Page 1

11

2010 Calendar Year Edition

The New Zealand Energy Data File is an annual publication that provides comprehensive statistics and supporting information on New Zealand’s energy supply, demand and prices.

New Zealand Energy Data File


New Zealand Energy Data File 2011

Prepared by:

Important Acknowledgements

Energy Information and Modelling Group

The New Zealand Energy Data File focuses on commercial energy – energy forms that are usually produced and sold as a fuel. Other forms of energy, such as photovoltaic solar generation, are not included because there is insufficient reliable data.

Energy and Communications Branch Ministry of Economic Development PO Box 1473, Wellington 6140 New Zealand Email: energyinfo@med.govt.nz © Crown Copyright 2011 ISSN 1177-6676 Paperback ISSN 1177-6684 Online version

Use of this New Zealand Energy Data File publication in paper or electronic form implies acceptance of the conditions of its release, which are that if the information is made available to others: •

its source must be acknowledged as Ministry of Economic Development 2011 or by reference to the publication title and date; and

no charge is made other than to recover the direct costs of dissemination.

Although every attempt has been made to ensure the information is accurate, neither the Crown nor any Minister, employee or agent of the Crown: •

warrants the accuracy, completeness or usefulness for any particular purpose of the information contained in this publication in paper or electronic form; or accepts any liability for any loss or damage, however caused, from the reliance on or use of that information or arising from the absence of information or any particular information in this publication in paper or electronic form.

The authors are grateful to the individuals, companies and organisations that provided information and gave generously of their time to assist with the work reported here.

Authorship This publication was prepared by the Energy Information and Modelling Group of the Ministry of Economic Development. Principal contributors were Thomas Elliot, Brian Moore, Bryan Field, Paul Hunt, Simon Lawrence and Samuel Thornton. Thank you to Rio Tinto Alcan New Zealand Limited for supplying the photograph of Tiwai Point Aluminium Smwlter used on the cover of this publication. The authors are grateful to New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals for their assistance with reserves information and Base Two for publication layout.

Availability This publication is available in both paperback and electronic form. To purchase a paperback copy of this publication, see the inside back cover for order details. A free, online version of this publication can be downloaded from www.med.govt.nz/energy/edf/


Contents

New Zealand Energy Sources

6

D. Oil Overview of New Zealand’s Oil Industry

Facts

41 42

7

A. Energy Overview

8

Introduction

8

Energy Supply and Demand Overview

Table A.1: Energy Supply and Demand Balance 2010 (Gross PJ)

Primary Energy Supply

Table A.2: Total Primary Energy Supply (Gross PJ)

8 10

Energy Transformation Non-energy Use Consumer Energy Demand

Table A.3: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel (Gross PJ)

Consumer Energy Intensity, Gross Domestic Product and Population

Table A.4: Total Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)

B. Energy Balances Introduction

14

16 16

Table B.1: Default Electrical Transformation Factors

Table D.2a: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Mm3)

48

Table D.2b: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (mmbbls)

49

Table D.2c: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Thousand Tonnes)

50

Table D.2d: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Gross PJ)

51

Table D.3: Supply of Crude Oil and Refinery Feedstocks (Gross PJ)

53

Table D.4: Production of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ)

54

Table D.5: Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ)

56

Table D.6: Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ)

58

Table D.7: Observed Oil Products Consumption (Gross PJ)

60

Table D.8: Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

62

Table D.9: Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

64

Table D.10: Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

66

E. Natural Gas

68

16

Overview of New Zealand’s Gas Industry

69

18

Table E.1: Natural Gas Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

73

Table B.3: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2009

20

Table E.2a: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)

74

Table B.4: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2008

22

Table E.2b: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

75

Table B.5: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2007

24

Table E.2c: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)

76

Table B.6: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2006

26

Table E.3a: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)

78

Table B.7: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010 NET

28

Table E.3b: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

79

Table E.3c: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)

80

Table E.4: Natural Gas Production (Gross PJ)

82

Table E.5a: Natural Gas Supply and Consumption (Gross PJ)

84

Table E.5b: Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

85

30 31

47

Table B.2: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010

C. Coal Overview of New Zealand’s Coal Industry

12

Table D.1: Oil Energy Balance 2005–2010 (Gross PJ)

Table C.1: Production by Mining Method, Rank and Region for 2010 (kt)

33

Table C.2: Coal Energy Balance (Gross PJ)

35

Table C.3: Coal Supply and Calculated Consumption (Gross PJ)

37

Table C.4: Summary of Observed Coal Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

38

Table C.5: Coal Consumption – Breakdown by Sector for 2010 (Gross TJ)

40

Table E.5c: Natural Gas Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)

87

Table E.5d: Natural Gas Market Snapshot for 2010

89

F. Renewables Overview of Renewables in New Zealand

92 93

Table F.1: Renewable Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

94

Table F.2: Renewable Energy Supply and Use by Fuel (Gross PJ)

95

Table F.3: Estimated Production of Liquid Biofuel 2007–2010

96

Table F.4: Renewable Energy Direct Use by Sector for 2010 (Gross PJ)

96

2 Energy Data File | 2011

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Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


Contents continued

G. Electricity Overview of New Zealand’s Electricity Industry

98

Table G.1: Electricity Energy Balance 2006–2010 (GWh)

97

J. International Energy Comparisons

102

Introduction

Table G.2a: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (GWh)

104

Table G.2b: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (Gross PJ)

106

Table G.2c: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type – Cogeneration Separated (GWh) 107 Table G.2d: Estimated Generation by Fuel Type for 2010 Calendar Year (GWh)

108

Table G.3a: Operational Electricity Generation Capacity by Plant Type (MW)

109

Table G.3b: Estimated Generating Capacity by Fuel Type December 2010 (MW)

110

Table G.3c: Information on Generating Plants December 2009 (10 MW or Greater)

111

Table G.4: Transmission and Distribution Network Statistics Summary

113

Table G.5a: Observed Electricity Consumption by Sector

115

Table G.5b: Observed Percentage of Consumers (Active ICPs) by Sector

117

Table G.5c: Regional Electricity Demand Approximations for 2010

117

Table G.6a: Electricity Market Snapshot – 2010 March Year

118

Table G.6b: Market Competition Statistics

119

H. Oil and Gas Reserves Overview of New Zealand’s Oil and Gas Reserves

147

Table J.1: International Energy Prices for the September Quarter 2010

148

Table J.2: International Consumption of Energy – Calendar Year 2009

151

K. Fuel Properties

154 Table K.1: Solid Fuel Gross Calorific Values

155

Table K.2a: Petroleum Gross Calorific Values (2010 Calendar Year)

156

Table K.2b: Oil Conversion Factors for 2010

157

Table K.3: Gas Physical Properties

157

L. Data Contributors

157

M. Glossary

159

N. Unit Conversion

163

122 122

Table H.1: National Summary of Activity and Expenditure (All Petroleum Exploration and Mining Permits/Licences)

125

Table H.2: Oil and Condensate Reserves

127

Table H.3: Reserves from Non-producing Fields (Oil and Condensate)

127

Table H.4: Gas Reserves

128

Table H.5: Reserves from Non-producing Fields (Gas)

128

I. Prices Introduction

147

129 129

Table I.1a: Electricity Consumer Prices (Nominal)

130

Table I.1b: Electricity Consumer Prices (Real 2010)

131

Table I.2a: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Nominal)

133

Table I.2b: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Real 2010)

135

Table I.2c: Retail Importers’ Margin (Nominal and Real 2010 Prices)

136

Table I.3: Fuel Oil Prices (Nominal and Real 2010)

138

Table I.4: Natural Gas Prices (Nominal and Real 2010)

140

Table I.5a: Taxes, Duties and Levies on Fuels at December 2010 (c/l excluding GST) 142 Table I.5b: Premium and Regular Petrol Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

143

Table I.5c: Lead Tax Payable on Lead Content of Petrol (c/gram)

144

Table I.5d: Diesel Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

144

Table I.5e: Other Liquid Fuels Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

144

Table I.5f: Gas and Methanol Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

145

Table I.5g: Natural Gas Taxes and Levies (c/GJ)

145

Table I.5h: Coal (Opencast Mines Only) Taxes, Duties and Levies ($/tonne)

145

Table I.5i: Acts and Regulations

145

Table I.6: Price Deflators

146

4 Energy Data File | 2011

5 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


New Zealand Energy Sources

Marsden Point Oil Refinery

Imports

Thermal Power

Waikato Coal

Geothermal Power

Petrochemicals

Offshore Gas, Oil and Condensate

North Island Hydro Power Onshore Gas and Oil

Wind

West Coast Coal

South Island Hydro Power

Southland Coal

500 km

6 Energy Data File | 2011

7 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Introduction

Primary Energy Supply

The Energy Overview section of the Energy Data File considers New Zealand’s whole energy system. Key data presented in this section includes Total Primary Energy Supply, Energy Transformation and Total Consumer Energy. Also presented is data that compares growth in Total Consumer Energy with the population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) is the amount of energy supplied for use in New Zealand. This is calculated as domestic production plus imports less exports. TPES increased by 4.4% in 2010, largely on the back of growth in geothermal energy. Although geothermal energy’s share has increased rapidly in the last three years, oil and gas continue to dominate New Zealand’s TPES. Oil accounted for 33%, gas for 21% and geothermal energy for 19% in 2010. See Figure A.1 and Table A.2 for Total Primary Energy Supply.

Energy Supply and Demand Overview Energy supply and demand is summarised as an energy balance in Table A.1. This table shows the dominance of fossil fuels, particularly oil – almost all of which is used for transport. The table also shows the large amount of energy converted into electricity for final consumption.

efficiency of geothermal energy is significantly less.

In 2010, renewable energy made up 38% of New Zealand’s Total Primary Energy Supply. This was the highest level on record (up from the previous record of 35% in 2009) and maintains New Zealand at third place in the OECD for renewable primary energy supply, behind only Norway and Iceland.

The low transformation efficiency of geothermal energy (~15%) contributes to New Zealand’s relatively high TPES when compared with most other countries.

The rapid increase in renewable energy’s share of TPES has been driven by increased electricity generation from geothermal energy and reduced electricity generation from coal. As geothermal fluid is much lower in temperature than steam produced by a coal or gas boiler, the transformation

Figure A.2: Total Primary Energy Supply PJ 900 800

Table A.1: Energy Supply and Demand Balance 2010 (Gross PJ)

700

(1.32) -

(232.70) (46.13)

500 400

530.83

Statistical Differences

(0.17)

(0.41)

5.49

1.97

-

6.87

0 1974

-

100

Coal

Oil

Gas

Hydro

Geothermal

Other Renewables

2010

-

2009

143.34

2008

64.14

2007

53.95

2005

244.18

2006

25.21

200

2003

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

300

2004

27.90 184.24 49.32 204.32 65.05

2001

-

2002

6.65 55.79 32.50 0.36 48.04

2000

0.73 52.60 2.62 8.19

1999

1.47 39.59 6.87 0.03 5.99

1997

17.14 14.98 5.88 203.88 2.29

1998

1.91 21.29 1.43 0.05 0.54

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

1995

537.71

1996

-

1994

145.31

1993

64.14

1992

59.44

1991

243.77

1990

25.05

DEMAND

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

145.31 -

1989

(246.12) -

1987

(88.56) (25.47)

1988

(9.07) (20.66)

600

1986

(32.95) -

816.54

1985

Energy Transformation Non-energy Use

1.32

-

1983

310.25

1984

173.47

1981

273.50

Total

1982

58.00

Waste Heat

1980

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

Electricity

1979

Renewables

1978

Natural Gas

1977

Oil

1975

Coal

1976

SUPPLY

Petajolues (Gross Calorific Values)

Waste Heat

Note to Figure A.2: “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to wind, bioenergy and solar.

8 Energy Data File | 2011

9 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Table A.2: Total Primary Energy Supply (Gross PJ)

Energy Transformation

Renewable

Non-renewable

Calendar Year

Hydro

Geothermal

Other Renewables

Sub-total

Coal

Oil

Gas

Waste Heat

Sub-total

TOTAL

% Renewable

1974

54.67

41.12

22.79

118.58

62.80

185.14

12.92

0.47

261.34

379.92

31%

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

59.98 55.79 52.99 56.37 66.39

41.66 39.96 38.15 38.70 35.89

24.27 26.59 27.34 26.23 29.55

125.91 122.34 118.48 121.30 131.83

59.10 60.90 58.00 53.50 47.70

199.46 179.11 178.61 169.28 164.82

14.03 37.54 61.67 57.92 38.20

1.08 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28

273.66 278.83 299.57 281.98 252.01

399.58 401.17 418.05 403.28 383.84

32% 30% 28% 30% 34%

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

69.71 70.84 65.89 71.10 73.35

39.15 37.76 38.15 38.25 42.34

28.67 29.64 27.84 27.66 29.96

137.52 138.24 131.87 137.01 145.65

49.06 48.88 47.92 53.10 49.38

163.96 160.54 155.88 155.95 158.23

35.35 43.64 78.60 85.24 109.18

1.28 1.67 1.80 1.80 1.68

249.66 254.73 284.19 296.08 318.48

387.17 392.97 416.07 433.09 464.13

36% 35% 32% 32% 31%

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

70.94 79.54 78.93 82.66 81.20

38.58 40.75 39.82 40.68 53.48

29.45 29.70 30.94 31.26 36.90

138.97 149.99 149.70 154.59 171.58

45.60 52.40 43.74 47.40 51.51

146.67 155.54 158.41 158.65 172.50

139.39 167.90 162.47 176.32 181.04

1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61

333.28 377.46 366.24 383.97 406.66

472.25 527.45 515.94 538.57 578.24

29% 28% 29% 29% 30%

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

83.46 82.41 75.93 84.57 93.00

61.81 64.87 64.23 67.57 63.26

40.05 41.03 41.06 43.21 45.36

185.32 188.31 181.21 195.35 201.63

52.22 46.71 40.04 60.08 54.82

186.22 183.50 189.76 184.07 205.66

180.14 195.80 207.82 202.09 188.50

1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61

420.19 427.61 439.23 447.85 450.59

605.50 615.92 620.44 643.20 652.22

31% 31% 29% 30% 31%

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

99.12 94.25 83.72 91.14 82.50

62.36 63.46 65.95 70.13 74.45

46.71 44.80 46.84 49.54 54.72

208.19 202.51 196.52 210.82 211.67

49.55 39.49 49.30 48.73 48.16

220.08 226.44 233.85 237.66 249.02

178.03 203.32 217.73 193.44 223.74

1.61 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.61

449.28 470.87 502.50 481.44 522.53

657.46 673.38 699.01 692.25 734.19

32% 30% 28% 30% 29%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

87.96 78.04 89.53 85.03 96.94

81.64 75.93 74.08 73.64 75.29

59.76 59.08 63.84 64.59 70.22

229.36 213.06 227.46 223.27 242.45

47.32 59.50 48.83 81.95 94.38

246.44 250.29 257.68 275.49 280.58

235.26 247.51 235.29 179.45 161.25

1.61 1.21 2.39 2.17 2.13

530.63 558.51 544.19 539.05 538.34

759.98 771.56 771.65 762.32 780.79

30% 28% 29% 29% 31%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

83.97 84.86 85.10 80.41 87.19

82.99 86.35 90.64 107.16 124.15

70.85 70.65 68.97 64.98 62.15

237.81 241.86 244.71 252.55 273.50

96.77 85.41 74.06 84.26 65.60

283.43 281.07 283.03 281.10 278.37

150.18 154.03 169.54 159.96 163.15

1.95 1.83 1.36 1.44 1.37

532.32 522.34 527.99 526.76 508.49

770.14 764.20 772.70 779.30 781.98

31% 32% 32% 32% 35%

2010

88.97

152.57

68.71

310.25

58.00

273.50

173.47

1.32

506.28

816.54

38%

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.2%

15.3%

-0.7%

6.4%

-9.2%

-0.7%

3.0%

-7.9%

-0.8%

1.7%

Δ2009/2010

2.0%

22.9%

10.6%

13.4%

-11.6%

-1.7%

6.3%

-3.7%

-0.4%

4.4%

Energy transformation refers to the conversion of energy from one form to another. It includes electricity generation, petroleum refining and other transformation (including coal used for steel production). Electricity generation is the main form of energy transformation in New Zealand and comes from a range of energy sources. In

2010, a net total of 156 PJ of electricity was generated, 74% of which was from renewable sources. Hydro was the major source of electricity generation at 56%, followed by gas at 21%, geothermal at 13%, with coal, wind, wood, biogas, oil and waste heat making up the balance. 2010 saw the lowest generation from coal since 2002.

In 2010, 98% of refinery input was from imported crude and feedstocks, with the remaining 2% from indigenous crude and condensate.

Methanol production from natural gas by Methanex remained high in 2010, so total fuel used as a feedstock for petrochemical production (including ammonia/urea production) remained around 25 PJ. Although methanol can be combusted for energy purposes, the methanol produced in New Zealand is mainly used as chemical feedstock (e.g. to make plastic).

Gas combusted during the production of petrochemicals is included as industrial sector demand within total consumer energy. Only gas used as a feedstock (and therefore not combusted) in petrochemical production is classified as non-energy use.

Like TPES, consumer energy in 2010 was dominated by oil at 46%. This was primarily oil used for transport purposes, although oil is also the dominant energy source used in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors. The other major contributor to TCE was electricity, which made up 27% of final consumer demand in 2010. Electricity is the dominant consumer energy source for industrial, commercial and residential consumers.

Figure A.3a: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel for 2010

Non-energy Use Non-energy use refers to use of fuels to produce non-energy products. Non-energy products are products where neither the raw energy source used to produce the product nor the product itself are combusted. Examples include bitumen for roads and lubricants produced by the New Zealand Refinery Company, and petrochemical production from natural gas.

Consumer Energy Demand Total Consumer Energy (TCE) is energy used by final consumers. It excludes energy used for energy transformation (e.g. electricity generation) and that used for non-energy purposes. Compared with 2009, New Zealand’s TCE increased by 2.0% to 531 PJ in 2010. Figure A.3a details the shares by fuel type for 2010. Figure A.3b shows a time series of consumer energy by fuel since 1990, with the corresponding data in Table A.3.

TCE by sector is shown in Figure A.4a and Figure A.4b for 2010, with the corresponding data in Table A.4.

Oil 46.0% Electricity 27.0%

Note to Table A.2: “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to wind, bioenergy, and solar.

Other Renewables 10.3% Gas 10.2% Coal 4.8% Geothermal Direct Use 1.8%

Notes to Figure A.3a: “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to bioenergy and solar thermal.

10 Energy Data File | 2011

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Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Figure A.3b: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel

Figure A.4a: Total Consumer Energy by Sector for 2010

PJ Transport 38.5%

600

Industrial 34.7% Residential 12.3% Commercial 9.3%

500

Agriculture 5.3%

400

300

200

100

Figure A.4b: Total Consumer Energy by Sector

600

Electricity

“Other Renewables” in this instance refers to wind, bioenergy and solar.

500

Table A.3: Total Consumer Energy by Fuel (Gross PJ)

400

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

8.12 8.17 8.88 9.01 9.29

125.21 127.17 130.27 130.92 136.68

51.42 52.21 58.35 59.04 62.93

505.87 513.15 536.58 535.05 545.34

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

23.65 24.97 27.59 28.91 22.61

250.86 252.22 255.73 252.70 244.86

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24

9.40 9.38 9.56 9.62 9.84

138.51 141.84 141.99 139.48 138.75

62.33 61.46 58.44 53.92 49.02

535.22 537.29 540.76 532.73 520.31

2010

25.21

244.18

54.65

530.83

53.95

9.48

143.34

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

0.2%

-0.8%

3.3%

0.3%

0.3%

-2.9%

-0.3%

Δ2009/2010

11.5%

-0.3%

-2.3%

-3.6%

3.3%

11.5%

2.0%

Notes to Table A.3: 1 Includes calculated onsite consumption as well as consumption observed from sales data. See Table G.1 for further details.

Agriculture

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

2 “Other Renewables” in this instance refers to biogas, solar and wood.

12 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

2010

220.71 221.78 231.17 241.98 248.05

2009

21.20 26.80 27.29 32.91 25.34

0 2008

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

100

2007

457.26 462.30 468.28 467.93 481.00

2006

39.32 38.12 40.20 41.47 47.30

2005

112.10 115.79 119.05 120.15 122.47

2004

7.48 7.50 7.54 7.80 7.96

2003

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

2002

196.90 199.19 204.73 207.04 210.84

2001

27.53 25.76 24.68 23.28 20.75

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

200

2000

405.16 407.19 415.26 426.71 448.62

1999

33.19 33.90 33.88 36.03 38.09

300

1998

102.65 104.76 103.34 107.06 109.86

Total

1997

7.10 7.04 7.01 7.24 7.51

Other Renewables2

1996

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

29.28 28.91 25.52 29.55 28.48

Electricity1

1995

163.08 160.65 172.06 172.83 188.33

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Oil

1994

Geothermal Direct Use

Coal

1993

Gas

Calendar Year

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2003

2002

2001

2004

Other Renewables

1992

Notes to Figure A.3b: Cogeneration by individual fuel types is included in electricity.

Geothermal Direct Use

1991

Coal

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

Gas

PJ

1990

Oil

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

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Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


A. Energy Overview

A. Energy Overview

Table A.4: Total Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)

Consumer Energy Intensity, Gross Domestic Product and Population

Calendar Year

Agriculture

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

Total

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20.97 19.36 21.14 21.29 22.47

166.78 170.56 171.09 179.23 184.91

34.25 34.18 35.81 31.75 36.01

Residential 53.02 52.99 51.78 51.69 52.59

130.14 130.11 135.44 142.75 152.64

405.16 407.19 415.26 426.71 448.62

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

23.56 24.35 26.23 27.23 28.14

182.07 184.21 183.03 176.95 184.38

36.98 35.74 36.95 38.16 40.14

52.94 55.67 56.02 57.10 57.04

161.71 162.33 166.05 168.50 171.29

457.26 462.30 468.28 467.93 481.00

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

27.47 28.18 30.32 31.83 29.24

199.76 203.40 217.24 201.56 204.72

40.78 41.46 42.04 44.96 48.60

59.12 60.22 59.94 61.81 63.31

178.75 179.89 187.04 194.88 199.47

505.87 513.15 536.58 535.05 545.34

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

31.87 32.61 32.30 30.90 28.44

191.95 188.19 190.75 183.59 175.09

48.86 49.36 50.26 50.66 48.94

62.19 64.28 62.57 62.47 65.55

200.35 202.84 204.88 205.10 202.28

535.22 537.29 540.76 532.73 520.31

2010

27.90

184.24

49.32

65.05

204.32

530.83

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-3.8%

-0.5%

0.0%

0.3%

0.2%

-0.3%

Δ2009/2010

-1.9%

5.2%

0.8%

-0.8%

1.0%

2.0%

Since 1990, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has grown by over 65%, much faster than Total Consumer energy (TCE), which grew by just over 30%. In 2010, New Zealand consumed approximately 4 GJ per thousand dollars of GDP. This is down from over 5 GJ per thousand dollars of GDP in 1990 and represents a 20% improvement in energy intensity since 1990.

The impact on GDP of the global financial crisis is clear from Figure A.5. Also apparent is the impact of this drop in economic activity on energy demand. Since 1990 New Zealand’s population has grown by almost 30%, which is in line with growth in energy demand over the same period.

Figure A.5: Percentage Change in New Zealand’s GDP, Population and Consumer Energy Demand since 1990 % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Population

TCE

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-10

GDP

Note to Figure A.5: GDP and Total Consumer Energy are for calendar years. Population is as at June 30.

14 Energy Data File | 2011

15 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Introduction This section presents annual energy supply and demand balance tables for New Zealand. Energy balances using Gross Calorific Values (GCV)1 are presented in petajoules for the calendar years 2006 to 2010 (Tables B.2–B.6). The 2010 table is also displayed using net calorific values2 (Table B.7). The energy balances focus on commercial energy – energy forms that are typically produced and sold as a fuel. There are not enough reliable data to include other forms of energy, such as passive solar heating. The entry “0.00” in an energy balance table indicates the figure is less than 0.005 PJ but greater than 0 PJ, with zero PJ indicated by a blank entry (this includes where no reliable data are available).

1

Also known as higher heating value (HHV) – see Glossary for details.

2

Also known as lower heating value (LHV) – see Glossary for details.

Supply Total Primary Energy is the amount of energy available for use in New Zealand. Much of it is converted into other forms of energy before it is used. By convention, fuel used for international transport is excluded from total primary energy. Indigenous gas production is given after any gas is flared or reinjected and any LPG extracted. The primary energy figures presented are actual data except for some that goes into electricity generation as detailed under Energy Transformation. Energy Transformation includes generation of electricity (including cogeneration), oil production (including refinery operations and the manufacture of synthetic fuel from natural gas – Methanex ceased methanol to petrol production in April 1999) and other transformation, which is primarily steel production.

Table B.1: Default Electrical Transformation Factors

Biogas Coal Gas (Single Cycle)2 Geothermal3 Hydro Oil Waste Heat Wind Wood

Notes to Table B.1: 1 Default efficiencies are only used where real data is unavailable.

Transformation losses in electricity generation are derived from the net electricity generated, with the actual fuel input being used where available and the conversion factors shown in Table B.1 used otherwise. Fuel input to biogas, hydro, wind and waste heat are fully estimated. Quarterly figures for electricity generation are made up of actual data from major generators and the Electricity Authority. Estimates are made where actual data are unavailable at the time of publishing.

Liquid Biofuel production (bioethanol and biodiesel) appears as renewable energy supply in the energy balance tables. As bioethanol and biodiesel are generally blended with motor petrol and diesel before consumption4, this also appears in energy transformation under oil production.

Net to Gross Factor

Default Efficiency

1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.01 1.07 1.07 1.01 1.07

30% 30% 30% 15% 100% 30% 15% 100% 25%

Consumer energy (calculated) forms the top half of the energy balance tables and is calculated as Total Primary Energy supply less Energy Transformation less Non-energy Use. Consumer energy (observed) forms the bottom half of the energy balance tables and it represents reported demand in the primary, industrial, commercial, transport and residential sectors. With the exception of domestic/national use of energy for transport purposes, these sectors follow the Australia New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006.

Losses and Own Use in the energy balances include losses both before and after transformation, losses and own use in production, transmission and distribution losses, electricity own use free of charge, and oil industry losses and own use (which includes distribution tankage losses, stocks, accounts adjustment and own consumption). Annual figures presented for Consumer Transformation losses are excluded. Energy (observed) are actual data except for thermal fuels used for cogeneration in the Non-energy Use is primary thermal energy industrial and commercial sectors, biogas, used for other purposes other than wastes and wood. Estimates of on-site combustion: e.g. bitumen for roads and cogeneration demand are included in natural gas used as feedstock for the production of methanol and ammonia/urea. electricity end use.

Demand 1

Fuel

In the Energy Transformation section of the balance tables, “energy in” is shown as negative values and “energy out” as positive values in the appropriate fuel columns. Transformation of energy from one form to another always results in conversion losses, particularly in thermal electricity generation, as much energy is lost as heat.

Consumer Energy is the amount of energy consumed by final users. It excludes energy used or lost in the process of transforming energy into other forms and in bringing the energy to the final consumers. For example, natural gas is a primary energy source (see Total Primary Energy Supply), some of which is transformed into electricity, and some of that is lost in transmission to consumers.

Where the energy use is not available or confidential, the “Unallocated” category is used. International Transport includes international sea and air transport. It excludes coastal shipping, national air transport and all land transport.

Statistical Differences shows the difference between the “Consumer Energy (calculated)” and “Consumer Energy (observed)”. This Consumer energy statistics can be either difference is shown at the bottom of the calculated from supply-side data or observed energy balance tables. from usage data. For further definitions, see the Glossary.

3 Geothermal is predominantly based on real plant steam data and uses a 15% efficiency where this is unavailable.

For combined cycle plants the assumed efficiency is 55%. Currently however actual fuel input data is collected for all combined cycle plants.

2

4

A very small amount of liquid biofuel is consumed unblended. However, insufficient data is available on use of unblended liquid biofuel to include in this publication.

16 Energy Data File | 2011

17 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.2: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

26.21

-

2.73

6.58

311.43

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

123.37

179.34

88.97

152.57

0.36

5.88

134.02

4.51

138.53

115.87

7.50

+

Imports

5.84

0.00

5.85

232.65

0.38

-

Exports

75.27

-

75.27

110.57

0.71

1.63

0.01

2.75

-

-

115.67

-

Stock Change

11.06

0.04

11.11

1.67

0.14

0.92

-3.45

-1.74

-0.24

-0.09

-2.79

-

International Transport

1.40

13.08

33.95

0.01

48.43

53.53

4.47

58.00

236.29

7.03

40.34

28.25

-14.09

-30.98

6.65

273.50

173.47

88.97

152.57

-32.67

-0.28

-32.95

-237.09

-0.43

65.25

81.33

22.75

45.11

14.00

-9.07

-88.56

-88.97

-13.66

-

-13.66

-0.02

-0.00

-0.02

-62.58

-88.97

-7.84

-0.28

-8.12

Other Transformation

-10.58

-

-10.58

Losses and Own Use

-0.59

-

-0.59

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration

42.89

-

Oil Production

-236.64

64.50

81.74

22.68

45.93

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture Forestry and Logging Fishing Industrial

20.86

4.19

25.05

1.89

0.02

1.89

0.02

-

-

15.03

-6.76

-0.45

-0.43

0.75

-0.39

0.07

-0.81

310.25

TOTAL

1.32

752.81

5.88

0.18

3.18

59.10

310.25

-143.09

-5.88

-0.18

-2.90

-5.09

-246.12

145.31

-141.78

0.36

-5.88

-238.64

151.52

-7.29

9.83

-2.00

-1.31

-0.90

-5.09

-0.18

-0.81

6.60

-1.03

-2.30

-7.37

-20.66

-20.66

-25.47

243.77

59.44

9.48

1.38

13.27

2.44

0.06

17.14

1.47

1.91

1.37

8.93

-

0.05

10.35

1.46

-

0.01

2.57

-

0.00

2.59

0.01

-

59.10

Total

1.32

816.54

-1.32

-232.70 -163.38

-1.32

-0.18

-25.51 -6.94 -10.58

1.91

21.29

3.18

Total

14.19

-

14.14

-

Total

48.43

8.66

2.97

Wood

190.94

109.59

-

0.18

Biogas

Waste Heat

5.87

105.59

18.32

Liquid Biofuels

Electricity

317.28

-18.61

Non-energy Use

DEMAND

Renewables

2.22

-

0.00

1.77

2.44

0.00

4.21

-

0.09

11.29

1.27

0.11

14.98

39.59

-16.04

-26.29 -46.13

0.36

-

-

0.28

64.14

145.31

0.73

0.73

6.65

27.90

0.73

0.73

5.90

20.34

0.25

2.85

6.10

54.01

46.49

52.60

-

537.71

0.50

4.72

55.79

184.24

Mining

0.01

-

0.01

0.00

3.63

-

0.00

3.63

0.01

1.83

5.48

Food Processing

11.38

2.91

14.29

-

-

-

-

-

9.62

7.82

31.73

Textiles

0.24

-

0.24

0.38

0.43

1.04

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

0.64

0.05

0.69

4.85

11.82

17.36

-

-

-

18.85

2.39

21.25

4.14

0.01

4.15

-

-

-

Chemicals Non-metallic Minerals Basic Metals

0.83

0.79

5.77

-

-

-

-

-

3.00

24.26

27.26

1.39

0.70

2.11

0.01

3.97

0.02

0.10

4.10

0.03

0.68

4.90

0.08

3.69

1.25

0.01

7.25

0.63

6.10

52.60

5.07

67.33

2.34

0.28

2.62

32.50

49.32

-

-

0.36

204.32

7.52

8.19

48.04

65.05

64.14

143.34

-

530.83

1.97

-

6.87

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

0.02

-

0.02

Building and Construction

0.08

-

0.08

Unallocated

1.80

-

1.80

2.22

Commercial

0.89

0.54

1.43

1.27

0.05

4.43

0.09

0.05

5.88

6.87

Transport

0.05

-

0.05

1.16

108.81

75.87

3.51

14.53

203.88

0.03

Residential

0.24

0.30

0.54

1.95

0.04

0.30

-

-

2.29

5.99

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

21.39

3.83

25.21

-

6.60

110.36

105.15

7.31

14.75

-

244.18

53.95

Statistical Differences

-0.53

0.36

-0.17

-0.81

-

-4.77

4.43

1.35

-0.62

-

-0.41

5.49

-

46.49

0.31

0.36

9.48

0.36

-

0.28

54.01

-

-

-

-

-

18 Energy Data File | 2011

-

19 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.3: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2009

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil

Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

32.60

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

0.01

8.91

5.93

317.58 116.45

Total

Total

Hydro

124.67

167.24

87.19

Geothermal

113.47

3.97

117.44

121.11

3.55

+

Imports

15.58

-

15.58

218.27

4.73

47.13

-

Exports

65.13

-

65.13

107.38

0.00

0.24

-

8.83

-

-

-

Stock Change

2.29

-

2.29

0.49

0.17

1.53

-0.91

-0.63

-0.35

0.14

-

International Transport

0.06

1.26

13.55

32.12

-

61.63

3.97

65.60

231.53

8.11

45.30

32.25

-21.74

-22.86

5.79

278.37

163.15

87.19

124.15

-44.25

-0.28

-44.53

-228.04

-0.60

66.79

72.90

31.02

39.29

12.65

-5.99

-77.67

-87.19

-27.45

-

-27.45

-0.08

-0.02

-0.10

-53.97

-87.19

-6.82

-0.28

-7.10

Other Transformation

-9.69

-

-9.69

Losses and Own Use

-0.29

-

-0.29

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

-227.42

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture Forestry and Logging Fishing Industrial

17.38

3.68

21.06

0.85

0.00

0.85

0.85

0.00

0.85

-

-

-

-

-

-

16.35

3.25

19.59

0.42

66.53

72.41

31.19

40.28

13.67

124.15

Solar

Wind

0.34

5.32

Liquid Biofuels 0.12

Biogas

Wood

Total

3.05

53.32

273.50

Electricity

Waste Heat

Total

Total

TOTAL

1.37

684.21 333.15 181.57

4.09

6.80

47.00

47.00

-3.33

0.34

5.32

0.12

3.05

53.32

273.50

-114.31

-5.32

-0.12

-2.77

-4.93

-214.64

140.72

-113.02

-5.32

-207.42

147.17

-7.10

9.27

-1.89

-1.29

-17.26

-0.88

-4.93

-0.12

-

1.37

781.98

-1.37

-203.49 -141.77

-1.37

-0.12

-23.56 -3.45 -9.69

-0.62

-0.60

0.26

0.57

-0.16

-0.99

Non-energy Use

DEMAND

Renewables

3.49

7.51

2.49

112.09

-1.02

-2.57

-6.44

-18.43

-18.43

-25.36

253.94

60.12

9.84

105.15

9.28

16.43

-

1.76

13.94

2.50

0.12

18.31

1.94

1.72

10.20

-

0.09

12.01

1.94

0.02

1.73

-

0.00

1.76

0.00

0.02

2.00

2.50

0.02

4.54

-

0.28

13.45

0.91

0.10

17.24

39.59

-15.71

-25.00 -43.79

0.34

-

-

0.28

58.85

140.72

0.73

0.73

6.61

28.44

0.73

0.73

5.87

21.41

0.24

2.00

6.31

48.40

40.76

47.06

-

534.70

0.50

5.04

51.61

175.09

Mining

0.12

0.01

0.13

0.00

4.63

-

-

4.64

0.01

1.76

6.54

Food Processing

8.11

3.09

11.19

-

0.01

0.02

-

0.03

9.65

7.75

28.62

Textiles

0.12

-

0.12

0.56

0.44

1.12

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

0.72

0.08

0.79

5.00

12.04

17.83

-

-

-

18.64

2.44

21.08

Chemicals Non-metallic Minerals

3.32

-

3.32

Basic Metals

0.01

-

0.01

1.67

0.82

5.81

-

-

-

-

-

2.94

20.24

23.18

0.45

0.74

1.20

0.02

4.37

0.02

0.09

4.51

0.05

0.68

5.25

0.25

4.44

0.87

0.01

8.07

0.62

6.31

47.06

4.71

64.46

2.52

0.28

2.80

32.62

48.94

-

-

0.36

202.28

7.64

8.26

47.55

65.55

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

0.01

-

0.01

Building and Construction

0.01

-

0.01

Unallocated

3.94

0.07

4.00

Commercial

1.09

0.20

1.29

1.48

0.11

2.77

0.05

0.52

4.94

7.30

Transport

0.02

-

0.02

1.34

108.11

74.72

4.10

13.59

201.86

0.04

Residential

0.56

0.30

0.86

2.20

0.00

0.31

-

-

2.51

6.38

110.26

105.19

7.57

14.33

-

244.86

55.24

1.83

-0.04

1.71

2.09

-

9.08

4.88

2.49

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

18.86

3.75

22.61

-

7.51

Statistical Differences

-1.48

-0.07

-1.55

3.49

-

-

40.76

0.28

0.34

9.84

0.34

-

0.28

48.40

58.85

138.75

-

520.31

-

-

-

-

-

-0.00

1.97

-

14.39

20 Energy Data File | 2011

21 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.4: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2008

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production +

Imports

-

Exports

-

Stock Change

-

International Transport

Natural Gas

Oil Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

125.05

128.26

3.60

13.85

224.23

5.02

Lignite

Total

121.25

3.80

13.85

0.00

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

40.21

38.00

0.34

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

Liquid Biofuels

131.86

159.99

80.41

107.16

0.32

3.81

0.09

11.53

7.28

326.61

78.51

-

78.51

119.83

0.00

1.31

0.01

7.78

-

-

128.94

-

-23.87

-1.83

-0.02

-0.11

-1.49

1.75

1.52

-0.37

-0.55

0.04

1.58

13.59

33.75

0.01

48.98

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

80.46

3.80

84.26

234.49

8.64

38.96

37.90

-22.79

-23.74

7.64

281.10

159.96

80.41

107.16

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

-59.77

-0.29

-60.05

-234.77

-0.62

69.65

73.29

29.66

41.05

12.50

-9.25

-89.02

-80.41

-43.09

-

-43.09

-1.43

-

-1.43

-60.77

-80.41

-7.07

-0.29

-7.36

Other Transformation

-9.17

-

-9.17

Losses and Own Use

-0.44

-

-0.44

Electricity Generation

Oil Production

70.62

74.31

29.65

41.40

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

20.69

3.51

24.20

-4.93

Total

2.91

57.85

252.55

Total

Total 1.44

TOTAL 670.89

207.45 -24.39 48.98 0.32

3.81

0.09

2.91

57.85

252.55

-97.54

-3.81

-0.09

-2.63

-4.53

-189.00

141.04

-96.29

-3.81

-182.32

146.17

-6.59

11.64

-1.82

-1.25

-0.81

-4.53

-0.09

-

1.44

779.30

-1.44

-207.73 -141.43

-1.44

-0.09

-27.15 -5.02 -9.17

-0.65

-0.62

-0.98

0.41

0.01

-0.35

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

13.22

Wood

Waste Heat

0.03

-23.41 -234.13

Biogas

Electricity

340.46

-23.87

Cogeneration

-0.28

8.02

108.61

111.19

6.87

17.31

-0.72

-2.90

-4.85

-20.15

-20.15

-18.23

251.70

52.71

9.62

-

-16.78

-24.96 -38.37

0.32

-

-

0.28

53.32

63.55

141.04

-

533.20

1.73

0.01

1.74

1.99

16.11

2.02

0.15

20.26

1.63

0.73

0.73

6.53

30.90

Agriculture

-

-

-

1.95

11.98

0.00

0.14

14.08

1.63

0.73

0.73

5.82

22.26

Forestry and Logging

-

-

-

0.01

1.54

0.16

0.00

1.72

0.00

0.23

1.95

Fishing Industrial

DEMAND

Renewables

-

-

-

20.59

3.79

24.38

2.41

0.03

2.58

1.86

0.01

4.47

-

0.37

14.90

1.15

0.11

18.93

34.69

6.09

45.58

51.68

0.48

4.95

53.91

183.59

Mining

-

-

-

0.00

4.12

0.15

-

4.27

0.11

1.51

5.89

Food Processing

-

-

-

0.00

0.05

0.08

-

0.13

8.74

7.62

16.49

Textiles

-

-

-

0.64

0.49

1.13

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

-

-

-

4.76

12.05

16.80

Chemicals

-

-

-

13.99

2.65

16.64

Non-metallic Minerals

-

-

-

Basic Metals

-

-

-

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

-

-

-

Building and Construction

-

-

-

20.59

3.79

24.38

Commercial

1.80

0.55

2.35

1.64

Transport

0.08

-

0.08

1.59

Residential

0.15

0.22

0.36

2.38

Unallocated

2.41

1.57

0.92

2.49

2.98

22.69

25.68

0.60

0.86

1.46

0.11

0.71

5.02

51.68

4.41

91.98

0.28

2.80

33.03

50.66

-

-

0.36

205.10

7.74

8.34

45.64

62.47

63.55

139.48

-

532.73

1.55

-

0.47

-

0.00

-

-

0.00

0.04

4.10

0.01

0.05

4.20

0.32

6.63

0.90

0.06

10.32

1.19

6.09

0.13

3.61

0.27

0.56

6.22

6.26

2.52

109.42

75.14

3.46

15.02

204.63

0.04

0.00

0.28

-

0.00

2.66

5.47

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

24.35

4.56

28.91

-

8.02

111.91

110.04

6.90

15.84

-

252.70

48.09

Statistical Differences

-3.66

-1.04

-4.70

-0.28

-

-3.30

1.15

-0.03

1.47

-

-1.00

4.62

-

45.58

0.28

0.32

9.62

0.32

-

0.28

53.32

-

-

-

-

-

22 Energy Data File | 2011

-

23 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.5: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2007

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

40.60

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Others

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

Liquid Biofuels

Biogas

Wood

Total

93.47

169.57

85.10

90.64

0.30

3.35

0.05

3.03

62.24

244.71

0.01

11.89

6.79

323.43

120.70

4.12

124.82

88.43

5.04

+

Imports

16.85

0.00

16.85

212.06

4.16

47.92

-

Exports

63.67

-

63.67

75.18

0.00

0.68

-

4.68

-

-

80.55

-

Stock Change

3.94

-

3.94

4.65

0.43

2.02

0.67

-1.31

0.19

-0.38

6.27

-

International Transport

0.00

1.34

12.17

33.54

-

220.66

8.77

45.21

38.59

-15.53

-21.85

7.17

283.03

169.54

85.10

90.64

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

-43.89

-0.27

-44.16

-219.86

-0.74

66.35

73.71

24.28

38.75

12.48

-5.01

-104.09

-85.10

-

-26.07

-0.01

-0.00

-75.35

-85.10

-0.27

-7.73

Other Transformation

-9.92

-

-9.92

Losses and Own Use

-0.44

-

-0.44

Oil Production

66.84

72.68

24.32

-0.01

38.94

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

26.04

3.86

29.90

-2.43

TOTAL 633.93

47.05 0.30

3.35

0.05

3.03

62.24

244.71

-81.09

-3.35

-0.05

-2.75

-4.38

-176.71

141.32

-79.84

-3.35

-170.18

146.02

-6.48

11.48

-1.90

-1.25

-0.85

-4.38

-0.05

-

1.36

772.70

-1.36

-190.01 -125.59

-1.36

-0.05

-26.66 -2.47 -9.92

-0.75

-0.74

-0.49

1.04

-0.03

-0.19

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

13.91

1.36

47.05

-22.58 -219.12

Total

10.24

74.06

-7.46

Total

144.22

4.13

-26.07

Waste Heat

0.03

69.93

Cogeneration

Electricity

340.28

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

Electricity Generation

0.80

8.03

111.57

112.30

8.76

16.91

-1.43

-2.58

-6.16

-19.65

-19.65

-15.45

258.36

50.01

9.56

-

-16.18

-25.36 -35.10

0.30

-

-

0.28

57.86

68.00

141.32

-

547.59

1.45

0.01

1.46

2.23

17.40

2.01

0.22

21.86

1.81

0.56

0.56

6.61

32.30

Agriculture

-

-

-

2.19

13.32

0.01

0.22

15.73

1.80

0.56

0.56

5.79

23.87

Forestry and Logging

-

-

-

0.01

1.35

0.37

0.00

1.73

0.01

0.36

2.10

Fishing Industrial

DEMAND

Renewables

-

-

19.92

3.45

23.37

2.69

0.03

2.73

1.64

0.00

4.40

0.45

15.88

1.15

0.15

20.31

33.39

6.09

50.06

56.15

0.46

4.86

57.53

190.75

Mining

-

-

-

0.00

3.61

0.35

-

3.96

0.22

1.34

5.51

Food Processing

-

-

-

0.00

0.04

0.10

-

0.14

10.08

7.79

18.01

Textiles

-

-

-

0.76

0.55

1.31

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

-

-

-

5.30

12.40

17.70

Chemicals

-

-

-

11.06

2.81

13.87

Non-metallic Minerals

-

-

-

Basic Metals

-

-

-

1.75

0.92

2.67

-

0.00

-

-

0.00

3.00

24.73

27.73

0.68

0.91

1.59

0.03

3.57

0.01

0.08

3.69

0.13

0.79

4.60

0.42

8.66

0.69

0.07

12.53

0.41

6.09

56.15

5.29

97.75

2.62

0.28

2.90

32.64

50.26

-

-

0.36

204.88

7.80

8.40

44.84

62.57

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

-

-

-

Building and Construction

-

-

-

19.92

3.45

Commercial

1.64

0.50

2.13

1.42

0.38

3.21

0.32

0.69

6.02

6.57

Transport

0.08

-

0.08

1.43

110.80

73.70

4.90

13.57

204.41

0.02

Residential

0.25

0.30

0.55

2.49

0.00

0.64

-

0.00

3.13

5.65

23.34

4.26

27.59

-

8.03

113.86

110.83

8.38

14.63

-

255.73

47.44

2.70

-0.40

2.30

0.80

-

-2.29

1.47

0.38

2.27

-

2.64

2.56

Unallocated

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed) Statistical Differences

2.69

23.37

-

50.06

0.30

0.30

9.56

0.30

-

0.28

57.86

68.00

141.99

-

540.76

-

-

-

-

-

-

-0.67

-

6.83

24 Energy Data File | 2011

25 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

Table B.6: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2006

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values

SUPPLY

Indigenous Production

Natural Gas

Oil Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

Bituminous & Sub-bitum.

