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2010 Calendar Year Edition

The New Zealand Energy Data File is an annual publication that provides comprehensive statistics and supporting information on New Zealand’s energy supply, demand and prices.

New Zealand Energy Data File


New Zealand Energy Data File 2011

Prepared by:

Important Acknowledgements

Energy Information and Modelling Group

The New Zealand Energy Data File focuses on commercial energy – energy forms that are usually produced and sold as a fuel. Other forms of energy, such as photovoltaic solar generation, are not included because there is insufficient reliable data.

Energy and Communications Branch Ministry of Economic Development PO Box 1473, Wellington 6140 New Zealand Email: energyinfo@med.govt.nz © Crown Copyright 2011 ISSN 1177-6676 Paperback ISSN 1177-6684 Online version

Use of this New Zealand Energy Data File publication in paper or electronic form implies acceptance of the conditions of its release, which are that if the information is made available to others: •

its source must be acknowledged as Ministry of Economic Development 2011 or by reference to the publication title and date; and

no charge is made other than to recover the direct costs of dissemination.

Although every attempt has been made to ensure the information is accurate, neither the Crown nor any Minister, employee or agent of the Crown: •

warrants the accuracy, completeness or usefulness for any particular purpose of the information contained in this publication in paper or electronic form; or accepts any liability for any loss or damage, however caused, from the reliance on or use of that information or arising from the absence of information or any particular information in this publication in paper or electronic form.

The authors are grateful to the individuals, companies and organisations that provided information and gave generously of their time to assist with the work reported here.

Authorship This publication was prepared by the Energy Information and Modelling Group of the Ministry of Economic Development. Principal contributors were Thomas Elliot, Brian Moore, Bryan Field, Paul Hunt, Simon Lawrence and Samuel Thornton. Thank you to Rio Tinto Alcan New Zealand Limited for supplying the photograph of Tiwai Point Aluminium Smwlter used on the cover of this publication. The authors are grateful to New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals for their assistance with reserves information and Base Two for publication layout.

Availability This publication is available in both paperback and electronic form. To purchase a paperback copy of this publication, see the inside back cover for order details. A free, online version of this publication can be downloaded from www.med.govt.nz/energy/edf/


Contents

New Zealand Energy Sources

6

D. Oil Overview of New Zealand’s Oil Industry

Facts

41 42

7

A. Energy Overview

8

Introduction

8

Energy Supply and Demand Overview

Table A.1: Energy Supply and Demand Balance 2010 (Gross PJ)

Primary Energy Supply

Table A.2: Total Primary Energy Supply (Gross PJ)

8 10

Energy Transformation Non-energy Use Consumer Energy Demand

Table A.3: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel (Gross PJ)

Consumer Energy Intensity, Gross Domestic Product and Population

Table A.4: Total Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)

B. Energy Balances Introduction

14

16 16

Table B.1: Default Electrical Transformation Factors

Table D.2a: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Mm3)

48

Table D.2b: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (mmbbls)

49

Table D.2c: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Thousand Tonnes)

50

Table D.2d: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Gross PJ)

51

Table D.3: Supply of Crude Oil and Refinery Feedstocks (Gross PJ)

53

Table D.4: Production of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ)

54

Table D.5: Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ)

56

Table D.6: Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ)

58

Table D.7: Observed Oil Products Consumption (Gross PJ)

60

Table D.8: Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

62

Table D.9: Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

64

Table D.10: Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

66

E. Natural Gas

68

16

Overview of New Zealand’s Gas Industry

69

18

Table E.1: Natural Gas Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

73

Table B.3: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2009

20

Table E.2a: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)

74

Table B.4: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2008

22

Table E.2b: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

75

Table B.5: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2007

24

Table E.2c: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)

76

Table B.6: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2006

26

Table E.3a: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)

78

Table B.7: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010 NET

28

Table E.3b: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

79

Table E.3c: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)

80

Table E.4: Natural Gas Production (Gross PJ)

82

Table E.5a: Natural Gas Supply and Consumption (Gross PJ)

84

Table E.5b: Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

85

30 31

47

Table B.2: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010

C. Coal Overview of New Zealand’s Coal Industry

12

Table D.1: Oil Energy Balance 2005–2010 (Gross PJ)

Table C.1: Production by Mining Method, Rank and Region for 2010 (kt)

33

Table C.2: Coal Energy Balance (Gross PJ)

35

Table C.3: Coal Supply and Calculated Consumption (Gross PJ)

37

Table C.4: Summary of Observed Coal Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

38

Table C.5: Coal Consumption – Breakdown by Sector for 2010 (Gross TJ)

40

Table E.5c: Natural Gas Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)

87

Table E.5d: Natural Gas Market Snapshot for 2010

89

F. Renewables Overview of Renewables in New Zealand

92 93

Table F.1: Renewable Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

94

Table F.2: Renewable Energy Supply and Use by Fuel (Gross PJ)

95

Table F.3: Estimated Production of Liquid Biofuel 2007–2010

96

Table F.4: Renewable Energy Direct Use by Sector for 2010 (Gross PJ)

96

2 Energy Data File | 2011

3 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


Contents continued

G. Electricity Overview of New Zealand’s Electricity Industry

98

Table G.1: Electricity Energy Balance 2006–2010 (GWh)

97

J. International Energy Comparisons

102

Introduction

Table G.2a: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (GWh)

104

Table G.2b: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (Gross PJ)

106

Table G.2c: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type – Cogeneration Separated (GWh) 107 Table G.2d: Estimated Generation by Fuel Type for 2010 Calendar Year (GWh)

108

Table G.3a: Operational Electricity Generation Capacity by Plant Type (MW)

109

Table G.3b: Estimated Generating Capacity by Fuel Type December 2010 (MW)

110

Table G.3c: Information on Generating Plants December 2009 (10 MW or Greater)

111

Table G.4: Transmission and Distribution Network Statistics Summary

113

Table G.5a: Observed Electricity Consumption by Sector

115

Table G.5b: Observed Percentage of Consumers (Active ICPs) by Sector

117

Table G.5c: Regional Electricity Demand Approximations for 2010

117

Table G.6a: Electricity Market Snapshot – 2010 March Year

118

Table G.6b: Market Competition Statistics

119

H. Oil and Gas Reserves Overview of New Zealand’s Oil and Gas Reserves

147

Table J.1: International Energy Prices for the September Quarter 2010

148

Table J.2: International Consumption of Energy – Calendar Year 2009

151

K. Fuel Properties

154 Table K.1: Solid Fuel Gross Calorific Values

155

Table K.2a: Petroleum Gross Calorific Values (2010 Calendar Year)

156

Table K.2b: Oil Conversion Factors for 2010

157

Table K.3: Gas Physical Properties

157

L. Data Contributors

157

M. Glossary

159

N. Unit Conversion

163

122 122

Table H.1: National Summary of Activity and Expenditure (All Petroleum Exploration and Mining Permits/Licences)

125

Table H.2: Oil and Condensate Reserves

127

Table H.3: Reserves from Non-producing Fields (Oil and Condensate)

127

Table H.4: Gas Reserves

128

Table H.5: Reserves from Non-producing Fields (Gas)

128

I. Prices Introduction

147

129 129

Table I.1a: Electricity Consumer Prices (Nominal)

130

Table I.1b: Electricity Consumer Prices (Real 2010)

131

Table I.2a: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Nominal)

133

Table I.2b: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Real 2010)

135

Table I.2c: Retail Importers’ Margin (Nominal and Real 2010 Prices)

136

Table I.3: Fuel Oil Prices (Nominal and Real 2010)

138

Table I.4: Natural Gas Prices (Nominal and Real 2010)

140

Table I.5a: Taxes, Duties and Levies on Fuels at December 2010 (c/l excluding GST) 142 Table I.5b: Premium and Regular Petrol Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

143

Table I.5c: Lead Tax Payable on Lead Content of Petrol (c/gram)

144

Table I.5d: Diesel Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

144

Table I.5e: Other Liquid Fuels Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

144

Table I.5f: Gas and Methanol Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

145

Table I.5g: Natural Gas Taxes and Levies (c/GJ)

145

Table I.5h: Coal (Opencast Mines Only) Taxes, Duties and Levies ($/tonne)

145

Table I.5i: Acts and Regulations

145

Table I.6: Price Deflators

146

4 Energy Data File | 2011

5 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


New Zealand Energy Sources

Marsden Point Oil Refinery

Imports

Thermal Power

Waikato Coal

Geothermal Power

Petrochemicals

Offshore Gas, Oil and Condensate

North Island Hydro Power Onshore Gas and Oil

Wind

West Coast Coal

South Island Hydro Power

Southland Coal

500 km

6 Energy Data File | 2011

7 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Introduction

Primary Energy Supply

The Energy Overview section of the Energy Data File considers New Zealand’s whole energy system. Key data presented in this section includes Total Primary Energy Supply, Energy Transformation and Total Consumer Energy. Also presented is data that compares growth in Total Consumer Energy with the population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) is the amount of energy supplied for use in New Zealand. This is calculated as domestic production plus imports less exports. TPES increased by 4.4% in 2010, largely on the back of growth in geothermal energy. Although geothermal energy’s share has increased rapidly in the last three years, oil and gas continue to dominate New Zealand’s TPES. Oil accounted for 33%, gas for 21% and geothermal energy for 19% in 2010. See Figure A.1 and Table A.2 for Total Primary Energy Supply.

Energy Supply and Demand Overview Energy supply and demand is summarised as an energy balance in Table A.1. This table shows the dominance of fossil fuels, particularly oil – almost all of which is used for transport. The table also shows the large amount of energy converted into electricity for final consumption.

efficiency of geothermal energy is significantly less.

In 2010, renewable energy made up 38% of New Zealand’s Total Primary Energy Supply. This was the highest level on record (up from the previous record of 35% in 2009) and maintains New Zealand at third place in the OECD for renewable primary energy supply, behind only Norway and Iceland.

The low transformation efficiency of geothermal energy (~15%) contributes to New Zealand’s relatively high TPES when compared with most other countries.

The rapid increase in renewable energy’s share of TPES has been driven by increased electricity generation from geothermal energy and reduced electricity generation from coal. As geothermal fluid is much lower in temperature than steam produced by a coal or gas boiler, the transformation

Figure A.2: Total Primary Energy Supply PJ 900 800

Table A.1: Energy Supply and Demand Balance 2010 (Gross PJ)

700

(1.32) -

(232.70) (46.13)

500 400

530.83

Statistical Differences

(0.17)

(0.41)

5.49

1.97

-

6.87

0 1974

-

100

Coal

Oil

Gas

Hydro

Geothermal

Other Renewables

2010

-

2009

143.34

2008

64.14

2007

53.95

2005

244.18

2006

25.21

200

2003

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

300

2004

27.90 184.24 49.32 204.32 65.05

2001

-

2002

6.65 55.79 32.50 0.36 48.04

2000

0.73 52.60 2.62 8.19

1999

1.47 39.59 6.87 0.03 5.99

1997

17.14 14.98 5.88 203.88 2.29

1998

1.91 21.29 1.43 0.05 0.54

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

1995

537.71

1996

-

1994

145.31

1993

64.14

1992

59.44

1991

243.77

1990

25.05

DEMAND

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

145.31 -

1989

(246.12) -

1987

(88.56) (25.47)

1988

(9.07) (20.66)

600

1986

(32.95) -

816.54

1985

Energy Transformation Non-energy Use

1.32

-

1983

310.25

1984

173.47

1981

273.50

Total

1982

58.00

Waste Heat

1980

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

Electricity

1979

Renewables

1978

Natural Gas

1977

Oil

1975

Coal

1976

SUPPLY

Petajolues (Gross Calorific Values)

Waste Heat

Note to Figure A.2: “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to wind, bioenergy and solar.

8 Energy Data File | 2011

9 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Table A.2: Total Primary Energy Supply (Gross PJ)

Energy Transformation

Renewable

Non-renewable

Calendar Year

Hydro

Geothermal

Other Renewables

Sub-total

Coal

Oil

Gas

Waste Heat

Sub-total

TOTAL

% Renewable

1974

54.67

41.12

22.79

118.58

62.80

185.14

12.92

0.47

261.34

379.92

31%

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

59.98 55.79 52.99 56.37 66.39

41.66 39.96 38.15 38.70 35.89

24.27 26.59 27.34 26.23 29.55

125.91 122.34 118.48 121.30 131.83

59.10 60.90 58.00 53.50 47.70

199.46 179.11 178.61 169.28 164.82

14.03 37.54 61.67 57.92 38.20

1.08 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28

273.66 278.83 299.57 281.98 252.01

399.58 401.17 418.05 403.28 383.84

32% 30% 28% 30% 34%

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

69.71 70.84 65.89 71.10 73.35

39.15 37.76 38.15 38.25 42.34

28.67 29.64 27.84 27.66 29.96

137.52 138.24 131.87 137.01 145.65

49.06 48.88 47.92 53.10 49.38

163.96 160.54 155.88 155.95 158.23

35.35 43.64 78.60 85.24 109.18

1.28 1.67 1.80 1.80 1.68

249.66 254.73 284.19 296.08 318.48

387.17 392.97 416.07 433.09 464.13

36% 35% 32% 32% 31%

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

70.94 79.54 78.93 82.66 81.20

38.58 40.75 39.82 40.68 53.48

29.45 29.70 30.94 31.26 36.90

138.97 149.99 149.70 154.59 171.58

45.60 52.40 43.74 47.40 51.51

146.67 155.54 158.41 158.65 172.50

139.39 167.90 162.47 176.32 181.04

1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61

333.28 377.46 366.24 383.97 406.66

472.25 527.45 515.94 538.57 578.24

29% 28% 29% 29% 30%

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

83.46 82.41 75.93 84.57 93.00

61.81 64.87 64.23 67.57 63.26

40.05 41.03 41.06 43.21 45.36

185.32 188.31 181.21 195.35 201.63

52.22 46.71 40.04 60.08 54.82

186.22 183.50 189.76 184.07 205.66

180.14 195.80 207.82 202.09 188.50

1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61

420.19 427.61 439.23 447.85 450.59

605.50 615.92 620.44 643.20 652.22

31% 31% 29% 30% 31%

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

99.12 94.25 83.72 91.14 82.50

62.36 63.46 65.95 70.13 74.45

46.71 44.80 46.84 49.54 54.72

208.19 202.51 196.52 210.82 211.67

49.55 39.49 49.30 48.73 48.16

220.08 226.44 233.85 237.66 249.02

178.03 203.32 217.73 193.44 223.74

1.61 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.61

449.28 470.87 502.50 481.44 522.53

657.46 673.38 699.01 692.25 734.19

32% 30% 28% 30% 29%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

87.96 78.04 89.53 85.03 96.94

81.64 75.93 74.08 73.64 75.29

59.76 59.08 63.84 64.59 70.22

229.36 213.06 227.46 223.27 242.45

47.32 59.50 48.83 81.95 94.38

246.44 250.29 257.68 275.49 280.58

235.26 247.51 235.29 179.45 161.25

1.61 1.21 2.39 2.17 2.13

530.63 558.51 544.19 539.05 538.34

759.98 771.56 771.65 762.32 780.79

30% 28% 29% 29% 31%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

83.97 84.86 85.10 80.41 87.19

82.99 86.35 90.64 107.16 124.15

70.85 70.65 68.97 64.98 62.15

237.81 241.86 244.71 252.55 273.50

96.77 85.41 74.06 84.26 65.60

283.43 281.07 283.03 281.10 278.37

150.18 154.03 169.54 159.96 163.15

1.95 1.83 1.36 1.44 1.37

532.32 522.34 527.99 526.76 508.49

770.14 764.20 772.70 779.30 781.98

31% 32% 32% 32% 35%

2010

88.97

152.57

68.71

310.25

58.00

273.50

173.47

1.32

506.28

816.54

38%

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.2%

15.3%

-0.7%

6.4%

-9.2%

-0.7%

3.0%

-7.9%

-0.8%

1.7%

Δ2009/2010

2.0%

22.9%

10.6%

13.4%

-11.6%

-1.7%

6.3%

-3.7%

-0.4%

4.4%

Energy transformation refers to the conversion of energy from one form to another. It includes electricity generation, petroleum refining and other transformation (including coal used for steel production). Electricity generation is the main form of energy transformation in New Zealand and comes from a range of energy sources. In

2010, a net total of 156 PJ of electricity was generated, 74% of which was from renewable sources. Hydro was the major source of electricity generation at 56%, followed by gas at 21%, geothermal at 13%, with coal, wind, wood, biogas, oil and waste heat making up the balance. 2010 saw the lowest generation from coal since 2002.

In 2010, 98% of refinery input was from imported crude and feedstocks, with the remaining 2% from indigenous crude and condensate.

Methanol production from natural gas by Methanex remained high in 2010, so total fuel used as a feedstock for petrochemical production (including ammonia/urea production) remained around 25 PJ. Although methanol can be combusted for energy purposes, the methanol produced in New Zealand is mainly used as chemical feedstock (e.g. to make plastic).

Gas combusted during the production of petrochemicals is included as industrial sector demand within total consumer energy. Only gas used as a feedstock (and therefore not combusted) in petrochemical production is classified as non-energy use.

Like TPES, consumer energy in 2010 was dominated by oil at 46%. This was primarily oil used for transport purposes, although oil is also the dominant energy source used in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors. The other major contributor to TCE was electricity, which made up 27% of final consumer demand in 2010. Electricity is the dominant consumer energy source for industrial, commercial and residential consumers.

Figure A.3a: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel for 2010

Non-energy Use Non-energy use refers to use of fuels to produce non-energy products. Non-energy products are products where neither the raw energy source used to produce the product nor the product itself are combusted. Examples include bitumen for roads and lubricants produced by the New Zealand Refinery Company, and petrochemical production from natural gas.

Consumer Energy Demand Total Consumer Energy (TCE) is energy used by final consumers. It excludes energy used for energy transformation (e.g. electricity generation) and that used for non-energy purposes. Compared with 2009, New Zealand’s TCE increased by 2.0% to 531 PJ in 2010. Figure A.3a details the shares by fuel type for 2010. Figure A.3b shows a time series of consumer energy by fuel since 1990, with the corresponding data in Table A.3.

TCE by sector is shown in Figure A.4a and Figure A.4b for 2010, with the corresponding data in Table A.4.

Oil 46.0% Electricity 27.0%

Note to Table A.2: “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to wind, bioenergy, and solar.

Other Renewables 10.3% Gas 10.2% Coal 4.8% Geothermal Direct Use 1.8%

Notes to Figure A.3a: “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to bioenergy and solar thermal.

10 Energy Data File | 2011

11 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Figure A.3b: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel

Figure A.4a: Total Consumer Energy by Sector for 2010

PJ Transport 38.5%

600

Industrial 34.7% Residential 12.3% Commercial 9.3%

500

Agriculture 5.3%

400

300

200

100

Figure A.4b: Total Consumer Energy by Sector

600

Electricity

“Other Renewables” in this instance refers to wind, bioenergy and solar.

500

Table A.3: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel (Gross PJ)

400

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

8.12 8.17 8.88 9.01 9.29

125.21 127.17 130.27 130.92 136.68

51.42 52.21 58.35 59.04 62.93

505.87 513.15 536.58 535.05 545.34

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

23.65 24.97 27.59 28.91 22.61

250.86 252.22 255.73 252.70 244.86

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24

9.40 9.38 9.56 9.62 9.84

138.51 141.84 141.99 139.48 138.75

62.33 61.46 58.44 53.92 49.02

535.22 537.29 540.76 532.73 520.31

2010

25.21

244.18

54.65

530.83

53.95

9.48

143.34

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

0.2%

-0.8%

3.3%

0.3%

0.3%

-2.9%

-0.3%

Δ2009/2010

11.5%

-0.3%

-2.3%

-3.6%

3.3%

11.5%

2.0%

Notes to Table A.3: 1 Includes calculated onsite consumption as well as consumption observed from sales data. See Table G.1 for further details.

Agriculture

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

2 “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to biogas, solar and wood.

12 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

2010

220.71 221.78 231.17 241.98 248.05

2009

21.20 26.80 27.29 32.91 25.34

0 2008

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

100

2007

457.26 462.30 468.28 467.93 481.00

2006

39.32 38.12 40.20 41.47 47.30

2005

112.10 115.79 119.05 120.15 122.47

2004

7.48 7.50 7.54 7.80 7.96

2003

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

2002

196.90 199.19 204.73 207.04 210.84

2001

27.53 25.76 24.68 23.28 20.75

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

200

2000

405.16 407.19 415.26 426.71 448.62

1999

33.19 33.90 33.88 36.03 38.09

300

1998

102.65 104.76 103.34 107.06 109.86

Total

1997

7.10 7.04 7.01 7.24 7.51

Other Renewables2

1996

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

29.28 28.91 25.52 29.55 28.48

Electricity1

1995

163.08 160.65 172.06 172.83 188.33

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Oil

1994

Geothermal Direct Use

Coal

1993

Gas

Calendar Year

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2003

2002

2001

2004

Other Renewables

1992

Notes to Figure A.3b: Cogeneration by individual fuel types is included in electricity.

Geothermal Direct Use

1991

Coal

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

Gas

PJ

1990

Oil

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

13 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Table A.4: Total Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)

Consumer Energy Intensity, Gross Domestic Product and Population

Calendar Year

Agriculture

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

Total

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20.97 19.36 21.14 21.29 22.47

166.78 170.56 171.09 179.23 184.91

34.25 34.18 35.81 31.75 36.01

Residential 53.02 52.99 51.78 51.69 52.59

130.14 130.11 135.44 142.75 152.64

405.16 407.19 415.26 426.71 448.62

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

23.56 24.35 26.23 27.23 28.14

182.07 184.21 183.03 176.95 184.38

36.98 35.74 36.95 38.16 40.14

52.94 55.67 56.02 57.10 57.04

161.71 162.33 166.05 168.50 171.29

457.26 462.30 468.28 467.93 481.00

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

27.47 28.18 30.32 31.83 29.24

199.76 203.40 217.24 201.56 204.72

40.78 41.46 42.04 44.96 48.60

59.12 60.22 59.94 61.81 63.31

178.75 179.89 187.04 194.88 199.47

505.87 513.15 536.58 535.05 545.34

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

31.87 32.61 32.30 30.90 28.44

191.95 188.19 190.75 183.59 175.09

48.86 49.36 50.26 50.66 48.94

62.19 64.28 62.57 62.47 65.55

200.35 202.84 204.88 205.10 202.28

535.22 537.29 540.76 532.73 520.31

2010

27.90

184.24

49.32

65.05

204.32

530.83

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-3.8%

-0.5%

0.0%

0.3%

0.2%

-0.3%

Δ2009/2010

-1.9%

5.2%

0.8%

-0.8%

1.0%

2.0%

Since 1990, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has grown by over 65%, much faster than Total Consumer energy (TCE), which grew by just over 30%. In 2010, New Zealand consumed approximately 4 GJ per thousand dollars of GDP. This is down from over 5 GJ per thousand dollars of GDP in 1990 and represents a 20% improvement in energy intensity since 1990.

The impact on GDP of the global financial crisis is clear from Figure A.5. Also apparent is the impact of this drop in economic activity on energy demand. Since 1990 New Zealand’s population has grown by almost 30%, which is in line with growth in energy demand over the same period.

Figure A.5: Percentage Change in New Zealand’s GDP, Population and Consumer Energy Demand since 1990 % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Population

TCE

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-10

GDP

Note to Figure A.5: GDP and Total Consumer Energy are for calendar years. Population is as at June 30.

14 Energy Data File | 2011

15 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Introduction This section presents annual energy supply and demand balance tables for New Zealand. Energy balances using Gross Calorific Values (GCV)1 are presented in petajoules for the calendar years 2006 to 2010 (Tables B.2–B.6). The 2010 table is also displayed using net calorific values2 (Table B.7). The energy balances focus on commercial energy – energy forms that are typically produced and sold as a fuel. There are not enough reliable data to include other forms of energy, such as passive solar heating. The entry “0.00” in an energy balance table indicates the figure is less than 0.005 PJ but greater than 0 PJ, with zero PJ indicated by a blank entry (this includes where no reliable data are available).

1

Also known as higher heating value (HHV) – see Glossary for details.

2

Also known as lower heating value (LHV) – see Glossary for details.

Supply Total Primary Energy is the amount of energy available for use in New Zealand. Much of it is converted into other forms of energy before it is used. By convention, fuel used for international transport is excluded from total primary energy. Indigenous gas production is given after any gas is flared or reinjected and any LPG extracted. The primary energy figures presented are actual data except for some that goes into electricity generation as detailed under Energy Transformation. Energy Transformation includes generation of electricity (including cogeneration), oil production (including refinery operations and the manufacture of synthetic fuel from natural gas – Methanex ceased methanol to petrol production in April 1999) and other transformation, which is primarily steel production.

Table B.1: Default Electrical Transformation Factors

Biogas Coal Gas (Single Cycle)2 Geothermal3 Hydro Oil Waste Heat Wind Wood

Notes to Table B.1: 1 Default efficiencies are only used where real data is unavailable.

Transformation losses in electricity generation are derived from the net electricity generated, with the actual fuel input being used where available and the conversion factors shown in Table B.1 used otherwise. Fuel input to biogas, hydro, wind and waste heat are fully estimated. Quarterly figures for electricity generation are made up of actual data from major generators and the Electricity Authority. Estimates are made where actual data are unavailable at the time of publishing.

Liquid Biofuel production (bioethanol and biodiesel) appears as renewable energy supply in the energy balance tables. As bioethanol and biodiesel are generally blended with motor petrol and diesel before consumption4, this also appears in energy transformation under oil production.

Net to Gross Factor

Default Efficiency

1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.01 1.07 1.07 1.01 1.07

30% 30% 30% 15% 100% 30% 15% 100% 25%

Consumer energy (calculated) forms the top half of the energy balance tables and is calculated as Total Primary Energy supply less Energy Transformation less Non-energy Use. Consumer energy (observed) forms the bottom half of the energy balance tables and it represents reported demand in the primary, industrial, commercial, transport and residential sectors. With the exception of domestic/national use of energy for transport purposes, these sectors follow the Australia New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006.

Losses and Own Use in the energy balances include losses both before and after transformation, losses and own use in production, transmission and distribution losses, electricity own use free of charge, and oil industry losses and own use (which includes distribution tankage losses, stocks, accounts adjustment and own consumption). Annual figures presented for Consumer Transformation losses are excluded. Energy (observed) are actual data except for thermal fuels used for cogeneration in the Non-energy Use is primary thermal energy industrial and commercial sectors, biogas, used for other purposes other than wastes and wood. Estimates of on-site combustion: e.g. bitumen for roads and cogeneration demand are included in natural gas used as feedstock for the production of methanol and ammonia/urea. electricity end use.

Demand 1

Fuel

In the Energy Transformation section of the balance tables, “energy in” is shown as negative values and “energy out” as positive values in the appropriate fuel columns. Transformation of energy from one form to another always results in conversion losses, particularly in thermal electricity generation, as much energy is lost as heat.

Consumer Energy is the amount of energy consumed by final users. It excludes energy used or lost in the process of transforming energy into other forms and in bringing the energy to the final consumers. For example, natural gas is a primary energy source (see Total Primary Energy Supply), some of which is transformed into electricity, and some of that is lost in transmission to consumers.

Where the energy use is not available or confidential, the “Unallocated” category is used. International Transport includes international sea and air transport. It excludes coastal shipping, national air transport and all land transport.

Statistical Differences shows the difference between the “Consumer Energy (calculated)” and “Consumer Energy (observed)”. This Consumer energy statistics can be either difference is shown at the bottom of the calculated from supply-side data or observed energy balance tables. from usage data. For further definitions, see the Glossary.

3 Geothermal is predominantly based on real plant steam data and uses a 15% efficiency where this is unavailable.

For combined cycle plants the assumed efficiency is 55%. Currently however actual fuel input data is collected for all combined cycle plants.

2

4

A very small amount of liquid biofuel is consumed unblended. However, insufficient data is available on use of unblended liquid biofuel to include in this publication.

