A TRIP TO ENGLAND
ENGLAND GEOGRAPHY •
England is made up of about 65% of the island of Great Britain.
England covers approximately 130 410 square kilometres and has a population of just under 60 million people.
England can be divided into: 1. The Highland Zone This zone is characterised by rocky, rugged hills and eroded mountain faces, interrupted by valleys and extensive plains. 2. The Lowland Zone This zone experiences less rain and more sunshine than the highlying regions.
ENGLAND’ S CLIMATE
England’s climate is described as being “temperate maritime”.
Winter temperatures seldom plummet below zero degrees Celsius, while summer highs can reach about 30 degrees Celsius. January and February are the coldest months and usually experience snowfall.
July is the hottest month.
England is a relatively wet country due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean.
THE ENGLISH FLAG
THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND Romans Saxons Vikings
Great Britain (UK) is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional Monarch as Head of State
The people elect Members of Parliament (MPs).
Parliament is made up of three parts:
The House of Lords
The House of Commons
The British government runs the UK. The leader of the government is the Prime Minister
Queen Elizabeth II
The Duke of Edinburgh (The Queen's husband)
Buckingham Palace is where the Queen lives.
It has been the Queen's official and main royal London home since
The Royal Flag
THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Old English (450-1100 AD)
The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Middle English (1100-1500)
English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. Modern English Early Modern English (1500-1800) The invention of printing brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, became the standard.
Late Modern English (1800-Present)
Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
English is spoken as a first language by around 375 million speakers and around 750 million are believed to speak English as a foreign language
One out of four of the world's population speak English to some level of competence and demand from the other three-quarters is increasing.
English is the main language of books, newspapers, airports and air-traffic control, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sport, international competitions, pop music and advertising.
Over two-thirds of the world's scientists read in English.
Three quarters of the world's mail is written in English.
of the world's Eighty per cent (80%) electronically stored information is in English. Of the estimated 200 million users of the Internet, some thirty-six per cent (36%) communicate in English
Old English (Anglo-Saxon Period)
Caedmon and Cynewulf.
1200-1500: Middle English Period Geoffrey Chaucer's
1500-1660: The English Renaissance 1500-1558: Tudor Period (Humanist Era) Sir Thomas More John Skelton
1558-1603: The Elizabethan Age
William Shakespeare Christopher Marlowe Sir Walter Raleigh
1603-1625:The Jacobean Age John Donne Francis Bacon Thomas Middleton
1625-1649: The Caroline Age
John Milton John Ford
1649-1660: The Commonwealth Period ( Puritan & Baroque and
ENGLISH LITERATURE 1660-1800: The Neoclassical Period
The Restoration (1660 – 1700) John Milton John Dryden John Wilmot 2nd Earl of Rochester
The Eighteenth Century (1700 – 1800) Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift Samuel Johnson Henry Fielding
ENGLISH LITERATURE 1785-1870: Romanticism
S.T. Coleridge George Gordon Byron
1870-1914: Victorian Period
Charles Dickens George Eliot Robert Browning
1914-1945: Modern Period George Bernard Shaw William Butler Yeats D.H. Lawrence T.S. Eliot
1945- Postmodern and Contemporary Period
Virginia Woolf Adams Aldiss
Popular Classic English Literature Books
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM • Nursery School / Kindergarten • primary,
Compulsory (5 – 16 Years old)
• secondary studies (2 years)
• higher education
A level qualification
Local authority maintained schools (State Schools) Free to all children between the ages of 5 - 16 Independent schools. (Private/Public Schools) Parents pay for their children's' education.
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ďƒ˜ England universities, colleges and schools are amongst the best and most prestigious for international students.
ďƒ˜ All of the universities are fully accredited and recognised as Highly Trusted Sponsors by the UK Border Agency.
Theatre plays an important part in British culture, and the countries that constitute the UK.
Theatre was introduced from Europe to what is now the United Kingdom by the Romans.
By the medieval period theatre had developed to a form of early street theatre associated with the Morris dance .
The reign of Elizabeth I in the late 16th and early 17th century saw a flowering of the drama and all the arts.
TOP ENGLISH THEATRES Shakespeare's Globe
Theatre Royal, Newcastle
Liverpool Empire Theatre
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre
Theatre Royal, London
Music in Britain from 1920s to the Present Day
1920s - Young people listened to ragtime and jazz.
1930s - Swing became popular. Jazz continued to be popular.
1940s - The Second World War brought fast, frantic (and often American) dance music - boogie-woogie or jitterbug.