Lignite

Total

146.02

4.01

150.03

38.74

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

7.06

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

45.79

154.03

84.86

86.35

0.26

2.24

Liquid Biofuels -

Biogas

Wood

Total

3.06

65.09

241.86

Electricity

Waste Heat

Total

Total

TOTAL

1.83

593.55

+

Imports

28.07

0.00

28.07

215.83

1.92

40.85

34.43

-

9.73

6.77

309.53

337.60

-

Exports

85.24

-

85.24

31.25

0.30

-

0.01

3.85

-

-

35.41

120.65

-

Stock Change

7.46

-

7.46

-7.81

0.35

-0.47

1.85

0.33

0.01

-0.58

-6.32

-

International Transport

0.00

1.46

11.74

31.97

-

45.17

81.40

4.01

85.41

231.12

8.33

41.33

31.11

-15.92

-22.25

7.35

281.07

-68.90

-0.22

-69.12

-232.33

-0.78

69.50

76.40

23.99

41.72

12.59

-50.99

-

-50.99

-0.23

-0.00

-8.01

-0.22

-8.23

Other Transformation

-9.47

-

-9.47

Losses and Own Use

-0.44

-

-0.44

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture

-0.00

1.14 45.17

154.03

84.86

86.35

-8.92

-87.75

-84.86

-0.23

-60.10

-84.86

-231.52

69.62

76.27

23.93

42.23

13.65

-5.81

0.26

2.24

-

3.06

65.09

-76.98

-2.24

-

-2.80

-4.15

-75.65

-2.24

-1.87

-1.33

-21.30

-0.93

-4.15

-

-

241.86

1.83

-171.02

140.80

-164.61

145.97

-6.41

11.00

-1.83

764.20 -197.83 -129.96

-1.83

-

-26.77 -5.81 -9.47

-0.81

-0.78

-0.13

0.36

0.06

-0.51

Non-energy Use 12.50

3.80

16.30

-1.21

7.55

110.82

1.96

0.02

1.98

2.34

-

-

-

2.29

107.52

-1.07

-2.87

-6.35

-19.93

-19.93

-15.10

252.22

51.18

9.38

8.07

19.47

-

17.75

1.84

0.24

22.17

1.88

13.35

0.00

0.23

15.87

1.82

-16.17

-25.82 -35.03

0.26

-

-

0.26

60.94

70.84

140.80

-

531.35

0.55

0.55

6.03

32.61

0.55

0.55

5.27

23.51

Forestry and Logging

-

-

-

0.02

1.25

0.17

0.01

1.44

0.06

0.33

1.84

Fishing

-

-

-

0.04

3.14

1.67

0.01

4.86

-

0.43

5.28

17.16

3.32

20.49

0.51

14.72

0.96

0.16

19.00

31.47

58.24

188.19

Industrial

DEMAND

Others

Renewables

2.65

5.92

53.09

59.01

Mining

-

-

-

0.00

3.35

0.16

-

3.51

0.20

1.18

4.89

Food Processing

-

-

-

0.00

0.06

0.12

-

0.18

7.99

7.95

16.12

Textiles

-

-

-

0.80

0.61

1.41

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

-

-

-

5.67

13.28

18.94

Chemicals

-

-

-

10.79

2.86

13.65

Non-metallic Minerals

-

-

-

Basic Metals

-

-

-

1.71

0.89

2.60

3.14

23.81

26.94

-

0.00

-

-

0.00

0.84

0.99

1.84

0.03

4.25

0.01

0.10

4.38

0.07

0.83

5.28

0.48

7.05

0.68

0.06

10.92

0.25

5.92

59.01

5.84

96.51

2.61

0.26

2.87

31.62

49.36

-

-

0.36

202.84

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

-

-

-

Building and Construction

-

-

-

17.16

3.32

20.49

2.65

Commercial

1.27

0.47

1.74

1.29

0.13

3.26

0.26

0.78

5.73

7.40

Transport

0.08

-

0.08

1.28

108.90

71.18

4.45

16.58

202.38

0.02

Unallocated

0.25

0.43

0.69

2.33

0.00

0.61

-

0.00

2.95

6.64

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

Residential

20.73

4.25

24.97

-

7.55

111.88

107.51

7.51

17.77

-

252.22

47.41

Statistical Differences

-8.22

-0.45

-8.68

-1.21

-

-1.06

0.01

0.56

1.70

-

-0.00

3.78

-

53.09

0.30

0.26

7.85

8.41

45.60

9.38

0.26

-

0.26

60.94

70.84

141.84

-

537.29

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-1.04

-

-5.94

26 Energy Data File | 2011

64.28

27 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


B. Energy Balances

B. Energy Balances

NET

Table B.7: Energy Supply and Demand Balance Calendar Year 2010 NET

Coal Converted into Petajoules using Net Calorific Values Bituminous & Sub-bitum. Indigenous Production

SUPPLY

+

Natural Gas

Oil

Lignite

Total

Crudes/ Feedstocks/ NGL

LPG

Petrol

Diesel

40.01

24.59

Fuel Oil

Av. Fuel/ Kero

Total

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Solar

Wind

114.33

159.79

88.97

152.57

0.36

5.88

6.23

289.41

127.35

4.04

131.39

107.41

6.92

5.51

0.00

5.51

215.67

0.35

-

72.24

102.50

0.65

1.52

0.01

2.59

-

-

107.27

10.37

1.55

0.13

0.86

-3.24

-1.64

-0.22

-0.08

-2.65

-

Exports

72.24

-

Stock Change

10.37

-

International Transport

2.56

-

1.31

12.32

31.85

0.01

45.49

6.48

37.64

26.50

-13.27

-29.06

6.31

253.64

154.56

88.97

152.57

-30.64

-0.25

-30.89

-219.79

-0.39

60.87

76.30

21.43

42.32

13.27

-5.99

-78.90

-88.97

-12.81

-

-12.81

-0.02

-0.00

-0.02

-55.76

-88.97

-7.35

-0.25

-7.60

Other Transformation

-9.92

-

-9.92

Losses and Own Use

-0.56

-

-0.56

60.18

76.68

21.36

43.09

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Agriculture Forestry and Logging Fishing Industrial Mining

19.61

3.79

23.40

1.77

0.02

1.77

0.02

-

-

-3.81

-0.42

-0.39

0.70

-0.37

0.06

-0.76

297.11

-143.09

-5.88

-0.17

-2.62

-3.98

-244.72

145.31

-141.78

-5.88

-238.45

151.52

-6.10

9.83

-1.81

-1.31

-0.81

-3.98

-0.17

-0.75

6.09

-6.56 -22.69

228.07

52.96

9.48 0.73

1.29

12.45

2.30

0.06

16.09

1.31

1.79

1.27

8.38

-

0.05

9.70

1.30

-

0.01

2.41

-

0.00

2.43

0.01

-

46.28

-2.16

1.79

19.99

2.88

-19.58

13.26

-

0.92

0.17

-0.97

8.16

2.66

297.11

5.88

-19.58 102.80

-

0.36

-

98.51

17.33

46.28

Total

TOTAL 703.55

0.92

760.52

-0.92

-216.11 -155.52

-0.92

-0.17

-21.38 -3.98 -9.92

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

14.25

2.88

Total

45.49

-16.58 -219.37

Total

12.96

219.04

Oil Production

Wood

179.51

54.29

Cogeneration

0.17

Biogas

Waste Heat

5.23

4.04

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

Liquid Biofuels

Electricity

294.92

50.25

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

Electricity Generation

2.05

-

0.00

1.66

2.30

0.00

3.96

-

0.08

10.59

1.20

0.11

14.02

35.27

-16.04

-25.32 -42.28

0.36

-

-

0.25

6.10

42.30

36.41

52.39

145.31

0.73

6.65

26.56

5.90

18.68

0.25

2.69

42.51

-

502.14

0.50

4.47

55.79

167.58

0.01

-

0.01

0.00

3.40

-

0.00

3.41

0.01

1.83

5.26

10.72

2.61

13.32

-

-

-

-

-

8.58

7.82

29.71

Textiles

0.22

-

0.22

0.34

0.43

0.99

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

0.60

0.05

0.64

4.32

11.82

16.78

-

-

-

16.80

2.39

19.19

3.95

0.01

3.96

-

-

-

Food Processing

DEMAND

Others

Imports

-

Renewables

Chemicals Non-metallic Minerals Basic Metals

0.74

0.79

5.49

-

-

-

-

-

2.68

24.26

26.93

1.24

0.70

1.96

0.01

3.72

0.02

0.09

3.85

0.03

0.68

4.64

0.08

3.46

1.17

0.01

6.77

0.56

6.10

42.51

5.07

56.62

2.34

0.25

2.60

32.50

48.05

-

-

0.36

191.13

5.89

6.56

48.04

62.55

143.34

-

495.87

1.97

-

6.27

Mechanical/Electrical Equipment

0.02

-

0.02

Building and Construction

0.08

-

0.08

Unallocated

1.72

-

1.72

2.05

Commercial

0.84

0.49

1.33

1.17

0.04

4.15

0.08

0.05

5.50

6.12

Transport

0.04

-

0.04

1.07

101.52

71.17

3.31

13.63

190.70

0.03

Residential

0.23

0.27

0.49

1.80

0.03

0.28

-

-

2.12

5.34

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

20.21

3.43

23.64

-

6.09

102.96

98.64

6.89

13.84

-

228.42

48.07

Statistical Differences

-0.60

0.36

-0.24

-0.75

-

-4.45

4.16

1.27

-0.58

-

-0.35

4.89

-

36.41

0.31

0.36

9.48

0.36

-

0.25

42.30

52.39

-

-

-

-

-

-

28 Energy Data File | 2011

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© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


C. Coal

C. Coal

Figure C.1: Coal Industry Summary for 2010

Figure C.2: Annual Coal Production by Rank and Mining Method Kt

MINING AREAS

North Island

South Island

6,000 5,000

Waikato

West Coast

Canterbury

Otago

Southland 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

PRODUCERS

Opencast Bituminous

Underground Bituminous

Opencast Sub-Bituminous

Underground Sub-Bituminous

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

Imports

1992

Other Producers Glencoal Energy Birchfield Coal Eastern Corporation Francis Mining Canterbury Coal

1990

Solid Energy

1991

0

Opencast Lignite

(and about 7 smaller producers)

Overview of New Zealand’s Coal Industry Introduction This chapter contains information about coal production (supply) and sales to consumers (demand). All statistics apply to the 2010 calendar year. Comparisons are made with the 2009 calendar year, and are calculated from energy units, unless otherwise specified.

CONSUMERS

NZ Steel Steel Manufacture

Overseas Markets Export

Industry Commercial Residential Domestic Consumers

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable.

Genesis Energy Electricity Generation

In 2010, New Zealand produced 5.3 million tonnes of coal, over 2.4 million tonnes of which were exported. Total coal used in 2010 was 2.7 million tonnes, over 0.25 million tonnes of which were imported, with the remainder coming from local production.

Resources New Zealand has extensive coal resources, mainly in the Waikato and Taranaki regions of the North Island, and the West Coast, Otago and Southland regions of the South Island. It has been estimated that national in-ground resources of all coals total more than 15 billion tonnes, of which 80% are South Island lignites.

New Zealand’s coal resources are generally well explored. A major government-funded coal exploration programme, known as the New Zealand Coal Resources Survey, explored between 1975 and 1989 almost all of New Zealand’s realistic coal prospects. More than 1,800 holes were drilled, and extensive resource evaluation, geotechnical, geophysical, utilisation, environmental and mining feasibility studies were carried out. The discovery of very large resources of lignite in Otago and Southland also led to a series of investigations in the 1980s by the Liquid Fuels Trust Board to evaluate the potential of the lignites for conversion to transport fuels.

Recoverable coal estimates are dependent on assessment of a complex mix of factors, including:

Lignite is New Zealand’s largest fossil fuel energy resource. The main deposits are well known, with technically and economically recoverable quantities in the 10 largest deposits established at over 6 billion tonnes. The South Island lignites are being evaluated for their potential as a feedstock for large-scale petrochemical processing into a range of possible energy products, including transport fuels, briquettes and fertilizers.

Recoverable coal quantities are thus not simple to assess and will change depending on market conditions and as a result of ongoing exploration and feasibility studies into converting resources to reserves.

resource size and location;

geological conditions;

technical constraints on mining;

mining economics;

access to resources;

project consents;

market size and certainty;

market price, which is itself partly set by import substitute price for some markets; and

distribution costs and infrastructure.

Figure C.1 shows a summary of the coal industry in New Zealand for 2010. Figure C.3 shows the locations of New Zealand’s main coalfields.

Sub-bituminous and bituminous in-ground resources are around 3.5 billion tonnes, but recoverable quantities of these coals are uncertain.

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Figure C.3: Location of New Zealand Coal Resources and 2010 Coal Production Production New Zealand coal production in 2010 was 5.3 million tonnes, 17% up from the 2009 figure of 4.6 million tonnes. This is mostly due to the restoration of production levels at Solid Energy’s two bituminous mines, Stockton and Spring Creek, which had been reduced for 2009 by industrial action and reduced export orders resulting from the global financial crisis. Table C.1 shows coal production by mining method, rank and region in 2010. All lignite is produced in the lower South Island.

2010 national coal production totalled 5.3 million tonnes from 21 mines. Production totals and the number of mines annotated on this map are not exhaustive. Northland

Hikurangi Kamo

Huntly Coalfield 430 kt SB

Most production is of bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Although lignite makes up 80% of national coal resources, lignite production of 295,000 tonnes in 2010 represented only 6% of total production, partly as a consequence of distance from the main centres of energy demand.

Maramarua

Waikato Rotowaro Coalfield 1,489 kt SB

Huntly Rotowaro

Kawhia

Waikare

Tihiroa Mangapehi

Taranaki Mokau

Production is centred in the Waikato (2.0 million tonnes, mainly for several major industrial users and the Huntly power station), on the West Coast (2.7 million tonnes, mainly for export) and in Southland (0.5 million tonnes, mainly for local industrial markets). The remaining production is from Otago and Canterbury. Five underground and 16 opencast mines were operating in 2010. Over 59% of national production was from two large opencast operations, at Rotowaro and Stockton. Stateowned Solid Energy was responsible for over 82% of national production. A number of smaller private coal mining companies produced the remainder.

There are 54 current permits and 31 licences issued by Crown Minerals to mine coal, many of which cover small mines that are not producing, and 50 coal exploration permits. The Crown owns only about half of New Zealand’s coal resources, and mining of privately owned coal is not subject to the Crown Minerals Act 1991, although preceding legislation covers mining of some privately owned coal.

Waitewhena OhuraTangarakakau

Table C.1: Production by Mining Method, Rank and Region for 2010 (kt) 2010 Rank Bituminous

Buller Coalfield

tonnes

1,642 kt B

Waikato

Buller

NORTH ISLAND

Inangahua Reefton

Nelson-Westland

Garvey Creek Pike River

Greymouth Coalfield

Greymouth

759 kt B Malvern Hills

-

Method

Sub-bituminous

Δ2009/2010

tonnes

Δ2009/2010

0%

2,042.7

17%

Lignite tonnes

Opencast

Δ2009/2010

Underground

tonnes

Δ2009/2010

tonnes

-

0%

1,648.1

19%

394.6

-

0%

1,648.1

19%

0% 0% 69% 13%

1,753.8 36.7 76.1 464.4

16% 27% 7% -3%

Δ2009/2010

Total tonnes

Δ2009/2010

8%

2,042.7

17%

394.6

8%

2,042.7

17%

956.8 -

32% 0% 0% 0%

2,710.6 36.7 76.1 464.4

21% 27% 7% -3%

0%

2,042.7

17%

West Coast Canterbury Otago Southland

2,597.4 -

25% 0% 0% 0%

113.2 36.7 72.2 173.4

-25% 27% 5% -22%

SOUTH ISLAND

2,597.4

25%

395.5

-16%

294.9

14%

2,331.0

11%

956.8

32%

3,287.9

17%

NEW ZEALAND

2,597.4

25%

2,438.2

10%

294.9

14%

3,979.1

15%

1,351.4

24%

5,330.5

17%

3.9 291.0

Mt. Somers

Canterbury

St. Bathans

Ohai Coalfield 173 kt SB

Mine Production 2009

Roxburgh

kt = kilotonnes B = Bituminous SB = Sub-bituminous L = Lignite

Otago Ohai Kaitangata

Southland

Southland Lignites 291 kt L 0

200 km

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Exports Most of New Zealand’s premium bituminous coal production is exported. These coals are valued internationally for their low ash and sulphur contents, and other characteristics such as high swelling, uidity and reactivity, which allow them to be blended with other coals for use in the steel industry1. 1

West Coast bituminous coals are not suitable for the New Zealand Steel plant.

Exports of bituminous coal, produced entirely from the West Coast, were 75.3 PJ or 2.3 million tonnes for 2010, up 16% from 2009 levels due to the production at the Stockton mine returning to more normal levels. New Zealand coal is exported mainly to India and Japan, with smaller quantities going to Chile, South Africa, Brazil, China, USA and Australia. Most exports are of coking coal, with smaller amounts of thermal and specialist coals.

Imports

Consumption

The shortfall of North Island production over demand was met by imports of 5.85 PJ or 0.26 million tonnes in 2009, virtually all for the Huntly power station. This was 62% lower than 2009 due to reductions in coal use for electricity generation (Figure C.4).

Coal accounts for approximately 4% of New Zealand’s total consumer energy supply. New Zealand used 2.7 million tonnes (58.2 PJ) of coal in 2010, down 23% from 2009 levels. The biggest domestic users in 2010 were the Huntly power station (around 0.6 million tonnes) and the Glenbrook steel mill (around 0.8 million tonnes). Figure C.5 shows coal consumption by sector.

&IGURE##OAL)MPORTSAND%XPORTS 1+

In 2010, electricity generation (including cogeneration) accounted for 37% of domestic coal use, other transformation (mainly steel making) 19%, the industrial sector 37% and the commercial sector 2%. Industrial coal use was primarily for cement, lime and plaster, meat, dairy and other food processing, wool, timber, and pulp and paper products. Commercial coal use was mainly for heating accommodation and service buildings in central and local government, hospitals, rest homes and educational institutions. The remaining 4% was used by the agricultural (mainly horticulture), transport and residential sectors.

More information on the New Zealand coal industry is available at the New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals website: www.nzpam.govt.nz/cms/coal/



Table C.2: Coal Energy Balance (Gross PJ)

 

Converted into Petajoules using Gross CaloriďŹ c Values

 

2007

2008

2009

2010

150.03 28.07 85.24 7.46

124.82 16.85 63.67 3.94

125.05 13.85 78.51 (23.87)

117.44 15.58 65.13 2.29

138.53 5.85 75.27 11.11

-2.0% -32.4% -3.1% n.a.

18.0% -62.5% 15.6% n.a.

85.41

74.06

84.26

65.60

58.00

-9.2%

-11.6%

(69.12)

(44.16)

(60.05)

(44.53)

(32.95)

-16.9%

-26.0%

(50.99) (8.23) (9.47) (0.44)

(26.07) (7.73) (9.92) (0.44)

(43.09) (7.36) (9.17) (0.44)

(27.45) (7.10) (9.69) (0.29)

(13.66) (8.12) (10.58) (0.59)

-28.1% -0.3% 2.8% 7.6%

-50.2% 14.3% 9.1% 102.6%

16.30

29.90

24.20

21.06

25.05

11.3%

18.9%

1.98 20.49 1.74 0.08 0.69

1.46 23.37 2.13 0.08 0.55

1.74 24.38 2.35 0.08 0.36

0.85 19.59 1.29 0.02 0.86

1.91 21.29 1.43 0.05 0.54

-0.9% 1.0% -4.7% -12.1% -5.9%

123.5% 8.6% 11.3% 152.8% -37.2%

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

24.97

27.59

28.91

22.61

25.21

0.2%

11.5%

Statistical Differences

(8.68)

(0.17)

n.a.

n.a.



+ -

 SUPPLY

 

&YQPSUT

Indigenous Production Imports Exports Stock Change

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Other Transformation Losses and Own Use













































*NQPSUT

Electricity Generation 37.5% Industrial 36.6% Other Transformation 19.2%

DEMAND

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

Figure C.5: Coal Consumption by Sector for 2010

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

2006

Agriculture Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

2.30

(4.70)

(1.55)

Δ2009/2010

Agriculture 3.3% Commercial 2.5% Residential 0.9%

Notes to Table C.2: n.a. = Not applicable.

34 Energy Data File | 2011

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Figure C.6: Coal Energy Flow Diagram for 2010

Table C.3: Coal Supply and Calculated Consumption (Gross PJ)

GENERATORS2

Production

Delivery

Use

Own Use1 0.6 Stock Change 11.1

80.9

Bituminous

Exports 75.3

138.5

Imports 5.8

Total Local Production

126.8

21.8

Electricity

57.4 53.1

Sub-bituminous 10.6

51.6

Lignite

3.9 Calculated 57.4

Petajoules (to approximate vertical scale)

Subbituminous Production

Lignite Production

Total Production

1974

13.24

44.93

2.21

60.38

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

14.35 13.98 12.20 11.41 12.04

40.88 42.07 40.83 37.49 30.46

2.10 2.61 2.51 2.32 3.21

57.33 58.66 55.54 51.22 45.71

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

15.10 14.91 13.42 15.57 18.27

33.12 33.94 35.85 39.39 38.42

3.19 3.26 3.41 3.46 3.61

51.42 52.10 52.68 58.42 60.30

2.91 3.66 5.29 5.87 11.68

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

20.03 18.48 14.22 18.85 24.25

33.85 37.91 34.47 37.16 40.03

3.78 3.72 3.60 2.83 2.45

57.65 60.11 52.29 58.84 66.73

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20.80 23.18 29.52 38.31 39.69

39.48 40.00 42.65 43.43 34.09

2.45 2.62 2.76 2.82 3.86

62.73 65.80 74.93 84.56 77.64

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

54.04 59.17 43.61 36.39 50.80

37.28 33.61 44.49 39.80 37.58

3.90 4.43 3.36 3.26 3.32

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

53.07 59.75 71.41 73.73 79.51

34.94 40.85 44.39 57.77 53.61

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

79.96 86.59 63.57 73.24 65.09 80.88

Industrial

Some totals may not add up due to rounding.

29.28 28.91 25.52 29.55 28.48

2.03 -1.15 -1.88 8.17 5.76

23.27 23.50 28.26 24.86 28.60

26.28 15.99 21.04 23.86 19.56

27.53 25.76 24.68 23.28 20.75

-1.25 -9.77 -3.64 0.58 -1.19

-3.97 -11.66 11.75 -5.79 2.52

25.80 31.76 31.26 51.11 61.28

21.51 27.74 17.57 30.84 33.11

21.20 26.80 27.29 32.91 25.34

0.31 0.94 -9.72 -2.07 7.77

73.45 85.24 63.67 78.51 65.13 75.27

-6.04 7.46 3.94 -23.87 2.29 11.11

72.11 69.12 44.16 60.05 44.53 32.95

24.67 16.30 29.90 24.20 21.06 25.05

23.65 24.97 27.59 28.91 22.61 25.21

1.01 -8.68 2.30 -4.70 -1.55 -0.17

16.08

35.43

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01

10.53 19.12 24.15 24.71 32.74

-0.21 -9.90

20.90 18.95 27.17 22.35 20.59

95.21 97.21 91.47 79.44 91.71

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

42.71 50.90 40.20 33.33 50.62

2.96 6.83 1.96 -2.61 -7.07

3.33 3.18 3.52 3.99 3.86

91.35 103.79 119.32 135.49 136.98

0.48 0.91 2.28 10.13 20.06

48.48 56.85 61.02 69.46 60.13

55.54 59.44 57.13 48.01 48.38 53.14

3.93 4.01 4.12 3.80 3.97 4.51

139.43 150.03 124.82 125.05 117.44 138.53

24.75 28.07 16.85 13.85 15.58 5.85

Exports

Stock Change3 R

16.37 19.56 19.32 9.84

14.08 12.88 12.62 8.80

1.18 0.75 0.69 1.35

31.63 33.18 32.64 19.98

4.00 4.13 2.00 5.44

15.62 21.61 15.76 12.14

9.02 -5.05 0.39 -2.07

9.30 13.53 12.32 9.39

1.69 7.24 6.17 5.97

4.04 6.24 5.42 6.91

-2.36 1.00 0.75 -0.94

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

20.65 20.15 22.22 17.87

11.93 17.55 11.61 12.06

1.35 0.93 0.85 1.37

33.93 38.62 34.68 31.30

1.26 2.68 1.89 0.01

17.75 18.20 20.12 19.20

2.92 4.82 3.90 -0.53

9.90 7.89 6.82 8.34

4.62 10.39 5.73 4.30

6.42 7.46 5.61 5.73

-1.79 2.93 0.13 -1.43

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-1.7%

-2.8%

3.0%

-2.0%

-32.4%

-3.1%

10.5%

-16.9%

11.3%

0.2%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

24.3%

9.8%

13.7%

18.0%

-62.5%

15.6%

385.6%

-26.0%

18.9%

11.5%

n.a.

Other2 (Statistical difference -0.2)

Observed 57.6

Notes to Table C.3: 1 Imports are bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. 2

Majority of coal exports are bituminous rank.

4 Includes electricity generation, cogeneration, and losses and own use. 5

Revised from 1989 to 2008.

n.a. = Not applicable. R

distribution losses.

31.31 27.76 23.64 37.72 34.24

0.02

13.04 8.84 9.40 11.44 15.24

Stock change figures include coal at Huntly power station, NZ Steel and coal production sites.

2

Statistical Difference

Calculated

Imports

2

Mar Jun Sep Dec

3

Notes to Figure C.6: 1 “Own Use” includes free use at mines and

Observed

Energy Transformation4, 5

1

2009

Domestic Delivery

21.3

4.5

Other Transformation

Consumer Energy

Bituminous Production

Calendar Year or Quarter

= Revised figures.

Includes commercial, residential, agriculture and transport.

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C. Coal

C. Coal

Table C.4: Summary of Observed Coal Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

Figure C.7: Summary of Observed Coal Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

Energy Transformation

110

3.84 2.65 1.53 1.24 1.28

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

29.28 28.91 25.52 29.55 28.48

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

6.04 6.62 12.90 8.26 12.01

3.20 3.15 3.96 7.50 7.13

13.59 13.30 10.97 8.67 9.02

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

23.27 23.50 28.26 24.86 28.60

0.99 1.03 0.91 0.76 0.49

22.16 21.22 20.39 19.31 17.31

3.03 2.22 2.05 1.82 1.70

1.26 1.20 1.25 1.31 1.17

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

27.53 25.76 24.68 23.28 20.75

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

9.69 14.83 14.87 32.53 42.58

7.14 7.79 7.23 8.64 8.44

8.54 8.70 8.72 9.51 9.82

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

25.80 31.76 31.26 51.11 61.28

0.58 0.59 0.63 0.55 0.53

17.57 22.73 23.33 28.42 21.37

1.89 2.68 2.65 3.03 2.48

1.08 0.72 0.60 0.82 0.87

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

21.20 26.80 27.29 32.91 25.34

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

53.94 50.99 26.07 43.09 27.45 13.66

7.88 8.23 7.73 7.36 7.10 8.12

9.85 9.47 9.92 9.17 9.69 10.58

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.29 0.59

72.11 69.12 44.16 60.05 44.53 32.95

1.22 1.98 1.46 1.74 0.85 1.91

19.59 20.49 23.37 24.38 19.59 21.29

1.88 1.74 2.13 2.35 1.29 1.43

0.88 0.69 0.55 0.36 0.86 0.54

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.05

23.65 24.97 27.59 28.91 22.61 25.21

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

4.91 9.56 7.94 5.04

1.97 1.72 1.74 1.68

2.33 2.20 2.60 2.57

0.10 0.05 0.05 0.09

9.30 13.53 12.32 9.39

0.02 0.04 0.41 0.38

3.54 5.43 4.46 6.16

0.30 0.38 0.34 0.27

0.18 0.39 0.20 0.09

0.00 0.02

4.04 6.24 5.42 6.91

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5.01 2.89 2.13 3.63

2.05 2.15 2.02 1.90

2.59 2.81 2.60 2.58

0.25 0.04 0.07 0.23

9.90 7.89 6.82 8.34

0.52 0.78 0.57 0.04

5.60 6.03 4.40 5.26

0.21 0.44 0.44 0.34

0.07 0.20 0.18 0.08

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01

6.42 7.46 5.61 5.73

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-28.1%

-0.3%

2.8%

7.6%

-16.9%

-0.9%

1.0%

-4.7%

-5.9%

-12.1%

0.2%

Δ2009/2010

-50.2%

14.3%

9.1%

102.6%

-26.0%

123.5%

8.6%

11.3%

-37.2%

152.8%

11.5%

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Electricity1

Cogeneration

Other Transformation

Industrial2

Commercial3

Residential

2010

1.55 1.58 1.45 1.70 1.65

2009

23.42 24.22 22.11 26.16 24.75

2008

0.39 0.38 0.35 0.37 0.72

2007

20.90 18.95 27.17 22.35 20.59

2006

0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

2005

12.89 13.22 14.18 14.09 12.82

2004

2.37 2.87 2.87 3.10 3.21

2003

5.21 2.42 9.68 4.73 4.12

2002

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

2001

Total

2000

Transport1

1999

Residential

1998

Commercial

1997

IndustrialR

1996

Agriculture

1995

Total

1994

Losses and Own Use3

1993

Other Transformation

1992

Cogeneration

1991

Electricity Generation

1990

Calendar Year or Quarter

PJ

Consumer Energy

Agriculture

Notes to Figure C.7: 1 Includes losses and own use. 2 Excludes cogeneration. 3 Includes transport.

Notes to Table C.4: 1 Estimated up to and including 2008. R

= Revised figures.

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C. Coal

D. Oil

Table C.5: Coal Consumption – Breakdown by Sector for 2010 (Gross TJ)

Figure D.1a: Oil Industry Summary for 20101

ANZSIC 20061 Energy Transformation: D2611 n.a. n.a. n.a.

Agriculture

A01, A02 & A05

Industrial use of: Mining Steel manufacturing Non-Steel Metal manufacturing Metal Product manufacturing Wood, Pulp and Paper Product manufacturing Non-Metallic Mineral Product manufacturing Chemical Product manufacturing Meat manufacturing Dairy manufacturing Other Food Product manufacturing Textile, Leather, Clothing, Footwear manufacturing Mechanical/Electrical Equipment manufacturing Furniture and Other manufacturing Building and Construction Gas and Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Services Commercial: Health Care and Social Assistance Education and Training Other Services

CONSUMER ENERGY

Electricity Generation Cogeneration Other Transformation Losses and Own Use

B C211 C213 C22, C212 & C214 C14 & C15 C20 C18 C111 & C112 C113 C112, C114 - C122 C13 C23-C24 C25 E D27

Q P D28-29, F-S excl P, Q

Bituminous

Sub-bituminous

401.55

32,264.44

Lignite 283.37

32,949.35

401.55

13,661.42 7,838.12 10,581.22 183.67

283.37 -

13,661.42 8,121.49 10,581.22 585.22

56.70

1,830.32

22.71

1,909.74

7,264.90 3,364.67 834.99 1,071.99 252.47 1,740.77 -

11,053.73 14.42 637.08 778.04 1,203.72 7,462.08 556.70 237.66 21.19 58.72 84.11 -

2,967.13 51.42 7.33 515.06 2,242.56 150.77 -

21,285.77 14.42 688.50 4,150.04 2,553.77 10,776.63 959.94 237.66 21.19 1,799.49 84.11 -

350.84 115.97 -

541.90 385.98 19.46

542.08 431.30 -

1,434.82 933.25 19.46

234.87

136.46

110.79

482.12

Transport

n.a.

6.40

41.32

Residential

n.a.

4.38

235.62

296.85

536.85

7,683.23

13,702.88

3,828.78

25,214.89

TOTAL CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

-

Total

FIELDS BY PRODUCTION

Kupe 9.6%

Maari 33.0%

Tui 18.4%

Pohokura 21.0%

Maui 9.4%

Ngatoro2 0.9% McKee/ Mangahewa 1.9%

PRODUCERS

Origin Energy 50% Genesis Energy 31% NZOG 15% Mitsui E&P 4% Operator: Origin Energy

OMV 69%

AWE 42.5%

Todd 16%

NZOG 12.5%

Shell (Exp) 48%

Shell 83.75% Todd Energy 6.25%

Horizon 10%

Pan Pacific 10%

OMV 26%

Cue Taranaki 5%

Mitsui E&P 35%

Todd Energy 26%

Operator: AWE

Operator: Shell

Operator: OMV

Todd Energy 100%

OMV 10%

Operator: Todd Energy

Turangi 1.2%

Kapuni 2.1%

1.3% TAWN

Kowhai 1.3%

Rimu

Other3

Greymouth 100%

Origin Energy 100%

Operator: Greymouth

Operator: Origin Energy

Operator: Shell Todd Oil Services

Shell 50% Todd Energy 50% Operator: Shell Todd Oil Services

Oil Imports4

McKee Blend5

REFINERS/ BLENDERS

Refinery Feedstocks

New Zealand Refining Company Owned by: BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Greenstone Energy and others Refined Products

WHOLESALERS

BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Greenstone Oil products are distributed via pipeline (from the refinery only), coastal tanker and/or road.

Gull

47.72

DISTRIBUTORS Independent Distributors

Notes to Table C.5: n.a. = Not applicable.

RETAILERS

BP, Caltex, Mobil, Greenstone

Independent Service Stations

Gull

CONSUMERS Exports

Agriculture

Transport

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable and subsidiaries are listed as the parent company. The companies are: AWE is Australian Worldwide Exploration Limited, Chevron is Chevron NZ (includes Caltex New Zealand Limited), Greymouth is Greymouth Petroleum Holdings Limited, Mitsui E&P is Mitsui E&P Australia Pty, ExxonMobil is ExxonMobil New Zealand Holdings (includes Mobil Oil New Zealand Limited), NZOG is New Zealand Oil and Gas, OMV is OMV New Zealand Limited (Österr Mineralöl Verwaltung), Origin Energy is Origin Energy New Zealand Ltd and Contact Energy (51% owned by Origin), Shell is Shell NZ Limited (includes Shell Exploration NZ Limited, Shell (Petroleum Mining) Co Limited, Energy Petroleum Holdings Limited, Energy Petroleum Investments Ltd, Energy Petroleum Taranaki Ltd and Taranaki Offshore Petroleum Company), TAWN comprises the Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa and Ngaere fields.

Notes to Figure D.1a: 1 Ownership as at 31 December 2010. Kaimiro, Ngatoro and Windsor fields were combined as a single permit area in 2010, all these fields are included here, as is Moturoa. 2

4 Crude and refined product are imported by the four large oil companies. Refined product is imported by Gull Petroleum. 5

Source: Shell NZ Limited.

Includes Cheal and Surrey fields, and Radnor well. Cheal is owned by Cheal Petroleum Limited, a wholly owned subsidary of TAG Oil Limited. Surrey is owned and operated by Greymouth Petroleum.

3

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Overview of New Zealand’s Oil Industry Introduction

Crude Oil

Oil is New Zealand’s largest source of energy. This chapter covers all aspects of oil, from the well (production) to consumption (end use). Units of volume (usually million barrels) are used for the discussion of oil production statistics alongside the energy units because this allows comparison with the Reserves section (Section H). Energy units (petajoules) are used for discussion of transformation and consumption statistics because this allows comparison between the different oil product types (i.e. a litre of petrol and a litre of diesel have different energy contents, and these fuels are used for energy purposes). Percentage changes between annual statistics were calculated from gross petajoules for consistency.

Ownership Most of the mining permits for the large ďŹ elds are jointly owned, with the bulk of investment coming from foreign companies. There were no signiďŹ cant changes of ownership at producing ďŹ elds in 2010. A full breakdown of (producing) ďŹ eld ownership is shown in Figure D.1a.

Production

New Zealand’s oil is extracted from 19 ďŹ elds in the Taranaki region. Total oil production in 2010 was the fourth highest in a calendar year (19 million barrels or 116 PJ), down 4.3% on 2009. New Zealand’s mean production rate was 52,900 barrels per day for 2010 (down from the peak production of 58,700 barrels per day in 2008). Maari and The data used to compile this publication are Pohokura dominated production in 2010; available online at www.med.govt.nz/ these ďŹ elds contributed 54% of New energy/data/oil. Zealand’s oil. Figure D.1b shows the percentage oil production by ďŹ eld.

Production at Tui oil ďŹ eld was down by 45% in 2010, whereas Kupe, New Zealand’s newest producing oil / gas ďŹ eld, produced 1.9 million barrels (11.2 PJ) of oil in its ďŹ rst full year of production. Historically, New Zealand’s oil consisted of mostly condensate, with some crude oil and naphtha. Recently, however, oil production is mostly crude oil, making up some 62% of the total production, with condensate (35%) and naphtha (3%) making up the balance (Figure D.1c).

&IGURE$C/IL0RODUCTIONBY/IL4YPE IN

Figure D.1b: Oil Production by Field in 2010

Exploration and Permitting For information regarding oil and gas exploration see Section H (Oil and Gas Reserves). Detailed information on current and historical petroleum permits can be found on the New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals website, www.nzpam.govt.nz. The website also contains industry overviews, free technical data, maps and latest news from the industry.

Imports and Exports Figure D.1d shows imports of crude oil by country of origin for the 2010 calendar year. Over half (59%) of all imported oil in 2010 was produced in the Middle East, 28% originated in Asia, 4% was produced in Australia, with the balance (9%) imported from Russia. Overall, crude oil and blendstock imports were up by 7% (to 233 PJ) in the 2010 calendar year.

Figure D.1d: 2010 Crude Oil Imports by Country of Origin

New Zealand’s oil exports increased by 3% in 2010 to 111 PJ (18 million barrels) of crude oil, the second highest in a calendar year. Most oil produced in New Zealand is exported (95% in 2010) due to its high quality and consequent high value on the international market. Australia, Japan and South Korea purchase the majority of this oil.

ReďŹ nery The Marsden Point Oil ReďŹ nery is New Zealand’s only oil reďŹ nery. It is operated by the New Zealand ReďŹ ning Company (NZRC) and is located near Whangarei. It started operating in 1964 and has had two major expansions in 1985 and 2009. The reďŹ nery is now capable of processing around 135,000 barrels of crude oil per day.

of just under 73%. The reďŹ nery produces petrol, diesel, jet-A1, fuel oil, bitumen and other petroleum products — but not aviation gasoline or lubricants. Sulphur is recovered as a by-product and sold as a feedstock to the fertiliser industry. Carbon dioxide is also recovered and sold to the beverage industry. The majority of NZRC products are consumed in New Zealand. In 2010, the reďŹ nery had a total intake of 237 PJ (38.8 million barrels), of which 5 PJ (2%) was supplied by domestic production. Total reďŹ nery intake was up by 4% in 2010, and domestic production of oil products was up by 3%.

Figure D.1e demonstrates the amount of each product produced over the year as a NZRC processes crude oil and condensate for percentage of total reďŹ nery input. For 2010 the reďŹ nery’s feedstocks were converted into the four major oil companies active in New 35% diesel, 21% regular petrol, 19% aviation Zealand: BP, Chevron (Caltex), ExxonMobil fuels, 10% fuel oil, 7% premium petrol, and (Mobil) and Greenstone Energy (formerly Shell). Each of the major oil companies has a 6% other petroleum products (the remaining stake in NZRC, with a combined shareholding 6% was losses and own use).

Figure D.1e: 2010 ReďŹ nery Output

21% Regular1 $SVEF0JM $POEFOTBUF

7% Premium2

/BQIUIB

19% Aviation Fuel

35% Diesel Maari 33.0% Pohokura 21.0% Tui 18.4%

Middle East 59.4%

Kupe 9.6%

Qatar 20.7%

Indonesia 13.0%

Maui 9.4%

Abu Dhabi 11.5%

Brunei 7.4%

Kapuni 2.1%

Other Middle East 11.0%

Malaysia 6.3%

Kowhai 1.3%

United Arab Emirates 8.3%

Others 1.3%

Thailand 0.5%

Iraq 3.8%

Korea 0.4%

Saudi Arabia 3.3%

Vietnam 0.4%

Turangi 1.2% Mangahewa 1.2% Ngatoro 0.9%

Asia 28.0%

Iran 0.8% Russia 8.9%

McKee 0.7%

Australia 3.7%

10% Fuel Oil 6% Other Petroleum Products3 6% Losses and Own Use

Notes to Figure D.1e: 1 91 Octane 2

95-98 Octane

3

Includes bitumen and other liquid fuels

This product outturn is indicative only. Actual production depends on refinery configuration and crude type.

42 Energy Data File | 2011

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D. Oil

Net Oil Import Dependency is the ratio of net imports3 to consumption. It shows how reliant a country is on oil imports to meet local demand. This ratio can be improved (i.e. made smaller) by either reducing demand or increasing local production.

Coastal tankers and import vessels are used to move bulk shipments of product around the country to various port storage facilities. The NZRC also owns and operates a 170 km long petroleum pipeline that runs from Marsden Point to the Wiri depot, located in South Auckland near Auckland International Airport. Wiri Oil Services operates a second pipeline that carries jet fuel from Wiri to Auckland International Airport.

Consumption of oil products has been flat in recent years, and 2010 continues this trend. This represents a departure from the historical trend, which saw 3% annual growth between 1985 and 2007. Demand for petrol and diesel was similar to 2009 levels, fuel oil demand was down 3%, and aviation fuel demand was up 3%.

The flat demand in 2010 reflects the challenging economic climate in 2009 and Road tankers are used to distribute products 2010. New Zealand’s GDP was down 1.6% in from bulk storage facilities to service 2009, and a further 0.7% in 2010 (in real stations and major users. This final stage of terms)2. Oil prices in 2010 were also higher distribution is run in two ways: oil companies than in 2009 — the average regular petrol employing independent distributors to and diesel retail prices were up by 8% and distribute fuel on their behalf, and 12% in real terms in 2010. independent distributors purchasing fuel from bulk storage facilities at wholesale prices, then selling this fuel to their own customers. Independent distributors who purchase fuel and then on-sell it are referred to as “resellers”. Gull Petroleum Limited operates its own independent petroleum storage terminal at Mount Maunganui. Products are transported from Mount Maunganui to Gull’s retail outlets by road tanker.

In 2010, the independent distributors delivered 24% (655 million litres) of New Zealand’s diesel demand, and 5% (162 million litres) of petrol demand in New Zealand. Fuel deliveries made by independent distributors between 1990 and 2006 have been estimated (no information was available for these years). The report Delivering the Diesel – Liquid Fuel Deliveries in New Zealand 1990 –2008 outlines the methodology employed to perform this calculation; it is available for download from the MED website (www.med.govt.nz/energy/ delivering-the-diesel/).

Since 1990, New Zealand’s Net Oil Import Dependency has experienced two periods of significant improvement: firstly in 1996 as production from the Maui field increased markedly, and then from 2006 as production from the Tui, Pohokura and Maari fields began. In 2010, Net Oil Import dependency3 was 49%, much the same as it was in 2009. This means that New Zealand produced enough oil to meet 51% of its demand.

Figure D.1f: Net Oil Import Dependency % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

Refinery production of petroleum products increased by 6 PJ (or 3%) to 221 PJ (99,150 barrels of oil equivalent per day) in 2010 through increased refinery capacity and utilisation. Consequently, imports of refined oil products decreased by 17% to 78 PJ in 2010. Observed domestic demand for refined oil products in 2010 was very similar to 2009 (down by 0.4%) at 265 PJ (118,400 barrels of oil equivalent per day).

10

1

2

Other oil products consumption is mostly non-energy use. This includes bitumen, waxes, lubricants and solvents, as well as by-products of oil refining (hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas).

3

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

indigenous production

( observed consumption )

It represents the share of oil that is imported to satisfy demand.

44 Energy Data File | 2011

2003

2002

2001

2000

Net oil import dependency is calculated as: 1-

March year end data. Statistics NZ December Quarter 2010 GDP update — Series ref: S1RB01S.

1999

1990

0 1998

NZRC produces a full range of petroleum products and supplied approximately 84% of the New Zealand market in 2010. The remaining product is imported from foreign refineries, predominately located in Singapore and South Korea. There are around 15–20 tanker movements per month importing crude oil, feedstocks and refined products to New Zealand.

Independent distributors deliver an increasing amount of fuel directly to consumers. This reflects the oil companies, pulling out of the fuel distribution market.

1997

Production, Imports and Exports

Observed consumption data for 2010 showed a very similar level of consumption to 2009, up 0.6% on the 2009 demand. Petrol and diesel continue to dominate fuel consumption in New Zealand; in 2010 41% of total oil consumer energy was from petrol, and 39% of total oil consumer energy was from diesel. Aviation fuels (6%), fuel oil (3%), LPG (3%) and other oil products1 (9%) made up the remaining consumption.

1996

The total consumption of biofuels in New Zealand in 2010 was 7.0 million litres (1.6 million litres of biodiesel and 5.5 million litres of bio-ethanol). Consumption of biodiesel and bio-ethanol in New Zealand was up by 44% and 48% respectively in 2010.

The four major oil companies own bulk storage facilities throughout New Zealand and have agreements in place that allow access to other companies’ storage facilities. This enables the companies to draw stock from any location, if they have authorisation and sufficient stock in another location. This pooled storage system allows the companies to jointly manage stock levels and coordinate import shipments.

1995

Biodiesel producers also distribute their products directly to some customers. The available blends include B20 (20% biodiesel), B5 (5% biodiesel) and B100 (pure biodiesel).

Net Oil Import Dependency

1994

Gull was the first oil company to sell biofuels in New Zealand: a 10% blend of bio-ethanol and petrol. Mobil has since made blends of petrol and bio-ethanol available in the lower North Island (a 10% blend of bio-ethanol and petrol, and a 3% blend of bio-ethanol and petrol).

Independent Distributors

1993

The petroleum product wholesalers in New Zealand comprise five companies: BP, Chevron (Caltex and Challenge), ExxonMobil (Mobil), Greenstone Energy (formerly Shell and now Z Energy) and Gull. BP, Caltex, Mobil and Greenstone dominate the market and supply a full range of products. Gull has a smaller market share and has limited its participation to petrol, diesel and blended biofuel sales.

Consumption

1992

Wholesalers

Distribution and Storage

1991

Petroleum Products

D. Oil

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Figure D.1g: Oil Energy Flow Summary for 2010

Table D.1: Oil Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

Calendar Year Converted into Petajoules using Gross Calorific Values

Refinery

Finished Products

Use (approximate size) SUPPLY

Exports 5.1 Stock Change -4.5 Own Use 2.3 Exports 109.2 Stock Change 1.7 114.4

Indigenous Production

2.3

Residential

20.7

Non-energy Use

16.2

Agriculture

Indigenous Production Imports Exports Stock Change International Transport

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production Other Transformation Losses and Own Use

Non-energy Use CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

Imports 22.7

Commercial and Industrial

78.8

Refinery Own Use 15.2

+ -

DEMAND

Crude Oil, Condensate, Blendstocks, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed) Statistical Differences

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

Δ2009/20010

45.79 309.53 35.41 -6.32 45.17

93.47 323.43 80.55 6.27 47.05

131.86 326.61 128.94 -0.55 48.98

124.67 317.58 116.45 0.42 47.00

123.37 311.43 115.67 -2.79 48.43

28.1% 0.2% 34.4% n.a. 1.8%

-1.0% -1.9% -0.7% n.a. 3.0%

281.07

283.03

281.10

278.37

273.50

-0.7%

-1.7%

-8.92

-5.01

-9.25

-5.99

-9.07

0.4%

51.4%

-0.23

-0.01

-1.43

-0.10

-0.02

-5.81

-2.43

-4.93

-3.33

-6.76

-2.87

-2.58

-2.90

-2.57

-2.30

-46.9% n.a. 3.8% n.a. -5.4%

-81.3% n.a. 102.9% n.a. -10.3%

-19.93

-19.65

-20.15

-18.43

-20.66

0.9%

12.0%

252.22

258.36

251.70

253.94

243.77

-0.8%

-4.0%

22.17 19.00 5.73 202.38 2.95

21.86 20.31 6.02 204.41 3.13

20.26 18.93 6.22 204.63 2.66

18.31 17.24 4.94 201.86 2.51

17.14 14.98 5.88 203.88 2.29

-6.2% -5.8% 0.7% 0.2% -6.1%

-6.4% -13.1% 19.2% 1.0% -8.8%

252.22

255.73

252.70

244.86

244.18

-0.8%

-0.3%

0.00

2.64

-1.00

9.08

-0.41

312.8

232.7

Imports

236.6

Refinery

229.9

203.6

Transport

48.4

International Transport

237.0

Petajoules (to approximate vertical scale)

46 Energy Data File | 2011

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Table D.2a: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Mm3)

Table D.2b: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (mmbbls)

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2, R

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

0.067 0.128 0.178 0.205 0.219

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.067 0.128 0.178 0.205 0.219

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

0.421 0.805 1.120 1.289 1.378

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.421 0.805 1.120 1.289 1.378

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

0.124

0.226 0.600 0.861 0.727 0.343

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.226 0.600 0.861 0.727 0.467

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

0.783

1.423 3.776 5.415 4.573 2.155

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.423 3.776 5.415 4.573 2.937

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

0.184 0.265 0.507 0.483 0.587

0.235 0.285 0.359 0.363 0.375

-

-

-

-

0.000 0.015 0.006 0.007 0.126

-

-

-

0.001 0.001

0.006 0.073

0.419 0.565 0.871 0.859 1.161

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

1.155 1.667 3.187 3.036 3.692

1.480 1.793 2.256 2.281 2.357

-

-

-

-

0.001 0.093 0.036 0.041 0.790

-

-

-

0.005 0.004

0.040 0.458

2.636 3.553 5.479 5.403 7.301

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

0.688 0.829 0.791 0.859 0.870

0.403 0.375 0.329 0.357 0.353

-

-

-

-

0.455 0.504 0.510 0.581 0.615

-

-

-

0.005 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004

0.003 0.002 0.157 0.330

1.554 1.714 1.634 1.959 2.172

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

4.325 5.214 4.977 5.405 5.473

2.534 2.361 2.067 2.247 2.222

-

-

-

-

2.863 3.172 3.205 3.653 3.868

-

-

-

0.029 0.023 0.028 0.027 0.027

0.020 0.012 0.988 2.074

9.772 10.783 10.276 12.320 13.664

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

0.867 0.898 0.981 1.016 0.964

0.323 0.314 0.310 0.286 0.275

-

-

-

-

0.579 0.511 0.410 0.387 0.357

-

-

-

0.007 0.011 0.032 0.056 0.057

0.436 0.598 0.489 0.610 0.577

2.212 2.333 2.222 2.355 2.230

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

5.453 5.651 6.168 6.389 6.065

2.030 1.974 1.952 1.800 1.728

-

-

-

-

3.642 3.214 2.581 2.432 2.248

-

-

-

0.046 0.070 0.201 0.353 0.361

2.744 3.762 3.074 3.839 3.627

13.915 14.671 13.977 14.814 14.028

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1.091 1.782 2.641 2.002 1.749

0.226 0.232 0.192 0.180 0.162

-

-

-

-

0.356 0.316 0.298 0.293 0.272

0.001 0.005 -

-

-

0.083 0.114 0.140 0.108 0.090

0.184 0.143 0.144 0.140 0.107

1.940 2.587 3.417 2.728 2.379

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

6.864 11.206 16.613 12.595 11.001

1.419 1.458 1.206 1.130 1.018

-

-

-

-

2.237 1.988 1.876 1.844 1.712

0.007 0.029 -

-

-

0.521 0.719 0.882 0.681 0.565

1.159 0.902 0.908 0.882 0.671

12.200 16.273 21.492 17.161 14.966

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1.602 1.471 1.372 1.027 0.814

0.139 0.131 0.123 0.102 0.141

-

-

-

-

0.191 0.178 0.098 0.091 0.080

0.008 0.022 0.017 0.016

-

-

0.084 0.110 0.084 0.058 0.073

0.076 0.092 0.091 0.091 0.086

2.092 1.989 1.790 1.386 1.211

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

10.077 9.254 8.627 6.457 5.123

0.875 0.825 0.776 0.643 0.888

-

-

-

-

1.201 1.118 0.619 0.574 0.504

0.050 0.138 0.108 0.100

-

-

0.529 0.691 0.529 0.366 0.458

0.479 0.576 0.570 0.571 0.542

13.161 12.513 11.259 8.719 7.615

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

0.758 0.609 0.341 0.293 0.297 0.308

0.119 0.123 0.105 0.088 0.069 0.068

0.149 0.747 0.730 0.685 0.672

1.007 2.138 0.997 0.551

0.904 0.954

0.015 0.307

0.071 0.056 0.043 0.030 0.028 0.022

0.011 0.011 0.014 0.018 0.041 0.033

0.000 0.011 0.036 0.034 0.056 0.046

0.020 0.038

0.069 0.047 0.036 0.030 0.032 0.029

0.102 0.077 0.058 0.048 0.042 0.041

1.130 1.082 2.387 3.408 3.184 3.069

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

4.770 3.829 2.147 1.845 1.865 1.938

0.746 0.773 0.658 0.551 0.437 0.427

0.937 4.696 4.589 4.308 4.228

6.335 13.450 6.268 3.464

5.683 5.997

0.093 1.931

0.444 0.352 0.272 0.188 0.174 0.139

0.072 0.067 0.085 0.113 0.256 0.209

0.001 0.070 0.227 0.214 0.355 0.289

0.126 0.239

0.436 0.298 0.225 0.187 0.199 0.183

0.642 0.482 0.367 0.300 0.263 0.258

7.110 6.808 15.012 21.437 20.026 19.301

Notes to Table D.2a: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Moturoa field and Goldie well.

Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. 4

R

= Revised figures.

Notes to Table D.2b: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Motorua field and Goldie well.

4 Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. R

= Revised figures.

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D. Oil

D. Oil

Table D.2c: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Thousand Tonnes)

Table D.2d: Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field (Gross PJ)

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

Calendar Year

Maui1

Kapuni2

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro3

Others4

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

52 98 137 158 168

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

52 98 137 158 168

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

2.41 4.60 6.40 7.37 7.88

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.41 4.60 6.40 7.37 7.88

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

94

174 462 662 559 263

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

174 462 662 559 358

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

4.44

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 12.31

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 16.75

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

137 198 375 356 432

180 218 273 276 286

-

-

-

-

0 12 5 5 105

-

-

-

1 1

5 60

317 427 653 643 884

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

6.47 9.31 17.68 16.78 20.38

8.41 10.17 12.76 12.90 13.37

-

-

-

-

0.01 0.57 0.22 0.25 4.79

-

-

-

0.03 0.03

0.24 2.77

14.89 20.05 30.65 30.20 41.33

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

509 619 590 640 648

308 286 250 272 271

-

-

-

-

379 420 424 483 512

-

-

-

4 3 4 3 3

3 2 132 285

1,203 1,330 1,267 1,531 1,719

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

24.01 29.17 27.80 30.17 30.55

14.41 13.39 11.69 12.70 12.65

-

-

-

-

17.36 19.23 19.43 22.15 23.45

-

-

-

0.17 0.14 0.16 0.16 0.16

0.12 0.07 5.93 12.77

56.06 62.00 59.08 71.10 79.57

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

657 663 722 738 734

246 238 235 215 205

-

-

-

-

482 425 341 322 297

-

-

-

6 9 27 47 48

384 530 433 541 511

1,775 1,865 1,758 1,863 1,795

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

30.95 31.23 34.01 34.78 34.57

11.48 11.13 11.00 10.06 9.60

-

-

-

-

22.08 19.48 15.65 14.74 13.63

-

-

-

0.27 0.41 1.08 1.85 1.91

17.23 23.73 19.40 24.22 22.89

82.01 85.99 81.14 85.67 82.59

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

802 1,322 1,978 1,479 1,317

168 172 142 133 120

-

-

-

-

296 263 248 244 226

1 4 -

-

-

68 94 116 90 75

163 124 122 118 89

1,497 1,975 2,608 2,068 1,827

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

37.78 62.28 93.22 69.71 62.05

7.84 8.04 6.66 6.24 5.61

-

-

-

-

13.56 12.05 11.37 11.18 10.38

0.05 0.18 -

-

-

2.86 3.92 4.72 3.65 2.98

7.31 5.59 5.54 5.37 4.05

69.36 91.88 121.56 96.34 85.07

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1,234 1,116 1,051 787 617

103 98 91 76 105

-

-

-

-

159 148 82 76 67

6 18 14 13

-

-

70 91 70 48 60

63 75 74 73 69

1,629 1,533 1,384 1,073 931

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

58.13 52.57 49.50 37.07 29.07

4.82 4.56 4.25 3.54 4.93

-

-

-

-

7.28 6.78 3.75 3.48 3.06

0.32 0.88 0.69 0.64

-

-

2.81 3.51 2.74 2.01 2.46

2.88 3.44 3.39 3.37 3.19

75.93 71.18 64.52 50.16 43.35

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

572 463 257 220 225 231

89 91 77 65 51 51

116 580 567 532 522

819 1,739 810 448

764 803

11 237

59 47 36 25 23 18

9 9 11 14 33 27

0 9 31 28 47 35

16 30

58 40 30 25 27 25

84 62 49 41 36 35

872 835 1,891 2,725 2,574 2,463

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010

26.97 21.80 12.10 10.37 10.60 10.89

4.14 4.26 3.60 3.06 2.40 2.38

5.39 27.01 26.39 24.78 24.32

38.98 82.75 38.56 21.31

36.36 38.24

0.54 11.17

2.69 2.13 1.65 1.14 1.05 0.84

0.46 0.43 0.54 0.72 1.63 1.33

0.00 0.35 1.24 1.12 1.85 1.40

0.78 1.48

2.32 1.56 1.18 0.99 1.04 1.01

3.73 2.82 2.13 1.71 1.53 1.49

40.31 38.74 88.43 128.26 121.11 115.87

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-15.9%

-13.6%

45.7%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-20.7%

32.7%

42.0%

n.a.

-10.4%

-14.7%

31.5%

Δ2009/2010

2.8%

-0.9%

-1.9%

-44.7%

5.2%

1974.7%

-19.9%

-18.2%

-24.0%

90.0%

-3.2%

-2.0%

-4.3%

Notes to Table D.2c: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Motorua field and Goldie well.

Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. 4

R

= Revised figures.

Notes to Table D.2d: 1 Includes condensate, naphtha (from April 1999) and crude oil production from Maui and Maui F Sands. Maui F Sands commenced production in September 1996. 2

Natural Gas Liquids are included in Kapuni’s production.

3

Also includes Motorua field and Goldie well.

4 Comprises Waihapa/Ngaere, Stratford (ceased production in September 1992), Piakau (ceased production in September 1999), Rimu, Cheal and Tarkiki/Ahuroa fields, and Kauri, Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. R

= Revised figures

n.a. = Not applicable

50 Energy Data File | 2011

51 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Figure D.2: Annual Crude Oil, Condensate, Naphtha and Natural Gas Liquids Production by Field

Supply of Crude Oil and Refinery Feedstocks Table D.3: Supply of Crude Oil and Refinery Feedstocks (Gross PJ)

PJ Feedstocks

140 Calendar Year or Quarter

120

100

80

60

40

20

Kapuni

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

McKee

Mangahewa

Turangi

Kowhai

Ngatoro

Others

Exports

2010

2009

2007

2008

2005

Maui

2006

2003

2004

2001

2002

1999

2000

1997

1998

1995

1996

1993

1994

1991

1992

1990

1989

1987

1988

1985

1986

1983

1984

1981

1982

1979

1980

1977

1978

1975

1976

1973

1974

1971

1972

1970

0

Indigenous Crude Oil Production1

Total Refinery Intake, Production and Losses

Imports

Exports

Stock ChangeR

Total Refinery Intake

Oil Products Production

Calculated Own Use and Losses

1974

7.88

155.53

0.00

0.05

163.47

154.98

-8.49

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 16.75

134.23 136.14 123.29 106.57 124.78

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.39 -4.13 3.40 -4.46 -1.30

138.79 162.28 150.91 137.89 143.00

130.02 153.09 142.27 129.57 133.45

-8.77 -9.19 -8.64 -8.32 -9.55

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

14.89 20.05 30.65 30.20 41.33

121.06 106.36 82.45 79.14 80.48

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.76 -1.55 6.42 -5.17 3.84

134.09 127.57 106.60 114.13 116.42

126.24 119.74 100.36 107.66 110.06

-7.84 -7.83 -6.24 -6.47 -6.36

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

56.06 62.00 59.08 71.10 79.57

43.62 48.65 105.18 112.81 138.65

29.02 9.95 4.66 14.46 27.56

1.10 -21.00 -7.61 -20.06 -19.44

69.43 123.17 165.94 190.08 210.02

66.66 119.92 164.82 187.08 206.18

-2.77 -3.25 -1.11 -3.00 -3.84

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

82.01 85.99 81.14 85.67 82.59

145.23 149.40 145.15 162.32 178.86

40.24 44.88 40.53 47.58 51.35

-27.97 -17.14 -17.32 -5.65 -8.34

214.56 206.98 203.80 202.11 217.20

207.24 201.88 206.14 211.69 219.39

-7.32 -5.10 2.34 9.58 2.20

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

69.36 91.88 121.56 96.34 85.07

174.49 176.48 181.71 219.05 210.64

44.12 56.83 77.74 71.56 65.42

-12.56 6.43 -2.46 5.72 3.84

211.90 199.96 227.05 236.25 223.90

204.21 197.57 213.12 221.81 210.93

-7.69 -2.39 -13.92 -14.44 -12.97

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

75.93 71.18 64.52 50.16 43.35

213.14 210.93 225.34 235.31 217.01

56.63 58.12 50.52 41.90 33.51

1.23 -6.12 -2.34 3.06 -1.37

230.63 228.07 240.01 240.17 227.85

219.11 215.65 229.97 224.56 220.83

-11.52 -12.41 -10.04 -15.61 -7.03

2005 2006

40.31 38.74

218.72 215.83

28.61 31.25

-5.36 -7.81

235.38 231.52

224.68 217.87

-10.70 -13.65

88.43 128.26 121.11 115.87

212.06 224.23 218.27 232.65

75.18 119.83 107.38 110.57

4.65 -1.83 0.49 1.67

219.12 234.13 227.42 236.64

208.67 221.13 215.83 221.48

-10.45 -12.99 -11.59 -15.16

25.72 29.10 34.75 31.55 29.18 30.70 29.79 26.19

56.39 43.12 61.27 57.50 60.88 58.58 53.03 60.16

20.26 28.02 33.10 26.00 28.91 30.75 26.98 23.93

7.01 -14.81 4.05 4.23 -2.12 5.10 -7.61 6.30

53.06 58.86 57.25 58.26 63.01 54.39 62.16 57.08

51.08 55.15 53.78 55.82 59.35 49.44 59.50 53.18

-1.98 -3.71 -3.47 -2.44 -3.66 -4.95 -2.66 -3.90

2007 2008 2009 2010 2009

2010

R

R R

Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

31.5%

1.9%

37.1%

n.a.

0.5%

0.4%

2.7%

Δ2009/2010

-4.3%

6.6%

3.0%

n.a.

4.1%

2.6%

30.8%

Note to Table D.3: 1 Includes Natural Gas Liquids. R

= Revised figures

52 Energy Data File | 2011

53 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Production of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Figure D.4a: Indigenous Oil Production

Table D.4: Production of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ) PJ

Total Oil Products

140 120

77.31 69.62 66.84 70.62 66.53 64.50

75.26 76.27 72.68 74.31 72.41 81.74

25.93 23.93 24.32 29.65 31.19 22.68

40.75 42.23 38.94 41.40 40.28 45.93

13.16 13.65 13.91 13.22 13.67 15.03

232.42 225.71 216.69 229.20 224.09 229.89

Mar Jun Sep Dec

25.72 29.10 34.75 31.55

0.80 0.85 0.92 0.98

11.16 13.60 14.14 12.29

4.06 3.36 2.95 4.97

15.22 16.97 17.09 17.26

16.91 18.79 17.69 19.02

7.44 7.93 8.43 7.39

9.82 10.04 9.56 10.86

3.88 3.36 3.13 3.30

53.26 57.10 55.89 57.83

Mar Jun Sep Dec

29.18 30.70 29.79 26.19

1.29 1.86 2.57 1.78

12.19 11.56 13.33 11.97

4.54 3.78 3.28 3.86

16.73 15.34 16.61 15.83

23.26 16.42 23.31 18.76

4.85 5.72 6.02 6.09

12.71 10.34 12.06 10.82

3.85 3.12 4.07 3.99

61.39 50.94 62.07 55.49

2009

2010

R

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

31.5%

0.1%

-3.7%

5.2%

-1.9%

1.7%

-1.3%

2.1%

2.4%

0.5%

Δ2009/20010

-4.3%

111.2%

-4.2%

0.8%

-3.0%

12.9%

-27.3%

14.0%

9.9%

2.6%

Note to Table D.4: 1 Crude oil includes Natural Gas Liquids. Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

2

LPG

Figure D.4b: Production of Oil Products PJ 250

200

150

100

50

0

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Aviation Fuel

Other Petroleum Products

3 Includes bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit and other liquid fuels. R

= Revised

54 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

16.78 12.61 12.29 13.61 15.34 15.46

2009

60.53 57.02 54.56 57.02 51.19 49.05

2010

7.79 7.47 5.12 3.62 3.55 7.50

2009

40.31 38.74 88.43 128.26 121.11 115.87

2007

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2008

226.07 222.89 237.45 232.46 228.00

2008

13.05 12.33 12.31 13.99 12.08

2006

38.93 37.93 40.43 38.73 43.26

2007

22.53 20.82 25.04 23.16 21.30

2006

84.38 81.32 87.75 85.14 74.90

2005

67.18 70.49 71.90 71.44 76.47

2005

17.44 17.54 18.86 15.05 16.78

2003

49.74 52.95 53.05 56.39 59.69

2004

11.09 11.56 11.12 8.76 8.31

2003

75.93 71.18 64.52 50.16 43.35

2004

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2001

211.79 204.69 219.36 229.16 219.02

2002

13.58 13.66 12.36 13.36 14.57

2001

34.83 35.09 38.45 37.71 38.91

2002

17.69 19.69 21.55 22.04 22.24

1999

71.17 66.85 74.16 81.30 78.85

2000

74.53 69.40 72.84 74.74 64.45

2000

30.90 19.41 21.57 18.12

1998

38.52 38.51 53.42 53.17 46.33

1999

8.58 10.19 12.07 11.03 11.03

1998

69.36 91.88 121.56 96.34 85.07

1997

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Crude Oil

1997

213.83 209.07 213.72 220.11 226.43

1995

12.50 11.88 13.94 14.74 13.72

1996

36.58 33.19 32.52 34.69 37.74

1995

17.20 16.81 18.24 16.97 22.44

1996

62.11 65.84 64.56 68.40 72.15

1993

85.44 81.37 84.46 85.31 80.38

1994

17.90 22.28 23.79 25.69 30.52

1994

5.57 6.39 7.01 8.18 8.00

1992

82.01 85.99 81.14 85.67 82.59

0

1993

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20

1992

67.93 122.56 170.55 190.28 213.17

1991

5.10 7.21 11.30 8.99 12.64

1990

0.00 0.99 22.54 30.46 35.41

1991

13.31 9.22 14.15 13.22 14.99

1989

15.08 28.21 46.06 54.81 62.70

1990

4.08 6.37 10.73

34.44 76.93 76.49 82.80 87.43

1989

4.30 4.90 5.02 5.14 5.23

1987

56.06 62.00 59.08 71.10 79.57

40

1988

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

60

1988

126.97 120.15 101.09 108.70 111.28

1986

5.14 4.24 3.68 5.86 6.89

1987

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1986

34.62 25.16 17.51 15.51 15.25

1985

30.07 31.17 25.45 28.09 28.32

1985

57.13 59.58 54.46 59.24 60.82

1983

0.82 1.27 1.55 1.55 2.35

1984

14.89 20.05 30.65 30.20 41.33

80

1983

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

100

1984

130.39 153.54 143.38 130.92 134.66

1981

155.34

3.89 5.14 5.78 5.69 5.43

1982

5.63

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1981

0.00

43.81 51.31 47.18 37.67 38.79

1982

63.13

25.50 31.01 30.14 28.91 29.97

1979

27.63

57.20 66.07 60.28 58.64 60.47

1980

58.95

0.15 0.39 0.55 0.68 1.14

1980

0.11

8.14 21.58 30.95 26.14 16.75

1978

7.88

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1979

1974

1978

Aviation Fuel

1977

Fuel Oil

1977

Diesel

1975

Total Petrol2

1976

Regular Unleaded 91

1975

LPG

160 Other Petroleum Products3, R

1976

Crude Oil1

Premium Unleaded 95–98

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Refinery Output

1974

Indigenous Production

55 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Figure D.5: Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Table D.5: Imports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ) PJ Imports of:

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

145.23 149.40 145.15 162.32 178.86

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1.37 1.36 0.38 0.54 1.10

13.26 14.12 10.59 14.97 18.69

0.43 0.18 1.54 0.02 1.83

0.00 0.39 2.28 0.13 0.04

1.83 0.82 2.15 0.98 1.08

8.70 7.38 7.37 7.25 7.91

169.45 172.29 169.08 185.66 208.41

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

174.49 176.48 181.71 219.05 210.64

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

7.47 20.54 21.76 21.68 31.57

10.13 10.22 6.49 10.49

25.42 30.67 31.98 28.17 42.06

3.88 11.77 12.23 2.72 10.83

0.10 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.87 5.15 5.71 4.73 5.38

9.09 7.88 8.04 7.25 6.93

216.85 232.77 239.67 261.92 275.84

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

213.14 210.93 225.34 235.31 217.01

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.55 0.39

27.78 30.07 30.44 27.50 29.72

7.18 6.43 7.02 8.97 11.31

34.95 36.50 37.46 36.47 41.03

6.84 10.95 12.20 15.26 36.22

0.00 0.00 0.00 1.17 0.00

5.51 6.20 5.77 8.91 13.80

7.05 5.83 6.38 6.57 7.30

267.49 270.40 287.15 304.24 315.76

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

218.72 215.83 212.06 224.23 218.27 232.65

0.58 1.92 4.16 5.02 4.73 0.38

28.25 29.68 36.02 30.28 37.77 34.38

11.20 11.18 11.90 9.92 9.36 8.51

39.45 40.85 47.92 40.21 47.13 42.89

32.62 34.43 40.60 38.00 32.60 26.21

0.00 0.00 0.01 0.34 0.01 0.00

10.63 9.73 11.89 11.53 8.91 2.73

7.08 6.77 6.79 7.28 5.93 6.58

309.07 309.53 323.43 326.61 317.58 311.43

R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

56.39 43.12 61.27 57.50

0.82 1.86 1.53 0.51

11.21 8.62 8.06 9.88

2.53 2.04 2.63 2.16

13.74 10.67 10.69 12.03

11.71 6.60 6.47 7.82

0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.42 2.49 1.36 1.64

1.27 1.65 1.54 1.47

87.35 66.40 82.85 80.97

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

60.88 58.58 53.03 60.16

0.28 0.09 0.00 0.00

9.95 9.20 5.75 9.48

2.68 1.97 2.01 1.85

12.63 11.16 7.76 11.33

3.51 12.45 3.15 7.10

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.65 0.81 0.20 1.07

1.60 1.44 1.35 2.18

79.56 84.53 65.50 81.85

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.9%

-33.5%

3.7%

-6.6%

1.2%

-6.6%

n.a.

-27.2%

-0.7%

0.2%

Δ2009/2010

6.6%

-92.1%

-9.0%

-9.1%

-9.0%

-19.6%

-100.0%

-69.4%

11.0%

-1.9%

Note to Table D.5: 1 Crude oil includes refinery blendstocks and other feedstocks. Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

2

50

0

Crude Oil

Petrol

Diesel

Aviation Fuel

Other Petroleum Products

LPG

Fuel Oil

3 Includes bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit and other liquid fuels. R

= Revised

56 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

138.79 97.29 136.18 127.19 156.22

2009

3.95 1.81 1.83 2.27 2.70

2007

17.27 17.65 4.22 1.01 1.82

2008

3.60 3.53 0.00 0.50 0.24

2006

31.57 20.43 2.54 0.23 0.01

2005

0.00 0.00 0.00

38.78 5.22 22.42 10.37 12.80

2003

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

2004

43.62 48.65 105.18 112.81 138.65

100

2001

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

150

2002

178.88 153.34 139.53 141.38 142.46

1999

3.24 2.99 2.89 2.96 2.19

2000

17.67 14.21 13.73 13.21 15.57

1998

0.03 0.03 1.53 1.58 2.17

1997

16.80 12.06 19.89 19.34 20.35

1995

20.07 17.70 19.04 25.14 21.69

1996

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1993

121.06 106.36 82.45 79.14 80.48

200

1994

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

250

1992

215.18 176.98 177.85 160.56 182.03

1991

199.27

1.39 0.00 0.00 0.10 1.75

1990

0.77

20.55 13.06 14.67 16.15 17.82

1989

12.00

5.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1987

0.20

20.52 15.02 19.84 17.56 18.37

1988

13.20

33.10 12.76 20.06 20.18 19.32

1986

17.56

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1985

0.00

134.23 136.14 123.29 106.57 124.78

1983

155.53

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1984

1974

300

1981

Total

1982

Aviation Fuel

1979

Fuel Oil

1980

Diesel

1978

Total Petrol2

1977

Regular Unleaded 91

1975

LPG

1976

Crude Oil1

350 Other Petroleum Products3

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Premium Unleaded 95–98

57 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Figure D.6: Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products

Table D.6: Exports of Crude Oil and Oil Products (Gross PJ) PJ Exports of:

40.24 44.88 40.53 47.58 51.35

0.53 0.90 1.22 1.34 1.18

3.58 2.07 2.78 3.56 0.01

5.58 3.83 3.50 5.74 1.07

10.79 14.05 4.43 8.57 3.97

0.70 1.06 1.61 1.16 0.73

4.83 2.47 1.51 3.06 1.80

0.01 0.15 0.01

62.67 67.19 52.81 67.59 60.10

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

44.12 56.83 77.74 71.56 65.42

0.68 1.95 3.13 3.66 4.38

0.10 0.00 0.00

1.97 2.73 1.39 0.71

0.58 1.97 2.73 1.40 0.72

0.01 0.09 1.99 2.89 0.93

2.21 1.63 1.97 3.17

0.00 0.00 0.60 0.10 0.14

0.10 0.13 0.33 0.08 -

45.48 63.19 88.15 81.65 74.76

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

56.63 58.12 50.52 41.90 33.51

4.03 4.21 3.38 1.25 0.69

0.61 0.05 -

0.60 0.62 -

0.61 0.65 0.62 -

0.22 0.32 0.30 0.24

4.32 2.38 5.27 1.85 3.32

0.19 -

0.00 -

65.82 64.71 60.33 45.92 37.76

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

28.61 31.25 75.18 119.83 107.38 110.57

0.56 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.71

0.24 -

0.57 0.68 1.31 1.63

0.57 0.68 1.31 0.24 1.63

0.15 0.01 0.01 0.01

6.75 3.85 4.68 7.78 8.83 2.75

-

-

36.64 35.41 80.55 128.94 116.45 115.67

R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

20.26 28.02 33.10 26.00

0.00 -

0.24

-

0.24

-

2.00 1.48 2.57 2.78

-

-

22.26 29.50 35.67 29.02

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

28.91 30.75 26.98 23.93

0.02 0.25 0.12 0.32

-

1.63 -

1.63 -

0.00 0.01

0.39 1.35 1.01

-

-

30.94 31.00 28.46 25.26

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

37.1%

24.1%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-3.8%

-8.0%

n.a.

n.a.

34.4%

Δ2009/2010

3.0%

21725.1%

-100.0%

n.a.

581.0%

n.a.

-68.8%

n.a.

n.a.

-0.7%

Notes to Table D.6: 1 Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

0

Crude Oil

Petrol

Other Petroleum Products

LPG

Diesel

Fuel Oil

2010

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

20

2009

32.54 14.29 19.71 40.84 62.09

2007

-

2008

1.02 5.64 5.49

2006

3.52 0.78 0.59 1.16

2005

1.53 10.27 15.82

2003

11.80 9.25 9.78

3.56 11.87 10.35 11.71

2004

0.05 0.12 0.36

2001

29.02 9.95 4.66 14.46 27.56

40

2002

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

60

1999

0.88 0.88 0.61 3.43

2000

-

1998

-

1997

0.88 0.88 0.61 3.43

1995

-

1996

-

1993

-

1994

-

80

1992

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

100

1991

1.48 1.81 2.65

1990

-

0.85

1989

-

-

1987

-

1.48 1.81 1.80

1988

-

-

1986

-

-

1985

-

-

1983

-

-

1984

-

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1981

1974

120

1982

Total

1979

Aviation Fuel

1980

Fuel Oil

1978

Diesel

1977

Total Petrol1

1975

Regular Unleaded 91

LPG

1976

Crude Oil

140 Other Petroleum Products2

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Premium Unleaded 95–98

Aviation Fuel

Includes bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit and other liquid fuels.

2

R

= Revised

n.a. = Not applicable

58 Energy Data File | 2011

59 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Oil Products Consumption

Figure D.7: Observed Oil Products Consumption

Table D.7: Observed Oil Products Consumption1 (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Consumption of:

46.29 46.49 53.65 55.20 61.08

7.42 6.84 8.46 5.83 8.03

13.87 12.03 11.93 13.78 15.89

17.49 16.75 17.34 18.20 19.10

4.53 4.89 5.14 5.87 5.79

180.57 177.40 189.40 191.03 207.43

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

48.04 65.53 72.36 74.54 76.47

32.07 27.71 26.60 26.14

98.69 97.59 100.07 101.14 102.61

69.59 72.00 76.53 78.11 80.92

7.27 8.77 7.57 6.97 7.03

16.36 16.05 15.53 16.10 15.85

18.10 17.98 18.46 18.10 18.24

4.99 4.78 5.02 4.72 4.43

215.00 217.17 223.19 225.14 229.07

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

77.98 79.57 82.24 85.21 87.16

23.62 22.66 23.43 24.08 26.64

101.60 102.23 105.67 109.29 113.80

87.26 87.56 94.00 97.69 101.13

9.84 8.76 9.23 10.79 7.72

17.23 17.65 16.37 18.23 18.77

18.33 14.91 16.72 16.81 17.83

4.78 5.57 5.90 5.98 6.63

239.04 236.68 247.89 258.80 265.88

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

87.80 89.56 90.92 90.15 87.40 87.91

23.19 22.32 22.94 21.76 22.85 22.45

110.99 111.88 113.86 111.91 110.26 110.36

106.66 107.51 110.83 110.04 105.22 105.15

9.18 7.51 8.38 6.90 7.57 7.31

17.45 17.77 14.63 15.84 14.33 14.75

17.88 19.93 19.65 20.15 18.43 20.66

6.59 7.55 8.03 8.02 7.51 6.60

268.74 272.16 275.38 272.85 263.32 264.84

R R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

21.23 21.74 21.52 22.92

5.90 5.53 5.50 5.93

27.12 27.27 27.01 28.85

26.33 26.11 25.32 27.46

1.84 1.68 2.07 1.97

3.09 3.25 3.94 4.06

5.37 4.59 3.74 4.74

1.18 2.60 2.36 1.37

64.93 65.50 64.45 68.44

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

22.37 21.40 21.44 22.70

5.77 5.47 5.42 5.79

28.15 26.87 26.86 28.48

25.50 24.84 25.90 28.91

2.01 1.94 1.94 1.43

3.22 3.68 3.79 4.06

6.03 4.01 4.80 5.82

1.31 1.58 2.29 1.43

66.21 62.91 65.58 70.13

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-0.5%

0.1%

-0.3%

-0.6%

-0.7%

-4.5%

0.9%

-3.3%

-0.7%

Δ2009/2010

0.6%

-1.8%

0.1%

-0.1%

-3.3%

2.9%

12.0%

-12.1%

0.6%

Notes to Table D.7: 1 Diesel and Fuel Oil used for electricity generation have been excluded. 2 Petrol includes premium leaded, premium unleaded (from January 1996), premium unleaded 98, regular leaded (to December 1986) and regular unleaded (from January 1987).

Petrol

Diesel

Fuel Oil

Other Petroleum Products

LPG

3 Includes non-energy use of bitumen, lubricants, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit, refinery by-products and other liquid fuels. R

= Revised

60 Energy Data File | 2011

Aviation Fuel

2010

90.97 90.40 92.89 92.15 97.53

2009

17.60 28.00 33.19 37.51 42.90

0 2007

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

50

2008

144.61 147.67 153.26 154.44 164.98

2006

3.96 4.39 4.52 4.56 4.31

2005

6.05 7.30 6.62 7.10 11.67

2003

6.79 6.65 7.61 8.59 11.13

2004

8.70 7.90 8.13 8.67 6.95

2001

42.50 42.19 41.13 41.12 42.74

2002

3.74 6.03 9.54

76.60 79.24 85.24 84.39 88.16

1999

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

100

2000

158.12 150.55 152.97 145.90 149.30

1998

0.88 1.27 1.53 1.43 2.11

1997

6.46 6.76 6.80 6.87 8.20

1995

7.05 6.32 6.34 6.09 6.68

1996

20.43 17.20 15.93 11.02 8.90

1993

45.50 41.11 42.87 41.39 43.02

1994

77.80 77.89 79.50 79.09 80.40

150

1992

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

200

1991

157.42 154.62 163.62 160.47 155.88

1990

153.02

0.14 0.38 0.54 0.66 0.72

1989

0.26

5.28 4.12 4.80 4.28 5.34

1987

5.85

7.10 7.51 7.95 7.95 8.11

1988

7.06

25.67 23.84 28.37 25.37 22.90

1986

21.89

40.77 41.40 43.31 42.38 40.98

1985

40.71

78.46 77.38 78.66 79.84 77.82

1983

77.25

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1984

1974

250

1981

Total Oil ProductsR

1982

LPGR

1979

Other Petroleum Products3, R

1980

Aviation Fuel

1978

Fuel OilR

1977

DieselR

1975

Total Petrol2

1976

Regular Unleaded 91

300

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Premium Unleaded 95–98

61 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector

Figure D.8: Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector

Table D.8: Observed Petrol Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Petrol Consumption by Sector:

120

74.53 80.68 84.86 85.00 88.15

-2.08 1.44 -0.38 0.61 -0.01

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

3.65 3.38 3.10 2.91 2.75

0.82 0.64 1.32 0.46 0.34

1.09 0.91 1.52 0.84 3.70

0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.03

85.40 85.46 86.89 87.89 90.71

90.97 90.40 92.89 92.15 97.53

90.47 92.21 92.71 93.95 95.61

-0.50 1.81 -0.18 1.80 -1.92

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2.62 2.24 2.16 2.17 2.21

0.28 0.47 0.29 0.18 0.15

2.07 0.62 0.68 0.33 0.18

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03

93.70 94.26 96.94 98.44 100.04

98.69 97.59 100.07 101.14 102.61

99.10 99.55 101.35 101.83 104.44

0.41 1.96 1.28 0.69 1.83

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2.17 2.20 2.29 2.24 2.25

0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.42

0.15 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.52

0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

99.08 99.67 103.02 106.72 110.61

101.60 102.23 105.67 109.29 113.80

101.38 102.74 107.16 110.83 111.05

-0.22 0.51 1.48 1.55 -2.75

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2.29 2.34 2.23 1.99 1.76 1.38

0.50 0.51 0.45 0.37 0.28 0.09

0.17 0.13 0.38 0.13 0.11 0.05

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04

108.02 108.90 110.80 109.42 108.11 108.81

110.99 111.88 113.86 111.91 110.26 110.36

111.56 110.82 111.57 108.65 112.15 105.52

0.57 -1.06 -2.29 -3.26 1.90 -4.85

R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.51 0.49 0.38 0.38

0.13 0.02 0.02 0.09

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

26.45 26.73 26.59 28.35

27.12 27.27 27.01 28.85

29.05 27.62 27.82 27.67

1.92 0.35 0.81 -1.18

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

27.75 26.48 26.48 28.10

28.15 26.87 26.86 28.48

27.76 25.27 27.10 25.39

-0.38 -1.60 0.24 -3.10

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-12.4%

-35.2%

-23.5%

104.5%

0.0%

-0.3%

-1.2%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

-21.5%

-67.2%

-58.0%

22859.1%

0.6%

0.1%

-5.9%

n.a.

20

0

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

2010

76.60 79.24 85.24 84.39 88.16

2009

67.27 71.32 75.89 78.64 82.39

2007

0.07 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.01

2008

2.59 2.17 1.38 1.21 1.11

2006

1.60 1.37 1.52 0.93 0.93

2005

5.08 4.36 6.44 3.58 3.72

2003

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

40

2004

-0.54 0.18 -0.14 0.12 0.52

2001

77.26 78.07 79.36 79.21 80.93

2002

77.80 77.89 79.50 79.09 80.40

1999

66.55 67.56 68.43 68.81 70.45

2000

0.76 0.03 0.08 0.10 0.09

1998

2.67 3.07 3.42 3.12 2.97

1997

2.32 2.00 2.03 1.83 1.76

1995

5.50 5.24 5.53 5.22 5.14

60

1996

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

80

1993

-0.01 1.17 -0.60 0.47

1994

77.37 79.83 79.24 78.29

1992

77.38 78.66 79.84 77.82

1991

66.38 67.39 68.37 66.82

1990

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.07

1989

3.14 3.19 3.61 3.19

1987

2.24 2.23 2.10 2.35

1988

5.61 5.84 5.73 5.39

1986

1976 1977 1978 1979

1985

14.62

1983

0.11

93.08

1984

77.36

78.46

1981

77.25

66.97

100

1982

66.21

0.00

Statistical Difference

1979

0.03

3.25

Calculated Consumption1

1980

3.10

2.35

Observed Consumption

1978

2.26

5.89

Transport

1977

5.64

1975

Residential

1975

1974

Commercial

1976

IndustrialR

Calendar Year or Quarter

1974

Agriculture, Fishing and ForestryR

Transport

Notes to Table D.8: 1 Calculated Consumption is calculated as Production + Imports - Exports - Stock Change - International Transport - Losses and Own Use. R

= Revised.

62 Energy Data File | 2011

63 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector

Figure D.9: Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector

Table D.9: Observed Diesel Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Diesel Consumption by Sector:

8.29 7.93 8.74 8.39 8.70

4.94 5.22 5.65 3.18 3.85

0.15 0.17 0.26 0.28 0.30

22.02 23.38 27.75 31.82 36.18

46.29 46.49 53.65 55.20 61.08

46.16 47.85 55.24 56.48 63.16

-0.12 1.36 1.60 1.28 2.08

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

12.89 13.14 14.26 14.58 16.09

9.58 9.53 9.71 9.09 8.18

4.05 3.67 3.53 3.99 3.87

0.30 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

42.76 45.35 48.68 50.06 52.33

69.59 72.00 76.53 78.11 80.92

68.90 74.03 77.93 79.57 84.02

-0.69 2.04 1.40 1.46 3.10

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

15.61 15.78 17.77 17.76 17.08

10.10 10.16 10.81 11.66 13.90

3.89 3.12 2.83 3.34 4.54

0.42 0.44 0.47 0.52 0.57

57.24 58.06 62.12 64.41 65.04

87.26 87.56 94.00 97.69 101.13

87.57 91.56 96.64 100.61 105.80

0.31 4.00 2.64 2.91 4.67

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

18.55 17.75 17.40 16.11 13.94 13.27

14.50 14.72 15.88 14.90 13.45 11.29

3.94 3.26 3.21 3.61 2.77 4.43

0.61 0.61 0.64 0.28 0.31 0.30

69.06 71.18 73.70 75.14 74.75 75.87

106.66 107.51 110.83 110.04 105.22 105.15

107.05 107.75 112.31 112.61 105.23 109.60

0.39 0.24 1.48 2.58 0.01 4.45

R

R

R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

4.08 3.77 3.01 3.07

3.83 3.37 3.19 3.06

0.91 0.63 0.64 0.59

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

17.43 18.26 18.40 20.66

26.33 26.11 25.32 27.46

27.08 25.72 25.33 27.11

0.75 -0.39 0.00 -0.36

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

3.36 3.41 3.25 3.25

2.94 2.72 2.79 2.84

1.06 1.04 1.05 1.28

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

18.06 17.60 18.74 21.47

25.50 24.84 25.90 28.91

27.92 26.03 25.29 30.37

2.42 1.18 -0.61 1.46

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-3.6%

-2.5%

-6.4%

2.1%

-0.1%

-1.1%

-1.7%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

-4.8%

-16.1%

59.5%

-1.5%

1.5%

-0.1%

4.2%

n.a.

Notes to Table D.9: 1 Excludes diesel used for electricity generation. Calculated Consumption is calculated as Production + Imports Exports - Stock Change - International Transport - Losses and Own Use. 2

0

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

R = Revised. Revisions in 1986, 1990 and 1992 were revisions to the amount of diesel used for electricity generation, which are excluded from Industrial.

n.a. = Not applicable

64 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

2010

10.88 9.79 11.24 11.53 12.06

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

R

20

2009

-0.79 1.83 1.33 -0.34 0.94

2007

41.71 44.02 42.46 40.78 43.68

2008

42.50 42.19 41.13 41.12 42.74

2006

18.92 19.24 20.75 21.61 21.25

2005

0.20 0.21 0.17 0.11 0.15

2003

5.29 5.48 3.86 3.80 3.28

2004

9.37 8.50 8.07 7.72 8.33

2001

8.72 8.75 8.29 7.88 9.73

2002

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

40

1999

-4.83 -0.52 -2.73 -1.09 -1.53

2000

40.67 40.58 40.14 40.30 41.49

1998

45.50 41.11 42.87 41.39 43.02

1997

15.93 15.81 15.27 16.05 17.64

1995

0.56 0.46 0.36 0.33 0.27

1996

9.68 6.29 7.41 6.91 6.32

1993

10.13 10.19 10.63 9.37 9.85

1994

9.21 8.37 9.19 8.73 8.94

60

1992

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

80

1991

0.17 -0.84 -1.18 0.27 -2.56

1990

-2.56

40.94 40.56 42.13 42.65 38.42

1989

38.15

40.77 41.40 43.31 42.38 40.98

1987

40.71

15.17 16.15 16.25 16.33 16.69

1988

13.91

1.95 1.66 1.58 1.19 0.79

1986

2.30

7.55 7.31 7.58 7.69 6.02

1985

7.47

10.01 10.02 11.10 10.66 10.00

1983

11.03

6.09 6.26 6.80 6.50 7.48

1984

6.00

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1981

1974

100

1982

Statistical Difference

1979

Calculated Consumption2

1980

Observed Consumption

1978

Transport

1977

Residential

1975

Commercial

1976

Industrial1

120

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

65 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


D. Oil

D. Oil

Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector

Figure D.10: Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector

Table D.10: Observed Total Oil Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ) PJ Domestic Oil Consumption by Sector:

7.43 7.26 9.45 4.64 7.95

0.62 0.72 0.95 1.03 1.02

127.05 127.01 132.54 140.03 150.37

163.08 160.65 172.06 172.83 188.33

17.49 16.75 17.34 18.20 19.10

180.57 177.40 189.40 191.03 207.43

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

16.99 17.46 18.80 19.82 20.77

12.61 14.02 14.34 12.43 11.31

6.49 4.82 4.50 4.97 6.07

0.96 2.06 2.24 2.26 2.03

159.85 160.84 164.85 167.55 170.66

196.90 199.19 204.73 207.04 210.84

18.10 17.98 18.46 18.10 18.24

215.00 217.17 223.19 225.14 229.07

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

19.78 20.00 22.06 23.49 21.13

14.62 14.69 15.58 15.81 18.00

6.12 5.51 4.91 6.15 7.44

1.90 2.15 2.05 2.12 2.47

178.29 179.43 186.58 194.42 199.01

220.71 221.78 231.17 241.98 248.05

18.33 14.91 16.72 16.81 17.83

239.04 236.68 247.89 258.80 265.88

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

22.71 22.17 21.86 20.26 18.31 17.14

18.57 19.00 20.31 18.93 17.24 14.98

7.11 5.73 6.02 6.22 4.94 5.88

2.58 2.95 3.13 2.66 2.51 2.29

199.89 202.38 204.41 204.63 201.90 203.88

250.86 252.22 255.73 252.70 244.89 244.18

17.88 19.93 19.65 20.15 18.43 20.66

268.74 272.16 275.38 272.85 263.32 264.84

R R R

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5.24 4.81 4.22 4.04

4.66 4.35 4.21 4.02

1.30 1.34 1.27 1.03

0.45 0.81 0.77 0.48

47.92 49.60 50.24 54.14

59.56 60.91 60.71 63.71

5.37 4.59 3.74 4.74

64.93 65.50 64.45 68.44

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

4.42 4.35 4.22 4.16

3.86 3.63 4.05 3.45

1.26 1.44 1.57 1.62

0.50 0.53 0.76 0.50

50.15 48.96 50.19 54.58

60.18 58.91 60.78 64.32

6.03 4.01 4.80 5.82

66.21 62.91 65.58 70.13

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-6.2%

-5.8%

0.7%

-6.1%

0.2%

-0.8%

0.9%

-0.7%

Δ2009/2010

-6.4%

-13.1%

19.2%

-8.8%

1.0%

-0.3%

12.0%

0.6%

Includes LPG.

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Industrial

Commercial

Transport

Non-energy Use

Non-energy Use represents use of oil for non-combustion purposes such as bitumen for roads, lubricants and solvents. This is a Calculated Consumption: see Glossary for more details.

3

R

= Revised

66 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

2010

12.17 11.56 13.30 11.28 12.57

2009

15.81 14.10 15.81 15.84 16.41

0 2007

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

50

2008

144.61 147.67 153.26 154.44 164.98

2006

6.05 7.30 6.62 7.10 11.67

2005

138.56 140.37 146.64 147.33 153.31

2003

96.49 101.88 108.60 114.60 119.89

2004

0.68 0.69 0.66 0.60 0.60

2001

9.78 8.61 5.90 5.85 5.44

2002

16.58 14.89 14.69 13.54 12.72

1999

15.03 14.30 16.79 12.75 14.66

2000

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

100

1998

158.12 150.55 152.97 145.90 149.30

1997

6.46 6.76 6.80 6.87 8.20

1995

151.66 143.79 146.16 139.03 141.11

1996

90.48 90.47 90.71 91.02 96.34

1993

1.43 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58

1994

15.04 12.14 13.66 12.35 10.91

1992

29.09 25.90 25.25 20.00 18.13

1991

15.63 14.66 15.92 15.07 15.16

150

1990

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

200

1989

157.42 154.62 163.62 160.47 155.88

1987

153.02

5.28 4.12 4.80 4.28 5.34

1988

5.85

152.14 150.51 158.82 156.20 150.54

1986

147.17

91.75 92.62 93.11 93.68 92.59

1985

88.54

2.00 1.75 1.72 1.30 0.96

1983

2.41

15.34 15.20 15.24 14.59 11.54

1984

15.90

29.87 27.68 33.79 33.30 31.63

1981

27.39

13.19 13.27 14.95 13.33 13.82

1982

12.92

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

250

1979

Total Oil ConsumptionR

1980

Non-energy Use3, R

1978

Observed Energy Use2

1977

Transport

1975

Residential

1974

Notes to Table D.10: 1 Diesel and Fuel Oil used for electricity generation have been excluded. 2

Commercial

1976

Industrial1, R

300

1974

Calendar Year or Quarter

Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.1a: Natural Gas Industry Summary for 20101

Overview of New Zealand’s Natural Gas Industry Introduction

FIELDS BY PRODUCTION ABOVE = GROSS

3.9% McKee 2.6%

2.7% Mangahewa 3.0%

24.3% Maui 25.9%

11.1% Kupe 10.6%

8.9% Kapuni 9.0%

0.8% Ngatoro 0.2%

0.4% Kaimiro 0.3%

3.7% Kowhai 3.9%

3.1% Turangi 3.5%

3.9% Maari 0.0%

35.6% Pohokura 40.8%

1.1% Tui 0.0%

0.5% 0.1% Rimu/ Cheal/ Kauri Surrey2, 4 0.01% 0.4%

0.01% TAWN 0.01%

BELOW = NET

PRODUCERS

Todd Taranaki 100% Operator: Todd Energy

Shell 83.75%

Origin Energy 50%

Shell 50%

OMV 10%

Genesis Energy 31%

Todd Energy 50%

Todd Energy 6.25%

NGOG 15% Mitsui E&P 4%

Operator: Shell Todd

Operator: Origin Energy

Greymouth Greymouth 100% 100%

Operator: Shell Todd Oil Services

Operator: Greymouth

Operator: Greymouth

OMV 69%

Shell 48%

AWE 42.5%

Todd Energy 16%

Todd Energy 26%

NZOG 12.5% Pan Pacific 10%

OMV 26%

Mitsui E&P 35%

Horizon 10% Cue Taranaki 5%

Operator: Shell

Operator: OMV

Origin Energy 100% Operator: Origin Energy

Operator: AWE

This section contains information about the production, transmission, distribution and sales to end consumers of natural gas. All statistics apply to the 2010 calendar year. Comparisons are made with the 2009 calendar year, unless otherwise specified, and any percentages are calculated from energy, rather than volume, units.

Ownership Most large fields are jointly owned, with the bulk of investment coming from foreign companies. A full breakdown of field ownership is shown in Figure E.1a.

Permitting WHOLESALERS

Vector

Todd Energy

TRANSMITTERS

Contact Energy

Vector

(HIGH PRESSURE)

Greymouth Petroleum

Maui Development

For commentary on permitting, exploration and development, see the Oil and Gas Reserves section (Section H). Further information on gas explorations is available on the New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals website: www.nzpam.govt.nz.

Taxation DISTRIBUTORS

Powerco

(LOW PRESSURE)

RETAILERS

Genesis Energy

Nova Energy

Nova Energy

On Gas

Vector

Contact Energy

Gas Net

Wanganui Gas

Greymouth Gas

Others3

CONSUMERS

BY CONSUMPTION (CALCULATED)

Major users supplied directly from the transmission system

Users supplied from distribution systems

Methanex Ballance Agri-Nutrients New Zealand Steel Carter Holt Harvey Degussa Peroxide Fonterra Co-operative Todd Energy/ Kiwi Cogeneration NZ Refinery Company Southdown Cogeneration Tasman Pulp and Paper among others

Other industry, commercial, residential, transport (as CNG)

41.9%

Methanex

Ballance Agri-Nutrients (Kapuni) Limited

Chemical methanol manufacture

Ammonia/urea manufacture

14.7%

4.0%

There is a Gas Levy of 2 cents per gigajoule and, for fields that commenced production prior to 1986, an Energy Resources Levy of 45 cents per gigajoule. The Gas Industry Company also levies industry participants to fund its operations. In FY2010/11 there was a wholesale levy of 1.84 cents per gigajoules applicable to all gas purchased from producers and a retail levy of $6.40 per interconnection point per annum.

Contact Energy Genesis Energy Electricity generation

Government’s Measures to Encourage Gas Exploration The Government recently undertook a $25.4 million seismic acquisition programme. As a result, over the summer of 2008 - 2009 CGG Veritas and MED acquired almost 6000 km 2D seismic over the Reinga basin. In the 2009 – 2010 summer, MED undertook seismic campaign over the Pegasus basin and the Bounty Trough.

Storage The Contact Energy Ahuroa gas storage facility had 5.9 PJ pumped into it during 2010. This will support the 200 MW gas peaking electricity generation plant at the Stratford site, as well as higher demand for gas in winter. Ahuroa is New Zealand’s first large-scale gas storage facility and has the potential to improve the flexibility of New Zealand’s gas supply.

Deregulation and Governance The government first released a Government Policy Statement (GPS) on gas governance in 2003, which was then revised and updated in October 2004 at the same time as amendments were made to the Gas Act 1992 to provide for a co-regulatory model of gas governance. The amendment set up an industry body, the Gas Industry Company Limited (GIC), which makes recommendations to the Minister on improved gas industry arrangements such as rules and regulations in wholesaling, processing, transmission and retailing. The GPS was revised again in 2008 to reflect policy directions set out in the previous Energy Strategy.

Production Gas is produced entirely in the Taranaki region. Figure E.1a summarises the New Zealand gas industry in 2010. There were 15 fields that produced gas in New Zealand in 2010, with total production dominated by the Pohokura (36%) and Maui (24%) fields. Total natural gas production increased by 7% in 2010, continuing the recent trend. This increase was largely on the back of strong production from the Kupe field. Figures E.2 and E.3 show total gas production and net gas production by field, respectively, from 1970 to 2010. Total gas production is gas production after the first separation point (see Oil and Gas Reserves section, Figure H.1). Net gas production is the amount that can be sold for use: the difference between total gas production and the amount of gas flared, gas reinjected, LPG extracted, own use and losses. Note that net gas production for the Kapuni field from 1970 to 1973 has been estimated, using the assumption that net gas production was 95% of total gas production.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) LPG statistics are included in Section D.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) CNG is supplied to the automotive market through fewer than five North Island service stations. The CNG market has decreased markedly since government subsidies were removed in 1987.