16 Energy Data File | 2011

17 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.2: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

26.21

-

2.73

6.58

311.43

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

123.37

179.34

88.97

152.57

0.36

5.88

134.02

4.51

138.53

115.87

7.50

+

Imports

5.84

0.00

5.85

232.65

0.38

-

Exports

75.27

-

75.27

110.57

0.71

1.63

0.01

2.75

-

-

115.67

-

Stock Change

11.06

0.04

11.11

1.67

0.14

0.92

-3.45

-1.74

-0.24

-0.09

-2.79

-

International Transport

1.40

13.08

33.95

0.01

48.43

53.53

4.47

58.00

236.29

7.03

40.34

28.25

-14.09

-30.98

6.65

273.50

173.47

88.97

152.57

-32.67

-0.28

-32.95

-237.09

-0.43

65.25

81.33

22.75

45.11

14.00

-9.07

-88.56

-88.97

-13.66

-

-13.66

-0.02

-0.00

-0.02

-62.58

-88.97

-7.84

-0.28

-8.12

Other Transformation

-10.58

-

-10.58

Losses and Own Use

-0.59

-

-0.59

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration

42.89

-

Oil Production

-236.64

64.50

81.74

22.68

45.93

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture Forestry and Logging Fishing Industrial

20.86

4.19

25.05

1.89

0.02

1.89

0.02

-

-

15.03

-6.76

-0.45

-0.43

0.75

-0.39

0.07

-0.81

310.25

TOTAL

1.32

752.81

5.88

0.18

3.18

59.10

310.25

-143.09

-5.88

-0.18

-2.90

-5.09

-246.12

145.31

-141.78

0.36

-5.88

-238.64

151.52

-7.29

9.83

-2.00

-1.31

-0.90

-5.09

-0.18

-0.81

6.60

-1.03

-2.30

-7.37

-20.66

-20.66

-25.47

243.77

59.44

9.48

1.38

13.27

2.44

0.06

17.14

1.47

1.91

1.37

8.93

-

0.05

10.35

1.46

-

0.01

2.57

-

0.00

2.59

0.01

-

59.10

Total

1.32

816.54

-1.32

-232.70 -163.38

-1.32

-0.18

-25.51 -6.94 -10.58

1.91

21.29

3.18

Total

14.19

-

14.14

-

Total

48.43

8.66

2.97

Wood

190.94

109.59

-

0.18

Biogas

Waste Heat

5.87

105.59

18.32

Liquid Biofuels

Electricity

317.28

-18.61

Non-energy Use

DEMAND

Renewables

2.22

-

0.00

1.77

2.44

0.00

4.21

-

0.09

11.29

1.27

0.11

14.98

39.59

-16.04

-26.29 -46.13

0.36

-

-

0.28

64.14

145.31

0.73

0.73

6.65

27.90

0.73

0.73

5.90

20.34

0.25

2.85

6.10

54.01

46.49

52.60

-

537.71

0.50

4.72

55.79

184.24

Mining

0.01

-

0.01

0.00

3.63

-

0.00

3.63

0.01

1.83

5.48

Food Processing

11.38

2.91

14.29

-

-

-

-

-

9.62

7.82

31.73

Textiles

0.24

-

0.24

0.38

0.43

1.04

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

0.64

0.05

0.69

4.85

11.82

17.36

-

-

-

18.85

2.39

21.25

4.14

0.01

4.15

-

-

-

Chemicals Non-metallic Minerals Basic Metals

0.83

0.79

5.77

-

-

-

-

-

3.00

24.26

27.26

1.39

0.70

2.11

0.01

3.97

0.02

0.10

4.10

0.03

0.68

4.90

0.08

3.69

1.25

0.01

7.25

0.63

6.10

52.60

5.07

67.33

2.34

0.28

2.62

32.50

49.32

-

-

0.36

204.32

7.52

8.19

48.04

65.05

64.14

143.34

-

530.83

1.97

-

6.87

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

0.02

-

0.02

Building and Construction

0.08

-

0.08

Unallocated

1.80

-

1.80

2.22

Commercial

0.89

0.54

1.43

1.27

0.05

4.43

0.09

0.05

5.88

6.87

Transport

0.05

-

0.05

1.16

108.81

75.87

3.51

14.53

203.88

0.03

Residential

0.24

0.30

0.54

1.95

0.04

0.30

-

-

2.29

5.99

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

21.39

3.83

25.21

-

6.60

110.36

105.15

7.31

14.75

-

244.18

53.95

Statistical Differences

-0.53

0.36

-0.17

-0.81

-

-4.77

4.43

1.35

-0.62

-

-0.41

5.49

-

46.49

0.31

0.36

9.48

0.36

-

0.28

54.01

-

-

-

-

-

18 Energy Data File | 2011

-

19 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.3: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2009

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil

Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

32.60

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

0.01

8.91

5.93

317.58 116.45

Total

Total

Hydro

124.67

167.24

87.19

Geothermal

113.47

3.97

117.44

121.11

3.55

+

Imports

15.58

-

15.58

218.27

4.73

47.13

-

Exports

65.13

-

65.13

107.38

0.00

0.24

-

8.83

-

-

-

Stock Change

2.29

-

2.29

0.49

0.17

1.53

-0.91

-0.63

-0.35

0.14

-

International Transport

0.06

1.26

13.55

32.12

-

61.63

3.97

65.60

231.53

8.11

45.30

32.25

-21.74

-22.86

5.79

278.37

163.15

87.19

124.15

-44.25

-0.28

-44.53

-228.04

-0.60

66.79

72.90

31.02

39.29

12.65

-5.99

-77.67

-87.19

-27.45

-

-27.45

-0.08

-0.02

-0.10

-53.97

-87.19

-6.82

-0.28

-7.10

Other Transformation

-9.69

-

-9.69

Losses and Own Use

-0.29

-

-0.29

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

-227.42

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture Forestry and Logging Fishing Industrial

17.38

3.68

21.06

0.85

0.00

0.85

0.85

0.00

0.85

-

-

-

-

-

-

16.35

3.25

19.59

0.42

66.53

72.41

31.19

40.28

13.67

124.15

Solar

Wind

0.34

5.32

Liquid Biofuels 0.12

Biogas

Wood

Total

3.05

53.32

273.50

Electricity

Waste Heat

Total

Total

TOTAL

1.37

684.21 333.15 181.57

4.09

6.80

47.00

47.00

-3.33

0.34

5.32

0.12

3.05

53.32

273.50

-114.31

-5.32

-0.12

-2.77

-4.93

-214.64

140.72

-113.02

-5.32

-207.42

147.17

-7.10

9.27

-1.89

-1.29

-17.26

-0.88

-4.93

-0.12

-

1.37

781.98

-1.37

-203.49 -141.77

-1.37

-0.12

-23.56 -3.45 -9.69

-0.62

-0.60

0.26

0.57

-0.16

-0.99

Non-energy Use

DEMAND

Renewables

3.49

7.51

2.49

112.09

-1.02

-2.57

-6.44

-18.43

-18.43

-25.36

253.94

60.12

9.84

105.15

9.28

16.43

-

1.76

13.94

2.50

0.12

18.31

1.94

1.72

10.20

-

0.09

12.01

1.94

0.02

1.73

-

0.00

1.76

0.00

0.02

2.00

2.50

0.02

4.54

-

0.28

13.45

0.91

0.10

17.24

39.59

-15.71

-25.00 -43.79

0.34

-

-

0.28

58.85

140.72

0.73

0.73

6.61

28.44

0.73

0.73

5.87

21.41

0.24

2.00

6.31

48.40

40.76

47.06

-

534.70

0.50

5.04

51.61

175.09

Mining

0.12

0.01

0.13

0.00

4.63

-

-

4.64

0.01

1.76

6.54

Food Processing

8.11

3.09

11.19

-

0.01

0.02

-

0.03

9.65

7.75

28.62

Textiles

0.12

-

0.12

0.56

0.44

1.12

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

0.72

0.08

0.79

5.00

12.04

17.83

-

-

-

18.64

2.44

21.08

Chemicals Non-metallic Minerals

3.32

-

3.32

Basic Metals

0.01

-

0.01

1.67

0.82

5.81

-

-

-

-

-

2.94

20.24

23.18

0.45

0.74

1.20

0.02

4.37

0.02

0.09

4.51

0.05

0.68

5.25

0.25

4.44

0.87

0.01

8.07

0.62

6.31

47.06

4.71

64.46

2.52

0.28

2.80

32.62

48.94

-

-

0.36

202.28

7.64

8.26

47.55

65.55

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

0.01

-

0.01

Building and Construction

0.01

-

0.01

Unallocated

3.94

0.07

4.00

Commercial

1.09

0.20

1.29

1.48

0.11

2.77

0.05

0.52

4.94

7.30

Transport

0.02

-

0.02

1.34

108.11

74.72

4.10

13.59

201.86

0.04

Residential

0.56

0.30

0.86

2.20

0.00

0.31

-

-

2.51

6.38

110.26

105.19

7.57

14.33

-

244.86

55.24

1.83

-0.04

1.71

2.09

-

9.08

4.88

2.49

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

18.86

3.75

22.61

-

7.51

Statistical Differences

-1.48

-0.07

-1.55

3.49

-

-

40.76

0.28

0.34

9.84

0.34

-

0.28

48.40

58.85

138.75

-

520.31

-

-

-

-

-

-0.00

1.97

-

14.39

20 Energy Data File | 2011

21 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.4: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2008

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production +

Imports

-

Exports

-

Stock Change

-

International Transport

Natural Gas

Oil Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

125.05

128.26

3.60

13.85

224.23

5.02

Lignite

Total

121.25

3.80

13.85

0.00

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

40.21

38.00

0.34

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

Liquid Biofuels

131.86

159.99

80.41

107.16

0.32

3.81

0.09

11.53

7.28

326.61

78.51

-

78.51

119.83

0.00

1.31

0.01

7.78

-

-

128.94

-

-23.87

-1.83

-0.02

-0.11

-1.49

1.75

1.52

-0.37

-0.55

0.04

1.58

13.59

33.75

0.01

48.98

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

80.46

3.80

84.26

234.49

8.64

38.96

37.90

-22.79

-23.74

7.64

281.10

159.96

80.41

107.16

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

-59.77

-0.29

-60.05

-234.77

-0.62

69.65

73.29

29.66

41.05

12.50

-9.25

-89.02

-80.41

-43.09

-

-43.09

-1.43

-

-1.43

-60.77

-80.41

-7.07

-0.29

-7.36

Other Transformation

-9.17

-

-9.17

Losses and Own Use

-0.44

-

-0.44

Electricity Generation

Oil Production

70.62

74.31

29.65

41.40

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

20.69

3.51

24.20

-4.93

Total

2.91

57.85

252.55

Total

Total 1.44

TOTAL 670.89

207.45 -24.39 48.98 0.32

3.81

0.09

2.91

57.85

252.55

-97.54

-3.81

-0.09

-2.63

-4.53

-189.00

141.04

-96.29

-3.81

-182.32

146.17

-6.59

11.64

-1.82

-1.25

-0.81

-4.53

-0.09

-

1.44

779.30

-1.44

-207.73 -141.43

-1.44

-0.09

-27.15 -5.02 -9.17

-0.65

-0.62

-0.98

0.41

0.01

-0.35

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

13.22

Wood

Waste Heat

0.03

-23.41 -234.13

Biogas

Electricity

340.46

-23.87

Cogeneration

-0.28

8.02

108.61

111.19

6.87

17.31

-0.72

-2.90

-4.85

-20.15

-20.15

-18.23

251.70

52.71

9.62

-

-16.78

-24.96 -38.37

0.32

-

-

0.28

53.32

63.55

141.04

-

533.20

1.73

0.01

1.74

1.99

16.11

2.02

0.15

20.26

1.63

0.73

0.73

6.53

30.90

Agriculture

-

-

-

1.95

11.98

0.00

0.14

14.08

1.63

0.73

0.73

5.82

22.26

Forestry and Logging

-

-

-

0.01

1.54

0.16

0.00

1.72

0.00

0.23

1.95

Fishing Industrial

DEMAND

Renewables

-

-

-

20.59

3.79

24.38

2.41

0.03

2.58

1.86

0.01

4.47

-

0.37

14.90

1.15

0.11

18.93

34.69

6.09

45.58

51.68

0.48

4.95

53.91

183.59

Mining

-

-

-

0.00

4.12

0.15

-

4.27

0.11

1.51

5.89

Food Processing

-

-

-

0.00

0.05

0.08

-

0.13

8.74

7.62

16.49

Textiles

-

-

-

0.64

0.49

1.13

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

-

-

-

4.76

12.05

16.80

Chemicals

-

-

-

13.99

2.65

16.64

Non-metallic Minerals

-

-

-

Basic Metals

-

-

-

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

-

-

-

Building and Construction

-

-

-

20.59

3.79

24.38

Commercial

1.80

0.55

2.35

1.64

Transport

0.08

-

0.08

1.59

Residential

0.15

0.22

0.36

2.38

Unallocated

2.41

1.57

0.92

2.49

2.98

22.69

25.68

0.60

0.86

1.46

0.11

0.71

5.02

51.68

4.41

91.98

0.28

2.80

33.03

50.66

-

-

0.36

205.10

7.74

8.34

45.64

62.47

63.55

139.48

-

532.73

1.55

-

0.47

-

0.00

-

-

0.00

0.04

4.10

0.01

0.05

4.20

0.32

6.63

0.90

0.06

10.32

1.19

6.09

0.13

3.61

0.27

0.56

6.22

6.26

2.52

109.42

75.14

3.46

15.02

204.63

0.04

0.00

0.28

-

0.00

2.66

5.47

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

24.35

4.56

28.91

-

8.02

111.91

110.04

6.90

15.84

-

252.70

48.09

Statistical Differences

-3.66

-1.04

-4.70

-0.28

-

-3.30

1.15

-0.03

1.47

-

-1.00

4.62

-

45.58

0.28

0.32

9.62

0.32

-

0.28

53.32

-

-

-

-

-

22 Energy Data File | 2011

-

23 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.5: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2007

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

40.60

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

Liquid Biofuels

Biogas

Wood

Total

93.47

169.57

85.10

90.64

0.30

3.35

0.05

3.03

62.24

244.71

0.01

11.89

6.79

323.43

120.70

4.12

124.82

88.43

5.04

+

Imports

16.85

0.00

16.85

212.06

4.16

47.92

-

Exports

63.67

-

63.67

75.18

0.00

0.68

-

4.68

-

-

80.55

-

Stock Change

3.94

-

3.94

4.65

0.43

2.02

0.67

-1.31

0.19

-0.38

6.27

-

International Transport

0.00

1.34

12.17

33.54

-

220.66

8.77

45.21

38.59

-15.53

-21.85

7.17

283.03

169.54

85.10

90.64

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

-43.89

-0.27

-44.16

-219.86

-0.74

66.35

73.71

24.28

38.75

12.48

-5.01

-104.09

-85.10

-

-26.07

-0.01

-0.00

-75.35

-85.10

-0.27

-7.73

Other Transformation

-9.92

-

-9.92

Losses and Own Use

-0.44

-

-0.44

Oil Production

66.84

72.68

24.32

-0.01

38.94

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

26.04

3.86

29.90

-2.43

TOTAL 633.93

47.05 0.30

3.35

0.05

3.03

62.24

244.71

-81.09

-3.35

-0.05

-2.75

-4.38

-176.71

141.32

-79.84

-3.35

-170.18

146.02

-6.48

11.48

-1.90

-1.25

-0.85

-4.38

-0.05

-

1.36

772.70

-1.36

-190.01 -125.59

-1.36

-0.05

-26.66 -2.47 -9.92

-0.75

-0.74

-0.49

1.04

-0.03

-0.19

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

13.91

1.36

47.05

-22.58 -219.12

Total

10.24

74.06

-7.46

Total

144.22

4.13

-26.07

Waste Heat

0.03

69.93

Cogeneration

Electricity

340.28

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

Electricity Generation

0.80

8.03

111.57

112.30

8.76

16.91

-1.43

-2.58

-6.16

-19.65

-19.65

-15.45

258.36

50.01

9.56

-

-16.18

-25.36 -35.10

0.30

-

-

0.28

57.86

68.00

141.32

-

547.59

1.45

0.01

1.46

2.23

17.40

2.01

0.22

21.86

1.81

0.56

0.56

6.61

32.30

Agriculture

-

-

-

2.19

13.32

0.01

0.22

15.73

1.80

0.56

0.56

5.79

23.87

Forestry and Logging

-

-

-

0.01

1.35

0.37

0.00

1.73

0.01

0.36

2.10

Fishing Industrial

DEMAND

Renewables

-

-

19.92

3.45

23.37

2.69

0.03

2.73

1.64

0.00

4.40

0.45

15.88

1.15

0.15

20.31

33.39

6.09

50.06

56.15

0.46

4.86

57.53

190.75

Mining

-

-

-

0.00

3.61

0.35

-

3.96

0.22

1.34

5.51

Food Processing

-

-

-

0.00

0.04

0.10

-

0.14

10.08

7.79

18.01

Textiles

-

-

-

0.76

0.55

1.31

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

-

-

-

5.30

12.40

17.70

Chemicals

-

-

-

11.06

2.81

13.87

Non-metallic Minerals

-

-

-

Basic Metals

-

-

-

1.75

0.92

2.67

-

0.00

-

-

0.00

3.00

24.73

27.73

0.68

0.91

1.59

0.03

3.57

0.01

0.08

3.69

0.13

0.79

4.60

0.42

8.66

0.69

0.07

12.53

0.41

6.09

56.15

5.29

97.75

2.62

0.28

2.90

32.64

50.26

-

-

0.36

204.88

7.80

8.40

44.84

62.57

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

-

-

-

Building and Construction

-

-

-

19.92

3.45

Commercial

1.64

0.50

2.13

1.42

0.38

3.21

0.32

0.69

6.02

6.57

Transport

0.08

-

0.08

1.43

110.80

73.70

4.90

13.57

204.41

0.02

Residential

0.25

0.30

0.55

2.49

0.00

0.64

-

0.00

3.13

5.65

23.34

4.26

27.59

-

8.03

113.86

110.83

8.38

14.63

-

255.73

47.44

2.70

-0.40

2.30

0.80

-

-2.29

1.47

0.38

2.27

-

2.64

2.56

Unallocated

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed) Statistical Differences

2.69

23.37

-

50.06

0.30

0.30

9.56

0.30

-

0.28

57.86

68.00

141.99

-

540.76

-

-

-

-

-

-

-0.67

-

6.83

24 Energy Data File | 2011

25 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.6: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2006

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

Lignite

Total

146.02

4.01

150.03

38.74

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

7.06

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

45.79

154.03

84.86

86.35

0.26

2.24

Liquid Biofuels -

Biogas

Wood

Total

3.06

65.09

241.86

Electricity

Waste Heat

Total

Total

TOTAL

1.83

593.55

+

Imports

28.07

0.00

28.07

215.83

1.92

40.85

34.43

-

9.73

6.77

309.53

337.60

-

Exports

85.24

-

85.24

31.25

0.30

-

0.01

3.85

-

-

35.41

120.65

-

Stock Change

7.46

-

7.46

-7.81

0.35

-0.47

1.85

0.33

0.01

-0.58

-6.32

-

International Transport

0.00

1.46

11.74

31.97

-

45.17

81.40

4.01

85.41

231.12

8.33

41.33

31.11

-15.92

-22.25

7.35

281.07

-68.90

-0.22

-69.12

-232.33

-0.78

69.50

76.40

23.99

41.72

12.59

-50.99

-

-50.99

-0.23

-0.00

-8.01

-0.22

-8.23

Other Transformation

-9.47

-

-9.47

Losses and Own Use

-0.44

-

-0.44

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture

-0.00

1.14 45.17

154.03

84.86

86.35

-8.92

-87.75

-84.86

-0.23

-60.10

-84.86

-231.52

69.62

76.27

23.93

42.23

13.65

-5.81

0.26

2.24

-

3.06

65.09

-76.98

-2.24

-

-2.80

-4.15

-75.65

-2.24

-1.87

-1.33

-21.30

-0.93

-4.15

-

-

241.86

1.83

-171.02

140.80

-164.61

145.97

-6.41

11.00

-1.83

764.20 -197.83 -129.96

-1.83

-

-26.77 -5.81 -9.47

-0.81

-0.78

-0.13

0.36

0.06

-0.51

Non-energy Use 12.50

3.80

16.30

-1.21

7.55

110.82

1.96

0.02

1.98

2.34

-

-

-

2.29

107.52

-1.07

-2.87

-6.35

-19.93

-19.93

-15.10

252.22

51.18

9.38

8.07

19.47

-

17.75

1.84

0.24

22.17

1.88

13.35

0.00

0.23

15.87

1.82

-16.17

-25.82 -35.03

0.26

-

-

0.26

60.94

70.84

140.80

-

531.35

0.55

0.55

6.03

32.61

0.55

0.55

5.27

23.51

Forestry and Logging

-

-

-

0.02

1.25

0.17

0.01

1.44

0.06

0.33

1.84

Fishing

-

-

-

0.04

3.14

1.67

0.01

4.86

-

0.43

5.28

17.16

3.32

20.49

0.51

14.72

0.96

0.16

19.00

31.47

58.24

188.19

Industrial

DEMAND

Others

Renewables

2.65

5.92

53.09

59.01

Mining

-

-

-

0.00

3.35

0.16

-

3.51

0.20

1.18

4.89

Food Processing

-

-

-

0.00

0.06

0.12

-

0.18

7.99

7.95

16.12

Textiles

-

-

-

0.80

0.61

1.41

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

-

-

-

5.67

13.28

18.94

Chemicals

-

-

-

10.79

2.86

13.65

Non-metallic Minerals

-

-

-

Basic Metals

-

-

-

1.71

0.89

2.60

3.14

23.81

26.94

-

0.00

-

-

0.00

0.84

0.99

1.84

0.03

4.25

0.01

0.10

4.38

0.07

0.83

5.28

0.48

7.05

0.68

0.06

10.92

0.25

5.92

59.01

5.84

96.51

2.61

0.26

2.87

31.62

49.36

-

-

0.36

202.84

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

-

-

-

Building and Construction

-

-

-

17.16

3.32

20.49

2.65

Commercial

1.27

0.47

1.74

1.29

0.13

3.26

0.26

0.78

5.73

7.40

Transport

0.08

-

0.08

1.28

108.90

71.18

4.45

16.58

202.38

0.02

Unallocated

0.25

0.43

0.69

2.33

0.00

0.61

-

0.00

2.95

6.64

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

Residential

20.73

4.25

24.97

-

7.55

111.88

107.51

7.51

17.77

-

252.22

47.41

Statistical Differences

-8.22

-0.45

-8.68

-1.21

-

-1.06

0.01

0.56

1.70

-

-0.00

3.78

-

53.09

0.30

0.26

7.85

8.41

45.60

9.38

0.26

-

0.26

60.94

70.84

141.84

-

537.29

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-1.04

-

-5.94

26 Energy Data File | 2011

64.28

27 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

NET

Table B.7: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010 NET

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Net Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum. Indigenous Production

SUPPLY

+

Natural Gas

Oil

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

40.01

24.59

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

114.33

159.79

88.97

152.57

0.36

5.88

6.23

289.41

127.35

4.04

131.39

107.41

6.92

5.51

0.00

5.51

215.67

0.35

-

72.24

102.50

0.65

1.52

0.01

2.59

-

-

107.27

10.37

1.55

0.13

0.86

-3.24

-1.64

-0.22

-0.08

-2.65

-

Exports

72.24

-

Stock Change

10.37

-

International Transport

2.56

-

1.31

12.32

31.85

0.01

45.49

6.48

37.64

26.50

-13.27

-29.06

6.31

253.64

154.56

88.97

152.57

-30.64

-0.25

-30.89

-219.79

-0.39

60.87

76.30

21.43

42.32

13.27

-5.99

-78.90

-88.97

-12.81

-

-12.81

-0.02

-0.00

-0.02

-55.76

-88.97

-7.35

-0.25

-7.60

Other Transformation

-9.92

-

-9.92

Losses and Own Use

-0.56

-

-0.56

60.18

76.68

21.36

43.09

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture Forestry and Logging Fishing Industrial Mining

19.61

3.79

23.40

1.77

0.02

1.77

0.02

-

-

-3.81

-0.42

-0.39

0.70

-0.37

0.06

-0.76

297.11

-143.09

-5.88

-0.17

-2.62

-3.98

-244.72

145.31

-141.78

-5.88

-238.45

151.52

-6.10

9.83

-1.81

-1.31

-0.81

-3.98

-0.17

-0.75

6.09

-6.56 -22.69

228.07

52.96

9.48 0.73

1.29

12.45

2.30

0.06

16.09

1.31

1.79

1.27

8.38

-

0.05

9.70

1.30

-

0.01

2.41

-

0.00

2.43

0.01

-

46.28

-2.16

1.79

19.99

2.88

-19.58

13.26

-

0.92

0.17

-0.97

8.16

2.66

297.11

5.88

-19.58 102.80

-

0.36

-

98.51

17.33

46.28

Total

TOTAL 703.55

0.92

760.52

-0.92

-216.11 -155.52

-0.92

-0.17

-21.38 -3.98 -9.92

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

14.25

2.88

Total

45.49

-16.58 -219.37

Total

12.96

219.04

Oil Production

Wood

179.51

54.29

Cogeneration

0.17

Biogas

Waste Heat

5.23

4.04

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

Liquid Biofuels

Electricity

294.92

50.25

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

Electricity Generation

2.05

-

0.00

1.66

2.30

0.00

3.96

-

0.08

10.59

1.20

0.11

14.02

35.27

-16.04

-25.32 -42.28

0.36

-

-

0.25

6.10

42.30

36.41

52.39

145.31

0.73

6.65

26.56

5.90

18.68

0.25

2.69

42.51

-

502.14

0.50

4.47

55.79

167.58

0.01

-

0.01

0.00

3.40

-

0.00

3.41

0.01

1.83

5.26

10.72

2.61

13.32

-

-

-

-

-

8.58

7.82

29.71

Textiles

0.22

-

0.22

0.34

0.43

0.99

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

0.60

0.05

0.64

4.32

11.82

16.78

-

-

-

16.80

2.39

19.19

3.95

0.01

3.96

-

-

-

Food Processing

DEMAND

Others

Imports

-

Renewables

Chemicals Non-metallic Minerals Basic Metals

0.74

0.79

5.49

-

-

-

-

-

2.68

24.26

26.93

1.24

0.70

1.96

0.01

3.72

0.02

0.09

3.85

0.03

0.68

4.64

0.08

3.46

1.17

0.01

6.77

0.56

6.10

42.51

5.07

56.62

2.34

0.25

2.60

32.50

48.05

-

-

0.36

191.13

5.89

6.56

48.04

62.55

143.34

-

495.87

1.97

-

6.27

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

0.02

-

0.02

Building and Construction

0.08

-

0.08

Unallocated

1.72

-

1.72

2.05

Commercial

0.84

0.49

1.33

1.17

0.04

4.15

0.08

0.05

5.50

6.12

Transport

0.04

-

0.04

1.07

101.52

71.17

3.31

13.63

190.70

0.03

Residential

0.23

0.27

0.49

1.80

0.03

0.28

-

-

2.12

5.34

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

20.21

3.43

23.64

-

6.09

102.96

98.64

6.89

13.84

-

228.42

48.07

Statistical Differences

-0.60

0.36

-0.24

-0.75

-

-4.45

4.16

1.27

-0.58

-

-0.35

4.89

-

36.41

0.31

0.36

9.48

0.36

-

0.25

42.30

52.39

-

-

-

-

-

-

28 Energy Data File | 2011

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© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


C. Coal

C. Coal

Figure C.1: Coal Industry Summary for 2010

Figure C.2: Annual Coal Production by Rank and Mining Method Kt

MINING AREAS

North Island

South Island

6,000 5,000

Waikato

West Coast

Canterbury

Otago

Southland 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

PRODUCERS

Opencast Bituminous

Underground Bituminous

Opencast Sub-Bituminous

Underground Sub-Bituminous

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

Imports

1992

Other Producers Glencoal Energy Birchfield Coal Eastern Corporation Francis Mining Canterbury Coal

1990

Solid Energy

1991

0

Opencast Lignite

(and about 7 smaller producers)

Overview of New Zealand’s Coal Industry Introduction This chapter contains information about coal production (supply) and sales to consumers (demand). All statistics apply to the 2010 calendar year. Comparisons are made with the 2009 calendar year, and are calculated from energy units, unless otherwise specified.

