ñé»ÉÇ ·áñÍÁ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ, ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ áñ ÉÇÝÇ Ýñ³Ýó ѳÙá½ÙáõÝùÝ ³Ûë ³éÇÃáí, Çñ»Ýù` ѳۻñÁ, Ñ»Ýó Ýáñ Ó»éù »Ý μ»ñ»É ¹³éÝ áõ ³ñÛáõݳÉÇ ÷áñÓ, áñÁ Ýñ³Ýó Ïïñ³Ï³Ý³å»ë ï³ñ³Ýç³ï»É ¿ ÷³ÛÉáÕ É³í³ï»ëáõÃÛáõÝÇó, áñáí Ýñ³Ýù ³ñμ»ó»É ¿ÇÝ ¨ ˳μí»É ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ëï³ïÙ³ÝÁ ѳçáñ¹³Í ÇÝÝ ³ÙÇëÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ¦:8 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÝ áõÝ»ó»É »Ý ³Ýѳå³Õ ³Ý»ÉÇùÝ»ñ. ³å³ëï³Ý»É áñμ»ñÇÝ ¨ Ýñ³Ýó å³Ñ»É ѳٳÛÝùáõÙ, íݳëÝ»ñÇ ¹ÇÙ³ó ëï³Ý³É ÷áËѳïáõóáõÙ ¨ í»ñ³¹³ñÓÝ»É ÷ñÏí³ÍÝ»ñÇ áõÝ»óí³ÍùÁ£ 1909 Ã. ³Ùé³Ý ÁÝóóùáõÙ Ñ³Û å³ï·³Ù³íáñÝ»ñÁ μ³Ý³ÏóáõÙ »Ý زÎ-Ç ¨ ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ»ï£ ¶ñÇ·áñ ¼áÑñ³åÁ ѳí³ï ¿ ÁÝͳÛáõÙ ÐÇÉÙÇ ÷³ß³ÛÇ ³ÝÏ»ÕÍáõÃÛ³ÝÁ. §âÇ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ íÇ׳ñÏ»É Ù»ñ ѳݹ»å ųٳݳϳÏÇó ϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý μ³ñ»Ñ³× í»ñμ»ñÙáõÝùÁ, ù³Ý½Ç Ù»Ýù ß³ï É³í ·Çï»Ýù, áñ ÑÇÝ· ³ÙÇë ³é³ç ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝ»ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ ³ÙμáÕç г۳ëï³ÝáõÙ ï³ñ³Íí»Éáõ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÁ ¹³éݳÉáõ Çñ³Ï³Ý íï³Ý·...¦:9 гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ù³ÙáõÉÝ ³í»ÉÇ ßÇï³Ï ¿ ¨ زÎ-Ç Ùï³¹7 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 7-11£ 8 Mgr Mouchegh, Les vêpres ciliciennes. Les responsabilités. Faits et documents, Alexandrie, 1909, p. 61. Üñ³ Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÉáõÛë »Ý ï»ë»É §üÇ·³ñáÛáõÙ¦` 1909 Ã. Ù³ÛÇëÇ 30-ÇÝ ¨ §ÈÁ ÎáõñÇ» ¹’úñáåáõÙ¦£ 9 R. Kévorkian, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 127£

158


Æí î»ñÝáÝ

ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³éÇÃáí Ñ»ï¨Û³É ѳñóÝ ¿ ï³ÉÇë. §Ø»ñ Ù¿ç, ųٳݳϿ Ù’Ç í»ñ,– 1909 Ã. ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 20-ÇÝ ·ñáõÙ ¿ ´Ûáõ½³Ý¹ ø»ãÛ³ÝÁ ëï³ÙμáõÉÛ³Ý §´Ûáõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ ûñ³Ã»ñÃÇ ³é³çÝáñ¹áÕ Ñá¹í³ÍáõÙ,– Ûáé»ï»ëáõû³Ý ÁÝóóÇÏ Ó»õ ÙÁ ³ÛÝ ¿ áñ Ï’ÁëáõÇ Ã¿ úëÙ[³Ý»³Ý] øûÙÇÿÝ, »Ã¿ ÇÝù ã¿ñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÁ, ·¿Ã ѳϳé³Ï ³É ã¿ñ ²ï³Ý³ÛÇ Ð³Ûáó ç³ñ¹ÇÝ, ÛáñÙ¿ ëñïáíÇÝ ·áÑ Ùݳó ٻͳå¿ë£– Þ³ï ϳñ»õáñ ¿ ³Ûë ËݹñáÛÝ Éáõë³μ³ÝáõÙÁ, áñáíÑ»ï»õ ³Ýáõñ³Ý³ÉÇ ¿ áñ úëÙ[³Ý»³Ý] øûÙÇÃ¿Ý ³Ûëûñáõ³Ý ϳé³í³ñáõÃÇõÝÝ ¿ »ñÏñÇÝ, ¨ ³Ýáñ ÁÝóóùÁ, áõÕÕáõÃÇõÝÁ, ¹ÇïáõÙÝ»ñÁ Ï»Ýë³Ï³Ý Ý߳ݳÏáõÃÇõÝ áõÝÇÝ Ð³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹ÇÝ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ£ [...] ´³Ûó, Ù»Ýù, Ù»ñ Ù³ëÇÝ ... ã»Ýù Ïñó³Í ѳÙá½áõÇÉ Ã¿ úëÙ[³Ý»³Ý] øûÙÇÃ¿Ý Ñ³Û»ñÁ ç³ñ¹»É ï³É áõ½³Í ÁÉɳۦ:10 гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Édz½áñ ³ÝÓÇÝù ·Çï³ÏóáõÙ »Ý, áñ Çñ»Ýó å³Ñ³ÝçÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ·áÛáõÃÛáõÝ áõÝÇ ÙÇ ë³ÑÙ³Ý, áñÇ Ñ³ïáõÙÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ ѳݷ»óÝ»É Ýáñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ£ ê»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 6-ÇÝ Ð³Û Ñ»Õ³÷áË³Ï³Ý ¹³ßݳÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ (ÐÚ¸) زÎ-Ç Ñ»ï ëïáñ³·ñáõÙ ¿ ÙÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³Ûݳ·Çñ, áñÇ Ñ³Ù³Ó³ÛÝ »ñÏáõ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ å³ñï³íáñíáõÙ »Ý §³ß˳ï»É ѳٳï»Õ` Ç Ýå³ëï ³é³ç³¹ÇÙáõÃÛ³Ý, ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ÙÇáõÃ۳ݦ ¨ ëï»ÕÍáõÙ »Ý ˳éÁ ѳÝÓݳÅáÕáíÝ»ñ` ѳۻñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ Ñ³ñó»ñÁ ùÝݳñÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ §ÐÝã³Ï۳ݦ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ Áݹ¹ÇÙ³¹Çñ, ÇëÏ §è³Ùϳí³ñ¦ Ïáõë³ÏóáõÃÛáõÝÁ, å³Ñå³Ý»Éáí ë»ñï ѳñ³μ»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Ñ»ï, Ù»ñϳóÝáõÙ ¿ ³Ûë ѳٳӳÛݳ·ÇñÁ£ 1911 Ã. زÎ-Á ³í»ÉÇ ù³Ý ÉÇ ¿ñ ѻﳹÇÙ³Ï³Ý ï³ññ»ñáí£ ÐÇÉÙÇÇ Ï³é³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÝÏáõÙÁ ¨ Ýñ³Ý ÷á˳ñÇÝ³Í Ð³ùÇ μ»ÛÇ Ý߳ݳÏáõÙÁ, áñÁ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ï³ñ³Í»É ¿ñ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ³åëï³ÙμáõÃÛ³ÝÁ í»ñ³μ»ñáÕ ³ë»Ïáë»Ý»ñ, óáõÛó ¿ ï³ÉÇë, áñ ѳۻñÝ ³Ûɨë ã»Ý ϳñáÕ Ñ³ñó»ñáí ¹ÇÙ»É ¸é³ÝÁ£ γñ»ÉÇ ¿ ³ñ¹Ûá±ù ³ÛÝ ÷³ëï³·ñ³Ï³Ý ÝÛáõÃÇ ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³, áñÝ ³Ûëûñ áõÝ»Ýù Ù»ñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³Ï, Ó¨³Ï»ñå»É زÎ-Ç Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý ÏáÙÇï»Ç, áñÇ Ýëï³í³ÛñÁ ê³ÉáÝÇÏáõÙ ¿ñ, ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñáõÙ Ý»ñ·ñ³íí³Í ÉÇÝ»Éáõ í³ñϳÍÁ£ ²Ûë ѳñóÁ ϳñáÕ ¿ ûñÇݳϳÝáñ»Ý Ó¨³Ï»ñåí»É, áñáíÑ»ï¨ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ Ï»ÝïñáÝ³Ï³Ý Ø²Î-Á Çñ ³ñﳷݳ μ³Ý³·Ý³óÝ»ñÇ ¨ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ³ÏáõÙμÝ»ñÇ ÙÇçáóáí ÑëÏáõÙ ¿ñ å»ï³Ï³Ý ϳé³í³ñÙ³Ý Ù³ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÁ£ Æñáù áñ, ÙÇÝ㨠1909 Ã. Ù³ñï ³ÙÇëÁ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ Ý߳ݳéáõÃÛ³Ý ï³Ï ¿ÇÝ í»ñóñ»É ³Éμ³Ý³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ` ³Ýç³ïáճϳÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç Ù»Õ³¹ñíáÕ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ, áñáÝù Çñ»Ýó Áݹѳï³ÏÛ³ ѳí³ï³ñÇÙ ¹³ßݳÏÇóÝ»ñÇÝ ¿ÇÝ£ ²Ûë å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ ºíñáå³Ý ã¿ñ ϳñáÕ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ Ï³ëÏ³Í»É ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ Ñ³É³Í»Éáõ Ù»ç£ Æñ³Ï³ÝáõÙ, زÎ-Á ³ñ¹»Ý Íñ³·ñáõÙ ¿ñ »ñÏñÇ Ãñù³óáõÙÁ£ ²Ûë ѳٳï»ùëïáõÙ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý ½³ñ·³óÙ³Ý ÁÝóóùÁ, ½³ñ·³óáõÙ, áñÁ å³Ûٳݳíáñí³Í ¿ñ ѳۻñÇ ·áñÍáõÝ»áõÃÛ³Ùμ, ϳñáÕ ¿ñ Ýñ³Ý ¹ñ¹»É §ËáãÁݹáï»Éáõ ³Û¹ ½³ñ·³óÙ³ÝÁ ÙÇ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝáõÙ, áñÁ 1895-1896 ÃÃ. ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùáõÙ Ù³ë³Ùμ ËݳÛí»É ¿ñ¦:11 Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëݳÏÇó ëå³Ý»ñÇ Í³é³ÛáÕ³Ï³Ý ³é³çÁÝóóÁ, ϳñ· áõ ϳÝáÝÁ å³Ñå³Ý³Í å³ßïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ÷á˳ñÇÝáõÙÁ ϳ٠å³ßïáݳÝÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳëï³ïáõÙ »Ý ³Ûë í³ñϳÍÁ£ ²Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ¹ñ³Ýù Ù»ñ ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³Ï »Õ³Í ÙÇ³Ï ï³ññ»ñÝ »Ý, áñáÝù ÑÇÙù »Ý ï³ÉÇë ³é³ç³¹ñ»Éáõ ³Ûë í³ñϳÍÁ£ γñ»ÉÇ ¿ ÙdzÛÝ åݹ»É, áñ ËóݻÉáí Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ÙáÉ»é³Ý¹áõÃÛáõÝÝ áõ ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ` å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ زÎ-Ç ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÁ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñå»É »Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÇ ³é³çÇÝ ³ÉÇùÁ, áñ Ý»ñùÇÝ ·áñÍ»ñÇ Ý³Ë³ñ³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³Ï³ÝÁ áãÇÝã ãÇ ³ñ»É` ç³ñ¹³ñ³ñÝ»ñÇÝ ËáãÁݹáï»Éáõ ѳٳñ ¨, áñ ϳñ· áõ ϳÝáÝÁ í»ñ³Ñ³ëï³ï»Éáõ ѳٳñ áõÕ³ñÏí³Í μ³10 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 128£ [î»°ë ݳ¨ §´Çõ½³Ý¹Çáݦ, 1909, ÃÇí 3924£] – Ì. Ã.£ 11 R. Kévorkian, Ýßí. ³ßË., ¿ç 141£