1950s - Rock and Roll became very popular.
1960's - The Beatles began their career. They leapt to fame in 1963 and continued to dominate the decade, becoming the most influential band of all time.
1970s - The first big new sound of the 1970s was “Glam Rock”, the main figures of this were David Bowie, Elton John and of course Gary Glitter
1990s - Britpop This was the general name given in the 1990s to a new wave of successful British bands who made a big impact in the United States and Europe, as well as in England. The most successful have been Radiohead, Oasis, Blur, Pulp, Massive Attack and The Spice Girl
THE MEDIA Newspapers in England
English radio stations
ENGLISH TRADITIONS AND CELEBRATIONS
Cheese Rolling at Cooper’s Hill
Pearly King and Queen
Guy Fawkes Night
Ascot Ladies Day Guy Fawkes Night
SPORTS England's national sport is cricket . Football is the most popular sport.
Some of England's football teams are world famous, such as Manchester United, Arsenal and Liverpool.
Other sports: ● ●
RUGBY TENNIS NETBALL HORSE RACING BADMINTON UNIVERSITY BOAT RACE FISHING DARTS
The magic of the cups
The FA Cup The best places to watch the Cup Final day.
Test Match at Lord’s Discover the Home of Cricket on a day out at Lord's.
WHAT ARE HOUSES IN ENGLAND LIKE?
Most houses in England are made of stone or brick from the local area where the houses are built. The colours of the stones and bricks vary across the country.
TYPES OF HOUSES IN ENGLAND
The main types of houses in England are: – – – –
Detached (a house not joined to another house) Semi-detached (two houses joined together) Terraced (several houses joined together) Flats (appartments)
Typical modern houses
Houses over 600 hundred years old (they were built during the Tudor times)
Semi detached houses
FOOD The traditional food of England has long been recognised for its simplicity of
ingredients and flavour.
People from all over the world have settled in this country, bringing with them
flavours and techniques and over time, these foreign influences have permeated the English cuisine, creating a more multifaceted food culture than ever before.
MEALS and MEAL TIMES Breakfast - between 7:00 and 9:00,
Lunch - between 12:00 and 1:30 p.m. Tea - anywhere from 5:30 to 6:30 p.m Dinner (sometimes called Supper) - The main meal. Eaten anytime between 6:30 and 8:00 p.m. (Evening meal)
On Sundays the main meal of the day is often eaten at midday instead of in the evening. This meal usually is a Roast Dinner consisting of a roast meat, Yorkshire pudding and two kinds of vegetables.
The word pub is short for public house.
There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK (53,000 in England and Wales, 5,200 in Scotland and 1,600 in Northern Ireland).
One of the oldest pubs, Fighting Cocks in St. Albans, Herts, is located in a building that dates back to the eleventh century.
A castle is a type of fortified structure, developed in Europe during the middle Ages.
The first castles appeared in England during the 11th century. Whilst a few important castles, such as the White Tower in the Tower of London, were built of stone, most early castles were mote and bailey castles of earthwork and timber, which could be constructed very quickly.
Tower of London
LANDMARKS England is a land of ancient cities, royal palaces, massive cathedrals, Mighty castles and legendary sites.
KINGS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE King’s College, founded in 1441 by Henry VI, is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The chapel, is home to the world-famous Choir.
The Palace of Westminster
Tower of London
The London Eye
St Paul's Cathedral
London is a real treat for museum lovers. There are hundreds to choose from, including the British Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum.
London Transport Museum
Museum of London
Natural History Museum
Madam Tussauds Museum
REASONS TO VISIT LONDON
A NICE TRIP !
ΓΥΜΝΑΣΙΟ - ΛΤ ΚΟΙΛΑΔΑΣ ΣΧ. ΕΤΟΣ 2013-14 Επιμέλεια: Β’ γυμνασίου Ανδροβιτσανέας Ρήγας Βλησαρούλη Αθανασία Δράκου Παναγιώτα Χονδρού Αικατερίνη Στάθη Εύα Νατσίδη Μαρία Πατσιούρα Κρυσταλλία Μπούτλας Θεόδωρος Σούλα Οδυσσέας Σαρούδη Δανάη Α’ λυκείου Πατσιούρα Αικατερίνη Παπαδοπούλου Σεβαστή Β’ λυκείου Τοπαλσάββα Ελένη
Υπεύθυνοι καθηγητές: Κομιώτου Ανθή Κιάτος Γιάννης Νάστου Αγλαϊα