CONSUMERS

NZ Steel Steel Manufacture

Overseas Markets Export

Industry Commercial Residential Domestic Consumers

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable.

Genesis Energy Electricity Generation

In 2010, New Zealand produced 5.3 million tonnes of coal, over 2.4 million tonnes of which were exported. Total coal used in 2010 was 2.7 million tonnes, over 0.25 million tonnes of which were imported, with the remainder coming from local production.

Resources New Zealand has extensive coal resources, mainly in the Waikato and Taranaki regions of the North Island, and the West Coast, Otago and Southland regions of the South Island. It has been estimated that national in-ground resources of all coals total more than 15 billion tonnes, of which 80% are South Island lignites.

New Zealand’s coal resources are generally well explored. A major government-funded coal exploration programme, known as the New Zealand Coal Resources Survey, explored between 1975 and 1989 almost all of New Zealand’s realistic coal prospects. More than 1,800 holes were drilled, and extensive resource evaluation, geotechnical, geophysical, utilisation, environmental and mining feasibility studies were carried out. The discovery of very large resources of lignite in Otago and Southland also led to a series of investigations in the 1980s by the Liquid Fuels Trust Board to evaluate the potential of the lignites for conversion to transport fuels.

Recoverable coal estimates are dependent on assessment of a complex mix of factors, including:

Lignite is New Zealand’s largest fossil fuel energy resource. The main deposits are well known, with technically and economically recoverable quantities in the 10 largest deposits established at over 6 billion tonnes. The South Island lignites are being evaluated for their potential as a feedstock for large-scale petrochemical processing into a range of possible energy products, including transport fuels, briquettes and fertilizers.

Recoverable coal quantities are thus not simple to assess and will change depending on market conditions and as a result of ongoing exploration and feasibility studies into converting resources to reserves.

resource size and location;

geological conditions;

technical constraints on mining;

mining economics;

access to resources;

project consents;

market size and certainty;

market price, which is itself partly set by import substitute price for some markets; and

distribution costs and infrastructure.

Figure C.1 shows a summary of the coal industry in New Zealand for 2010. Figure C.3 shows the locations of New Zealand’s main coalfields.

Sub-bituminous and bituminous in-ground resources are around 3.5 billion tonnes, but recoverable quantities of these coals are uncertain.

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Figure C.3: Location of New Zealand Coal Resources and 2010 Coal Production Production New Zealand coal production in 2010 was 5.3 million tonnes, 17% up from the 2009 figure of 4.6 million tonnes. This is mostly due to the restoration of production levels at Solid Energy’s two bituminous mines, Stockton and Spring Creek, which had been reduced for 2009 by industrial action and reduced export orders resulting from the global financial crisis. Table C.1 shows coal production by mining method, rank and region in 2010. All lignite is produced in the lower South Island.

2010 national coal production totalled 5.3 million tonnes from 21 mines. Production totals and the number of mines annotated on this map are not exhaustive. Northland

Hikurangi Kamo

Huntly Coalfield 430 kt SB

Most production is of bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Although lignite makes up 80% of national coal resources, lignite production of 295,000 tonnes in 2010 represented only 6% of total production, partly as a consequence of distance from the main centres of energy demand.

Maramarua

Waikato Rotowaro Coalfield 1,489 kt SB

Huntly Rotowaro

Kawhia

Waikare

Tihiroa Mangapehi

Taranaki Mokau

Production is centred in the Waikato (2.0 million tonnes, mainly for several major industrial users and the Huntly power station), on the West Coast (2.7 million tonnes, mainly for export) and in Southland (0.5 million tonnes, mainly for local industrial markets). The remaining production is from Otago and Canterbury. Five underground and 16 opencast mines were operating in 2010. Over 59% of national production was from two large opencast operations, at Rotowaro and Stockton. Stateowned Solid Energy was responsible for over 82% of national production. A number of smaller private coal mining companies produced the remainder.

There are 54 current permits and 31 licences issued by Crown Minerals to mine coal, many of which cover small mines that are not producing, and 50 coal exploration permits. The Crown owns only about half of New Zealand’s coal resources, and mining of privately owned coal is not subject to the Crown Minerals Act 1991, although preceding legislation covers mining of some privately owned coal.

Waitewhena OhuraTangarakakau

Table C.1: Production by Mining Method, Rank and Region for 2010 (kt) 2010 Rank Bituminous

Buller Coalfield

tonnes

1,642 kt B

Waikato

Buller

NORTH ISLAND

Inangahua Reefton

Nelson-Westland

Garvey Creek Pike River

Greymouth Coalfield

Greymouth

759 kt B Malvern Hills

-

Method

Sub-bituminous

Δ2009/2010

tonnes

Δ2009/2010

0%

2,042.7

17%

Lignite tonnes

Opencast

Δ2009/2010

Underground

tonnes

Δ2009/2010

tonnes

-

0%

1,648.1

19%

394.6

-

0%

1,648.1

19%

0% 0% 69% 13%

1,753.8 36.7 76.1 464.4

16% 27% 7% -3%

Δ2009/2010

Total tonnes

Δ2009/2010

8%

2,042.7

17%

394.6

8%

2,042.7

17%

956.8 -

32% 0% 0% 0%

2,710.6 36.7 76.1 464.4

21% 27% 7% -3%

0%

2,042.7

17%

West Coast Canterbury Otago Southland

2,597.4 -

25% 0% 0% 0%

113.2 36.7 72.2 173.4

-25% 27% 5% -22%

SOUTH ISLAND

2,597.4

25%

395.5

-16%

294.9

14%

2,331.0

11%

956.8

32%

3,287.9

17%

NEW ZEALAND

2,597.4

25%

2,438.2

10%

294.9

14%

3,979.1

15%

1,351.4

24%

5,330.5

17%

3.9 291.0

Mt. Somers

Canterbury

St. Bathans

Ohai Coalfield 173 kt SB

Mine Production 2009

Roxburgh

kt = kilotonnes B = Bituminous SB = Sub-bituminous L = Lignite

Otago Ohai Kaitangata

Southland

Southland Lignites 291 kt L 0

200 km

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Exports Most of New Zealand’s premium bituminous coal production is exported. These coals are valued internationally for their low ash and sulphur contents, and other characteristics such as high swelling, uidity and reactivity, which allow them to be blended with other coals for use in the steel industry1. 1

West Coast bituminous coals are not suitable for the New Zealand Steel plant.

Exports of bituminous coal, produced entirely from the West Coast, were 75.3 PJ or 2.3 million tonnes for 2010, up 16% from 2009 levels due to the production at the Stockton mine returning to more normal levels. New Zealand coal is exported mainly to India and Japan, with smaller quantities going to Chile, South Africa, Brazil, China, USA and Australia. Most exports are of coking coal, with smaller amounts of thermal and specialist coals.

Imports

Consumption

The shortfall of North Island production over demand was met by imports of 5.85 PJ or 0.26 million tonnes in 2009, virtually all for the Huntly power station. This was 62% lower than 2009 due to reductions in coal use for electricity generation (Figure C.4).

Coal accounts for approximately 4% of New Zealand’s total consumer energy supply. New Zealand used 2.7 million tonnes (58.2 PJ) of coal in 2010, down 23% from 2009 levels. The biggest domestic users in 2010 were the Huntly power station (around 0.6 million tonnes) and the Glenbrook steel mill (around 0.8 million tonnes). Figure C.5 shows coal consumption by sector.

&IGURE##OAL)MPORTSAND%XPORTS 1+

In 2010, electricity generation (including cogeneration) accounted for 37% of domestic coal use, other transformation (mainly steel making) 19%, the industrial sector 37% and the commercial sector 2%. Industrial coal use was primarily for cement, lime and plaster, meat, dairy and other food processing, wool, timber, and pulp and paper products. Commercial coal use was mainly for heating accommodation and service buildings in central and local government, hospitals, rest homes and educational institutions. The remaining 4% was used by the agricultural (mainly horticulture), transport and residential sectors.

More information on the New Zealand coal industry is available at the New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals website: www.nzpam.govt.nz/cms/coal/



Table C.2: Coal Energy Balance (Gross PJ)

 

Converted into Petajoules using Gross CaloriďŹ c Values

 

2007

2008

2009

2010

150.03 28.07 85.24 7.46

124.82 16.85 63.67 3.94

125.05 13.85 78.51 (23.87)

117.44 15.58 65.13 2.29

138.53 5.85 75.27 11.11

-2.0% -32.4% -3.1% n.a.

18.0% -62.5% 15.6% n.a.

85.41

74.06

84.26

65.60

58.00

-9.2%

-11.6%

(69.12)

(44.16)

(60.05)

(44.53)

(32.95)

-16.9%

-26.0%

(50.99) (8.23) (9.47) (0.44)

(26.07) (7.73) (9.92) (0.44)

(43.09) (7.36) (9.17) (0.44)

(27.45) (7.10) (9.69) (0.29)

(13.66) (8.12) (10.58) (0.59)

-28.1% -0.3% 2.8% 7.6%

-50.2% 14.3% 9.1% 102.6%

16.30

29.90

24.20

21.06

25.05

11.3%

18.9%

1.98 20.49 1.74 0.08 0.69

1.46 23.37 2.13 0.08 0.55

1.74 24.38 2.35 0.08 0.36

0.85 19.59 1.29 0.02 0.86

1.91 21.29 1.43 0.05 0.54

-0.9% 1.0% -4.7% -12.1% -5.9%

123.5% 8.6% 11.3% 152.8% -37.2%

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

24.97

27.59

28.91

22.61

25.21

0.2%

11.5%

Statistical Differences

(8.68)

(0.17)

n.a.

n.a.



+ -

 SUPPLY

 

&YQPSUT

Indigenous Production Imports Exports Stock Change

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Other Transformation Losses and Own Use













































*NQPSUT

Electricity Generation 37.5% Industrial 36.6% Other Transformation 19.2%

DEMAND

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

Figure C.5: Coal Consumption by Sector for 2010

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

2006

Agriculture Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

2.30

(4.70)

(1.55)

Δ2009/2010

Agriculture 3.3% Commercial 2.5% Residential 0.9%

Notes to Table C.2: n.a. = Not applicable.

34 Energy Data File | 2011

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Figure C.6: Coal Energy Flow Diagram for 2010

Table C.3: Coal Supply and Calculated Consumption (Gross PJ)

GENERATORS2

Production

Delivery

Use

Own Use1 0.6 Stock Change 11.1

80.9

Bituminous

Exports 75.3

138.5

Imports 5.8

Total Local Production

126.8

21.8

Electricity

57.4 53.1

Sub-bituminous 10.6

51.6

Lignite

3.9 Calculated 57.4

Petajoules (to approximate vertical scale)

Subbituminous Production

Lignite Production

Total Production

1974

13.24

44.93

2.21

60.38

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

14.35 13.98 12.20 11.41 12.04

40.88 42.07 40.83 37.49 30.46

2.10 2.61 2.51 2.32 3.21

57.33 58.66 55.54 51.22 45.71

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

15.10 14.91 13.42 15.57 18.27

33.12 33.94 35.85 39.39 38.42

3.19 3.26 3.41 3.46 3.61

51.42 52.10 52.68 58.42 60.30

2.91 3.66 5.29 5.87 11.68

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

20.03 18.48 14.22 18.85 24.25

33.85 37.91 34.47 37.16 40.03

3.78 3.72 3.60 2.83 2.45

57.65 60.11 52.29 58.84 66.73

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20.80 23.18 29.52 38.31 39.69

39.48 40.00 42.65 43.43 34.09

2.45 2.62 2.76 2.82 3.86

62.73 65.80 74.93 84.56 77.64

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

54.04 59.17 43.61 36.39 50.80

37.28 33.61 44.49 39.80 37.58

3.90 4.43 3.36 3.26 3.32

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

53.07 59.75 71.41 73.73 79.51

34.94 40.85 44.39 57.77 53.61

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

79.96 86.59 63.57 73.24 65.09 80.88

Industrial

Some totals may not add up due to rounding.

29.28 28.91 25.52 29.55 28.48

2.03 -1.15 -1.88 8.17 5.76

23.27 23.50 28.26 24.86 28.60

26.28 15.99 21.04 23.86 19.56

27.53 25.76 24.68 23.28 20.75

-1.25 -9.77 -3.64 0.58 -1.19

-3.97 -11.66 11.75 -5.79 2.52

25.80 31.76 31.26 51.11 61.28

21.51 27.74 17.57 30.84 33.11

21.20 26.80 27.29 32.91 25.34

0.31 0.94 -9.72 -2.07 7.77

73.45 85.24 63.67 78.51 65.13 75.27

-6.04 7.46 3.94 -23.87 2.29 11.11

72.11 69.12 44.16 60.05 44.53 32.95

24.67 16.30 29.90 24.20 21.06 25.05

23.65 24.97 27.59 28.91 22.61 25.21

1.01 -8.68 2.30 -4.70 -1.55 -0.17

16.08

35.43

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01

10.53 19.12 24.15 24.71 32.74

-0.21 -9.90

20.90 18.95 27.17 22.35 20.59

95.21 97.21 91.47 79.44 91.71

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

42.71 50.90 40.20 33.33 50.62

2.96 6.83 1.96 -2.61 -7.07

3.33 3.18 3.52 3.99 3.86

91.35 103.79 119.32 135.49 136.98

0.48 0.91 2.28 10.13 20.06

48.48 56.85 61.02 69.46 60.13

55.54 59.44 57.13 48.01 48.38 53.14

3.93 4.01 4.12 3.80 3.97 4.51

139.43 150.03 124.82 125.05 117.44 138.53

24.75 28.07 16.85 13.85 15.58 5.85

Exports

Stock Change3 R

16.37 19.56 19.32 9.84

14.08 12.88 12.62 8.80

1.18 0.75 0.69 1.35

31.63 33.18 32.64 19.98

4.00 4.13 2.00 5.44

15.62 21.61 15.76 12.14

9.02 -5.05 0.39 -2.07

9.30 13.53 12.32 9.39

1.69 7.24 6.17 5.97

4.04 6.24 5.42 6.91

-2.36 1.00 0.75 -0.94

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

20.65 20.15 22.22 17.87

11.93 17.55 11.61 12.06

1.35 0.93 0.85 1.37

33.93 38.62 34.68 31.30

1.26 2.68 1.89 0.01

17.75 18.20 20.12 19.20

2.92 4.82 3.90 -0.53

9.90 7.89 6.82 8.34

4.62 10.39 5.73 4.30

6.42 7.46 5.61 5.73

-1.79 2.93 0.13 -1.43

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-1.7%

-2.8%

3.0%

-2.0%

-32.4%

-3.1%

10.5%

-16.9%

11.3%

0.2%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

24.3%

9.8%

13.7%

18.0%

-62.5%

15.6%

385.6%

-26.0%

18.9%

11.5%

n.a.

Other2 (Statistical difference -0.2)

Observed 57.6

Notes to Table C.3: 1 Imports are bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. 2

Majority of coal exports are bituminous rank.

4 Includes electricity generation, cogeneration, and losses and own use. 5

Revised from 1989 to 2008.

n.a. = Not applicable. R

distribution losses.

31.31 27.76 23.64 37.72 34.24

0.02

13.04 8.84 9.40 11.44 15.24

Stock change figures include coal at Huntly power station, NZ Steel and coal production sites.

2

Statistical Difference

Calculated

Imports

2

Mar Jun Sep Dec

3

Notes to Figure C.6: 1 “Own Use” includes free use at mines and

Observed

Energy Transformation4, 5

1

2009

Domestic Delivery

21.3

4.5

Other Transformation

Consumer Energy

Bituminous Production

Calendar Year or Quarter

= Revised figures.

Includes commercial, residential, agriculture and transport.

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Table C.4: Summary of Observed Coal Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

Figure C.7: Summary of Observed Coal Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

Energy Transformation

110

3.84 2.65 1.53 1.24 1.28

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

29.28 28.91 25.52 29.55 28.48

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

6.04 6.62 12.90 8.26 12.01

3.20 3.15 3.96 7.50 7.13

13.59 13.30 10.97 8.67 9.02

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

23.27 23.50 28.26 24.86 28.60

0.99 1.03 0.91 0.76 0.49

22.16 21.22 20.39 19.31 17.31

3.03 2.22 2.05 1.82 1.70

1.26 1.20 1.25 1.31 1.17

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

27.53 25.76 24.68 23.28 20.75

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

9.69 14.83 14.87 32.53 42.58

7.14 7.79 7.23 8.64 8.44

8.54 8.70 8.72 9.51 9.82

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

25.80 31.76 31.26 51.11 61.28

0.58 0.59 0.63 0.55 0.53

17.57 22.73 23.33 28.42 21.37

1.89 2.68 2.65 3.03 2.48

1.08 0.72 0.60 0.82 0.87

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

21.20 26.80 27.29 32.91 25.34

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

53.94 50.99 26.07 43.09 27.45 13.66

7.88 8.23 7.73 7.36 7.10 8.12

9.85 9.47 9.92 9.17 9.69 10.58

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.29 0.59

72.11 69.12 44.16 60.05 44.53 32.95

1.22 1.98 1.46 1.74 0.85 1.91

19.59 20.49 23.37 24.38 19.59 21.29

1.88 1.74 2.13 2.35 1.29 1.43

0.88 0.69 0.55 0.36 0.86 0.54

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.05

23.65 24.97 27.59 28.91 22.61 25.21

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

4.91 9.56 7.94 5.04

1.97 1.72 1.74 1.68

2.33 2.20 2.60 2.57

0.10 0.05 0.05 0.09

9.30 13.53 12.32 9.39

0.02 0.04 0.41 0.38

3.54 5.43 4.46 6.16

0.30 0.38 0.34 0.27

0.18 0.39 0.20 0.09

0.00 0.02

4.04 6.24 5.42 6.91

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5.01 2.89 2.13 3.63

2.05 2.15 2.02 1.90

2.59 2.81 2.60 2.58

0.25 0.04 0.07 0.23

9.90 7.89 6.82 8.34

0.52 0.78 0.57 0.04

5.60 6.03 4.40 5.26

0.21 0.44 0.44 0.34

0.07 0.20 0.18 0.08

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01

6.42 7.46 5.61 5.73

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-28.1%

-0.3%

2.8%

7.6%

-16.9%

-0.9%

1.0%

-4.7%

-5.9%

-12.1%

0.2%

Δ2009/2010

-50.2%

14.3%

9.1%

102.6%

-26.0%

123.5%

8.6%

11.3%

-37.2%

152.8%

11.5%

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Electricity1

Cogeneration

Other Transformation

Industrial2

Commercial3

Residential

2010

1.55 1.58 1.45 1.70 1.65

2009

23.42 24.22 22.11 26.16 24.75

2008

0.39 0.38 0.35 0.37 0.72

2007

20.90 18.95 27.17 22.35 20.59

2006

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

2005

12.89 13.22 14.18 14.09 12.82

2004

2.37 2.87 2.87 3.10 3.21

2003

5.21 2.42 9.68 4.73 4.12

2002

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

2001

Total

2000

Transport1

1999

Residential

1998

Commercial

1997

IndustrialR

1996

Agriculture

1995

Total

1994

Losses and Own Use3

1993

Other Transformation

1992

Cogeneration

1991

Electricity Generation

1990

Calendar Year or Quarter

PJ

Consumer Energy

Agriculture

Notes to Figure C.7: 1 Includes losses and own use. 2 Excludes cogeneration. 3 Includes transport.

Notes to Table C.4: 1 Estimated up to and including 2008. R

= Revised figures.

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C. Coal

D. Oil

Table C.5: Coal Consumption – Breakdown by Sector for 2010 (Gross TJ)

Figure D.1a: Oil Industry Summary for 20101

ANZSIC 20061 Energy Transformation: D2611 n.a. n.a. n.a.

Agriculture

A01, A02 & A05

Industrial use of: Mining Steel manufacturing Non-Steel Metal manufacturing Metal Product manufacturing Wood, Pulp and Paper Product manufacturing Non-Metallic Mineral Product manufacturing Chemical Product manufacturing Meat manufacturing Dairy manufacturing Other Food Product manufacturing Textile, Leather, Clothing, Footwear manufacturing Mechanical/Electrical Equipment manufacturing Furniture and Other manufacturing Building and Construction Gas and Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Services Commercial: Health Care and Social Assistance Education and Training Other Services

CONSUMER ENERGY

Electricity Generation Cogeneration Other Transformation Losses and Own Use

B C211 C213 C22, C212 & C214 C14 & C15 C20 C18 C111 & C112 C113 C112, C114 - C122 C13 C23-C24 C25 E D27

Q P D28-29, F-S excl P, Q

Bituminous

Sub-bituminous

401.55

32,264.44

Lignite 283.37

32,949.35

401.55

13,661.42 7,838.12 10,581.22 183.67

283.37 -

13,661.42 8,121.49 10,581.22 585.22

56.70

1,830.32

22.71

1,909.74

7,264.90 3,364.67 834.99 1,071.99 252.47 1,740.77 -

11,053.73 14.42 637.08 778.04 1,203.72 7,462.08 556.70 237.66 21.19 58.72 84.11 -

2,967.13 51.42 7.33 515.06 2,242.56 150.77 -

21,285.77 14.42 688.50 4,150.04 2,553.77 10,776.63 959.94 237.66 21.19 1,799.49 84.11 -

350.84 115.97 -

541.90 385.98 19.46

542.08 431.30 -

1,434.82 933.25 19.46

234.87

136.46

110.79

482.12

Transport

n.a.

6.40

41.32

Residential

n.a.

4.38

235.62

296.85

536.85

7,683.23

13,702.88

3,828.78

25,214.89

TOTAL CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

-

Total

FIELDS BY PRODUCTION

Kupe 9.6%

Maari 33.0%

Tui 18.4%

Pohokura 21.0%

Maui 9.4%

Ngatoro2 0.9% McKee/ Mangahewa 1.9%

PRODUCERS

Origin Energy 50% Genesis Energy 31% NZOG 15% Mitsui E&P 4% Operator: Origin Energy

OMV 69%

AWE 42.5%

Todd 16%

NZOG 12.5%

Shell (Exp) 48%

Shell 83.75% Todd Energy 6.25%

Horizon 10%

Pan Pacific 10%

OMV 26%

Cue Taranaki 5%

Mitsui E&P 35%

Todd Energy 26%

Operator: AWE

Operator: Shell

Operator: OMV

Todd Energy 100%

OMV 10%

Operator: Todd Energy

Turangi 1.2%

Kapuni 2.1%

1.3% TAWN

Kowhai 1.3%

Rimu

Other3

Greymouth 100%

Origin Energy 100%

Operator: Greymouth

Operator: Origin Energy

Operator: Shell Todd Oil Services

Shell 50% Todd Energy 50% Operator: Shell Todd Oil Services

Oil Imports4

McKee Blend5

REFINERS/ BLENDERS

Refinery Feedstocks

New Zealand Refining Company Owned by: BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Greenstone Energy and others Refined Products

WHOLESALERS

BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Greenstone Oil products are distributed via pipeline (from the refinery only), coastal tanker and/or road.

Gull

47.72

DISTRIBUTORS Independent Distributors

Notes to Table C.5: n.a. = Not applicable.

RETAILERS

BP, Caltex, Mobil, Greenstone

Independent Service Stations

Gull

CONSUMERS Exports

Agriculture

Transport

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable and subsidiaries are listed as the parent company. The companies are: AWE is Australian Worldwide Exploration Limited, Chevron is Chevron NZ (includes Caltex New Zealand Limited), Greymouth is Greymouth Petroleum Holdings Limited, Mitsui E&P is Mitsui E&P Australia Pty, ExxonMobil is ExxonMobil New Zealand Holdings (includes Mobil Oil New Zealand Limited), NZOG is New Zealand Oil and Gas, OMV is OMV New Zealand Limited (Österr Mineralöl Verwaltung), Origin Energy is Origin Energy New Zealand Ltd and Contact Energy (51% owned by Origin), Shell is Shell NZ Limited (includes Shell Exploration NZ Limited, Shell (Petroleum Mining) Co Limited, Energy Petroleum Holdings Limited, Energy Petroleum Investments Ltd, Energy Petroleum Taranaki Ltd and Taranaki Offshore Petroleum Company), TAWN comprises the Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa and Ngaere fields.

Notes to Figure D.1a: 1 Ownership as at 31 December 2010. Kaimiro, Ngatoro and Windsor fields were combined as a single permit area in 2010, all these fields are included here, as is Moturoa. 2

4 Crude and refined product are imported by the four large oil companies. Refined product is imported by Gull Petroleum. 5

Source: Shell NZ Limited.

Includes Cheal and Surrey fields, and Radnor well. Cheal is owned by Cheal Petroleum Limited, a wholly owned subsidary of TAG Oil Limited. Surrey is owned and operated by Greymouth Petroleum.

3

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Overview of New Zealand’s Oil Industry Introduction

Crude Oil

Oil is New Zealand’s largest source of energy. This chapter covers all aspects of oil, from the well (production) to consumption (end use). Units of volume (usually million barrels) are used for the discussion of oil production statistics alongside the energy units because this allows comparison with the Reserves section (Section H). Energy units (petajoules) are used for discussion of transformation and consumption statistics because this allows comparison between the different oil product types (i.e. a litre of petrol and a litre of diesel have different energy contents, and these fuels are used for energy purposes). Percentage changes between annual statistics were calculated from gross petajoules for consistency.

Ownership Most of the mining permits for the large ďŹ elds are jointly owned, with the bulk of investment coming from foreign companies. There were no signiďŹ cant changes of ownership at producing ďŹ elds in 2010. A full breakdown of (producing) ďŹ eld ownership is shown in Figure D.1a.

Production

New Zealand’s oil is extracted from 19 ďŹ elds in the Taranaki region. Total oil production in 2010 was the fourth highest in a calendar year (19 million barrels or 116 PJ), down 4.3% on 2009. New Zealand’s mean production rate was 52,900 barrels per day for 2010 (down from the peak production of 58,700 barrels per day in 2008). Maari and The data used to compile this publication are Pohokura dominated production in 2010; available online at www.med.govt.nz/ these ďŹ elds contributed 54% of New energy/data/oil. Zealand’s oil. Figure D.1b shows the percentage oil production by ďŹ eld.

Production at Tui oil ďŹ eld was down by 45% in 2010, whereas Kupe, New Zealand’s newest producing oil / gas ďŹ eld, produced 1.9 million barrels (11.2 PJ) of oil in its ďŹ rst full year of production. Historically, New Zealand’s oil consisted of mostly condensate, with some crude oil and naphtha. Recently, however, oil production is mostly crude oil, making up some 62% of the total production, with condensate (35%) and naphtha (3%) making up the balance (Figure D.1c).

&IGURE$C/IL0RODUCTIONBY/IL4YPE IN

Figure D.1b: Oil Production by Field in 2010

Exploration and Permitting For information regarding oil and gas exploration see Section H (Oil and Gas Reserves). Detailed information on current and historical petroleum permits can be found on the New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals website, www.nzpam.govt.nz. The website also contains industry overviews, free technical data, maps and latest news from the industry.

Imports and Exports Figure D.1d shows imports of crude oil by country of origin for the 2010 calendar year. Over half (59%) of all imported oil in 2010 was produced in the Middle East, 28% originated in Asia, 4% was produced in Australia, with the balance (9%) imported from Russia. Overall, crude oil and blendstock imports were up by 7% (to 233 PJ) in the 2010 calendar year.

Figure D.1d: 2010 Crude Oil Imports by Country of Origin

New Zealand’s oil exports increased by 3% in 2010 to 111 PJ (18 million barrels) of crude oil, the second highest in a calendar year. Most oil produced in New Zealand is exported (95% in 2010) due to its high quality and consequent high value on the international market. Australia, Japan and South Korea purchase the majority of this oil.