159


Æí î»ñÝáÝ

ݳÏÁ ß³ï ³ñ³· ï»ÕÇ ¿ ïí»É Ýí³½³·áõÛÝ ë³¹ñ³ÝùÇ ³éç¨` ëå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ Ýñ³Ýó, áõÙ å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ »Ï»É ¿ñ£ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ£ 1915 Ã. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë»ñ·³±Ýù ²Ûë Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÉáõÛëÇ Ý»ñùá ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ ѳí³ëï»É, áñ 1909 Ã. ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳï»É ¿ ëáíáñ³Ï³Ý ë³ÑÙ³ÝÁ. ²ÙμáÕç ÙÇ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³Ý Ù³ïÝí»É ¿ñ ³ÝÇß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÁ, Ý³Ë ¨ ³é³ç ѳۻñÁ, ëå³Ýí»É »Ý ³é³Ýó ï³ñÇùÇ ¨ ë»éÇ Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃ۳ݣ γñ»ÉÇ ¿, ³ÛëåÇëáí, »½ñ³Ñ³Ý·»É, áñ ³Ûë å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ ËáëùÁ í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ ¿ ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ٳϳñ¹³Ïáí Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í ó»Õ³ëå³Ý³Ï³Ý ÙÇ Ó»éݳñÏáõÙÇ Ù³ëÇÝ£ Ð³Û ³½·áõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçáõÙÝ ³ñ¹Ûá±ù ³ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÁÙμéÝ»ÉÇ ¿ñ ½áÑ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó£ سñ¹³ëå³ÝÝ»ñÝ ³ñ¹Ûá±ù Íñ³·ñ»É ¿ÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÝ Çμñ¨ ³å³·³ áãÝã³óÙ³Ý ÷áñÓ³ñÏÙ³Ý ÙÇçáó£ ²Ûë »ñϳÏÇ Ñ³ñóÇÝ å»ïù ¿ ÅËï³Ï³Ý å³ï³ëË³Ý ï³É£ 1909 Ã. ãϳñ áã ÙÇ Ý³Ë³¹»å ³ÛÝ μ³ÝÇ, ÇÝãÁ XX ¹³ñáõÙ »ñ¨³Ý »Ï³í Çμñ¨ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ` å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó Çñ ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÇ ËÙμÇ Ï³Ý˳Ùï³Íí³Í μݳçÝçáõÙ£ лﳷ³ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ í»ñ³×»Éáí ѳñ³μ»ñ³Ï³Ý ëå³éݳÉÇùÇó Ï»Ýë³Ï³Ý ëå³éݳÉÇùÇ` زÎ-ÇÝ ÙÕ»óÇÝ ÷á÷áË»Éáõ Çñ Íñ³·ÇñÁ£ ò»Õ³ëå³Ý ³Ûë ·áñÍÁÝóóÇ ÷áõÉ»ñÁ ɳí μ³ó³Ñ³Ûïí³Í »Ý. ´³ÉϳÝÛ³Ý å³ï»ñ³½ÙÝ»ñÁ ѳݷ»óÝáõÙ »Ý ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ »íñáå³Ï³Ý ï³ñ³ÍùÝ»ñÇ ÏáñëïÇÝ ¨ ²Ý³ïáÉdzÛáõÙ Ãáõñù»ñÇ Ý³Ñ³ÝçÇÝ, ¨ ³Ûë ÑÇß³ã³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ˳ݹ³í³éáõÙ ¿ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ ·³Õ³÷³ñ³ËáëáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¨ ¹ñ¹áõÙ ³Ýóáõ٠ϳï³ñ»Éáõ ¹»åÇ å³ÝÃáõñùǽ٣ ¸»åÇ ²ëdz ݳѳÝçÇ ×³Ý³å³ñÑÇÝ Ñ³Û»ñÁ ¹ÇïíáõÙ »Ý Çμñ¨ Ãáõñù»ñÇ Í³í³ÉÙ³Ý ·É˳íáñ ËáãÁݹáï, ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñáí³Ý³íáñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÝ ³é³ñÏ³Û³Ï³Ý ¿ ¹³éÝáõÙ 1914 Ã. ÷»ïñí³ñÇ 8-Ç Ñ³Ù³Ó³Ûݳ·ñáí` ³ÝÑ»ï³ÝáõÙ ¿ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó å³ï»ñ³½ÙÇ Ñ³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÙÇó Ñ»ïá, ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Ñ³Û»ñÁ Ãáõñù»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ í»ñ³ÍíáõÙ »Ý Ï»Ýë³Ï³Ý ëå³éݳÉÇùÇ£ 1909 Ã. ³Ûë ·áñÍÁÝóóÇÝ Ã³÷ ãÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹íáõÙ£ ºÃ» Ñݳñ³íáñ ÉÇÝ»ñ ϳÝ˳½·³É μݳçÝçÙ³Ý ëå³éݳÉÇùÁ` ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ù³ÛÝùÇ Édz½áñ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÝ ³ÝϳñáÕ ÏÉÇÝ»ÇÝ ³ÛÝ Ï³Ý˻ɣ ²ÛÉÁÝïñ³ÝùÁ å³ñ½áõÝ³Ï ¿ ¨ ÝáõÛÝÝ ¿ ³ÛÝ μáÉáñ ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ, áñáÝù ëáëÏáõÙ »Ý ¹³éݳÉáõ ³ÙμáÕç³ïÇñ³Ï³Ý å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý ½áÑ»ñÁ` ׳ÙåñáõÏ Ï³Ù ¹³·³Õ. í³ï³ï»ëÝ»ñÁ ¹³éÝáõÙ »Ý íï³ñ³Ý¹Ç, Ñáé»ï»ëÝ»ñÁ` ÙÝáõÙ ï»ÕáõÙ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ, »Ã» ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ íï³ñ³Ý¹ÇáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÉÇùÇ ï»ÕÇù ¿ÇÝ ïí»É, ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ã»Ý áõÝ»ó»É ÙǨÝáõÛÝ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ìï³ñ³Ý¹Ç ¹³éݳÉÝ ³ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, ³Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, ѳÛÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ Ëáõë³÷»Éáõ ÙÇ³Ï ÙÇçáóÝ ¿ñ 1915 Ã. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó£ XX ¹³ñáõÙ ï³ñμ»ñ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ ¨ ï³ñμ»ñ Ñ»ÝùÇ íñ³ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í »ñÏáõ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³Ù»Ù³ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ Áݹ·ÍáõÙ ¿ ³å³·³ ½áÑÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ëå³éݳÉÇùÁ ϳÝ˳½·³Éáõ μ³ñ¹áõÃÛáõÝÁ, ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ ѳÝó³·áñÍ å»ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ¹»é¨ë ãÇ å³ïÏ»ñ³óñ»É, ³é³í»É ¨ë ãÇ ÑÕ³ó»É ·³Õ³÷³ñ³Ï³Ý ¨ (ϳÙ) ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý §í»ñçÝ³Ï³Ý ÉáõÍáõÙÁ¦ ÙÇ Ñ³ñóÇ, áñÝ Çñ å³ïÏ»ñ³óÙ³Ùμ ³é³ç³¹ñáõÙ ¿ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ 1933 Ã. ÙÇÝ㨠1939 Ã. ¶»ñÙ³ÝdzÛÇ Ññ»³Ý»ñÁ, Ù»Í Ù³ë³Ùμ ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ÇÝï»·ñí³Í ù³Õ³ù³óÇÝ»ñÁ, ³ëïÇ׳ݳμ³ñ ͳí³ÉíáÕ Ñ³Ï³ë»Ù³Ï³Ý ·áñÍáÕáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ Ëïñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»óáÕ ÙÇçáó³éáõÙÝ»ñÇ áõ ѳñ³×áõÝ íï³ñáõÙÝ»ñÇ ½áÑ»ñÝ »Ý£ ¶»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý §ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ÏáñåáõëÁ¦ Ýñ³Ýó ³ëïÇ׳ݳμ³ñ í³ÝáõÙ ¿. áÙ³Ýù ¹³éÝáõÙ »Ý íï³ñ³Ý¹Ç, ³ÛÉù` ÇÝùݳëå³Ý ÉÇÝáõÙ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ Ù»Í³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÙÝáõÙ ¿ ï»ÕáõÙ£ ܳËù³Ý ÐÇïÉ»ñÇ §Ù³ñ·³ñ»áõÃÛáõÝÁ¦, áñÁ ѳÛïÝáõÙ ¿, û å³ï»ñ³½ÙÇ μéÝÏÙ³Ý å³ñ³·³Ûáõ٠ѳٳß˳ñѳÛÇÝ Ñáõ¹³Û³160