39.4%

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable. AWE is Australian Worldwide Exploration Limited, Greymouth is Greymouth Petroleum Limited, Mitsui E&P is Mitsui E&P New Zealand Limited, NZOG is New Zealand Oil & Gas Limited, OMV is OMV New Zealand Limited, Contact Energy is Contact Energy Limited, Origin Energy is Origin Energy New Zealand Ltd and ContactEnergy (51% owned by Origin), Pan Pacific is Pan Pacific Petroleum, Shell is Shell NZ Limited (includes Shell Exploration NZ Limited, Shell (Petroleum Mining) Co Limited, Energy Petroleum Holdings Limited, Energy Petroleum Investments Ltd, Energy Petroleum Taranaki Ltd, Energy Finance New Zealand Limited and Taranaki Offshore Petroleum Company), TAWN comprises the Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa and Ngaere fields, Todd Energy is Todd Energy Limited and includes Nova Gas, Vector is Vector Limited and includes OnGas, Wanganui Gas is Wanganui Gas Company Limited, and Nova Energy is Nova Energy Limited.

Notes to Figure E.1a: 1 Gas ownership as at year end 2010; excludes LPG. Includes Cheal and Surrey fields. Cheal is owned by Kanuka Energy Limited (36.5%), Cheal Petroleum Limited (30.5%) and Arrowhead Energy Limited (33.0%) and operated by TAG. Surrey is operated by Greymouth Petroleum Ltd.

2

3 Others include Mercury Energy, Bay of Plenty Electricity, Energy Online and Auckland Gas Company. Bay of Plenty Energy, Nova Energy and Auckland Gas Company are part of Todd Energy.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Transmission and Distribution

Retailing and Consumption

Industrial

Electricity Generation

Residential

There are more than 3,500 km of high pressure gas transmission pipelines in New Zealand. New Zealand has two main transmission entities: Vector’s transmission network and the Maui pipeline (owned by Maui Development Limited). All gas from Maui, Pohokura, McKee, Mangahewa, Turangi and Kowhai is delivered into the Maui pipeline.

Gas consumption information was provided by Contact Energy, Genesis Energy, Vector, Mercury Energy, Energy Online, Wanganui Gas and the Todd Energy retail brands – Auckland Gas Company, Bay of Plenty Energy and Nova Energy.

In 2010, the industrial sector accounted for 24% of total gas consumption (Figure E.1e). From companies surveyed, the number of industrial consumers was around 1,400.

In 2010 48% of New Zealand’s natural gas was used for electricity generation (including cogeneration). Contact Energy Limited (Otahuhu B, Taranaki Combined Cycle and Stratford) and Genesis Energy Limited (Huntly – including the e3p combined cycle plant) are the main thermal electricity generators in New Zealand using natural gas. In 2010, gas consumption for electricity generation increased by 16% to 63 PJ and cogeneration increased by 8% to 19 PJ compared with 2009.

In 2009, the residential sector accounted for around 3% of total gas consumption. From companies surveyed, the number of residential consumers was around 245,000.

More than 2,800 km of intermediate, medium and low pressure gas distribution pipeline networks in the North Island are connected to the high pressure transmission system (Figure E.8). Vector operates the most extensive gas distribution operations in the North Island. There are four gas distributors: Vector, Powerco, Nova Gas and GasNet (network operator, owned by Wanganui Gas).

&IGURE%B4OTAL.ATURAL'AS 0RODUCTIONBY&IELDFOR

Genesis, along with its subsidiary Energy Online, held the largest share of the retail market at 43% in 2010. The Todd Energyowned Nova brand showed the biggest increase in market share thanks to its purchase of customers from E-Gas in November 2010. Approximate market share based on consumer connections is shown in Figure E.1c. Total observed gas consumption (including electricity generation, cogeneration, total losses and own use, and non-energy use) increased from approximately 158 PJ to 168 PJ in 2010. This was due to the increased demand from electricity generation, and supplied by the Kupe ďŹ eld. Gas consumption and gas sales revenue ďŹ gures reported by gas retailers are used to derive average unit prices (see Table I.4). This information should be treated as approximations only. Further information on regional and national average gas distribution tariffs can be found in the Residential Gas Price Survey at www.med.govt.nz/gas/RGPS/.

Petrochemicals Gas used as a feedstock in the petrochemicals sector represented around 15% of New Zealand’s natural gas in 20101. This natural gas was used in the Motunui methanol plant and the Ballance AgriNutrients ammonia/urea plant at Kapuni. Crude methanol is produced from natural gas and distilled into high (“AAâ€?) grade methanol. Methanex New Zealand produced about 830,000 tonnes of methanol in 2010, compared with about 820,000 tonnes in 2009. Methanol production has been signiďŹ cantly higher in the last two years due in part to the larger capacity of the Motunui plant compared with the Waitara Valley plant and to more natural gas being available.

Commercial Around 4% of gas consumption was used by the commercial sector. From companies surveyed, the number of commercial (including transport) consumers was around 8,500.

Figure E.1c: Retail Market Share as Determined by Consumer Connections at December 2010 Genesis Energy and Energy Online 43.3% Contact Energy 24.2% Mercury Energy 16.5% Nova Energy1 11.2% Others2 4.9%

Ballance Agri-Nutrients (Kapuni) Limited (previously Petrochem Limited) manufactures ammonia/urea from natural gas. Gas consumption as a feedstock for ammonia/urea production was stable when compared with 2009 levels.

Note to Figure E.1c: 1 Todd Retail includes Nova Energy, Bay of Plenty Energy and Auckland Gas Company 2 Includes Energy Direct NZ, On Gas, E-Gas and Greymouth Gas.

 1PIPLVSB  .BVJ  ,VQF  ,BQVOJ  .BBSJ  .D,FF  ,PXIBJ  5VSBOHJ  .BOHBIFXB  ,BJNJSP/HBUPSP  5VJ   0UIFS

/PUFTUP'JHVSF&C*ODMVEFT(PMEJFBOE.PUVSPBXFMM  *ODMVEFT5BSJLJ "IVSPB 8BJIBQB /HBFSF  $IFBMGJFMET BOE4VSSFZXFMM

1

Gas combusted during the production of petrochemicals is included as industrial sector demand. Only gas used as a feedstock in petrochemical production is deďŹ ned as Non-energy Use.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.1d: Natural Gas Energy Flow Summary for 2010

Figure E.1e: Natural Gas Consumption by Sector for 2010

Electricity Generation1 51.1%

GENERATORS2

Production

Conveyance

Industrial 24.2%

Use

Non-energy Use 16.0% Commercial 4.2% Residential 3.7%

Gas Reinjected 4.0

Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing2 0.9%

LPG Extracted 7.4 Transmission Losses 0.7

Gas Flared 7.5 Losses and Own Use 6.7

Stock Change 5.9

Non-energy Use

Direct Supply 25.5

Methanex NZ Limited Ballance Agri-Nutrients Notes to Figure E.1e: 1 Includes cogeneration. 2 Includes Transport.

Fields Cheal Kaimiro

Direct Supply 62.6

Maui Kupe 198.2

Table E.1: Natural Gas Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

Electricity Generation

Kapuni Mangahewa

Contact Energy Limited

Maari McKee Ngatoro1

172.7

159.4

SUPPLY

Pohokura Rimu2 Surrey 18.6 Tariki/Ahuroa

Cogeneration

Tui3 Turangi Waihapa/Ngaere

Direct Supply and Distribution4 Vector 38.4

Powerco

2008

2009

2010

Δ2006/ 2010 P.a.

Δ2009/2010

Gross Production Gas Reinjected LPG Gas Equivalent Extracted Gas Flared Indigenous Production Stock Change

164.31 1.59 7.83 0.86 154.03 -0.00

180.88 1.83 5.51 3.97 169.57 0.03

173.78 2.65 4.21 6.93 159.99 0.03

182.52 4.98 3.62 6.68 167.24 4.09

198.18 4.01 7.35 7.47 179.34 5.87

4.8% 26.0% -1.6% 71.8% 3.9% n.a.

8.6% -19.4% 103.2% 11.8% 7.2% n.a.

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

154.03

169.54

159.96

163.15

173.47

3.0%

6.3%

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

-87.75

-104.09

-89.02

-77.67

-88.56

0.2%

14.0%

Electricity Generation Cogeneration Production Losses and Own Use Transmission Losses and Own Use

-60.10 -21.30 -5.62 -0.72

-75.35 -22.58 -5.38 -0.78

-60.77 -23.41 -4.07 -0.78

-53.97 -17.26 -5.63 -0.80

-62.58 -18.61 -6.67 -0.69

1.0% -3.3% 4.4% -1.0%

16.0% 7.8% 18.4% -13.4%

-15.10

-15.45

-18.23

-25.36

-25.47

14.0%

0.4%

51.18

50.01

52.71

60.12

59.44

3.8%

-1.1%

1.88 31.47 7.40 0.02 6.64

1.81 33.39 6.57 0.02 5.65

1.63 34.69 6.26 0.04 5.47

1.94 39.59 7.30 0.04 6.38

1.47 39.59 6.87 0.03 5.99

-5.9% 5.9% -1.8% 12.0% -2.5%

-24.3% 0.0% -5.8% -22.1% -6.0%

47.41

47.44

48.09

55.24

53.95

3.3%

-2.3%

3.78

2.56

4.62

4.88

5.49

CONSUMER ENERGY (calculated)

52.1

Commercial5

Gas Supply

DEMAND

Nova

8.2

2007

NON-ENERGY USE

Industrial

GasNet

Gross Production

2006

Converted Into Petajoules Using Gross Calorific Values

Genesis Power Limited

Agriculture Industrial Commercial Transport Residential

CONSUMER ENERGY (observed)

6.0

Residential

Statistical Differences

n.a.

n.a.

Petajoules (to approximate vertical scale)

Notes to Figure E.1d: 1 Includes the Goldie well. 2

Includes the Kauri well.

3

All gas from Tui field was flared.

4 Gas supplied through distribution systems is used by industry (including cogeneration) and the commercial, residential and transport sectors. Some cogenerators and other industrial and commercial users are supplied directly.

5

Includes Transport, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Total Gas Production by Field

Table E.2b: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

Table E.2a: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)1 Calendar Year

Maui

Kapuni

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2

Calendar Year Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

Kupe

R

Other

3

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

158.0 301.0 414.0 488.0 515.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

158.0 301.0 414.0 488.0 515.4

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

468.1

565.9 1,501.9 2,346.8 2,175.2 1,077.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

565.9 1,501.9 2,346.8 2,175.2 1,545.2

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

628.0 879.5 1,773.5 1,876.6 2,499.2

714.4 889.0 1,156.0 1,300.1 1,326.0

0.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 15.6

-

1.83

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,342.4 1,769.5 2,930.0 3,177.3 3,842.6

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

3,224.4 3,901.0 3,783.1 4,113.9 4,247.1

1,468.5 1,413.8 1,334.2 1,567.6 1,714.1

35.9 45.8 72.8 84.9 95.2

-

17.58 14.73 15.89 16.17 12.12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4,746.3 5,375.3 5,206.1 5,782.6 6,068.4

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

4,199.8 4,307.9 4,610.8 4,407.4 3,998.8

1,666.0 1,740.6 1,862.3 1,826.8 1,958.7

95.5 118.6 139.1 127.8 181.3

-

10.15 8.10 9.22 12.26 19.49

-

-

-

-

-

-

29.25 112.55 88.11 125.49 114.92

6,000.8 6,287.9 6,709.5 6,499.7 6,273.2

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

3,719.2 4,218.4 4,456.6 3,778.4 4,517.7

1,622.5 1,978.2 1,703.1 1,681.8 1,593.3

198.7 204.2 203.7 224.6 248.3

15.5 62.7 -

11.16 32.67 57.70 70.55 56.36

-

-

-

-

-

-

43.86 142.19 230.89 225.00 241.31

5,595.5 6,575.7 6,667.5 6,043.0 6,656.9

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

4,775.0 4,992.9 4,555.7 3,082.5 2,693.7

1,303.8 1,204.7 1,079.9 1,010.5 1,034.7

228.8 228.0 144.0 165.8 198.2

83.1 255.5 217.4 205.8

56.06 56.12 46.72 28.76 29.19

-

-

-

-

-

-

282.86 353.97 372.77 445.30 362.98

6,646.6 6,918.8 6,454.6 4,950.3 4,524.5

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2,377.6 2,253.0 1,355.1 1,282.0 1,400.8 1,182.5

1,075.9 1,054.8 928.2 785.8 655.6 676.6

256.5 224.5 190.9 171.2 257.9 186.2

163.2 141.3 147.0 130.7 147.1 136.3

41.74 41.51 43.54 50.32 46.83 59.73

0.4 37.6 128.5 118.5 189.6 150.4

53.7 179.3

340.7 1,688.7 1,706.5 1,668.5 1,706.8

62.0 159.2 75.8 43.9

112.2 161.7

19.4 542.2

371.48 279.41 185.33 91.14 43.35 27.49

4,286.9 4,372.9 4,729.3 4,495.3 4,670.8 5,053.0

Maui

Kapuni

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro1

Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui

Maari

KupeR

Other2

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

5.58 10.63 14.62 17.23 18.20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5.58 10.63 14.62 17.23 18.20

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

16.53

19.99 53.04 82.88 76.82 38.04

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19.99 53.04 82.88 76.82 54.57

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

22.18 31.06 62.63 66.27 88.26

25.23 31.39 40.82 45.91 46.83

0.00 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.55

-

0.06

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

47.41 62.49 103.47 112.21 135.70

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

113.87 137.76 133.60 145.28 149.98

51.86 49.93 47.12 55.36 60.53

1.27 1.62 2.57 3.00 3.36

-

0.62 0.52 0.56 0.57 0.43

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

167.62 189.83 183.85 204.21 214.31

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

148.32 152.13 162.83 155.65 141.22

58.83 61.47 65.77 64.51 69.17

3.37 4.19 4.91 4.51 6.40

-

0.36 0.29 0.33 0.43 0.69

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.03 3.97 3.11 4.43 4.06

211.92 222.05 236.94 229.53 221.54

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

131.34 148.97 157.38 133.43 159.54

57.30 69.86 60.14 59.39 56.27

7.02 7.21 7.19 7.93 8.77

0.55 2.21 -

0.39 1.15 2.04 2.49 1.99

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.55 5.02 8.15 7.95 8.52

197.60 232.22 235.46 213.41 235.09

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

168.63 176.32 160.88 108.86 95.13

46.04 42.55 38.14 35.69 36.54

8.08 8.05 5.09 5.86 7.00

2.93 9.02 7.68 7.27

1.98 1.98 1.65 1.02 1.03

-

-

-

-

-

-

9.99 12.50 13.16 15.73 12.82

234.72 244.34 227.94 174.82 159.78

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

83.96 79.57 47.86 45.27 49.47 41.76

37.99 37.25 32.78 27.75 23.15 23.89

9.06 7.93 6.74 6.04 9.11 6.57

5.76 4.99 5.19 4.62 5.20 4.81

1.47 1.47 1.54 1.78 1.65 2.11

0.02 1.33 4.54 4.18 6.69 5.31

1.90 6.33

12.03 59.64 60.26 58.92 60.28

2.19 5.62 2.68 1.55

3.96 5.71

0.69 19.15

13.12 9.87 6.54 3.22 1.53 0.97

151.39 154.43 167.01 158.75 164.95 178.45

Notes to Table E.2b: 1 Includes Goldie and Moturoa well. Notes to Table E.2a: 1 Includes gas flared, gas reinjected, LPG extracted, own use and losses. 2

Includes Goldie and Moturoa well.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), and Cheal fields, and Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. 3

R

= Revised figures.

2 Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), and Cheal fields, and Surrey and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells. R

= Revised figures.

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E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Table E.2c: Total Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)1

Figure E.2: Total Natural Gas Production by Field

1.52 1.89 3.02 3.58 3.99

-

0.68 0.57 0.61 0.62 0.47

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

168.07 194.33 188.60 209.15 218.32

44.59 46.25 49.04 48.43 51.50

3.97 4.84 5.61 5.16 7.32

-

0.39 0.31 0.39 0.55 0.86

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.31 5.05 3.95 5.63 5.15

216.24 227.44 242.54 236.41 227.14

152.92 173.53 183.76 156.71 186.76

42.84 52.72 46.12 45.43 42.94

8.02 8.24 8.22 9.07 10.02

0.60 2.44 -

0.53 1.41 2.55 3.21 2.56

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.97 6.55 10.68 10.36 11.17

206.28 242.45 251.93 227.22 253.46

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

195.67 203.56 186.63 127.35 111.29

34.88 31.99 28.81 27.21 27.79

9.36 9.38 5.95 6.83 8.18

3.22 9.89 8.41 7.98

2.63 2.59 2.16 1.29 1.13

-

-

-

-

-

-

11.64 14.49 15.35 18.55 14.93

254.17 265.22 248.79 189.64 171.30

2005

98.47

28.60

9.79

6.36

1.62

0.02

-

-

-

-

-

15.37

160.21

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

92.87 55.41 51.87 56.11 48.07

28.13 24.84 21.13 17.53 17.70

9.14 7.69 6.92 10.64 7.64

5.49 5.72 5.13 5.85 5.40

1.63 1.71 1.95 1.84 2.32

1.45 5.10 4.78 7.70 6.12

2.18 7.26

14.04 69.84 70.59 69.02 70.61

2.96 7.59 3.62 2.10

5.36 7.73

0.79 22.02

11.54 7.62 3.82 1.90 1.21

164.31 180.88 173.78 182.52 198.18

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-15.2%

-10.9%

-4.4%

-0.4%

9.2%

43.2%

n.a.

49.8%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-43.1%

4.8%

Δ2009/2010

-14.3%

1.0%

-28.2%

-7.7%

26.4%

-20.6%

233.6%

2.3%

-42.1%

44.1%

2694.6%

-36.2%

8.6%

Notes to Table E.2c: 1 In gross Calorific Value terms. 2

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

R

100

50

0

Kapuni

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/Ngatoro

Turangi

Kowhai

Tui

McKee

Maari

KupeR

Other

Pohokura

Maui

2010

42.52 56.62 96.78 106.16 133.07

2009

-

2007

-

2008

-

2005

-

2006

-

2003

-

2004

-

2001

0.07

150

2002

-

200

1999

15.36 40.22 64.35 59.49 47.14

2000

-

1997

-

1998

-

1995

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

-

1996

165.98 170.98 183.55 176.64 162.31

-

1993

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

-

1994

40.08 38.60 36.05 42.55 45.98

-

250

1991

125.79 153.26 148.91 162.41 167.88

-

300

1992

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

4.31 8.21 11.29 13.31 14.06

1990

0.00 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.64

-

1989

19.12 23.75 30.28 34.74 35.89

-

1987

23.40 32.83 66.49 71.40 96.48

-

1988

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

-

1985

-

-

1986

-

-

1983

15.36 40.22 64.35 59.49 29.27

-

1984

17.87

Total

1981

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

Other3

1982

-

KupeR

1979

-

Maari

1980

-

Tui

1977

4.31 8.21 11.29 13.31 14.06

Pohokura

1978

-

Kowhai

1975

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

PJ Turangi

1976

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2

1973

Mangahewa

1974

McKee

1971

Kapuni

1972

Maui

1970

Calendar Year

Notes to Figure E.2: R = Revised figures.

= Revised figures.

n.a. = Not applicable.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, and Cheal fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

3

76 Energy Data File | 2011

77 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Net Gas Production by Field

Table E.3b: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Bcf)

Table E.3a: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Mm3)1 Calendar Year

Maui

KapuniR

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2, 3

Calendar Year Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui4

Maari5

Kupe -

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

-

150.1 286.0 393.3 463.6 393.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

264.0

420.4 1,268.9 2,124.5 2,041.4 942.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

601.7 854.0 1,732.4 1,838.0 2,414.7

354.1 315.3 363.8 412.4 412.5

0.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 15.4

-

1.8

-

-

-

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

3,119.0 3,768.9 3,649.7 3,965.9 4,083.6

350.8 555.2 489.5 468.5 500.8

35.0 44.8 71.3 82.9 92.9

-

17.6 14.7 15.8 16.1 11.9

-

-

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

4,024.4 4,123.8 4,413.1 4,213.8 3,810.4

513.2 775.8 717.0 707.0 669.3

93.4 115.3 135.1 123.6 171.0

-

10.1 8.0 7.0 5.8 11.4

-

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

3,541.6 3,987.6 4,179.4 3,517.1 4,242.5

701.4 744.6 777.1 765.5 822.2

184.9 193.4 194.4 201.4 229.3

8.2 61.5 -

3.7 18.5 30.7 49.4 45.3

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

4,505.8 4,696.9 4,271.3 2,875.3 2,501.4

935.0 948.4 946.7 898.2 897.5

207.9 208.8 131.4 152.9 185.8

80.7 252.4 214.9 203.2

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2,204.9 2,114.0 1,270.1 1,207.4 1,318.7 1,099.1

933.8 909.4 799.9 691.8 588.1 594.5

229.6 170.4 131.5 127.2 156.1 109.2

160.7 138.7 129.2 127.6 143.6 129.9

Other6

Total

-

-

150.1 286.0 393.3 463.6 393.5

-

-

-

420.4 1,268.9 2,124.5 2,041.4 1,206.0

-

-

-

-

955.9 1,170.2 2,096.7 2,251.1 2,844.4

-

-

-

-

-

3,522.2 4,383.5 4,226.4 4,533.4 4,689.2

-

-

-

-

-

22.6 97.5 78.1 110.8 97.2

4,663.8 5,120.5 5,350.3 5,161.0 4,759.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

39.8 126.4 204.6 196.4 210.2

4,471.4 5,070.5 5,394.4 4,791.2 5,549.4

42.3 35.9 34.6 23.5 8.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

245.1 292.9 317.9 382.1 307.5

5,936.1 6,263.7 5,954.3 4,547.0 4,103.9

6.6 0.2 0.8 8.7 6.9 20.6

24.7 122.8 116.9 187.4 146.6

53.4 166.2

339.7 1,682.5 1,700.9 1,663.8 1,702.1

-

-

18.1 448.9

320.9 241.6 151.1 71.8 31.8 15.7

3,856.4 3,938.6 4,287.8 4,052.3 4,167.7 4,432.7

Maui

KapuniR

McKee

Mangahewa

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2, 3

Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Tui4

Maari5

Kupe

2

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

All gas from the Moturoa field was used for own purposes. All gas from the Ngatoro field was flared from March 1992 to May 1998. The Ngatoro field includes the Goldie well.

3

4

All gas from the Tui field was flared or used for own purposes.

2

5

All gas from the Maari field was flared or used for own purposes.

3

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, Cheal and Turangi fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

6

R

-

5.30 10.10 13.89 16.37 13.90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5.30 10.10 13.89 16.37 13.90

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

9.32

14.85 44.81 75.03 72.09 33.27

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14.85 44.81 75.03 72.09 42.59

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

21.25 30.16 61.18 64.91 85.27

12.51 11.13 12.85 14.57 14.57

0.00 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.54

-

0.06

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

33.76 41.33 74.04 79.50 100.45

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

110.15 133.10 128.89 140.05 144.21

12.39 19.61 17.29 16.55 17.69

1.23 1.58 2.52 2.93 3.28

-

0.62 0.52 0.56 0.57 0.42

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

124.39 154.80 149.26 160.10 165.60

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

142.12 145.63 155.85 148.81 134.56

18.12 27.40 25.32 24.97 23.64

3.30 4.07 4.77 4.37 6.04

-

0.36 0.28 0.25 0.21 0.40

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.80 3.44 2.76 3.91 3.43

164.70 180.83 188.95 182.26 168.07

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

125.07 140.82 147.60 124.21 149.82

24.77 26.29 27.44 27.03 29.04

6.53 6.83 6.87 7.11 8.10

0.29 2.17 -

0.13 0.65 1.08 1.74 1.60

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.40 4.46 7.22 6.94 7.42

157.91 179.06 190.50 169.20 195.98

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

159.12 165.87 150.84 101.54 88.34

33.02 33.49 33.43 31.72 31.69

7.34 7.37 4.64 5.40 6.56

2.85 8.91 7.59 7.18

1.49 1.27 1.22 0.83 0.29

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.66 10.34 11.23 13.49 10.86

209.63 221.20 210.28 160.58 144.93

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

77.86 74.65 44.85 42.64 46.57 38.82

32.98 32.11 28.25 24.43 20.77 20.99

8.11 6.02 4.65 4.49 5.51 3.86

5.68 4.90 4.56 4.51 5.07 4.59

0.23 0.01 0.03 0.31 0.25 0.73

0.87 4.34 4.13 6.62 5.18

1.89 5.87

12.00 59.42 60.07 58.76 60.11

-

-

0.64 15.85

11.33 8.53 5.34 2.54 1.12 0.56

136.19 139.09 151.42 143.11 147.18 156.54

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

All gas from the Moturoa field was used for own purposes. All gas from the Ngatoro field was flared from March 1992 to May 1998. The Ngatoro field includes the Goldie well.

4

All gas from the Tui field was flared or used for own purposes.

5

All gas from the Maari field was flared or used for own purposes.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, Cheal and Turangi fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

6

R

= Revised figures.

= Revised figures.

78 Energy Data File | 2011

Total

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

Notes to Table E.3b: 1 In Gross Calorific Value terms. Notes to Table E.3a: 1 In Gross Calorific Value terms.

Other6

79 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Table E.3c: Net Natural Gas Production by Field (Gross PJ)1

Figure E.3: Net Natural Gas Production by Field

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

22.42 31.88 64.94 69.93 93.22

9.45 8.42 9.57 11.01 11.15

0.00 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.63

-

0.07

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

31.87 40.33 74.53 80.97 105.06

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

121.68 148.07 143.66 156.56 161.42

9.58 15.17 13.22 12.72 13.43

1.48 1.85 2.96 3.49 3.90

-

0.68 0.57 0.61 0.62 0.46

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

133.41 165.65 160.46 173.39 179.21

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

159.05 163.68 175.68 168.88 154.66

13.73 20.61 18.90 18.75 17.60

3.88 4.71 5.46 4.99 6.90

-

0.39 0.31 0.27 0.23 0.44

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.02 4.37 3.50 4.97 4.36

178.06 193.68 203.80 197.82 183.96

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

145.62 164.02 172.32 145.87 175.39

18.54 19.85 21.04 20.67 22.16

7.46 7.81 7.85 8.13 9.25

0.32 2.39 -

0.14 0.72 1.18 2.14 2.03

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.78 5.83 9.46 9.06 9.73

173.55 198.22 212.18 188.26 218.57

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

184.64 191.49 174.98 118.79 103.34

25.01 25.18 25.26 24.18 24.10

8.51 8.59 5.43 6.30 7.67

3.13 9.77 8.31 7.88

1.96 1.65 1.61 1.06 0.33

-

-

-

-

-

-

10.09 11.96 13.00 15.76 12.45

230.20 241.99 230.04 174.40 155.77

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

91.31 87.14 51.93 48.85 52.81 44.68

24.83 24.25 21.41 18.61 15.73 15.56

8.75 6.94 5.32 5.14 6.44 4.48

6.26 5.39 5.02 5.01 5.71 5.15

0.25 0.01 0.03 0.34 0.27 0.80

0.98 4.87 4.72 7.62 5.97

2.16 6.73

14.00 69.58 70.36 68.82 70.42

-

-

0.74 18.24

12.92 9.69 6.03 2.91 1.31 0.65

144.32 148.40 164.19 155.92 161.61 172.67

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-15.4%

-10.5%

-10.4%

-1.2%

221.0%

57.3%

n.a.

49.8%

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-49.0%

3.9%

Δ2009/2010

-15.4%

-1.1%

-30.4%

-9.9%

192.4%

-21.6%

211.2%

2.3%

n.a.

n.a.

-50.1%

6.8%

Includes Goldie and Moturoa wells.

All gas from the Moturoa field was used for own purposes. All gas from the Ngatoro field was flared from March 1992 to May 1998. The Ngatoro field includes the Goldie well.

3

4

All gas from the Tui field was flared or used for own purposes.

5

All gas from the Maari field was flared or used for own purposes.

2,379.3%

200

150

100

50

0

KapuniR

McKee

Mangahewa

Kupe

Kaimiro/Ngatoro

Turangi

Kowhai

Pohokura

Other

Maui

Notes to Figure E.3: R = Revised figures.

Includes Rimu/Kauri, Tariki, Ahuroa, Waihapa, Ngaere, Piakau (not produced since September 1999), Rimu, Kauri, Cheal and Turangi fields, and Surrey, Manutahi and Radnor (ceased production in 2006) wells.

6

R

= Revised figures.

80 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

11.41 33.98 58.24 55.82 35.64

2009

-

2007

-

2008

-

2005

-

2006

-

2003

-

2004

-

2001

-

2002

-

1999

-

2000

11.41 33.98 58.24 55.82 25.61

1997

10.03

250

1998

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

300

1995

4.09 7.80 10.73 12.65 10.74

1996

-

1993

-

1994

-

1991

-

1992

-

1990

-

1989

-

1987

-

1988

-

1985

-

1986

4.09 7.80 10.73 12.65 10.74

1983

-

1984

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

1981

Total

1982

Other6

1979

Kupe

1980

Maari5

1977

Tui4

1978

Pohokura

1976

Kowhai

1975

Turangi

1973

Kaimiro/ Ngatoro2, 3

1974

Mangahewa

1971

McKee

Notes to Table E.3c: 1 In Gross Calorific Value terms. 2

PJ

KapuniR

1972

Maui

1970

Calendar Year

81 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Gas Production

Figure E.4: Natural Gas Production

Table E.4: Natural Gas Production (Gross PJ) PJ 300 Gas Supply

1974

14.06

-

0.11

1.03

12.92

2.19

10.74

1.62

12.35

250

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

15.36 40.22 64.35 59.49 47.14

-

0.15 0.39 0.55 0.68 1.17

1.19 2.29 2.13 0.89 7.76

14.03 37.54 61.67 57.92 38.20

2.61 3.56 3.43 2.09 2.56

11.41 33.98 58.24 55.82 35.64

1.97 1.97 1.77 1.70

13.38 33.98 60.21 57.59 37.35

200

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

42.52 56.62 96.78 106.16 133.07

5.41 11.08 16.14 18.85 20.01

0.85 1.30 1.54 1.74 2.59

0.78 0.60 0.47 0.30 1.27

35.47 43.63 78.62 85.27 109.20

3.60 3.30 4.09 4.30 4.14

31.87 40.33 74.53 80.97 105.06

1.46 1.46 1.31 1.11 0.95

33.32 41.79 75.84 82.08 106.01

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

168.07 194.33 188.60 209.15 218.32

23.27 19.70 19.63 25.53 29.68

4.66 5.44 5.44 5.78 5.74

0.76 1.26 1.00 1.50 1.88

139.38 167.93 162.53 176.35 181.02

5.97 2.28 2.07 2.96 1.81

133.41 165.65 160.46 173.39 179.21

0.70 0.39 0.15 0.11 0.10

134.11 166.04 160.61 173.50 179.31

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

216.24 227.44 242.54 236.41 227.14

27.90 22.12 25.15 24.79 28.66

6.01 7.08 7.69 7.98 8.14

2.21 2.45 1.88 1.58 1.85

180.12 195.80 207.82 202.07 188.49

2.06 2.12 4.01 4.25 4.53

178.06 193.68 203.80 197.82 183.96

0.07 -

178.13 193.68 203.80 197.82 183.96

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

206.28 242.45 251.93 227.22 253.46

19.41 27.67 20.48 21.12 17.74

7.61 8.94 9.78 9.54 10.02

1.24 2.48 3.97 3.09 1.94

178.02 203.36 217.71 193.47 223.76

4.47 5.15 5.53 5.20 5.20

173.55 198.22 212.18 188.26 218.57

-

173.55 198.22 212.18 188.26 218.57

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

254.17 265.22 248.79 189.64 171.30

6.85 3.59 0.50 0.01 -

10.47 11.53 11.40 9.10 9.13

1.64 2.59 1.61 1.08 0.90

235.21 247.50 235.29 179.45 161.26

5.01 5.51 5.25 5.05 5.50

230.20 241.99 230.04 174.40 155.77

-

230.20 241.99 230.04 174.40 155.77

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

160.21 164.31 180.88 173.78 182.52 198.18

0.50 1.59 1.83 2.65 4.98 4.01

8.76 7.83 5.51 4.21 3.62 7.35

0.78 0.86 3.97 6.93 6.68 7.47

150.17 154.03 169.57 159.99 167.24 179.34

5.85 5.62 5.38 4.07 5.63 6.67

144.32 148.40 164.19 155.92 161.61 172.67

-

144.32 148.40 164.19 155.92 161.61 172.67

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

41.07 45.46 47.39 48.61

0.97 1.24 1.22 1.55

0.72 0.85 0.97 1.08

1.08 1.04 2.04 2.52

38.30 42.32 43.16 43.46

1.09 1.27 1.64 1.63

37.22 41.05 41.51 41.83

-

37.22 41.05 41.51 41.83

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

46.47 49.82 53.76 48.13

1.23 1.13 0.90 0.76

1.36 1.93 2.33 1.73

1.80 1.50 1.97 2.20

42.08 45.26 48.56 43.44

1.50 1.71 1.70 1.76

40.57 43.55 46.87 41.68

-

40.57 43.55 46.87 41.68

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

4.8%

26.0%

-1.6%

71.8%

3.9%

4.4%

3.9%

n.a.

3.9%

Δ2009/2010

8.6%

-19.4%

103.2%

11.8%

7.2%

18.4%

6.8%

n.a.

6.8%

Notes to Table E.4: 1 Does not include any gas vented. Any gas vented is assumed to be very small.

R

150

100

50

Net Natural Gas Production

Production Losses & Own Use

Flared

LPG Gas Equivalent Extracted

Gas Reinjected

2010

2009

2008

2007

2005

2006

2003

2004

2001

2002

2000

1999

1997

1998

1995

1996

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

1988

1986

1985

1983

1974

0 1984

Net Natural Gas Manufactured Production + Gas Production =

1981

=

1982

1980

=

Production Losses and Own Use

1979

Gas Flared

Indigenous Production2

1978

1

1977

LPG Gas Equivalent Extracted

1975

Total Natural Gas Production – Gas Reinjected –

1976

Calendar Year or Quarter

Manufactured Gas

= Revised figures.

n.a. = Not applicable.

2 Indigenous production is based on International Energy Agency’s (IEA) definition. This excludes gas flared, reinjected, any LPG extracted, but includes production losses and own use.

82 Energy Data File | 2011

83 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Gas Use

Table E.5b: Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Gross PJ)

Table E.5a: Natural Gas Supply and Consumption (Gross PJ) Energy Transformation Consumer EnergyR Calendar Year or Quarter

Indigenous Production

+

Manufactured Gas Production –

Stock Change

Energy – Transformation

– Non-energy UseR =

Calculated

Observed1

Statistical Difference

1974

12.92

1.62

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

14.03 37.54 61.67 57.92 38.20

1.97 1.97 1.77 1.70

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

35.47 43.63 78.62 85.27 109.20

1.46 1.46 1.31 1.11 0.95

0.12 -0.00 0.02 0.03 0.02

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

139.38 167.93 162.53 176.35 181.02

0.70 0.39 0.15 0.11 0.10

-0.01 0.03 0.05 0.03 -0.02

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

180.12 195.80 207.82 202.07 188.49

0.07 -

-0.02 0.00 0.00 -0.02 -0.01

94.78 101.57 115.05 107.13 87.24

13.98 20.57 18.00 20.03 25.00

71.45 73.67 74.76 74.93 76.25

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

-1.59 -1.74 -1.30 -0.92 0.10

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

178.02 203.36 217.71 193.47 223.76

-

-0.01 0.04 -0.02 0.03 0.02

69.02 80.82 99.19 78.78 95.24

36.89 48.16 49.26 46.90 54.54

72.13 74.34 69.28 67.76 73.95

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

1.81 1.60 2.80 0.43 -2.27

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

235.21 247.50 235.29 179.45 161.26

-

-0.05 -0.00 -0.00 0.01 0.02

94.07 115.46 98.19 90.55 67.12

62.16 55.78 58.20 26.33 32.32

79.03 76.27 78.90 62.57 61.81

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

0.18 0.75 1.71 -1.38 1.26

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

150.17 154.03 169.57 159.99 167.24 179.34

-

-0.01 -0.00 0.03 0.03 4.09 5.87

86.82 87.75 104.09 89.02 77.67 88.56

13.02 15.10 15.45 18.23 25.36 25.47

50.34 51.18 50.01 52.71 60.12 59.44

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24 53.95

0.13 -3.78 -2.56 -4.62 -4.88 -5.49

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

38.30 42.32 43.16 43.46

-

1.21 0.40 0.02 2.47

18.21 19.80 20.70 18.96

5.99 6.32 6.30 6.75

12.89 15.81 16.14 15.28

12.52 14.42 14.37 13.94

0.37 1.40 1.77 1.34

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

42.08 45.26 48.56 43.44

-

2.39 0.33 1.00 2.16

19.86 23.71 25.09 19.89

6.41 6.56 6.05 6.45

13.42 14.67 16.43 14.93

11.70 13.11 15.20 13.94

1.72 1.56 1.23 0.99

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

3.9%

n.a.

n.a.

0.2%

14.0%

3.8%

3.3%

n.a.

Δ2009/2010

7.2%

n.a.

43.6%

14.0%

0.4%

-1.1%

-2.3%

n.a.

Electricity Generation

CogenerationR

Petrol Production

Production Losses and Own Use

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

56.98 69.48 74.85 69.10 54.70

0.71 0.80 0.84 0.89 2.25

34.90 29.04 35.22 32.77 25.59

2.06 2.12 4.01 4.25 4.53

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

44.62 58.04 76.33 53.73 69.80

4.19 8.01 16.29 19.43 19.86

15.49 9.38 0.76 -

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

70.83 85.72 70.04 60.32 39.77

17.47 23.62 22.20 24.38 21.12

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

56.62 60.10 75.35 60.77 53.97 62.58

Calendar Year or Quarter

Consumer Energy Observed1, R

Total

Nonenergy Use2, R

Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fishing

Commercial

Residential

0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17

94.78 101.57 115.05 107.13 87.24

13.98 20.57 18.00 20.03 25.00

2.00 2.01 1.96 1.96 1.96

4.39 4.34 4.45 4.66 4.97

3.49 3.77 4.28 4.33 4.53

4.47 5.15 5.53 5.20 5.20

0.25 0.25 0.28 0.41 0.39

69.02 80.82 99.19 78.78 95.24

36.89 48.16 49.26 46.90 54.54

2.04 2.01 2.12 2.03 1.97

5.20 5.36 5.54 5.74 6.06

-

5.01 5.51 5.25 5.05 5.50

0.76 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.73

94.07 115.46 98.19 90.55 67.12

62.16 55.78 58.20 26.33 32.32

2.10 2.12 2.04 2.06 1.96

23.59 21.30 22.58 23.41 17.26 18.61

-

5.85 5.62 5.38 4.07 5.63 6.67

0.76 0.72 0.78 0.78 0.80 0.69

86.82 87.75 104.09 89.02 77.67 88.56

13.02 15.10 15.45 18.23 25.36 25.47

Transmission Losses

Transport (CNG)3

Total

Total

57.33 59.15 60.30 60.78 63.05

2.65 2.66 2.46 2.27 1.83

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

178.62 194.07 206.51 201.17 188.60

4.45 4.67 4.96 5.13 5.55

60.82 62.84 58.71 54.79 57.91

1.42 1.06 0.76 0.51 0.19

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

179.84 204.92 220.53 193.87 221.47

6.32 6.60 6.79 7.14 7.86

7.26 7.29 6.87 6.96 7.29

63.53 60.99 64.88 45.01 45.93

0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

235.44 248.26 237.00 178.07 162.50

2.06 1.88 1.81 1.63 1.94 1.47

7.74 7.40 6.57 6.26 7.30 6.87

6.57 6.64 5.65 5.47 6.38 5.99

34.09 31.47 33.39 34.69 39.59 39.59

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24 53.95

150.31 150.25 166.98 155.34 158.27 167.98

Industrial

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

12.64 14.22 14.83 12.29

4.36 4.09 3.98 4.83

-

1.09 1.27 1.64 1.63

0.13 0.21 0.25 0.21

18.21 19.80 20.70 18.96

5.99 6.32 6.30 6.75

0.38 0.58 0.55 0.43

1.47 1.97 2.09 1.77

0.71 2.02 2.35 1.30

9.95 9.84 9.36 10.44

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

12.52 14.42 14.37 13.94

36.72 40.53 41.37 39.65

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

13.09 17.51 18.48 13.50

5.14 4.29 4.68 4.49

-

1.50 1.71 1.70 1.76

0.12 0.19 0.24 0.15

19.86 23.71 25.09 19.89

6.41 6.56 6.05 6.45

0.27 0.44 0.44 0.33

1.40 1.87 2.11 1.49

0.88 1.54 2.42 1.16

9.14 9.25 10.23 10.97

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00

11.70 13.11 15.20 13.94

37.97 43.38 46.34 40.29

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.0%

-3.3%

n.a.

4.4%

-1.0%

0.2%

14.0%

-5.9%

-1.8%

-2.5%

5.9%

12.0%

3.3%

2.8%

Δ2009/2010

16.0%

7.8%

n.a.

18.4%

-13.4%

14.0%

0.4%

-24.3%

-5.8%

-6.0%

0.0%

-22.1%

-2.3%

6.1%

Notes to Table E.5b: 1 Data is based on estimates up until 2004. 2

Excludes gas for energy purposes used by non-energy users.

3

Estimated from 2000 to 2008.

n.a. = Not available. R

= Revised figures.

Notes to Table E.5a: 1 Data is based on estimates up until 2005. R

= Revised figures.

n.a. = Not applicable.

84 Energy Data File | 2011

85 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.5: Natural Gas Use by Sector

Table E.5c: Natural Gas Consumer Energy by Sector (Gross PJ)1

PJ

IndustrialR

300

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Food Processing

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

Chemicals

Basic Metals

Other2

Industrial Total

Commercial

Transport (CNG)

Residential

Total

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

2.00 2.01 1.96 1.96 1.96

8.22 8.45 8.51 8.87 9.24

6.06 6.01 5.79 6.14 6.42

35.26 36.48 38.04 38.06 39.34

4.21 4.78 4.48 4.00 4.16

3.58 3.43 3.49 3.71 3.89

57.33 59.15 60.30 60.78 63.05

4.39 4.34 4.45 4.66 4.97

2.65 2.66 2.46 2.27 1.83

3.49 3.77 4.28 4.33 4.53

69.86 71.93 73.46 74.00 76.35

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2.04 2.01 2.12 2.03 1.97

9.68 9.93 10.54 10.30 9.98

6.59 6.54 6.55 6.30 6.42

36.70 37.80 33.39 30.63 33.71

3.80 4.41 4.12 3.60 3.73

4.05 4.16 4.11 3.95 4.07

60.82 62.84 58.71 54.79 57.91

5.20 5.36 5.54 5.74 6.06

1.42 1.06 0.76 0.51 0.19

4.45 4.67 4.96 5.13 5.55

73.94 75.94 72.08 68.20 71.68

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2.10 2.12 2.04 2.06 1.96

10.62 11.13 11.33 10.83 11.18

6.69 6.62 6.57 5.85 6.92

38.75 35.27 39.22 20.80 19.85

3.35 3.93 3.56 3.35 3.68

4.11 4.04 4.20 4.19 4.30

63.53 60.99 64.88 45.01 45.93

6.32 6.60 6.79 7.14 7.86

0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

7.26 7.29 6.87 6.96 7.29

79.21 77.02 80.61 61.19 63.06

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2.06 1.88 1.81 1.63 1.94 1.47

10.85 7.99 10.08 8.74 9.65 9.62

6.41 5.67 5.30 4.76 5.00 4.85

9.75 10.79 11.06 13.99 18.64 18.85

3.28 3.14 3.00 2.98 2.94 3.00

3.80 3.88 3.95 4.22 3.35 3.26

34.09 31.47 33.39 34.69 39.59 39.59

7.74 7.40 6.57 6.26 7.30 6.87

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03

6.57 6.64 5.65 5.47 6.38 5.99

50.47 47.41 47.44 48.09 55.24 53.95

Calendar Year or Quarter

250

200

150

100

50

Commercial

Residential

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Transport (CNG)

Electricity and Cogeneration

Total Losses and Own Use

Non-energy Use

Petrol Production

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

0

Industrial

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.38 0.58 0.55 0.43

2.78 2.26 1.73 2.88

1.12 1.28 1.34 1.27

4.53 4.66 4.71 4.74

0.71 0.76 0.78 0.69

0.81 0.88 0.82 0.85

9.95 9.84 9.36 10.44

1.47 1.97 2.09 1.77

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

0.71 2.02 2.35 1.30

12.52 14.42 14.37 13.94

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

0.27 0.44 0.44 0.33

2.44 1.94 2.15 3.09

1.03 1.33 1.44 1.05

4.23 4.39 4.97 5.26

0.70 0.78 0.79 0.73

0.75 0.80 0.88 0.83

9.14 9.25 10.23 10.97

1.40 1.87 2.11 1.49

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00

0.88 1.54 2.42 1.16

11.70 13.11 15.20 13.94

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

-5.9%

4.8%

-3.9%

15.0%

-1.1%

-4.3%

5.9%

-1.8%

12.0%

-2.5%

3.3%

Δ2009/2010

-24.3%

-0.3%

-3.2%

1.1%

2.3%

-2.8%

0.0%

-5.8%

-22.1%

-6.0%

-2.3%

Notes to Table E.5c: 1 Excludes amount of gas for energy purposes used by non-energy users. 2 Includes non-metallic mineral products, cement and lime, machinery and equipment, gas and water supply, and construction. R

= Revised figures.

86 Energy Data File | 2011

87 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Figure E.6: Industrial Natural Gas Consumption

Table E.5d: Natural Gas Market Snapshot for 2010

PJ

ANZSIC 2006

70

Agriculture, Forestry

1,470.8

Agriculture and Agricultural Services

A01, A02, A04 & A05

Forestry and Logging

60

A03

Industrial Oil and Gas Extraction Dairy Products

40

Meat and Meat Products, Other Food Processing; Beverages, Malt and Tobacco Products

30

20

10

Chemicals

Basic Metals

Other

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1995

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

B06, B07, B09 & B10

6.1

B07

0.0

C113

4,121.0

C111, C112, C114 - C119, C12

5,503.4

C13

381.0

Log Sawmilling and Timber Dressing, and Other Wood Products

C14

1,454.2

Paper and Paper Products

C15

3,285.6

Printing, Publishing and Recorded Media

C16

105.6

Petroleum Refining

C1701

1,762.9

Petroleum and Coal Products

C1709

63.6

Fertiliser

C1831

3,464.1

Organic Industrial Chemicals

Food Processing

12.6

Textile, Clothing, Footwear and Leather

Industrial Gases and Synthetic Resin

0

1,458.1 39,588.2

Coal Mining, Other Mining and Quarrying, and Services to Mining

50

Sales TJ

Inorganic Industrial Chemicals, Other Chemical Products, Rubber and Plastic Products Non-metallic Mineral Products (except Cement and Lime) Cement and Lime Iron and Steel

C181 - C182 except C1812

68.1

C1812

12,353.1

C183 - C19 except C1831

1,141.2

C20 except C2031

651.9

C2031

175.5

C211

2,498.2

Basic Non-ferrous Metals

C213

60.3

Basic Non-ferrous Metal Products

C214

141.5

Metal Products (other)

C212, C22

304.6

Machinery and Equipment manufacturing as well as all other manufacturing not yet specified

C23 - C25

1,386.9

Gas Supply (including LPG) Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Services Construction

D27

420.7

D28, D29

204.8

E

Commercial

33.8 6,871.9

Wholesale and Retail Trade, Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants

F, G, H

2,410.4

Road Freight Industry

I461

9.8

Road Passenger Industry

I462

28.8

Rail Transport Industry

I47

13.8

Water Transport Industry

I48

4.6

Air Transport Industry

I490

-

I50, I52

89.7

Other Transport Industry, and Services to Transport Storage Communication Services, Finance, Insurance, Property and Business Services Government (including Foreign), administration and Defence Education, Cultural, Recreational, Personal and Other Services Health and Community Services

I53

99.3

I51, J, K - N

393.6

O

281.1

P, R - S

2,244.4

Q

1,296.2

Transport (CNG)

n.a.

29.6

Residential

n.a.

5,992.2

Total Sales

53,952.7

Notes to Table E.5d: n.a. = Not available.