ReďŹ nery The Marsden Point Oil ReďŹ nery is New Zealand’s only oil reďŹ nery. It is operated by the New Zealand ReďŹ ning Company (NZRC) and is located near Whangarei. It started operating in 1964 and has had two major expansions in 1985 and 2009. The reďŹ nery is now capable of processing around 135,000 barrels of crude oil per day.

of just under 73%. The reďŹ nery produces petrol, diesel, jet-A1, fuel oil, bitumen and other petroleum products — but not aviation gasoline or lubricants. Sulphur is recovered as a by-product and sold as a feedstock to the fertiliser industry. Carbon dioxide is also recovered and sold to the beverage industry. The majority of NZRC products are consumed in New Zealand. In 2010, the reďŹ nery had a total intake of 237 PJ (38.8 million barrels), of which 5 PJ (2%) was supplied by domestic production. Total reďŹ nery intake was up by 4% in 2010, and domestic production of oil products was up by 3%.

Figure D.1e demonstrates the amount of each product produced over the year as a NZRC processes crude oil and condensate for percentage of total reďŹ nery input. For 2010 the reďŹ nery’s feedstocks were converted into the four major oil companies active in New 35% diesel, 21% regular petrol, 19% aviation Zealand: BP, Chevron (Caltex), ExxonMobil fuels, 10% fuel oil, 7% premium petrol, and (Mobil) and Greenstone Energy (formerly Shell). Each of the major oil companies has a 6% other petroleum products (the remaining stake in NZRC, with a combined shareholding 6% was losses and own use).

Figure D.1e: 2010 ReďŹ nery Output

21% Regular1 $SVEF0JM $POEFOTBUF

7% Premium2

/BQIUIB

19% Aviation Fuel

35% Diesel Maari 33.0% Pohokura 21.0% Tui 18.4%

Middle East 59.4%

Kupe 9.6%

Qatar 20.7%

Indonesia 13.0%

Maui 9.4%

Abu Dhabi 11.5%

Brunei 7.4%

Kapuni 2.1%

Other Middle East 11.0%

Malaysia 6.3%

Kowhai 1.3%

United Arab Emirates 8.3%

Others 1.3%

Thailand 0.5%

Iraq 3.8%

Korea 0.4%

Saudi Arabia 3.3%

Vietnam 0.4%

Turangi 1.2% Mangahewa 1.2% Ngatoro 0.9%

Asia 28.0%

Iran 0.8% Russia 8.9%

McKee 0.7%

Australia 3.7%

10% Fuel Oil 6% Other Petroleum Products3 6% Losses and Own Use

Notes to Figure D.1e: 1 91 Octane 2

95-98 Octane

3

Includes bitumen and other liquid fuels

This product outturn is indicative only. Actual production depends on refinery configuration and crude type.

42 Energy Data File | 2011

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D. Oil

Net Oil Import Dependency is the ratio of net imports3 to consumption. It shows how reliant a country is on oil imports to meet local demand. This ratio can be improved (i.e. made smaller) by either reducing demand or increasing local production.

Coastal tankers and import vessels are used to move bulk shipments of product around the country to various port storage facilities. The NZRC also owns and operates a 170 km long petroleum pipeline that runs from Marsden Point to the Wiri depot, located in South Auckland near Auckland International Airport. Wiri Oil Services operates a second pipeline that carries jet fuel from Wiri to Auckland International Airport.

Consumption of oil products has been flat in recent years, and 2010 continues this trend. This represents a departure from the historical trend, which saw 3% annual growth between 1985 and 2007. Demand for petrol and diesel was similar to 2009 levels, fuel oil demand was down 3%, and aviation fuel demand was up 3%.

The flat demand in 2010 reflects the challenging economic climate in 2009 and Road tankers are used to distribute products 2010. New Zealand’s GDP was down 1.6% in from bulk storage facilities to service 2009, and a further 0.7% in 2010 (in real stations and major users. This final stage of terms)2. Oil prices in 2010 were also higher distribution is run in two ways: oil companies than in 2009 — the average regular petrol employing independent distributors to and diesel retail prices were up by 8% and distribute fuel on their behalf, and 12% in real terms in 2010. independent distributors purchasing fuel from bulk storage facilities at wholesale prices, then selling this fuel to their own customers. Independent distributors who purchase fuel and then on-sell it are referred to as “resellers”. Gull Petroleum Limited operates its own independent petroleum storage terminal at Mount Maunganui. Products are transported from Mount Maunganui to Gull’s retail outlets by road tanker.

In 2010, the independent distributors delivered 24% (655 million litres) of New Zealand’s diesel demand, and 5% (162 million litres) of petrol demand in New Zealand. Fuel deliveries made by independent distributors between 1990 and 2006 have been estimated (no information was available for these years). The report Delivering the Diesel – Liquid Fuel Deliveries in New Zealand 1990 –2008 outlines the methodology employed to perform this calculation; it is available for download from the MED website (www.med.govt.nz/energy/ delivering-the-diesel/).

Since 1990, New Zealand’s Net Oil Import Dependency has experienced two periods of significant improvement: firstly in 1996 as production from the Maui field increased markedly, and then from 2006 as production from the Tui, Pohokura and Maari fields began. In 2010, Net Oil Import dependency3 was 49%, much the same as it was in 2009. This means that New Zealand produced enough oil to meet 51% of its demand.

Figure D.1f: Net Oil Import Dependency % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

Refinery production of petroleum products increased by 6 PJ (or 3%) to 221 PJ (99,150 barrels of oil equivalent per day) in 2010 through increased refinery capacity and utilisation. Consequently, imports of refined oil products decreased by 17% to 78 PJ in 2010. Observed domestic demand for refined oil products in 2010 was very similar to 2009 (down by 0.4%) at 265 PJ (118,400 barrels of oil equivalent per day).

10

1

2

Other oil products consumption is mostly non-energy use. This includes bitumen, waxes, lubricants and solvents, as well as by-products of oil refining (hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas).

3

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

indigenous production

( observed consumption )

It represents the share of oil that is imported to satisfy demand.

44 Energy Data File | 2011

2003

2002

2001

2000

Net oil import dependency is calculated as: 1-

March year end data. Statistics NZ December Quarter 2010 GDP update — Series ref: S1RB01S.

1999

1990

0 1998

NZRC produces a full range of petroleum products and supplied approximately 84% of the New Zealand market in 2010. The remaining product is imported from foreign refineries, predominately located in Singapore and South Korea. There are around 15–20 tanker movements per month importing crude oil, feedstocks and refined products to New Zealand.

Independent distributors deliver an increasing amount of fuel directly to consumers. This reflects the oil companies, pulling out of the fuel distribution market.

1997

Production, Imports and Exports

Observed consumption data for 2010 showed a very similar level of consumption to 2009, up 0.6% on the 2009 demand. Petrol and diesel continue to dominate fuel consumption in New Zealand; in 2010 41% of total oil consumer energy was from petrol, and 39% of total oil consumer energy was from diesel. Aviation fuels (6%), fuel oil (3%), LPG (3%) and other oil products1 (9%) made up the remaining consumption.

1996

The total consumption of biofuels in New Zealand in 2010 was 7.0 million litres (1.6 million litres of biodiesel and 5.5 million litres of bio-ethanol). Consumption of biodiesel and bio-ethanol in New Zealand was up by 44% and 48% respectively in 2010.

The four major oil companies own bulk storage facilities throughout New Zealand and have agreements in place that allow access to other companies’ storage facilities. This enables the companies to draw stock from any location, if they have authorisation and sufficient stock in another location. This pooled storage system allows the companies to jointly manage stock levels and coordinate import shipments.

1995

Biodiesel producers also distribute their products directly to some customers. The available blends include B20 (20% biodiesel), B5 (5% biodiesel) and B100 (pure biodiesel).

Net Oil Import Dependency

1994

Gull was the first oil company to sell biofuels in New Zealand: a 10% blend of bio-ethanol and petrol. Mobil has since made blends of petrol and bio-ethanol available in the lower North Island (a 10% blend of bio-ethanol and petrol, and a 3% blend of bio-ethanol and petrol).

Independent Distributors

1993

The petroleum product wholesalers in New Zealand comprise five companies: BP, Chevron (Caltex and Challenge), ExxonMobil (Mobil), Greenstone Energy (formerly Shell and now Z Energy) and Gull. BP, Caltex, Mobil and Greenstone dominate the market and supply a full range of products. Gull has a smaller market share and has limited its participation to petrol, diesel and blended biofuel sales.

Consumption

1992

Wholesalers

Distribution and Storage

1991

Petroleum Products

D. Oil

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Figure D.1g: Oil Energy Flow Summary for 2010

Table D.1: Oil Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

Calendar Year Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values

Refinery

Finished Products

Use (approximate size) SUPPLY

Exports 5.1 Stock Change -4.5 Own Use 2.3 Exports 109.2 Stock Change 1.7 114.4

Indigenous Production

2.3

Residential

20.7

Non-energy Use

16.2

Agriculture

Indigenous Production Imports Exports Stock Change International Transport

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production Other Transformation Losses and Own Use

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

Imports 22.7

Commercial and Industrial

78.8

Refinery Own Use 15.2

+ -

DEMAND

Crude Oil, Condensate, Blendstocks, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed) Statistical Differences

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

Δ2009/20010

45.79 309.53 35.41 -6.32 45.17

93.47 323.43 80.55 6.27 47.05

131.86 326.61 128.94 -0.55 48.98

124.67 317.58 116.45 0.42 47.00

123.37 311.43 115.67 -2.79 48.43

28.1% 0.2% 34.4% n.a. 1.8%

-1.0% -1.9% -0.7% n.a. 3.0%

281.07

283.03

281.10

278.37

273.50

-0.7%

-1.7%

-8.92

-5.01

-9.25

-5.99

-9.07

0.4%

51.4%

-0.23

-0.01

-1.43

-0.10

-0.02

-5.81

-2.43

-4.93

-3.33

-6.76

-2.87

-2.58

-2.90

-2.57

-2.30

-46.9% n.a. 3.8% n.a. -5.4%

-81.3% n.a. 102.9% n.a. -10.3%

-19.93

-19.65

-20.15

-18.43

-20.66

0.9%

12.0%

252.22

258.36

251.70

253.94

243.77

-0.8%

-4.0%

22.17 19.00 5.73 202.38 2.95

21.86 20.31 6.02 204.41 3.13

20.26 18.93 6.22 204.63 2.66

18.31 17.24 4.94 201.86 2.51

17.14 14.98 5.88 203.88 2.29

-6.2% -5.8% 0.7% 0.2% -6.1%

-6.4% -13.1% 19.2% 1.0% -8.8%

252.22

255.73

252.70

244.86

244.18

-0.8%

-0.3%

0.00

2.64

-1.00

9.08

-0.41

312.8

232.7

Imports

236.6

Refinery

229.9

203.6

Transport

48.4

International Transport

237.0

Petajoules (to approximate vertical scale)

46 Energy Data File | 2011

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© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Table D.2a: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Mm3)

Table D.2b: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (mmbbls)

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2, R

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

0.067 0.128 0.178 0.205 0.219

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.067 0.128 0.178 0.205 0.219

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

0.421 0.805 1.120 1.289 1.378

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.421 0.805 1.120 1.289 1.378

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

0.124

0.226 0.600 0.861 0.727 0.343

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.226 0.600 0.861 0.727 0.467

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

0.783

1.423 3.776 5.415 4.573 2.155

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.423 3.776 5.415 4.573 2.937

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

0.184 0.265 0.507 0.483 0.587

0.235 0.285 0.359 0.363 0.375

-

-

-

-

0.000 0.015 0.006 0.007 0.126

-

-

-

0.001 0.001

0.006 0.073

0.419 0.565 0.871 0.859 1.161

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

1.155 1.667 3.187 3.036 3.692

1.480 1.793 2.256 2.281 2.357

-

-

-

-

0.001 0.093 0.036 0.041 0.790

-

-

-

0.005 0.004

0.040 0.458

2.636 3.553 5.479 5.403 7.301

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

0.688 0.829 0.791 0.859 0.870

0.403 0.375 0.329 0.357 0.353

-

-

-

-

0.455 0.504 0.510 0.581 0.615

-

-

-

0.005 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004

0.003 0.002 0.157 0.330

1.554 1.714 1.634 1.959 2.172

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

4.325 5.214 4.977 5.405 5.473

2.534 2.361 2.067 2.247 2.222

-

-

-

-

2.863 3.172 3.205 3.653 3.868

-

-

-

0.029 0.023 0.028 0.027 0.027

0.020 0.012 0.988 2.074

9.772 10.783 10.276 12.320 13.664

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

0.867 0.898 0.981 1.016 0.964

0.323 0.314 0.310 0.286 0.275

-

-

-

-

0.579 0.511 0.410 0.387 0.357

-

-

-

0.007 0.011 0.032 0.056 0.057

0.436 0.598 0.489 0.610 0.577

2.212 2.333 2.222 2.355 2.230

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

5.453 5.651 6.168 6.389 6.065

2.030 1.974 1.952 1.800 1.728

-

-

-

-

3.642 3.214 2.581 2.432 2.248

-

-

-

0.046 0.070 0.201 0.353 0.361

2.744 3.762 3.074 3.839 3.627

13.915 14.671 13.977 14.814 14.028

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1.091 1.782 2.641 2.002 1.749

0.226 0.232 0.192 0.180 0.162

-

-

-

-

0.356 0.316 0.298 0.293 0.272

0.001 0.005 -

-

-

0.083 0.114 0.140 0.108 0.090

0.184 0.143 0.144 0.140 0.107

1.940 2.587 3.417 2.728 2.379

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

6.864 11.206 16.613 12.595 11.001

1.419 1.458 1.206 1.130 1.018

-

-

-

-

2.237 1.988 1.876 1.844 1.712

0.007 0.029 -

-

-

0.521 0.719 0.882 0.681 0.565

1.159 0.902 0.908 0.882 0.671

12.200 16.273 21.492 17.161 14.966

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1.602 1.471 1.372 1.027 0.814

0.139 0.131 0.123 0.102 0.141

-

-

-

-

0.191 0.178 0.098 0.091 0.080

0.008 0.022 0.017 0.016

-

-

0.084 0.110 0.084 0.058 0.073

0.076 0.092 0.091 0.091 0.086

2.092 1.989 1.790 1.386 1.211

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

10.077 9.254 8.627 6.457 5.123

0.875 0.825 0.776 0.643 0.888

-

-

-

-

1.201 1.118 0.619 0.574 0.504

0.050 0.138 0.108 0.100

-

-

0.529 0.691 0.529 0.366 0.458

0.479 0.576 0.570 0.571 0.542

13.161 12.513 11.259 8.719 7.615

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

0.758 0.609 0.341 0.293 0.297 0.308

0.119 0.123 0.105 0.088 0.069 0.068

0.149 0.747 0.730 0.685 0.672

1.007 2.138 0.997 0.551

0.904 0.954

0.015 0.307

0.071 0.056 0.043 0.030 0.028 0.022

0.011 0.011 0.014 0.018 0.041 0.033

0.000 0.011 0.036 0.034 0.056 0.046

0.020 0.038

0.069 0.047 0.036 0.030 0.032 0.029

0.102 0.077 0.058 0.048 0.042 0.041

1.130 1.082 2.387 3.408 3.184 3.069

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

4.770 3.829 2.147 1.845 1.865 1.938

0.746 0.773 0.658 0.551 0.437 0.427

0.937 4.696 4.589 4.308 4.228

6.335 13.450 6.268 3.464

5.683 5.997

0.093 1.931

0.444 0.352 0.272 0.188 0.174 0.139

0.072 0.067 0.085 0.113 0.256 0.209

0.001 0.070 0.227 0.214 0.355 0.289

0.126 0.239

0.436 0.298 0.225 0.187 0.199 0.183

0.642 0.482 0.367 0.300 0.263 0.258

7.110 6.808 15.012 21.437 20.026 19.301

Notes to Table D.2a: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Moturoa field and Goldie well.

Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. 4

R

= Revised figures.

Notes to Table D.2b: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Motorua field and Goldie well.

4 Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. R

= Revised figures.

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Table D.2c: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Thousand Tonnes)

Table D.2d: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Gross PJ)

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

52 98 137 158 168

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

52 98 137 158 168

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

2.41 4.60 6.40 7.37 7.88

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.41 4.60 6.40 7.37 7.88

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

94

174 462 662 559 263

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

174 462 662 559 358

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

4.44

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 12.31

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 16.75

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

137 198 375 356 432

180 218 273 276 286

-

-

-

-

0 12 5 5 105

-

-

-

1 1

5 60

317 427 653 643 884

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

6.47 9.31 17.68 16.78 20.38

8.41 10.17 12.76 12.90 13.37

-

-

-

-

0.01 0.57 0.22 0.25 4.79

-

-

-

0.03 0.03

0.24 2.77

14.89 20.05 30.65 30.20 41.33

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

509 619 590 640 648

308 286 250 272 271

-

-

-

-

379 420 424 483 512

-

-

-

4 3 4 3 3

3 2 132 285

1,203 1,330 1,267 1,531 1,719

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

24.01 29.17 27.80 30.17 30.55

14.41 13.39 11.69 12.70 12.65

-

-

-

-

17.36 19.23 19.43 22.15 23.45

-

-

-

0.17 0.14 0.16 0.16 0.16

0.12 0.07 5.93 12.77

56.06 62.00 59.08 71.10 79.57

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

657 663 722 738 734

246 238 235 215 205

-

-

-

-

482 425 341 322 297

-

-

-

6 9 27 47 48

384 530 433 541 511

1,775 1,865 1,758 1,863 1,795

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

30.95 31.23 34.01 34.78 34.57

11.48 11.13 11.00 10.06 9.60

-

-

-

-

22.08 19.48 15.65 14.74 13.63

-

-

-

0.27 0.41 1.08 1.85 1.91

17.23 23.73 19.40 24.22 22.89

82.01 85.99 81.14 85.67 82.59

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

802 1,322 1,978 1,479 1,317

168 172 142 133 120

-

-

-

-

296 263 248 244 226

1 4 -

-

-

68 94 116 90 75

163 124 122 118 89

1,497 1,975 2,608 2,068 1,827

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

37.78 62.28 93.22 69.71 62.05

7.84 8.04 6.66 6.24 5.61

-

-

-

-

13.56 12.05 11.37 11.18 10.38

0.05 0.18 -

-

-

2.86 3.92 4.72 3.65 2.98

7.31 5.59 5.54 5.37 4.05

69.36 91.88 121.56 96.34 85.07

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1,234 1,116 1,051 787 617

103 98 91 76 105

-

-

-

-

159 148 82 76 67

6 18 14 13

-

-

70 91 70 48 60

63 75 74 73 69

1,629 1,533 1,384 1,073 931

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

58.13 52.57 49.50 37.07 29.07

4.82 4.56 4.25 3.54 4.93

-

-

-

-

7.28 6.78 3.75 3.48 3.06

0.32 0.88 0.69 0.64

-

-

2.81 3.51 2.74 2.01 2.46

2.88 3.44 3.39 3.37 3.19

75.93 71.18 64.52 50.16 43.35

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

572 463 257 220 225 231

89 91 77 65 51 51

116 580 567 532 522

819 1,739 810 448

764 803

11 237

59 47 36 25 23 18

9 9 11 14 33 27

0 9 31 28 47 35

16 30

58 40 30 25 27 25

84 62 49 41 36 35

872 835 1,891 2,725 2,574 2,463

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

26.97 21.80 12.10 10.37 10.60 10.89

4.14 4.26 3.60 3.06 2.40 2.38

5.39 27.01 26.39 24.78 24.32

38.98 82.75 38.56 21.31

36.36 38.24

0.54 11.17

2.69 2.13 1.65 1.14 1.05 0.84

0.46 0.43 0.54 0.72 1.63 1.33

0.00 0.35 1.24 1.12 1.85 1.40

0.78 1.48

2.32 1.56 1.18 0.99 1.04 1.01

3.73 2.82 2.13 1.71 1.53 1.49

40.31 38.74 88.43 128.26 121.11 115.87

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-15.9%

-13.6%

45.7%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-20.7%

32.7%

42.0%

n.a.

-10.4%

-14.7%

31.5%

Δ2009/2010

2.8%

-0.9%

-1.9%

-44.7%

5.2%

1974.7%

-19.9%

-18.2%

-24.0%

90.0%

-3.2%

-2.0%

-4.3%

Notes to Table D.2c: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Motorua field and Goldie well.

Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. 4

R

= Revised figures.

Notes to Table D.2d: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Motorua field and Goldie well.

4 Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. R

= Revised figures

n.a. = Not applicable

50 Energy Data File | 2011

51 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Figure D.2: Annual Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field

Supply of Crude Oil and Refinery Feedstocks Table D.3: Supply of Crude Oil and Refinery Feedstocks (Gross PJ)

PJ Feedstocks

140 Calendar Year or Quarter

120

100

80

60

40

20

Kapuni

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro

Others

Exports

2010

2009

2007

2008

2005

Maui

2006

2003

2004

2001

2002

1999

2000

1997

1998

1995

1996

1993

1994

1991

1992

1990

1989

1987

1988

1985

1986

1983

1984

1981

1982

1979

1980

1977

1978

1975

1976

1973

1974

1971

1972

1970

0

Indigenous Crude Oil Production1

Total Refinery Intake, Production and Losses

Imports

Exports

Stock ChangeR

Total Refinery Intake

Oil Products Production

Calculated Own Use and Losses

1974

7.88

155.53

0.00

0.05

163.47

154.98

-8.49

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 16.75

134.23 136.14 123.29 106.57 124.78

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.39 -4.13 3.40 -4.46 -1.30

138.79 162.28 150.91 137.89 143.00

130.02 153.09 142.27 129.57 133.45

-8.77 -9.19 -8.64 -8.32 -9.55

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

14.89 20.05 30.65 30.20 41.33

121.06 106.36 82.45 79.14 80.48

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.76 -1.55 6.42 -5.17 3.84

134.09 127.57 106.60 114.13 116.42

126.24 119.74 100.36 107.66 110.06

-7.84 -7.83 -6.24 -6.47 -6.36

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

56.06 62.00 59.08 71.10 79.57

43.62 48.65 105.18 112.81 138.65

29.02 9.95 4.66 14.46 27.56

1.10 -21.00 -7.61 -20.06 -19.44

69.43 123.17 165.94 190.08 210.02

66.66 119.92 164.82 187.08 206.18

-2.77 -3.25 -1.11 -3.00 -3.84

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

82.01 85.99 81.14 85.67 82.59

145.23 149.40 145.15 162.32 178.86

40.24 44.88 40.53 47.58 51.35

-27.97 -17.14 -17.32 -5.65 -8.34

214.56 206.98 203.80 202.11 217.20

207.24 201.88 206.14 211.69 219.39

-7.32 -5.10 2.34 9.58 2.20

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

69.36 91.88 121.56 96.34 85.07

174.49 176.48 181.71 219.05 210.64

44.12 56.83 77.74 71.56 65.42

-12.56 6.43 -2.46 5.72 3.84

211.90 199.96 227.05 236.25 223.90

204.21 197.57 213.12 221.81 210.93

-7.69 -2.39 -13.92 -14.44 -12.97

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

75.93 71.18 64.52 50.16 43.35

213.14 210.93 225.34 235.31 217.01

56.63 58.12 50.52 41.90 33.51

1.23 -6.12 -2.34 3.06 -1.37

230.63 228.07 240.01 240.17 227.85

219.11 215.65 229.97 224.56 220.83

-11.52 -12.41 -10.04 -15.61 -7.03

2005 2006

40.31 38.74

218.72 215.83

28.61 31.25

-5.36 -7.81

235.38 231.52

224.68 217.87

-10.70 -13.65

88.43 128.26 121.11 115.87

212.06 224.23 218.27 232.65

75.18 119.83 107.38 110.57

4.65 -1.83 0.49 1.67

219.12 234.13 227.42 236.64

208.67 221.13 215.83 221.48

-10.45 -12.99 -11.59 -15.16

25.72 29.10 34.75 31.55 29.18 30.70 29.79 26.19

56.39 43.12 61.27 57.50 60.88 58.58 53.03 60.16

20.26 28.02 33.10 26.00 28.91 30.75 26.98 23.93

7.01 -14.81 4.05 4.23 -2.12 5.10 -7.61 6.30

53.06 58.86 57.25 58.26 63.01 54.39 62.16 57.08

51.08 55.15 53.78 55.82 59.35 49.44 59.50 53.18

-1.98 -3.71 -3.47 -2.44 -3.66 -4.95 -2.66 -3.90

2007 2008 2009 2010 2009

2010

R

R R

Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

31.5%

1.9%

37.1%

n.a.

0.5%

0.4%

2.7%

Δ2009/2010

-4.3%

6.6%

3.0%

n.a.