Æí î»ñÝáÝ

ϳÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÏμݳçÝçíÇ, ³Ý·³Ù 1938 Ã. ÝáÛ»Ùμ»ñÇÝ ´Ûáõñ»Õ³å³Ï» ·Çß»ñí³ÝÇó12 Ñ»ïá áãÇÝã ÃáõÛÉ ãÇ ï³ÉÇë »Ýó¹ñ»Éáõ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ùáï³Éáõï íï³Ý·Ç Ù³ëÇÝ£ 1959 Ã. ÃáõÃëÇÝ»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³é³çÇÝ ³ÉÇùÝ ³Ù³Û³óÝáõÙ ¿ èáõ³Ý¹³Ý. μ»É·Ç³Ï³Ý ·³ÕáõóïÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ éáõ³Ý¹³Ï³Ý ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ñÑ»ëï³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý μ³Å³Ý»É ¿ñ ¿ÃÝÇÏ³Ï³Ý »ñÏáõ ËÙμÇ. ÑáõïáõÝ»ñÇ Ù»Í³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ïñùáï³μ³ñ ÓÁ·ïáõÙ ¿ñ íñ»ÅËݹÇñ ÉÇÝ»É ÃáõÃëÇÝ»ñÇ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó, áñÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óí³Í ¿ñ Çμñ¨ ջϳí³ñáÕ í»ñÝ³Ë³í£ ²Ûë ³é³çÇÝ ³ÉÇùÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ¨ ѳçáñ¹Ý»ñÁ` ÙÇÝ㨠1990 Ã., ½³ñÏ »Ý ï³ÉÇë íï³ñ³Ý¹ÇáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ êÏë³Í ³Ûë å³ÑÇó ¨ Ç ï³ñμ»ñáõÃÛáõÝ »ñÏáõ ݳËáñ¹ Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÝ»ñÇ, ³å³·³ ½áÑ»ñÁ` ÃáõÃëÇÝ»ñÁ, ·Çï³ÏóáõÙ »Ý ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³ÝËáõë³÷»ÉÇ ëå³éݳÉÇùÁ, ÇëÏ 1994 Ã. ÑáõÝí³ñÇó Ç í»ñ Çñ³½»Ïí³Í ÙÇç³½·³ÛÇÝ Ñ³ÝñáõÃÛáõÝÁ áãÇÝã ãÇ Ó»éݳñÏáõÙ ³Ûë íï³Ý·Á ϳÝË»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ º½ñ³÷³Ï»Ýù. 1909 Ã. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳï»É ¿ ëáíáñ³Ï³ÝÇ ë³ÑÙ³ÝÁ. ³í³Ý¹³Ï³Ý ÏñáÝ³Ï³Ý ³ï»ÉáõÃÛáõÝÁ ½áõ·³ÏóíáõÙ ¿ ëáóÇ³É³Ï³Ý ÑÇß³ã³ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ£ ´³óÇ ¹ñ³ÝÇó, Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ íñ³ »Ý ѳëÝáõÙ ³ÛÝ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, »ñμ ·áñÍáÕ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ í×é»É ¿ñ ëï»ÕÍ»É ³½·³ÛÇÝ å»ïáõÃÛáõÝ, áñï»Õ ѳۻñÁ ãáõÝ»Ý Çñ»Ýó ï»ÕÝ Çμñ¨ ³Û¹åÇëÇù, ÇÝãÁ ãÇ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë˳ÝáõÙ 1895 Ã. å³ñ³·³ÛÇÝ, »ñμ ëáõÉóÝÁ ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ ¿ñ ÙdzÛÝ ¹³ë ï³É ѳۻñÇÝ ÙÇ Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ, áñï»Õ Ýñ³Ýù ϳñáÕ ¿ÇÝ ³åñ»É Çμñ¨ ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ, »Ã» ³Ý·³Ù زÎ-Á ã¿, áñ ÏÛ³ÝùÇ ¿ Ïáã»É μéÝáõÃÛ³Ý ³Ûë ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍáõÙÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ, ³å³ ³ÛÝ ¹ñ³ Ù³ëݳÏÇóÝ ¿ ¹³ñÓ»É ï»Õ³Ï³Ý ٳϳñ¹³ÏÇ íñ³£ 1909 Ã. Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÝ, ³ÛëåÇëáí, å³ïñ³ëï ¿, ÇÝãåÇëÇÝ ¨ »Õ»É ¿ 1895 Ã., Ïáïáñ»Éáõ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ ³Û¹åÇëÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý ïñí»Éáõ å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ (çÇѳ¹Ç)£ ²Û¹áõѳݹ»ñÓ, زÎ-Ç ¹ÇñùáñáßáõÙÁ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá ÃáõÛɳïñáõÙ ¿ áñáß ÑáõÛë»ñ ï³Í»É ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ÷áùñ³Ù³ëÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ×³Ï³ï³·ñÇ μ³ñ»É³íÙ³Ý ³éáõÙáí, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ³Ûë ÑáõÛë»ñÁ Ïãù³Ý³Ý 1913 Ã.£ Ø»Ï ¹³ñ ³Ýó, ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ϳÝ˳½·³É Çμñ¨ 1915 Ã. ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³Ë»ñ·³Ýù, ³ÛÝ ¹»åùáõÙ, »ñμ 1909 Ã. á°ã ³å³·³ Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝÁ ¨ á°ã ³å³·³ ½áÑÁ ã¿ÇÝ Ï³ñáÕ ³Ý·³Ù ÁÙμéÝ»É Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍ Çñ³í³Ë³ËïáõÙÁ, áñÇ ³é³ÝÓݳѳïÏáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ã¿ñ ×ß·ñïí»É£ üñ³Ýë»ñ»ÝÇó óñ·Ù³Ý»ó` ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³ÝÁ

Yves Ternon Cilicia 1909. Was it possible to foresee the threat of Genocide? Summary The article tries to find an answer to the important question whether the massacre of Cilicia could have played a decisive role in the prevision of the Genocide in 1915. Several important circumstances such as the initial perception of the massacres, the questions put forward and the probability of being a prelude to the Genocide in 1915, have been taken under investigation.

12 1938 Ã. ÝáÛ»Ùμ»ñÇÝ, ö³ñǽáõÙ ÙÇ Ññ»³ÛÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ¶»ñÙ³ÝdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹³Ï³ÝÇ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÇó Ñ»ïá, ݳóÇëï³Ï³Ý ³ÙμáËÁ ÏáÕáåïáõÙ ¿ Ññ»³Ý»ñÇ Ë³ÝáõÃÝ»ñÁ ¨ ÑñÏǽáõÙ ëÇݳ·á·Ý»ñÁ£

161


²¸²Ü²ÚÆ æ²ð¸ºðÜ ²ìêîðÆ²Î²Ü ²ðÊÆì²ÚÆÜ ì²ìºð²¶ðºðÆ ÈàôÚêÆ Üºðøà ²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý ò³ÝϳÝáõÙ »Ù ³é³Ýó Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñ³ñï³¹ñ»É ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ íÇɳۻÃáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ³ñӳݳ·ñí»É »Ý Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ ²íëïñá-ÐáõÝ·³ñdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáë ¸³ñ³ëÇ Ñ³í³ëïÇ Ñ³Õáñ¹³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñáõÙ, ¨ áñáÝù ݳ áõÕ³ñÏ»É ¿ ÂáõñùdzÛáõÙ ³íëïñá-ÑáõÝ·³ñ³Ï³Ý å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ²Û¹ ·ñ³éáõÙÝ»ñÁ ¹ÇåáõÏ ¨ Ù»ñϳóÝáÕ Ï»ñåáí Ýϳñ³·ñáõÙ »Ý ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ §15-Á ³åñÇÉÇ 1909Ã. гɻåÇ ³íëïñá-ÑáõÝ·³ñ³Ï³Ý ÑÛáõå³ïáëáõÃÛáõÝ ä³ñáÝ ÐÛáõå³ïáë, ÆÝÓ ÃáõÛÉ »Ù ï³ÉÇë Ò»½ áõÕ³ñÏ»É ³ÛÝ Ñ»é³·ñ»ñÇ å³ï×»ÝÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù »ë »ñ»Ï ¨ ³Ûëûñ ³é³íáïÛ³Ý Ñ³ÝÓÝ»É »Ù Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëÇ ¹»ëå³Ý³ï³ÝÁ, Ò»ñ ÑÛáõå³ïáëáõÃÛ³ÝÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ í³ÉÇÇÝ` »ñ»Ïí³ÝÇó ³ÛÝï»Õ ѳۻñÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ß³ñáõݳϻÉáõ ϳå³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²ÛÝ μ³ÝÇó Ñ»ïá, »ñμ ³ÝóÛ³É ß³μ³Ã ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ýå³ï³Ïáí ÙÇ Ñ³Û »ñÏáõ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ¿ñ ëå³Ý»É, ²¹³Ý³Ý ³ÛÅÙ ³É»ÏáÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¿£1 ØÇ Ñ³Û »ñÇï³ë³ñ¹ Çñ å³ïÇíÝ áõ ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ÑÇÝ· Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇó å³ßïå³Ý»Éáõ ѳٳñ Ïñ³Ï»É ¿ñ í»ñçÇÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³, áñÇ Ñ»ï¨³Ýùáí »ñÏáõëÁ ٳѳó»É ¿ÇÝ£ ºñ»ùß³μÃÇ »ñ»ÏáÛ³Ý, ³åñÇÉÇ 13-ÇÝ, ³ÙμáËÁ ·Ý³ó»É ¿ñ ·É˳íáñ ݳѳݷ³å»ïÇ Ùáï ¨ å³Ñ³Ýç»É Çñ»Ý ѳÝÓÝ»É Ñ³Û Ù³ñ¹³ëå³ÝÇÝ` Ýñ³Ý Ññ³å³ñ³Ï³ÛÝáñ»Ý ٳѳå³ïÅÇ »ÝóñÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ¨ ù³ÝÇ áñ ³ñ¹ÛáõÝùÇ ã¿ÇÝ Ñ³ë»É, Ý»ïí»É ¿ÇÝ ÷áÕáó ¨ ëå³Ý»É ³é³çÇÝ ÇëÏ å³ï³Ñ³Í ѳÛÇÝ... âáñ»ùß³μÃÇ, ³åñÇÉÇ 14-ÇÝ, ù³Õ³ùáí Ù»Ï ï³ñ³Íí»ó §Ø³°Ñ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇݦ ÏáãÁ£ ²ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ëåÇï³Ï ã³ÉÙ³Û³íáñ ¨ ٳѳÏÝ»ñáí ½ÇÝí³Í Ññáë³Ï³ËÙμ»ñÁ ¹Çñù³íáñí»óÇÝ ï³ñμ»ñ Ù½ÏÇÃÝ»ñÇ ³éç¨ ¨ ëÏë»óÇÝ ëå³Ý»É ³ÝóÝáÕ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ£ Üñ³Ýó ѻ層óÇÝ ÏáÕáåïÇãÝ»ñÁ ¨ ϳñ× Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ³Ýó ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ßáõÏ³Ý Ã³É³Ýí³Í ¨ ³í»ñí³Í ¿ñ ... ¼áÑí»óÇÝ ß³ï»ñÁ, ³Ù»ÝÇó ³é³ç ¹³ßïÇó í»ñ³¹³ñÓáÕÝ»ñÁ, áñáÝù ³Ýï»ÕÛ³Ï ¿ÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ å³ï³Ñ³ÍÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, Ýñ³Ýù ù³Õ³ù í»ñ³¹³éݳÉÇë ³ÝáÕáù³μ³ñ ëå³Ýí»óÇÝ£2 гۻñÝ ¿É Çñ»Ýó Ñ»ñÃÇÝ Ëñ³Ù³ï³íáñí»óÇÝ Çñ»Ýó óճٳë»ñáõÙ ¨ ëå³Ý»óÇÝ ³Û¹ï»Õáí ³ÝóÝáÕ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ£ ¼áÑ»ñÇ ëïáõÛ· ù³Ý³ÏÁ ã»Ýù ϳñáÕ Ýß»É. Ùáï³íáñ³å»ë »ñÏáõ ѳ½³ñ, áñáÝóÇó Ùáï 30 Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý áñáÝóÇó ãáñëÁ ½ÇÝíáñ, ÇëÏ Ùݳó³ÍÁ` ѳۻñ áõ »ñÏáõ ϳ٠»ñ»ù ÑáõÛݦ£3 §15.04.09 Þï³å. ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ »Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÁ, ÏáÕáåáõïÝ áõ ÑñÏǽáõÙÝ»ñÁ, ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ »Ýù ëï³ÝáõÙ î³ñëáõëÇ ¹Åí³ñ íÇ׳ÏÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, μ³Ý³ÏÇ Õ»Ï³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳëϳÍÝ»ñ ¿ ѳñáõóáõÙ, ÷áÕáóÝ»ñÁ ÉÇ »Ý íï³Ý·áí, Çñ³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ` ËÇëï μ³ñ¹ ¿£ â³ñÇùÁ 1 Österreich-Ungarn und Armenien 1872-1936, Sammlung diplomatischer Aktenstücke, in 12 Bänden, Wien, 1995, ¿ç 3368: 2 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3396: 3 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3369:

162


²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý

·Ý³Éáí ³í»ÉÇ ¿ ٻͳÝáõÙ£ ¼»ÛÃáõÝÇó ·³ÉÇë ¿ ½ÇÝí³Í ѳۻñÇ ÙÇ Ù»Í ËáõÙ즣4 §15.04.09 Þï³å. ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ Ø³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ѳۻñÇ ÙÇç¨ ë³ëïÇÏ ÏéÇíÝ»ñÁ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ »Ý ¨ ï³ñ³ÍíáõÙ ÙÛáõë ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÙ£ ²¹³Ý³Ý Ù»Í Ù³ë³Ùμ Ññ¹»Ñí³Í ¿, å»ï³Ï³Ý û·ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÝÑݳñ ¿, ËݹñáõÙ »Ýù ßï³å ϳñ·³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ ³Ý»É: ²í»ñ³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ýáñ ó÷ »Ý ëï³ÝáõÙ ¨ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ£ Üáñ Ññ³Ù³Ý ¿ ³ñÓ³Ïí»É ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñÇÝ ëå³Ý»Éáõ, ÇëÏ ³ÛÉ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ` ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ ûï³ñ»ñÏñ³óÇÝ»ñÇÝ, ѳñ·³Ýùáí í»ñ³μ»ñí»Éáõ Ù³ëÇݦ£5 §16.04.09 ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ ²ÝÑáõë³ÉÇ Çñ³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ ¿, ç³ñ¹»ñ, ÏáÕáåáõï, Ññ¹»ÑÝ»ñ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ, î³ñëáõëáõÙ£ Êáõ׳å³ÛÇÝ Çñ³íÇ×³Ï Ø»ñëÇÝáõÙ¦£6 §17.04.09 ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ Ø»ñëÇÝÇ Ùáõóë³ñÇý É»Ûï»Ý³Ýï ÈáõýÃÇ μ»ÛÇ7 ßÝáñÑÇí ѳݷÇëïÁ å³Ñå³ÝíáõÙ ¿£ î³ñëáõëáõÙ Ññ¹»Ñí»É ¿ ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý »Ï»Õ»ó³Ï³Ý óճٳëÁ£ ê³ñë³÷»ÉÇ ÏáÕáåáõï, ç³ñ¹»ñ¦£8 §19.04.09 ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ ìÇɳۻÃáõÙ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ »Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÁ, ÏáÕáåáõïÁ, Ññ¹»ÑÝ»ñÁ, ·ÛáõÕ³ïÝï»ë³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏíáÕ ÑáÕ»ñÁ Ññ¹»ÑíáõÙ ¨ ÏáÕáåïíáõÙ »Ý£ ¼áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ 15000 ¿, ÝÛáõÃ³Ï³Ý ÏáñáõëïÁ Ñݳñ³íáñ 㿠ѳßí»É£ 껽³ñ»Ý ³í»ñí»É ¿, ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ áã ÙÇ Ý³í ãÇ Å³Ù³ÝáõÙ¦£9 §(27.)22.04.09 ö»ñ³, ѻ鳷Çñ ä³É³íÇãÇÝÇÇÝ ìÇ»Ýݳ£ ¸ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ³ÙëÇ 16-Çó ׷ݳųٳÛÇÝ ¿£ гɻåÇ æ³ÙμÇÝ øñÇË³Ý ·ÛáõÕÝ ³ÙμáÕçáíÇÝ ³Ûñí³Í ¿ ¨ ѳۻñÝ ëå³Ý¹Ç »ÝóñÏí³Í£ ²ÝóùdzÛáõÙ 328 ѳÛÇ Ïáïáñ»É »Ý ì³ñ·³ëÉÇÏÇ, ²ïÇÏÇ, ê³ëáõÇ, ø»ë³μÇ, Æëϳݹ³ñáõÝÇ ßñç³Ï³ÛùÇ ·ÛáõÕ»ñÁ Ù³ë³Ùμ í³éí³Í »Ý ¨ ѳۻñÁ ëå³Ý¹Ç »ÝóñÏí³Í£ ´³½Ù³ÃÇí μéݳμ³ñí³Í ϳݳÛù ¨ ³ÕçÇÏÝ»ñ »ñ»Ë³Ý»ñÇ Ñ»ï ó÷³éáõÙ »Ý ë³ñ»ñáõÙ ¨ ëáí³Ù³Ñ »Ý ÉÇÝáõÙ£ ¸áñÃÛáÉáõÙ ùñ¹»ñÇ ¨ ã»ñù»½Ý»ñÇ çáϳïÝ»ñÁ 7000 Ñá·áõ å³ß³ñ»É »Ý` ÙÇÝ㨠Ýñ³Ýù ëáí³Ù³Ñ ÉÇݻݣ ÆëÏ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÁ ÙdzÛÝ ¹ÇïáõÙ »Ý: ²Ûëûñ ³é³íáïÛ³Ý ³Ý·ÉdzϳÝ, ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý ¨ Çï³É³Ï³Ý Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ»ñÇ ×ÝßÙ³Ý Ý»ñùá ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ÙÇ Ý³í áõÕ³ñÏí»ó ¸áñÃÛáÉ` å³ß³ñí³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ÷ñÏ»Éáõ ѳٳñ£ ²ñ¹ÛáõÝùÁ ³ñųÝÇ ã¿ ÑÇß³ï³Ïٳݦ£10

4 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3374: 5 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3398: 6 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3374: 7 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3405: 8 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3375: 9 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ: 10 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3392:

163


²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý

§25.04.09 ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ ÐÇÝ· ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý Ý³í»ñÇ (³Ý·ÉdzϳÝ, ýñ³ÝëdzϳÝ, Çï³É³Ï³Ý, ·»ñÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ¨ éáõë³Ï³Ý) ųٳÝáõÙÁ ÏñÏÇÝ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·Ý»ó íëï³ÑáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ÑáõÛë ³é³ç³ó³í, áñ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ ûñÇó ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ÝáõÛÝå»ë Çñ³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ïμ³ñ»É³ííÇ, »ñμ ê³ÉáÝÇÏÇó Å³Ù³Ý³Í ÎáÙÇï»Ç μ³Ý³ÏÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ѳÝÓݳñ³ñí³Í ¿ñ, ³í³ñïÇÝ Ñ³ëóñ»ó ³í»ñÙ³Ý áõ áãÝã³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁ: è³½Ù³Ï³Ý Ý³í»ñÇ ëå³Ý»ñÝ ³Û¹ í»ñçÇÝ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Éáõé íϳݻñÁ ¹³ñӳݣ Üñ³Ýó Ý»ñϳÛáõÃÛ³Ùμ ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñÁ óɳÝáõÙ, Ññ¹»ÑáõÙ ¨ ÏáïáñáõÙ ¿ÇÝ£11 §ºñÏñÇ Ëáñù»ñáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ »Ýóϳ ¿ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ á×ñ³·áñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£ سÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ó³ÝϳÝáõÙ »Ý ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ³ñÛáõÝÁ£ Àëï ÁݹѳÝáõñ ϳñÍÇùÇ, ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ¹ÇïíáõÙ »Ý áñå»ë ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇÝ í»ñ³óÝ»Éáõ ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëïáõÃÛáõÝ£ ÎñáÝ³Ï³Ý Ï³Ù ù³Õ³ù³óÇ³Ï³Ý Õ»Ï³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳ٠³Ýí³ÝÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÁ ³Ñ³½³Ý· »Ý ÑÝã»óÝáõÙ£ سñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÁ ϳ½ÙáõÙ ¿ 20 000 ùñÇëïáÝÛ³¦:12 §26.04.09 ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇëÉ£ ²ÝóÛ³É ·Çß»ñ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Éáõñ»ñ ëï³óí»óÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇó£ ì»ñç»ñë Å³Ù³Ý³Í ½áñù»ñÁ Ññ¹»ÑáõÙ »Ý ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ã³Õ³Ù³ëÁ, ëå³ÝáõÙ ÷³ËãáÕÝ»ñÇÝ£ Ø»Í ¿ ﳷݳåÁ£ ´³Ý³ÏÁ ·Ý³Éáí ³í»ÉÇ ¿ μáñμáùíáõÙ, μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ë³ñë³÷³Ñ³ñ ¿, Ù»Í Ëáõ×³å ¿ ïÇñáõÙ£ γé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ïñ³Ù³¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ï³Ï ϳ 4 000 ½ÇÝíáñ¦£13 §27.04.09 ²íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý ¹»ëå³Ý³ïáõÝ, Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉÇë£ ²¹³Ý³Ý ÑáÕÇ áõ ÙáËñÇ ¿ í»ñ³Íí»É, ·ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ ѳۻñÇÝ Ïáïáñ»É »Ý£14 γé³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ ³Û¹ í»ñçÇÝ ³Õ»ïÁ í»ñ³·ñ»É ѳۻñÇÝ ¨ åݹáõÙ ¿, û Ýñ³Ýó óճٳëÁ ÙÇ Í»ñ ÏÇÝ ¿ Ññ¹»Ñ»É, ¨ áñ ѳۻñÁ ¹³ áñå»ë ѻճ÷áË³Ï³Ý ¹»åù »Ý Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ£ ê³Ï³ÛÝ Çñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳϳé³ÏÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿ ³Õ³Õ³ÏáõÙ. ÇÙ μáÉáñ ·áñÍÁÝÏ»ñÝ»ñÁ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ 鳽ٳݳí»ñÇ Ññ³Ù³Ý³ï³ñÝ»ñÁ` ³Û¹ ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ ï»ë³ñ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÁ, ÙdzӳÛÝ Ñ³Ûï³ñ³ñ»É »Ý, áñ ³Û¹ï»Õ ËáëùÁ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ ¿, áñáÝù ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí»É ¿ÇÝ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ ¹»Ù ¨ Ñ»ïá ë³Ñٳݳ÷³Ïí»É ÙdzÛÝ Ñ³Û»ñáí£ ê³, Ò»ñ¹ ¶»ñ³½³ÝóáõÃÛáõÝ, ÇÙ ³ÝÓÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ³Ùá½ÙáõÝùÝ ¿, áñ ÑÇÙÝíáõÙ ¿ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³ áõ ݳ¨ ³Ûëï»ÕÇ áõëÛ³É ¨ »ñÏñÇ Ý»ñëáõÙ ·ïÝíáÕ áõݨáñ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ûï³ñ³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³, áñáÝó Ñ»ï »ë ³é¨ïñ³Ï³Ý ϳå»ñÇ Ù»ç »Ù, ¨ áñáÝù ÇÝÓÝÇó ã»Ý óùóÝáõÙ, áñ Ññ³Ù³ÝÁ ïí»É »Ý ï»Õ³Ï³Ý Ù³ñÙÇÝÝ»ñÁ` Ïá㠳ݻÉáí ½ÇÝí»É ¨ å³ïñ³ëï ÉÇÝ»É...15 سñ¹Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñáõëïÁ ·Ý³Ñ³ïíáõÙ ¿ 30 000, áñÇó 2000 –Á áõÕÕ³÷³é ¨ ϳÃáÉÇÏ ÑáõÛÝ»ñ »Ý, 300-Á ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý, ÇëÏ Ùݳó³ÍÁ` ѳۻñ£16 Üáñ í³ÉÇÝ Ëáëï³ÝáõÙ ¿ ϳñ· áõ ϳÝáÝ Ñ³ëï³ï»É, μ³Ûó ¹³ Ýñ³Ý ¹Åí³ñáõÃÛ³Ùμ ÏѳçáÕíÇ, ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ß³ñáõݳÏíáõÙ »Ý Ññ¹»ÑÝ»ñÝ áõ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ£ ¼ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý 11 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3401: 12 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3375: 13 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ: 14 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ: 15 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3402: 16 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3403:

164


²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý

Ýáñ å³ñ»ïÁ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý Çñ³íáõÝù ¿ ë³ÑٳݻÉ, ÇëÏ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ 5-ñ¹ μ³Ý³Ï³ÛÇÝ ÏáñåáõëÇ ÙÛáõ¹áõñÇ Ý³Ë³·³ÑáõÃÛ³Ùμ ßáõïáí ï»ÕϳÛí»Éáõ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ£ ²ñ¹»Ý Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí»É »Ý Ùáï 300 Ù»Õ³íáñÝ»ñ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ μáÉáñÝ ¿É ѳۻñ »Ý, ¨ ϳñ»ÉÇ ¿ Ùï³í³ËáõÃÛáõÝ áõݻݳÉ, áñ ³Ûë ³ÙμáÕç ¹Åμ³ËïáõÃÛáõÝÇó áõ ç³ñ¹»ñÇó Ñ»ïá, Ýñ³Ýó ÏÙ»Õ³¹ñ»Ý ݳ¨ ѻճ÷áË³Ï³Ý ÉÇÝ»Éáõ Ù»ç, ¨ áñ Ýñ³Ýù ëïÇåí³Í ÏÉÇÝ»Ý Ý³¨ ù³í»É ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ï³ï³ñ³Í Ù»Õù»ñÁ£17 ²ÛÅÙ, »ñμ ³Ù»Ý ÇÝã óɳÝí³Í áõ ÏáÕáåïí³Í ¿, ³Ù»Ý ûñ ųٳÝáõÙ »Ý ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³Ý Ýáñ³Ýáñ ÙdzíáñáõÙÝ»ñ, Ãíáí 8 000 ½ÇÝíáñ£ ²Û¹ù³Ý ½ÇÝíáñÝ»ñ áõÕ³ñÏ»ÉÁ ϳñÍ»ë áã ÙÇ ³ÛÉ Ýå³ï³Ï ãáõÝÇ, ù³Ý ѳëï³ï»Éáõ ³ÛÝ, áñ ³Ûëï»Õ ËáëùÁ ѻճ÷áËáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ ¿...18 ºñμ Ñ³Û Ï³ÃáÉÇÏ »åÇëÏáåáë »ñ½Û³ÝÁ ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇÝ Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»ó Çñ Í˳ϳÝÝ»ñÇ í»ñçÇÝ ç³ñ¹»ñÇ ½áÑ»ñÇ óáõó³ÏÁ, »õ ¹»é Ý»ñϳ۳óñ»ó ѳÝó³·áñÍÝ»ñÇ ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÁ, Ýñ³ Ñ»ï í³ñí»óÇÝ áñå»ë ˳μ»μ³ÛÇ ¨ ëï³ËáëÇ£ ²Û¹ å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ áã ÙÇ ùñÇëïáÝÛ³ ³Ûɨë ãÇ Ñ³Ù³ñÓ³ÏíÇ Ý»ñϳ۳ݳɣ19 ØÇ ù³ÝÇ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³Ý ¿É ¿ Ó»ñμ³Ï³Éí»É ¨ μ³Ýï³ñÏí»É, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ¹ñ³Ýù ó³Íñ ¹³ëÇ Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ »Ý, ³í»ÉÇ ßáõï å³ëÇí Ù³ëݳÏÇóÝ»ñ, ù³Ý Ññ³ÑñáÕÝ»ñ£ Üñ³Ýó Ó»ñμ³Ï³ÉáõÙÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Ýñ³Ýó ѳٳËáÑÝ»ñÇÝ í³ñ³ÝÙ³Ý ³éÇà ïí»ó ¨ ÙÇ ù³ÝÇ Ëáç³Ý»ñ ëå³éݳóÇÝ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇÝ, áñ ÝáñÇó ÏëÏë»Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÁ, »Ã» Ýñ³Ýù ¹³ï³å³ñïí»Ý... ØÇ³Ï Ýå³ï³ÏÁ, áñ í³ÉÇÝ ¹ñ»É ¿ Çñ ³éç¨, áñÝ ³é³Ýó μ³ó³éáõÃÛ³Ý Ý³¨ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³Ý ¨ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý í»ñݳ˳íÇ Ýå³ï³ÏÝ ¿, »íñáå³óÇÝ»ñÇ ³ãùáõÙ ³Õ»ï³ÉÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ã³÷»ñÁ Ù»ÕÙ»ÉÝ áõ ³ÙμáÕç Ù»ÕùÁ ѳۻñÇÝ í»ñ³·ñ»ÉÝ áõ Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇÝ áñå»ë ½áÑ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝ»ÉÁ...20 Àëï Ù»ñ Ýáñ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ, ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃÇíÁ ½·³ÉÇáñ»Ý ³ÝóÝáõÙ ¿ 40 000-Ç ë³ÑÙ³ÝÁ£ ØÇ Ëáëùáí, ë³ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ÇëÏ³Ï³Ý μݳçÝçáõÙ ¿ ... ¶ñ»Ã» μáÉáñ ϳݳÝó ëïÇå»É »Ý ÁݹáõÝ»É Ù³ÑÙ»¹³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ Çñ»Ýó ÏÛ³ÝùÁ ÷ñÏ»Éáõ ¨ ѳñ»ÙÝ»ñÁ ½³ñ¹³ñ»Éáõ ѳٳñ...¦:21 1909Ã. ÑáõÉÇëÇ 21-ÇÝ Îáëï³Ý¹ÝáõåáÉëáõÙ ²íëïñá-ÐáõÝ·³ñdzÛÇ ¹»ëå³Ý ä³É³íÇãÇÝÇÝ ìÇ»Ýݳ ¿ ѳÕáñ¹áõÙ é³½Ù³Ï³Ý ³ïÛ³ÝÇ ¹³ï³í³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ. §è³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ ïËáõñ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛ³Ý áñáß Ù³ëÁ μ³ñ¹áõÙ ¿ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý íñ³, Ù»Õ³¹ñ»Éáí Ýñ³Ý ³Ýç³ïáÕ³Ï³Ý ÙÇïáõÙÝ»ñÇ ¨ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý³Ï³Ý ï³ññÇÝ ë³¹ñ»Éáõ Ù»ç ... ¸³ï³ñ³ÝÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ, ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÷³ëïáõÙ ¿ ÙáõëáõÉÙ³ÝÝÝ»ñÇ Ïñù»ñÇ μ³í³Ï³ÝÇÝ μ³ó³Ñ³Ûï μáñμáùÙ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ, áñáÝù ÇÝã áñ ÙÇ å³Ñ ѳí³ï³ó»É »Ý, û ѳۻñÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ §Ï³ñ·³¹ñí³Í »Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó, ÇÝãå»ë 1896-Çݦ£ ²ÛÝáõÑ»ï¨ Ý³ ÝßáõÙ ¿ ³ÛÝ ëáëϳÉÇ ó³í»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ, áñáÝù ëïÇåáõÙ »Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÇÝ §ë³ñë³÷Çó ¹áճɦ ¨ Ç í»ñçá ѳëï³ïáõÙ ¿ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»ÕùÁ, áñáÝù ã»Ý ϳñáÕ³ó»É ³ñ·»É»É ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó ¹»ÙÝ ³éݻɣ è³½Ù³Ï³Ý ¹³ï³ñ³ÝÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ٳѳå³ïÅÇ »ÝóñÏíáÕÝ»ñÇ ù³Ý³ÏÁ ¨, »½ñ³÷³Ï»Éáí ѳßí»ïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ÝßáõÙ, áñ ³ñ¹³ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ÙμáÕç³å»ë Çñ³·áñÍí»Éáõ å³ñ³·³ÛáõÙ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ íÇɳۻÃÇ ³ÙμáÕç μݳÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÏѳÛïÝí»ñ μ³ÝïáõÙ£ ²Û¹ å³ï׳éáí ݳ ѳݹ»ë ¿ ·³ÉÇë ѳٳݻñÙ³Ý û·ïÇÝ ... ÊáñÑñ¹³ñ³ÝÇ ËáëݳÏÁ ѳñóÙ³ÝÝ Ç å³ï³ëË³Ý ³ë»É ¿, áñ áÕμ»ñ·³Ï³Ý Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ Ùáé³óáõÃÛ³Ý ßÕ³ñßáí å³ï»Éáõ ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ Ùáõ17 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3404: 18 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3405: 19 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3426: 20 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3427: 21 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3428:

165


²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý

ëáõÉÙ³ÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ѳۻñÇ ÙÇç¨ Ñ³ßïáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ëÝ»Éáõ Ýå³ï³Ïáí ê³Ñٳݳ¹ñáõÃÛ³Ý ïáÝÇ ³éÃÇí å»ïù ¿ ѳٳݻñáõ٠ѳÛï³ñ³ñíǦ£22 лï³ùñùÇñ »Ù ѳٳñáõ٠ݳ¨ îñ³åǽáÝáõÙ ²íëïñá-ÐáõÝ·³ñdzÛÇ ÑÛáõå³ïáë ØáõñÇóÇ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ í»ñ³μ»ñáõÙ ¿ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ¹»åù»ñÇÝ ¨ ³ÛÝï»Õ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ. 1909 Ã. ë»åï»Ùμ»ñÇ 9-ÇÝ Ý³ ·ñáõÙ ¿ ä³É³íÇãÇÝÇÇÝ. §Ð³Û»ñÁ ÙÇÝ㨠ÑÇÙ³ ³ç³ÏóáõÙ »Ý »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ, áñáÝó Ýñ³Ýù å³ñï³Ï³Ý »Ý ²μ¹áõÉ Ð³ÙÇ¹Ç ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ μéݳϳÉáõÃÛáõÝÇó ¨ Ýñ³ ¹³ÑÇ×Ý»ñÇ ãÃáõɳóáÕ Ñ»ï³åݹáõÙÝ»ñÇó ¨ Ëáßï³Ý·áõÙÝ»ñÇó ³½³ïí»Éáõ ѳٳñ, ¨ ³ÛÝ ³ÏÝϳÉÇùáí, û Ïí³ñÓ³ïñí»Ý Çñ»Ýó ͳé³ÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹ÇÙ³ó£ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÁ ¨ ùñ¹»ñÇ ·Ý³Éáí ³í»ÉÇ Ñ³×³Ë³ÏÇ ¹³ñÓáÕ Ñ³ñÓ³ÏáõÙÝ»ñÝ áõ ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ë³Ï³ÛÝ, Ýñ³Ýó ëáíáñ»óÝáõÙ »Ý, áñ ëïÇåí³Í »Ý ÝáõÛÝÇëÏ ë³Ñٳݳ¹ñ³Ï³Ý é»ÅÇÙáõÙ ½·áõßáõÃÛáõÝ Ñ³Ý¹»ë μ»ñ»É£ Æñ³å»ë ãÇ Ï³ñ»ÉÇ ëå³ë»É, áñ Ýñ³Ýù Çñ»Ýó ëñï»ñáõÙ ë»ñ ï³Í»Ý ÃáõñùÇ Ñ³Ý¹»å¦:23

Artem Ohanjanyan The Massacres of Adana Summary The article examines the events that took place in Adana vilayet, and were recorded in Mersin in the authentic notifications of the Austria-Hungarian consul who sent them to the Austria-Hungarian official bodies in Turkey. The Austrian records in the article describe the events in Adana in a very accurate and disclosing way.

22 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 3460-3464: 23 ÜáõÛÝ ï»ÕáõÙ, ¿ç 36, 88:

166


167


²Ýݳ ²É»ùë³ÝÛ³Ý – ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý – ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ §²ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û ϳݳÝó ß³ñÅáõÙÁ 19-ñ¹ ¹³ñÇ í»ñçÇÝ ¨ 20-ñ¹ ¹³ñÇ ëϽμÇݦ ûٳÛÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²ñ÷ÇÝ» ´³μÉáõÙÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ã»ÏݳÍáõ, ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ÷áËïÝûñ»Ý£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ ²ñ¨ÙïÛ³Ý Ð³Û³ëï³ÝÇ Ñ³Û μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý ÅáÕáíñ¹³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñó»ñáí ëÏë³Í 19-ñ¹ ¹³ñÇ í»ñçÇó ÙÇÝ㨠1915-1923 ÃÃ. гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ ÁÝÏ³Í Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³Ñ³ïí³ÍÁ£ ²ñ³Ù³ÛÇë ´³ÉáÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ã»ÏݳÍáõ, سï»Ý³¹³ñ³ÝÇ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ËݹñáõÙ ûï³ñ ï»ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ (Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë Æï³ÉdzÛÇ) ¹ÇñùáñáßÙ³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñó»ñáí£ Ð³ÛÏ ¸»ÙáÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹áÏïáñ, ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ïÝûñ»Ý£ ¶Çï³Ï³Ý Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ßñç³Ý³ÏÝ Áݹ·ñÏáõÙ ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ÂáõñùdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, Ô³ñ³μ³ÕÛ³Ý ÑÇÙݳѳñóÇ, Ñ³Û ÇÝùÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ é³½Ù³ñí»ëïÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ËݹÇñÝ»ñÁ£ è³ÛÙáõݹ ¶¨áñ·Û³Ý – ýñ³Ýë³Ñ³Û å³ïÙ³μ³Ý, å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹áÏïáñ, åñáý»ëáñ£ лÕÇÝ³Ï ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£ î³Ã¨ÇÏ Ô³ÉóÕãÛ³Ý – ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ 1908-1914 ÃÃ. ³ñ¨Ùï³Ñ³Û Ù³ÙáõÉÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ êáõñ»Ý سÝáõÏÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ã»ÏݳÍáõ, ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ÷áËïÝûñ»Ý£ àõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÙ ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ѳë³ñ³ÏáõÃÛ³Ý ï³ñμ»ñ ß»ñï»ñÇ Ý»ñ·ñ³íí³ÍáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÁ£ ¾í³ Ø»ñ»ÝÇã - ´áõ¹³å»ßïÇ ÎáñíÇÝáõë ѳٳÉë³ñ³ÝÇ ³ëåÇñ³Ýï£ ¶Çï³Ï³Ý Ñ»ï³ùñùñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ù»ç ¿ ÙïÝáõÙ §Ð³Ûáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñùÇÝ ¨ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ³½¹»óáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñǦ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ£ ²ñ³Ù ØÇñ½áÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ã»ÏݳÍáõ: ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÙÇ ß³ñù ÑÇÙݳѳñó»ñÇ, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë, Ñ³Û å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¶»ñÙ³ÝdzÛÇ Ù»Õë³ÏóáõÃÛ³Ý Ñ³ñóÇ ùÝݳñÏÙ³Ý Ñ»ï³½áïáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ê»¹³ ä³ñë³ÙÛ³Ý – ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ³í³· ·Çï³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ÂáõñùdzÛáõ٠ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ùß³ÏáõóÛÇÝ Å³é³Ý·áõÃÛ³Ý áãÝã³óÙ³Ý ËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ èáõμÇݳ öÇñáõÙÛ³Ý – γÉÇýáéÝdzÛÇ Ñ³Ù³Éë³ñ³ÝÇ ¹³ë³Ëáë£ Ð»ÕÇÝ³Ï ¿ гÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ñóÇÝ ¨ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£ ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹áÏïáñ, ÐÐ ¶²² å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý 168


ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ·Çï³Ï³Ý ³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç Ø»Í »Õ»éÝÇ Ã»Ù³ÛÇ ùÝݳñÏÙ³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ Ð³ñáõÃÛáõÝ ê»ÉÇÙÛ³Ý – Ð³Û ³í»ï³ñ³Ýã³Ï³Ý ѳٳß˳ñѳÛÇÝ ËáñÑñ¹Ç ݳ˳·³Ñ£ гëÙÇÏ êï»÷³ÝÛ³Ý – å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹áÏïáñ, ÐÐ ¶²² ²ñ¨»É³·ÇïáõÃÛ³Ý ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ³é³ç³ï³ñ ·Çï³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¼μ³ÕíáõÙ ¿ ѳ۳ï³é Ãáõñù»ñ»Ý ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ùμ£ ²ÝÇ àëϳÝÛ³Ý – ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ·Çï³ß˳ïáÕ£ àõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý Ã»Ù³Ý ¿ §úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý μ³Ý³ÏÁ ¨ Ñ³Û ½ÇÝíáñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ýñ³ ϳ½ÙáõÙ¦£ ì»ñÅÇÝ» êí³½ÉÛ³Ý – μ³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹áÏïáñ, ÐÐ ¶²² Ðݳ·ÇïáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³½·³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ³é³ç³ï³ñ ·Çï³ß˳ïáÕ£ ¶Çï³Ï³Ý ѻﳽáïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ³é³ñÏ³Ý Ð³Ûáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³åñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ñáõß»ñÝ áõ å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý μÝáõÛÃÇ »ñ·»ñÝ »Ý£ Æí î»ñÝáÝ – ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ å³ïÙ³μ³Ý£ лÕÇÝ³Ï ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É μ³½Ù³ÃÇí ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ£ ²ñï»Ù úѳÝç³ÝÛ³Ý – ³íëïñÇ³Ñ³Û å³ïÙ³μ³Ý, å³ïÙ³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¹áÏïáñ, åñáý»ëáñ£ àõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÙ ¿ г۳ëï³ÝÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇÙݳѳñó»ñÝ Áëï ³íëïñÇ³Ï³Ý í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñÇ ¨ ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇ£