88 Energy Data File | 2011

89 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


E. Natural Gas

E. Natural Gas

Gas Consumption by Region

New Zealand Gas Transmission Pipelines

Figure E.7: Gas Consumption by Region for 2010 (Gross TJ)1

Figure E.8: New Zealand Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines

,BVSJ 

8IBOHBSFJ 

.BVOHBUBQFSF

.BSTEFO 1PJOU 



TJ

Northland

.BVOHBUVSPUP 

8FMMTGPSE

124.0 2,623.5 2,747.5 1.7%

1*1&-*/& 4$)&."5*$

8BSLXPSUI 

8BJUPLJ 





Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

FOR0IPELINES ,ATERALSAND#OMPRESSORS

8BJNBVLV 

./24( )3,!.$

#SVDF .D-BSFO 

8FTUGJFME 

 

8JSJ  0UBIVIV #  



1BQBLVSB 

)FOEFSTPO 7BMMFZ $4

(MFOCSPPL 



)VOUMZ 

3PUPXBSP $4

3,012.9 1,123.2 4,136.2 2.6%

/HBSVBXBIJB 

.PSSJOTWJMMF



5F ,PXIBJ 

5JSBV 

1JSPOHJB 

1PLVSV $4 

TJ

5F ,VJUJ /UI 

1,565.3 61,531.8 63,097.2 39.6%

.BIPFOVJ $4







,JOMFJUI 

.PLBV $4



/FX 1MZNPVUI

1VOHBSFIV 

TJ





,BQPOHB 

0BPOVJ 1SPEVDUJPO 4UBUJPO 

,BQVOJ 

0LBJBXB 

(JTCPSOF 

*OHMFXPPE 

%FSCZ 3E $4

4USBUGPSE 14 

5$$ 

&MUIBN 

,BQVOJ 1SPEVDUJPO 4UBUJPO  

)BXFSB







3,253.4 19.0 3,272.4 2.1%

1,608.8 119.5 1,728.3 1.1%

,BXFSBV $4

3FQPSPB 

5BVQP 



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

0QPUJLJ 







TJ

8IBLBUBOF 



/1 1PXFS 4UBUJPO 0BLVSB

Hawke’s Bay

,BXFSBV

-JDIGJFME 

5F ,VJUJ 4UI 

397.2 397.2 0.2%

&EHFDVNCF 

3PUPSVB 



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

Manawatu Wanganui

3BOHJVSV 



TJ

.PVOU .BVOHBOVJ 

5F 1VLF 

3,951.7 43,560.1 47,511.8 29.8%



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National



5BVSBOHB 

5F "XBNVUV /PSUI 

Gisborne

Taranaki

$BNCSJEHF  



TJ

Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

8BJUPB

.BUBOHJ 

5F 3BQB  

Waikato





,JXJUBIJ 



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

TJ



Bay of Plenty

12,221.1 20,275.9 32,497.0 20.4%



Reticulated Direct Total Share of National



TJ

Auckland

"MGSJTUPO 

)VOVB 

3BNBSBNB 

8BWFSMFZ 







)BTUJOHT 

,BJUPLF 





,BJUPLF $4





-BLF "MJDF 

Wellington

'FJMEJOH  "TIIVSTU 

,&:  %BOOFWJSLF 



3,953.7 10.2 3,963.9 2.5%

.BOHBUBJOPLB 

1BMNFSTUPO /PSUI -POHCVSO  1BIJBUVB 



-FWJO 

'PYUPO 

5F )PSP 

,VLV 









Reticulated 30,088.2 Direct 129,263.4 Total 159,351.5 Share of National 100.0%

 

TJ

.BSUPO 

,BLBSJLJ 

8BJUBOHJSVB 

1BFLBLBSJLJ 

 

Totals

Reticulated Direct Total Share of National

TJ

#FMNPOU 

5BXB # 5BXB "   

Notes to Figure E.7: Numbers do not include losses and own 1

1JQFMJOF 4ZTUFNT

/PSUIMBOE /1 0GGUBLF  3PUPXBSP .PSSJOTWJMMF 5F "XBNVUV ,BXFSBV  (JTCPSOF #BZ PG 1MFOUZ 4PVUI 1JQFMJOFT ,BQVOJ  'SBOLMFZ 3PBE )BXLFµT #BZ "VDLMBOE ,(51  /1 0GGUBLF .JOPS -BUFSBMT /;3$ .BVJ

$ $01:3*()5 7FDUPS -JNJUFE

use, flaring, LPG extracted, gas reinjected, and stock changes.

90 Energy Data File | 2011

91 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


F. Renewables

F. Renewables

Figure F.1: Renewable Energy Flow Summary for 2010

Overview of Renewables in New Zealand Introduction

Production

Detailed information is available on Renewable energy sources discussed in this renewable energy used to generate electricity. However, information on the section include hydro, wind, geothermal, direct use of renewable energy is more solar, woody biomass, biogas and liquid biofuels. Information on renewable energy is difďŹ cult to come by given it is often used presented for calendar years by fuel type and without being purchased or sold. Where actual information on the direct use of sector along with a 2010 breakdown of fuel renewable energy is not available, estimates type by sector. have been made based on research and the knowledge of experts in this ďŹ eld.

Use

Fuel Type

Supply

143.1

New Zealand’s historically high level of renewable primary energy supply is largely due to plentiful hydro and geothermal resources. The last few years have seen increasing interest in other renewable sources such as solar and bioenergy.

Transformation Supply

Geothermal

123.1

9.6

Hydro

89.0

Transformation Losses

Direct Use Supply

Transformation Supply

&IGURE&2ENEWABLE0RIMARY%NERGYFOR

0.9

Transformation Losses

20.0

Net Electricity Output

9.6

Direct Use

Net Electricity Output

)ZESP #JPFOFSHZBOE4PMBS 8JOE

2010 saw a record high contribution of renewable sources to primary energy supply both as a share of total supply -– 38% – and as an absolute – 310 petajoules. This is largely the result of new geothermal and wind generation coming online and increased direct use of woody biomass. New Zealand ranks third behind Iceland (83%) and Norway (46%) in terms of the share of Total Primary Energy Supply from renewable sources according to the latest data available from the International Energy Agency.

88.1

(FPUIFSNBM

74% of electricity generation was from renewables in 2010. This was due to record high geothermal generation and good hydro in-ows. This is the highest renewable percentage of total electricity since 1998 and is third in the OECD.

&IGURE&0ERCENTAGEOF.EW:EALAND%LECTRICITY'ENERATIONFROM 2ENEWABLE3OURCES      

8.2

Bioenergy1 and Solar

Transformation Supply

Transformation 6.1 Losses

2.1



Net Electricity Output

2

 

54.7

Direct Use Supply

54.7



Direct Use



Wind

5.9

Transformation Supply

0.1

Transformation Losses

5.8

                                    



Net Electricity Output

#JPFOFSHZ

Petajoules (PJ) to approximate vertical scale

Notes to Figure F.1: 1 Bioenergy in this instance refers to biogas, woody biomass and liquid biofuel.

sector under Oil Production. This is included in Bioenergy and Solar but is too small to distinguish on this ďŹ gure.

In addition to Net Electricity Output, a very small amount of liquid biofuel is produced in New Zealand and sent to the Transformation

Direct use of renewable energy covers mainly heat and biofuel for commercial and industrial applications.

2

(FPUIFSNBM

)ZESP

For default electrical transformation factors, see Table B.1. Numbers may not add due to rounding.

92 Energy Data File | 2011

8JOE

93 Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


F. Renewables

F. Renewables

Table F.2: Renewable Energy Supply and Use by Fuel (Gross PJ) Direct Use of Renewable Energy

Woody biomass direct use is mainly in the timber industry, which burns residue wood to provide heat energy. Wood is also burned to heat many private homes in New Zealand.

In 2010, an estimated 64 PJ of renewable energy was used for direct-use heat applications around New Zealand. This is mostly in the form of woody biomass and geothermal for heating and commercial industrial applications.

Hydro

Liquid Biofuels Production

Geothermal energy is used directly as a heat source in small quantities in the central North Island in the timber and tourism industries. It is also used in small quantities for domestic heating.

An estimated 7 million litres of liquid biofuel was produced in 2010, a 46% increase from 2009. As per International Energy Agency definitions, final consumption of liquid biofuel is included under oil, rather than renewables.

Table F.1: Renewable Energy Balance 2006–2010 (Gross PJ)

DEMAND

SUPPLY

Gross PJ

2008

Δ1990/2010 p.a.

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

310.25

2.6%

6.4%

13.4%

310.25

2.7%

6.4%

13.4%

(246.12)

2.8%

9.5%

14.7%

(238.64) (7.29) (0.18)

3.0% -0.4%

9.7% 3.3%

15.0% 2.8% 46.3%

58.85

64.14

2.5%

-2.5%

9.0%

0.73 47.06 2.80 8.26

0.73 52.60 2.62 8.19

4.6% 3.1% 1.7% -0.1%

7.1% -2.8% -2.2% -0.7%

-0.8% 11.8% -6.2% -0.8%

1990

2000

2006

2007

2009

TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY

185.32

229.36

241.86

244.71

252.55

273.50

Indigenous Production

185.32

229.36

241.86

244.71

252.55

273.50

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

(145.03)

(169.81)

(171.02)

(176.71)

(189.00)

(214.64)

Electricity Generation Cogeneration Oil Production1

(137.12) (7.92) -

(161.82) (7.99) -

(164.61) (6.41) -

(170.18) (6.48) (0.05)

(182.32) (6.59) (0.09)

(207.42) (7.10) (0.12)

CONSUMER ENERGY

40.28

59.54

70.84

68.00

63.55

Agriculture Industrial Commercial Residential

0.31 29.70 1.89 8.38

0.35 48.92 1.92 8.34

0.55 59.01 2.87 8.41

0.56 56.15 2.90 8.40

0.73 51.68 2.80 8.34

2010

Δ2009/2010

Geothermal

Supply

Use

Supply

Use

Calendar Year

Production

Electricity

Production

Electricity

Cogeneration

Direct Use

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

83.46 82.41 75.93 84.57 93.00

83.46 82.41 75.93 84.57 93.00

61.81 64.87 64.23 67.57 63.26

53.34 56.45 55.84 58.95 54.38

1.37 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.37

7.10 7.04 7.01 7.24 7.51

-

-

-

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

99.12 94.25 83.72 91.14 82.50

99.12 94.25 83.72 91.14 82.50

62.36 63.46 65.95 70.13 74.45

53.50 54.56 57.05 60.94 65.16

1.37 1.40 1.36 1.39 1.33

7.48 7.50 7.54 7.80 7.96

-

-

-

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

87.96 78.04 89.53 85.03 96.94

87.96 78.04 89.53 85.03 96.94

81.64 75.93 74.08 73.64 75.29

72.51 66.46 63.96 63.50 64.80

1.00 1.30 1.25 1.13 1.21

8.12 8.17 8.88 9.01 9.29

0.16 0.19 0.21

-

0.16 0.19 0.21

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

83.97 84.86 85.10 80.41 87.19 88.97

83.97 84.86 85.10 80.41 87.19 88.97

82.99 86.35 90.64 107.16 124.15 152.93

72.10 75.65 79.84 96.29 113.02 141.78

1.49 1.33 1.25 1.25 1.29 1.31

9.40 9.38 9.56 9.62 9.84 9.59

0.24 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36

-

0.24 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36

Wind

Calendar Year

Notes to Table F.1: 1 Almost all liquid biofuel production in New Zealand is blended with fossil fuel oil products and so, by IEA definition, it is consumed by the oil products sector and is included in oil product statistics. The Energy Data File makes the assumption that all biofuel sold in New Zealand is blended. This means there will be no biofuel Total Consumer Energy demand, and all biofuel will go to “Oil Production” in the Transformation sector.

Solar

Production

Biogas

Supply

Use

Supply

Production

Electricity

Production

Cogeneration

Direct Use

Woody Biomass Use

Electricity

Use

Supply

Use

Cogeneration

Direct Use

Production

Cogeneration

Direct Use2

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00

1.73 2.00 2.06 2.06 2.14

0.32 0.58 0.64 0.64 0.64

1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.45

0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

38.32 39.02 39.00 41.15 43.21

5.18 5.18 5.18 5.18 5.18

33.14 33.84 33.81 35.97 38.03

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

0.00 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14

0.00 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14

2.27 1.94 1.86 1.82 1.63

0.74 0.86 1.01 0.84 0.93

1.47 1.01 0.78 0.91 0.56

0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.14

44.44 42.84 44.94 47.64 52.95

5.18 4.78 4.80 6.24 5.79

39.25 38.06 40.13 41.40 47.16

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

0.43 0.50 0.56 0.53 1.30

0.43 0.50 0.56 0.53 1.30

1.47 1.48 1.88 2.46 2.67

0.92 0.86 0.98 1.43 1.71

0.40 0.43 0.71 0.85 0.85

0.15 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.11

57.86 57.10 61.25 61.42 66.04

6.59 5.07 3.25 2.75 3.43

51.27 52.03 58.00 58.67 62.61

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2.21 2.24 3.35 3.81 5.32 5.88

2.21 2.24 3.35 3.81 5.32 5.88

2.70 3.06 3.03 2.91 3.05 3.18

1.66 1.87 1.90 1.82 1.89 2.00

0.83 0.93 0.85 0.81 0.88 0.90

0.22 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

65.70 65.09 62.24 57.85 53.32 59.10

3.83 4.15 4.38 4.53 4.93 5.09

61.87 60.94 57.86 53.32 48.40 54.01

Notes to Table F.2: Electricity and Cogeneration: For all fuels, information is predominantly estimated based on the gross electrical output of plants and standard efficiencies. Some actual information is included where it is reported to the Ministry of Economic Development on a monthly or annual basis. Based on the report (and associated data) An Updated Assessment of Geothermal Direct Heat Use in New Zealand 2008, prepared by Brian White, Executive Officer of the New Zealand Geothermal Association.

1

Industrial use estimated using information from the Heat Plant Database 2008, prepared by East Harbour Management Services on behalf of the Bioenergy Association of New Zealand (BANZ), in conjunction with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) and the Ministry of Economic Development. Residential use estimated based on Census data. 2

94 Energy Data File | 2011

Supply 1

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F. Renewables

G. Electricity

Table F.3: Estimated1 Production of Liquid Biofuel 2007–2010

Figure G.1a: Electricity Industry Summary for 2010

Bio-ethanol

Total Biofuel

GENERATION1

Calendar Year

ML

PJ

ML

PJ

ML

PJ

2007 2008 2009 2010

1.20 1.20 1.08 1.56

0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05

0.30 2.00 3.70 5.46

0.01 0.05 0.09 0.13

1.50 3.20 4.79 7.02

0.05 0.09 0.12 0.18

GCV (PJ/ML)

0.0350

Mighty River Power 13% Genesis Power 18% Meridian Energy 32%

Contact Energy 24% TrustPower 5%

Other Independents and On-site Generators 9%

0.0234

WHOLESALING Clearing Manager Notes to Table F.3: 1 2009 figures are based on information collected under the Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring Levy. Information for 2007 and 2008 is estimated by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority.

GCV = Gross Calorific Value. ML = Million Litres. PJ = Petajoules.

TRANSMISSION

PJ/ML = Petajoules per Million Litres.

Transpower

Table F.4: Renewable Energy Direct Use by Sector for 2010 (Gross PJ) PJ Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial Residential

Geothermal1

Solar

Biogas

Woody biomass2

Total Direct Use

0.73 6.22 2.34 0.31

0.36

0.28 -

46.49 7.52

0.73 52.71 2.62 8.19

DISTRIBUTION Local Distribution Network

Governed by Electricity Industry Participation Code 2010 and the Electricity Industry Regulations 2010.

Biodiesel

RETAILING Electricity Retailers2

Notes to Table F.4: 1 Based on the report (and associated data) An Updated Assessment of Geothermal Direct Heat Use in New Zealand, prepared by Brian White, Executive Officer of the New Zealand Geothermal Association.

2 Industrial use estimated using information from the Heat Plant Database 2008, prepared by East Harbour Management Services on behalf of the Bioenergy Association of New Zealand (BANZ), in conjunction with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) and the Ministry of Economic Development. Residential use estimated based on Census data.

CONSUMPTION Direct Supply Consumers New Zealand Steel, CHH Pulp and Paper, Rio Tinto Aluminium, Methanex NZ, Norske Skog Tasman, Southpark Corporation, KiwiRail (Ontrack), Pan Pac Forest Products, Whareroa Cogeneration, Winstone Pulp International

Primary electricity flows

Secondary electricity flows

General Consumption (All Sectors)3

Primary financial transaction flows

Money flow for physical electricity and transmission/distribution (excludes ancillary services)

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited” and “New Zealand Limited” where applicable

“Primary” refers to the most common or typical way that electricity or money flows through the Electricity Industry. “Secondary” refers to flows of money or electricity that do occur, but are not typical of most participants in the industry. As an example, all customers in the “The Lines Company” distribution network area pay distribution charges directly to the local distribution network as shown by the orange dotted line between the “General Consumption” box and “Local Distribution Network” box. This is not typical nationwide as most consumers pay their lines charges through their retailer as shown by the dense orange line between “General Consumption” and “Electricity Retailers” which partly continues onto the “Local Distribution Network”.

Notes to Figure G.1a: Embedded (distributed) generators can choose to sell their electricity directly to retailers trading on the same grid exit point. 1

Electricity retailers include Contact Energy (and subsidiary Empower), Genesis Energy (and subsidiary Energy Online), Meridian Energy (and subsidiary Powershop), Mighty River Power (through its brands and subsidiaries Mercury Energy, Bosco Connect and Tiny Mighty Power), TrustPower, Pulse Energy, Opunake Hydro, and Todd Energy-owned Bay of Plenty Energy and Auckland Gas, which trade together as Nova Energy in most markets in which they retail. 2

3

Sectors are defined in Table G.6a.

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Energy Data File | 2011

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Overview of New Zealand’s Electricity Industry This section contains mostly annual (calendar year) information about electricity generation/supply, transmission and distribution, and consumption. For this edition all annual ďŹ gures are calendar year unless it is clearly stated as March year in the title for the table or ďŹ gure. The share of electricity generation from renewables in 2010 continued to grow after an already high 2009 ďŹ gure. Due to strong hydro inows and new geothermal and wind generation coming online, 74% of New Zealand’s electricity generation was from renewable sources, the highest since 1998. Notably, the high share of electricity from renewables in 2009 was during a year of lower than average demand due to the partial shutdown of the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point. By contrast, the 2010 ďŹ gure is from a more typical demand year.

Evolution of the Electricity Industry In the mid-1980s, electricity generation and transmission were the responsibility of the Ministry of Energy. In 1987, as part of a wider government review of operational departments within government, the electricity generation and transmission functions of the Ministry of Energy were transferred into a new State-Owned Enterprise (SOE), the Electricity Corporation of New Zealand (ECNZ). In 1988, ECNZ reorganised its operations into separate transmission and generation arms. In 1994, the transmission component was formally removed from ECNZ to become the independent SOE Transpower. Around the same time, the electricity distribution and retail sector was also undergoing major changes. In the early 1990s, government legislation required that all Electricity Supply Authorities (ESAs) be made into corporations, with most Power Board ESAs becoming owned by local community trusts and all Municipal Electricity Department ESAs becoming corporate assets of the local territorial authorities.

In 1996, competition was introduced into the electricity generation industry when Contact Energy was split from ECNZ. In 1999, further reforms led to the splitting of ECNZ into three competing SOEs, which became Meridian Energy, Genesis Power and Mighty River Power. The electricity distribution and retail businesses were also required to split into separately owned distribution and retail entities. Also around that time, Contact Energy was listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZX), with the government fully divesting its interest by May 1999. As of April 2011, there are 29 independent distribution companies with varying ownership regimes ranging from locally owned cooperatives, trusts or territorial authority assets to foreign-owned corporations. In contrast, there were 61 ESAs in 1985 (and 93 in 1945). Today, electricity is sold by generators and bought by retailers and large industrial users in a wholesale spot market. This process is governed by the Electricity Industry Participation Code, administered by the Electricity Authority. Transpower maintains responsibility for the high-voltage transmission lines and acts as System Operator, which means it is responsible for overall coordination of the system. Figure G.1a summarises the current structure of the electricity industry.

Government Policy and Regulation of New Zealand’s Electricity Industry New Zealand’s current electricity policy and Regulatory structure has three main bodies: The Ministry of Economic Development (MED), the Electricity Authority and the Commerce Commission. MED develops and implements electricity sector policy, particularly relating to the governance and market structure. MED also monitors market performance, including competition issues and electricity prices.

The Electricity Authority is the sector regulator created on 1 November 2010 to replace the Electricity Commission as a result of a broad electricity market performance review undertaken in 2009. The objective of the Authority is “to promote competition in, reliable supply by, and the efďŹ cient operation of, the electricity industry for the long-term beneďŹ t of consumers.â€? A number of functions previously performed by the Electricity Commission were transferred to other bodies. The Commerce Commission now undertakes approval of grid expenditure plans by Transpower as part of its overall revenue regulation and the Energy EfďŹ ciency and Conservation Authority (EECA) is now solely responsible for electricity end-use efďŹ ciency programmes. The Electricity Industry Participation Code provides for Transpower, as System Operator, to undertake emergency management and to provide information about security of supply. More details about the Ministerial Review of Electricity Market Performance 2009 can be found on the MED website at www.med.govt.nz/templates/ StandardSummary____41689.aspx

Generation In 2010, 43,401 GWh or 156 PJ of electricity was generated in New Zealand. This was generated by the ďŹ ve main generating companies plus a number of small, independent generators and on-site cogenerators. Figure G.1b shows a summary of electricity generation by fuel type for 2010, and Figure G.1c shows a time series of generation by fuel type. In 2010, the ďŹ ve major generating companies provided 91% of New Zealand’s electricity generation. These were Meridian Energy (32%), Contact Energy (24%), Genesis Energy (18%), Mighty River Power (13%) and TrustPower (5%).

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Renewable Generation Around 74% of New Zealand’s total electricity generation in 2010 was from renewable sources. This was the highest percentage of generation from renewable sources since 1998. New wind and geothermal generation coming online in 2009 along with good hydro in-ows have resulted in two years with high proportions of renewable generation after a record low in 2008 of 65% due to low hydro inows. Further information on the percentage of renewable generation over time can be found in the Renewables section (Section F). Hydro Hydroelectric generation has been a part of New Zealand’s energy system for over 100 years and continues to provide most of our electricity needs. Early schemes such as the Waipori scheme commissioned in 1903 and the Coleridge plant commissioned in 1914 established New Zealand’s use of renewable hydro energy. By the early 1950s, over 1,000 MW of installed capacity was from hydro energy. In 1965, the High Voltage Direct Current transmission line between Benmore in the South Island and Haywards in the North Island was commissioned. From this point

onwards, hydro capacity in the South Island increased rapidly, with developments including the 540 MW Benmore power station in 1966, the 700 MW1 Manapouri power station in 1971 and the 432 MW Clyde dam, which was commissioned in 1992. By the mid-1990s, hydro capacity had reached over 5,000 MW, and remains around this level today. Geothermal Geothermal generation has, for a long time, been an integral part of New Zealand’s electricity landscape, beginning over 50 years ago with the opening of the Wairakei power station in November 1958. Wairakei was New Zealand’s ďŹ rst geothermal power station and is the world’s oldest still in operation. It currently has an installed capacity of nearly 180 MW and remains New Zealand’s largest geothermal power station. By 2016, Wairakei is expected to have been replaced by the planned Te Mihi plant, which will have a capacity in excess of 220 MW, using the same steam ďŹ eld. 1

Manapouri has never operated at full capacity due to tailrace consent and safety limits. Although Manapouri’s 1971 maximum capacity was 700 MW, its dependable capacity was 585 MW. Between 2002 and 2008, its rated capacity was increased to around 850 MW; however, it can only operate at less than 730 MW.

98 Energy Data File | 2011

8JOE

The second large-scale geothermal power station to be built in New Zealand was Ohaaki, built in 1989. While it has an installed capacity of 104 MW, due to geothermal steam limitations it has never run at full capacity, highlighting the risks involved with geothermal exploration and development. More recent additions include Poihipi Road and Rotokawa, which opened in 1997, adding 55 MW and 35 MW respectively, and Ngawha, which was commissioned in 1998 with an initial capacity of 10 MW. In 2000, the Mokai geothermal plant was commissioned with a capacity of 55 MW, which was progressively increased to 112 MW by 2007. In 2008, a further 115 MW of new capacity was commissioned, including the 100 MW Kawerau geothermal plant and a 15 MW upgrade of the Ngawha plant to 25 MW. In 2010 an additional 162 MW of geothermal capacity came online with the commissioning of Nga Awa Purua, situated next to the existing Rotokawa plant, and Contact Energy opening the 24 MW Tauhara geothermal plant. In December 2010, New Zealand’s geothermal capacity was approximately 720 MW.

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Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


G. Electricity

Wind From a low base, wind generation has grown quickly as a source of electricity generation in New Zealand, growing more than 27% annually since 2006 to account for almost 4% of total generation in 2010. New Zealand’s ďŹ rst large-scale wind turbine was opened in Wellington in 1993 with a capacity of 225 kW. In December 2008, New Zealand had a total capacity of over 320 MW, of which 151 MW came online during 2007. The ďŹ rst wind farm in New Zealand, Hau Nui, was commissioned in 1997. Today, it has a total capacity of 8.65 MW and is owned by Genesis Energy. The largest wind farm in New Zealand is now TrustPower’s Tararua wind farm. Stage 3 of the project was commissioned in 2007 with the addition of 31 wind turbines each rated at 3 MW, which has brought the combined capacity to 161 MW. In June 2007, Meridian Energy opened the ďŹ rst South Island wind farm with a total capacity of 58 MW, followed in 2009 by the West Wind project, near Wellington, with a capacity of 159 MW in 2010. By December 2010, Meridian Energy’s Te Uku wind farm near Raglan was under construction and supplying 25 MW of capacity, with 64 MW planned upon completion. The Te Uku wind farm makes Meridian the largest single producer of electricity from wind in New Zealand.

G. Electricity

Non-renewable Generation Electricity generation from the combustion of coal, oil and gas plays a crucial role in New Zealand’s electricity system by providing baseload, backup and peaker supply. Today, nearly 3,000 MW of installed capacity comes from fossil fuel thermal plants, providing 26% of New Zealand’s total electricity supply in 2010. There are four main types of thermal electricity generation plant operating in New Zealand: steam turbine plants, gas turbine plants, combined cycle gas turbine plants, and cogeneration or combined heat and power plants, including those that utilise waste chemical process heat to generate power. Steam Turbine Plants Steam turbine plants use boilers to heat water at high pressure, creating steam that is expanded through a steam turbine that, in turn, drives a generator. The ďŹ rst large-scale grid-connected thermal power station in New Zealand was the 210 MW coal-ďŹ red steam turbine Meremere plant, constructed between 1956 and 1958. Over the next 20 years, several other steam turbine plants were commissioned, including Marsden A, a 240 MW plant using residual oil from the nearby reďŹ nery designed to provide winter power to Auckland, then New Plymouth, a 600 MW oil and natural gas-ďŹ red plant. The oil-ďŹ red Marsden B plant, which was built in the late 1970s, was never run.

in the jet engine of an aeroplane, gas turbines start very fast and can go from standby to fully operational in a matter of minutes, whereas a steam turbine plant may take many hours to reach a fully operational output. This makes gas turbines ideal to meet peak load requirements. The ďŹ rst gas turbine plant to be built in New Zealand was Otahuhu A in the Auckland region. Finished in 1970 and expanded in 1978 with even faster starting turbines, it then had a total capacity of 274 MW. Also in 1976, the original Stratford plant opened with a total capacity of 220 MW. This was followed by the original 220 MW Whirinaki plant, which opened in 1978. Today, there are three large-scale primary electricity generating open cycle turbine plants in use for peak demand operation in New Zealand. This includes the replacement plant at Whirinaki, which is 155 MW and runs entirely on diesel, and the gas-ďŹ red 50 MW Unit 6 at the Huntly site, known as Huntly-P40. In 2010 Contact Energy ďŹ nished constructing a new gas turbine plant at Stratford next to the existing Taranaki Combined Cycle power station, which is the ďŹ rst in New Zealand to use stored natural gas and consists of two 100 MW units.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plants CCGT plants (where an open cycle gas turbine is combined with a steam cycle turbine) achieve better efďŹ ciencies than gas/steamturbine-only plants, although they generally take some time to reach peak output. The ďŹ rst Other Renewables The steam-turbine plant that dwarfs all other CCGT plant – the 360 MW Taranaki Combined generation plant in New Zealand is the 1,000 Cycle plant (now 370 MW) – was built in 1998 Other renewable sources for electricity MW Huntly power station. Huntly, which was at the old Stratford site. In 2000, the 380 MW generation include bioenergy, solar energy and marine energy. Of these, only bioenergy constructed between 1973 and 1983, is made Otahuhu B plant (now 404 MW) was opened, up of four units of 250 MW and is still has signiďŹ cant installed capacity in New and then in 2007, the Huntly site was further operational. It can run on either coal or Zealand. Bioenergy is predominantly from expanded with a new 385 MW unit known as natural gas. woody biomass consumed at a number of Huntly-e3p. cogeneration plants located at wood Gas Turbine Plants Cogeneration processing factories and also from biogas Gas turbines are a younger technology Not all large-scale electricity generators in created from digesting waste at wastewater than their steam turbine counterparts, only New Zealand were built simply with the treatment plants and landďŹ lls. reďŹ ned after World War II. Most gas turbines creation of electricity in mind. Cogeneration In March 2011, the Minister of Conservation are “open cycleâ€?, meaning that they take or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants approved the installation of 200 marine tidal in air and compress it, which is then mixed are in widespread use throughout New turbines in the Kaipara harbour. This is the with fuel and ignited. The hot, high-pressure Zealand. By making use of energy that ďŹ rst project of its kind in New Zealand and is gases are expanded through a turbine, would otherwise be wasted, cogeneration expected to have a capacity of approximately which in turn drives a generator. The primary improves overall thermal energy efďŹ ciency. 200 MW when completed. advantage of this technology is that, just like

Large-scale cogeneration plants currently in use include plants that provide heat and electricity to many industrial uses, with the largest users being the wood processing and dairy sectors. Additionally, the fertiliser industry makes use of chemical waste heat from product manufacture to generate electricity.

Transmission and Distribution

There are 29 lines companies in New Zealand with a variety of ownership forms from Transpower operates the national publicly listed companies to local transmission grid, which conveys electricity community-owned trusts. Lines companies from most of the major power stations around the country to local distribution lines. convey electricity to users within their network areas. It also conveys electricity directly to major users such as the New Zealand Aluminium Consumption Smelter, Tasman Pulp and Paper, and New Total electricity demand in 2010 was up 3% Cogeneration plants can be either bottoming Zealand Steel. compared with 2009, which represents a cycle or topping cycle. Bottoming cycle return to business as usual after low demand Electricity transmission between the North plants ďŹ rst generate high-pressure steam from the Tiwai Point aluminium smelter in and South Islands is via a High Voltage through a boiler for industrial process heat 2009. The last few years have seen a reduced Direct Current (HVDC) link from Benmore requirements. They then use the residual rate of demand growth, from around 2% per power station in the South Island to heat in a Waste Heat Recovery Steam annum for the four years to 2005 to less than Haywards substation in the North Island. Generator (WHRSG) to drive a steam cycle Part of this link is a submarine cable running 1% per annum for the four years to 2010. for use in a steam turbine. under Cook Strait. The link allows surplus Modest increases in the residential sector power generated in the South Island to be Topping cycle plants ďŹ rst generate and agriculture/forestry/ďŹ shing were transmitted to the North Island, where electricity, usually through the use of an dwarfed by the 8% increase in industrial demand is greatest, but also allows open cycle gas turbine. They then use a sector consumption from 2009 largely as a WHRSG to provide steam for industrial heat transmission from north to south if required, result of the return to pre-2009 demand at requirements. If the waste heat recovered in for example, when South Island hydro Tiwai Point. This increase accounted for most storage is low. Work began on a major a gas turbine topping cycle were used to of the national increase since 2009. The upgrade of the HVDC link in April 2010, with drive a steam turbine rather than for an commercial sector, including transport, testing due to start in December 2011. This industrial process, this would effectively continued the slow decline in demand seen project will see an increase in the link’s become a combined-cycle plant. from 2008 to 2009. capacity to 1,200 MW in 2014. Households account for around a third of total electricity consumption. The commercial and basic metals sectors are Figure G.1d: Observed Electricity &IGURE'E%LECTRICITY$EMANDBY also large users, with the Tiwai Point Consumption by Sector for 2010 2EGIONFOR aluminium smelter being the largest single user of electricity in the country. The North Island uses around two thirds of the electricity generated in New Zealand, with Auckland accounting for around 25% of the total.

Wholesale Electricity Market

Residential 34.2%

"VDLMBOEBOE/PSUIMBOE

Commercial (including Transport) 23.4%

0UIFS/PSUI*TMBOE

Basic Metals 17.3%

4PVUI*TMBOE

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing 8.4% Other Industrial 6.5%

Retail Electricity Market

Food Processing 5.6%

Different retailers compete in various parts of New Zealand. These include the ďŹ ve major generators/retailers: Contact Energy (and subsidiary Empower), Genesis Energy (and

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 4.7%

100 Energy Data File | 2011

The buying and selling of wholesale electricity is done via a “poolâ€?, where electricity generators offer electricity to the market and retailers bid to buy the electricity at prices set half-hourly. Since 1 November 2010 the sector is governed by the Electricity Industry (Enforcement) Regulations and Electricity Industry Participation Code. Electricity generators and buyers can also enter into hedge contracts to manage the ďŹ nancial risks of trading electricity at spot prices.

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Energy Data File | 2011

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Table G.1: Electricity Energy Balance 2006–2010 (GWh)

Figure G.1g: Electricity Flow Summary for 2010

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

43,603

43,750

43,838

43,454

44,819

0.7%

3.1%

-1,480

-1,467

-1,532

-1,373

-1,417

-1.1%

3.2%

TOTAL NET PRODUCTION

42,123

42,284

42,306

42,081

43,401

0.8%

3.1%

Electricity Only Plant Combined Heat and Power Plant

39,268 2,855

39,302 2,982

39,283 3,023

39,674 2,407

40,849 2,552

1.0% -2.8%

3.0% 6.0%

TOTAL LINES LOSSES2

-3,011

-3,029

-3,130

-2,992

-3,037

0.2%

1.5%

Losses ~ Transmission Losses ~ Distribution

-1,346 -1,664

-1,338 -1,691

-1,451 -1,679

-1,350 -1,642

-1,352 -1,686

0.1% 0.3%

0.1% 2.7%

TOTAL CONSUMPTION (Calculated)

39,112

39,255

39,176

39,089

40,364

0.8%

3.3%

TOTAL GROSS PRODUCTION

SUPPLY

Own Use ~ Parasitic Load1

DEMAND

Statistical Difference3

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

Δ2009/2010

-0.7%

-0.5%

1.1%

1.4%

1.4%

TOTAL CONSUMPTION (Observed)

39,401

39,442

38,745

38,542

39,818

0.3%

3.3%

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industrial Commercial (including Transport)4 Residential Calculated Onsite Consumption5

1,675 15,170 8,884 12,665 1,007

1,837 15,240 9,167 12,456 742

1,815 14,431 9,277 12,678 545

1,835 13,663 9,162 13,209 673

1,847 14,717 9,129 13,345 780

2.5% -0.8% 0.7% 1.3% -6.2%

0.7% 7.7% -0.4% 1.0% 15.9%

41,117 7.3%

41,542 7.3%

41,762 7.5%

41,408 7.2%

42,622 7.1%

Electricity Entering System6 National Loss Ratio7

GENERATORS2

Generation (Net)

Losses 1.7

11.1

Fossil Fuels Gas, Oil, Coal

13.3

5.6

Geothermal

Statistical differences exist between supply and demand ďŹ gures as the information comes from different sources.

3

Transport is included with commercial as the Ministry of Economic Development does not have a reliable time series of electricity

4

subsidiary Energy Online), Meridian Energy (and subsidiary Powershop), Mighty River Power (through its brands and subsidiaries Mercury Energy, Bosco Connect and Tiny Mighty Power) and TrustPower, which together hold 97% of the retail market based on customer connection information published by the EA in December 2010. Other independent retailers include Todd Energyowned Bay of Plenty Energy and Auckland Gas, which trade together as Nova Energy in most markets in which they retail, Simply Energy, Pulse Energy and Opunake Hydro. Genesis Energy and its subsidiary Energy Online together hold the largest share of the retail market at 27%, down from a high of 29% in 2007. Approximate market share based on consumer connection numbers is shown in Figure G.1f. Over the last couple of years, there has been a marked increase in the rate of consumers switching their electricity retailers. Switching information is also available in Table G.6.

Transmission

Distribution

Transpower

Electricity Network Companies

Major Generators

5 Calculated estimate based on the difference between net production and electricity entering the system. This includes on-site generation not exported into the network. In the balance tables in section B, this ďŹ gure is added to the Industrial Unallocated sector.

Total amount of electricity entering the local and national transmission and distribution networks. Includes embedded generation. 6

43.4

Loss ratio calculated as the transmission and distribution losses divided by the total electricity entering the system.

7

TOTAL GENERATION (NET)

Loss information is obtained through electricity disclosures by Transpower and the distribution companies.

2

used for transport (electric trains and trolley busses and so on). For the balance tables presented at the front of the Energy Data File, approximately 0.36 PJ or 100 GWh has been used for all years (subtracted from commercial demand), until MED can provide improved estimates. Sales to different parts of the commercial transport sector do not provide an accurate enough reection of demand for transport as it includes some electricity used for airports, train stations and bus terminals etc, which should be excluded from the transport sector under IEA deďŹ nitions.

Use

Losses 1.4

39.7 Notes to Table G.1: 1 Electricity used by the generator for auxilliary services (e.g. lighting, coal grinders) and internal losses.

Conveyance

Contact Energy Genesis Meridian Mighty River TrustPower

33.2 Commercial

31.5 9.1 40.1

including Transport

38.7

40.4 1.8

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

&IGURE'F!PPROXIMATE-ARKET3HAREAT$ECEMBER  24.5

Hydro Industrial

(FOFTJT&OFSHZBOE&OFSHZ0OMJOF

7.3

$POUBDU&OFSHZBOE&NQPXFS .FSDVSZ&OFSHZBOE#PTDP$POOFDU

(Distribution Network Connected)

.FSJEJBO&OFSHZBOE1PXFSTIPQ 5SVTU1PXFS

14.7

/PWB&OFSHZBOE#BZPG1MFOUZ&OFSHZ 0UIFS

7.4

Direct Supply

2.2

Other Fuels1

3.7

Other Generators

Commercial and Industrial

This data is sourced from Electricity Authority Registry Statistics and is not collected by MED directly. For detailed information visit the Registry Statistics section of the Authority’s website at: www.ea.govt.nz/industry/market/statistics-reports/ Notes to Figure G.1f: 1 Retailers have been aggregated into these groupings based on ownership. Where one company fully owns more than one retail brand these have been added together from the raw data available from the Electricity Authority. In addition to this, some retailers do not have ICPs registered under their own name but may use another retailer’s (e.g. Energy Direct NZ). All market share ďŹ gures presented are only approximate and do not take account of demand or the size of consumers. Some retailers may have fewer customers than other retailers but have larger industrial use customers so actually supply a larger amount of electricity in GWh. 2

“Other� is primarily King Country Energy.

0.8 Calculated 40.4

Observed 39.8

Industrial (Direct Supply)

Unallocated On-site Generation Onsite Consumption Consumption (Statistical difference 0.5)

Terawatt Hour (TWh) to approximate vertical scale

Notes to Figure G.1g: 1 “Other Fuels� includes bioenergy (biogas and woody biomass), waste heat, wood and wind. Not all totals add up due to rounding.

102 Energy Data File | 2011

Residential

103 Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Electricity Generation

Figure G.2: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type

Table G.2a: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (GWh)

336 336 336 336 336

-

21,117 23,552 23,380 24,413 24,481

48 6 9 6 -2

717 556 845 723 446

5,744 4,475 4,724 5,118 5,557

63 63 63 63 63

6,572 5,099 5,641 5,910 6,064

27,689 28,652 29,021 30,323 30,545

76.3% 82.2% 80.6% 80.5% 80.1%

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

22,953 22,666 20,882 23,258 25,579

2,011 2,158 2,131 2,247 2,101

131 151 156 156 162

336 336 336 336 336

1 1 1

25,432 25,311 23,505 25,998 28,180

9 23 188 59 20

620 451 1,171 696 647

5,336 6,561 7,006 6,543 5,117

63 63 63 63 63

6,028 7,098 8,427 7,360 5,846

31,459 32,409 31,932 33,358 34,026

80.8% 78.1% 73.6% 77.9% 82.8%

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

27,259 25,921 23,026 25,066 22,690

2,039 2,038 2,130 2,386 2,636

172 146 139 137 116

336 310 312 409 392

1 8 13 22 39

29,808 28,424 25,621 28,019 25,873

48 15 -2 1 0

842 876 1,535 1,365 1,678

4,489 6,183 8,775 7,131 9,030

63 63 63 63 63

5,442 7,136 10,371 8,560 10,771

35,250 35,560 35,991 36,579 36,643

84.6% 79.9% 71.2% 76.6% 70.6%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

24,191 21,464 24,624 23,387 26,660

2,756 2,678 2,655 2,595 2,631

103 101 131 178 199

447 361 231 192 236

119 138 154 145 358

27,615 24,742 27,796 26,495 30,084

0 0 0 19 23

1,445 1,980 1,925 3,707 4,474

8,946 11,450 9,572 9,148 6,600

63 47 93 84 83

10,454 13,477 11,590 12,959 11,180

38,069 38,218 39,386 39,454 41,264

72.5% 64.7% 70.6% 67.2% 72.9%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

23,094 23,337 23,404 22,114 23,981 24,470

2,981 3,177 3,354 3,966 4,589 5,551

194 218 214 205 216 226

277 299 314 324 344 346

608 616 921 1,048 1,462 1,618

27,153 27,648 28,207 27,657 30,591 32,211

4 22 1 123 8 2

5,481 5,176 2,956 4,515 3,082 1,933

8,801 9,206 11,067 9,955 8,347 9,205

76 71 53 56 53 51

14,361 14,475 14,077 14,650 11,490 11,191

41,514 42,123 42,284 42,306 42,081 43,401

65.4% 65.6% 66.7% 65.4% 72.7% 74.2%

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5,497 5,960 6,333 6,191

1,080 1,186 1,214 1,110

51 54 54 57

81 91 82 91

299 274 377 511

7,007 7,565 8,061 7,958

0 2 3 3

609 1,032 855 586

1,963 2,204 2,266 1,914

15 13 13 13

2,586 3,251 3,137 2,515

9,593 10,816 11,198 10,474

73.0% 69.9% 72.0% 76.0%

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5,710 5,974 6,631 6,156

1,161 1,495 1,454 1,441

56 56 57 57

94 87 84 81

414 404 387 413

7,435 8,016 8,613 8,147

1 0 0 0

636 445 356 495

2,070 2,472 2,663 2,000

13 13 13 13

2,720 2,930 3,032 2,508

10,155 10,946 11,645 10,655

73.2% 73.2% 74.0% 76.5%

1.2% 2.0%

15.0% 20.9%

0.9% 4.8%

3.7% 0.8%

27.3% 10.6%

3.9% 5.3%

n.a n.a

-21.8% -37.3%

0.0% 10.3%

-7.9% -3.7%

-6.2% -2.6%

0.8% 3.1%

P

2009

2010

P

Δ2006/2010 p.a. Δ2009/2010

Notes to Table G.2a: 1 These fuels also include generation from cogeneration plants. Negative generation by oil-fired plants implies a net import into the station to maintain station viability and system voltage stability.

2

60

15,000

40

10,000

20

5,000 0

0

Bioenergy

Other Thermal

Geothermal

Wind

Gas

Hydro

P = Provisional. Electricity information is collected from a number of sources including Statistics New Zealand, the Electricity Authority, and generators. n.a. = Not applicable. 1 Gigawatt Hour (GWh) = 0.0036 Petajoules (PJ).

104 Energy Data File | 2011

Coal

2010

105 105 106 106 106

2009

1,165 1,234 1,228 1,237 1,706

2007

19,511 21,877 21,709 22,733 22,333

80 20,000

2008

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

100 25,000

2005

91.4% 90.3% 80.1% 80.9% 80.4%

2006

22,700 23,281 24,564 26,139 27,250

2004

1,959 2,260 4,876 5,002 5,348

2003

50 65 70 70 66

2001

1,494 1,813 4,382 4,137 4,553

2002

426 390 422 651 729

1999

-10 -7 3 144 1

2000

20,741 21,021 19,688 21,138 21,901

1998

-

1997

306 306 306 306 329

1995

57 91 102 105 105

120

30,000

1996

1,206 1,141 1,158 1,173 1,294

140

35,000

1993

19,171 19,483 18,121 19,554 20,173

40,000

1994

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

160

1992

80.1% 74.1% 78.2% 89.0%

1991

21,220 21,792 21,854 22,175

1990

4,228 5,644 4,754 2,435

1989

50 50 50 50

1987

1,801 3,955 3,763 1,946

45,000

1988

1,097 910 742 392

Total

1986

1,280 729 199 48

Subtotal

1985

16,993 16,149 17,101 19,739

Gas1

1983

-

Coal1

1984

306 306 306 306

Oil2

1981

53 53 53 56

Subtotal

1982

1,290 1,217 1,239 1,118

Wind

1980

15,344 14,573 15,503 18,259

Wood1

180

1979

1976 1977 1978 1979

Biogas1

50,000

1977

Geothermal1

Renewable Generation %

1978

Hydro

Waste Heat1

1975

Calendar Year or Quarter

Non-renewable

PJ

1976

Renewable

GWh

105 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Table G.2b: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (PJ)

Table G.2c: Net Electricity Generation by Fuel Type – Cogeneration Separated (GWh)

Renewable

Non-renewable

Calendar Year or Quarter

Hydro

Geothermal

Biogas

Wood

Wind

1976 1977 1978 1979

55.24 52.46 55.81 65.73

4.64 4.38 4.46 4.02

0.19 0.19 0.19 0.20

1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10

-

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

69.02 70.14 65.24 70.39 72.62

4.34 4.11 4.17 4.22 4.66

0.21 0.33 0.37 0.38 0.38

1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.18

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

70.24 78.76 78.15 81.84 80.40

4.19 4.44 4.42 4.45 6.14

0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

82.63 81.60 75.17 83.73 92.08

7.24 7.77 7.67 8.09 7.56

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

98.13 93.32 82.89 90.24 81.69

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 P

Oil

Coal

Gas

61.17 58.14 61.56 71.06

4.61 2.62 0.72 0.17

3.95 3.28 2.67 1.41

-

74.67 75.68 70.88 76.10 78.84

-0.04 -0.03 0.01 0.52 0.00

1.21 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.21

-

76.02 84.79 84.17 87.89 88.13

0.47 0.55 0.56 0.56 0.58

1.21 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.21

0.00 0.00 0.00

7.34 7.34 7.67 8.59 9.49

0.62 0.52 0.50 0.49 0.42

1.21 1.12 1.12 1.47 1.41

87.09 77.27 88.65 84.19 95.98

9.92 9.64 9.56 9.34 9.47

0.37 0.36 0.47 0.64 0.72

83.14 84.01 84.25 79.61 86.33 88.09

10.73 11.44 12.07 14.28 16.52 19.98

1

Total

Hydro

Geothermal

Subtotal

6.48 14.24 13.55 7.00

0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18

15.22 20.32 17.11 8.77

76.39 78.45 78.68 79.83

1976 1977 1978 1979

15,344 14,573 15,503 18,259

1,236 1,163 1,185 1,064

-

1.53 1.40 1.52 2.34 2.62

5.38 6.53 15.77 14.89 16.39

0.18 0.23 0.25 0.25 0.24

7.05 8.14 17.55 18.01 19.25

81.72 83.81 88.43 94.10 98.10

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

19,171 19,483 18,121 19,554 20,173

1,152 1,087 1,104 1,119 1,240

0.17 0.02 0.03 0.02 -0.01

2.58 2.00 3.04 2.60 1.61

20.68 16.11 17.01 18.43 20.01

0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23

23.66 18.36 20.31 21.28 21.83

99.68 103.15 104.47 109.16 109.96

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

19,511 21,877 21,709 22,733 22,333

91.55 91.12 84.62 93.59 101.45

0.03 0.08 0.68 0.21 0.07

2.23 1.62 4.21 2.51 2.33

19.21 23.62 25.22 23.55 18.42

0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23

21.70 25.55 30.34 26.50 21.05

113.25 116.67 114.96 120.09 122.49

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

0.00 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14

107.31 102.32 92.23 100.87 93.14

0.17 0.05 -0.01 0.00 0.00

3.03 3.15 5.53 4.91 6.04

16.16 22.26 31.59 25.67 32.51

0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23

19.59 25.69 37.33 30.82 38.77

126.90 128.02 129.57 131.69 131.92

1.61 1.30 0.83 0.69 0.85

0.43 0.50 0.55 0.52 1.29

99.41 89.07 100.06 95.38 108.30

0.00 0.00 0.07 0.08

5.20 7.13 6.93 13.35 16.11

32.20 41.22 34.46 32.93 23.76

0.23 0.17 0.34 0.30 0.30

37.63 48.52 41.72 46.65 40.25

0.70 0.79 0.77 0.74 0.78 0.81

1.00 1.08 1.13 1.17 1.24 1.25

2.19 2.22 3.31 3.77 5.26 5.82

97.75 99.53 101.54 99.56 110.13 115.96

0.01 0.08 0.00 0.44 0.03 0.01

19.73 18.63 10.64 16.26 11.09 6.96

31.68 33.14 39.84 35.84 30.05 33.14

0.27 0.26 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.18

1

Subtotal

Electricity-only Plants Calendar Year or Quarter

Waste Heat

1

2

1

1

1

Oil1

Coal

Gas

Subtotal

-

1,280 729 199 48

1,081 894 705 345

1,778 3,932 3,740 1,923

20,719 21,291 21,332 21,639

501 501 522 536

21,220 21,792 21,854 22,175

-

-

-10 -7 3 144 1

378 342 374 603 681

1,471 1,790 4,343 4,092 4,508

22,162 22,695 23,945 25,512 26,603

538 586 619 627 647

22,700 23,281 24,564 26,139 27,250

1,111 1,180 1,174 1,183 1,652

-

-

48 6 9 6 -2

653 492 765 582 307

5,698 4,430 4,677 5,071 5,510

27,021 27,984 28,334 29,575 29,800

668 668 686 747 745

27,689 28,652 29,021 30,323 30,545

22,953 22,666 20,882 23,258 25,579

1,957 2,104 2,077 2,193 2,047

25 46 50 50 50

1 1 1

9 23 188 59 20

436 227 947 454 397

5,280 6,499 6,940 6,474 4,942

30,660 31,565 31,083 32,489 33,035

799 845 849 870 991

31,459 32,409 31,932 33,358 34,026

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

27,259 25,921 23,026 25,066 22,690

1,985 1,984 2,077 2,331 2,583

58 67 79 66 72

1 8 13 22 39

48 15 -2 1 0

592 631 1,226 781 1,123

4,172 5,556 7,225 5,328 7,213

34,115 34,181 33,644 33,595 33,720

1135 1379 2347 2985 2923

35,250 35,560 35,991 36,579 36,643

137.05 137.59 141.79 142.04 148.55

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

24,191 21,464 24,624 23,387 26,660

2,717 2,627 2,606 2,550 2,584

71 67 76 111 133

119 138 154 145 358

0 0 19 23

889 1,373 1,362 3,035 3,816

7,432 9,421 7,718 7,060 4,920

35,419 35,090 36,539 36,307 38,494

2649 3128 2847 3147 2771

38,069 38,218 39,386 39,454 41,264

51.70 52.11 50.68 52.74 41.36 40.29

149.45 151.64 152.22 152.30 151.49 156.24

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

23,094 23,337 23,404 22,114 23,981 24,470

2,922 3,125 3,305 3,917 4,539 5,499

129 146 148 141 147 156

608 616 921 1,048 1,462 1,618

4 22 1 123 8 2

4,867 4,536 2,354 3,943 2,528 1,300

6,849 7,487 9,170 7,997 7,009 7,805

38,473 39,268 39,302 39,283 39,674 40,849

3041 2855 2982 3023 2407 2552

41,514 42,123 42,284 42,306 42,081 43,401

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5,497 5,960 6,333 6,191

1,067 1,174 1,201 1,097

35 36 37 39

299 274 377 511

0 2 3 3

456 899 719 455

1,642 1,876 1,964 1,526

8,996 10,221 10,636 9,821

597 595 562 652

9,593 10,816 11,198 10,474

Mar Jun Sep Dec

5,710 5,974 6,631 6,156

1,149 1,482 1,441 1,428

38 39 39 39

414 404 387 413

1 0 0 0

477 278 198 347

1,657 2,153 2,328 1,667

9,445 10,330 11,025 10,049

710 616 620 606

10,155 10,946 11,645 10,655

1.2% 2.0%

15.2% 21.2%

1.7% 5.9%

27.3% 10.6%

n.a. n.a.

