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Collective Bargaining

Wage Flexibility & Job Growth

AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME? A real life experiment at job creation or an erosion of working conditions?


Introduction – Part 1 Legacy and historical problems Bargaining process-formulation of demands and actual negotiations, Minimums v Actuals Workplace restructuring Three tier Bargaining systems Exemptions Scope of the Agreements/geographic exclusions/technical, and magisterial jurisdictions


Introduction Continues‌‌. Extension of Collective Agreements Wage anomalies/wage gap Job classifications or Grades Plant level negotiations Productivity framework Workplace Skills Plan Flexible working arrangements


Industry Issues Employment trends Job security v Employment security Technological trends Workplace of the future Industrial policy Supply side measures/counter trade- off set agreements Job creation Retention of employment


National Imperatives Job creation / Unemployment Decent work Poverty Alleviation Equity Legislative framework Accords


Impacting Policies, Strategies & Legislation National Skills Development Strategy 3 SETA Landscape Decent Country Work Programme Human Resourse Development Strategy 2 Industrial policy Action Plan National Planning Commission Plan Treasury- Youth Subsidy Skills Accord Response to global crisis

Alignment & integration objectives in line with job creation


Gearing Up – Some issues to consider Representation of parties in collective bargaining Extension of Collective Bargaining Agreements Rebuild the economy/industries Pre-Bargaining processes Role of CCMA – Facilitation of bargaining process (A-Z) Compromises/package deal Reality versus rhetoric


Some broader issues impacting Job Creation Wage demands Ongoing job losses Training Lay-offs Employment security Exemptions Moratorium on retrenchments Decent work New entrants in the labour market Wage strategy/structure


Broader aspects of wage flexibility and job creation Collective bargaining agreements in the main exclude job creation and job retention elements Differentiated wages of workers Contingent pay system Different types of flexibility- enhance adaptability / location. Working outside the so-called “normal” workplace – e.g. homework & teleworkers How to adjust working life & working hours; Overtime and averaging of working hours


Upward and downward flexibility Downward - based on exemption from higher level wage agreement; Supplementary bargaining over base pay �Top-up� upwards flexibility or upward variation. Define levels of bargaining - Multi bargaining arrangements Collective Bargaining regulate forms of wage flexibility and scope of bargaining in different levels Minimum vs actual wage increase debate Wage drift - payment that drift from the standard rate


Regulation of variable payments systems It regulates wages based on groupings of work or based on scope of technical classification i.e. Gate and fence, Industry Collective Bargaining provide enabling clauses or provisions for sector specific determination, Establish procedural regulations for productivity bonus schemes and defer performance criteria for plane level, Focus on individual performance related pay Individual retention plans-(shortage or scarce skill) Wage freezes or settlements below inflation


Gender dimension to wage flexibility Different occupational groupings or job classifications widen the gender pay gap among workers and between job grades, Historical legacy due to lack of data and failure in addressing gender equality during the collective bargaining process No gender wage stats across industries and sectors, Lack of monitoring the effect of wage variations element in pay systems Lack of framework developed for pay determination restrict the potential for gender and age imbalances, Lack of equal pay for equal work - audit/gender audit


Statutory Determinations Sectoral determination- Minister determine wages and conditions of service It regulates basic minimum wages and conditions for the entire sector Lack of social dialogue between parties It creates a class of vulnerable employees Choices are limited across the entire sector


Flexibility and employment Wage flexibility cannot be counted on to on its own cure unemployment problem Greater wage flexibility would be detrimental to social justice and would lead to greater labour unrest and would destabilise the value of money This effect would probably diminish the propensity of people to consume unless more are actually created; Lack of flexibility adversely affect the decisions to investment and negatively impact many entrepreneurs to the point of insolvency;


Does wage flexibility really creates jobs ? Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory , but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.�Sun Tzu (496 BC- 544 BC), Chinese Military Commander (1874-1965).