4.1%

2.6%

30.8%

Note to Table D.3: 1 Includes Natural Gas Liquids. R

= Revised figures

52 Energy Data File | 2011

53 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Production of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Figure D.4a: Indigenous Oil Production

Table D.4: Production of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ) PJ

Total Oil Products

140 120

77.31 69.62 66.84 70.62 66.53 64.50

75.26 76.27 72.68 74.31 72.41 81.74

25.93 23.93 24.32 29.65 31.19 22.68

40.75 42.23 38.94 41.40 40.28 45.93

13.16 13.65 13.91 13.22 13.67 15.03

232.42 225.71 216.69 229.20 224.09 229.89

Mar Jun Sep Dec

25.72 29.10 34.75 31.55

0.80 0.85 0.92 0.98

11.16 13.60 14.14 12.29

4.06 3.36 2.95 4.97

15.22 16.97 17.09 17.26

16.91 18.79 17.69 19.02

7.44 7.93 8.43 7.39

9.82 10.04 9.56 10.86

3.88 3.36 3.13 3.30

53.26 57.10 55.89 57.83

Mar Jun Sep Dec

29.18 30.70 29.79 26.19

1.29 1.86 2.57 1.78

12.19 11.56 13.33 11.97

4.54 3.78 3.28 3.86

16.73 15.34 16.61 15.83

23.26 16.42 23.31 18.76

4.85 5.72 6.02 6.09

12.71 10.34 12.06 10.82

3.85 3.12 4.07 3.99

61.39 50.94 62.07 55.49

2009

2010

R

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

31.5%

0.1%

-3.7%

5.2%

-1.9%

1.7%

-1.3%

2.1%

2.4%

0.5%

Δ2009/20010

-4.3%

111.2%

-4.2%

0.8%

-3.0%

12.9%

-27.3%

14.0%

9.9%

2.6%

Note to Table D.4: 1 Crude oil includes Natural Gas Liquids. Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

2

LPG

Figure D.4b: Production of Oil Products PJ 250

200

150

100

50

0

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Aviation Fuel

Other Petroleum Products

3 Includes bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit and other liquid fuels. R

= Revised

54 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

16.78 12.61 12.29 13.61 15.34 15.46

2009

60.53 57.02 54.56 57.02 51.19 49.05

2010

7.79 7.47 5.12 3.62 3.55 7.50

2009

40.31 38.74 88.43 128.26 121.11 115.87

2007

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2008

226.07 222.89 237.45 232.46 228.00

2008

13.05 12.33 12.31 13.99 12.08

2006

38.93 37.93 40.43 38.73 43.26

2007

22.53 20.82 25.04 23.16 21.30

2006

84.38 81.32 87.75 85.14 74.90

2005

67.18 70.49 71.90 71.44 76.47

2005

17.44 17.54 18.86 15.05 16.78

2003

49.74 52.95 53.05 56.39 59.69

2004

11.09 11.56 11.12 8.76 8.31

2003

75.93 71.18 64.52 50.16 43.35

2004

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2001

211.79 204.69 219.36 229.16 219.02

2002

13.58 13.66 12.36 13.36 14.57

2001

34.83 35.09 38.45 37.71 38.91

2002

17.69 19.69 21.55 22.04 22.24

1999

71.17 66.85 74.16 81.30 78.85

2000

74.53 69.40 72.84 74.74 64.45

2000

30.90 19.41 21.57 18.12

1998

38.52 38.51 53.42 53.17 46.33

1999

8.58 10.19 12.07 11.03 11.03

1998

69.36 91.88 121.56 96.34 85.07

1997

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Crude Oil

1997

213.83 209.07 213.72 220.11 226.43

1995

12.50 11.88 13.94 14.74 13.72

1996

36.58 33.19 32.52 34.69 37.74

1995

17.20 16.81 18.24 16.97 22.44

1996

62.11 65.84 64.56 68.40 72.15

1993

85.44 81.37 84.46 85.31 80.38

1994

17.90 22.28 23.79 25.69 30.52

1994

5.57 6.39 7.01 8.18 8.00

1992

82.01 85.99 81.14 85.67 82.59

0

1993

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20

1992

67.93 122.56 170.55 190.28 213.17

1991

5.10 7.21 11.30 8.99 12.64

1990

0.00 0.99 22.54 30.46 35.41

1991

13.31 9.22 14.15 13.22 14.99

1989

15.08 28.21 46.06 54.81 62.70

1990

4.08 6.37 10.73

34.44 76.93 76.49 82.80 87.43

1989

4.30 4.90 5.02 5.14 5.23

1987

56.06 62.00 59.08 71.10 79.57

40

1988

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

60

1988

126.97 120.15 101.09 108.70 111.28

1986

5.14 4.24 3.68 5.86 6.89

1987

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1986

34.62 25.16 17.51 15.51 15.25

1985

30.07 31.17 25.45 28.09 28.32

1985

57.13 59.58 54.46 59.24 60.82

1983

0.82 1.27 1.55 1.55 2.35

1984

14.89 20.05 30.65 30.20 41.33

80

1983

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

100

1984

130.39 153.54 143.38 130.92 134.66

1981

155.34

3.89 5.14 5.78 5.69 5.43

1982

5.63

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1981

0.00

43.81 51.31 47.18 37.67 38.79

1982

63.13

25.50 31.01 30.14 28.91 29.97

1979

27.63

57.20 66.07 60.28 58.64 60.47

1980

58.95

0.15 0.39 0.55 0.68 1.14

1980

0.11

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 16.75

1978

7.88

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1979

1974

1978

Aviation Fuel

1977

Fuel Oil

1977

Diesel

1975

Total Petrol2

1976

Regular Unleaded 91

1975

LPG

160 Other Petroleum Products3, R

1976

Crude Oil1

Premium Unleaded 95–98

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Refinery Output

1974

Indigenous Production

55 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Figure D.5: Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Table D.5: Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ) PJ Imports of:

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

145.23 149.40 145.15 162.32 178.86

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.37 1.36 0.38 0.54 1.10

13.26 14.12 10.59 14.97 18.69

0.43 0.18 1.54 0.02 1.83

0.00 0.39 2.28 0.13 0.04

1.83 0.82 2.15 0.98 1.08

8.70 7.38 7.37 7.25 7.91

169.45 172.29 169.08 185.66 208.41

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

174.49 176.48 181.71 219.05 210.64

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

7.47 20.54 21.76 21.68 31.57

10.13 10.22 6.49 10.49

25.42 30.67 31.98 28.17 42.06

3.88 11.77 12.23 2.72 10.83

0.10 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.87 5.15 5.71 4.73 5.38

9.09 7.88 8.04 7.25 6.93

216.85 232.77 239.67 261.92 275.84

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

213.14 210.93 225.34 235.31 217.01

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.55 0.39

27.78 30.07 30.44 27.50 29.72

7.18 6.43 7.02 8.97 11.31

34.95 36.50 37.46 36.47 41.03

6.84 10.95 12.20 15.26 36.22

0.00 0.00 0.00 1.17 0.00

5.51 6.20 5.77 8.91 13.80

7.05 5.83 6.38 6.57 7.30

267.49 270.40 287.15 304.24 315.76

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

218.72 215.83 212.06 224.23 218.27 232.65

0.58 1.92 4.16 5.02 4.73 0.38

28.25 29.68 36.02 30.28 37.77 34.38

11.20 11.18 11.90 9.92 9.36 8.51

39.45 40.85 47.92 40.21 47.13 42.89

32.62 34.43 40.60 38.00 32.60 26.21

0.00 0.00 0.01 0.34 0.01 0.00

10.63 9.73 11.89 11.53 8.91 2.73

7.08 6.77 6.79 7.28 5.93 6.58

309.07 309.53 323.43 326.61 317.58 311.43

R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

56.39 43.12 61.27 57.50

0.82 1.86 1.53 0.51

11.21 8.62 8.06 9.88

2.53 2.04 2.63 2.16

13.74 10.67 10.69 12.03

11.71 6.60 6.47 7.82

0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.42 2.49 1.36 1.64

1.27 1.65 1.54 1.47

87.35 66.40 82.85 80.97

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

60.88 58.58 53.03 60.16

0.28 0.09 0.00 0.00

9.95 9.20 5.75 9.48

2.68 1.97 2.01 1.85

12.63 11.16 7.76 11.33

3.51 12.45 3.15 7.10

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.65 0.81 0.20 1.07

1.60 1.44 1.35 2.18

79.56 84.53 65.50 81.85

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.9%

-33.5%

3.7%

-6.6%

1.2%

-6.6%

n.a.

-27.2%

-0.7%

0.2%

Δ2009/2010

6.6%

-92.1%

-9.0%

-9.1%

-9.0%

-19.6%

-100.0%

-69.4%

11.0%

-1.9%

Note to Table D.5: 1 Crude oil includes refinery blendstocks and other feedstocks. Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

2

50

0

Crude Oil

Petrol

Diesel

Aviation Fuel

Other Petroleum Products

LPG

Fuel Oil

3 Includes bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit and other liquid fuels. R

= Revised

56 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

138.79 97.29 136.18 127.19 156.22

2009

3.95 1.81 1.83 2.27 2.70

2007

17.27 17.65 4.22 1.01 1.82

2008

3.60 3.53 0.00 0.50 0.24

2006

31.57 20.43 2.54 0.23 0.01

2005

0.00 0.00 0.00

38.78 5.22 22.42 10.37 12.80

2003

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

2004

43.62 48.65 105.18 112.81 138.65

100

2001

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

150

2002

178.88 153.34 139.53 141.38 142.46

1999

3.24 2.99 2.89 2.96 2.19

2000

17.67 14.21 13.73 13.21 15.57

1998

0.03 0.03 1.53 1.58 2.17

1997

16.80 12.06 19.89 19.34 20.35

1995

20.07 17.70 19.04 25.14 21.69

1996

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1993

121.06 106.36 82.45 79.14 80.48

200

1994

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

250

1992

215.18 176.98 177.85 160.56 182.03

1991

199.27

1.39 0.00 0.00 0.10 1.75

1990

0.77

20.55 13.06 14.67 16.15 17.82

1989

12.00

5.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1987

0.20

20.52 15.02 19.84 17.56 18.37

1988

13.20

33.10 12.76 20.06 20.18 19.32

1986

17.56

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1985

0.00

134.23 136.14 123.29 106.57 124.78

1983

155.53

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1984

1974

300

1981

Total

1982

Aviation Fuel

1979

Fuel Oil

1980

Diesel

1978

Total Petrol2

1977

Regular Unleaded 91

1975

LPG

1976

Crude Oil1

350 Other Petroleum Products3

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Premium Unleaded 95–98

57 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Figure D.6: Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Table D.6: Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ) PJ Exports of:

40.24 44.88 40.53 47.58 51.35

0.53 0.90 1.22 1.34 1.18

3.58 2.07 2.78 3.56 0.01

5.58 3.83 3.50 5.74 1.07

10.79 14.05 4.43 8.57 3.97

0.70 1.06 1.61 1.16 0.73

4.83 2.47 1.51 3.06 1.80

0.01 0.15 0.01

62.67 67.19 52.81 67.59 60.10

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

44.12 56.83 77.74 71.56 65.42

0.68 1.95 3.13 3.66 4.38

0.10 0.00 0.00

1.97 2.73 1.39 0.71

0.58 1.97 2.73 1.40 0.72

0.01 0.09 1.99 2.89 0.93

2.21 1.63 1.97 3.17

0.00 0.00 0.60 0.10 0.14

0.10 0.13 0.33 0.08 -

45.48 63.19 88.15 81.65 74.76

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

56.63 58.12 50.52 41.90 33.51

4.03 4.21 3.38 1.25 0.69

0.61 0.05 -

0.60 0.62 -

0.61 0.65 0.62 -

0.22 0.32 0.30 0.24

4.32 2.38 5.27 1.85 3.32

0.19 -

0.00 -

65.82 64.71 60.33 45.92 37.76

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

28.61 31.25 75.18 119.83 107.38 110.57

0.56 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.71

0.24 -

0.57 0.68 1.31 1.63

0.57 0.68 1.31 0.24 1.63

0.15 0.01 0.01 0.01

6.75 3.85 4.68 7.78 8.83 2.75

-

-

36.64 35.41 80.55 128.94 116.45 115.67

R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

20.26 28.02 33.10 26.00

0.00 -

0.24

-

0.24

-

2.00 1.48 2.57 2.78

-

-

22.26 29.50 35.67 29.02

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

28.91 30.75 26.98 23.93

0.02 0.25 0.12 0.32

-

1.63 -

1.63 -

0.00 0.01

0.39 1.35 1.01

-

-

30.94 31.00 28.46 25.26

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

37.1%

24.1%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-3.8%

-8.0%

n.a.

n.a.

34.4%

Δ2009/2010

3.0%

21725.1%

-100.0%

n.a.

581.0%

n.a.

-68.8%

n.a.

n.a.

-0.7%

Notes to Table D.6: 1 Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

0

Crude Oil

Petrol

Other Petroleum Products

LPG

Diesel

Fuel Oil

2010

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20

2009

32.54 14.29 19.71 40.84 62.09

2007

-

2008

1.02 5.64 5.49

2006

3.52 0.78 0.59 1.16

2005

1.53 10.27 15.82

2003

11.80 9.25 9.78

3.56 11.87 10.35 11.71

2004

0.05 0.12 0.36

2001

29.02 9.95 4.66 14.46 27.56

40

2002

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

60

1999

0.88 0.88 0.61 3.43

2000

-

1998

-

1997

0.88 0.88 0.61 3.43

1995

-

1996

-

1993

-

1994

-

80

1992

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

100

1991

1.48 1.81 2.65

1990

-

0.85

1989

-

-

1987

-

1.48 1.81 1.80

1988

-

-

1986

-

-

1985

-

-

1983

-

-

1984

-

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1981

1974

120

1982

Total

1979

Aviation Fuel

1980

Fuel Oil

1978

Diesel

1977

Total Petrol1

1975

Regular Unleaded 91

LPG

1976

Crude Oil

140 Other Petroleum Products2

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Premium Unleaded 95–98

Aviation Fuel

Includes bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit and other liquid fuels.

2

R

= Revised

n.a. = Not applicable

58 Energy Data File | 2011

59 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Oil Products Consumption

Figure D.7: Observed Oil Products Consumption

Table D.7: Observed Oil Products Consumption1 (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Consumption of:

46.29 46.49 53.65 55.20 61.08

7.42 6.84 8.46 5.83 8.03

13.87 12.03 11.93 13.78 15.89

17.49 16.75 17.34 18.20 19.10

4.53 4.89 5.14 5.87 5.79

180.57 177.40 189.40 191.03 207.43

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

48.04 65.53 72.36 74.54 76.47

32.07 27.71 26.60 26.14

98.69 97.59 100.07 101.14 102.61

69.59 72.00 76.53 78.11 80.92

7.27 8.77 7.57 6.97 7.03

16.36 16.05 15.53 16.10 15.85

18.10 17.98 18.46 18.10 18.24

4.99 4.78 5.02 4.72 4.43

215.00 217.17 223.19 225.14 229.07

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

77.98 79.57 82.24 85.21 87.16

23.62 22.66 23.43 24.08 26.64

101.60 102.23 105.67 109.29 113.80

87.26 87.56 94.00 97.69 101.13

9.84 8.76 9.23 10.79 7.72

17.23 17.65 16.37 18.23 18.77

18.33 14.91 16.72 16.81 17.83

4.78 5.57 5.90 5.98 6.63

239.04 236.68 247.89 258.80 265.88

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

87.80 89.56 90.92 90.15 87.40 87.91

23.19 22.32 22.94 21.76 22.85 22.45

110.99 111.88 113.86 111.91 110.26 110.36

106.66 107.51 110.83 110.04 105.22 105.15

9.18 7.51 8.38 6.90 7.57 7.31

17.45 17.77 14.63 15.84 14.33 14.75

17.88 19.93 19.65 20.15 18.43 20.66

6.59 7.55 8.03 8.02 7.51 6.60

268.74 272.16 275.38 272.85 263.32 264.84

R R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

21.23 21.74 21.52 22.92

5.90 5.53 5.50 5.93

27.12 27.27 27.01 28.85

26.33 26.11 25.32 27.46

1.84 1.68 2.07 1.97

3.09 3.25 3.94 4.06

5.37 4.59 3.74 4.74

1.18 2.60 2.36 1.37

64.93 65.50 64.45 68.44

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

22.37 21.40 21.44 22.70

5.77 5.47 5.42 5.79

28.15 26.87 26.86 28.48

25.50 24.84 25.90 28.91

2.01 1.94 1.94 1.43

3.22 3.68 3.79 4.06

6.03 4.01 4.80 5.82

1.31 1.58 2.29 1.43

66.21 62.91 65.58 70.13

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-0.5%

0.1%

-0.3%

-0.6%

-0.7%

-4.5%

0.9%

-3.3%

-0.7%

Δ2009/2010

0.6%

-1.8%

0.1%

-0.1%

-3.3%

2.9%

12.0%

-12.1%

0.6%

Notes to Table D.7: 1 Diesel and Fuel Oil used for electricity generation have been excluded. 2 Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Other Petroleum Products

LPG

3 Includes non-energy use of bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit, refinery by-products and other liquid fuels. R

= Revised

60 Energy Data File | 2011

Aviation Fuel

2010

90.97 90.40 92.89 92.15 97.53

2009

17.60 28.00 33.19 37.51 42.90

0 2007

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

50

2008

144.61 147.67 153.26 154.44 164.98

2006

3.96 4.39 4.52 4.56 4.31

2005

6.05 7.30 6.62 7.10 11.67

2003

6.79 6.65 7.61 8.59 11.13

2004

8.70 7.90 8.13 8.67 6.95

2001

42.50 42.19 41.13 41.12 42.74

2002

3.74 6.03 9.54

76.60 79.24 85.24 84.39 88.16

1999

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

100

2000

158.12 150.55 152.97 145.90 149.30

1998

0.88 1.27 1.53 1.43 2.11

1997

6.46 6.76 6.80 6.87 8.20

1995

7.05 6.32 6.34 6.09 6.68

1996

20.43 17.20 15.93 11.02 8.90

1993

45.50 41.11 42.87 41.39 43.02

1994

77.80 77.89 79.50 79.09 80.40

150

1992

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

200

1991

157.42 154.62 163.62 160.47 155.88

1990

153.02

0.14 0.38 0.54 0.66 0.72

1989

0.26

5.28 4.12 4.80 4.28 5.34

1987

5.85

7.10 7.51 7.95 7.95 8.11

1988

7.06

25.67 23.84 28.37 25.37 22.90

1986

21.89

40.77 41.40 43.31 42.38 40.98

1985

40.71

78.46 77.38 78.66 79.84 77.82

1983

77.25

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1984

1974

250

1981

Total Oil ProductsR

1982

LPGR

1979

Other Petroleum Products3, R

1980

Aviation Fuel

1978

Fuel OilR

1977

DieselR

1975

Total Petrol2

1976

Regular Unleaded 91

300

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Premium Unleaded 95–98

61 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector

Figure D.8: Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector

Table D.8: Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Petrol Consumption by Sector:

120

74.53 80.68 84.86 85.00 88.15

-2.08 1.44 -0.38 0.61 -0.01

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

3.65 3.38 3.10 2.91 2.75

0.82 0.64 1.32 0.46 0.34

1.09 0.91 1.52 0.84 3.70

0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.03

85.40 85.46 86.89 87.89 90.71

90.97 90.40 92.89 92.15 97.53

90.47 92.21 92.71 93.95 95.61

-0.50 1.81 -0.18 1.80 -1.92

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2.62 2.24 2.16 2.17 2.21

0.28 0.47 0.29 0.18 0.15

2.07 0.62 0.68 0.33 0.18

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03

93.70 94.26 96.94 98.44 100.04

98.69 97.59 100.07 101.14 102.61

99.10 99.55 101.35 101.83 104.44

0.41 1.96 1.28 0.69 1.83

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2.17 2.20 2.29 2.24 2.25

0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.42

0.15 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.52

0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

99.08 99.67 103.02 106.72 110.61

101.60 102.23 105.67 109.29 113.80

101.38 102.74 107.16 110.83 111.05

-0.22 0.51 1.48 1.55 -2.75

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2.29 2.34 2.23 1.99 1.76 1.38

0.50 0.51 0.45 0.37 0.28 0.09

0.17 0.13 0.38 0.13 0.11 0.05

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04

108.02 108.90 110.80 109.42 108.11 108.81

110.99 111.88 113.86 111.91 110.26 110.36

111.56 110.82 111.57 108.65 112.15 105.52

0.57 -1.06 -2.29 -3.26 1.90 -4.85

R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.51 0.49 0.38 0.38

0.13 0.02 0.02 0.09

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

26.45 26.73 26.59 28.35

27.12 27.27 27.01 28.85

29.05 27.62 27.82 27.67

1.92 0.35 0.81 -1.18

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

27.75 26.48 26.48 28.10

28.15 26.87 26.86 28.48

27.76 25.27 27.10 25.39

-0.38 -1.60 0.24 -3.10

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-12.4%

-35.2%

-23.5%

104.5%

0.0%

-0.3%

-1.2%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

-21.5%

-67.2%

-58.0%

22859.1%

0.6%

0.1%

-5.9%

n.a.

20

0

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

2010

76.60 79.24 85.24 84.39 88.16

2009

67.27 71.32 75.89 78.64 82.39

2007

0.07 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.01

2008

2.59 2.17 1.38 1.21 1.11

2006

1.60 1.37 1.52 0.93 0.93

2005

5.08 4.36 6.44 3.58 3.72

2003

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

40

2004

-0.54 0.18 -0.14 0.12 0.52

2001

77.26 78.07 79.36 79.21 80.93

2002

77.80 77.89 79.50 79.09 80.40

1999

66.55 67.56 68.43 68.81 70.45

2000

0.76 0.03 0.08 0.10 0.09

1998

2.67 3.07 3.42 3.12 2.97

1997

2.32 2.00 2.03 1.83 1.76

1995

5.50 5.24 5.53 5.22 5.14

60

1996

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

80

1993

-0.01 1.17 -0.60 0.47

1994

77.37 79.83 79.24 78.29

1992

77.38 78.66 79.84 77.82

1991

66.38 67.39 68.37 66.82

1990

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.07

1989

3.14 3.19 3.61 3.19

1987

2.24 2.23 2.10 2.35

1988

5.61 5.84 5.73 5.39

1986

1976 1977 1978 1979

1985

14.62

1983

0.11

93.08

1984

77.36

78.46

1981

77.25

66.97

100

1982

66.21

0.00

Statistical Difference

1979

0.03

3.25

Calculated Consumption1

1980

3.10

2.35

Observed Consumption

1978

2.26

5.89

Transport

1977

5.64

1975

Residential

1975

1974

Commercial

1976

IndustrialR

Calendar Year or Quarter

1974

Agriculture, Fishing and ForestryR

Transport

Notes to Table D.8: 1 Calculated Consumption is calculated as Production + Imports - Exports - Stock Change - International Transport - Losses and Own Use. R

= Revised.

62 Energy Data File | 2011

63 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector

Figure D.9: Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector

Table D.9: Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Diesel Consumption by Sector:

8.29 7.93 8.74 8.39 8.70

4.94 5.22 5.65 3.18 3.85

0.15 0.17 0.26 0.28 0.30

22.02 23.38 27.75 31.82 36.18

46.29 46.49 53.65 55.20 61.08

46.16 47.85 55.24 56.48 63.16

-0.12 1.36 1.60 1.28 2.08

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

12.89 13.14 14.26 14.58 16.09

9.58 9.53 9.71 9.09 8.18

4.05 3.67 3.53 3.99 3.87

0.30 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

42.76 45.35 48.68 50.06 52.33

69.59 72.00 76.53 78.11 80.92

68.90 74.03 77.93 79.57 84.02

-0.69 2.04 1.40 1.46 3.10

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

15.61 15.78 17.77 17.76 17.08

10.10 10.16 10.81 11.66 13.90

3.89 3.12 2.83 3.34 4.54

0.42 0.44 0.47 0.52 0.57

57.24 58.06 62.12 64.41 65.04

87.26 87.56 94.00 97.69 101.13

87.57 91.56 96.64 100.61 105.80

0.31 4.00 2.64 2.91 4.67

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

18.55 17.75 17.40 16.11 13.94 13.27

14.50 14.72 15.88 14.90 13.45 11.29

3.94 3.26 3.21 3.61 2.77 4.43

0.61 0.61 0.64 0.28 0.31 0.30

69.06 71.18 73.70 75.14 74.75 75.87

106.66 107.51 110.83 110.04 105.22 105.15

107.05 107.75 112.31 112.61 105.23 109.60

0.39 0.24 1.48 2.58 0.01 4.45

R

R

R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

4.08 3.77 3.01 3.07

3.83 3.37 3.19 3.06

0.91 0.63 0.64 0.59

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

17.43 18.26 18.40 20.66

26.33 26.11 25.32 27.46

27.08 25.72 25.33 27.11

0.75 -0.39 0.00 -0.36

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

3.36 3.41 3.25 3.25

2.94 2.72 2.79 2.84

1.06 1.04 1.05 1.28

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

18.06 17.60 18.74 21.47

25.50 24.84 25.90 28.91

27.92 26.03 25.29 30.37

2.42 1.18 -0.61 1.46

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-3.6%

-2.5%

-6.4%

2.1%

-0.1%

-1.1%

-1.7%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

-4.8%

-16.1%

59.5%

-1.5%

1.5%

-0.1%

4.2%

n.a.

Notes to Table D.9: 1 Excludes diesel used for electricity generation. Calculated Consumption is calculated as Production + Imports Exports - Stock Change - International Transport - Losses and Own Use. 2

0

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

R = Revised. Revisions in 1986, 1990 and 1992 were revisions to the amount of diesel used for electricity generation, which are excluded from Industrial.

n.a. = Not applicable

64 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

2010

10.88 9.79 11.24 11.53 12.06

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

R

20

2009

-0.79 1.83 1.33 -0.34 0.94

2007

41.71 44.02 42.46 40.78 43.68

2008

42.50 42.19 41.13 41.12 42.74

2006

18.92 19.24 20.75 21.61 21.25

2005

0.20 0.21 0.17 0.11 0.15

2003

5.29 5.48 3.86 3.80 3.28

2004

9.37 8.50 8.07 7.72 8.33

2001

8.72 8.75 8.29 7.88 9.73

2002

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

40

1999

-4.83 -0.52 -2.73 -1.09 -1.53

2000

40.67 40.58 40.14 40.30 41.49

1998

45.50 41.11 42.87 41.39 43.02

1997

15.93 15.81 15.27 16.05 17.64

1995

0.56 0.46 0.36 0.33 0.27

1996

9.68 6.29 7.41 6.91 6.32

1993

10.13 10.19 10.63 9.37 9.85

1994

9.21 8.37 9.19 8.73 8.94

60

1992

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

80

1991

0.17 -0.84 -1.18 0.27 -2.56

1990

-2.56

40.94 40.56 42.13 42.65 38.42

1989

38.15

40.77 41.40 43.31 42.38 40.98

1987

40.71

15.17 16.15 16.25 16.33 16.69

1988

13.91

1.95 1.66 1.58 1.19 0.79

1986

2.30

7.55 7.31 7.58 7.69 6.02

1985

7.47

10.01 10.02 11.10 10.66 10.00

1983

11.03

6.09 6.26 6.80 6.50 7.48

1984

6.00

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1981

1974

100

1982

Statistical Difference

1979

Calculated Consumption2

1980

Observed Consumption

1978

Transport

1977

Residential

1975

Commercial

1976

Industrial1

120

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

65 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector

Figure D.10: Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector

Table D.10: Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Oil Consumption by Sector:

7.43 7.26 9.45 4.64 7.95

0.62 0.72 0.95 1.03 1.02

127.05 127.01 132.54 140.03 150.37

163.08 160.65 172.06 172.83 188.33

17.49 16.75 17.34 18.20 19.10

180.57 177.40 189.40 191.03 207.43

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

16.99 17.46 18.80 19.82 20.77

12.61 14.02 14.34 12.43 11.31

6.49 4.82 4.50 4.97 6.07

0.96 2.06 2.24 2.26 2.03

159.85 160.84 164.85 167.55 170.66

196.90 199.19 204.73 207.04 210.84

18.10 17.98 18.46 18.10 18.24

215.00 217.17 223.19 225.14 229.07

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

19.78 20.00 22.06 23.49 21.13

14.62 14.69 15.58 15.81 18.00

6.12 5.51 4.91 6.15 7.44

1.90 2.15 2.05 2.12 2.47

178.29 179.43 186.58 194.42 199.01

220.71 221.78 231.17 241.98 248.05

18.33 14.91 16.72 16.81 17.83

239.04 236.68 247.89 258.80 265.88

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

22.71 22.17 21.86 20.26 18.31 17.14

18.57 19.00 20.31 18.93 17.24 14.98

7.11 5.73 6.02 6.22 4.94 5.88

2.58 2.95 3.13 2.66 2.51 2.29

199.89 202.38 204.41 204.63 201.90 203.88

250.86 252.22 255.73 252.70 244.89 244.18

17.88 19.93 19.65 20.15 18.43 20.66

268.74 272.16 275.38 272.85 263.32 264.84

R R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5.24 4.81 4.22 4.04

4.66 4.35 4.21 4.02

1.30 1.34 1.27 1.03

0.45 0.81 0.77 0.48

47.92 49.60 50.24 54.14

59.56 60.91 60.71 63.71

5.37 4.59 3.74 4.74

64.93 65.50 64.45 68.44

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

4.42 4.35 4.22 4.16

3.86 3.63 4.05 3.45

1.26 1.44 1.57 1.62

0.50 0.53 0.76 0.50

50.15 48.96 50.19 54.58

60.18 58.91 60.78 64.32

6.03 4.01 4.80 5.82

66.21 62.91 65.58 70.13

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-6.2%

-5.8%

0.7%

-6.1%

0.2%

-0.8%

0.9%

-0.7%

Δ2009/2010

-6.4%

-13.1%

19.2%

-8.8%

1.0%

-0.3%

12.0%

0.6%

Includes LPG.

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

Non-energy Use

Non-energy Use represents use of oil for non-combustion purposes such as bitumen for roads, lubricants and solvents. This is a Calculated Consumption: see Glossary for more details.