-26.8% -67.0%

1.0% -2.4%

1.0% 4.0%

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

19.79 21.45 22.80 22.29

3.89 4.27 4.37 3.99

0.18 0.19 0.20 0.20

0.29 0.33 0.29 0.33

1.08 0.99 1.36 1.84

25.22 27.23 29.02 28.65

0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01

2.19 3.72 3.08 2.11

7.07 7.93 8.16 6.89

0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

9.31 11.70 11.29 9.05

34.54 38.94 40.31 37.70

2009

2010 P

Mar Jun Sep Dec

20.56 21.51 23.87 22.16

4.18 5.38 5.23 5.19

0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20

0.34 0.31 0.30 0.29

1.49 1.45 1.39 1.49

26.77 28.86 31.01 29.33

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

2.29 1.60 1.28 1.78

7.45 8.90 9.59 7.20

0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

9.79 10.55 10.91 9.03

36.56 39.41 41.92 38.36

2010

1.2% 2.0%

15.0% 20.9%

0.9% 4.8%

3.7% 0.8%

27.3% 10.6%

3.9% 5.3%

n.a. n.a.

-21.8% -37.3%

0.0% 10.3%

-7.9% -3.7%

-6.2% -2.6%

0.8% 3.1%

Δ2006/2010 p.a. Δ2009/2010

Notes to Table G.2b: 1 These fuels also include generation from cogeneration plants. Negative generation by oil-fired plants implies a net import into the station to maintain station viability and system voltage stability.

2

P

P

Δ2006/2010 p.a. Δ2009/2010

Biogas

Wind

P = Provisional. Electricity information is collected from a number of sources including Statistics New Zealand, the Electricity Authority, and generators.

Notes to Table G.2c: 1 Negative generation by oil-fired plants implies a net import into the station to maintain station viability and system voltage stability.

P = Provisional figures. Electricity information is collected from a number of sources including Statistics New Zealand, the Electricity Authority, and generators.

n.a. = Not applicable.

2 Individual estimates of generation from cogeneration plant types can be obtained by subtracting the electricity-only plant information in this table from the data in Table G.2a.

n.a. = Not applicable.

1 Gigawatt Hour (GWh) = 0.0036 Petajoules (PJ).

106 Energy Data File | 2011

Cogeneration2

-2.8% -15.6%

Total

0.8% 2.6%

107 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Table G.2d: Estimated Generation by Fuel Type For 2010 Calendar Year (GWh)

Electricity Generation Capacity Table G.3a: Operational Electricity Generation Capacity by Plant Type (MW)1

Generating Stations1

Hydro

Geothermal

Oil2

Coal2

Gas2

Biogas

Waste Heat

Wood2

Wind

Total Electricity-only Plants

North Island Above or Equal to 100 MW Less than 100 MW but greater than or Equal to 10 MW Less than 10 MW Cogeneration

3,773

3,254

1.6

1,300

7,732

-

-

-

1,053

17,113

2,767 150 -

2,141 105 51.3

-

610

16 57 1,400

156 59.3

43

344

351 27.5 -

5,275 496 2,508

North Island Total

6,691

5,551

1.6

1,910

9,205

215

43

344

1,431

25,392

South Island Above or Equal to 100 MW Less than 100 MW but greater than or Equal to 10 MW Less than 10 MW Cogeneration

16,474

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16,474

1,013 292 -

-

0.02 -

22.1

-

10.8

8.5

2.6

183 3.6 -

1,196 295 44

South Island Total

17,779

-

0.02

22

-

11

8

2.6

187

18,010

Above or Equal to 100 MW Less than 100 MW but greater than or Equal to 10 MW Less than 10 MW Cogeneration

20,248

3,254

1.6

1,300

7,730

-

-

-

1,053

33,587

3,780 442 -

2,141 105.0 51.3

-

633

16 58 1,400

156 70

51

346

534 31 -

6,471 791 2,552

New Zealand Total

24,470

5,551

1.6

1,933

9,205

226

51

346

1,618

43,401

New Zealand

Notes to Table G.2d: 1 Stations have been aggregated according to their rated capacity.

2 Mult-fuel plants such as the original Huntly station’s dual-fired generating capacity (1,000 MW) have been split between fuels according to the units of electricity generated by the respective fuels during the period.

Cogeneration Other Thermal2

Subtotal

400 447 494 494

1,050 1,050 1,050 1,300

5,288 5,495 5,542 6,276

250 750

494 494 494 494 494

1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300

220 220 220 220 220

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

494 494 494 314 314

0 0

220 220 220 220 220

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

8 11 11 11 11

0 4 4 4 36

220 220 0 0 0

365 365 365 370 370

11 11 14 22 22

36 36 54 72 165

5,345 5,345 5,348 5,371 5,325 5,252

425 425 443 585 625 723

22 23 26 27 29 29

-0.4% -1.4%

14.2% 15.7%

5.8% 0.8%

In December

Hydro

Geothermal

Biogas

1976 1977 1978 1979

3,665 3,825 3,825 4,089

173 173 173 173

-

-

220

-

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

4,301 4,326 4,328 4,474 4,543

173 173 157 157 157

-

-

220 220 220 220 220

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

4,760 4,760 4,760 4,760 4,760

157 157 157 175 261

-

-

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

4,760 4,760 5,192 5,192 5,192

261 261 261 261 265

4 7 7 7 7

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

5,192 5,192 5,192 5,192 5,199

265 248 318 328 353

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

5,202 5,202 5,341 5,348 5,345

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Δ2006/2010 p.a. Δ2009/2010

Notes to Table G.3a: 1 All capacities are net of any plant decommissioning or deratings. Plant capacity may be reduced for environmental considerations or other limitations, as can be seen in the lower capacity for hydro in 2010 than in 2009. “Other Thermal” in this instance includes generation by all major coal-only (Meremere), fuel oil-only (Marsden A and B), and gas/ fuel oil plants (New Plymouth). 2

Wind

Diesel

Coal/Gas

Gas

Other4

Subtotal

Total

-

83 83 88 88

83 83 88 88

5,371 5,578 5,629 6,364

6,488 6,513 6,499 6,895 7,464

-

88 107 107 107 107

88 107 107 107 107

6,576 6,620 6,606 7,002 7,571

1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300

7,931 7,931 7,931 7,769 7,855

-

107 107 143 143 143

107 107 143 143 143

8,038 8,038 8,074 7,912 7,998

314 314 314 314 314

1,300 1,090 850 850 850

7,858 7,652 7,844 7,844 7,848

-

143 143 143 143 144

143 143 143 143 144

8,001 7,795 7,987 7,987 7,992

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

314 314 220 357 737

850 600 600 480 440

7,849 7,589 7,346 7,373 7,776

62 72 267 267 267

150 145 221 221 216

212 217 488 488 483

8,061 7,805 7,833 7,860 8,259

0 0 0 0 155

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

737 737 737 737 777

440 440 440 440 440

7,791 7,791 7,952 7,988 8,275

311 314 347 337 337

221 221 226 226 228

532 536 573 563 565

8,323 8,327 8,525 8,551 8,840

168 169 320 321 496 539

155 155 155 155 155 155

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

821 832 1,217 1,227 1,227 1,397

330 330 330 100 -

8,267 8,280 8,839 8,787 8,858 9,096

340 340 331 339 304 336

243 244 244 244 237 235

583 584 575 582 541 571

8,851 8,864 9,414 9,369 9,398 9,667

33.7% 8.6%

0.0% 0.0%

0.0% 0.0%

13.8% 13.9%

n.a. n.a.

1.7% 0.8%

-0.3% 10.4%

-0.9% -0.8%

-0.6% 5.5%

2.2% 2.9%

Plants that run solely on natural gas are listed under “gas”. Multi fuelled plants that run partly on natural gas are listed under “Other”.

3

4 Includes cogeneration by some multi-fuel or single-fuel biomass, coal, liquid fuel and geothermal plants. It also includes multi-fuelled plants running partly on natural gas.

n.a. = Not applicable.

108 Energy Data File | 2011

Gas3

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Figure G.3: Operational Electricity Generation Capacity by Plant Type (MW)

Table G.3c: Information on Generating Plants December 20010 (10 MW or Greater)

MW 12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

Hydro

Geothermal

Wind

Cogeneration Plants

2010

2009

2007

2008

2005

2006

2003

2004

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1995

1996

1993

1994

1991

1992

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

1983

1981

1982

1979

1980

1977

1978

1976

1975

0

Thermal Electricity-Only Plants

Table G.3b: Estimated Generating Capacity by Fuel Type December 2010 (MW) Generating Stations1

Hydro

Geothermal

Oil2

Coal2

Gas2

Biogas

Waste Heat

Above or Equal to 100 MW Less than 100 MW but greater or Equal to 10 MW Less than 10 MW Cogeneration

1,096

422

155

499

1,836

-

-

681 42 -

287 15 8.0

-

116

50 12 348

29 9.6

North Island Total

1,818

731

155

615

2,246

Above or Equal to 100 MW Less than 100 MW but greater or Equal to 10 MW Less than 10 MW Cogeneration

3,123

-

-

-

247 64 -

-

0.4 -

South Island Total

3,434

-

Above or Equal to 100 MW Less than 100 MW but greater or Equal to 10 MW Less than 10 MW Cogeneration

4,219

New Zealand Total

Wood2

Plant type

Plant Name

Owners/Operators

Biomass/Coal/Gas Biomass/Coal/Gas Biomass/Coal/Gas Coal/Gas Coal/Gas Waste Diesel Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas/Diesel Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Geothermal Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro

Kawerau A&B Kinleith Steam Cogen PanPac Steam Cogen Huntly Units 1-41 Glenbrook Cogen Whirinaki2 Edgecumbe Cogen Huntly Units 5~e3p CCGT Kapuni Cogen CCGT Otahuhu B CCGT Southdown Cogen CCGT Stratford Peaker Taranaki CCGT Te Rapa Cogen Whareroa Cogen CCGT Huntly Units 6-P40 OCGT Kawerau Mokai Nga Awa Purua Ngawha Ohaaki3 Poihipi Rotokawa Tauhara Wairakei Aniwhenua Arapuni Aratiatia Argyle - Branch Atiamuri Aviemore Benmore Clyde Cobb Coleridge Highbank Kaimai Kaitawa Karapiro Kumara Manapouri4

Carter Holt Harvey - Tasman CHH & Genesis Pan Pac Genesis Energy NZ Steel Contact Energy Bay of Plenty (Todd Energy) Genesis Energy Vector/Bay of Plenty (Todd Energy) Contact Energy Mighty River Power Contact Energy Contact Energy Contact Energy Fonterra Todd JV Genesis Energy Mighty River Power Tuaropaki Power Mighty River Power Tai Tokerau Trust/Top Energy Contact Energy Contact Energy Mighty River Power Contact Energy Contact Energy Bay of Plenty (Todd Energy) Mighty River Power Mighty River Power TrustPower Mighty River Power Meridian Energy Meridian Energy Contact Energy TrustPower TrustPower TrustPower TrustPower Genesis Energy Mighty River Power TrustPower Meridian Energy

Wind

Total

-

320

4,329

15

63

149 8.9 -

1,166 106 559

39

15

63

477

6,160

-

-

-

-

-

3,123

3.9

0.0

1.9

3.9

1.7

58 3.4 -

305 67 12

0.4

3.9

0.0

1.9

3.9

1.7

61

3,507

Bold indicates plants commissioning new capacity in 2010.

422

155

499

1,836

-

-

-

320

7,452

928 105 -

287 14.5 8.0

-

120

50 12 348

29 12

19

65

207 12 -

1,471 174 571

Notes to Table G.3c: 1 1000 MW is the maximum capacity if running fully on gas. Currently as coal and gas the capacity is less by up to 40 MW.

5,252

731

155

619

2,246

41

19

65

539

9,667

North Island

South Island

Commissioned 1966 1998 2005 1987 1987/1997 2004 1996 2007 1998 2000/2005 1997/2007 2010 1998/2005 2000 1997 2004 2008 2000/2005/2007 2010 1998/2008 1989 1997/2008 1997 2010 1958/2005 1981 1946 1964 1983 1962 1968 1966 1992 1956 1914 1945 1972-1981 1947 1948 1928 1971/2002/2008

Capacity MW 19 40 13 1,000 112 155 10 385 22 380 170 200 370 48 68 50 93 112 138 28 57 50 35 24 172 25 178 78 11 74 220 540 400 32 47 25 42 37 96 11 730

TABLE CONTINUED ON PAGE 112 Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited”, “New Zealand Limited” and “Co-operative Group Limited” where applicable. JV indicates a Joint Venture.

New Zealand

Notes to Table G.3b: 1 Stations have been aggregated according to their rated capacity.

In 2010 the Whirinaki plant was directly owned by the Crown, with Contact Energy engaged to operate and maintain it. 2

Ohaaki plant capacity is 104 MW. However, it is restricted to 57 MW by steam field limitations.

3

4 Manapouri has a maximum capacity of 840 MW but cannot generate this due to consent limits.

2 Multi-fuel plants such as the original Huntly station’s dual-fired generating capacity (1,000 MW) have been split between fuels according to the units of electricity generated by the respective fuels during the period.

110 Energy Data File | 2011

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Table G.3c: Information on Generating Plants, December 2010 (10 MW or Greater) continued

Transmission and Distribution Table G.4: Transmission and Distribution Network Statistics Summary

Plant type

Plant Name

Owners/Operators

Commissioned

Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Hydro Wind Wind Wind Wind Wind Wind

Mangahao Maraetai Matahina Ohakuri Ohau A Ohau B Ohau C Patea Patearoa/Paerau Piripaua Rangipo Roxburgh Tekapo A Tekapo B Teviot 1-7 Tokaanu Tuai Waipapa Waipori Waitaki Whakamaru Wheao Tararua Wind Farm Te Apiti Windfarm Te Rere Hau Te Uku5 West Wind Makara White Hill

Mangahao JV Mighty River Power TrustPower Mighty River Power Meridian Energy Meridian Energy Meridian Energy TrustPower TrustPower Genesis Energy Genesis Energy Contact Energy Meridian Energy Meridian Energy Pioneer Generation Genesis Energy Genesis Energy Mighty River Power TrustPower Meridian Energy Mighty River Power TrustPower TrustPower Meridian Energy NZ Windfarms Meridian Energy Meridian Energy Meridian Energy

1925 1954/1971 1967 1962 1979 1980 1985 1984 1984 1942 1983 1956 1951 1977 1983 1973 1929 1961 1903/1955 1936 1956 1984 1999-2007 2004 2006/2009 2010 2009 2007

Company names are listed without the suffixes “Limited”, “New Zealand Limited” and “Co-operative Group Limited” where applicable. JV indicates a Joint Venture. Bold indicates plants commissioning new capacity in 2010.

Notes to Table G.3c continued: 5 As of December 2010 the Te Uku wind farm was still under construction. Capacity upon completion is expected to 64 MW.

Capacity MW 38 352 76 106 264 212 212 31 12 44 120 280 25 160 11 240 60 54 84 105 100 26 161 91 33 25 159 58

Transformer Capacity (MVA)3

Circuit Length (km)2

Reporting Lines Company

Overhead

Underground

Total

Lines Company Owned

Other Company Owned

Total

Loss Ratio4

North Island Distribution Centralines Counties Power Eastland Network Electra Horizon Energy Distribution Northpower Powerco Scanpower The Lines Company Top Energy Unison Networks Vector Waipa Networks WEL Networks Wellington Electricity Lines

1,741 2,438 3,280 1,619 1,921 5,004 22,615 845 4,206 3,059 5,871 8,505 1,732 3,241 1,772

96 584 382 958 438 825 7,420 61 285 787 3,700 9,126 340 1,802 2,838

1,837 3,022 3,662 2,577 2,359 5,829 30,035 905 4,491 3,846 9,571 17,631 2,072 5,043 4,610

81 270 211 301 254 483 2,713 67 218 238 1,095 3,852 206 689 1,330

12 27 28 41 3 222 7 41 30 466 49 20 -

93 297 239 301 295 485 2,935 67 225 279 1,125 4,318 255 709 1,330

7.7% 5.6% 6.7% 7.5% 3.9% 3.6% 5.9% 7.3% 12.4% 8.3% 4.0% 4.3% 6.4% 5.0% 4.9%

Total

67,848

29,643

97,491

12,007

946

12,952

5.4%

3,455 3,892 584 2,538 59 3,811 2,880 32 2,563 1,631 5,823 4,348 8,289 1,976

651 1,709 32 396 594 707 454 216 785 83 4,885 39 314 154

4,106 5,600 617 2,933 653 4,518 3,334 248 3,348 1,714 10,708 4,387 8,603 2,130

367 804 32 447 145 412 299 91 348 166 1,760 154 364 147

89 64 10 11 7 11 35 12 209 38 62 27

456 868 42 458 145 419 310 91 383 178 1,970 192 426 174

3.1% 5.0% 9.7% 7.8% 5.1% 5.3% 6.0% 5.1% 5.7% 7.7% 4.3% 7.1% 6.8% 4.7%

41,881

11,017

52,899

5,537

575

6,112

5.2%

Distribution Companies Transpower

109,730 11,810

40,660 92

150,390 11,902

17,544 14,196

1,520 -

19,064 14,016

5.1% 3.4%

Total

121,540

40,752

162,292

31,740

1,520

33,080

7.1%

South Island Distribution Alpine Energy Aurora Energy Buller Electricity Electricity Ashburton Electricity Invercargill Mainpower New Zealand Marlborough Lines Nelson Electricity Network Tasman Network Waitaki Orion New Zealand OtagoNet Joint Venture The Power Company Westpower Total National Transmission and Distribution

The summary information shown in Table G.4 is primarily sourced from information published by the Commerce Commission as part of the Electricity Distribution (Information Disclosure) Requirements 2008. More detailed information is available at www.comcom.govt.nz under Industry Regulation, Electricity. Some figures published here may differ from those on the Commerce Commission website as additional information is collected by MED.

Note to Table G.4: 1 For National Transmission (Transpower), “Underground” includes 80 km of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) submarine cables. 3

Units are Megavolt Amps (MVA).

112 Energy Data File | 2011

4 Losses are approximated by subtracting the electricity leaving a system for consumption or further distribution, from the total amount of electricity entering a system (including distributed generation). Loss ratios are the percentage of electricity entering the system that is lost as lines losses.

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Figure G.4: Electricity Distribution Network Losses for the 2010 March Year

Electricity Consumption Table G.5a: Observed Electricity Consumption by Sector (GWh)

PJ Industrial

9 National average across all distribution networks was 5.1% (transmission losses are additional)

Number of Network Companies

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

8+%

7–8%

6–7%

5–6%

4–5%

3–4%

0

Distribution Losses (%)1

Note to Figure G.4: 1 As at 31 March 2010, there were 29 distribution companies in New Zealand.

Calendar Year Estimates

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Mining

Food Processing

Wood, Pulp, Paper and Printing

Chemicals

Basic Metals

Other Minor Sectors1

Commercial (including Transport2)

Residential

Total Observed Consumption3

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

389 406 429 412 407

6,043 6,472 6,976 7,224 7,415

2,684 2,862 3,017 3,043 3,202

8,190 8,399 8,335 8,215 7,977

17,306 18,139 18,757 18,893 19,002

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

444 471 506 503 584

7,644 7,762 8,118 9,126 9,852

3,323 3,523 3,814 4,065 4,322

8,004 8,207 8,616 8,919 8,994

19,415 19,963 21,054 22,613 23,752

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

587 570 566 656 662

10,027 10,363 10,691 10,990 11,361

4,531 4,810 5,011 5,340 5,388

9,060 9,338 9,423 9,488 9,745

24,205 25,081 25,691 26,475 27,157

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

682 708 748 777 847

192 235 280 308 338

1,516 1,482 1,463 1,591 1,682

2,756 2,860 2,968 3,079 3,158

509 599 694 765 785

5,466 5,610 5,308 5,766 5,755

1,057 1,005 987 1,098 1,260

11,495 11,791 11,699 12,607 12,978

5,375 5,416 5,300 5,376 5,535

10,192 10,415 10,188 10,210 10,389

27,745 28,330 27,935 28,969 29,749

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

891 975 1,129 1,189 1,266

382 383 387 326 281

1,698 1,713 1,850 1,778 1,834

3,268 3,266 3,317 3,158 3,567

822 755 733 698 667

5,752 5,966 6,136 6,275 6,351

1,267 1,381 1,413 1,369 1,316

13,189 13,466 13,836 13,604 14,017

5,760 6,054 6,475 6,711 6,880

10,530 10,899 10,859 11,102 11,088

30,370 31,394 32,299 32,605 33,251

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1,296 1,420 1,443 1,438 1,408

341 352 333 313 289

1,877 1,977 2,095 2,037 2,124

3,858 3,799 4,121 3,774 4,256

659 711 719 678 644

6,347 6,291 6,334 6,381 6,670

1,459 1,442 1,685 1,604 1,567

14,541 14,570 15,286 14,788 15,549

6,912 6,963 7,017 7,285 7,910

11,261 11,601 11,670 12,085 12,297

34,010 34,554 35,417 35,596 37,164

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010P

1,480 1,675 1,837 1,815 1,835 1,847

322 328 371 419 490 508

2,285 2,209 2,165 2,116 2,154 2,171

4,129 3,688 3,445 3,347 3,343 3,284

753 794 781 735 678 665

6,711 6,614 6,869 6,304 5,621 6,738

1,561 1,537 1,609 1,510 1,377 1,351

15,761 15,170 15,240 14,431 13,663 14,717

8,241 8,884 9,167 9,277 9,162 9,129

12,144 12,665 12,456 12,678 13,209 13,345

37,626 38,394 38,699 38,201 37,869 39,038

-4.3% -1.9%

0.5% 19.9%

-3.2% -1.9%

-0.8% 7.7%

0.7% -0.4%

1.3% 1.0%

0.4% 3.1%

Δ2006/2010 p.a. Δ2009/2010

2.5% 0.7%

11.5% 3.7%

-0.4% 0.8%

Electricity consumption by sector for calendar years has been estimated from sales and income information collected on a 31 March year basis by the Ministry of Economic Development in conjunction with grid exit point (GXP) demand data sourced from the Electricity Authority’s centralised dataset. Estimates have been made to enable easier comparison with other sections of the Energy Data File.

-2.9% -1.8%

Notes to Table G.5a: 1 Includes: Textiles, Non-metallic Minerals, Mechanical/Electrical Equipment, Furniture and other Manufacturing and Building and Construction. Transport is included with Commercial as the Ministry of Economic Development does not have a reliable time series of electricity used for transport (electric trains and trolley buses and so on). For the balance tables presented at the front of the Energy Data File, approximately 100 GWh or 0.36 PJ has been used for all years (subtracted from commercial demand) until which time the MED can provide improved estimates. Sales to different parts of the commercial transport sector does not provide an accurate 2

114 Energy Data File | 2011

Industrial Total

enough reflection of demand for transport as it includes some electricity used for airports, train stations and bus terminals etc, which should be excluded from the transport sector under IEA definitions. Observed Consumption does not include the calculated additional unallocated consumption (mostly onsite), which is shown in the Balance Tables and in Table G.1.

3

= Provisional. Sales and income information is only available up until 31 March 2010. Consumption is for the 2010 calendar year.

P

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Figure G.5: Observed Electricity Consumption by Sector

Table G.5b: Observed Percentage of Consumers (Active ICPs) by Sector

GWh 45,000

In March

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

2002 2003 2004

4.1% 4.2% 4.1%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

4.0% 4.1% 4.1% 3.9% 3.9% 3.6%

40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000

Commercial (including Transport)

Residential

Total Surveyed Connections1

Total Active Connections2

1.6% 1.8% 1.8%

7.2% 7.7% 7.6%

84.0% 86.3% 86.5%

1,787,842 1,787,842 1,810,908

1,803,364 1,803,364 1,828,234

1.8% 1.9% 2.0% 2.1% 2.0% 2.0%

7.6% 8.3% 8.6% 8.1% 8.1% 8.6%

86.6% 85.7% 85.3% 85.9% 86.0% 85.9%

1,803,628 1,871,308 1,902,994 1,894,974 1,922,780 1,925,911

1,853,093 1,882,942 1,908,241 1,938,010 1,956,741 1,973,826

Industrial

20,000 15,000

Consumer numbers can be estimated by Active Connections (Installation Control Points – ICPs) and are used to represent sectorial customer numbers.

10,000

Due to changes in sectorial definitions and changes in the way this information was collected between 1995 and 2002, only figures from 2002 are displayed.

5,000

Notes to Table G.5b: 1 Total Surveyed Connections is the number of connections observed in the annual electricity sales survey. The percentages displayed are based on the result of this survey, which is also used to complete Table G.6a.

Total Active Connections, which is obtained from Electricity Authority Registry Statistics, are a more complete indication of how many active retail connections exist and should be used when comparing with market share and switching information.

2

Residential

Commercial (including Transport)

2010

2009

2008

2007

2005

2006

2003

2004

2002

2001

1999

2000

1998

1997

1995

1996

1993

1994

1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

1988

1986

1985

1983

1984

1982

1981

1979

1980

1977

Industrial

1978

1976

1975

0

Table G.5c: Regional Electricity Demand Approximations For 2010

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Region1

Approximate Share of National Demand

North Island

61.9%

North Auckland and Northland Central and South Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Eastland and Hawke’s Bay Central North Island Taranaki Wellington

10.0% 17.7% 8.2% 7.0% 4.6% 4.5% 1.9% 8.1%

South Island

38.1%

Nelson/Marlborough West Coast Canterbury Otago/Southland

2.9% 1.0% 13.4% 20.7%

This data is sourced from the Electricity Authority’s Centralised Dataset (CDS) and is not collected by Ministry of Economic Development directly. For more detailed information – including time series data -– visit the Electricity Commission’s CDS at www.ea.govt.nz/industry/modelling/cds/centralised-dataset-webinterface/

Notes to Table G.5c: 1 Regions are those defined by the Electricity Authority (see the CDS webpage) and are not those defined by Regional Council boundaries. For ease of understanding “North Isthmus” as defined by the EA has been renamed “North Auckland and Northland” and “Auckland” has been renamed “Central and South Auckland”. “South Canterbury” has been added to “Canterbury”.

116 Energy Data File | 2011

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Electricity Market Information

Table G.6b: Market Competition Statistics

Table G.6a: Electricity Market Snapshot – 2010 March Year ANZSIC

ANZSIC

Sales

Energy Cost

Line Cost

Total Cost

Average Cost

2006

1996

MWh

$(000)

$(000)

$(000)

c/kWh

Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing Agriculture and Primary Sector Support Services Forestry and Logging Aquaculture, Fishing, Hunting and Trapping

A01, A05 A03 A02, A04

A01-A02 A03 A04

Industrial Coal Mining Oil and Gas Extraction Other Mining and Quarrying, and Services to Mining Meat and Meat Products Dairy Products Other Food Products, Beverages and Tobaccos Textile, Leather, Clothing and Footwear Log Sawmilling and Timber Dressing, and Other Wood Products Pulp, Paper and Converted Paper Products Printing Petroleum and Coal Product Manufacturing Basic Chemicals and Chemical Products Polymer and Rubber Products Non-metallic Mineral Products Basic Ferrous Metals Basic Non-ferrous Metals Basic Non-ferrous Metal Products Basic Ferrous and Other Metal Products Transport Equipment Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing Furniture and Other Manufacturing Electricity Supply Gas Supply (including LPG and CNG) Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Services Construction

1

2

2

2

Number of Connections3

Average Consumption MWh

1,854,720

213,598

113,471

327,070

17.63

68,517

27.07

1,644,402 69,565 140,754

199,605 4,310 9,683

107,909 2,539 3,023

307,514 6,849 12,706

18.70 9.85 9.03

67,678 425 414

24.30 163.83 339.79

14,002,755

1,007,536

272,684

1,280,219

9.14

38,802

360.88

B06 B07 B08-B10 C111-C112 C113 C114-C12 C13

B11 B12 B13-B15 C211 C212 C213-C219 C22

78,951 29,140 401,686 706,875 836,286 636,765 118,744

6,822 2,213 27,088 57,881 69,830 55,331 11,574

2,770 1,916 11,698 19,812 19,162 22,753 5,483

9,592 4,130 38,786 77,692 88,992 78,085 17,057

12.15 14.17 9.66 10.99 10.64 12.26 14.36

62 138 540 463 487 2,061 1,218

1,278.64 210.50 743.32 1,526.54 1,717.65 308.99 97.47

C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20 C211 C213 C214 C212, C22 C23 C24 C25 D26 D27 D28 E

C231-C232 C233 C24 C251-C252 C253-C254 C255-C256 C26 C271 C272 C273 C274-C276 C281-C282 C283-C286 C29 D361 D362 D37 E

1,359,543 1,801,157 146,322 293,894 130,785 243,247 221,363 1,270,941 4,602,824 6,064 102,113 34,418 161,684 262,996 108,112 4,050 254,908 189,888

91,826 114,218 14,505 18,976 11,353 22,682 19,989 90,338 270,296 646 11,139 4,313 17,122 25,803 13,052 485 27,047 23,005

20,159 17,046 5,208 6,112 5,094 8,464 6,859 12,599 43,412 314 6,015 2,394 7,101 12,793 7,272 268 14,640 13,337

111,985 131,265 19,713 25,088 16,447 31,146 26,848 102,937 313,707 961 17,155 6,707 24,223 38,596 20,324 753 41,688 36,342

8.24 7.29 13.47 8.54 12.58 12.80 12.13 8.10 6.82 15.85 16.80 19.49 14.98 14.68 18.80 18.60 16.35 19.14

1,193 244 1,143 152 537 526 761 424 72 64 1,475 1,148 2,747 2,821 2,624 397 7,722 9,782

1,139.87 7,392.61 127.99 1,934.81 243.66 462.69 290.85 2,996.53 63,583.62 95.04 69.21 29.98 58.85 93.23 41.20 10.21 33.01 19.41

9,166,108

926,901

452,630

1,379,530

15.05

164,811

55.62

F-G H I461 I462 I47 I48 I49 I50, I52 I53

F-G H I611 I612 I62 I63 I64 I65-I66 I67

2,341,321 1,046,618 57,114 22,741 78,785 6,915 97,638 221,424 158,123

252,086 119,005 6,257 2,643 6,429 736 7,318 21,253 15,542

110,374 53,975 2,632 945 5,212 435 4,424 10,592 7,306

362,460 172,980 8,889 3,588 11,641 1,171 11,742 31,845 22,848

15.48 16.53 15.56 15.78 14.78 16.93 12.03 14.38 14.45

42,601 15,082 1,054 365 880 137 559 3,307 3,860

54.96 69.40 54.16 62.37 89.51 50.48 174.67 66.96 40.97

J, I51

J

494,771

36,386

21,492

57,878

11.70

9,554

51.79

K-N O P Q R-S

K-L M N O P-Q

1,737,556 808,742 686,371 715,526 692,462

168,665 76,149 71,826 66,493 76,112

83,283 47,340 34,751 28,406 41,464

251,948 123,489 106,576 94,899 117,576

14.50 15.27 15.53 13.26 16.98

30,260 11,205 8,679 9,038 28,232

57.42 72.18 79.08 79.17 24.53

Residential

13,400,215

1,938,124

958,732

2,896,856

21.62

1,653,781

8.10

Total Sales

38,423,798

4,086,159

1,797,516

5,883,675

15.31

1,925,911

19.95

Commercial (including Transport) Wholesale and Retail Trade Accommodation and Food Services Road Freight Road Passenger Rail Water Air and Space Transport Other Transport and Transport Support Services Warehousing and Storage Services Information Media, Telecommunications and Postal Services Financial, Property, Hiring, Professional and Administrative Services Public administration and Safety Education and Training Health Care and Social assistance Arts, Recreational and Other Services

Notes to Table G.6a: 1 Excludes on-site cogeneration. Some financial information has been estimated based on the average March year cost for the relevant industry (by ANZSIC classification) or other information where appropriate. Caution

2

should be applied when comparing the information in this table with Table G.5a and previous editions of the Energy Data File.

Percentage of Consumers Switching in Year or Quarter1 Calendar Year or Quarter (total/end) 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2010

Approximate Retail Market Share Groupings Based on Registry Count of Active ICPs2

North Island

South Island

New Zealand

Contact Energy and Empower

Genesis Energy and Energy Online

Mercury Energy and Bosco Connect

Meridian Energy and Powershop

Nova Energy and Bay of Plenty Energy

TrustPower

Other3

8.6% 9.7% 10.0% 11.0% 13.8% 16.1%

7.2% 7.8% 8.5% 10.4% 14.7% 17.2%

8.3% 9.2% 9.6% 10.8% 14.0% 16.3%

27.5% 27.1% 26.9% 26.1% 24.9% 24.3%

29.0% 29.1% 29.2% 28.5% 27.1% 26.9%

17.6% 18.4% 18.7% 19.7% 21.7% 20.7%

11.6% 11.5% 11.5% 11.9% 12.0% 13.6%

1.3% 1.3% 1.3% 1.4% 1.8% 2.2%

11.9% 11.6% 11.5% 11.5% 11.5% 11.3%

1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0%

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

3.2% 3.4% 3.4% 3.8%

2.9% 3.5% 4.2% 4.0%

3.1% 3.4% 3.6% 3.9%

25.4% 25.0% 24.9% 24.9%

28.3% 28.0% 27.6% 27.1%

20.2% 20.8% 21.4% 21.7%

11.9% 11.8% 11.8% 12.0%

1.5% 1.6% 1.7% 1.8%

11.7% 11.7% 11.6% 11.5%

1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0%

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

3.7% 3.7% 4.1% 4.5%

3.8% 3.8% 4.5% 5.1%

3.8% 3.8% 4.2% 4.7%

24.8% 24.8% 24.5% 24.3%

26.6% 26.5% 26.8% 26.9%

22.0% 22.1% 21.0% 20.7%

12.2% 12.4% 13.3% 13.6%

1.8% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2%

11.5% 11.3% 11.3% 11.3%

1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0%

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

1.6%

2.3%

1.8%

-0.7%

-0.6%

0.6%

0.5%

0.2%

-0.1%

0.0%

Δ2009/2010

2.2%

2.5%

2.3%

-0.6%

-0.3%

-1.0%

1.7%

0.4%

-0.2%

0.0%

This data is sourced from Electricity Authority (EA) registry statistics. For detailed information visit www.ea.govt.nz/industry/ market/statistics-reports/ Notes to Table G.6b: 1 Calculated by taking the total number of switches in a quarter or year and dividing by the average number of connection.

2 Retailers have been aggregated into these multi-retailer groupings based on ownership. In addition, some retailers do not have ICPs registered under their own name but may use another retailers (e.g. Energy Direct NZ). 4

“Other” primarily includes King Country Energy.

From this, average consumption and electricity prices are calculated.

3 Connections are defined by Installation Control Points (ICPs) and in all instances are used to represent sectorial customer numbers.

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G. Electricity

G. Electricity

Figure G.6a: Percentage of Consumers Switching in Year to Date

Figure G.6b: Approximate Retail Market Share Groupings Based on Registry Count of Active ICPs

%

%

20

30 28

18

26

16

24 22

14

20

12

18 16

10

14 12

8

10

6

8 6

4

4

2

2

Contact Energy and Empower

Mercury Energy and Bosco Connect

TrustPower

Nova Energy and Bay of Plenty Energy

Other

Dec-2010

Sep-2010

Jun-2010

Mar-2010

Dec-2009

Sep-2009

Jun-2009

Genesis Energy and Energy Online

120 Energy Data File | 2011

Mar-2009

Dec-2008

Sep-2008

Jun-2008

Mar-2008

Dec-2007

Sep-2007

Jun-2007

Mar-2007

Dec-2006

Sep-2006

Jun-2006

Mar-2006

Dec-2010

Sep-2010

Jun-2010

Mar-2010

Dec-2009

Sep-2009

Jun-2009

Mar-2009

Dec-2008

Sep-2008

Jun-2008

Mar-2008

Dec-2007

Sep-2007

Jun-2007

Mar-2007

Dec-2006

Sep-2006

Jun-2006

Mar-2006

Dec-2005

0

Dec-2005

0

Meridian Energy and Powershop

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H. Oil and Gas Reserves

H. Oil and Gas Reserves

Overview of New Zealand’s Oil and Gas Reserves

Figure H.2: Oil and Gas Fields in the Taranaki Basin

The oil and gas reserves reported in this section apply to figures as at 1 January 2011. Oil and gas production is for the 2010 calendar year. The reserve figures are based on information from field operators and are estimates of “proven” (P90) and “proven and probable” (P50) reserves on a Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS) basis.

The gas at the wellhead of a gas or oil field is a mixture of methane (the main component of natural gas), ethane, propane and butane (which together comprise LPG) and larger hydrocarbons molecules (which are components of natural gasoline and condensate). This raw gas must be separated into its components to give the maximum value. Figure H.1 is a generalised illustration of the major steps in the separation of gas and condensate.

Figure H.1: Gas/Condensate Separation Process (Generalised)

EXTRACTION Gas Reinjected

PROCESSING (This results in some own use and losses)

Wellhead Gas

Separation

Gas Flared

Gross Liquids Production

Total Gas Production

Dehydration

Gas Recovered

Fractionation

Stabilised Condensate

Water

Fractionation

Refrigeration

SALES Net Gas Production

LPG

Natural Gasoline Liquids

Oil Production

All New Zealand’s producing fields are in the Taranaki region, as outlined in Figure H.2. Reserve information for oil, condensate and naphtha is outlined in Tables H.2 and H.3, and Figure H.3. The equivalent gas information is presented in Tables H.4 and H.5, and Figure H.4. These tables detail the ultimate recoverable and remaining reserves of oil and gas as at 1 January 2011. Total oil reserves remaining from producing and non-producing fields decreased by 2.9% on the previous year, and total gas reserves remaining from producing and nonproducing fields decreased by 4%.

While ongoing production has had an effect on total remaining reserves, a significant reason for this overall decrease is due to a downgrade in P50 ultimate recoverable reserves for Maui. The main cause of this change is a slightly greater aquifer encroachment than expected in several reservoir units. Although the impact on remaining Maui reserves is material, the change is less that 1.5% of the field’s total ultimate recoverable reserves, well within expected subsurface uncertainties. Slightly offsetting the overall drop in remaining reserves were increases in P50 remaining reserves for Mangahewa, Kapuni, Kowhai, Cheal and the offshore Maari field.

122 Energy Data File | 2011

The Maari oil field, Petroleum Mining Permit (“PMP”) 38160, operated by OMV New Zealand Limited in the offshore Taranaki, had produced approximately 11.7 million barrels of crude oil since production began in February 2009 to the end of 2010. For the 2010 calendar year, Maari was New Zealand’s highest producing oil field, eclipsing the Tui oil field. In addition, OMV New Zealand Limited began producing and testing the Manaia well (MN1P4) in October 2010 after New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals awarded an extension of the Maari Mining Permit over the Manaia field. MN1P4, drilled from the ENSCO 107 in 2009, is New Zealand’s longest well, at 7,943 metres. 123

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H. Oil and Gas Reserves

H. Oil and Gas Reserves

Table H.1: National Summary of Activity and Expenditure (All Petroleum Exploration and Mining Permits/Licences) Permitting

Coal Seam Gas (“CSG”) permit PEP 52043 New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals granted was granted to Solid Energy New Zealand 10 Petroleum Exploration Permits (“PEPs”) in Limited (100%) on 23 2August 2010. This permit covers 974 km onshore around 2010, an increase on the eight PEPs granted Pukekohe and Waiuku in the Waikato Basin. in 2009. One PMP was granted in 2010 and no Petroleum Prospecting Permits (“PPPs”) Following the offshore Raukumara Basin block were granted. In comparison two PMPs and offer closure on 28 January 2010, PEP 52707 one PPP were granted in 2009. Tui (PMP 38158), which was initially was awarded to Brazilian company Petrobras developed over 2006 and 2007, had International Braspetro B.V. (100%) for five Five PEPs were awarded over the Taranaki 2 produced 29.5 million barrels of oil to Basin in 2010. Four of these covered offshore years and covers 12,330 km . This is December 2010. Thanks to periscope drilling, areas and were awarded via Priority in Time considered one of New Zealand’s most the Tui operators, AWE Taranaki Limited, (“PIT”) applications. PEP 52333 is a 233 km2 prospective frontier Basins, with interest in increased their reserves from 27.9 to 50.5 onshore-offshore permit and was awarded to the Basin generated following the Crown’s million barrels of oil. acquisition and processing of more than 1,200 Kea Oil and Gas Limited (100%), who were also granted and wholly operate PEP 52200, km of 2D marine seismic data, which was In 2010 AWE Taranaki Limited drilled three made freely available. located in the south of the Taranaki Basin near-field exploration wells within PMP 2 and covering 184.1 km . PEP 51988 was 38158, Tui SW-1, Tui SW-2 and Kahu-1, and One PEP was awarded over the East Coast awarded to New Zealand Oil & Gas Limited completed a work-over on the producing Basin on 24 November 2010. PEP 52694 is an (100%) and covers 1,138 km2 in the north of Pateke-3H well. All drilling activity was onshore permit covering 2,230 km2 in the completed with the semi-submersible rig the the Taranaki Basin, while PEP 52181 was south of the East Coast Basin and is held by awarded to a joint venture led by Roc Oil Kan Tan IV. East Coast Energy Ventures Limited (100%). New Zealand Limited (50%) (operator) over The Pohokura gas and condensate field, PEP 52589 was granted to Rawson Taranaki 311.9 km2 over the Kaheru Prospect in the operated by Shell Exploration NZ Limited Limited (50%) (operator) and Zenaco Pty south of the Taranaki Basin. under PMP 38154, began production in Limited (50%) on the 10 November 2010. This Following the opening of bidding for a block September 2006. In 2010, Pohokura onshore-offshore permit covers 4,716 km2 offer over the Kahili structure, onshore produced approximately 11,500 barrels per around Oamaru in the Canterbury Basin. Taranaki, PEP 53247 was awarded to Mosaic day of condensate and 160 million standard Solid Energy New Zealand Limited was also Oil NZ Limited (75%) and L&M Energy cubic feet of gas per day. granted and wholly operates PEP 52359. Limited (25%) (operator) on 15 December Pohokura remained New Zealand’s highest Awarded on 10 November 2010, the permit 2 2010. The permit covers 5.990 km and is producing gas field, eclipsing Maui which covers an onshore-offshore area over 1,393 located at the northern end of the TAWN produced approximately 110 million standard complex. km2 and is situated in the Waiau Basin of the cubic feet of gas per day. South Island. One onshore PMP was awarded in the In the Great South Basin ExxonMobil New Taranaki Basin in 2010. PMP 52278 (Ahuroa UGS) was granted on 16 December 2010 and Zealand (Exploration) Limited surrendered its interest in PEP 50117, in October 2010. The is New Zealand’s first underground gas operator decided to surrender the permit and storage permit. Awarded to Contact Energy not drill, after reaching the commit or 2 Limited the Ahuroa UGS permit covers 5 km surrender option within the work programme, and allows the operator to inject and cihting technical risk for the surrender. withdraw gas from the depleted Tariki Sandstone reservoir in the permit area, located north-east of Stratford. The Petroleum Mining Licence (“PML”) 38146 for the Kupe field was granted in 1992 and began production in December 2009. Operated by Origin Energy Resources (Kupe) Limited, the field to the end of 2010 had produced 2.8 million barrels of condensate and LPG and 28.3 billion cubic feet of gas.

National Totals – Activity Statistics Combined for PPPs, PEPs, PMPs and PMLs

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

17 48,541 7,518 1,504 50 14 1

21 36,958 141 9,927 483 566 29 1

16 35,201 2,455 10,829 444 961 18 -

33 78,237 5,466 23,808 39 410 29 2

34 87,533 3,764 14,707 3,120 247 5 5

30 112,369 13,240 30,627 2,360 2,147 16 2

43 99,854 14,424 20,019 935 407 19 2

34 51,037 25,749 11,411 991 432 15 -

37 64,596 12,058 6,989 1,151 457 9 2

45 76,026 9,751 21,512 204 1,244 10 1

15

30

18

31

10

18

21

15

11

11

PEPs and PPPs Surrendered, Revoked, Relinquished or Expired Number of PEPs and PPPs at Granted Status Number of PMPs and PMLs at Granted Status PEP and PPP National Expenditure (Million NZD) PMP/PML National Expenditure (Million NZD)

7 59 11 $203 $128

14 82 12 $186 $218

10 86 12 $159 $195

6 105 14 $280 $182

14 104 19 $186 $553

25 79 21 $133 $574

20 76 23 $200 $1,359

13 89 23 $314 $963

21 71 24 $191 $1,202

11 70 23 $246 $1,095

Expenditure, All Permits – National Total (Million NZD)

$331

$404

$354

$462

$739

$707

$1,559

$1,277

$1,393

$1,341

Wells Drilled Metres Made 2D Seismic Acquired (km) 2D Seismic Reprocessed (km) 3D Seismic Acquired (sq-km) 3D Seismic Reprocessed (sq-km) PEPs and PPPs Granted PMPs Granted Total Permits Granted

PEPs = Petroleum Exploration Permits. PPPs = Petroleum Prospecting Permits. PMPs = Petroleum Mining Permits (production permits). PMLs = Petroleum Mining Licences (production permits).

