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January - February 2014 Vol. 9 No. 1

Contents REGULARS

Publisher S.N. Mwaniki Email: mwaniki@afriwater.org

2 Comment

38 Publications

3 News in Brief

40 Roundup

Editor Kariuki Wangai Email: kariuki.wangai@afriwater.org

16 People

41 Calendar 2013

Assistant Editor A. Ayiro

Events

18 Water & Sanitation

Dr. Judith Nyunja Email: jnyunja@kws.go.ke Eng. Malaquen Milgo Email: mmilgo@awsb.go.ke Raphael M. Kabando Email: dicltd@wananchi.com Eng. Prof. Patts M.A. Odira Email: pmodira@uonbi.ac.ke Peter Mwaura Email: gigirimwaura@yahoo.com Eng. Ephraim Kisembo Email: kisembo@ruwas.co.ug John Rao Nyaoro, HSC Email: jrnyaoro@yahoo.com Regional Representatives: Mauritius Contact: Simon Ndegwa Tel: +230 491 8288 Rwanda Contact: Dr. F. Otieno Tel: +254 722 456 279 Uganda and South Sudan Contact: Cyrus Ruheni Tel: +256 773 124 075 Zimbabwe Contact: Marjory Kusotera-Dzapata Institute of Water and Sanitation Development Box MP422, Mount Pleasant Harare, ZIMBABWE Tel/Fax: 263-4-735035, 799049/50 Graphic Designer Colman B. Moss insydepages@gmail.com

42 Buyers’ Guide

19 Sub-Saharan Africa: Making the case for groundwater

Farmers in subSaharan Africa (SSA) have always had to deal with an unforgiving climate. The relentless cycles of drought and downpours that characterize much of the region have shaped agricultural practices for generations. Moreover, weather patterns look set to become even more unpredictable as climate change takes a firmer hold.

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Befrina Igulu (Ms) Email: befrina@afriwater.org

further cooperation and considered the way forward, with a focus on water and the post-2015 development agenda.

14 Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation

Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.

20 Wetlands and Agriculture: Partners for Growth

15 Water Shortages Slow Energy Production Worldwide

The World Bank is launching a new initiative at the World Future Energy Summit and International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi that will help developing countries better plan and manage scaling-up energy capacity to meet rising demand, in tandem with water resource management. Producing energy requires a lot of water. Yet, the availability of and access to water is negatively impacting energy production around the world.

19 International Year of Water Cooperation Closes with Post-2015 Agenda Inputs

Participants at the closing ceremony of the International Year of Water Cooperation reflected on achievements during the Year, discussed fostering

Wetlands have been used for agriculture for millennia, especially riverine wetlands in fl oodplains where soils are fertile and water is plentiful. Indeed, wetlands have nurtured the development of many important cultures around the world – but the downside is that drainage and reclamation of wetlands for agriculture has become ever more widespread and effective.

37 Damon focused on clean water for world The Oscar-winning actor Matt Damon deals with a matter of life and death at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. Davos is a gathering of the world’s global elite.

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Disclaimer While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this publication,the Publisher will accept no responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any loss or damage,unconsequential or otherwise suffered as a result of any material here published.The opinions expressed in the editorial are the sole responsibility of the authors or organizations concerned and not those of the Publisher. Neither Transworld Publishers Ltd nor its agents accept liability in whole or in part howsoever arising from the contents of the editorial published herein.

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Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