Social Accord or Agreement Challenge the current status quo and reach an agreement that creates jobs and define an agenda for engagement Forge integrated and comprehensive collective bargaining agreements with a clear agenda for wage flexibility , job creation initiatives, retention of employment and clear plan for skills determination; Isolate rhetoric from reality and deal with labour market flexibility as a reality


MultiMulti-tiered labour market Acceptance of the reality that labour market is sliced and diced into multiple segments The historical wage differentials , two tiered wage systems, exemptions and geographical exclusions and technical etc. Levels of bargaining and its scope of application, Establishment of institutions for conciliation and arbitration Review the mandate of several institutions for job creation


Role of technology and its impact Re-training initiative and consultation on work reorganisation Recruitment of the youth as new entrants into the labour market, Workplace of the future with new skills set Save existing and create new jobs within a defined period with clear incentives for business Identify industries and sectors that will create employment


The “triple crises� Vision for the South African labour market , the current realities and its impact A comprehensive plan that offers real solutions to unemployment, poverty and inequality No real economic growth and employment continues to shrink at faster rate than expected Retention of existing employment or jobs needs a comprehensive strategy or plan embraced by all the stake holders


Some other perspectives on wage flexibility Understanding of the notion of flexibility and trade-offs Scope of the negotiations The objectives of flexibility, Different pay systems including contingent ones The purpose and rational for applications for exemptions Facilitation of pre and actual bargaining processes Agreement on wage models entails wage flexibility Review labour market institutions, Wage subsidy


Job search intensity and wage flexibility Search duration for employment affects wage flexibility job search Desire for wage flexibility for young generation and flexibility in general The confidence in one’s ability to find an acceptable job or employment Reemployment efficacy reflects job seekers’ confidence in their ability to find employment and higher reemployment efficacy is likely to strengthen the belief of having a strong negotiating position with the future employer


Employees’ desire for flexibility Boomers

Generation X

Generation Y

Generation statistics Percent of population Ave. no. of hours spent at work per week Percent reporting that their job 'severely' or 'very severely' interferes with their family life 14% Percent of 'leavers' (people considering leaving their jobs) who cite work/life imbalances as a key reason Percent who would like additional responsibility in the workplace Percent of men who would like more flexible working arrangements Percent of women who would like more flexible working arrangements Percent of men who predict that they will work on a part-time basis in the next 5 years Percent of women who predict that they will work on a part-time basis in the next 5 years 15% Percent reporting that they would leave their jobs for greater control over their work schedules Percent reporting that they would leave their jobs for greater flexibility Percent reporting that they would leave their jobs for the ability to work fewer hours Percent reporting that they would leave their jobs for the ability to telecommute Percent who expect to leave their current employers in the next year

41% 42.6 29% 12% 60% 23% 65% 1% 19% 1% 2% 1% 0% 43%

20% 39.1 36% 45% 39% 69% 83% 12% 36% 66% 59% 48% 50% 52%

14% 35.4

Percent of employers allowing some flexibility in starting and ending times

1998 24%

2001 29%

Annual staff turnover among shifted employees

Mandated shifts 16%

Chosen shifts 7%

Men 18% 51%

Women 32% 68%

48% 23% 75% 85% 19% 85% 92% 64% 75% 70%

Workplace statistics

Percent of people working part-time Percent of part-time employees doing so voluntarily

2005 31%


Policy Options The role and mandate of CCMA Sectoral Agreements: - Job Creation - Wage Flexibility - Training /Skills - Technological changes - Restructuring - Duration


Policy Options

Productivity Framework New Entrants Exemptions Social dispensation for small medium Enterprises


Introduction – Part 2 The “Triple Crises” in context” The social partners’ challenge What role, if any for the CCMA? An idea whose time has come? Unpacking the elements of the Clothing Industry Agreement, including the new entry level wage, related job growth targets etc. Some Questions and Conclusions on the way forward


The “triple crises� in context We can take it as a given that there is much to be fixed in our economy and labour market to achieve the desired outcomes and to create jobs; The CCMA facilitated Think Tank Event held on 10th November 2011, dealt extensively with the post-1994 vision for the South African labour market, the current reality and generated some ideas on the way forward; The Think Tank event inputs and outcomes is essential reading for every CCMA Commissioner, as must be the recent National Planning Commission Report.