3

R

= Revised

66 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

2010

12.17 11.56 13.30 11.28 12.57

2009

15.81 14.10 15.81 15.84 16.41

0 2007

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

50

2008

144.61 147.67 153.26 154.44 164.98

2006

6.05 7.30 6.62 7.10 11.67

2005

138.56 140.37 146.64 147.33 153.31

2003

96.49 101.88 108.60 114.60 119.89

2004

0.68 0.69 0.66 0.60 0.60

2001

9.78 8.61 5.90 5.85 5.44

2002

16.58 14.89 14.69 13.54 12.72

1999

15.03 14.30 16.79 12.75 14.66

2000

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

100

1998

158.12 150.55 152.97 145.90 149.30

1997

6.46 6.76 6.80 6.87 8.20

1995

151.66 143.79 146.16 139.03 141.11

1996

90.48 90.47 90.71 91.02 96.34

1993

1.43 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58

1994

15.04 12.14 13.66 12.35 10.91

1992

29.09 25.90 25.25 20.00 18.13

1991

15.63 14.66 15.92 15.07 15.16

150

1990

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

200

1989

157.42 154.62 163.62 160.47 155.88

1987

153.02

5.28 4.12 4.80 4.28 5.34

1988

5.85

152.14 150.51 158.82 156.20 150.54

1986

147.17

91.75 92.62 93.11 93.68 92.59

1985

88.54

2.00 1.75 1.72 1.30 0.96

1983

2.41

15.34 15.20 15.24 14.59 11.54

1984

15.90

29.87 27.68 33.79 33.30 31.63

1981

27.39

13.19 13.27 14.95 13.33 13.82

1982

12.92

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

250

1979

Total Oil ConsumptionR

1980

Non-energy Use3, R

1978

Observed Energy Use2

1977

Transport

1975

Residential

1974

Notes to Table D.10: 1 Diesel and Fuel Oil used for electricity generation have been excluded. 2

Commercial

1976

Industrial1, R

300

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.1a: Natural Gas Industry Summary for 20101

Overview of New Zealand’s Natural Gas Industry Introduction

FIELDS BY PRODUCTION ABOVE = GROSS

3.9% McKee 2.6%

2.7% Mangahewa 3.0%

24.3% Maui 25.9%

11.1% Kupe 10.6%

8.9% Kapuni 9.0%

0.8% Ngatoro 0.2%

0.4% Kaimiro 0.3%

3.7% Kowhai 3.9%

3.1% Turangi 3.5%

3.9% Maari 0.0%

35.6% Pohokura 40.8%

1.1% Tui 0.0%

0.5% 0.1% Rimu/ Cheal/ Kauri Surrey2, 4 0.01% 0.4%

0.01% TAWN 0.01%

BELOW = NET

PRODUCERS

Todd Taranaki 100% Operator: Todd Energy

Shell 83.75%

Origin Energy 50%

Shell 50%

OMV 10%

Genesis Energy 31%

Todd Energy 50%

Todd Energy 6.25%

NGOG 15% Mitsui E&P 4%

Operator: Shell Todd

Operator: Origin Energy

Greymouth Greymouth 100% 100%

Operator: Shell Todd Oil Services

Operator: Greymouth

Operator: Greymouth

OMV 69%

Shell 48%

AWE 42.5%

Todd Energy 16%

Todd Energy 26%

NZOG 12.5% Pan Pacific 10%

OMV 26%

Mitsui E&P 35%

Horizon 10% Cue Taranaki 5%

Operator: Shell

Operator: OMV

Origin Energy 100% Operator: Origin Energy

Operator: AWE

This section contains information about the production, transmission, distribution and sales to end consumers of natural gas. All statistics apply to the 2010 calendar year. Comparisons are made with the 2009 calendar year, unless otherwise specified, and any percentages are calculated from energy, rather than volume, units.

Ownership Most large fields are jointly owned, with the bulk of investment coming from foreign companies. A full breakdown of field ownership is shown in Figure E.1a.

Permitting WHOLESALERS

Vector

Todd Energy

TRANSMITTERS

Contact Energy

Vector

(HIGH PRESSURE)

Greymouth Petroleum

Maui Development

For commentary on permitting, exploration and development, see the Oil and Gas Reserves section (Section H). Further information on gas explorations is available on the New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals website: www.nzpam.govt.nz.

Taxation DISTRIBUTORS

Powerco

(LOW PRESSURE)

RETAILERS

Genesis Energy

Nova Energy

Nova Energy

On Gas

Vector

Contact Energy

Gas Net

Wanganui Gas

Greymouth Gas

Others3

CONSUMERS

BY CONSUMPTION (CALCULATED)

Major users supplied directly from the transmission system

Users supplied from distribution systems

Methanex Ballance Agri-Nutrients New Zealand Steel Carter Holt Harvey Degussa Peroxide Fonterra Co-operative Todd Energy/ Kiwi Cogeneration NZ Refinery Company Southdown Cogeneration Tasman Pulp and Paper among others

Other industry, commercial, residential, transport (as CNG)

41.9%

Methanex

Ballance Agri-Nutrients (Kapuni) Limited

Chemical methanol manufacture

Ammonia/urea manufacture

14.7%

4.0%

There is a Gas Levy of 2 cents per gigajoule and, for fields that commenced production prior to 1986, an Energy Resources Levy of 45 cents per gigajoule. The Gas Industry Company also levies industry participants to fund its operations. In FY2010/11 there was a wholesale levy of 1.84 cents per gigajoules applicable to all gas purchased from producers and a retail levy of $6.40 per interconnection point per annum.

Contact Energy Genesis Energy Electricity generation

Government’s Measures to Encourage Gas Exploration The Government recently undertook a $25.4 million seismic acquisition programme. As a result, over the summer of 2008 - 2009 CGG Veritas and MED acquired almost 6000 km 2D seismic over the Reinga basin. In the 2009 – 2010 summer, MED undertook seismic campaign over the Pegasus basin and the Bounty Trough.

Storage The Contact Energy Ahuroa gas storage facility had 5.9 PJ pumped into it during 2010. This will support the 200 MW gas peaking electricity generation plant at the Stratford site, as well as higher demand for gas in winter. Ahuroa is New Zealand’s first large-scale gas storage facility and has the potential to improve the flexibility of New Zealand’s gas supply.

Deregulation and Governance The government first released a Government Policy Statement (GPS) on gas governance in 2003, which was then revised and updated in October 2004 at the same time as amendments were made to the Gas Act 1992 to provide for a co-regulatory model of gas governance. The amendment set up an industry body, the Gas Industry Company Limited (GIC), which makes recommendations to the Minister on improved gas industry arrangements such as rules and regulations in wholesaling, processing, transmission and retailing. The GPS was revised again in 2008 to reflect policy directions set out in the previous Energy Strategy.

Production Gas is produced entirely in the Taranaki region. Figure E.1a summarises the New Zealand gas industry in 2010. There were 15 fields that produced gas in New Zealand in 2010, with total production dominated by the Pohokura (36%) and Maui (24%) fields. Total natural gas production increased by 7% in 2010, continuing the recent trend. This increase was largely on the back of strong production from the Kupe field. Figures E.2 and E.3 show total gas production and net gas production by field, respectively, from 1970 to 2010. Total gas production is gas production after the first separation point (see Oil and Gas Reserves section, Figure H.1). Net gas production is the amount that can be sold for use: the difference between total gas production and the amount of gas flared, gas reinjected, LPG extracted, own use and losses. Note that net gas production for the Kapuni field from 1970 to 1973 has been estimated, using the assumption that net gas production was 95% of total gas production.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) LPG statistics are included in Section D.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) CNG is supplied to the automotive market through fewer than five North Island service stations. The CNG market has decreased markedly since government subsidies were removed in 1987.

39.4%

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable. AWE is Australian Worldwide Exploration Limited, Greymouth is Greymouth Petroleum Limited, Mitsui E&P is Mitsui E&P New Zealand Limited, NZOG is New Zealand Oil & Gas Limited, OMV is OMV New Zealand Limited, Contact Energy is Contact Energy Limited, Origin Energy is Origin Energy New Zealand Ltd and ContactEnergy (51% owned by Origin), Pan Pacific is Pan Pacific Petroleum, Shell is Shell NZ Limited (includes Shell Exploration NZ Limited, Shell (Petroleum Mining) Co Limited, Energy Petroleum Holdings Limited, Energy Petroleum Investments Ltd, Energy Petroleum Taranaki Ltd, Energy Finance New Zealand Limited and Taranaki Offshore Petroleum Company), TAWN comprises the Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa and Ngaere fields, Todd Energy is Todd Energy Limited and includes Nova Gas, Vector is Vector Limited and includes OnGas, Wanganui Gas is Wanganui Gas Company Limited, and Nova Energy is Nova Energy Limited.

Notes to Figure E.1a: 1 Gas ownership as at year end 2010; excludes LPG. Includes Cheal and Surrey fields. Cheal is owned by Kanuka Energy Limited (36.5%), Cheal Petroleum Limited (30.5%) and Arrowhead Energy Limited (33.0%) and operated by TAG. Surrey is operated by Greymouth Petroleum Ltd.

2

3 Others include Mercury Energy, Bay of Plenty Electricity, Energy Online and Auckland Gas Company. Bay of Plenty Energy, Nova Energy and Auckland Gas Company are part of Todd Energy.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Transmission and Distribution

Retailing and Consumption

Industrial

Electricity Generation

Residential

There are more than 3,500 km of high pressure gas transmission pipelines in New Zealand. New Zealand has two main transmission entities: Vector’s transmission network and the Maui pipeline (owned by Maui Development Limited). All gas from Maui, Pohokura, McKee, Mangahewa, Turangi and Kowhai is delivered into the Maui pipeline.

Gas consumption information was provided by Contact Energy, Genesis Energy, Vector, Mercury Energy, Energy Online, Wanganui Gas and the Todd Energy retail brands – Auckland Gas Company, Bay of Plenty Energy and Nova Energy.

In 2010, the industrial sector accounted for 24% of total gas consumption (Figure E.1e). From companies surveyed, the number of industrial consumers was around 1,400.

In 2010 48% of New Zealand’s natural gas was used for electricity generation (including cogeneration). Contact Energy Limited (Otahuhu B, Taranaki Combined Cycle and Stratford) and Genesis Energy Limited (Huntly – including the e3p combined cycle plant) are the main thermal electricity generators in New Zealand using natural gas. In 2010, gas consumption for electricity generation increased by 16% to 63 PJ and cogeneration increased by 8% to 19 PJ compared with 2009.

In 2009, the residential sector accounted for around 3% of total gas consumption. From companies surveyed, the number of residential consumers was around 245,000.

More than 2,800 km of intermediate, medium and low pressure gas distribution pipeline networks in the North Island are connected to the high pressure transmission system (Figure E.8). Vector operates the most extensive gas distribution operations in the North Island. There are four gas distributors: Vector, Powerco, Nova Gas and GasNet (network operator, owned by Wanganui Gas).

&IGURE%B4OTAL.ATURAL'AS 0RODUCTIONBY&IELDFOR

Genesis, along with its subsidiary Energy Online, held the largest share of the retail market at 43% in 2010. The Todd Energyowned Nova brand showed the biggest increase in market share thanks to its purchase of customers from E-Gas in November 2010. Approximate market share based on consumer connections is shown in Figure E.1c. Total observed gas consumption (including electricity generation, cogeneration, total losses and own use, and non-energy use) increased from approximately 158 PJ to 168 PJ in 2010. This was due to the increased demand from electricity generation, and supplied by the Kupe ďŹ eld. Gas consumption and gas sales revenue ďŹ gures reported by gas retailers are used to derive average unit prices (see Table I.4). This information should be treated as approximations only. Further information on regional and national average gas distribution tariffs can be found in the Residential Gas Price Survey at www.med.govt.nz/gas/RGPS/.

Petrochemicals Gas used as a feedstock in the petrochemicals sector represented around 15% of New Zealand’s natural gas in 20101. This natural gas was used in the Motunui methanol plant and the Ballance AgriNutrients ammonia/urea plant at Kapuni. Crude methanol is produced from natural gas and distilled into high (“AAâ€?) grade methanol. Methanex New Zealand produced about 830,000 tonnes of methanol in 2010, compared with about 820,000 tonnes in 2009. Methanol production has been signiďŹ cantly higher in the last two years due in part to the larger capacity of the Motunui plant compared with the Waitara Valley plant and to more natural gas being available.

Commercial Around 4% of gas consumption was used by the commercial sector. From companies surveyed, the number of commercial (including transport) consumers was around 8,500.

Figure E.1c: Retail Market Share as Determined by Consumer Connections at December 2010 Genesis Energy and Energy Online 43.3% Contact Energy 24.2% Mercury Energy 16.5% Nova Energy1 11.2% Others2 4.9%

Ballance Agri-Nutrients (Kapuni) Limited (previously Petrochem Limited) manufactures ammonia/urea from natural gas. Gas consumption as a feedstock for ammonia/urea production was stable when compared with 2009 levels.

Note to Figure E.1c: 1 Todd Retail includes Nova Energy, Bay of Plenty Energy and Auckland Gas Company 2 Includes Energy Direct NZ, On Gas, E-Gas and Greymouth Gas.

 1PIPLVSB  .BVJ  ,VQF  ,BQVOJ  .BBSJ  .D,FF  ,PXIBJ  5VSBOHJ  .BOHBIFXB  ,BJNJSP/HBUPSP  5VJ   0UIFS

/PUFTUP'JHVSF&C*ODMVEFT(PMEJFBOE.PUVSPBXFMM  *ODMVEFT5BSJLJ "IVSPB 8BJIBQB /HBFSF  $IFBMGJFMET BOE4VSSFZXFMM

1

Gas combusted during the production of petrochemicals is included as industrial sector demand. Only gas used as a feedstock in petrochemical production is deďŹ ned as Non-energy Use.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.1d: Natural Gas Energy Flow Summary for 2010

Figure E.1e: Natural Gas Consumption by Sector for 2010

Electricity Generation1 51.1%

GENERATORS2

Production

Conveyance

Industrial 24.2%

Use

Non-energy Use 16.0% Commercial 4.2% Residential 3.7%

Gas Reinjected 4.0

Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing2 0.9%

LPG Extracted 7.4 Transmission Losses 0.7

Gas Flared 7.5 Losses and Own Use 6.7

Stock Change 5.9

Non-energy Use

Direct Supply 25.5

Methanex NZ Limited Ballance Agri-Nutrients Notes to Figure E.1e: 1 Includes cogeneration. 2 Includes Transport.

Fields Cheal Kaimiro

Direct Supply 62.6

Maui Kupe 198.2

Table E.1: Natural Gas Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

Electricity Generation

Kapuni Mangahewa

Contact Energy Limited

Maari McKee Ngatoro1

172.7

159.4

SUPPLY

Pohokura Rimu2 Surrey 18.6 Tariki/Ahuroa

Cogeneration

Tui3 Turangi Waihapa/Ngaere

Direct Supply and Distribution4 Vector 38.4

Powerco

2008

2009

2010

Δ2006/ 2010 P.a.

Δ2009/2010

Gross Production Gas Reinjected LPG Gas Equivalent Extracted Gas Flared Indigenous Production Stock Change

164.31 1.59 7.83 0.86 154.03 -0.00

180.88 1.83 5.51 3.97 169.57 0.03

173.78 2.65 4.21 6.93 159.99 0.03

182.52 4.98 3.62 6.68 167.24 4.09

198.18 4.01 7.35 7.47 179.34 5.87

4.8% 26.0% -1.6% 71.8% 3.9% n.a.

8.6% -19.4% 103.2% 11.8% 7.2% n.a.

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

154.03

169.54

159.96

163.15

173.47

3.0%

6.3%

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

-87.75

-104.09

-89.02

-77.67

-88.56

0.2%

14.0%

Electricity Generation Cogeneration Production Losses and Own Use Transmission Losses and Own Use

-60.10 -21.30 -5.62 -0.72

-75.35 -22.58 -5.38 -0.78

-60.77 -23.41 -4.07 -0.78

-53.97 -17.26 -5.63 -0.80

-62.58 -18.61 -6.67 -0.69

1.0% -3.3% 4.4% -1.0%

16.0% 7.8% 18.4% -13.4%

-15.10

-15.45

-18.23

-25.36

-25.47

14.0%

0.4%

51.18

50.01

52.71

60.12

59.44

3.8%

-1.1%

1.88 31.47 7.40 0.02 6.64

1.81 33.39 6.57 0.02 5.65

1.63 34.69 6.26 0.04 5.47

1.94 39.59 7.30 0.04 6.38

1.47 39.59 6.87 0.03 5.99

-5.9% 5.9% -1.8% 12.0% -2.5%

-24.3% 0.0% -5.8% -22.1% -6.0%

47.41

47.44

48.09

55.24

53.95

3.3%

-2.3%

3.78

2.56

4.62

4.88

5.49

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

52.1

Commercial5

Gas Supply

DEMAND

Nova

8.2

2007

NON-ENERGY USE

Industrial

GasNet

Gross Production

2006

Converted Into Petajoules Using Gross Calorific Values

Genesis Power Limited

Agriculture Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

6.0

Residential

Statistical Differences

n.a.

n.a.

Petajoules (to approximate vertical scale)

Notes to Figure E.1d: 1 Includes the Goldie well. 2

Includes the Kauri well.

3

All gas from Tui field was flared.

4 Gas supplied through distribution systems is used by industry (including cogeneration) and the commercial, residential and transport sectors. Some cogenerators and other industrial and commercial users are supplied directly.

5

Includes Transport, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Total Gas Production by Field

Table E.2b: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

Table E.2a: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)1 Calendar Year

Maui

Kapuni

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2

Calendar Year Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

R

Other

3

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

158.0 301.0 414.0 488.0 515.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

158.0 301.0 414.0 488.0 515.4

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

468.1

565.9 1,501.9 2,346.8 2,175.2 1,077.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

565.9 1,501.9 2,346.8 2,175.2 1,545.2

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

628.0 879.5 1,773.5 1,876.6 2,499.2

714.4 889.0 1,156.0 1,300.1 1,326.0

0.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 15.6

-

1.83

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,342.4 1,769.5 2,930.0 3,177.3 3,842.6

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

3,224.4 3,901.0 3,783.1 4,113.9 4,247.1

1,468.5 1,413.8 1,334.2 1,567.6 1,714.1

35.9 45.8 72.8 84.9 95.2

-

17.58 14.73 15.89 16.17 12.12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4,746.3 5,375.3 5,206.1 5,782.6 6,068.4

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

4,199.8 4,307.9 4,610.8 4,407.4 3,998.8

1,666.0 1,740.6 1,862.3 1,826.8 1,958.7

95.5 118.6 139.1 127.8 181.3

-

10.15 8.10 9.22 12.26 19.49

-

-

-

-

-

-

29.25 112.55 88.11 125.49 114.92

6,000.8 6,287.9 6,709.5 6,499.7 6,273.2

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

3,719.2 4,218.4 4,456.6 3,778.4 4,517.7

1,622.5 1,978.2 1,703.1 1,681.8 1,593.3

198.7 204.2 203.7 224.6 248.3

15.5 62.7 -

11.16 32.67 57.70 70.55 56.36

-

-

-

-

-

-

43.86 142.19 230.89 225.00 241.31

5,595.5 6,575.7 6,667.5 6,043.0 6,656.9

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

4,775.0 4,992.9 4,555.7 3,082.5 2,693.7

1,303.8 1,204.7 1,079.9 1,010.5 1,034.7

228.8 228.0 144.0 165.8 198.2

83.1 255.5 217.4 205.8

56.06 56.12 46.72 28.76 29.19

-

-

-

-

-

-

282.86 353.97 372.77 445.30 362.98

6,646.6 6,918.8 6,454.6 4,950.3 4,524.5

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2,377.6 2,253.0 1,355.1 1,282.0 1,400.8 1,182.5

1,075.9 1,054.8 928.2 785.8 655.6 676.6

256.5 224.5 190.9 171.2 257.9 186.2

163.2 141.3 147.0 130.7 147.1 136.3

41.74 41.51 43.54 50.32 46.83 59.73

0.4 37.6 128.5 118.5 189.6 150.4

53.7 179.3

340.7 1,688.7 1,706.5 1,668.5 1,706.8

62.0 159.2 75.8 43.9

112.2 161.7

19.4 542.2

371.48 279.41 185.33 91.14 43.35 27.49

4,286.9 4,372.9 4,729.3 4,495.3 4,670.8 5,053.0

Maui

Kapuni

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro1

Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

KupeR

Other2

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

5.58 10.63 14.62 17.23 18.20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5.58 10.63 14.62 17.23 18.20

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

16.53

19.99 53.04 82.88 76.82 38.04

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19.99 53.04 82.88 76.82 54.57

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

22.18 31.06 62.63 66.27 88.26

25.23 31.39 40.82 45.91 46.83

0.00 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.55

-

0.06

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

47.41 62.49 103.47 112.21 135.70

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

113.87 137.76 133.60 145.28 149.98

51.86 49.93 47.12 55.36 60.53

1.27 1.62 2.57 3.00 3.36

-

0.62 0.52 0.56 0.57 0.43

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

167.62 189.83 183.85 204.21 214.31

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

148.32 152.13 162.83 155.65 141.22

58.83 61.47 65.77 64.51 69.17

3.37 4.19 4.91 4.51 6.40

-

0.36 0.29 0.33 0.43 0.69

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.03 3.97 3.11 4.43 4.06

211.92 222.05 236.94 229.53 221.54

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

131.34 148.97 157.38 133.43 159.54

57.30 69.86 60.14 59.39 56.27

7.02 7.21 7.19 7.93 8.77

0.55 2.21 -

0.39 1.15 2.04 2.49 1.99

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.55 5.02 8.15 7.95 8.52

197.60 232.22 235.46 213.41 235.09

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

168.63 176.32 160.88 108.86 95.13

46.04 42.55 38.14 35.69 36.54

8.08 8.05 5.09 5.86 7.00

2.93 9.02 7.68 7.27

1.98 1.98 1.65 1.02 1.03

-

-

-

-

-

-

9.99 12.50 13.16 15.73 12.82

234.72 244.34 227.94 174.82 159.78

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

83.96 79.57 47.86 45.27 49.47 41.76

37.99 37.25 32.78 27.75 23.15 23.89

9.06 7.93 6.74 6.04 9.11 6.57

5.76 4.99 5.19 4.62 5.20 4.81

1.47 1.47 1.54 1.78 1.65 2.11

0.02 1.33 4.54 4.18 6.69 5.31

1.90 6.33

12.03 59.64 60.26 58.92 60.28

2.19 5.62 2.68 1.55

3.96 5.71

0.69 19.15

13.12 9.87 6.54 3.22 1.53 0.97

151.39 154.43 167.01 158.75 164.95 178.45

Notes to Table E.2b: 1 Includes Goldie and Moturoa well. Notes to Table E.2a: 1 Includes gas flared, gas reinjected, LPG extracted, own use and losses. 2

Includes Goldie and Moturoa well.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), and Cheal fields, and Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. 3

R

= Revised figures.

2 Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), and Cheal fields, and Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. R

= Revised figures.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Table E.2c: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)1

Figure E.2: Total Natural Gas Production by Field

1.52 1.89 3.02 3.58 3.99

-

0.68 0.57 0.61 0.62 0.47

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

168.07 194.33 188.60 209.15 218.32

44.59 46.25 49.04 48.43 51.50

3.97 4.84 5.61 5.16 7.32

-

0.39 0.31 0.39 0.55 0.86

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.31 5.05 3.95 5.63 5.15

216.24 227.44 242.54 236.41 227.14

152.92 173.53 183.76 156.71 186.76

42.84 52.72 46.12 45.43 42.94

8.02 8.24 8.22 9.07 10.02

0.60 2.44 -

0.53 1.41 2.55 3.21 2.56

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.97 6.55 10.68 10.36 11.17

206.28 242.45 251.93 227.22 253.46

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

195.67 203.56 186.63 127.35 111.29

34.88 31.99 28.81 27.21 27.79

9.36 9.38 5.95 6.83 8.18

3.22 9.89 8.41 7.98

2.63 2.59 2.16 1.29 1.13

-

-

-

-

-

-

11.64 14.49 15.35 18.55 14.93

254.17 265.22 248.79 189.64 171.30

2005

98.47

28.60

9.79

6.36

1.62

0.02

-

-

-

-

-

15.37

160.21

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

92.87 55.41 51.87 56.11 48.07

28.13 24.84 21.13 17.53 17.70

9.14 7.69 6.92 10.64 7.64

5.49 5.72 5.13 5.85 5.40

1.63 1.71 1.95 1.84 2.32

1.45 5.10 4.78 7.70 6.12

2.18 7.26

14.04 69.84 70.59 69.02 70.61

2.96 7.59 3.62 2.10

5.36 7.73

0.79 22.02

11.54 7.62 3.82 1.90 1.21

164.31 180.88 173.78 182.52 198.18

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-15.2%

-10.9%

-4.4%

-0.4%

9.2%

43.2%

n.a.

49.8%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-43.1%

4.8%

Δ2009/2010

-14.3%

1.0%

-28.2%

-7.7%

26.4%

-20.6%

233.6%

2.3%

-42.1%

44.1%

2694.6%

-36.2%

8.6%

Notes to Table E.2c: 1 In gross Calorific Value terms. 2

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

R

100

50

0

Kapuni

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/Ngatoro

Turangi

Kowhai

Tui

McKee

Maari

KupeR

Other

Pohokura

Maui

2010

42.52 56.62 96.78 106.16 133.07

2009

-

2007

-

2008

-

2005

-

2006

-

2003

-

2004

-

2001

0.07

150

2002

-

200

1999

15.36 40.22 64.35 59.49 47.14

2000

-

1997

-

1998

-

1995

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

-

1996

165.98 170.98 183.55 176.64 162.31

-

1993

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

-

1994

40.08 38.60 36.05 42.55 45.98

-

250

1991

125.79 153.26 148.91 162.41 167.88

-

300

1992

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

4.31 8.21 11.29 13.31 14.06

1990

0.00 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.64

-

1989

19.12 23.75 30.28 34.74 35.89

-

1987

23.40 32.83 66.49 71.40 96.48

-

1988

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

-

1985

-

-

1986

-

-

1983

15.36 40.22 64.35 59.49 29.27

-

1984

17.87

Total

1981

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

Other3

1982

-

KupeR

1979

-

Maari

1980

-

Tui

1977

4.31 8.21 11.29 13.31 14.06

Pohokura

1978

-

Kowhai

1975

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

PJ Turangi

1976

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2

1973

Mangahewa

1974

McKee

1971

Kapuni

1972

Maui

1970

Calendar Year

Notes to Figure E.2: R = Revised figures.

= Revised figures.

n.a. = Not applicable.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, and Cheal fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

3

76 Energy Data File | 2011

77 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Net Gas Production by Field

Table E.3b: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

Table E.3a: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)1 Calendar Year

Maui

KapuniR

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2, 3

Calendar Year Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui4

Maari5

Kupe -

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

150.1 286.0 393.3 463.6 393.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

264.0

420.4 1,268.9 2,124.5 2,041.4 942.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

601.7 854.0 1,732.4 1,838.0 2,414.7

354.1 315.3 363.8 412.4 412.5

0.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 15.4

-

1.8

-

-

-

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

3,119.0 3,768.9 3,649.7 3,965.9 4,083.6

350.8 555.2 489.5 468.5 500.8

35.0 44.8 71.3 82.9 92.9

-

17.6 14.7 15.8 16.1 11.9

-

-

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

4,024.4 4,123.8 4,413.1 4,213.8 3,810.4

513.2 775.8 717.0 707.0 669.3

93.4 115.3 135.1 123.6 171.0

-

10.1 8.0 7.0 5.8 11.4

-

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

3,541.6 3,987.6 4,179.4 3,517.1 4,242.5

701.4 744.6 777.1 765.5 822.2

184.9 193.4 194.4 201.4 229.3

8.2 61.5 -

3.7 18.5 30.7 49.4 45.3

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

4,505.8 4,696.9 4,271.3 2,875.3 2,501.4

935.0 948.4 946.7 898.2 897.5

207.9 208.8 131.4 152.9 185.8

80.7 252.4 214.9 203.2

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2,204.9 2,114.0 1,270.1 1,207.4 1,318.7 1,099.1

933.8 909.4 799.9 691.8 588.1 594.5

229.6 170.4 131.5 127.2 156.1 109.2

160.7 138.7 129.2 127.6 143.6 129.9

Other6

Total

-

-

150.1 286.0 393.3 463.6 393.5

-

-

-

420.4 1,268.9 2,124.5 2,041.4 1,206.0

-

-

-

-

955.9 1,170.2 2,096.7 2,251.1 2,844.4

-

-

-

-

-

3,522.2 4,383.5 4,226.4 4,533.4 4,689.2

-

-

-

-

-

22.6 97.5 78.1 110.8 97.2

4,663.8 5,120.5 5,350.3 5,161.0 4,759.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

39.8 126.4 204.6 196.4 210.2

4,471.4 5,070.5 5,394.4 4,791.2 5,549.4

42.3 35.9 34.6 23.5 8.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

245.1 292.9 317.9 382.1 307.5

5,936.1 6,263.7 5,954.3 4,547.0 4,103.9

6.6 0.2 0.8 8.7 6.9 20.6

24.7 122.8 116.9 187.4 146.6

53.4 166.2

339.7 1,682.5 1,700.9 1,663.8 1,702.1

-

-

18.1 448.9

320.9 241.6 151.1 71.8 31.8 15.7

3,856.4 3,938.6 4,287.8 4,052.3 4,167.7 4,432.7

Maui

KapuniR

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2, 3

Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui4

Maari5

Kupe

2

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

All gas from the Moturoa field was used for own purposes. All gas from the Ngatoro field was flared from March 1992 to May 1998. The Ngatoro field includes the Goldie well.