1


Comment Wetlands and Agriculture: Partners for Growth

W

orld Wetlands Day (WWD) is celebrated on 2 February each year. It marks the date of the adoption of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands on 2 February 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar. Each year since 1997,government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and groups of citizens at all levels of the community have taken advantage of this opportunity to undertake actions aimed at raising public awareness of wetland values and benefits in general and the Ramsar Convention in particular. 2014 is the UN International Year of Family Farming. In support of the UN International Year of Family Farming, Ramsar’s theme for World Wetlands Day 2014 is Wetlands and Agriculture: Partners for Growth. It provides an ideal opportunity to highlight the importance of wetlands in supporting agriculture, especially since many family farming operations rely on the soils, water, plants and animals found in wetlands to provide food security and improve their livelihoods. Wetlands have often been seen as a barrier to agriculture, and they continue to be drained and reclaimed to make farming land available. The natural wetland ecosystems reclaimed in this way have lost much of their original character, leading to reduced biodiversity and reduced performance of functions other than crop productivity. A realistic estimate is that 50 % of the world’s wetlands have been lost. Is this justified since agriculture plays a major role in the lives and livelihoods of most households in Africa and contributes significantly to overall economic growth and Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? Yet agriculture is a primary water consumer and is subject to debate. How can the needs of agriculture be met as it intensifies to feed a growing population? Recently, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has shown that global food production has doubled in the past 40 years, and has been able to keep pace with the increasing human population. However, the assessment also showed that this major accomplishment has been realized at the expense of major losses in biodiversity, disruption of global element cycles, problematic eutrophication and toxification of our freshwater resources, and loss of regulating ecosystem functions. Whereas historically there was sufficient water for irrigation, and water resources could be utilized for agriculture, pressure is now mounting to reduce the amount of water allocated to agriculture. This pressure on water resources is brought about by the fact that Africa’s demand for water is rising fast, as population increases and urbanization, economic growth and climate change combine to exert ever-increasing pressure on dwindling supplies. Water shortages already threaten food production in many African regions, while the lack of clean water and sanitation leads to 1.5 million deaths a year from diarrhea and cholera. Yet Africa has substantial water resources: its shortages are often the result of poor water management, low investment, inefficient use and wastage. What contributions can a more water efficient agricultural sector make to African water security? We think the answer lies in infrastructure for managing water. Good water governance, i.e. research institutes, education, extension service, water act and water rights. Water tariffs are sometimes controversial, but they play an important role in ensuring the long term sustainability of water and sanitation. However, proper consultation and regulation is important to ensure affordability through appropriate tariff structures or separate income support targeted to the poor.


NEWS in brief Angola

Kalandula municipality to have drinking water The municipal administrator of Kalandula, Nuno de Oliveira Chiquito,recently guaranteed to the local population the immediate solution of problems related to access to drinking water. During the visit paid to the communes of Cuale, Quinge and Cateco-Cangola, aimed to assess the social and economic conditions Quedas De Kalandula of the population, the municipal administrator of Kalandula stressed that providing drinking water to the population is one of the Angolan Government’s challenge, reason why it is engaged in this action. On the other hand, Nuno Chiquito announced the effort of teachers and health staff selected by the local authorities to work in remote zones of the municipality.

Cameroon

Around Africa

some 400 million Africans with over 250 million defecating in open air with all the adverse effects and that some 60 per cent of hospital beds are occupied by people trapped by preventable diseases linked to water and sanitation. Speaking during the ceremony, the Executive Secretary of Water and Sanitation for Africa, Idrissa Doucoure, said the Yaounde forum is expected to mobilise FCFA 6,000 billion to take off an ambitious priority action programme for Africa to set the scene that will provide responses on water and sanitation. “We have started designing the programme and we are looking for investors and this programme will be launched in Yaounde,” he said. The Executive Secretary noted that it is a paradox that Africa lacks water given the resources it has which is not the same context in other continents. “The issue is about access to the right technology and financial resources. The Yaounde forum will seek to provide answers to these challenges,” Idrissa Doucoure said.

Egypt

AfDB signs US $2 million grant for an Industrial Waste Management and SME Entrepreneurship hub in Egypt

Cameroon to Host African Water, Sanitation Forum A working group to ensure the success of the November 11-13, 2014 event is already in place. Cameroon will from November 11-13, 2014 play host to the fourth edition of the High-level Forum for Water and Sanitation in Africa on the Cameroon’s Lobe river theme, “Breakthrough technologies for emerging water and sanitation markets in Africa.” The Yaounde rendezvous, like the first three editions, will seek to support African governments to identify practical means of accelerating access to water and sanitation and reducing poverty in the continent. Against a backdrop of his appointment last year in Abidjan as President of the Water and Sanitation for Africa Council of Ministers for a three-year term, Cameroon’s Water Resources and Energy Minister, Basile Atangana Kouna, constituted a technical working group to ensure a resounding success of the upcoming November forum. Members of the working group were installed on January 14 by the Secretary General of the ministry, Manaouda Malachie, who is also the coordinator of the group. Records show that potable water still remains luxury to

The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) and the Egyptian Ministry of International Cooperation on December 19 in Cairo, Egypt, signed off on a grant for US $2 million to finance the Green Growth Industrial Waste Management and SME Entrepreneurship initiative. The grant comes from the Middle East and North Africa Transition Fund, under the umbrella of support provided by the Deauville Partnership to Egypt. The initiative will encompass the development of a sustainable integrated industrial waste exchange system that will link industrial waste generators, potential users, and recyclers. The objectives of the initiative are to improve cross-industry resource efficiency, promote the development of new innovative SMEs, create green job opportunities, and reduce the environmental impact of industrial waste, with the ultimate goal of improving the lives of Egyptians. At the signing ceremony attended by Ziad Bahaa El Din, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of International Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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NEWS in brief