The “triple crises” in context We need to see the development and implementation of a comprehensive plan that offers real solutions to what organised labour calls the our national “triple crises” of unemployment, poverty and inequality; As is evident, some of the causes are deep-rooted and structural and ideas abound on potential solutions; By now, it has become obvious that we need to see urgent action;


The “triple crises” in context Since 1994 and even during our so-called “boom” years or years of best economic performance SA has been unable to generate the required job growth to absorb new entrants into the job market. The big question must therefore be: How will we create the required jobs at growth levels of perhaps not higher than 4% as projected for the next five years or more;


The “triple crises� in context To create the jobs needed to absorb currently unemployed adults and new entrants we need to ensure a growth rate of anywhere between 7% and 10% when considering the various projections of the NPC, DBSA and other institutions. The narrow question we seek to address in this presentation is whether wage flexibility can have a positive impact on growth and meeting job creation targets and if so, under what circumstances could and should it become a feature of the broader SA collective bargaining agenda.


The “triple crises” in context Seen in context of organised labour’s expectations as stated in COSATU’s political report to its 10th National Congress: “If we cannot succeed with the agenda of decent work and poverty eradication with Jacob Zuma as the President, Kgalema Motlanthe as the Deputy President for poverty eradication, Gwede Mantashe as the ANC Secretary-General, Ebrahim Patel as the Minister of Economic Development and Rob Davies as the Minister of Trade and Industry, then there is little possibility that we can make any next period that of workers and the poor. This is the moment that comes once in a long time. We, the leaders of the generation largely responsible for this political climate, so pregnant with real possibilities, cannot afford to squander this moment.”


The “triple crises” in context The agenda of organised labour for “decent work” at first glance appears to be in direct conflict with the concept of wage flexibility and the fight to eradicate poverty; Need to unpack the concept of “decent work” and perhaps in the process of doing so, determine whether agreements such as those concluded in the clothing sector, undermines or promotes the “decent work” agenda and the fight to create jobs and eradicate poverty; The question therefore is: Does earning a youth or lower entry wage which comes with access to health care, provident fund and a range of protected benefits and working conditions constitute an undermining of the broader decent work agenda?


The “triple crises” in context A further reality is that with trillions of mineral resources at our disposal our economy has failed to provide the required jobs to address unemployment levels and particularly the almost fifty percent estimated level of unemployment among our young people. This is the real tragedy which affects will stay with us for a long time. History may yet show that we were all complicit in “squandering the moment” through our actions or inaction and as the CCMA, we have to decide if indeed we have any role to play in ensuring that the moment is not squandered.


The “triple crises” in context More importantly, we will argue that perhaps now more than ever, our country needs a pro-active or perhaps even “activist” Department of Labour, CCMA and other similar institutions to drive a developmental, job creation and anti poverty agenda to achieve greater equity within our society; And here’s the rub! Unless Organised Labour, Business and Government are able to rise to the challenge and reach a consensus on an agenda that actually grows the economy and creates jobs, they collectively, in time, run the risk of losing control of setting the national collective bargaining and broader socioeconomic and political agendas;


The social partners’ challenge We must agree with Cheadle, Le Roux and Thompson that the “collective bargaining and dispute resolution structures of the LRA cannot carry the weight of labour dynamics in our unequal society in the absence of the embrace at least of the philosophy underlying the second channel.” The second channel they refer to is: “Parties were invited to form workplace forums, platforms to foster trust and workplace productivity.” Whether this second channel can play such a dynamic role as they envisage is a matter for ongoing debate. We touch on this aspect later in this presentation as there may be better options to achieve the desired outcomes given labours attitude towards workplace forums..;.


The social partners’ challenge The reality is, that if the role of the CCMA remains a narrow one to mediate and facilitate collective agreement outcomes based on the historical approach to distributive bargaining, the CCMA will not be able to make any real or substantial contribution to progressing the national job creation agenda. Professor Sakhela Buhlungu, at the CCMA’s recent Think Tank event stressed the need for all role payers to distinguish between the rhetoric and reality when it came to dealing with issues such as labour market flexibility.


The social partners’ challenge The reality is that (whether we like it or accept such a reality or not) South Africa already has a multi-tiered labour market. According to Cheadle, Le Roux and Thompson, we are “not dealing merely with a dual labour market but one that is sliced and diced into multiple segments.” They therefore take the view, that collective bargaining processes and outcomes need to reflect that diversity and argue that the “recent agreement on a tiered wage structure in the clothing sector represents pioneering and necessary flexibility in the approach to bargaining.” But more of that later!