169


Üàð Ðð²î²ð²ÎàôÂÚàôÜܺðª ÜìÆðì²Ì ÎÆÈÆÎƲÚàôØвںðÆ ¼²Ü¶ì²Ì²ÚÆÜ Îàîàð²ÌܺðÆÜ Ðñ³ãÇÏ êÇÙáÝÛ³Ý. гۻñÇ ½³Ý·í³Í³ÛÇÝ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ (1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉ), ºñ¨³Ý, ºäÐ Ññ³ï., 2009, 530 ¿ç: 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ïÙáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ¨ å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ٻݳ·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÃíáõÙ Çñ áõñáõÛÝ ï»ÕÝ áõÝÇ ÐÐ ¶²² ³Ï³¹»ÙÇÏáë Ðñ³ãÇÏ êÇÙáÝÛ³ÝÇ ÑÇÙݳñ³ñ ٻݳ·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÁ μ³Õϳó³Í ¿ ãáñë ·ÉËÇó, Ý»ñ³ÍáõÃÛáõÝÇó, í»ñç³μ³ÝÇó, ѳí»Éí³ÍÝ»ñÇó, û·ï³·áñÍí³Í ³ÕμÛáõñÝ»ñÇ ¨ ·ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý, ³ÝÓݳÝáõÝÝ»ñÇ ¨ ï»Õ³ÝáõÝÝ»ñÇ ó³ÝÏ»ñÇó: гí»Éí³ÍáõÙ Ññ³å³ñ³Ïí³Í »Ý ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý §ÜÛáõ Úáñù ³ÛÙë¦ Ã»ñÃáõÙ 1909 Ã. ïå³·ñí³Í Ñá¹í³ÍÝ»ñ ¨ ÃÕóÏóáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÏ»ñÝ ³ñï³óáÉáÕ Ù»Í Ãíáí Éáõë³ÝϳñÝ»ñ, ѳٳó³Ýó³ÛÇÝ Ï³ÛùáõÙ ï»Õ³¹ñí³Í ÷³ëï³ÃáõÕÃ` §²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ùñÇëïáÝ۳ݻñÇ Ñá·¨áñ å»ï»ñÇ` ëáõÉÃ³Ý ØáõѳÙÙ»¹ º-ÇÝ ÑÕ³Í 17 ÑáõÝÇëÇ 1909 Ã. Ëݹñ³Ýù-μáÕáù³·ÇñÁ¦: Ðñ. êÇÙáÝÛ³ÝÁ ßñç³Ý³éáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¿ ¹ñ»É ٻͳù³Ý³Ï ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ³ñųݳѳí³ï ëϽμݳÕμÛáõñÝ»ñ, ³é³çÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù û·ï³·áñÍ»É Ñ³Ûñ»Ý³Ï³Ý ³ñËÇíÝ»ñÇó (ÐÐ ³½·³ÛÇÝ ³ñËÇí, سï»Ý³¹³ñ³Ý, ¶ñ³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ³ñí»ëïÇ Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý) ù³Õí³Í μ³½Ù³åÇëÇ ³ÝïÇå í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñ, áñáÝù ٻͳå»ë Ýå³ëï»É »Ý ï³ñμ»ñ ÑÇÙݳËݹÇñÝ»ñÇ ³é³í»É ËáñÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: ²ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÑÇÙÝíáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ ï³ñμ»ñ ÏáÕÙÝáñáßáõÙÝ»ñ áõÝ»óáÕ Ñ³ÛÏ³Ï³Ý å³ñμ»ñ³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³ñáõëï ÝÛáõûñÇ, ÇÝãå»ë ݳ¨ Ñ³Û ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ áõ ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ íñ³, áñáÝù Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÇÝ Ñݳñ³íáñáõÃÛáõÝ »Ý ÁÝÓ»é»É Ù³Ýñ³½ÝÇÝ í»ñÉáõÍ»É μ³½áõÙ ÏÝ×éáï ¨ ³é ³Ûëûñ ï³ñ³Ï³ñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ï»ÕÇù ïíáÕ ÑÇÙݳѳñó»ñ: ÐÇß³ñÅ³Ý »Ý Ýñ³ Ù»Ïݳμ³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ÏÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÇ μ³ó³Ñ³ÛïÙ³Ý áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ. Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ ¹ñ³Ýó å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ í»ñ³·ñáõÙ ¿ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇÝ: Ðñ. êÇÙáÝÛ³ÝÇ ³Ù»Ý³Ù»Í ³ñųÝÇùÝ»ñÇó ¿ ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý áãÝã³óÙ³Ý ·áñÍÁÝóóÇ Ù³Ýñ³½ÝÇÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÁ: ܳ ѳݷ³Ù³Ýáñ»Ý áõñí³·ÍáõÙ ¿ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùÁ, Áëï μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ, áã ÙdzÛÝ ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÇ Ù»Í ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÙ (²¹³Ý³, î³ñëáÝ, Ø»ñëÇÝ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ), ³Ûɨ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áõ гɻåÇ íÇɳۻÃÝ»ñÇ ·ÛáõÕ»ñáõÙ ¨ ·ÛáõÕ³ù³Õ³ùÝ»ñáõÙ, μ³ó³Ñ³Ûïáõ٠ݳ¨ ¹ñ³Ýó ͳí³ÉÙ³Ý ³é³ÝÓݳѳïÏáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ï³ñμ»ñ í³Ûñ»ñáõÙ: Àëï å. ·. ¹. ì. äáÕáëÛ³ÝÇ ·ñ³ËáëáõÃÛ³Ý (ä³ïÙ³μ³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë, 2009, ÃÇí 1)

170


ì³ñáõÅ³Ý äáÕáëÛ³Ý, 1909 Ã. ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý ·Ý³Ñ³ïÙ³Ùμ, ºñ¨³Ý: §Ü³Ñ³å»ï¦ Ññ³ï., 2009, 144 ¿ç: ²ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ÝíÇñí³Í ¿ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñǪ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý ÏáÕÙÇó ϳï³ñí³Í ³Ý¹ñ³¹³ñÓÝ»ñÇ ùÝÝ³Ï³Ý í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: лÕÇݳÏÁ ùÝÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¿ ³éÝáõ٠гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÑÇßÛ³É Ï³ñ¨áñ ÷áõÉÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý ³ëå³ñ»½áõÙ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ý»ñ¹ñáõÙÁ XX ¹³ñÇ 10-³Ï³Ý Ãí³Ï³ÝÝ»ñÇݪ ëÏë³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ë³ÝÓ³½»ñÍáõÙÇó ÙÇÝ㨠»ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ï³å³ÉáõÙÁ: ²Ûë ³ß˳ïáõÃÛ³Ý Ï³ñ¨áñáõÃÛáõÝÁ Ù»Í ¿ ѳïϳå»ë гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ÅËïÙ³Ý Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹»Ù å³Ûù³ñ»Éáõ ï»ë³ÝÏÛáõÝÇó: Þñç³Ý³éáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¹Ý»Éáí ÷³ëï³Ï³Ý ѳñáõëï ÝÛáõûñª ì. äáÕáëÛ³ÝÝ ÁÝûñóáÕÇÝ ³å³óáõóáõÙ ¿, áñ ùÝݳñÏíáÕ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³Ñ³ïí³ÍáõÙ ýñ³ÝëÇ³Ï³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ ³ñųÝÇ Ñ³Ï³Ñ³ñí³Í ¿ ï³ÉÇë å³ïÙáõÃÛ³Ý Ãáõñù ¨ ³Ûɳ½·Ç Ï»Õͳñ³ñÝ»ñÇÝ: üñ³ÝëdzóÇ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáÕÝ»ñÁ å³ñ½áñáß óáõÛó »Ý ï³ÉÇë, áñ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ úëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý Ï³ÛëñáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óíáõÙ ¿ñ å»ï³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³Ï³ñ¹³Ïáí, ÏñáõÙ ¿ñ ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í μÝáõÛÃ, ÇëÏ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñåÇãÝ»ñÁ ÷áñÓáõÙ ¿ÇÝ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ μ³ñ¹»É Ñ»Ýó ½áÑÇ íñ³: ì. äáÕáëÛ³ÝÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³éÝáõÙ ¿ 1909 Ã. ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ³éÝãáõÃÛ³Ùμ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ųٳݳϳÏÇó ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÝ»ñÇ ï³ñ³Ï³ñÍáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ ·ïÝáõÙ, áñ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ å³ï³ë˳ݳïíáõÃÛáõÝÁ, ³Ýï³ñ³ÏáõÛë, ͳÝñ³ÝáõÙ ¿ ³é³çÇÝ Ñ»ñÃÇÝ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÇ í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç íñ³, áñÁ 1909 Ã. Ù³ñïÇ 31-Ç ¹»åù»ñÇó ³í»ÉÇ í³Õ ¿ñ Íñ³·ñ»É ¨ ݳ˳å³ïñ³ëï»É ÏÇÉÇÏdzѳÛáõÃÛ³Ý μݳçÝçáõÙÁ, ë³Ï³ÛÝ ÙÇ³Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÷³ëïáõÙ, áñ ¹ñ³ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÙ³ÝÁ ٻͳå»ë Ýå³ëï»É »Ý ݳ¨ ѳÙÇ¹Û³Ý í³ñã³Ï³ñ·Ç Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇãÝ»ñÁ: ²Ûë Ã»Ù³Ý Ý³ËÏÇÝáõÙ ãÇ ¹³ñÓ»É ³é³ÝÓÇÝ áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛ³Ý ³é³ñϳ, ѻ勉μ³ñ ì. äáÕáëÛ³ÝÇ ³ß˳ïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ϳñ¨áñ Ý»ñ¹ñáõÙ ¿ гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý å³ïÙ³·ñáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç: Àëï ÐÐ ¶²² ÃÕóÏÇó ³Ý¹³Ù, å. ·. ¹. ´. гñáõÃÛáõÝÛ³ÝÇ ³é³ç³μ³ÝÇ