Exploration and Developments Exploration and development activity remained high by New Zealand standards in 2010, with 45 wells drilled, an increase from the 37 wells drilled in 2009. This contributes to a high drilling rate in New Zealand when combined with the 34 wells drilled in 2008, totalling 116 wells in the past three years. Wells were drilled in a number of basins in 2010, including onshore and offshore Taranaki, onshore East Coast Basin, Waikato Basin, West Coast Basin and Southland Basins. Offshore well drilling increased from eight wells in 2009 to 10 in 2010, and onshore drilling increased from 29 wells to 35 in the same period. A total of 76,026 m was made in oil and gas wells in 2010, up from the 64,596 m in 2009. Of the 45 wells drilled in 2010, 30 were exploration wells and 15 were appraisal or development wells. Highlights of drilling campaigns in 2010 include drilling at the onshore Taranaki Cheal oil field (PEP 38156), operated by Cheal Petroleum Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of TAG Oil (NZ) Limited (“TAG”).

TAG drilled the Cheal-B-H1-MM well in October 2010 using the NRG Rover rig. The well drilled a horizontal section though the Mount Messenger reservoir and was later completed as a producer and fracture stimulated over the productive reservoir. Also at Cheal, TAG completed a fracture stimulation on the producing Cheal A7 well with good results, increasing daily production rates from the well bore. In PEP 38748 in the onshore Taranaki Basin, TAG kicked off the Sidewinder drilling programme. The Sidewinder BS-1 well was spudded in September 2010 and was successful in discovering light oil and gas in the Mount Messenger Formation. TAG has since gone on to drill three more Sidewinder discovery wells. The Kan Tan IV semi-submersible drilling rig arrived in New Zealand waters in March 2010 and was used offshore Taranaki Basin to drill the Kahu-1, Tui SW-1 and Tui SW-2 wells, as well as complete a work-over of the Pateke3H well within PMP 38158, operated by AWE Taranaki Limited. AWE New Zealand Pty Limited also used the rig to drill the Hoki-1 (PEP 38401) and Tuatara-1 (PEP 38524) wells, offshore Taranaki.

124 Energy Data File | 2011

Origin Energy Resources NZ Limited used the semi-submersible rig to drill the Korimako-1 and Tarapunga-1 wells within PEP 38619, offshore Northland Basin. The drilling rig left New Zealand waters in November 2010. The offshore Taranaki Maui gas and condensate field (PML 381012), operated by Shell Todd Oil Services Limited, continued appraisal drilling from the Maui-A and Maui-B platforms with the drilling of the MB-11A and MA-14A wells. This drilling programme included an extensive work-over programme using a hydraulic work-over unit, the first time in the Asia Pacific region a hydraulic unit has been used instead of a conventional drilling rig. Shell Todd Oil Services Limited also drilled two development wells in the Kapuni Field (PML 38839). KA-17 and KA-18 were both drilled using the Ensign 19 rig and were completed early 2010. Contact Energy Limited continued development of the Ahuroa UGS, with the drilling of the Ahuroa-4, Ahuroa-5 and Ahuroa-5ST1 wells in 2010. New Zealand’s first UGS permit was awarded in December 2010, onshore Taranaki.

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H. Oil and Gas Reserves

H. Oil and Gas Reserves

Table H.2: Oil and Condensate Reserves CSG wells accounted for 16 of the 45 petroleum wells drilled in 2010. Drilling activity was high in Taranaki and Waikato Basins, with work also carried out in Whanganui, West Coast and Southland Basins. L&M Coal Seam Gas drilled eight wells across the Waikato, Whanganui and Southland Basins. Solid Energy New Zealand Limited focused heavily in the Taranaki Basin, where six wells were drilled in 2010. Comet Ridge NZ Pty Ltd continued drilling in their West Coast PMP 50100, with the drilling of Macdonald-4P and 6P. Both wells were designed to test the producibility of the Brunner and Paparoa coal measures. Macdonald-6P was plugged and abandoned while Macdonald-4P was suspended for further testing. The first multi-lateral CSG well programme kicked off in 2010 in the onshore Southland Basin. L&M Coal Seam Gas Limited began drilling the programme in their Ohai permit (PEP 38220) at the end of 2010 and successfully intersected the Morley coal measures. L&M Coal Seam Gas Limited recently upgraded the size of their Ohai 3P reserves by 58%, to 274 PJ.

A total of 21,512 km 2D seismic data were reprocessed across all permits in 2010, an increase from the 6,989 km processed in 2009. 3D seismic acquisition was again limited to one permit in 2010, with figures down on previous years. Todd Exploration Limited acquired 204 km2 of 3D seismic data over their offshore permit, PEP 51313, in the Taranaki Basin. In 2010, a total of 1,244 km2 3D seismic data were reprocessed, an increase over the 547 km2 of 3D data that were reprocessed last year. In other developments for the 2010 year, Houston-based independent Anadarko Petroleum established itself in New Zealand and now operates two PEPs as Anadarko New Zealand Company (PEP 38264 and PEP 38262), offshore Canterbury Basin, and one PEP as Anadarko NZ Taranaki Company (PEP 38451), offshore Taranaki Basin. Anadarko has been active in New Zealand since arrival and has acquired three 2D surveys in their Canterbury and Taranaki Basin permits.

Using the Reflect Resolution vessel, Crown Minerals completed a 2D seismic programme in the 2009/2010 summer. Data was acquired over the Pegasus Basin (2,766 km) and the Bounty Trough (1,186 km), with a transition line also acquired from the Pegasus Basin to the Bounty Trough over the Chatham Rise for 1,190 km. Both the Bounty Trough and transition line data has been made publicly available. As part of a research project with GNS Science, New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals also acquired the Sahke Survey for 479 km. In addition to the above, New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals reprocessed 38 lines from six vintage surveys across the Great South Basin, Canterbury Basin and Bounty Trough. 5,934 km of 2D seismic were reprocessed in total and have since been made publicly available.

As shown in Table H.1, there was a decrease in total expenditure across all petroleum permits and licences from 2009. However, the total 2010 expenditure figure of NZD$1.34 billion, continues a high annual The Kupe Gas Project Petroleum Mining expenditure from 2007, where over Licence (“PML”) 38146 was officially opened NZD$5.5 billion has been spent from the Accompanying this drilling activity was a in March 2010 and is operated by Origin last four years (2007–2010). In comparison, decrease in the acquisition of 2D seismic. In Energy Resources (Kupe) Limited, a wholly from 2000 to 2006 NZD$3.4 billion had 2009, a total of 12,058 km was acquired. This owned subsidiary of Origin Energy Resources been spent. decreased by 19.13% to 9,751 km in 2010 NZ Limited. The offshore Taranaki Kupe Field across permitted acreage. Larger surveys In 2010, NZD$246 million was spent across is expected to meet approximately 15% of included:Anadarko NZ Taranaki Company’s PEPs, an increase of NZD$55 million from New Zealand’s annual gas demand for the full-fold 2D seismic survey (5,688 km) in PEP 2009, while NZD$1.095 billion was spent next 15–20 years. 38451, offshore Taranaki Basin, and OMV across PMPs and PMLs, a decrease of New Zealand Limited’s marine seismic NZD$107 million. survey across PEP 50119 and PEP 50120, which yielded 2,907 km in the offshore Great South Basin.

Ultimate Recoverable (P90) Field

Remaining Reserve (P90) as at 1 January 2011

Ultimate Recoverable (P50)

Remaining Reserve (P50) as at 1 January 2011

Mm3

mmbbls

PJ

Mm3

mmbbls

PJ

Mm3

mmbbls

PJ

Mm3

mmbbls

PJ

Maari Pohokura Kupe Tui Turangi Kowhai Mangahewa Ngatoro Kapuni Maui Cheal McKee Moturoa Surrey Kauri Tariki/Ahuroa Waihapa/Ngaere Rimu

6.3 7.3 3.0 7.0 0.7 0.1 0.4 1.6 10.4 24.7 0.2 7.6 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.5 3.8 0.1

39.6 46.0 19.1 43.8 4.1 0.6 2.6 9.9 65.1 155.1 1.4 47.8 0.5 0.2 0.7 3.0 23.9 0.6

237.8 247.6 106.4 244.6 22.4 3.4 16.5 53.9 346.7 801.9 8.8 289.5 2.8 1.1 3.6 16.1 139.1 3.4

9.2 9.1 5.0 8.0 1.1 0.8 0.8 2.1 10.9 25.1 0.4 7.7 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 3.8 0.1

57.6 56.9 31.7 50.5 6.8 5.3 5.3 13.2 68.2 157.6 2.4 48.5 0.8 0.3 1.2 3.2 23.9 0.6

345.7 306.1 158.7 282.0 37.2 28.9 34.1 71.9 363.4 814.8 15.7 293.9 4.2 1.5 6.1 17.3 139.2 3.5

4.5 4.3 2.9 2.3 0.5 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

28.3 27.3 16.3 14.3 3.0 0.3 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

170.0 146.6 89.7 79.7 16.1 1.4 8.8 6.4 5.7 5.8 4.3 4.6 2.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0

7.4 6.1 4.6 3.3 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

46.3 38.1 29.1 21.0 5.7 5.0 4.1 4.5 4.3 3.7 1.7 1.5 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.0

277.8 205.1 144.2 117.1 34.5 26.9 26.4 24.4 22.8 18.9 11.2 9.0 4.2 2.5 2.5 1.1 0.3 0.1

Total

73.8

464.0

2545.5

84.9

534.1

2924.2

15.6

96.1

542.1

26.5

166.5

929.1

Note to Table H.2: 1 Includes LPG.

Table H.3: Reserves from Non-producing Fields (Oil and Condensate) Estimated Recoverable Reserves Field Radnor Total

Mm3

mmbbls

PJ

0

0.2

0.9

0.0000

0.2000

0.9000

Date Petroleum Mining Permit Granted 19 May 2005

Figure H.3: Remaining P50 Oil Reserves from Producing Wells at 1 January 2011

Maari 25% Pohokura 24% Kupe 16% Tui 14% Maui 6% Others1 6% Turangi 3% Mangahewa 2% Ngatoro 2% Kowhai 2%

Notes to Figure H.3: 1 Includes Rimu, Waihapa/Ngaere, Tariki/Ahuroa, Kauri, Moturoa, Surrey, Karmiro, Kapuni, Cheal and Mckee fields.

126 Energy Data File | 2011

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H. Oil and Gas Reserves

I. Prices

Table H.4: Gas Reserves1

Introduction

Technical Notes

This section presents New Zealand’s energy prices, taxes and levies since 1974 (where available), with all prices presented in New Zealand dollars. Prices are presented in units typical for each fuel (such as cents/litre for petrol and diesel or cents/kWh for electricity) and are displayed on a calendar year basis in both real (adjusted for inflation) and nominal terms for all available years. Prices are presented inclusive of all applicable taxes and levies. Industrial and commercial prices exclude Goods and Services Tax (GST) as these sectors can generally reclaim the GST component. Wholesale prices are assumed to relate to the commercial sector so exclude GST. Residential customers generally cannot reclaim GST therefore residential prices include the GST component.

Electricity Prices

Natural Gas Prices

Electricity prices are calculated by dividing sales revenue by consumption data for each of the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Consumption and income figures are collected on a March year end basis; hence December year end prices need to be estimated.

Natural gas prices are calculated by dividing sales revenue by consumption data for each of the commercial, industrial and residential sectors. Gas sold for electricity generation has been excluded from the industrial sector. Quarterly residential gas prices are calculated as a rolling average over the last year for smoothing purposes. Note that tariffs for residential gas in New Zealand generally include relatively high fixed charges. As a consequence, the residential gas price should be treated as indicative only. A wholesale gas price is also included in this edition of the Energy Data File. This is the average price paid for gas for retail sale and electricity generation.

Ultimate Recoverable (P90) (gross production) Field

Mm

PJ

Mm

(gross production)

Bcf

Mm

Bcf

PJ

Mm

Bcf

PJ

905.8 209.3 139.0 982.0 114.6 23.4 3890.0 208.7 45.2 22.9 2.6 92.7 0.6 0.4 2.5 26.5

28620.0 7071.1 5935.4 40780.0 4912.9 4157.2 100563.0 5669.0 1657.2 992.2 182.0 2796.0 61.8 12.5 66.7 788.7

1011.3 249.7 209.6 1441.0 173.5 146.8 3569.0 200.2 58.5 35.0 6.4 98.7 2.2 0.4 2.4 27.9

1184.9 286.6 236.9 1098.0 192.6 160.5 3962.0 226.2 65.0 41.0 6.8 95.9 1.3 0.5 2.7 26.5

14790.0 4296.5 1823.6 2008.0 2290.7 369.0 732.0 784.4 436.6 10.2 52.8 0.0 28.8 2.2 0.0 0.0

522.6 151.7 64.4 71.0 80.9 13.0 26.0 27.7 15.4 0.4 1.9 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

612.3 174.1 76.0 53.0 90.0 14.3 28.9 32.2 17.6 0.4 2.0 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0

21530.0 6270.9 4275.8 6386.0 4275.0 3978.0 2566.0 1223.3 962.0 302.7 164.2 478.7 62.5 5.4 0.7 0.0

760.8 221.5 151.0 226.0 151.8 138.9 91.3 43.2 34.6 10.7 5.8 3.0 2.2 0.2 0.0 0.0

891.3 254.2 174.8 169.2 167.9 151.4 101.4 50.2 37.3 12.5 6.1 2.9 1.2 0.2 0.0 0.0

180964.3

6410.0

6666.3

204265.7

7232.7

7587.2

27624.8

976.1

1101.4

52481.0

1840.9

2020.7

3

PJ

(gross production)

773.1 226.2 123.0 1286.0 102.6 20.9 3505.0 184.7 39.4 19.6 2.5 95.5 1.0 0.3 2.2 27.9

Pohokura Kupe Mangahewa Kapuni Turangi Kowhai Maui McKee Ngatoro Kauri Cheal Tariki/Ahuroa Motorua Surrey Rimu Waihapa/Ngaere Total

(gross production)

Remaining Reserve (P50) as at 1 January 2011

21880.0 6406.0 3483.2 36402.0 2905.7 593.1 98729.0 5230.1 1114.7 554.5 70.6 2703.7 29.2 9.2 63.4 789.9

3

Bcf

Remaining Reserve (P90) as at 1 January 2011

Ultimate Recoverable (P50)

3

3

Note to Table H.4: 1 Includes LPG.

Table H.5: Reserves from Non-producing Fields (Gas) Estimated Recoverable Reserves Field

Mm3

mmbbls

PJ

Radnor

152.40

6.00

5.00

Total

152.40

6.00

5.00

Date Petroleum Mining Permit Granted 19 May 2005

Oil Prices Prices for petrol, diesel and fuel oil are collected each quarter from New Zealand’s large oil companies (BP, Greenstone Energy (formerly Shell), Chevron and ExxonMobil). These prices are then weight-averaged by sales to calculate the annualised wholesale prices. Retail prices are collected by Statistics New Zealand, and provided to MED on a quarterly basis.

To aid price comparison between fuels, prices are also presented by energy content in dollars per gigajoule (GJ). However, direct inter-fuel comparisons on this basis do not allow for differences in end-use efficiency, which can vary between fuel and application. For this reason care should be taken when comparing prices on an energy content basis. Although fuel prices are now market-driven, historically many were under some form of price control. The wholesale prices of diesel and petrol were controlled until July 1987 and May 1988 respectively. Gas prices were under price control until 1993. Before electricity sector reforms, which began in the late 1980s, electricity prices were influenced by the need for government approval of wholesale prices.

Figure H.4: Remaining P50 Gas Reserves from Producing Wells at 1 January 2011

Pohokura 45% Kupe 13% Maui 13% Turangi 8% Kowhai 7% Kapuni 5% Mangahewa 4% Others1 3% McKee 2%

Notes to Figure H.4: 1 Includes Ngatoro, Kaimiro, Kauri, Tariki/Ahuroa, Moturoa, Cheal, Surrey, Rimu and Waihapa/Ngaere fields.

128 Energy Data File | 2011

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Energy Data File | 2011

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I. Prices

I. Prices

Electricity Prices

Table I.1b: Electricity Consumer Prices (Real 2010)1

Table I.1a: Electricity Consumer Prices (Nominal)

Tariff

Residential

Commercial

Industrial1

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

Lines %

Tariff

Calendar Year

Lines %

Tariff

Lines %

Residential

Commercial

Industrial1

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

c/kWh 1.15

2.08

0.90

3.20

5.77

2.50

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1.19 1.56 2.15 2.42 3.19

2.13 2.73 3.72 4.22 5.38

0.94 1.25 1.68 1.95 2.63

3.31 4.33 5.96 6.71 8.86

5.91 7.58 10.32 11.73 14.94

2.61 3.46 4.66 5.41 7.30

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

3.69 4.05 4.56 4.69 4.80

6.08 6.61 7.33 7.53 7.70

3.05 3.34 3.78 3.80 3.88

10.26 11.25 12.66 13.04 13.33

16.89 18.37 20.36 20.93 21.38

8.47 9.29 10.50 10.56 10.79

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

5.62 6.71 7.89 8.71 9.03

8.87 9.94 10.98 11.52 11.71

4.55 5.13 5.47 5.73 5.78

15.62 18.65 21.91 24.20 25.08

24.63 27.61 30.50 31.99 32.53

12.63 14.26 15.20 15.90 16.05

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

9.22 9.81 10.27 10.78 11.37

11.72 11.59 11.49 11.15 10.90

5.73 5.78 6.00 6.01 5.88

25.62 27.24 28.52 29.93 31.58

32.56 32.18 31.92 30.97 30.28

15.91 16.06 16.67 16.70 16.33

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

11.93 12.68 13.41 13.19 13.28

48.8% 47.3%

10.72 10.92 10.91 10.56 10.20

50.0% 47.9%

6.21 6.17 6.11 6.64 6.17

35.5% 34.2%

33.14 35.23 37.25 36.64 36.88

29.78 30.33 30.30 29.34 28.32

17.26 17.14 16.96 18.44 17.13

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

13.26 14.17 15.28 16.42 17.96

46.5% 43.8% 40.5% 37.5% 35.8%

10.26 10.49 10.73 11.69 12.27

46.0% 45.6% 42.0% 39.4% 36.6%

6.23 6.62 7.12 7.91 8.00

34.1% 30.7% 26.9% 27.0% 25.6%

36.83 39.35 42.44 45.60 49.90

28.50 29.14 29.81 32.48 34.08

17.31 18.40 19.79 21.96 22.21

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 R 2010 E

19.19 20.56 22.10 23.28 24.13 25.50

33.5% 31.7% 31.9% 32.8% 33.1% 32.9%

13.25 13.85 14.14 14.94 15.09 15.35

33.5% 32.8% 32.5% 33.2% 33.0% 32.9%

9.05 9.30 9.79 10.87 10.40 10.40

22.8% 23.5% 22.8% 21.7% 23.3% 22.6%

53.29 57.11 61.39 64.67 67.03 70.83

36.79 38.46 39.29 41.51 41.90 42.63

25.13 25.83 27.20 30.21 28.89 28.88

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

5.5%

2.6%

2.8%

5.5%

2.6%

2.8%

Δ2009/2010

5.7%

1.7%

0.0%

5.7%

1.7%

0.0%

Commercial

Industrial2

Residential

Commercial

Industrial2

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

Calendar Year

$/GJ

1974

Residential

c/kWh

1974

11.24

31.23

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

10.13 11.34 13.64 13.72 15.92

25.36

12.40

28.14 31.50 37.88 38.12 44.23

70.45

34.44

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

15.74 14.95 14.49 13.90 13.39

23.34 21.73 20.93 20.40 19.45

11.70 10.99 10.79 10.29 9.82

43.72 41.54 40.25 38.62 37.20

64.84 60.36 58.13 56.65 54.04

32.50 30.52 29.97 28.59 27.27

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

13.60 14.33 14.55 15.11 14.81

19.42 20.59 21.08 21.01 19.95

9.96 10.64 10.50 10.44 9.84

37.77 39.81 40.43 41.96 41.15

53.95 57.20 58.55 58.35 55.41

27.66 29.54 29.17 29.01 27.34

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

14.26 14.78 15.32 15.87 16.46

19.08 18.70 18.17 17.21 16.60

9.32 9.33 9.49 9.28 8.95

39.61 41.06 42.54 44.09 45.71

53.01 51.95 50.48 47.80 46.12

25.90 25.92 26.37 25.78 24.86

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

16.65 17.30 18.08 17.56 17.69

16.20 16.40 16.32 15.70 15.01

9.39 9.27 9.14 9.87 9.07

46.25 48.06 50.22 48.77 49.15

44.99 45.55 45.33 43.62 41.68

26.08 25.75 25.38 27.40 25.20

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

17.22 17.93 18.83 19.89 21.27

14.03 13.53 13.83 15.18 15.63

8.52 8.54 9.18 10.26 10.19

47.84 49.80 52.30 55.24 59.09

38.97 37.60 38.41 42.17 43.42

23.66 23.73 25.50 28.51 28.30

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 E

22.05 22.86 24.00 24.32 24.69 25.50

16.13 15.88 15.84 15.11 15.49 15.35

11.02 10.66 10.97 11.00 10.68 10.40

61.25 63.50 66.67 67.55 68.57 70.83

44.80 44.10 44.00 41.98 43.03 42.63

30.60 29.62 30.46 30.55 29.67 28.88

PPI deflator unavailable before December 1979 quarter

E

= Estimate

R

= Revised

Estimates are provided for the calendar year 2010 as actual information is collected on a March year basis.

2.8%

-0.8%

-0.6%

2.8%

-0.8%

-0.6%

Δ2009/2010

3.3%

-0.9%

-2.6%

3.3%

-0.9%

-2.6%

Notes to Table I.1b: 1 Price information in the three sectors

Industrial sector includes Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing – this differs from the definition of Industrial in the Electricity section (G), where these were separated. 2

E

= Estimate

R

= Revised

Estimates are provided for the calendar year 2010 as actual information is collected on a March year basis.

130 Energy Data File | 2011

PPI deflator unavailable before December 1979 quarter

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

shown has been adjusted into real terms using the price deflators in Table I.6. Notes to Table I.1a: 1 Industrial sector includes Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing – this differs from the definition of Industrial in the Electricity section (G), where these were separated.

$/GJ

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I. Prices

I. Prices

Figure I.1a: Electricity Consumer Prices (Nominal)

Petrol and Diesel Prices Table I.2a: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Nominal)1

c/kWh 30

20

15

10

5

Residential (incl. GST)

Commercial (excl. GST)

2010

2009

2007

2008

2006

2005

2003

2004

2002

2001

1999

2000

1997

1998

1995

1996

1993

1994

1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

1988

1985

1986

1983

1984

1982

1981

1979

1980

1977

1978

1975

1976

1974

0

Industrial (excl. GST)

Figure I.1b: Electricity Consumer Prices (Real 2010) c/kWh 30

25

20

15

10

Industrial (excl. GST)

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

1999

2000

1997

1998

1995

1996

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

1988

1985

Commercial (excl. GST)

1986

1984

1983

1982

1981

1979

1980

1977

1978

1975

1976

1974

Residential (incl. GST)

Diesel

Premium Petrol

Diesel

Retail

Retail

Wholesale

Retail

Retail

Retail

Wholesale2

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)3

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)3

1974

14.25

13.95

9.50

4.04

4.00

2.51

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

19.70 27.00 28.95 30.78 36.28

21.18 26.10 28.05 30.20 36.60

10.96 14.90 17.20 17.20 23.02

5.58 7.65 8.20 8.72 10.28

6.07 7.49 8.05 8.66 10.50

2.90 3.94 4.55 4.55 6.09

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

51.08 58.58 67.08 71.00 78.30

49.79 56.83 64.33 68.00 75.29

38.80 44.20 58.50 58.50 68.50

55.50 65.50

14.47 16.59 19.00 20.11 22.18

14.28 16.30 18.45 19.51 21.60

10.26 11.69 15.48 15.48 18.12

14.68 17.33

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

92.93 83.85 91.03 89.93 91.20

90.67 80.16 88.00 87.58 88.40

69.90 62.70 69.00 70.29 62.71

65.90 58.30 64.16 65.36 49.06

26.32 23.75 25.79 25.47 25.84

26.01 22.99 25.24 25.12 25.36

18.49 16.59 18.25 18.60 16.59

17.43 15.42 16.97 17.29 12.98

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

96.28 99.80 100.61 99.88 94.95

95.83 94.63 96.65 95.24 90.01

70.56 55.97 56.65 55.28 51.65

55.20 43.79 44.32 43.25 40.82

27.27 28.27 28.50 28.29 26.90

27.49 27.14 27.73 27.32 25.82

18.67 14.81 14.99 14.63 13.66

14.60 11.58 11.73 11.44 10.80

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

95.01 95.43 95.61 89.85 90.14

89.96 90.43 90.58 84.85 85.36

50.73 53.29 55.13 48.22 50.01

41.20 42.35 42.89 39.26 41.94

26.92 27.03 27.08 25.45 25.54

25.81 25.94 25.99 24.34 24.49

13.42 14.10 14.58 12.76 13.23

10.90 11.20 11.35 10.39 11.09

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

111.19 109.46 107.92 110.48 122.04

107.11 104.52 102.85 105.04 116.44

72.89 71.95 64.25 62.15 72.99

61.10 60.98 54.97 55.71 65.20

31.50 31.01 30.57 31.30 34.57

30.73 29.98 29.50 30.13 33.40

19.28 19.04 17.00 16.44 19.31

16.16 16.13 14.54 14.74 17.25

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

137.12 160.94 160.33 186.63 167.90 185.39

132.02 154.95 154.47 180.79 160.30 176.79

90.21 113.08 104.88 144.95 101.96 117.36

79.58 96.33 90.70 128.03 89.33 98.55

38.84 45.59 45.42 52.87 47.56 52.52

37.87 44.45 44.31 51.86 45.98 50.71

23.87 29.92 27.75 38.35 26.97 31.05

21.05 25.48 24.00 33.87 23.63 26.07

2

c/l

$/GJ

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

162.20 167.60 171.60 170.30

155.50 160.40 163.50 161.90

100.50 99.80 104.10 103.50

93.58 85.69 88.88 89.02

45.95 47.48 48.61 48.24

44.61 46.01 46.90 46.44

26.59 26.40 27.54 27.38

24.76 22.67 23.51 23.55

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

181.80 184.20 181.80 193.50

173.20 175.50 173.10 185.00

110.60 116.70 116.80 124.70

94.04 103.40 97.19 99.56

51.50 52.18 51.50 54.82

49.68 50.34 49.66 53.07

29.26 30.87 30.90 32.99

24.88 27.36 25.71 26.34

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

3.6%

3.4%

0.9%

0.6%

3.6%

3.4%

0.9%

0.6%

Δ2009/2010

10.4%

10.3%

15.1%

10.3%

10.4%

10.3%

15.1%

10.3%

Notes to Table I.2a: 1 Annual prices are weighted by sales; therefore a straight average of the quarters will not match the annual figure.

2

Wholesale diesel price data collection started in 1983.

The wholesale diesel price has been shown exclusive of GST as it relates to commercial customers who can reclaim the GST component.

3

132 Energy Data File | 2011

Regular Petrol

Retail

5

0

Regular Petrol

(incl. GST)

Calendar Year Average or Quarters

25

Premium Petrol

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I. Prices

I. Prices

Figure I.2a: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Nominal)

Table I.2b: Petrol and Diesel Prices (Real 2010)

c/l 240 220

Premium Petrol

Regular Petrol

Diesel

Premium Petrol

Retail

Retail

Retail

Wholesale

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)3

2

Regular Petrol

Diesel

Retail

Retail

Retail

Wholesale2

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)3

200

Calendar Year Average or Quarters

180

1974

138.88

135.95

92.59

39.34

39.00

24.49

160

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

167.41 196.26 183.97 174.69 181.10

179.94 189.72 178.26 171.42 182.72

93.12 108.31 109.30 97.63 114.91

47.42 55.60 52.12 49.49 51.30

51.62 54.42 51.13 49.17 52.41

24.64 28.65 28.92 25.83 30.40

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

217.65 216.36 213.28 210.32 218.46

212.18 209.93 204.56 201.44 210.07

165.34 163.26 186.02 173.29 191.12

150.24 165.56

61.66 61.29 60.42 59.58 61.89

60.87 60.22 58.68 57.78 60.26

43.74 43.19 49.21 45.84 50.56

39.75 43.80

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

224.64 179.04 167.93 155.95 149.62

219.18 171.16 162.34 151.88 145.02

168.98 133.88 127.29 121.90 102.87

144.37 120.78 123.14 119.21 83.58

63.64 50.72 47.57 44.18 42.38

62.87 49.10 46.57 43.57 41.60

44.70 35.42 33.67 32.25 27.22

38.19 31.95 32.58 31.54 22.11

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

148.86 150.41 150.07 147.10 137.45

148.18 142.62 144.18 140.27 130.30

109.09 84.35 84.50 81.42 74.77

89.86 70.68 70.10 66.76 62.17

42.17 42.61 42.51 41.67 38.94

42.51 40.91 41.36 40.24 37.38

28.86 22.31 22.36 21.54 19.78

23.77 18.70 18.55 17.66 16.45

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

132.58 130.17 128.90 119.60 120.14

125.53 123.35 122.13 112.94 113.77

70.79 72.69 74.32 64.18 66.65

62.24 63.61 64.16 58.36 61.72

37.56 36.87 36.52 33.88 34.03

36.01 35.38 35.03 32.40 32.64

18.73 19.23 19.66 16.98 17.63

16.47 16.83 16.97 15.44 16.33

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

144.41 138.53 133.02 133.82 144.52

139.11 132.27 126.76 127.23 137.88

94.66 91.06 79.19 75.28 86.44

83.54 78.67 70.83 72.33 83.07

40.91 39.24 37.68 37.91 40.94

39.91 37.94 36.36 36.50 39.55

25.04 24.09 20.95 19.92 22.87

22.10 20.81 18.74 19.14 21.98

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

157.58 178.94 174.12 194.97 171.77 185.39

151.72 172.28 167.76 188.86 163.99 176.79

103.68 125.73 113.90 151.42 104.31 117.36

96.91 110.45 101.58 129.49 91.74 98.55

44.64 50.69 49.33 55.23 48.66 52.52

43.52 49.42 48.12 54.18 47.04 50.71

27.43 33.26 30.13 40.06 27.59 31.05

25.64 29.22 26.87 34.26 24.27 26.07

140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Premium Petrol

Diesel (Retail)

2010

2009

2007

2008

2006

2005

2003

2004

2002

2001

1999

2000

1997

1998

1995

1996

1993

1994

1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

1988

1985

Regular Petrol

1986

1983

1984

1982

1981

1979

1980

1977

1978

1975

1976

1974

0

Diesel (Wholesale)

&IGURE)B0ETROLAND$IESEL0RICES2EAL DM         

Mar Jun Sep Dec

171.55 176.28 178.18 177.16

164.47 168.71 169.77 168.42

106.30 104.97 108.09 107.67

96.98 88.81 93.14 92.90

48.60 49.94 50.48 50.19

47.18 48.40 48.70 48.31

28.12 27.77 28.60 28.48

25.66 23.49 24.64 24.58

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

188.43 190.57 186.05 193.50

179.52 181.57 177.15 185.00

114.63 120.74 119.53 124.70

96.86 105.07 98.10 99.56

53.38 53.99 52.71 54.82

51.50 52.08 50.82 53.07

30.33 31.94 31.62 32.99

25.63 27.80 25.95 26.34



3FHVMBS1FUSPM

%JFTFM 3FUBJM

%JFTFM 8IPMFTBMF



































































1SFNJVN1FUSPM











$/GJ

2009





c/l

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

0.9%

0.6%

-1.7%

-2.8%

0.9%

0.6%

-1.7%

-2.8%

Δ2009/2010

7.9%

7.8%

12.5%

7.4%

7.9%

7.8%

12.5%

7.4%

Notes to Table I.2b: 1 Annual prices are weighted by sales; therefore a straight average of the quarters will not match the annual ďŹ gure.

2

Wholesale diesel price data collection started in 1983.

The wholesale diesel price has been shown exclusive of GST as it relates to commercial customers who can reclaim the GST component.

3

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I. Prices

I. Prices

Table I.2c: Retail Importers’ Margin (Nominal and Real 2010 Prices)

13.33 11.61 13.59 14.02

14.10 12.21 14.12 14.59

Mar Jun Sep Dec

153.96 156.00 153.87 160.87

83.09 83.93 78.85 83.37

56.13 56.13 58.20 61.48

139.22 140.06 137.05 144.85

14.74 15.94 16.81 16.02

15.28 16.49 17.21 16.02

2010

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

3.1%

2.4%

4.7%

3.3%

1.5%

-1.2%

Δ2009/2010

3.1%

19.6%

-11.1%

6.9%

-30.3%

-27.2%

This analysis does not allow for any effect of the growth in eet discounting (the use of eet cards) or bulk sales via commercial agreements. Furthermore, supermarkets, in conjunction with the oil companies, are offering discounted petrol and diesel to their customers via self-service stations and fuel discount vouchers. These discounts have not been incorporated into the prices section.

.FUIPEPMPHZ $IBOHF

    

1FUSPM1SJDF %FSFHVMBUJPO



(VMG$SJTJT

 

3FHVMBS1FUSPM*NQPSUFS.BSHJO 3FBM

136 Energy Data File | 2011

Dec 10

124.89 130.96 131.74 129.89

Dec 09

52.57 52.57 53.13 56.13



%FD

72.32 78.40 78.61 73.76

DM

%FD

138.22 142.58 145.33 143.91

Dec 07

Mar Jun Sep Dec

2009

Dec 08

13.47 16.63 15.57 11.56 13.44 15.88

%FD

11.72 14.96 14.34 11.07 13.14 15.88

%FD

105.61 123.15 122.93 149.98 129.37 140.30

Dec 05

46.07 48.20 49.61 51.55 53.60 57.98

Dec 06

59.55 74.95 73.32 98.43 75.77 82.31

%FD

117.33 138.11 137.27 161.04 142.51 156.17

&IGURE)D2ETAIL)MPORTER-ARGIN2EAL0RICES

%FD

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

A statistically determined lag between the Singapore spot price and the New Zealand price has been historically used to reect delays in the pricing mechanism. These delays, or pricing lags, were due to market realities and decreased over time as more players entered the market and practices changed. A 2010 review of the methodology found that the lag between international price changes and New Zealand price changes is now much less than one week. Therefore, the one-week lag that was included in the margin calculation up to the start of 2010 has been removed.

Dec 03

17.07 16.58 14.24 14.17 15.87

Dec 04

13.14 13.10 11.55 11.70 13.40

%FD

81.97 79.98 79.91 81.66 90.11

Retail Price of Regular Petrol (excl. GST)

%FD

34.99 34.99 38.49 40.58 41.97

Dec 01

46.99 45.00 41.43 41.08 48.14

Dec 02

95.11 93.09 91.47 93.36 103.51

New Zealand Import Price (plus taxes and levies, but excl. GST)

%FD

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Import Cost

Dec 00

33.39 33.42 30.37 24.32 20.04

%FD

23.93 24.50 22.52 18.27 15.03

Dec 99

56.07 55.86 57.99 57.17 60.68

%FD

32.89 32.89 32.89 34.21 34.99

0

%FD

23.19 22.97 25.10 22.97 25.69

20 Dec 97

80.00 80.36 80.51 75.44 75.71

40

Dec 98

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

60

%FD

25.04 26.95 29.44 31.57 32.20

%FD

16.20 17.88 19.74 21.44 22.25

Dec 95

67.94 66.32 66.11 63.36 57.71

Dec 96

32.89 31.39 32.89 32.89 32.89

80

%FD

35.05 34.93 33.22 30.48 24.82

120 100

%FD

84.13 84.20 85.84 84.80 79.96

140

Dec 93

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

The New Zealand import cost is calculated using the Singapore spot market price plus allowances for international freight, wharfage fees and insurance costs. Singapore prices are used as they represent one of New Zealand’s major markets for importing reďŹ ned product (Australia and South Korea being the others) and because Singapore is one of the world’s largest reďŹ ning centres. The Singapore price series is based on 95 octane petrol (premium petrol). A quality-related price adjustment is used to alter this price and make it comparable to 91 octane (regular petrol).

160

Dec 94

51.72 49.78 32.65 36.42 29.56

%FD

21.39 23.31 17.70 21.00 18.02

%FD

69.27 55.02 62.30 58.61 61.44

Dec 91

31.76 33.44 35.61 36.62 34.89

Dec 92

37.51 21.59 26.69 21.99 26.56

%FD

90.67 78.33 80.00 79.61 79.46

Dec 90

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

180

%FD

53.92 54.87

Dec 89

18.20 19.66

%FD

49.80 55.63

%FD

18.89 23.56

Dec 87

30.91 32.07

Dec 88

68.00 75.29

%FD

1983 1984

200

%FD

Real 2010 Prices

c/l

Dec 85

Nominal Price (excl. GST)

Importers’ Margin

Dec 86

Importers’ Margin

%FD

Import Cost plus Taxes and levies

%FD

Fuel Taxes and Levies

Dec 83

Importers’ Cost

Dec 84

Regular Petrol Retail Price

Figure I.2c: Regular Petrol Retail Composition (Nominal)

%FD

Calendar Year Average or Quarters

The calculated importer’s margin for petrol and diesel is the amount available to cover domestic transportation, distribution, retailing costs and proďŹ t margins. This is calculated as the difference between the New Zealand retail price (excluding taxes and levies) and the calculated New Zealand import cost.

%FD

Retail Importer’s Cost and Margin

137 Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


I. Prices

I. Prices

Fuel Oil Prices

Figure I.3a: Fuel Oil Prices (Nominal)

Table I.3: Fuel Oil Prices (Nominal and Real 2010) $/GJ Heavy Fuel Oil

Light Fuel Oil

Heavy Fuel Oil

Light Fuel Oil

Heavy Fuel Oil

Light Fuel Oil

Heavy Fuel Oil

c/l

c/l

$/GJ

$/GJ

c/l

c/l

$/GJ

$/GJ

Real 2010 Prices (excl. GST)

20

15.80 13.41 12.00 12.13 12.22

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

53.97 67.54 65.87 94.16 69.89 79.92

53.93 55.26 55.29 78.26 62.03 78.48

13.18 16.49 16.08 22.99 17.07 19.52

12.95 13.27 13.28 18.79 14.90 18.85

65.73 77.44 73.76 95.24 71.77 79.92

65.67 63.36 61.92 79.15 63.70 78.48

16.05 18.91 18.01 23.26 17.53 19.52

15.77 15.22 14.87 19.01 15.30 18.85

Mar Jun Sep Dec

66.52 63.95 75.13 73.60

54.36 62.60 70.33 86.36

16.24 15.62 18.35 17.97

13.05 15.03 16.89 20.74

68.95 66.28 78.73 76.81

56.34 64.88 73.70 90.13

16.84 16.19 19.23 18.76

13.53 15.58 17.70 21.64

Mar Jun Sep Dec

78.42 81.35 79.13 81.14

84.33 94.70 70.16 72.13

19.15 19.87 19.32 19.81

20.25 22.74 16.85 17.32

80.78 82.67 79.87 81.14

86.86 96.23 70.81 72.13

19.73 20.19 19.51 19.81

20.86 23.11 17.01 17.32

2009

2010

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

4.3%

9.2%

4.3%

9.2%

0.8%

5.5%

0.8%

5.5%

Δ2009/2010

14.4%

26.5%

14.4%

26.5%

11.4%

23.2%

11.4%

23.2%

0

Light Fuel Oil

2010

17.55 16.75 16.26 15.62 14.17

2010

65.81 55.85 49.95 50.50 50.87

2009

71.89 68.61 66.57 63.97 58.01

2009

11.56 10.40 9.31 9.34 9.59

2008

12.84 12.99 12.62 12.03 11.12

2008

48.13 43.29 38.77 38.90 39.92

2007

52.58 53.18 51.66 49.27 45.53

5

2007

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

10

2006

12.13 10.94 11.00 10.34 11.85

2006

12.36 12.58 12.85 12.35 13.49

2005

50.50 45.55 45.80 43.07 49.34

2005

50.61 51.53 52.61 50.58 55.23

2004

8.03 7.28 7.35 6.96 8.05

2004

8.18 8.38 8.59 8.31 9.16

2003

33.43 30.32 30.62 28.98 33.52

2003

33.50 34.30 35.17 34.03 37.53

2002

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

15

2002

14.28 15.20 13.95 11.42 11.08

2001

14.85 16.02 14.81 13.42 12.64

2001

59.44 63.28 58.08 47.56 46.16

2000

60.82 65.61 60.66 54.96 51.77

2000

8.77 9.41 8.82 7.40 7.28

1999

9.12 9.93 9.37 8.70 8.30

1999

36.51 39.20 36.73 30.82 30.31

1998

37.36 40.65 38.35 35.61 33.99

1998

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

1997

13.28

1997

14.42

1996

55.30

1996

59.05

1995

7.80

1994

8.47

1993

32.46

1992

34.67

1991

1989

1990

Nominal (excl. GST)

25

1989

Calendar Year Average or Quarters

Light Fuel Oil

Heavy Fuel Oil

Figure I.3b: Fuel Oil Prices (Real 2010) $/GJ 25

20

15

10

5

Light Fuel Oil

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

0

Heavy Fuel Oil

138 Energy Data File | 2011

139 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


I. Prices

I. Prices

Natural Gas Prices

Figure I.4a: Natural Gas Prices (Nominal)

Table I.4: Natural Gas Prices (Nominal and Real 2010) $/GJ Retail

45

Wholesale

Industry

Commercial

Residential1

Wholesale

Industry1

Commercial

Residential1

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(incl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(excl. GST)

(incl. GST)

35

31.85 33.03 33.56 35.43

7.56 7.15 7.56 7.61

8.60 7.85 7.96 7.06

17.07 15.60 16.55 15.07

33.01 34.17 34.34 35.43

Δ2006/2010 p.a.

11.2%

-3.5%

2.7%

5.2%

7.4%

-6.7%

-0.8%

2.5%

Δ2009/2010

5.9%

-12.3%

1.7%

1.8%

3.1%

-14.6%

-1.0%

-0.5%

Notes to Table I.4: 1 Quarterly residential natural gas prices are calculated as a rolling average over the last year.

1996

1995

1994

1993

Figure I.4b: Natural Gas Prices (Real 2010) $/GJ 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

Wholesale

140 Energy Data File | 2011

2010

16.57 15.35 16.40 15.07

2009

8.35 7.72 7.89 7.06

2010

7.34 7.04 7.49 7.61

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

2010

2008

41.65 38.12 36.13 34.20

2008

16.96 15.56 16.49 16.15

2007

7.37 10.21 10.06 9.22

2007

6.98 7.23 7.26 7.37

2006

39.38 36.24 34.80 32.87

2006

16.37 15.01 15.73 15.47

2005

7.11 9.85 9.60 8.83

2004

6.74 6.97 6.93 7.06

2005

Mar Jun Sep Dec

2009

2004

32.33 30.36 37.93 41.46 33.63 33.46

2003

14.36 16.37 18.11 17.08 16.03 15.88

2003

9.20 10.11 9.97 8.22 8.96 7.65

2002

4.65 5.54 6.09 5.62 7.15 7.37

2002

28.13 27.30 34.92 39.68 32.87 33.46

2001

11.80 14.28 16.17 16.89 15.61 15.88

2001

7.56 8.82 8.90 8.13 8.73 7.65

1999

3.82 4.83 5.44 5.56 6.96 7.37

2000

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

1999

16.74 16.55 16.43 22.20 28.83

2000

12.28 11.41 12.01 13.36 12.23

1998

6.01 5.83 6.24 7.57 8.12

1998

3.72 3.67 3.81 4.19 4.90

1997

12.89 13.08 13.33 18.33 24.34

1997

8.98 8.84 9.32 10.29 9.60

Wholesale

1996

4.39 4.52 4.84 5.83 6.38

Residential

1995

2.72 2.84 2.96 3.23 3.84

Commercial

1994

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Industrial

1993

18.98 20.80 22.37 22.71 21.77

1992

11.23 11.41 13.63 13.87 17.40

1992

13.60 15.25 16.59 17.06 16.34

1991

7.43 7.59 9.11 9.33 11.82

1991

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

0 1990

14.56 15.84 15.89 16.97 17.71

1989

11.18 11.78 11.55 11.07 11.15

1990

9.42 10.51 10.65 11.52 12.23

5

1989

6.87 7.29 7.31 7.17 7.32

10

1988

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

15

1988

14.00 16.71 15.64 13.11 15.13

1987

10.78 11.77 14.06 12.06 11.67

1987

5.79 7.83 8.48 7.56 9.22

1986

4.92 5.68 7.33 6.61 6.85

20

1986

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

25

1985

26.46 24.34 20.95 19.52 14.58

1984

13.75 12.11 10.51 9.96 10.45

1985

6.21 6.59 6.59 6.59 5.22

1984

3.58 3.69 3.68 3.68 4.13

1983

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

30

1983

27.07

1982

11.26

1982

5.42

1981

2.39

1981

1979

1979

Real 2010 Prices ($/GJ)

1980

Nominal Prices ($/GJ)

1979

Calendar Year Average or Quarters

40

1980

Retail

141 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


I. Prices

I. Prices

Taxes and Levies

Table I.5b: Premium and Regular Petrol Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

Sales of all goods and services in New Zealand are subject to a Goods and Services Tax (GST). GST was introduced on 1 October 1986 at a rate of 10%. GST increased to 12.5% on 1 July 1989, then to 15% on 1 October 2010. Commercial and industrial consumers generally obtain refunds on any GST paid; therefore, prices relating to commercial and industrial consumers are presented exclusive of GST to reflect the cost incurred. Residential consumers generally cannot obtain refunds so prices are presented inclusive of GST. Excise duty on motor spirits is collected on the sale of motor spirits by the New Zealand Customs Service and revenue is distributed to the National Land Transport Fund (NLTF). Revenue was formerly split between the NLTF and the Crown, but an amendment to this scenario came into effect on 1 July 2008. This does not affect the amount of tax collected, but solely how the revenue is distributed. The NLTF is a dedicated transport account that funds roading and public transport projects and developments. Road User Charges are applicable to vehicles over 3.5 tonnes, manufacturer’s gross laden weight, and all vehicles of 3.5 tonnes or less powered by a fuel not taxed at source. Diesel vehicles are not taxed at source and are therefore subject to Road User Charges. Information on Road User Charges can be found on the New Zealand Transport Agency website www.nzta.govt.nz

Regional taxes on petrol were introduced on 1 July 1992 and were in place until 31 January 1996. The rates applicable during this period were: 0.95 cents per litre (c/l) for Auckland Urban Area, 0.2 c/l for Waikato, 1.5 c/l for Wellington, Porirua and Hutt Valley, 0.5 c/l for Kapiti Coast and Waikanae, 0.62 c/l for Canterbury and 0.5 c/l for Otago. The Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) Levy is collected under the Accident Compensation Act 2001. The ACC Levy is collected directly on petrol sales at a rate of 9.90 c/l. For diesel vehicles it is collected through the New Zealand Transport Agency licensing process at the rate of $198.48 per year for petrol-powered cars, $311.38 for diesel-powered cars, and $467.08 per year for trucks.

ethanol, and any blends of these fuels, for the purpose of inspecting and monitoring fuel quality in New Zealand. This levy was increased from 0.025 cents per litre to 0.045 cents per litre on 1 October 2008 to account for the future costs of monitoring the bio-fuel content of fuels. Local Authority Fuel Tax is collected under the Local Government Act 1974. This centrally collected tax is distributed to local authorities. Until 2008, it was renamed from Local Authority Petroleum Tax. The Act was remaned in March 2010.

The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) came into effect for Electricity Generation, Industrial Processes and Transport Fuels from 1 July 2010. This scheme puts an obligation on mandatory participants to pay for carbon emissions The Energy Resources Levy (ERL), which applies to LPG, CNG and natural gas, has not (in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) terms). been included in the duties, taxes and levies This is a market-based scheme, where companies can buy and sell New Zealand tables as it does not apply to all sales. The Units (NZU), equivalent to one tonne of ERL only applies to gas discoveries made CO2e, or until December 2012 they may before 1 January 1986, at a rate of 45 cents per GJ. The quantity of gas that is affected by surrender their emissions units from the Government at a fixed price of $25 per tonne the levy is decreasing over time, as of CO2e. Additionally, during the transition production from pre-1986 fields decreases. period (1 July 2010 to 31 December 2012), The Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring each unit will cover two tonnes of CO2e, Levy is collected under the Energy (Fuels, thereby setting a price cap of $12.50 per Levies, and References) Act 1989 by the tonne. At this price cap ($12.50 per tonne New Zealand Customs Service. The levy was CO2e), the effect (from 1 July 2010 to 31 amended in 2008 from the Petroleum Fuels December 2012) on the petrol price and Monitoring Levy to its current title and is now diesel price is 2.9 c/l and 3.3 c/l respectively. payable on petrol, diesel, biodiesel, fuel

Table I.5a: Taxes, Duties and Levies on Fuels at December 2010 (c/l excluding GST)1 Excise Duty on Motor Spirits delivered to Product Regular Unleaded Petrol Premium Unleaded Petrol2 Diesel3 Marine Diesel Methanol LPG CNG Aviation Fuel, Kerosene, Light Fuel Oil and Heavy Fuel Oil

Excludes Road User Charges

Local Authority Fuel Tax

Total

Crown

NLTF4

Total

0.000 0.000 n.a. n.a. 30.20 0.0 0.0

48.524 48.524 n.a. n.a. 0.00 10.4 10.5

48.524 48.524 n.a. n.a. 30.20 10.4 10.5

9.900 9.900 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 n.a. n.a. n.a.