What role, if any for the CCMA As a starting point, we need to accept that the CCMA has no immediate and direct role to play in shaping South Africa’s socio-economic and political agenda; We cannot try to give to ourselves a mandate we do not have and that correctly resides elsewhere. Our role is therefore a narrow one which is to, within the scope and confines of current labour legislation and the CCMA’s statutorily defined role therein, determine what small contribution we can make towards the broader national agenda of our democratically elected Government to create jobs and address poverty and inequality;


What role, if any for the CCMA Such a role, we believe can comfortably reside within the CCMA’s current legislative mandate and falls squarely within the CCMA’s broader mandate to contribute towards social justice and economic growth. We do however need to consciously determine if in the first instance we want to play such a role and if so: Whether we play such a role as labour market activists or passive bystanders on the basis of being “blinkered” by the historical approach to distributive bargaining which is presently embraced by key players in the labour market;


What role, if any for the CCMA While the CCMA has correctly seen its main role as being to effectively resolve and prevent labour disputes, it also by so doing played a much wider role in advancing the broader purpose and primary objectives of the LRA 1915. This, there can be doubt about. Unemployment and jobless growth exists within a specific historic and current socio-economic context. In short, it exists within a mixed but largely capitalist economy;


What role, if any for the CCMA Logic would therefore dictate, that if you cannot change what you’ve got, then you have to work with what you have. We must therefore ask the question: “What is possible and what can be done on the part of the CCMA within current constraints in a real national effort to address the said triple crises and support Government’s job creation initiatives?”


What role, if any for the CCMA For example, while we cannot change the broader macro situation with regard to for example, the education system or trade policy, should we therefore not focus our energies where it may matter most; We believe that going forward we, first and foremost need a change of mindset within the CCMA; We need a dynamic and activist DoL, CCMA and individual Commissioner, willing to robustly engage and challenge parties to think beyond the normal narrow confines of their respective collective bargaining agendas and self-interest.


What role, if any for the CCMA Such a process should start with and be driven by the DoL and could, for example, include actively engaging parties to ensure that every bargaining council agreement that parties seek be extended to non-parties has a job creation element included in such agreements; Where the LRA, for example, requires an amendment to empower the Minister to set conditions for the extension of bargaining council agreements to non-parties, then such amendments should be considered and be brought about.


What role, if any for the CCMA Such active engagement could also drive an agenda to promote and extend the reach of collective bargaining to achieve the objective to create a limited number of national sectors as previously identified by the Labour Market Commission in the 1990’s. The CCMA could have a role to play in such a broader drive by the DoL to promote and extend collective bargaining into new and clearly defined national sectors;


What role, if any for the CCMA Such an approach by the DoL can also serve as an incentive to trade unions to the extent that it offers the extension of bargaining into certain sectors not presently covered by centralised bargaining arrangements; For employers , the incentive could be stability where such centralised bargaining arrangements sets minimum wages and conditions in multi-year agreements; and Top-ups are negotiated at enterprise level based on the affordability of the business and allowing for issues such as productivity and related incentives to be addressed;


What role, if any for the CCMA The agreements could, as a condition, have industry or sector-specific plans that include job creation elements if parties seek the Ministerial extension of negotiated substantive conditions to non-parties; So, while Government may not dictate the precise contents of such agreements, it could play an important and decisive role in promoting the broadening of the collective bargaining agenda beyond the limitations imposed by the historic distributive approach to collective bargaining.


What role, if any for the CCMA Agreements such as those concluded in the clothing industry also addresses the question of a so-called “youth wage” at an industry or sector level without tax payers having to directly carry the costs thereof, as they would if we introduced a national subsidised youth wage; It comfortably fits within the current debate to introduce a youth wage or entry-level wage for “new entrants”, albeit at no direct cost to the tax payer as the state does not pay any direct subsidy to businesses in such a model as agreed in the clothing industry;


What role, if any for the CCMA Support to industries and sectors from Government will come at other levels such as trade and tariff policies and related incentives etc. In this way, the parties will be able to retain some control over and able to themselves set the collective bargaining and broader labour market agenda and are able to better mitigate its negative impact on people and sectors; Let’s then look at the actual clothing industry agreement:


An idea which time has come? Should not sensationalise the role of the CCMA and its facilitators in conclusion of clothing industry agreement; The role of facilitator/s in Clothing negotiations was to convince parties to take a bigger step than they were initially prepared to e.g. on the quantum of both the reduction in the new entry wage and job creation targets; This took place against a backdrop of massive job losses, increasing and wide-scale non-compliance with the bargaining council agreement, and an ongoing legal challenges to the Minister’s authority to extend the agreement to non-parties;


An idea which time has come? Choice for facilitators was to be involved with and go down in history as the CCMA Commissioners who officiated at the death of an industry and in reading its last rights; Or To convince parties to take a big step in a last-ditch effort to try and breathe new life into the industry and be party to a broader and bolder plan to try and save existing jobs and create new jobs within a defined period of time; If this agreement does not assist in doing so, we are not sure what else will and its failure could mean the death of key manufacturing sectors within the SA economy.


An idea which time has come? We are now able to move beyond the confines of a debate as we have a real life opportunity and experience from which to monitor and evaluate the impact of a national industry-wide wage flexibility agreement with regard to: Workers employment conditions and the concerns related to the potential abuse of the compromise made by the trade union; and Whether it will bring new entrants into the industry, create new jobs and meet the job creation targets and commitments given by employers and not merely replace existing skilled workers with lower paid workers;


An idea which time has come? Existing experienced and skilled workers to the extent that it could lead to them being sidelined or frozen out from employment during the three year period after which they can re-enter the industry as “new employees� at the lower wage level; The management of employee relations on the factory floor where over a relatively short period of time you could have qualified machinists, for example, doing the same job, with many earning a 30% lower wage than others.


An idea which time has come? The management of this employment relations dynamic will probably become the biggest challenge for both the trade union and employer parties over a period of time and ignoring it could lead to major problems further down the line. Whether retrenched workers could see themselves frozen out of the industry both beyond the 12 month preferential re-employment period and the three-year period after which they can be re-employed at the lower new entry wage.


ATB Wage increase The following increases were agreed for all current employees (inclusive of those previous employees who rejoin the industry after less than 3 years' absence from the industry): Metro areas: The increase to total labour cost shall be 6.5% for each of the job categories prescribed for these areas, with effect from 1st September 2011. Non-metro and all other areas: The wage increase shall be R 45 per week with effect from 1st September 2011 for the machinists’ and general workers’ category and 9.2% and 7.8% for all other job categories in Non-Metro B and Non-Metro A respectively


New employees – applicable wage New employees shall be paid a weekly wage of 70% of the rate in metro areas and 80% of the rate in non-metro and all other areas, subject to the following provisions: New employees defined: Those persons with no previous working experience in the industry and shall include those persons with previous work experience but who have not been employed in the industry for a period of 3 years. The provision is only applicable to compliant companies i.e. companies who are in full compliance with the bargaining council’s agreements.


Job Growth Targets The new entry-level wage provision will continue in force and effect as an industry-wide provision after the 31st August 2014 if there has been an increase in employee strength of compliant employers in the industry of at least 15% as at 31st March 2014, monitored on a bi-annual basis. The bi-annual benchmark monitoring shall be measured against the following schedule of new employment growth: 1 March 2012: 3% increase 1 September 2012: 6% increase 1 March 2013: 9% increase 1 September 2013: 12% increase 1 March 2014: 15% increase


Job Growth Targets The employee strength to determine whether or not there has been an increase in employee strength will be measured by comparing the employee strength of compliant employers whose businesses are registered with the bargaining council on the 1st June 2011 to that of the employee strength of compliant employers whose businesses are registered with the bargaining council on the 31st March 2014, i.e. a period of 30 months following the implementation of this Agreement. In the event that the employee strength does not increase as per the provisions of this Agreement, the provisions related to the new-entry wage will terminate.


Job Growth Targets Upon such termination of the application of the new entry level wage provision, the wages of all employees earning the newentry wage will be increased to the full applicable gazetted wage for all job categories from the first pay week following the 31st August 2014, “unless the parties during the 2014/2015 round of annual or other negotiations agree otherwise or agree to an alternative to address any further job losses or the absence of job growth in the industry. “ Employers shall not embark on retrenchment exercises, where the intent of such retrenchment is to employ employees at the new entry wage rates.