3

4

All gas from the Tui field was flared or used for own purposes.

2

5

All gas from the Maari field was flared or used for own purposes.

3

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, Cheal and Turangi fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

6

R

-

5.30 10.10 13.89 16.37 13.90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5.30 10.10 13.89 16.37 13.90

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

9.32

14.85 44.81 75.03 72.09 33.27

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14.85 44.81 75.03 72.09 42.59

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

21.25 30.16 61.18 64.91 85.27

12.51 11.13 12.85 14.57 14.57

0.00 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.54

-

0.06

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

33.76 41.33 74.04 79.50 100.45

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

110.15 133.10 128.89 140.05 144.21

12.39 19.61 17.29 16.55 17.69

1.23 1.58 2.52 2.93 3.28

-

0.62 0.52 0.56 0.57 0.42

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

124.39 154.80 149.26 160.10 165.60

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

142.12 145.63 155.85 148.81 134.56

18.12 27.40 25.32 24.97 23.64

3.30 4.07 4.77 4.37 6.04

-

0.36 0.28 0.25 0.21 0.40

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.80 3.44 2.76 3.91 3.43

164.70 180.83 188.95 182.26 168.07

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

125.07 140.82 147.60 124.21 149.82

24.77 26.29 27.44 27.03 29.04

6.53 6.83 6.87 7.11 8.10

0.29 2.17 -

0.13 0.65 1.08 1.74 1.60

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.40 4.46 7.22 6.94 7.42

157.91 179.06 190.50 169.20 195.98

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

159.12 165.87 150.84 101.54 88.34

33.02 33.49 33.43 31.72 31.69

7.34 7.37 4.64 5.40 6.56

2.85 8.91 7.59 7.18

1.49 1.27 1.22 0.83 0.29

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.66 10.34 11.23 13.49 10.86

209.63 221.20 210.28 160.58 144.93

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

77.86 74.65 44.85 42.64 46.57 38.82

32.98 32.11 28.25 24.43 20.77 20.99

8.11 6.02 4.65 4.49 5.51 3.86

5.68 4.90 4.56 4.51 5.07 4.59

0.23 0.01 0.03 0.31 0.25 0.73

0.87 4.34 4.13 6.62 5.18

1.89 5.87

12.00 59.42 60.07 58.76 60.11

-

-

0.64 15.85

11.33 8.53 5.34 2.54 1.12 0.56

136.19 139.09 151.42 143.11 147.18 156.54

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

All gas from the Moturoa field was used for own purposes. All gas from the Ngatoro field was flared from March 1992 to May 1998. The Ngatoro field includes the Goldie well.

4

All gas from the Tui field was flared or used for own purposes.

5

All gas from the Maari field was flared or used for own purposes.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, Cheal and Turangi fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

6

R

= Revised figures.

= Revised figures.

78 Energy Data File | 2011

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

Notes to Table E.3b: 1 In Gross Calorific Value terms. Notes to Table E.3a: 1 In Gross Calorific Value terms.

Other6

79 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Table E.3c: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)1

Figure E.3: Net Natural Gas Production by Field

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

22.42 31.88 64.94 69.93 93.22

9.45 8.42 9.57 11.01 11.15

0.00 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.63

-

0.07

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

31.87 40.33 74.53 80.97 105.06

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

121.68 148.07 143.66 156.56 161.42

9.58 15.17 13.22 12.72 13.43

1.48 1.85 2.96 3.49 3.90

-

0.68 0.57 0.61 0.62 0.46

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

133.41 165.65 160.46 173.39 179.21

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

159.05 163.68 175.68 168.88 154.66

13.73 20.61 18.90 18.75 17.60

3.88 4.71 5.46 4.99 6.90

-

0.39 0.31 0.27 0.23 0.44

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.02 4.37 3.50 4.97 4.36

178.06 193.68 203.80 197.82 183.96

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

145.62 164.02 172.32 145.87 175.39

18.54 19.85 21.04 20.67 22.16

7.46 7.81 7.85 8.13 9.25

0.32 2.39 -

0.14 0.72 1.18 2.14 2.03

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.78 5.83 9.46 9.06 9.73

173.55 198.22 212.18 188.26 218.57

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

184.64 191.49 174.98 118.79 103.34

25.01 25.18 25.26 24.18 24.10

8.51 8.59 5.43 6.30 7.67

3.13 9.77 8.31 7.88

1.96 1.65 1.61 1.06 0.33

-

-

-

-

-

-

10.09 11.96 13.00 15.76 12.45

230.20 241.99 230.04 174.40 155.77

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

91.31 87.14 51.93 48.85 52.81 44.68

24.83 24.25 21.41 18.61 15.73 15.56

8.75 6.94 5.32 5.14 6.44 4.48

6.26 5.39 5.02 5.01 5.71 5.15

0.25 0.01 0.03 0.34 0.27 0.80

0.98 4.87 4.72 7.62 5.97

2.16 6.73

14.00 69.58 70.36 68.82 70.42

-

-

0.74 18.24

12.92 9.69 6.03 2.91 1.31 0.65

144.32 148.40 164.19 155.92 161.61 172.67

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-15.4%

-10.5%

-10.4%

-1.2%

221.0%

57.3%

n.a.

49.8%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-49.0%

3.9%

Δ2009/2010

-15.4%

-1.1%

-30.4%

-9.9%

192.4%

-21.6%

211.2%

2.3%

n.a.

n.a.

-50.1%

6.8%

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

All gas from the Moturoa field was used for own purposes. All gas from the Ngatoro field was flared from March 1992 to May 1998. The Ngatoro field includes the Goldie well.

3

4

All gas from the Tui field was flared or used for own purposes.

5

All gas from the Maari field was flared or used for own purposes.

2,379.3%

200

150

100

50

0

KapuniR

McKee

Mangahewa

Kupe

Kaimiro/Ngatoro

Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Other

Maui

Notes to Figure E.3: R = Revised figures.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, Cheal and Turangi fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

6

R

= Revised figures.

80 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

11.41 33.98 58.24 55.82 35.64

2009

-

2007

-

2008

-

2005

-

2006

-

2003

-

2004

-

2001

-

2002

-

1999

-

2000

11.41 33.98 58.24 55.82 25.61

1997

10.03

250

1998

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

300

1995

4.09 7.80 10.73 12.65 10.74

1996

-

1993

-

1994

-

1991

-

1992

-

1990

-

1989

-

1987

-

1988

-

1985

-

1986

4.09 7.80 10.73 12.65 10.74

1983

-

1984

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

1981

Total

1982

Other6

1979

Kupe

1980

Maari5

1977

Tui4

1978

Pohokura

1976

Kowhai

1975

Turangi

1973

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2, 3

1974

Mangahewa

1971

McKee

Notes to Table E.3c: 1 In Gross Calorific Value terms. 2

PJ

KapuniR

1972

Maui

1970

Calendar Year

81 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Gas Production

Figure E.4: Natural Gas Production

Table E.4: Natural Gas Production (Gross PJ) PJ 300 Gas Supply

1974

14.06

-

0.11

1.03

12.92

2.19

10.74

1.62

12.35

250

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

15.36 40.22 64.35 59.49 47.14

-

0.15 0.39 0.55 0.68 1.17

1.19 2.29 2.13 0.89 7.76

14.03 37.54 61.67 57.92 38.20

2.61 3.56 3.43 2.09 2.56

11.41 33.98 58.24 55.82 35.64

1.97 1.97 1.77 1.70

13.38 33.98 60.21 57.59 37.35

200

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

42.52 56.62 96.78 106.16 133.07

5.41 11.08 16.14 18.85 20.01

0.85 1.30 1.54 1.74 2.59

0.78 0.60 0.47 0.30 1.27

35.47 43.63 78.62 85.27 109.20

3.60 3.30 4.09 4.30 4.14

31.87 40.33 74.53 80.97 105.06

1.46 1.46 1.31 1.11 0.95

33.32 41.79 75.84 82.08 106.01

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

168.07 194.33 188.60 209.15 218.32

23.27 19.70 19.63 25.53 29.68

4.66 5.44 5.44 5.78 5.74

0.76 1.26 1.00 1.50 1.88

139.38 167.93 162.53 176.35 181.02

5.97 2.28 2.07 2.96 1.81

133.41 165.65 160.46 173.39 179.21

0.70 0.39 0.15 0.11 0.10

134.11 166.04 160.61 173.50 179.31

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

216.24 227.44 242.54 236.41 227.14

27.90 22.12 25.15 24.79 28.66

6.01 7.08 7.69 7.98 8.14

2.21 2.45 1.88 1.58 1.85

180.12 195.80 207.82 202.07 188.49

2.06 2.12 4.01 4.25 4.53

178.06 193.68 203.80 197.82 183.96

0.07 -

178.13 193.68 203.80 197.82 183.96

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

206.28 242.45 251.93 227.22 253.46

19.41 27.67 20.48 21.12 17.74

7.61 8.94 9.78 9.54 10.02

1.24 2.48 3.97 3.09 1.94

178.02 203.36 217.71 193.47 223.76

4.47 5.15 5.53 5.20 5.20

173.55 198.22 212.18 188.26 218.57

-

173.55 198.22 212.18 188.26 218.57

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

254.17 265.22 248.79 189.64 171.30

6.85 3.59 0.50 0.01 -

10.47 11.53 11.40 9.10 9.13

1.64 2.59 1.61 1.08 0.90

235.21 247.50 235.29 179.45 161.26

5.01 5.51 5.25 5.05 5.50

230.20 241.99 230.04 174.40 155.77

-

230.20 241.99 230.04 174.40 155.77

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

160.21 164.31 180.88 173.78 182.52 198.18

0.50 1.59 1.83 2.65 4.98 4.01

8.76 7.83 5.51 4.21 3.62 7.35

0.78 0.86 3.97 6.93 6.68 7.47

150.17 154.03 169.57 159.99 167.24 179.34

5.85 5.62 5.38 4.07 5.63 6.67

144.32 148.40 164.19 155.92 161.61 172.67

-

144.32 148.40 164.19 155.92 161.61 172.67

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

41.07 45.46 47.39 48.61

0.97 1.24 1.22 1.55

0.72 0.85 0.97 1.08

1.08 1.04 2.04 2.52

38.30 42.32 43.16 43.46

1.09 1.27 1.64 1.63

37.22 41.05 41.51 41.83

-

37.22 41.05 41.51 41.83

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

46.47 49.82 53.76 48.13

1.23 1.13 0.90 0.76

1.36 1.93 2.33 1.73

1.80 1.50 1.97 2.20

42.08 45.26 48.56 43.44

1.50 1.71 1.70 1.76

40.57 43.55 46.87 41.68

-

40.57 43.55 46.87 41.68

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

4.8%

26.0%

-1.6%

71.8%

3.9%

4.4%

3.9%

n.a.

3.9%

Δ2009/2010

8.6%

-19.4%

103.2%

11.8%

7.2%

18.4%

6.8%

n.a.

6.8%

Notes to Table E.4: 1 Does not include any gas vented. Any gas vented is assumed to be very small.

R

150

100

50

Net Natural Gas Production

Production Losses & Own Use

Flared

LPG Gas Equivalent Extracted

Gas Reinjected

2010

2009

2008

2007

2005

2006

2003

2004

2001

2002

2000

1999

1997

1998

1995

1996

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

1988

1986

1985

1983

1974

0 1984

Net Natural Gas Manufactured Production + Gas Production =

1981

=

1982

1980

=

Production Losses and Own Use

1979

Gas Flared

Indigenous Production2

1978

1

1977

LPG Gas Equivalent Extracted

1975

Total Natural Gas Production – Gas Reinjected –

1976

Calendar Year or Quarter

Manufactured Gas

= Revised figures.

n.a. = Not applicable.

2 Indigenous production is based on International Energy Agency’s (IEA) definition. This excludes gas flared, reinjected, any LPG extracted, but includes production losses and own use.

82 Energy Data File | 2011

83 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Gas Use

Table E.5b: Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

Table E.5a: Natural Gas Supply and Consumption (Gross PJ) Energy Transformation Consumer EnergyR Calendar Year or Quarter

Indigenous Production

+

Manufactured Gas Production –

Stock Change

Energy – Transformation

– Non-energy UseR =

Calculated

Observed1

Statistical Difference

1974

12.92

1.62

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

14.03 37.54 61.67 57.92 38.20

1.97 1.97 1.77 1.70

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

35.47 43.63 78.62 85.27 109.20

1.46 1.46 1.31 1.11 0.95

0.12 -0.00 0.02 0.03 0.02

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

139.38 167.93 162.53 176.35 181.02

0.70 0.39 0.15 0.11 0.10

-0.01 0.03 0.05 0.03 -0.02

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

180.12 195.80 207.82 202.07 188.49

0.07 -

-0.02 0.00 0.00 -0.02 -0.01

94.78 101.57 115.05 107.13 87.24

13.98 20.57 18.00 20.03 25.00

71.45 73.67 74.76 74.93 76.25

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

-1.59 -1.74 -1.30 -0.92 0.10

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

178.02 203.36 217.71 193.47 223.76

-

-0.01 0.04 -0.02 0.03 0.02

69.02 80.82 99.19 78.78 95.24

36.89 48.16 49.26 46.90 54.54

72.13 74.34 69.28 67.76 73.95

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

1.81 1.60 2.80 0.43 -2.27

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

235.21 247.50 235.29 179.45 161.26

-

-0.05 -0.00 -0.00 0.01 0.02

94.07 115.46 98.19 90.55 67.12

62.16 55.78 58.20 26.33 32.32

79.03 76.27 78.90 62.57 61.81

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

0.18 0.75 1.71 -1.38 1.26

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

150.17 154.03 169.57 159.99 167.24 179.34

-

-0.01 -0.00 0.03 0.03 4.09 5.87

86.82 87.75 104.09 89.02 77.67 88.56

13.02 15.10 15.45 18.23 25.36 25.47

50.34 51.18 50.01 52.71 60.12 59.44

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24 53.95

0.13 -3.78 -2.56 -4.62 -4.88 -5.49

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

38.30 42.32 43.16 43.46

-

1.21 0.40 0.02 2.47

18.21 19.80 20.70 18.96

5.99 6.32 6.30 6.75

12.89 15.81 16.14 15.28

12.52 14.42 14.37 13.94

0.37 1.40 1.77 1.34

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

42.08 45.26 48.56 43.44

-

2.39 0.33 1.00 2.16

19.86 23.71 25.09 19.89

6.41 6.56 6.05 6.45

13.42 14.67 16.43 14.93

11.70 13.11 15.20 13.94

1.72 1.56 1.23 0.99

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

3.9%

n.a.

n.a.

0.2%

14.0%

3.8%

3.3%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

7.2%

n.a.

43.6%

14.0%

0.4%

-1.1%

-2.3%

n.a.

Electricity Generation

CogenerationR

Petrol Production

Production Losses and Own Use

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

56.98 69.48 74.85 69.10 54.70

0.71 0.80 0.84 0.89 2.25

34.90 29.04 35.22 32.77 25.59

2.06 2.12 4.01 4.25 4.53

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

44.62 58.04 76.33 53.73 69.80

4.19 8.01 16.29 19.43 19.86

15.49 9.38 0.76 -

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

70.83 85.72 70.04 60.32 39.77

17.47 23.62 22.20 24.38 21.12

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

56.62 60.10 75.35 60.77 53.97 62.58

Calendar Year or Quarter

Consumer Energy Observed1, R

Total

Nonenergy Use2, R

Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fishing

Commercial

Residential

0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17

94.78 101.57 115.05 107.13 87.24

13.98 20.57 18.00 20.03 25.00

2.00 2.01 1.96 1.96 1.96

4.39 4.34 4.45 4.66 4.97

3.49 3.77 4.28 4.33 4.53

4.47 5.15 5.53 5.20 5.20

0.25 0.25 0.28 0.41 0.39

69.02 80.82 99.19 78.78 95.24

36.89 48.16 49.26 46.90 54.54

2.04 2.01 2.12 2.03 1.97

5.20 5.36 5.54 5.74 6.06

-

5.01 5.51 5.25 5.05 5.50

0.76 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.73

94.07 115.46 98.19 90.55 67.12

62.16 55.78 58.20 26.33 32.32

2.10 2.12 2.04 2.06 1.96

23.59 21.30 22.58 23.41 17.26 18.61

-

5.85 5.62 5.38 4.07 5.63 6.67

0.76 0.72 0.78 0.78 0.80 0.69

86.82 87.75 104.09 89.02 77.67 88.56

13.02 15.10 15.45 18.23 25.36 25.47

Transmission Losses

Transport (CNG)3

Total

Total

57.33 59.15 60.30 60.78 63.05

2.65 2.66 2.46 2.27 1.83

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

178.62 194.07 206.51 201.17 188.60

4.45 4.67 4.96 5.13 5.55

60.82 62.84 58.71 54.79 57.91

1.42 1.06 0.76 0.51 0.19

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

179.84 204.92 220.53 193.87 221.47

6.32 6.60 6.79 7.14 7.86

7.26 7.29 6.87 6.96 7.29

63.53 60.99 64.88 45.01 45.93

0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

235.44 248.26 237.00 178.07 162.50

2.06 1.88 1.81 1.63 1.94 1.47

7.74 7.40 6.57 6.26 7.30 6.87

6.57 6.64 5.65 5.47 6.38 5.99

34.09 31.47 33.39 34.69 39.59 39.59

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24 53.95

150.31 150.25 166.98 155.34 158.27 167.98

Industrial

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

12.64 14.22 14.83 12.29

4.36 4.09 3.98 4.83

-

1.09 1.27 1.64 1.63

0.13 0.21 0.25 0.21

18.21 19.80 20.70 18.96

5.99 6.32 6.30 6.75

0.38 0.58 0.55 0.43

1.47 1.97 2.09 1.77

0.71 2.02 2.35 1.30

9.95 9.84 9.36 10.44

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

12.52 14.42 14.37 13.94

36.72 40.53 41.37 39.65

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

13.09 17.51 18.48 13.50

5.14 4.29 4.68 4.49

-

1.50 1.71 1.70 1.76

0.12 0.19 0.24 0.15

19.86 23.71 25.09 19.89

6.41 6.56 6.05 6.45

0.27 0.44 0.44 0.33

1.40 1.87 2.11 1.49

0.88 1.54 2.42 1.16

9.14 9.25 10.23 10.97

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00

11.70 13.11 15.20 13.94

37.97 43.38 46.34 40.29

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.0%

-3.3%

n.a.

4.4%

-1.0%

0.2%

14.0%

-5.9%

-1.8%

-2.5%

5.9%

12.0%

3.3%

2.8%

Δ2009/2010

16.0%

7.8%

n.a.

18.4%

-13.4%

14.0%

0.4%

-24.3%

-5.8%

-6.0%

0.0%

-22.1%

-2.3%

6.1%

Notes to Table E.5b: 1 Data is based on estimates up until 2004. 2

Excludes gas for energy purposes used by non-energy users.

3

Estimated from 2000 to 2008.

n.a. = Not available. R

= Revised figures.

Notes to Table E.5a: 1 Data is based on estimates up until 2005. R

= Revised figures.

n.a. = Not applicable.

84 Energy Data File | 2011

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Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.5: Natural Gas Use by Sector

Table E.5c: Natural Gas Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)1

PJ

IndustrialR

300

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Food Processing

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

Chemicals

Basic Metals

Other2

Industrial Total

Commercial

Transport (CNG)

Residential

Total

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

2.00 2.01 1.96 1.96 1.96

8.22 8.45 8.51 8.87 9.24

6.06 6.01 5.79 6.14 6.42

35.26 36.48 38.04 38.06 39.34

4.21 4.78 4.48 4.00 4.16

3.58 3.43 3.49 3.71 3.89

57.33 59.15 60.30 60.78 63.05

4.39 4.34 4.45 4.66 4.97

2.65 2.66 2.46 2.27 1.83

3.49 3.77 4.28 4.33 4.53

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2.04 2.01 2.12 2.03 1.97

9.68 9.93 10.54 10.30 9.98

6.59 6.54 6.55 6.30 6.42

36.70 37.80 33.39 30.63 33.71

3.80 4.41 4.12 3.60 3.73

4.05 4.16 4.11 3.95 4.07

60.82 62.84 58.71 54.79 57.91

5.20 5.36 5.54 5.74 6.06

1.42 1.06 0.76 0.51 0.19

4.45 4.67 4.96 5.13 5.55

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2.10 2.12 2.04 2.06 1.96

10.62 11.13 11.33 10.83 11.18

6.69 6.62 6.57 5.85 6.92

38.75 35.27 39.22 20.80 19.85

3.35 3.93 3.56 3.35 3.68

4.11 4.04 4.20 4.19 4.30

63.53 60.99 64.88 45.01 45.93

6.32 6.60 6.79 7.14 7.86

0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

7.26 7.29 6.87 6.96 7.29

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2.06 1.88 1.81 1.63 1.94 1.47

10.85 7.99 10.08 8.74 9.65 9.62

6.41 5.67 5.30 4.76 5.00 4.85

9.75 10.79 11.06 13.99 18.64 18.85

3.28 3.14 3.00 2.98 2.94 3.00

3.80 3.88 3.95 4.22 3.35 3.26

34.09 31.47 33.39 34.69 39.59 39.59

7.74 7.40 6.57 6.26 7.30 6.87

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03

6.57 6.64 5.65 5.47 6.38 5.99

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24 53.95

Calendar Year or Quarter

250

200

150

100

50

Commercial

Residential

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Transport (CNG)

Electricity and Cogeneration

Total Losses and Own Use

Non-energy Use

Petrol Production

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

Industrial

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.38 0.58 0.55 0.43

2.78 2.26 1.73 2.88

1.12 1.28 1.34 1.27

4.53 4.66 4.71 4.74

0.71 0.76 0.78 0.69

0.81 0.88 0.82 0.85

9.95 9.84 9.36 10.44

1.47 1.97 2.09 1.77

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

0.71 2.02 2.35 1.30

12.52 14.42 14.37 13.94

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.27 0.44 0.44 0.33

2.44 1.94 2.15 3.09

1.03 1.33 1.44 1.05

4.23 4.39 4.97 5.26

0.70 0.78 0.79 0.73

0.75 0.80 0.88 0.83

9.14 9.25 10.23 10.97

1.40 1.87 2.11 1.49

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00

0.88 1.54 2.42 1.16

11.70 13.11 15.20 13.94

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-5.9%

4.8%

-3.9%

15.0%

-1.1%

-4.3%

5.9%

-1.8%

12.0%

-2.5%

3.3%

Δ2009/2010

-24.3%

-0.3%

-3.2%

1.1%

2.3%

-2.8%

0.0%

-5.8%

-22.1%

-6.0%

-2.3%

Notes to Table E.5c: 1 Excludes amount of gas for energy purposes used by non-energy users. 2 Includes non-metallic mineral products, cement and lime, machinery and equipment, gas and water supply, and construction. R

= Revised figures.

86 Energy Data File | 2011

87 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.6: Industrial Natural Gas Consumption

Table E.5d: Natural Gas Market Snapshot for 2010

PJ

ANZSIC 2006

70

Agriculture, Forestry

1,470.8

Agriculture and Agricultural Services

A01, A02, A04 & A05

Forestry and Logging

60

A03

Industrial Oil and Gas Extraction Dairy Products

40

Meat and Meat Products, Other Food Processing; Beverages, Malt and Tobacco Products

30

20

10

Chemicals

Basic Metals

Other

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1995

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

B06, B07, B09 & B10

6.1

B07

0.0

C113

4,121.0

C111, C112, C114 - C119, C12

5,503.4

C13

381.0

Log Sawmilling and Timber Dressing, and Other Wood Products

C14

1,454.2

Paper and Paper Products

C15

3,285.6

Printing, Publishing and Recorded Media

C16

105.6

Petroleum Refining

C1701

1,762.9

Petroleum and Coal Products

C1709

63.6

Fertiliser

C1831

3,464.1

Organic Industrial Chemicals

Food Processing

12.6

Textile, Clothing, Footwear and Leather

Industrial Gases and Synthetic Resin

0

1,458.1 39,588.2

Coal Mining, Other Mining and Quarrying, and Services to Mining

50

Sales TJ

Inorganic Industrial Chemicals, Other Chemical Products, Rubber and Plastic Products Non-metallic Mineral Products (except Cement and Lime) Cement and Lime Iron and Steel

C181 - C182 except C1812

68.1

C1812

12,353.1

C183 - C19 except C1831

1,141.2

C20 except C2031

651.9

C2031

175.5

C211

2,498.2

Basic Non-ferrous Metals

C213

60.3

Basic Non-ferrous Metal Products

C214

141.5

Metal Products (other)

C212, C22

304.6

Machinery and Equipment manufacturing as well as all other manufacturing not yet specified

C23 - C25

1,386.9

Gas Supply (including LPG) Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Services Construction

D27

420.7

D28, D29

204.8

E

Commercial

33.8 6,871.9

Wholesale and Retail Trade, Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants

F, G, H

2,410.4

Road Freight Industry

I461

9.8

Road Passenger Industry

I462

28.8

Rail Transport Industry

I47

13.8

Water Transport Industry

I48

4.6

Air Transport Industry

I490

-

I50, I52

89.7

Other Transport Industry, and Services to Transport Storage Communication Services, Finance, Insurance, Property and Business Services Government (including Foreign), administration and Defence Education, Cultural, Recreational, Personal and Other Services Health and Community Services

I53

99.3

I51, J, K - N

393.6

O

281.1

P, R - S

2,244.4

Q

1,296.2

Transport (CNG)

n.a.

29.6

Residential

n.a.

5,992.2

Total Sales

53,952.7

Notes to Table E.5d: n.a. = Not available.

88 Energy Data File | 2011

89 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Gas Consumption by Region

New Zealand Gas Transmission Pipelines

Figure E.7: Gas Consumption by Region for 2010 (Gross TJ)1

Figure E.8: New Zealand Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines

,BVSJ 

8IBOHBSFJ 

.BVOHBUBQFSF

.BSTEFO 1PJOU 



TJ

Northland

.BVOHBUVSPUP 

8FMMTGPSE

124.0 2,623.5 2,747.5 1.7%

1*1&-*/& 4$)&."5*$

8BSLXPSUI 

8BJUPLJ 





Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

FOR0IPELINES ,ATERALSAND#OMPRESSORS

8BJNBVLV 

./24( )3,!.$

#SVDF .D-BSFO 

8FTUGJFME 

 

8JSJ  0UBIVIV #  



1BQBLVSB 

)FOEFSTPO 7BMMFZ $4

(MFOCSPPL 



)VOUMZ 

3PUPXBSP $4

3,012.9 1,123.2 4,136.2 2.6%

/HBSVBXBIJB 

.PSSJOTWJMMF



5F ,PXIBJ 

5JSBV 

1JSPOHJB 

1PLVSV $4 

TJ

5F ,VJUJ /UI 

1,565.3 61,531.8 63,097.2 39.6%

.BIPFOVJ $4







,JOMFJUI 

.PLBV $4



/FX 1MZNPVUI

1VOHBSFIV 

TJ





,BQPOHB 

0BPOVJ 1SPEVDUJPO 4UBUJPO 

,BQVOJ 

0LBJBXB 

(JTCPSOF 

*OHMFXPPE 

%FSCZ 3E $4

4USBUGPSE 14 

5$$ 

&MUIBN 

,BQVOJ 1SPEVDUJPO 4UBUJPO  

)BXFSB







3,253.4 19.0 3,272.4 2.1%

1,608.8 119.5 1,728.3 1.1%

,BXFSBV $4

3FQPSPB 

5BVQP 



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

0QPUJLJ 







TJ

8IBLBUBOF 



/1 1PXFS 4UBUJPO 0BLVSB

Hawke’s Bay

,BXFSBV

-JDIGJFME 

5F ,VJUJ 4UI 

397.2 397.2 0.2%

&EHFDVNCF 

3PUPSVB 



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

Manawatu Wanganui

3BOHJVSV 



TJ

.PVOU .BVOHBOVJ 

5F 1VLF 

3,951.7 43,560.1 47,511.8 29.8%



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National



5BVSBOHB 

5F "XBNVUV /PSUI 

Gisborne

Taranaki

$BNCSJEHF  



TJ

Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

8BJUPB

.BUBOHJ 

5F 3BQB  

Waikato





,JXJUBIJ 



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

TJ



Bay of Plenty

12,221.1 20,275.9 32,497.0 20.4%



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National



TJ

Auckland

"MGSJTUPO 

)VOVB 

3BNBSBNB 

8BWFSMFZ 







)BTUJOHT 

,BJUPLF 





,BJUPLF $4





-BLF "MJDF 

Wellington

'FJMEJOH  "TIIVSTU 

,&:  %BOOFWJSLF 



3,953.7 10.2 3,963.9 2.5%

.BOHBUBJOPLB 

1BMNFSTUPO /PSUI -POHCVSO  1BIJBUVB 



-FWJO 

'PYUPO 

5F )PSP 

,VLV 









Reticulated 30,088.2 Direct 129,263.4 Total 159,351.5 Share of National 100.0%

 

TJ

.BSUPO 

,BLBSJLJ 

8BJUBOHJSVB 

1BFLBLBSJLJ 

 

Totals

Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

TJ

#FMNPOU 

5BXB # 5BXB "   

Notes to Figure E.7: Numbers do not include losses and own 1

1JQFMJOF 4ZTUFNT

/PSUIMBOE /1 0GGUBLF  3PUPXBSP .PSSJOTWJMMF 5F "XBNVUV ,BXFSBV  (JTCPSOF #BZ PG 1MFOUZ 4PVUI 1JQFMJOFT ,BQVOJ  'SBOLMFZ 3PBE )BXLFµT #BZ "VDLMBOE ,(51  /1 0GGUBLF .JOPS -BUFSBMT /;3$ .BVJ

$ $01:3*()5 7FDUPS -JNJUFE

use, flaring, LPG extracted, gas reinjected, and stock changes.