171


Georges Brézol, Les Turcs ont passe là…, Paris, 1911, 400 p. ÄáñÅ ´ñ»½áÉ, ²Ûëï»Õáí Ãáõñù»ñÝ »Ý ³Ýó»É..., ö³ñǽ, 1911, 400 ¿ç ÄáñÅ ´ñ»½áÉ. ·ñáÕ, ׳ݳå³ñÑáñ¹: ²Ûë Ï»ÕͳÝí³Ùμ ¿ ѳݹ»ë »É»É ѳ۳½·Ç ä»ïñáë ²½Ý³íáõñÁ: ÄáñÅ ´ñ»½áÉÁ §²Ûëï»Õáí Ãáõñù»ñÝ »Ý ³Ýó»É...¦ ٻݳ·ñáõÃÛ³Ý í»ñݳ·ÇñÁ í»ñóñ»É ¿ ìÇÏïáñ ÐÛáõ·áÛÇ §²ñ¨»ÉóÇÝ»ñÁ¦ μ³Ý³ëï»ÕÍáõÃÛáõÝÇó: ²Ûë ·ÇñùÝ ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ³ÕμÛáõñ ¿ 1909 Ã. ³åñÇÉÇÝ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÇ ¨ ѳñ³ÏÇó ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ·ÛáõÕ»ñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: ¶ñùáõÙ ³éϳ »Ý 1909 Ã. Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇÝ ³éÝãíáÕ μ³ó³éÇÏ í³í»ñ³·ñ»ñ, íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ áõ Éáõë³ÝϳñÝ»ñ, áñáÝù ÁÝûñóáÕÇÝ ÃáõÛÉ »Ý ï³ÉÇë ÙïáíÇ Ñ»ï¨»É Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùÇÝ ûñ ûñÇ, μݳϳí³Ûñ ³é μݳϳí³Ûñ ¨ ëï³Ý³É Ñëï³Ï å³ïÏ»ñ³óáõÙ ¹ñ³Ýó ѻ勉ÝùÝ»ñÇ Ù³ëÇÝ: ¶ÇñùÁ Éáõë³μ³ÝáõÙ ¿ г×ÁÝÇ, γñë-´³½³ñÇ, ¸ÛáñÃ-ÚáÉÇ ¨ ³ÛÉ μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñÇ Ñ³Û»ñÇ ÇÝùݳå³ßïå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý ¹ñí³·Ý»ñÁ: лÕÇݳÏÁ ËáëáõÙ ¿ ݳ¨ áñáß Ãáõñù ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ` ѳۻñÇ ÝϳïÙ³Ùμ ¹ñë¨áñ³Í ¹ñ³Ï³Ý í»ñ³μ»ñÙáõÝùÇ, ûï³ñ»ñÏñÛ³ ¹Çí³Ý³·»ïÝ»ñÇ óáõó³μ»ñ³Í û·ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ: ¶ÇñùÁ í»ñ³Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»É ¿ ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³ÝÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ÏáÕÙÇó 2009Ã.:

172


Ferriman Ducket, Turkish Atrocities, The Young Turks and the Truth about the Holocaust at Adana, in Asia Minor, during April, London, 1909, 146 p. ü»ñÇÙ³Ý ¸³ù»ï, Âáõñù³Ï³Ý ¹³Å³ÝáõÃÛáõÝ, ºñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ ¨ ×ßÙ³ñïáõÃÛáõÝÁ ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áÕç³ÏÇ½Ù³Ý Ù³ëÇÝ /öáùñ ²ëdz, 1909Ã. ³åñÇÉ/, ÈáݹáÝ, 146, ¿ç: ü»ñÇÙ³Ý ¸³ù»ïÇ ³Ûë ٻݳ·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ, áñÝ ³é³çÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»É ¿ 1913Ã. ÈáݹáÝáõÙ, Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ ¿ 1909 Ãí³Ï³ÝÇÝ Ãáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ ÏáÕÙÇó ϳ½Ù³Ï»ñåí³Í ¨ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óí³Í ѳÛÏ³Ï³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÁ: ²Ûë ·ÇñùÁ ³ñÅ»ù³íáñ ³ÕμÛáõñ ¿ ÝíÇñí³Í ÎÇÉÇÏÛ³Ý ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ` í»ñ ѳݻÉáí ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ ¨ ²¹³Ý³ÛáõÙ ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ë³ñë³÷»ÉÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ï³ñ¨áñ ¨ ³ÝѳÛï Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»ñÁ: лÕÇݳÏÝ ³Ý¹ñ³¹³ñÓ»É ¿ Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ï³½Ù³Ï»ñå³Í ³ñÛáõÝáï ç³ñ¹»ñÇÝ, ²¹³Ý³ Ý³Ñ³Ý·Ç Ãáõñù μݳÏãáõÃÛ³Ý, Ù³ëݳíáñ³å»ë, ÙáõëáõÉÙ³Ý ³ÙμáËÇ ³ÏïÇí Ù³ëݳÏóáõÃÛ³ÝÁ: ¸³ù»ïÝ ³é³çÇÝ ³Ý·³Ù ßñç³Ý³éáõÃÛ³Ý Ù»ç ¿ ¹ñ»É §ÐáÉáùáëï¦ »½ñÁ. 1909Ã. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ Ýñ³ ·ñùÇ ³é³çÇÝ ·ÉËáõÙ ß³ñ³¹ñí³Í »Ý §²¹³Ý³ÛÇ ÑáÉáùáëïÁ¦ Ëáñ³·ñÇ ï³Ï: ²Û¹ ³ñÛáõݳÉÇ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ¨ μéÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ÐáÉáùáëï (àÕç³ÏǽáõÙ) ³Ýí³ÝáõÙÝ »Ý ëï³ó»É, ù³ÝÇ áñ μ³½Ù³ÃÇí Ù³ñ¹ÇÏ áÕç-áÕç ³Ûñí»É ¿ÇÝ: ܳ ¹»åù»ñÇ ¨ Çñ³¹³ñÓáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ëáñ í»ñÉáõÍáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ϳï³ñ»É, áñÝ ¿É ³Ûë ٻݳ·ñáõÃÛáõÝÝ Çñ ųٳݳÏÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ μ³ó³éÇÏ ¿ ¹³ñÓñ»É: ¶ÇñùÁ í»ñ³Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»É ¿ ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³ÝÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ÏáÕÙÇó 2009Ã.:

173


Adossidès, Arméniens et Jeunes-Turcs. Les massacres de Cilicie, Paris, 1910, 142 p. ². ²¹áëǹ»ë, гۻñÁ ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ, ö³ñǽ, 1910, 142 ¿ç : ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñ ²¹áëǹ»ë. ͳ·áõÙáí ÑáõÛÝ ýñ³ÝëdzóÇ Éñ³·ñáÕ: ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ ç³ñ¹»ñÇó áõà ³ÙÇë Ñ»ï᪠1909 Ã. ¹»Ïï»Ùμ»ñÇÝ, ݳ ·ñ»É ¿ Çñ ³é³çÇÝ ³ÙμáÕç³Ï³Ý áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó Ù»ÏÁ: ²É»ùë³Ý¹ñ ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ §Ð³Û»ñÁ ¨ »ñÇïÃáõñù»ñÁ. ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ¦ ·ñùáõÙ ÷³ëï³Ï³Ý ѳñáõëï ÝÛáõÃÇ ÑÇÙ³Ý íñ³, ÇÝãåÇëÇù »Ý` ÑÛáõå³ïáëÝ»ñÇ ½»ÏáõÛóÝ»ñ, ϳÃáÉÇÏ ³é³ù»ÉáõÃÛ³Ý ·áñÍÇãÝ»ñÇ å³ßïáÝ³Ï³Ý Ñ³ßí»ïíáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, »íñáå³óÇ ¨ ³Ù»ñÇÏÛ³Ý ù³ñá½ÇãÝ»ñÇ ·ñ³éáõÙÝ»ñ, ݳٳÏÝ»ñ, ³Ï³Ý³ï»ëÝ»ñÇ íϳÛáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ, ųٳݳϳÏÇó Ù³ÙáõÉ ¨ ³ÛÉÝ, Ýϳñ³·ñáõÙ ¿ 1909Ã. ѳۻñÇ Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÁ ÎÇÉÇÏdzÛáõÙ: ²¹áëǹ»ëÁ ÷áõÉ ³é ÷áõÉ Éáõë³μ³Ý»É ¿ ²¹³Ý³ ù³Õ³ùÇ ³é³çÇÝ ¨ »ñÏñáñ¹, ³å³` ²¹³Ý³ÛÇ áõ гɻåÇ íÇɳۻÃÝ»ñÇ ÙÛáõë μݳϳí³Ûñ»ñáõÙ Çñ³·áñÍí³Í Ïáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇ ÁÝóóùÁ, ³ñӳݳ·ñ»É, áñ ¹ñ³Ýù Çñ³Ï³Ý³óñ»É »Ý Ãáõñù ϳÝáݳíáñ ½áñù»ñÝ áõ å³ïñ³ëïí³Í Ññáë³Ï³ËÙμ»ñÁ: ¶ñùáõÙ ï»Õ »Ý ·ï»É ݳ¨ ûëÙ³ÝÛ³Ý ËáñÑñ¹Ç »ñÏáõ å³ï·³Ù³íáñÝ»ñǪ ³½·áõÃÛ³Ùμ Ñ³Û Ð. ä³åÇÏÛ³ÝÇ ¨ ³½·áõÃÛ³Ùμ Ãáõñù Úáõëáõý ø»Ù³ÉÇ Ï³ï³ñ³Í áõëáõÙݳëÇñáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ ½áÑ»ñÇ ÃíÇ í»ñ³μ»ñÛ³É: ì»ñçÇÝ ·ÉËáõÙ, áñ í»ñݳ·ñí³Í ¿ §Îáïáñ³ÍÝ»ñÇó Ñ»ïá¦, Ñ»ÕÇݳÏÁ ÷³ëï»É ¿, áñ »ñÇïÃáõñù³Ï³Ý Çß˳ÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ áã ÙÇ ¿³Ï³Ý ù³ÛÉ ãϳï³ñ»óÇÝ Ñ³Ýó³·áñÍÝ»ñÇÝ å³ïÅ»Éáõ áõÕÕáõÃÛ³Ùμ: ¶ÇñùÁ í»ñ³Ññ³ï³ñ³Ïí»É ¿ ÐÐ ¶²² гÛáó ó»Õ³ëå³ÝáõÃÛ³Ý Ã³Ý·³ñ³Ý-ÇÝëïÇïáõïÇ ÏáÕÙÇó 2012Ã.:

174


îå³·ñáõÃÛáõÝÁ` ûýë»Ã: ÂáõÕÃÁ` ûýë»Ã: îå³ù³Ý³ÏÁ` 300

î䲶ðìºÈ ¾ §ÎàÈȲĦ î䲶ð²î²ÜÀ ºñ¨³Ý, ê³ñÛ³Ý 4 лé.` (374 10) 52 02 17 ¾É. ÷áëï` collage@arminco,com www.collage.am

JOURNAL OF GENOCIDE STUDIES «ՑԵՂԱՍՊԱՆԱԳԻՏԱԿԱՆ ՀԱՆԴԵՍ» ԳԻՏԱԿԱՆ ՊԱՐԲԵՐԱԿԱՆ  

The Armenian Genocide Museum–Institute has started to publish “Journal of Genocide Studies”. The journal will include topics and articles re...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you