Job Growth Targets Employers will ensure that short time arrangements are at all times fairly and equitably distributed across a workplace’s employees in all job categories affected by short time arrangements. Effective 1st September 2011, all retrenched employees will, within a period of 12 months of having been retrenched, be given preferential employment in the same job category at the same wage rate which was applicable at the date of the employee’s retrenchment or any higher wage rate which may have been gazetted and become applicable to the affected employee’s job category after such date of retrenchment.


PRODUCTIVITY AND TRAINING INSTITUTE The parties also agreed to: Establish a new training and productivity entity for the industry; Establish a representative working group whose initial mandate is to meet sufficiently often enough in order to conclude an agreement on the role, structure, budget and source/s of funding for such an entity; Jointly approach the relevant Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETA), the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the Government’s newly established job fund, and any other potential relevant national and international source of funding to seek financial and other support and assistance for the establishment and functioning of such an industry training and productivity entity.


Introduction – Part 3 Some conclusions and questions on the way forward


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward Already seeing a slow down in job losses in the Clothing Industry with a trade union research organisation reporting a decline of 67% in job losses when compared to 2009. The national clothing bargaining council at its AGM three weeks ago reported for the first time in many years a small but real growth in new employers and employees; Too early for this to be attributed solely to the agreement on entry level wages but it has contributed to the positive sentiment of manufacturers and retailers to create jobs as part of a comprehensive industry package of initiatives with state support at various levels.


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward Managing the Dilemna for organised labour: The potential to create jobs and in some cases increase household income or resist such initiatives - at what consequence for the unemployed and the country? For example: Someone earning R700 a week as the sole breadwinner and if son or daughter can get job at 70% entry-level wage of R490 it would increase the weekly household income by 70%. This, or no job?


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward

How to manage the risk of existing skilled contract or retrenched workers being frozen out of permanent jobs for three years, as they cannot theoretically be employed at the lower wage; Does all of this this create a dual labour market when one considers the massive informal sector and existing massive levels of non-compliance with existing bargaining council agreements which cannot be effectively policed; Or


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward

Are we not already dealing with a dual labour market that is sliced and diced into multiple segments and that we now need to stop the rhetoric and ensure that collective bargaining processes and outcomes actually reflect that reality? Should Bargaining council and sectoral agreements not revert to setting a minimum floor of wages and substantive conditions?


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward

Should we not have such a dual system in which trade union structures and power are built, strengthened and maintained at workplace level and to with individual employers pioneer and create the necessary diversity and flexibility to compete in a global economy, while ensuring that all workers enjoy a certain industry-wide minimum wage, benefits and substantive conditions? Is the real ability to build and maintain trade union power and capacity not diminished or lost to the centre when collective bargaining takes place solely at sector or industry level?


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward

With regard to the CCMA, we need to: Consider whether it and its Commissioners have a broader role to play in shaping and setting the collective bargaining agenda and its outcome in critical manufacturing and other relevant sectors of the economy in a way that supports Government job creation intentions and plans; Consider whether wage flexibility has a positive and dynamic role to play in broader job creation strategies and employment security programs and if so, how to achieve social partner buy-in at both a macro and micro level. This is as much a challenge for the CCMA as it is for the State; and


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward

Develop a consistent but critical approach to support and guide Commissioners with regard to issues related to wage flexibility and its applicability or otherwise within the current South African socio-economic and political context. To develop and find acceptance among the social partners of a strategy that will enable the CCMA to place job preservation and creation at the centre of its work in collective bargaining; Promote the conclusion of “social contracts� at all levels within the society to drive the national agenda and address the triple crises of unemployment, poverty and inequality;


Some Conclusions & Questions on the Way Forward

At the end of the day we must accept that the labour market like the economy and political arena, is contested terrain. Our goal ultimately, must be: to ensure the long term legitimacy of the agreed and adopted centralised collective bargaining model i.e. to empower representative parties within a system based on self-regulation and the ministerial extension of such collective agreements to non-parties; and To promote and build the broadest possible legitimacy for such a system within the economy and labour market.


Wage Flexibility and Job Creation  

Presentation on using wgae flexibility as a means to stimulate job creation

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