90 Energy Data File | 2011

91 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


F. Renewables

F. Renewables

Figure F.1: Renewable Energy Flow Summary for 2010

Overview of Renewables in New Zealand Introduction

Production

Detailed information is available on Renewable energy sources discussed in this renewable energy used to generate electricity. However, information on the section include hydro, wind, geothermal, direct use of renewable energy is more solar, woody biomass, biogas and liquid biofuels. Information on renewable energy is difďŹ cult to come by given it is often used presented for calendar years by fuel type and without being purchased or sold. Where actual information on the direct use of sector along with a 2010 breakdown of fuel renewable energy is not available, estimates type by sector. have been made based on research and the knowledge of experts in this ďŹ eld.

Use

Fuel Type

Supply

143.1

New Zealand’s historically high level of renewable primary energy supply is largely due to plentiful hydro and geothermal resources. The last few years have seen increasing interest in other renewable sources such as solar and bioenergy.

Transformation Supply

Geothermal

123.1

9.6

Hydro

89.0

Transformation Losses

Direct Use Supply

Transformation Supply

&IGURE&2ENEWABLE0RIMARY%NERGYFOR

0.9

Transformation Losses

20.0

Net Electricity Output

9.6

Direct Use

Net Electricity Output

)ZESP #JPFOFSHZBOE4PMBS 8JOE

2010 saw a record high contribution of renewable sources to primary energy supply both as a share of total supply -– 38% – and as an absolute – 310 petajoules. This is largely the result of new geothermal and wind generation coming online and increased direct use of woody biomass. New Zealand ranks third behind Iceland (83%) and Norway (46%) in terms of the share of Total Primary Energy Supply from renewable sources according to the latest data available from the International Energy Agency.

88.1

(FPUIFSNBM

74% of electricity generation was from renewables in 2010. This was due to record high geothermal generation and good hydro in-ows. This is the highest renewable percentage of total electricity since 1998 and is third in the OECD.

&IGURE&0ERCENTAGEOF.EW:EALAND%LECTRICITY'ENERATIONFROM 2ENEWABLE3OURCES      

8.2

Bioenergy1 and Solar

Transformation Supply

Transformation 6.1 Losses

2.1



Net Electricity Output

2

 

54.7

Direct Use Supply

54.7



Direct Use



Wind

5.9

Transformation Supply

0.1

Transformation Losses

5.8

                                    



Net Electricity Output

#JPFOFSHZ

Petajoules (PJ) to approximate vertical scale

Notes to Figure F.1: 1 Bioenergy in this instance refers to biogas, woody biomass and liquid biofuel.

sector under Oil Production. This is included in Bioenergy and Solar but is too small to distinguish on this ďŹ gure.

In addition to Net Electricity Output, a very small amount of liquid biofuel is produced in New Zealand and sent to the Transformation

Direct use of renewable energy covers mainly heat and biofuel for commercial and industrial applications.

2

(FPUIFSNBM

)ZESP

For default electrical transformation factors, see Table B.1. Numbers may not add due to rounding.

92 Energy Data File | 2011

8JOE

93 Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


F. Renewables

F. Renewables

Table F.2: Renewable Energy Supply and Use by Fuel (Gross PJ) Direct Use of Renewable Energy

Woody biomass direct use is mainly in the timber industry, which burns residue wood to provide heat energy. Wood is also burned to heat many private homes in New Zealand.

In 2010, an estimated 64 PJ of renewable energy was used for direct-use heat applications around New Zealand. This is mostly in the form of woody biomass and geothermal for heating and commercial industrial applications.

Hydro

Liquid Biofuels Production

Geothermal energy is used directly as a heat source in small quantities in the central North Island in the timber and tourism industries. It is also used in small quantities for domestic heating.

An estimated 7 million litres of liquid biofuel was produced in 2010, a 46% increase from 2009. As per International Energy Agency definitions, final consumption of liquid biofuel is included under oil, rather than renewables.

Table F.1: Renewable Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

DEMAND

SUPPLY

Gross PJ

2008

Δ1990/2010 p.a.

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

310.25

2.6%

6.4%

13.4%

310.25

2.7%

6.4%

13.4%

(246.12)

2.8%

9.5%

14.7%

(238.64) (7.29) (0.18)

3.0% -0.4%

9.7% 3.3%

15.0% 2.8% 46.3%

58.85

64.14

2.5%

-2.5%

9.0%

0.73 47.06 2.80 8.26

0.73 52.60 2.62 8.19

4.6% 3.1% 1.7% -0.1%

7.1% -2.8% -2.2% -0.7%

-0.8% 11.8% -6.2% -0.8%

1990

2000

2006

2007

2009

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

185.32

229.36

241.86

244.71

252.55

273.50

Indigenous Production

185.32

229.36

241.86

244.71

252.55

273.50

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

(145.03)

(169.81)

(171.02)

(176.71)

(189.00)

(214.64)

Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production1

(137.12) (7.92) -

(161.82) (7.99) -

(164.61) (6.41) -

(170.18) (6.48) (0.05)

(182.32) (6.59) (0.09)

(207.42) (7.10) (0.12)

CONSUMER ENERGY

40.28

59.54

70.84

68.00

63.55

Agriculture Industrial Commercial Residential

0.31 29.70 1.89 8.38

0.35 48.92 1.92 8.34

0.55 59.01 2.87 8.41

0.56 56.15 2.90 8.40

0.73 51.68 2.80 8.34

2010

Δ2009/2010

Geothermal

Supply

Use

Supply

Use

Calendar Year

Production

Electricity

Production

Electricity

Cogeneration

Direct Use

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

83.46 82.41 75.93 84.57 93.00

83.46 82.41 75.93 84.57 93.00

61.81 64.87 64.23 67.57 63.26

53.34 56.45 55.84 58.95 54.38

1.37 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.37

7.10 7.04 7.01 7.24 7.51

-

-

-

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

99.12 94.25 83.72 91.14 82.50

99.12 94.25 83.72 91.14 82.50

62.36 63.46 65.95 70.13 74.45

53.50 54.56 57.05 60.94 65.16

1.37 1.40 1.36 1.39 1.33

7.48 7.50 7.54 7.80 7.96

-

-

-

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

87.96 78.04 89.53 85.03 96.94

87.96 78.04 89.53 85.03 96.94

81.64 75.93 74.08 73.64 75.29

72.51 66.46 63.96 63.50 64.80

1.00 1.30 1.25 1.13 1.21

8.12 8.17 8.88 9.01 9.29

0.16 0.19 0.21

-

0.16 0.19 0.21

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

83.97 84.86 85.10 80.41 87.19 88.97

83.97 84.86 85.10 80.41 87.19 88.97

82.99 86.35 90.64 107.16 124.15 152.93

72.10 75.65 79.84 96.29 113.02 141.78

1.49 1.33 1.25 1.25 1.29 1.31

9.40 9.38 9.56 9.62 9.84 9.59

0.24 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36

-

0.24 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36

Wind

Calendar Year

Notes to Table F.1: 1 Almost all liquid biofuel production in New Zealand is blended with fossil fuel oil products and so, by IEA definition, it is consumed by the oil products sector and is included in oil product statistics. The Energy Data File makes the assumption that all biofuel sold in New Zealand is blended. This means there will be no biofuel Total Consumer Energy demand, and all biofuel will go to “Oil Production” in the Transformation sector.

Solar

Production

Biogas

Supply

Use

Supply

Production

Electricity

Production

Cogeneration

Direct Use

Woody Biomass Use

Electricity

Use

Supply

Use

Cogeneration

Direct Use

Production

Cogeneration

Direct Use2

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00

1.73 2.00 2.06 2.06 2.14

0.32 0.58 0.64 0.64 0.64

1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.45

0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

38.32 39.02 39.00 41.15 43.21

5.18 5.18 5.18 5.18 5.18

33.14 33.84 33.81 35.97 38.03

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

0.00 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14

0.00 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14

2.27 1.94 1.86 1.82 1.63

0.74 0.86 1.01 0.84 0.93

1.47 1.01 0.78 0.91 0.56

0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.14

44.44 42.84 44.94 47.64 52.95

5.18 4.78 4.80 6.24 5.79

39.25 38.06 40.13 41.40 47.16

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

0.43 0.50 0.56 0.53 1.30

0.43 0.50 0.56 0.53 1.30

1.47 1.48 1.88 2.46 2.67

0.92 0.86 0.98 1.43 1.71

0.40 0.43 0.71 0.85 0.85

0.15 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.11

57.86 57.10 61.25 61.42 66.04

6.59 5.07 3.25 2.75 3.43

51.27 52.03 58.00 58.67 62.61

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2.21 2.24 3.35 3.81 5.32 5.88

2.21 2.24 3.35 3.81 5.32 5.88

2.70 3.06 3.03 2.91 3.05 3.18

1.66 1.87 1.90 1.82 1.89 2.00

0.83 0.93 0.85 0.81 0.88 0.90

0.22 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

65.70 65.09 62.24 57.85 53.32 59.10

3.83 4.15 4.38 4.53 4.93 5.09

61.87 60.94 57.86 53.32 48.40 54.01

Notes to Table F.2: Electricity and Cogeneration: For all fuels, information is predominantly estimated based on the gross electrical output of plants and standard efficiencies. Some actual information is included where it is reported to the Ministry of Economic Development on a monthly or annual basis. Based on the report (and associated data) An Updated Assessment of Geothermal Direct Heat Use in New Zealand 2008, prepared by Brian White, Executive Officer of the New Zealand Geothermal Association.

1

Industrial use estimated using information from the Heat Plant Database 2008, prepared by East Harbour Management Services on behalf of the Bioenergy Association of New Zealand (BANZ), in conjunction with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) and the Ministry of Economic Development. Residential use estimated based on Census data. 2

94 Energy Data File | 2011

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F. Renewables

G. Electricity

Table F.3: Estimated1 Production of Liquid Biofuel 2007–2010

Figure G.1a: Electricity Industry Summary for 2010

Bio-ethanol

Total Biofuel

GENERATION1

Calendar Year

ML

PJ

ML

PJ

ML

PJ

2007 2008 2009 2010

1.20 1.20 1.08 1.56

0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05

0.30 2.00 3.70 5.46

0.01 0.05 0.09 0.13

1.50 3.20 4.79 7.02

0.05 0.09 0.12 0.18

GCV (PJ/ML)

0.0350

Mighty River Power 13% Genesis Power 18% Meridian Energy 32%

Contact Energy 24% TrustPower 5%

Other Independents and On-site Generators 9%

0.0234

WHOLESALING Clearing Manager Notes to Table F.3: 1 2009 figures are based on information collected under the Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring Levy. Information for 2007 and 2008 is estimated by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority.

GCV = Gross Calorific Value. ML = Million Litres. PJ = Petajoules.

TRANSMISSION

PJ/ML = Petajoules per Million Litres.

Transpower

Table F.4: Renewable Energy Direct Use by Sector for 2010 (Gross PJ) PJ Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial Residential

Geothermal1

Solar

Biogas

Woody biomass2

Total Direct Use

0.73 6.22 2.34 0.31

0.36

0.28 -

46.49 7.52

0.73 52.71 2.62 8.19

DISTRIBUTION Local Distribution Network

Governed by Electricity Industry Participation Code 2010 and the Electricity Industry Regulations 2010.

Biodiesel

RETAILING Electricity Retailers2

Notes to Table F.4: 1 Based on the report (and associated data) An Updated Assessment of Geothermal Direct Heat Use in New Zealand, prepared by Brian White, Executive Officer of the New Zealand Geothermal Association.

2 Industrial use estimated using information from the Heat Plant Database 2008, prepared by East Harbour Management Services on behalf of the Bioenergy Association of New Zealand (BANZ), in conjunction with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) and the Ministry of Economic Development. Residential use estimated based on Census data.

CONSUMPTION Direct Supply Consumers New Zealand Steel, CHH Pulp and Paper, Rio Tinto Aluminium, Methanex NZ, Norske Skog Tasman, Southpark Corporation, KiwiRail (Ontrack), Pan Pac Forest Products, Whareroa Cogeneration, Winstone Pulp International

Primary electricity flows

Secondary electricity flows

General Consumption (All Sectors)3

Primary financial transaction flows

Money flow for physical electricity and transmission/distribution (excludes ancillary services)

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable

“Primary” refers to the most common or typical way that electricity or money flows through the Electricity Industry. “Secondary” refers to flows of money or electricity that do occur, but are not typical of most participants in the industry. As an example, all customers in the “The Lines Company” distribution network area pay distribution charges directly to the local distribution network as shown by the orange dotted line between the “General Consumption” box and “Local Distribution Network” box. This is not typical nationwide as most consumers pay their lines charges through their retailer as shown by the dense orange line between “General Consumption” and “Electricity Retailers” which partly continues onto the “Local Distribution Network”.

Notes to Figure G.1a: Embedded (distributed) generators can choose to sell their electricity directly to retailers trading on the same grid exit point. 1

Electricity retailers include Contact Energy (and subsidiary Empower), Genesis Energy (and subsidiary Energy Online), Meridian Energy (and subsidiary Powershop), Mighty River Power (through its brands and subsidiaries Mercury Energy, Bosco Connect and Tiny Mighty Power), TrustPower, Pulse Energy, Opunake Hydro, and Todd Energy-owned Bay of Plenty Energy and Auckland Gas, which trade together as Nova Energy in most markets in which they retail. 2

3

Sectors are defined in Table G.6a.

96 Energy Data File | 2011

97 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Overview of New Zealand’s Electricity Industry This section contains mostly annual (calendar year) information about electricity generation/supply, transmission and distribution, and consumption. For this edition all annual ďŹ gures are calendar year unless it is clearly stated as March year in the title for the table or ďŹ gure. The share of electricity generation from renewables in 2010 continued to grow after an already high 2009 ďŹ gure. Due to strong hydro inows and new geothermal and wind generation coming online, 74% of New Zealand’s electricity generation was from renewable sources, the highest since 1998. Notably, the high share of electricity from renewables in 2009 was during a year of lower than average demand due to the partial shutdown of the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point. By contrast, the 2010 ďŹ gure is from a more typical demand year.

Evolution of the Electricity Industry In the mid-1980s, electricity generation and transmission were the responsibility of the Ministry of Energy. In 1987, as part of a wider government review of operational departments within government, the electricity generation and transmission functions of the Ministry of Energy were transferred into a new State-Owned Enterprise (SOE), the Electricity Corporation of New Zealand (ECNZ). In 1988, ECNZ reorganised its operations into separate transmission and generation arms. In 1994, the transmission component was formally removed from ECNZ to become the independent SOE Transpower. Around the same time, the electricity distribution and retail sector was also undergoing major changes. In the early 1990s, government legislation required that all Electricity Supply Authorities (ESAs) be made into corporations, with most Power Board ESAs becoming owned by local community trusts and all Municipal Electricity Department ESAs becoming corporate assets of the local territorial authorities.

In 1996, competition was introduced into the electricity generation industry when Contact Energy was split from ECNZ. In 1999, further reforms led to the splitting of ECNZ into three competing SOEs, which became Meridian Energy, Genesis Power and Mighty River Power. The electricity distribution and retail businesses were also required to split into separately owned distribution and retail entities. Also around that time, Contact Energy was listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZX), with the government fully divesting its interest by May 1999. As of April 2011, there are 29 independent distribution companies with varying ownership regimes ranging from locally owned cooperatives, trusts or territorial authority assets to foreign-owned corporations. In contrast, there were 61 ESAs in 1985 (and 93 in 1945). Today, electricity is sold by generators and bought by retailers and large industrial users in a wholesale spot market. This process is governed by the Electricity Industry Participation Code, administered by the Electricity Authority. Transpower maintains responsibility for the high-voltage transmission lines and acts as System Operator, which means it is responsible for overall coordination of the system. Figure G.1a summarises the current structure of the electricity industry.

Government Policy and Regulation of New Zealand’s Electricity Industry New Zealand’s current electricity policy and Regulatory structure has three main bodies: The Ministry of Economic Development (MED), the Electricity Authority and the Commerce Commission. MED develops and implements electricity sector policy, particularly relating to the governance and market structure. MED also monitors market performance, including competition issues and electricity prices.

The Electricity Authority is the sector regulator created on 1 November 2010 to replace the Electricity Commission as a result of a broad electricity market performance review undertaken in 2009. The objective of the Authority is “to promote competition in, reliable supply by, and the efďŹ cient operation of, the electricity industry for the long-term beneďŹ t of consumers.â€? A number of functions previously performed by the Electricity Commission were transferred to other bodies. The Commerce Commission now undertakes approval of grid expenditure plans by Transpower as part of its overall revenue regulation and the Energy EfďŹ ciency and Conservation Authority (EECA) is now solely responsible for electricity end-use efďŹ ciency programmes. The Electricity Industry Participation Code provides for Transpower, as System Operator, to undertake emergency management and to provide information about security of supply. More details about the Ministerial Review of Electricity Market Performance 2009 can be found on the MED website at www.med.govt.nz/templates/ StandardSummary____41689.aspx

Generation In 2010, 43,401 GWh or 156 PJ of electricity was generated in New Zealand. This was generated by the ďŹ ve main generating companies plus a number of small, independent generators and on-site cogenerators. Figure G.1b shows a summary of electricity generation by fuel type for 2010, and Figure G.1c shows a time series of generation by fuel type. In 2010, the ďŹ ve major generating companies provided 91% of New Zealand’s electricity generation. These were Meridian Energy (32%), Contact Energy (24%), Genesis Energy (18%), Mighty River Power (13%) and TrustPower (5%).

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Renewable Generation Around 74% of New Zealand’s total electricity generation in 2010 was from renewable sources. This was the highest percentage of generation from renewable sources since 1998. New wind and geothermal generation coming online in 2009 along with good hydro in-ows have resulted in two years with high proportions of renewable generation after a record low in 2008 of 65% due to low hydro inows. Further information on the percentage of renewable generation over time can be found in the Renewables section (Section F). Hydro Hydroelectric generation has been a part of New Zealand’s energy system for over 100 years and continues to provide most of our electricity needs. Early schemes such as the Waipori scheme commissioned in 1903 and the Coleridge plant commissioned in 1914 established New Zealand’s use of renewable hydro energy. By the early 1950s, over 1,000 MW of installed capacity was from hydro energy. In 1965, the High Voltage Direct Current transmission line between Benmore in the South Island and Haywards in the North Island was commissioned. From this point

onwards, hydro capacity in the South Island increased rapidly, with developments including the 540 MW Benmore power station in 1966, the 700 MW1 Manapouri power station in 1971 and the 432 MW Clyde dam, which was commissioned in 1992. By the mid-1990s, hydro capacity had reached over 5,000 MW, and remains around this level today. Geothermal Geothermal generation has, for a long time, been an integral part of New Zealand’s electricity landscape, beginning over 50 years ago with the opening of the Wairakei power station in November 1958. Wairakei was New Zealand’s ďŹ rst geothermal power station and is the world’s oldest still in operation. It currently has an installed capacity of nearly 180 MW and remains New Zealand’s largest geothermal power station. By 2016, Wairakei is expected to have been replaced by the planned Te Mihi plant, which will have a capacity in excess of 220 MW, using the same steam ďŹ eld. 1

Manapouri has never operated at full capacity due to tailrace consent and safety limits. Although Manapouri’s 1971 maximum capacity was 700 MW, its dependable capacity was 585 MW. Between 2002 and 2008, its rated capacity was increased to around 850 MW; however, it can only operate at less than 730 MW.

98 Energy Data File | 2011

8JOE

The second large-scale geothermal power station to be built in New Zealand was Ohaaki, built in 1989. While it has an installed capacity of 104 MW, due to geothermal steam limitations it has never run at full capacity, highlighting the risks involved with geothermal exploration and development. More recent additions include Poihipi Road and Rotokawa, which opened in 1997, adding 55 MW and 35 MW respectively, and Ngawha, which was commissioned in 1998 with an initial capacity of 10 MW. In 2000, the Mokai geothermal plant was commissioned with a capacity of 55 MW, which was progressively increased to 112 MW by 2007. In 2008, a further 115 MW of new capacity was commissioned, including the 100 MW Kawerau geothermal plant and a 15 MW upgrade of the Ngawha plant to 25 MW. In 2010 an additional 162 MW of geothermal capacity came online with the commissioning of Nga Awa Purua, situated next to the existing Rotokawa plant, and Contact Energy opening the 24 MW Tauhara geothermal plant. In December 2010, New Zealand’s geothermal capacity was approximately 720 MW.

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Energy Data File | 2011

Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


G. Electricity

Wind From a low base, wind generation has grown quickly as a source of electricity generation in New Zealand, growing more than 27% annually since 2006 to account for almost 4% of total generation in 2010. New Zealand’s ďŹ rst large-scale wind turbine was opened in Wellington in 1993 with a capacity of 225 kW. In December 2008, New Zealand had a total capacity of over 320 MW, of which 151 MW came online during 2007. The ďŹ rst wind farm in New Zealand, Hau Nui, was commissioned in 1997. Today, it has a total capacity of 8.65 MW and is owned by Genesis Energy. The largest wind farm in New Zealand is now TrustPower’s Tararua wind farm. Stage 3 of the project was commissioned in 2007 with the addition of 31 wind turbines each rated at 3 MW, which has brought the combined capacity to 161 MW. In June 2007, Meridian Energy opened the ďŹ rst South Island wind farm with a total capacity of 58 MW, followed in 2009 by the West Wind project, near Wellington, with a capacity of 159 MW in 2010. By December 2010, Meridian Energy’s Te Uku wind farm near Raglan was under construction and supplying 25 MW of capacity, with 64 MW planned upon completion. The Te Uku wind farm makes Meridian the largest single producer of electricity from wind in New Zealand.

G. Electricity

Non-renewable Generation Electricity generation from the combustion of coal, oil and gas plays a crucial role in New Zealand’s electricity system by providing baseload, backup and peaker supply. Today, nearly 3,000 MW of installed capacity comes from fossil fuel thermal plants, providing 26% of New Zealand’s total electricity supply in 2010. There are four main types of thermal electricity generation plant operating in New Zealand: steam turbine plants, gas turbine plants, combined cycle gas turbine plants, and cogeneration or combined heat and power plants, including those that utilise waste chemical process heat to generate power. Steam Turbine Plants Steam turbine plants use boilers to heat water at high pressure, creating steam that is expanded through a steam turbine that, in turn, drives a generator. The ďŹ rst large-scale grid-connected thermal power station in New Zealand was the 210 MW coal-ďŹ red steam turbine Meremere plant, constructed between 1956 and 1958. Over the next 20 years, several other steam turbine plants were commissioned, including Marsden A, a 240 MW plant using residual oil from the nearby reďŹ nery designed to provide winter power to Auckland, then New Plymouth, a 600 MW oil and natural gas-ďŹ red plant. The oil-ďŹ red Marsden B plant, which was built in the late 1970s, was never run.

in the jet engine of an aeroplane, gas turbines start very fast and can go from standby to fully operational in a matter of minutes, whereas a steam turbine plant may take many hours to reach a fully operational output. This makes gas turbines ideal to meet peak load requirements. The ďŹ rst gas turbine plant to be built in New Zealand was Otahuhu A in the Auckland region. Finished in 1970 and expanded in 1978 with even faster starting turbines, it then had a total capacity of 274 MW. Also in 1976, the original Stratford plant opened with a total capacity of 220 MW. This was followed by the original 220 MW Whirinaki plant, which opened in 1978. Today, there are three large-scale primary electricity generating open cycle turbine plants in use for peak demand operation in New Zealand. This includes the replacement plant at Whirinaki, which is 155 MW and runs entirely on diesel, and the gas-ďŹ red 50 MW Unit 6 at the Huntly site, known as Huntly-P40. In 2010 Contact Energy ďŹ nished constructing a new gas turbine plant at Stratford next to the existing Taranaki Combined Cycle power station, which is the ďŹ rst in New Zealand to use stored natural gas and consists of two 100 MW units.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plants CCGT plants (where an open cycle gas turbine is combined with a steam cycle turbine) achieve better efďŹ ciencies than gas/steamturbine-only plants, although they generally take some time to reach peak output. The ďŹ rst Other Renewables The steam-turbine plant that dwarfs all other CCGT plant – the 360 MW Taranaki Combined generation plant in New Zealand is the 1,000 Cycle plant (now 370 MW) – was built in 1998 Other renewable sources for electricity MW Huntly power station. Huntly, which was at the old Stratford site. In 2000, the 380 MW generation include bioenergy, solar energy and marine energy. Of these, only bioenergy constructed between 1973 and 1983, is made Otahuhu B plant (now 404 MW) was opened, up of four units of 250 MW and is still has signiďŹ cant installed capacity in New and then in 2007, the Huntly site was further operational. It can run on either coal or Zealand. Bioenergy is predominantly from expanded with a new 385 MW unit known as natural gas. woody biomass consumed at a number of Huntly-e3p. cogeneration plants located at wood Gas Turbine Plants Cogeneration processing factories and also from biogas Gas turbines are a younger technology Not all large-scale electricity generators in created from digesting waste at wastewater than their steam turbine counterparts, only New Zealand were built simply with the treatment plants and landďŹ lls. reďŹ ned after World War II. Most gas turbines creation of electricity in mind. Cogeneration In March 2011, the Minister of Conservation are “open cycleâ€?, meaning that they take or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants approved the installation of 200 marine tidal in air and compress it, which is then mixed are in widespread use throughout New turbines in the Kaipara harbour. This is the with fuel and ignited. The hot, high-pressure Zealand. By making use of energy that ďŹ rst project of its kind in New Zealand and is gases are expanded through a turbine, would otherwise be wasted, cogeneration expected to have a capacity of approximately which in turn drives a generator. The primary improves overall thermal energy efďŹ ciency. 200 MW when completed. advantage of this technology is that, just like

Large-scale cogeneration plants currently in use include plants that provide heat and electricity to many industrial uses, with the largest users being the wood processing and dairy sectors. Additionally, the fertiliser industry makes use of chemical waste heat from product manufacture to generate electricity.

Transmission and Distribution

There are 29 lines companies in New Zealand with a variety of ownership forms from Transpower operates the national publicly listed companies to local transmission grid, which conveys electricity community-owned trusts. Lines companies fro