0.66 0.66 0.33 n.a. 0.66 n.a. n.a.

59.129 59.129 0.375 0.045 30.86 10.4 10.5

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Notes to Table I.5a: 1 Petrol with an octane of 95 or above. 2

Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring Levy

Accident Compensation Corporation Levy

3

Excise Duty on Motor Spirits delivered to

Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring Levy

Crown

NLTF

Total

Accident Compensation Corporation Levy

1 Jan 1970

-

4.000

4.000

-

-

-

-

-

4.00

1 Feb 1971

-

4.000

4.000

-

-

0.66

-

-

4.66

Effective Date

Liquid Fuels Trust Levy

Refinery Expansion Levy

Total

23 May 1975

4.700

4.000

8.700

-

-

0.66

-

-

9.36

1 Apr 1977

4.700

5.000

9.700

-

-

0.66

-

-

10.36

2 Jun 1978

7.700

5.000

12.700

-

-

0.66

-

-

13.36

1 Nov 1978

7.700

5.000

12.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

-

13.46

1 Apr 1979

8.450

4.250

12.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

-

13.46

1 Apr 1980

6.700

6.000

12.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

-

13.46

6 Aug 19821

9.800

6.000

15.800

-

-

0.66

0.1

-

16.56

1 Oct 19821

9.800

6.400

16.200

-

-

0.66

0.1

-

16.96

1 Jan19831

9.800

6.400

16.200

-

-

0.66

0.1

2.43

19.39

1 Jan 19841

9.800

6.400

16.200

-

-

0.66

0.1

6.74

23.70

9 Nov 19841

9.800

8.900

18.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

6.74

26.20

1 Jan 19851

9.800

8.900

18.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

12.80

32.26

1 Jan 19861

9.800

8.900

18.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

10.00

29.46 35.46

1 Apr 19861

9.800

8.900

18.700

-

-

0.66

0.1

16.00

1 Oct 19861

25.800

8.900

34.700

-

-

0.66

abolished

abolished

35.36

1 Apr 19871

25.800

9.900

35.700

-

-

0.66

-

-

36.36

1 Apr 19881

25.800

10.900

36.700

-

-

0.66

-

-

37.36

1 Aug 19881

25.800

10.900

36.700

-

0.030

0.66

-

-

37.39

1 Jan 19891

25.800

10.900

36.700

-

0.025

0.66

-

-

37.39

1 Jul 19891

21.800

10.900

32.700

-

0.025

0.66

-

-

33.39

1 Jan 19911

19.800

10.900

30.700

-

0.025

0.66

-

-

31.39

31 Jul 1991

19.300

10.900

30.200

-

0.025

0.66

-

-

30.89

8 Aug 1991

23.100

7.100

30.200

-

0.025

0.66

-

-

30.89

1 Oct 1991

23.100

7.100

30.200

2.00

0.025

0.66

-

-

32.89

3 Jul 1992

20.800

9.400

30.200

2.00

0.025

0.66

-

-

32.89

15 May 1998

18.700

13.600

32.300

2.00

0.025

0.66

-

-

34.99

1 Jul 2000

18.775

13.525

32.300

2.00

0.025

0.66

-

-

34.99

20 Mar 2001

17.775

13.530

31.305

3.00

0.025

0.66

-

-

34.99

1 Jul 2001

18.475

13.530

32.005

2.30

0.025

0.66

-

-

34.99

1 Mar 2002

18.475

17.725

36.200

2.30

0.025

0.66

-

-

39.19

1 Jul 2003

18.475

17.725

36.200

5.08

0.025

0.66

-

-

41.97

1 Oct 2004

18.708

17.492

36.200

5.08

0.025

0.66

-

-

41.97

1 Apr 2005

18.708

22.492

41.200

5.08

0.025

0.66

-

-

46.97

1 Jul 2005

18.708

22.492

41.200

5.78

0.025

0.66

-

-

47.67

1 Apr 2006

18.708

23.200

41.908

5.78

0.025

0.66

-

-

48.37

1 Apr 2007

18.708

23.816

42.524

5.78

0.025

0.66

-

-

48.99

1 Jul 2007

18.708

23.816

42.524

7.33

0.025

0.66

-

-

50.54

1 Jul 2008

18.708

23.816

42.524

9.34

0.025

0.66

-

-

52.55

1 Oct 2008

0.000

42.524

42.524

9.34

0.045

0.66

-

-

52.57

1 Jul 2009

0.000

42.524

42.524

9.90

0.045

0.66

-

-

53.13

1 Oct 2009

0.000

45.524

45.524

9.90

0.045

0.66

-

-

56.13

1 Oct 2010

0.000

48.524

48.524

9.90

0.045

0.66

-

-

59.13

Note to Table I.5b: 1 From 6 August 1982 to 31 July 1991 tax on Premium petrol was 0.5c/l more than on Regular. The variance is due to a reduced rate of excise duty collected and passed on to the Crown.

National Land Transport Fund

n.a. = Not Applicable

142 Energy Data File | 2011

Local Authority Fuel Tax

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I. Prices

I. Prices

Table I.5c: Lead Tax Payable on Lead Content of Petrol (c/gram)

Table I.5f: Gas and Methanol Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l)

Effective Date

Lead Tax

1 Jan 1991 1 Jul 1993

6.6 8.0

Excise Duty on Motor Spirits delivered to Fuel

Crown

NLTF

Total

1 Oct 1986 1 Apr 1987 1 Apr 1988 1 Nov 1989 1 Jul 1992 15 May 1998

-

6.86 7.63 8.40 8.40 8.40 10.40

6.86 7.63 8.40 8.40 8.40 10.40

n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

6.86 7.63 8.40 8.40 8.40 10.40

CNG

1 Oct 1986 1 Nov 1989 1 Jul 1992

-

8.03 9.83 10.50

8.03 9.83 10.50

n/a n/a n/a

8.03 9.83 10.50

Methanol

1 Feb 1971 1 Oct 1986 1 Apr 1987 1 Apr 1988 1 Jul 1989 1 Jan 1991 1 Oct 2004

25.80 25.80 25.80 21.80 20.80 30.20

8.90 9.90 10.90 10.90 9.40 -

34.70 35.70 36.70 32.70 30.20 30.20

0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66

0.66 35.36 36.36 37.36 33.36 30.86 30.86

LPG (Used as a motor spirit)

Table I.5d: Diesel Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l) Excise Duty on Motor Spirits delivered to Effective Date

Crown

NLTF

Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring Levy

Total

Local Authority Fuel Tax

Liquid Fuels Trust Levy

Total

Automotive Diesel1 1 Feb 1971 1 Nov 1978 22 Jun 1979 6 Aug 1982 1 Oct 1986 1 Aug 1988 1 Jan 1989 1 Jul 1989 1 Nov 1989

0.5 7.2 23.2 23.2 23.2 16.2 11.2

-

-

-

1 Jan 1991 1 Oct 2008

0.030 0.025 0.025 0.025

0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33

0.1 0.1 0.1 abolished -

0.330 0.430 1.430 14.830 46.730 46.760 46.755 32.755 22.755

-

0.5 7.2 23.2 23.2 23.2 16.2 11.2 Replaced by Road User Charges -

0.025 0.045

0.33 0.33

-

0.355 0.375

5.80 -

5.80 abolished -

0.025 0.025 0.045

n/a n/a n/a

n/a n/a n/a

5.825 0.025 0.045

Marine Diesel 1 Oct 1986 1 Jul 1989 1 Oct 2008

Local Authority Fuel Tax

Effective Date

Total

Table I.5g: Natural Gas Taxes and Levies (c/GJ) Effective Date

Gas Levy

26 Jun 1987 1 Jan 1990 1 Oct 2000

0.969 1.310 2.000

Table I.5h: Coal (Opencast Mines Only) Taxes, Duties and Levies ($/tonne)

Notes to Table I.5d: 1 Diesel vehicles are subject to Road User Charges which are not displayed in this table. Road User Charges and Accident Compensation Corporation Levies are collected through the Land Transport New Zealand Transport Agency licensing process.

Fuel Coal, excluding South Island Lignite South Island Lignite

Effective Date

Energy Resources Levy

1 Jan 1977 1 Jan 1977

2.00 1.50

Table I.5e: Other Liquid Fuels Taxes, Duties and Levies (c/l) Table I.5i: Acts and Regulations

Excise Duty on Motor Spirits delivered to Fuel Light Fuel Oil and Heavy Fuel Oil Aviation Gasoline Jet Fuel Both Aviation Fuels Kerosene

Effective Date

Crown

NLTF

Total

Total

Tax/Levy

Act/Regulation

Administered by

Payable on

1 Oct 1986 1 Jul 1989 1 Oct 1986 1 Oct 1986 1 Jul 1989 1 Oct 1986 1 Jul 1989

5.0 11.20 7.20 8.00 -

-

5.00 abolished 11.20 7.20 abolished 8.00 abolished

5.00 11.20 7.20 8.00 -

Crown Revenue – Petroleum Excise Tax National Land Transport Management Fund Accident Compensation Corporation Levy Petroleum or Engine Fuel Monitoring Levy Local Authority Fuel Tax Energy Resources Levy Gas Levy

Customs and Excise Act 1996 Customs and Excise Act 1996 Accident Compensation Act 2001 Energy (Fuels, Levies, and References) Act 1989 Local Government Act 1974 Energy Resources Levy Act 1976 Energy (Fuels, Levies, and References) Act 1989

New Zealand Customs Service New Zealand Customs Service New Zealand Customs Service New Zealand Customs Service Department of Internal Affairs Ministry of Economic Development Ministry of Economic Development

Production / Imports Production / Imports Production / Imports Sales Wholesale Sales Production of Coal and Gas. Piped Sales

144 Energy Data File | 2011

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I. Prices

J. International Energy Comparisons

Price Deflators

Introduction

Prices

Consumption

This section compares New Zealand’s energy situation with that of its major Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) trading partners for which information is available.

Table J.1 and Figures J.1a-J.1d compare the prices of different energy sources in OECD countries for the December quarter 2010.

Comparative energy consumption on a per capita basis in New Zealand’s OECD trading partners in 2009 (2010 international energy consumption and production comparisons were not available for this edition) is shown in Table J.2 and Figures J.2a–J.2c. This shows that New Zealand is around the middle of the group when comparing electricity, oil and natural gas consumption.

Price deflators are used to convert nominal, face value, prices into real, inflation-adjusted prices. They separate inflationary movements to provide a more accurate picture of the underlying change in price. In this publication the real prices are presented as December 2010 prices and are calculated using two national deflators: the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for residential consumers and the Producer Price Index input subseries (PPI Input) for all other consumers. Both indices are supplied by Statistics New Zealand. To provide a consistent CPI and PPI Input time series, historical indices have been adjusted and linked to the current Statistics New Zealand series.

Table I.6: Price Deflators Calendar Year or Quarter

All Groups CPI

All Groups PPI (Input)

June quarter 1999=1000

Dec quarter 1997=1000

1974

137

1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

157 184 210 235 267

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

313 362 420 451 479

388 453 521 550 589

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

552 625 724 770 814

679 718 775 816 873

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

864 886 895 907 923

914 922 941 964 977

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

957 979 991 1,003 1,002

985 990 994 1,001 1,011

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

1,028 1,055 1,084 1,103 1,128

1,088 1,153 1,155 1,146 1,168

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

1,162 1,201 1,230 1,278 1,305 1,335

1,222 1,297 1,328 1,471 1,449 1,488

PPI Deflator unavailable before December 1979 quarter 316

2009

Mar Jun Sep Dec

1,292 1,299 1,316 1,314

1,455 1,455 1,439 1,445

2010

Mar Jun Sep Dec

1,319 1,321 1,335 1,367

1,464 1,484 1,494 1,508

Residential Fuel Prices

Wholesale, Industrial and Commercial Fuel Prices

CPIQ: SE9A

PPIQ: SN9

Used to deflate: Statistics New Zealand Series

Data based on Energy Prices and Taxes published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Care is needed in interpreting the data, as product specifications, statistical methodology and information available can differ considerably among countries. Where 2011 data is not available the latest information is used. Where information is unavailable for the last three years, no data is shown.

New Zealand liquid fuel prices are at the lower end of the OECD range. Residential natural gas prices are currently higher than the average OECD price, although these should be treated as indicative only as tariffs for residential gas in New Zealand generally include relatively high fixed charges. Industrial natural gas prices and industrial and residential electricity prices are all less than the average of OECD countries. International gas and electricity price comparisons should be treated with caution given the incomplete data and inconsistent price calculation methodologies.

Production Despite growing oil and gas production, New Zealand is a very minor player in global energy production. In 2010 New Zealand produced the equivalent of 39% of the amount of the oil it consumed. However, most of this was exported. New Zealand is therefore a net importer of oil and oil products.

Notes to Table I.6: Industrial and Commercial PPI Input series are no longer included in the Energy Data File. All Wholesale, Industrial and Commercial prices are now deflated by the PPI Input All Groups series because this allows easier comparison between price series.

146 Energy Data File | 2011

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Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


J. International Energy Comparisons

J. International Energy Comparisons

Price Comparisons

Figure J.1a: International Residential Electricity Prices for the September Quarter 2010

Table J.1: International Energy Prices for the September Quarter 20101 NZ¢/kWh

Petrol

Diesel

NZ cents/kWh

NZ$/GJ

NZ cents/litre

NZ cents/litre

30

20

10

Australia

Korea

Mexico

Finland

United States

Residential

Turkey

0

Turkey

n.a. = Not available. No data is available for the previous three years.

The New Zealand residential natural gas price should be treated as an approximation only. Further information on regional and national average gas tariffs can be found in the Residential Gas Price Survey at www.med.govt.nz/gas/RGPS .

40

France

Figures in grey are based on older information.

167.31 204.88 225.33 n.a. 226.01 223.37 213.86 211.89 229.07 215.98 224.25 223.94 180.50 n.a. 185.56 94.68 217.03 124.77 271.55 198.41 212.79 213.68 200.61 245.97 283.68 256.19 109.70

Canada

Notes to Table J.1: 1 Based on prices and exchange rates published by the International Energy Agency (Energy Prices and Taxes, 4th Quarter 2010).

n.a. 136.33 186.23 n.a. 188.34 178.63 173.87 177.15 192.50 172.78 185.21 186.61 145.69 n.a. 161.38 82.50 182.38 108.46 217.24 162.63 194.32 179.55 169.98 196.77 283.68 218.04 109.70

New Zealand

164.71 216.30 n.a. 140.05 229.32 261.87 n.a. n.a. 257.73 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 91.38 n.a. 185.10 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 100.57

Poland

177.61 216.57 264.46 153.18 232.16 262.59 259.12 244.49 257.80 224.12 235.54 246.78 n.a. n.a. 212.25 106.12 272.79 193.61 286.16 207.73 249.33 227.58 213.86 253.29 n.a. 248.34 104.74

Czech Republic

n.a. 30.63 n.a. 18.36 27.01 47.45 16.70 29.20 n.a. 21.58 23.70 31.46 40.13 21.79 28.40 14.39 33.34 33.46 n.a. 24.70 29.87 22.73 28.38 n.a. 17.02 24.92 13.54

Norway

n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.64 18.20 27.52 11.81 16.60 n.a. 14.52 14.55 15.85 14.73 18.05 16.34 14.48 13.24 7.65 n.a. 15.32 13.80 17.60 12.67 n.a. 13.25 9.94 6.21

50

United Kingdom

n.a. 34.57 n.a. n.a. 25.60 48.33 24.63 21.51 43.87 28.33 31.61 35.28 32.73 8.42 n.a. 11.67 n.a. 25.05 26.42 25.31 28.69 27.76 n.a. n.a. 25.03 26.85 15.16

Residential

Slovak Republic

n.a. 21.56 n.a. n.a. 19.87 16.58 12.85 13.58 14.79 16.94 19.85 35.09 22.14 8.42 n.a. 13.68 n.a. 10.00 9.88 16.10 16.23 22.61 n.a. n.a. 20.52 16.73 8.83

Industrial

Hungary

Regular

Portugal

Premium

Ireland

Residential

Japan

Industrial

Austria

Residential

Italy

Industrial

60

Germany

Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Turkey United Kingdom United States

Natural Gas

3

Denmark

Country

Electricity

2

Industrial

Figure J.1b: International Residential Natural Gas Prices for the September Quarter 2010 NZ$/GJ

50

2

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

Residential

United States

Mexico

Finland

Hungary

Korea

Industrial

148 Energy Data File | 2011

Slovak Republic

Ireland

Poland

United Kingdom

Czech Republic

Spain

Luxembourg

France

Portugal

Austria

Italy

Netherlands

New Zealand

Japan

Denmark

0

149 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


J. International Energy Comparisons

J. International Energy Comparisons

Figure J.1c: International Petrol Prices for the September Quarter 2010

Energy Consumption Comparisons Table J.2: International Consumption of Energy – Calendar Year 2009

NZ¢/l 350 Country

300

250

200

150

100

50

Regular Petrol

United States

Mexico

Canada

Australia

New Zealand

Poland

Luxembourg

Spain

Austria

Hungary

Slovak Republic

Czech Republic

Ireland

France

Italy

United Kingdom

Portugal

Sweden

Germany

Finland

Denmark

Belgium

Netherlands

Norway

0

Premium Petrol

&IGURE*D)NTERNATIONAL$IESEL0RICESFORTHE3EPTEMBER1UARTER

Luxembourg Belgium United States Can.a.da Netherlands Norway Finland Korea Iceland Australia Sweden Spain Japan Italy Denmark Ireland New Zealand France Austria Germany United Kingdom Portugal Slovak Republic Czech Republic Hungary Mexico Poland Turkey

Oil Products1

Gas

Electricity

Tonnes per person

M per person

kWh per person

5.40 2.03 2.33 2.35 0.91 2.06 2.05 0.96 3.28 1.93 1.23 1.47 1.10 1.07 1.23 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.38 1.14 1.05 0.96 0.50 0.82 0.62 0.69 0.52 0.27

2,769 1,725 2,172 2,842 2,569 1,444 812 781 0 1,629 150 944 792 1,346 869 1,247 999 731 1,131 1,136 1,564 482 1,132 806 1,126 539 391 460

14,816 8,565 13,731 17,531 7,006 26,565 15,933 9,194 54,892 11,582 15,271 7,062 8,234 5,752 6,643 6,762 9,980 8,009 8,481 7,100 6,130 5,105 5,039 6,718 4,182 2,265 3,883 2,517

3

Notes to Table J.2: 1 Includes crude oil, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, heavy fuel oil, petroleum coke, and non-speciďŹ ed petroleum products.

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150 Energy Data File | 2011

151 Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

Š Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


Energy Data File | 2011 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development Iceland

Sweden

Poland

Turkey

Portugal

Mexico

France

Korea

Japan

Czech Republic

Finland

Spain

Denmark

New Zealand

Hungary

Slovak Republic

Austria

Ireland

Germany

Italy

Norway

United Kingdom

Australia

Belgium

United States

Netherlands

Luxembourg

Canada

6 60,000

5 50,000

4 40,000

3 30,000

2 20,000

1 10,000

0 0

Energy Data File | 2011

152

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Mexico

Turkey

Poland

Hungary

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Italy

United Kingdom

Ireland

Spain

Denmark

Czech Republic

Figure J.2c: Electricity Consumption – Calendar Year 2009

Netherlands

Figure J.2a: Oil Products Consumption – Calendar Year 2009

Germany

J. International Energy Comparisons

France

Japan

Austria

Belgium

Korea

New Zealand

Australia

United States

Luxembourg

Sweden

Finland

Canada

Norway

Tonnes/ person

Iceland

Turkey

Slovak Republic

Poland

Hungary

Mexico

Czech Republic

Netherlands

Korea

Portugal

Italy

United Kingdom

Japan

Germany

Denmark

Sweden

France

Spain

Austria

New Zealand

Ireland

Australia

Belgium

Finland

Norway

United States

Canada

Iceland

Luxembourg

J. International Energy Comparisons

kWh/ person

Figure J.2b: Gas Consumption – Calendar Year 2009

m 3/ person

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0

153


K. Fuel Properties

K. Fuel Properties

Gross and Net Calorific Values

Solid Fuel Physical Properties

The energy content of fuels, or calorific values, can be expressed as a gross (or higher heating) value and a net (or lower heating) value. The difference between the two values is due to the release of energy from the condensation of water in the products of combustion. Net Calorific Values give the amount of useful heat available on combustion, rather than the total heat theoretically available. This means net Calorific Values are generally a better basis for comparing the energy contents of different fuels.

In general, the difference between Gross and Net Calorific Values is around 6–8% for liquid fuels and 10% for gaseous fuels. In coals, the greater chemical variability (in contrast with petroleum products) gives rise to a much wider range of gross/net differences, 2–15% or more. In New Zealand the convention for energy accounting and statistical recording has been to use Gross Calorific Values. This is why the Energy Data File generally uses Gross Calorific Values.

The latest annual energy supply and demand balance is presented in both gross (Table B.2) and net (Table B.7) petajoules, and conversion factors for different fuels are provided in this section. In the Energy Data File, petajoules refers to gross petajoules unless otherwise specified.

Table K.1: Solid Fuel Calorific Values Gross Region

Mine

Coal Field

Coal Rank

Mining Method

Net

Mbtu/tonne

MJ/kg

Mbtu/tonne

MJ/kg

Waikato

Awaroa Kimihia Kopako O'Reillys East Mine

Rotowaro Huntly Maramarua Huntly Huntly

Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous

Opencast Opencast Opencast Opencast Underground

21.08 21.73 18.77 20.98 21.73

22.24 22.93 19.80 22.13 22.93

19.79 20.43 17.43 19.71 20.43

20.88 21.55 18.39 20.80 21.55

West Coast

Berlins Creek Burkes Creek Cascade Giles Creek New Creek Rockies Stockton Echo Roa Spring Creek Pike River

Inangahua Reefton Buller Inangahua Buller Buller Buller Garvey Creek Greymouth Greymouth Pike River

Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Bituminous Sub-bituminous Sub-bituminous Bituminous Bituminous Bituminous Bituminous Bituminous Bituminous

Opencast Opencast Opencast Opencast Opencast Opencast Opencast Underground Underground Underground Underground

22.94 24.84 28.40 18.05 23.01 26.54 30.00 29.26 30.28 28.27 31.33

24.20 26.21 29.96 19.04 24.28 28.00 31.65 30.87 31.95 29.83 33.06

21.66 23.87 27.16 16.68 21.71 25.49 28.81 28.07 29.16 27.04 30.17

22.85 25.18 28.65 17.60 22.90 26.89 30.40 29.61 30.77 28.53 31.83

Canterbury

Canterbury Coal

Canterbury

Sub-bituminous

Opencast

18.48

19.50

17.37

18.33

Otago

Castle Hill Harliwich

Kaitangata Roxburgh

Sub-bituminous Lignite

Opencast Opencast

18.64 17.74

19.67 18.72

17.24 16.39

18.19 17.29

Southland

Newvale Nightcaps

Waimumu Ohai

Lignite Sub-Bituminous

Opencast Opencast

14.45 17.91

15.25 18.90

12.95 16.64

13.66 17.56

Average Coal Figures (weighted for 2010 production)

Sampled at the mine ready for delivery Mbtu/tonne

MJ/kg

Mbtu/tonne

MJ/kg

29.58

31.21

28.39

29.95

27.72 20.58 14.50

29.24 21.72 15.30

26.57 19.30 12.99

28.03 20.36 13.71

% Moisture Content of Wet Wood

Mbtu/tonne

MJ/kg

Mbtu/tonne

MJ/kg

0 50–55 60-70 38–41 23–29 12–14 50–50

19.47 8.84 8.59 11.45 14.15 16.86 9.95

20.55 9.33 9.06 12.08 14.94 17.79 10.50

18.20 7.01 6.63 9.76 12.60 15.45 8.15

19.20 7.40 7.00 10.30 13.30 16.30 8.60

Bituminous (export) Bituminous (used in New Zealand) Sub-bituminous Lignite Type of Wood

Oven-dried Wood Fresh Harvested Bark Fuel Wood Wooden Containers Furniture Residues Black Liquor

Notes to Table K.1: 1 Coal values are at point of sale.

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Energy Data File | 2011

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K. Fuel Properties

K. Fuel Properties

Liquid Fuel Physical Properties

Table K.2b: Oil Conversion Factors for 20101

Table K.2a: Petroleum Gross Calorific Values (2010 Calendar Year) Gross

Net

kg/l

bbl/tonne

MJ/bbl

MJ/kg

MJ/litre

MJ/bbl

MJ/kg

MJ/litre

0.794 0.766 0.750 0.840 0.806 0.739 0.832 0.854 0.777 0.813 0.886

7.92 8.21 8.39 7.49 7.80 8.51 7.56 7.36 8.09 7.74 7.10

5,854.0 5,693.9 5,601.2 6,424.2 6,386.2 5,536.6 6,062.8 5,030.2 5,751.8 6,152.9 6,311.2

46.37 46.75 46.97 48.10 49.83 47.12 45.83 37.05 46.56 47.60 44.80

36.82 35.81 35.23 40.40 40.16 34.82 38.13 31.64 36.17 38.70 39.69

5,480.3 5,326.1 5,218.4 6,006.7 5,770.1 5,170.0 5,691.0 4,728.1 5,378.7 5,585.0 5,987.1

43.41 43.73 43.76 44.97 45.02 44.00 43.02 34.82 43.54 43.21 42.50

34.47 33.50 32.82 37.78 36.29 32.52 35.79 29.74 33.83 35.13 37.66

0.870 0.881 0.859 0.883 0.827 0.842 0.830 0.848 0.822 0.791 0.848 0.859 0.841

7.23 7.14 7.32 7.12 7.60 7.47 7.58 7.41 7.65 7.95 7.42 7.32 7.48

6,260.8 6,227.5 6,204.9 6,301.6 6,036.2 6,116.9 6,052.1 6,097.3 6,042.4 5,838.2 6,145.6 6,204.9 6,098.4

45.26 44.46 45.43 44.88 45.90 45.69 45.86 45.20 46.23 46.42 45.58 45.43 45.63

39.38 39.17 39.02 39.63 37.96 38.47 38.06 38.35 38.00 36.72 38.65 39.02 38.35

5,873.5 5,842.8 5,825.2 5,923.2 5,659.7 5,740.7 5,674.7 6,083.8 5,653.7 5,465.9 5,766.1 5,719.5 5,719.5

42.46 41.71 42.65 42.19 43.04 42.88 43.00 45.10 43.26 43.46 42.76 42.79 42.79

36.94 36.75 36.64 37.25 35.60 36.10 35.69 38.26 35.56 34.38 36.26 35.97 35.97

0.750 0.820 0.810 0.767 0.899 0.840

8.39 7.67 7.76 8.20 7.00 7.49

5,601.2 5,997.5 5,943.7 5,700.1 6,405.2 6,105.0

46.97 46.00 46.15 46.74 44.81 45.71

35.23 37.72 37.38 35.85 40.28 38.40

5,218.4 5,623.3 5,570.2 5,328.1 5,999.2 5,729.7

43.76 43.13 43.25 43.69 41.97 42.90

32.82 35.37 35.03 33.51 37.73 36.04

0.751 0.746 0.841 0.931 0.954 0.966 0.890 0.940 0.788 0.808 0.716 0.824 1.028 0.668

8.38 8.43 7.47 6.76 6.60 6.51 7.07 6.69 7.98 7.79 8.78 7.63 6.12 9.42

5,604.6 5,576.4 6,113.1 6,469.2 6,512.9 6,544.8 6,360.9 6,598.7 5,813.5 5,929.6 5,384.8 6,079.1 6,751.4 5,130.0

46.96 47.03 45.69 43.70 42.95 42.62 44.95 44.15 46.40 46.17 47.30 46.40 41.29 48.30

35.25 35.07 38.45 40.69 40.96 41.16 40.01 41.50 36.56 37.29 33.87 38.23 42.46 32.26

5,233.0 5,205.3 5,735.0 6,099.4 6,148.9 6,183.4 5,717.0 6,174.2 5,462.7 5,553.1 5,066.1 5,686.1 6,400.9 4,812.5

43.85 43.90 42.86 41.20 40.55 40.26 40.40 41.31 43.60 43.24 44.50 43.40 39.15 45.31

32.91 32.74 36.07 38.36 38.67 38.89 35.96 38.83 34.36 34.93 31.86 35.76 40.26 30.27

0.534 0.536 0.508 0.572

11.78 11.73 12.38 11.00

4,203.8 4,219.6 4,027.5 4,465.5

49.51 49.51 49.86 49.10

26.44 26.54 25.33 28.09

3,876.3 3,890.9 3,713.5 4,118.2

45.65 45.66 45.98 45.28

24.38 24.47 23.36 25.90

m3/PJ

21.27 21.18 21.68 21.29 21.19 21.34 21.75 22.51 21.55 23.63 21.27

25,606 28,971 26,688 28,503 28,233 28,608 25,846 23,769 26,717 21,920 39,828

Crude Oil and Condensate Refinery Blendstocks and Other Feedstocks Oil Products Total Petrol Total Premium Unleaded Petrol Regular Unleaded Petrol Diesel Fuel Oil Aviation Fuels Other Petroleum Products LPG/NGL

Indigenous Crudes Kaimiro Crude Kapuni Condensate Kupe Condensate Maari Crude Mangahewa Crude Maui Condensate McKee Crude Ngatoro Crude Pohokura Crude Tui Crude Waihapa Crude

Thousand Tonnes/PJ

Notes to Table K.2b: 1 Conversion factors depend on source (weight average) feedstocks and products.

Imported Crudes/Residues Abu Safah Al Shaheen Champion Kikeh Lower Zakum Miri Light Crude Murban Crude Oman Qatar Marine Ratawi Seria Light Export Blend Sokol Umm Shaif

Gas Physical Properties Table K.3: Gas Physical Properties

Kapuni Maui McKee Mangahewa Turangi Pohokura Kupe Kaimiro Ngatoro Rimu Waihapa Cheal Tui Maari

Petroleum Products1 Premium Unleaded Gasoline Regular Unleaded Gasoline Automotive Gas Oil – 10 ppm Sulphur Light Fuel Oil Heavy Fuel Oil Bunker Fuel Oil Power Station Fuel Oil Export Fuel Oil Lighting Kerosene Jet Fuel Aviation Gasoline Blended Heating Oil Bitumen Natural Gasoline

Notes to Table K.2a: 1 The calorific values of petroleum products are based on the New Zealand Refinery Company’s update for 2010.

2

Gross

Net

kg/m3

(air = 1)

MJ/m3

MJ/m3

1.302 1.170

1.062 0.955

26.21 40.65 41.05 39.62 40.73 41.37 40.63 38.80 38.81 41.39 39.91 47.53 47.70 47.82

n.a. 35.40 36.42 E 35.14 E 36.67 35.52 36.64 34.42 E 34.43 E 37.41 35.41 E 42.17 E 42.31 E 42.42 E

Weighted Average

n.a.

n.a

38.81

36.32

Kapuni Processed3 Kupe Processed3 McKee Processed3

0.816 0.816 0.873

0.666 0.666 0.712

41.3 40.1 41.3

37.4 36.2 37.3

0.678 1.272 1.865 2.480

0.554 1.038 1.523 2.007

37.7 66.0 94.0 122.8

34.0 60.4 86.5 112.5

Alkanes Methane Ethane Propane Butane

Liquid Petroleum Gas2 LPG 60/40 General Product LPG Commercial Propane Commercial Butane

Relative Density2

Natural Gases1

Refinery Feedstocks Naphtha Middle Distillate Lgo/Kero Ex Naphtha Intermediate Variation Intermediate Residue Blendstock

Gas Density

Notes to Table K.3: 1 Measured at the wellhead.

3

Source: Vector Limited.

Dry air has a density of 1.226 kg/m3 when measured at 15°C and 101.325 kPa.

E

= Indicates estimated values.

2

n.a. = Not applicable.

Source: Vector Limited.

156 Energy Data File | 2011

157 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


L. Data Contributors

M. Glossary

The Energy Information and Modelling Group collects and collates a wide range of energy statistics from many sources. We would like to thank all contributors for the time and effort involved in preparing this information for the Energy Data File and our other publications.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

This sector includes all types of farming, hunting, forestry, logging, fishing and aquaculture. For gas and electricity, it excludes separately metered farm houses, which are included in the residential sector, but includes houses where separate metering is not available and farming activity is the dominant use.

ANZSIC 2006

Australia-New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification. In this publication, end uses of gas, coal and electricity are identified by ANZSIC 2006 codes. For comparison with previous editions of the Energy Data File, ANZSIC 1996 classifications have also been displayed.

Aviation fuels

A specialised type of liquid fuel used to power aircraft. Aviation fuels include Avgas, Avtur, Jet-A1 and Jet-4 aviation fuels, light kerosene and premium kerosene.

bbls per day

Barrels per day: a unit for the production rate of oil.

Bcf

Billion cubic feet: this unit is often used to express volumes of natural gas.

Biogas

Energy produced from the anaerobic digestion of liquid and solid waste. Includes landfill gas and sewage sludge gas.

Calorific value

The energy that would be released upon complete combustion of a given quantity of fuel.

Capacity

The maximum energy output rate of an electricity generation or heat plant, usually measured in megawatts (MW).

CNG

Compressed natural gas. Natural gas that has been compressed, or contained under pressure. Mainly used as a transport fuel.

Cogeneration

The simultaneous or sequential production of two or more forms of useful energy from a single primary energy source. In this publication, a cogenerator is an electricity-generating facility that produces electricity and a form of useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam for industrial or commercial heating or cooling purposes).

Coke

The solid product obtained from carbonisation of coal (principally coking coal) at high temperatures. Low in moisture and volatile matter, coke is used mainly in the iron and steel industry acting as an energy source and chemical agent.

Commercial

This sector includes non-manufacturing business establishments such as hotels, motels, restaurants, wholesale businesses, retail stores, and health, social and educational institutions. It also includes electricity used in public lighting, railway and urban traction.

Condensate

A light crude oil that is present in natural gas deposits.

Consumer energy

The amount of energy consumed by final users. Consumer energy statistics can be either calculated from supply-side data or observed from usage data.

Consumer energy (calculated)

Generally calculated as production plus imports less losses and own use less exports less international transport less stock change.

Consumer energy (observed)

Represents reported demand within (or sales to) the agricultural, industrial, commercial and residential sectors.

Crude oil

A mineral oil consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons of natural origins, yellow to black in colour, of variable density and viscosity.

Diesel

A liquid fuel that includes automotive gas oil, marine diesel and blended heating oil.

DPFI

Delivery of Petroleum Fuels by Industry Survey. This is a quarterly survey of New Zealand oil companies’ deliveries of petroleum fuels to 14 economic sectors.

Energy efficiency

The ratio of total “useful output” to energy input. The “useful output” can be either energy (energy efficiency) or financial gain (economic energy efficiency).

Alliance Group Limited

H.G. Leach & Company Limited

Pioneer Generation Limited

Allied Petroleum Limited

Hamilton City Council

Powerco Limited

Alpine Energy Limited

Harliwich Carrying Company Limited

Aratuna Freighters Limited

Heaphy Mining Limited

PowerNet Limited (The Power Company, Electricity Invercargill, OtagoNet)

Australian Worldwide Exploration Limited

Horizon Energy Distribution Limited

Powershop Limited

Ballance Agri-Nutrients Limited

International Energy Agency

Pulse Utilities New Zealand Ltd

Birchfield Minerals Limited

Kai Point Coal Company Limited

Ravensdown Fertiliser Cooperative Limited

Bosco Connect Limited

Kapuni Energy Joint Venture

RD Petroleum Limited

BP New Zealand Limited

Kauriland Petroleum Limited

Red Stag Timber Limited

BSP Services Limited

King Country Energy Limited

Rural Fuel Limited

Buller Electricity Limited

Liquigas Limited

Scanpower Limited

Bushetts Fuel Limited

MainPower New Zealand Limited

Shell Exploration Limited

Carter Holt Harvey Pulp and Paper Limited

Mangahao Joint Venture

Shell Todd Oil Services Limited

Cascade Coal Limited

Mangapehi Power Limited

Simply Energy Limited

Centralines Limited

Marlborough Lines Limited

Solar Industries Association

Chevron New Zealand

McFall Fuel Limited

Solid Energy New Zealand Limited

Christchurch City Council

McKeown Group Limited

Southern Heating Fuels Limited

Clearwater Hydro Limited

Meridian Energy Limited

Southfuels Limited (also Northfuels Limited)

Coastal Oil Logistics Limited

Methanex Limited

Statistics New Zealand

Contact Energy Limited

Mighty River Power (Mercury Energy) Limited

T J & E P O’Reilly Limited

Counties Power Limited

Minifuels & Oils Limited

Tag Oil New Zealand Limited

CRT Fuel Limited

Mitsui E & P Australia Pty Limited

Takitimu Coal Limited

Delta Utility Services Limited (Aurora)

Mobil Oil New Zealand Limited

The Lines Company Limited

Direct Fuels Limited

Nelson Electricity Limited

Todd Energy Limited (Nova, Bay of Plenty)

Dominion Salt Limited

Nelson Petroleum Distributors Limited

Toll United Carriers Limited

Eastland Network Limited

Network Tasman Limited

Top Energy Limited

EDC Power

Network Waitaki Limited

Transpacific Industries

Electra Limited

New Creek Mining Company Limited

Transpower NZ Limited

Electricity Ashburton Limited

New Zealand Energy Limited

TrustPower Limited

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA)

New Zealand Geothermal Association

Tuaropaki Power Company Limited

New Zealand Oil and Gas Limited

Unison Networks Limited

Energy for Industry Limited

New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals

Vector Limited

Energy Online Limited

New Zealand Refining Company Limited

VJ Distributors Limited

Findlater Sawmilling Limited

New Zealand Steel Limited

Waipa Networks Limited

Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited

Norske Skog Tasman Limited

Waitomo Petroleum Limited

Fonterra Todd Cogeneration Joint Venture

Northpower Limited

Waste Disposal Services Limited

Francis Mining Limited

NZ Windfarms Limited

Watercare Services Limited

Genesis Energy Limited

OMV New Zealand Limited

Wealleans Petroleum Limited

Geothermal Developments Limited

Opunake Hydro Limited

WEL Green Energy Joint Venture

Glencoal Energy Limited

Origin Energy New Zealand Limited

WEL Networks Limited

Greenstone Energy Limited

Orion New Zealand Limited

Wellington Electricity Lines Limited

Greymouth Petroleum Limited

Palmerston North City Council

Westpower Limited

Gull Petroleum Limited

Pan Pac Forest Products Limited

Windflow Technology Limited

158 Energy Data File | 2011

159 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


M. Glossary

M. Glossary

Energy intensity

Energy use per unit of output.

Energy transformation

See Transformation.

Exchange rate

The relative value of one currency compared with another (e.g. USD/NZD). Conversions to New Zealand dollars carried out for purposes of international comparisons are based on exchange rates used by the International Energy Agency.

Flaring

The burning of natural gas that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere. Combustion converts the methane in natural gas into carbon dioxide and water, which has less global warming impact. Flaring generally occurs during oil production and in the early stages of gas production.

Fossil fuels

Fuels formed over long periods of time from the decay of dead plants and animals. Fossil fuels include coal, natural gas, LPG, crude oil and fuels derived from crude oil (including petrol and diesel).

Line losses

A term used in relation to electricity. Refers to the losses incurred by Transpower and local distribution companies in conveying electricity to their bulk and retail consumers. It results mainly from transformer and other losses on the network.

Losses and own use

In the energy balances, this includes losses both before and after transformation: losses and own use in production, transmission and distribution losses, oil industry losses and own use and electricity own use free of charge. In the energy balances and the tables in Section D, oil industry losses and own use includes distribution tankage losses, stocks, accounts adjustment and own consumption.

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas, a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. LPG typically consists of propane (60%) and butane (about 40%).

Mm3

Million cubic metres: see Volume.

mmbbls

Million barrels, a unit commonly used to express volumes of oil. A barrel is 159 litres or 0.159 m3.

Fractionation

A distillation process used for the separation of the various components of a liquid. mmbbls per day

Million barrels per day, a unit commonly used to express the production rate of an oil field. See mmbbls.

Fuel oil

A specialised type of liquid fuel that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power. Fuel oil includes light fuel oil, heavy fuel oil and other fuel oils.

mmscf per day

Million standard cubic feet per day, a unit commonly used to express the production rate of a natural gas field.

Geothermal energy

Energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth.

MW

Gross and net generation

Gross generation is the total electricity output from a station’s generators. Net generation subtracts the parasitic and auxiliary load within the station, such as pumps, fans, crushers, excitation, lighting and heating, that allow the station to operate. Gross generation is fully estimated in the Energy Data File from reported net generation.

Megawatt or one million watts. The Système International (SI) unit of power is the watt (W) and is defined as a rate of one joule per second. This is the rate of doing work or the rate of energy flow, i.e. the rate at which energy is produced or used. In this publication, the standard unit of power is the megawatt (MW). Power is usually recorded (and is shown in these statistics) as the average over a period (typically a half-hour period) rather than as an instantaneous value.

Natural gas

A gas consisting mainly of methane that occurs naturally in underground deposits.

Gross calorific value (GCV)

The gross calorific value or higher heating value (HHV) is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original precombustion temperature and, in particular, condensing any vapour produced. See Fuel Properties (Section K) for further information.

Net calorific value (NCV)

The net calorific value or lower heating value (LHV) is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporisation of the water vapour produced in combustion of a fuel from the gross calorific (or higher heating) value. This treats any water formed as a vapour. The energy required to vaporise the water therefore is not realised as heat. See Fuel Properties (Section K) for further information.

GWh

Gigawatt hour: see kWh.

Hydrocarbons

An organic compound that consists entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Net gas production

Net gas production (also known as sale gas) is gas production less any gas flared, gas reinjected, LPG extracted, own use and losses.

IEA

International Energy Agency. An intergovernmental organisation established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which acts as a policy adviser to its member states.

Net generation

See Gross and net generation.

NGL

Natural gas liquids – liquid or liquefied hydrocarbons recovered from natural gas in separation facilities or gas processing plants.

Non-energy use

Use of fuels for non-combustion purposes (e.g. bitumen for roads and natural gas used as feedstock for the production of methanol and ammonia/urea).

Oil

Usually refers to all oil and oil products. Specifically, this includes crude oil, condensate, naphtha, feedstocks, natural gas liquids, LPG and all refined oil products, unless otherwise specified.

Other oil products

Includes other petroleum products such as bitumen, lubes, solvents, waxes, petroleum coke, white spirit, other liquid fuels and sulphur.

Own use

For electricity, this refers to the electricity used by an electricity supplier or generating plants free of charge. See Losses and own use.

Importer margin

Industrial

A term used in the petrol and diesel market representing the amount available to cover domestic transportation, distribution and retailing costs and profit margins. This is calculated as the difference between the New Zealand retail price (excluding taxes and levies) and the cost of imported fuel. An energy-consuming sector that consists of all facilities and equipment used for producing, processing or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses activities such as manufacturing, metal production and construction. Overall energy use in this sector is largely for process heat and cooling and powering machinery, with lesser amounts used for facility heating, air conditioning and lighting.

International transport

Includes international sea and air transport. Excludes coastal shipping, national air transport and all land transport.

kt

Kilotonnes (thousand tonnes): see t.

kWh

Kilowatt hour. In the electricity industry, energy is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh), sometimes referred to in context as “units” or, for large quantities, gigawatt hours (GWh). 1 GWh = 1,000,000 kWh. A device with a rating of 1,000 watts or 1 kilowatt running for 1 hour would consume 1 kilowatt hour of electricity. A similar device running for half an hour or 2 hours would use 0.5 kWh or 2 kWh respectively.

160 Energy Data File | 2011

161 © Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development

Energy Data File | 2011

© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


M. Glossary

PJ

Primary energy

Refinery blendstocks and other feedstocks

N. Unit Conversion

Petajoule. The joule is the Système International (SI) derived unit of energy and heat. Its consistent use simplifies comparisons between different forms of energy and between energy supplied or consumed in New Zealand and overseas. A joule is the energy required to heat 1 cubic centimetre of water by about a quarter (0.239) of a degree Celsius or the energy needed to lift a 1 kilogram mass about 0.102 metres. A PJ is 1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000) joules. Energy found in the environment that has not been subject to any conversion or transformation process (i.e. raw fuels). Processed oil destined for further processing or blending. It includes refinery naphtha, mid-distillate and motor gasoline blending components, e.g. alkylate mix, offgrade regular, offgrade premium, reformate, and cracked spirit. Synfuels used as refinery feedstock are also included in this category.

Reinjection

The reinjection of natural gas that has been extracted from a well.

Reserves

Oil and gas reserves are expected reserves, estimated as “proven and probable” or P50 reserves (i.e. with a greater than 50% probability of being technically and economically producible) and P90 reserves (i.e. with a greater than 90% probability of being technically and economically producible) by the field operators. Ultimately, recoverable reserves are estimates of the total amounts of oil and gas that can be extracted during the lifetime of each field. These may differ from initial reserves estimates made at the commencement of production.

Residential

An energy-consuming sector that consists of living quarters for private households. Common uses of energy associated with this sector include space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a variety of other appliances.

Self-sufficiency

A term used commonly in relation to oil and is calculated as domestic production divided by total domestic consumption (including refinery and industry own uses).

Separation

Splitting wellhead gas into a gas stream and a liquid stream.

Stock change

Change in the level of stocks between ends of months, quarters or years. By convention, an increase in stock levels is defined as a positive stock change.

t

Tonne: Unit of mass equal to 1,000 kg.

Total gas production

The quantity of natural gas extracted after the first separation point (see separation) and before any gas reinjection, flaring, own use, losses or LPG extraction.

SI Decimal Multiples Prefix

The amount of energy available for use in New Zealand for energy transformation and end use. It includes energy as it is first obtained from natural sources, which means that coal is accounted for as it is mined, indigenous oil and natural gas as they are extracted from wells, imported oil and oil products as they are imported, and hydro as it is used for electricity generation (assuming efficiency of 100%). Geothermal is accounted for on the basis of its use as an input to electricity generation, including cogeneration and geothermal used directly as a heat source. TPES accounts for imports and exports and makes allowance for any stock change. By convention, fuels used for international transport are excluded from total primary energy supply. Thus, total primary energy supply is calculated as indigenous production plus imports less exports less stock change less international transport.

Factor

Term

kilo

k

10

thousand

mega

M

106

million

giga

G

109

billion

tera

T

1012

trillion

peta

P

1015

quadrillion

3

Mass Name

t

kg

ts

tl

lb

Units System

t

1

1000

1.102

0.984

2205

Metric

kilograms

kg

0.001

1

0.001102

0.000984

2.205

Metric/SI

short tons

ts

0.907

907

1

0.893

2000

American

long tons

tl

1.016

1016

1.120

1

2240

Imperial

pounds

lb

0.000454

0.454

0.0005

0.000446

1

American/Imperial

tonne

Volume Name

Mm3

Bcf

mmbbls

Units System

million cubic metres

Mm3

1

0.035

6.289

Metric/SI

billion cubic feet

Bcf

28.317

1

178.08

American/Imperial

mmbbls

0.159

0.00562

1

Common Oil

million barrels

Energy and Heat Name petajoule

Total primary energy supply (TPES)

Symbol

PJ

PJ

Calth

btu

1

2.390 x 10

14

GWh

boe

9.478 x 10

277.78

1.634 x 10

11

-15

1

0.00397

1.162 x10

-12

252.16

1

2.931 x10

23885

Metric/SI

Calth

4.184 x 10

British thermal units

btu

1.055 x 10

gigawatt hours

GWh

0.0036

8.604 x 1011

3.412 x 109

1

588.30

85.98

Common Electricity

barrels of oil equivalent

boe

6.119 x 10-6

1.463 x 109

5.800 x 106

0.00170

1

0.146

Common Oil

tonnes of oil equivalent (toe)

toe

4.187 x 10-5

1.001 x 1010

3.968 x 107

0.01163

6.842

1

Common Oil

-12

-10

6.837 x 10

Units System

thermochemical calories

-10

1.724 x 10

-7

9.993 x 10

Imperial/American

-11

2.520 x 10

Imperial/American

-8

Electrical Capacity – Power

Transformation

Transformation in this publication refers to the conversion of energy from one form to another.

Unallocated

In the energy balance tables, a category within the industry sector for those items for which industrial disaggregation is either unknown or confidential.

Name megawatt

Volume

Measured at 15°C and 101.325 kPa.

Waste heat

Includes chemical waste heat produced from sulphur as a by-product in the fertiliser manufacturing industry used for electricity cogeneration.

MW

kW

HPe

MW

1

1000

1340.5

kilowatt

kW

0.001

1

1.3405

horsepower (electrical)

HPe

0.00746

0.746

1

162 Energy Data File | 2011

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© Copyright | Ministry of Economic Development


New Zealand Energy Data File

www.med.govt.nz/energy/data

2010 Calendar Year Edition

EnergyDataFile_2011.pdf  

Govt Energy file, off their website, With info regarding enegry elecrity in nz, 2011 file