Around Africa

Cooperation, the African Development Bank Vice-President in Charge of Agriculture, Water, Human Development and Governance, Aly Abou-Sabaa, re-affirmed AfDB’s commitment to supporting Egypt’s continued economic development and praised the government for its efforts, whilst urging for a continued program of reform, necessary to attract. The project’s comprehensive plan involves several key components, including the mapping of industrial waste at the enterprise level, the development of policy recommendations for industrial waste exchange in Egypt, as well as raising awareness and building capacities of stakeholders on the industrial waste exchange program.

Lesotho Metolong Dam Construction Commences Only three weeks after the opening of the 3 Towns Water and Sanitation Project, the construction of Metolong Dam officially opened on January 14.

Lesotho’s metolong1 dam

It is anticipated of this project to supply clean water to Maseru and its neighbouring region as Vision 2020 as well as one of the Millennium Development Goals. The project is only a small part of Lesotho Lowlands Water Project Scheme which only came earlier due to some reasons: 1) The project is intended to supply clean water to Maseru region where the largest population of Lesotho lives. Maseru is also the economic hub of the country. 2) Roma region, where The National University of Lesotho as well as other services of vital importance such as hospitals and schools will also be supplied with clean water, to mention a few. The Metolong Dam Water Supply Program, one of Lesotho’s largest infrastructure programs since the country’s independence in 1966, aims to provide a reliable source of water to nearly 125,000 people. The roughly $400 million project is “a prime example of donor coordination that will ultimately benefit the Basotho people,” the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) says. The dam itself is being built with financing from the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, the Saudi Fund for Development, the OPEC Fund for International Development and the Arab Bank for Economic 4

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Development in Africa. • The European Investment Bank is financing a major pipeline connecting the dam to a reservoir above Maseru, as well as secondary pipelines. • The World Bank is financing secondary lines and other infrastructure. • South Africa’s government is constructing a visitor center and housing for the system’s operators. • Lesotho’s government will spend almost $33 million on infrastructure. When completed in 2014, the new dam along the Phuthiatsana River will stand 73 meters high and 210 meters long. It is projected to provide enough water for the region’s growing population into the next decade. Speaking at the event, Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili indicated that the people of Ha Seeiso and its neighbouring will benefit a lot from this project. He highlighted among others that the place will turn into a tourism destination when the construction is completed.


NEWS in brief

Around Africa

Liberia

Malawi

U.S. and Liberian Officials Begin Construction of a New Water Pipeline for Robertsport

Global Sanitation Fund in Malawi

U.S. Ambassador Deborah Malac and USAID’s Global Water Coordinator, Chris Holmes, along with officials from the Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation (LWSC), joined local residents at a ground-breaking ceremony for a new pipeline that will bring clean drinking water to densely-populated areas of Robertsport, Grand Cape Mount County. At the ceremony January 16, Ambassador Malac described the pipeline as “the first step in the development of a larger distribution system for piped water that will ensure that 90% of Robertsport’s citizens will have access to clean water.” Ambassador Malac acknowledged the important role the community and the Local Steering Committee have played in working to make the pipeline a reality: “I realize that many of you have put in an enormous amount of time and energy and passion into this committee. For that I extend my congratulations. Liberia needs citizens like you who care about and get involved in the forward movement of this country.” “The U.S. Government has been supporting this project since 2011 to undertake feasibility studies, develop master designs, and work with you to establish an institutional framework for Robertsport’s water system,” the Ambassador added. “We are committed to seeing this work through its completion in partnership with the Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation, the Government of Liberia, and the Local Steering Committee.” The pipeline expands access to water from a small treatment facility rehabilitated in 2013 by LWSC and USAID on the site of the former Robertsport municipal water treatment plant. By April 2013, the facility was selling more than 8,000 liters of clean water per day to Robertsport residents at a cost of only five Liberian Dollars (LD) per 20-liter jerrycan. The water system is the first in Liberia to be comanaged by LWSC, together with local city authorities, with local revenues solely dedicated to covering operation and maintenance costs, providing a model based on cost recovery and accountability for other cities. The inaugurated project will include installation of more than 5,000 feet (nearly one mile) of pipe from the existing facility down Monrovia Road to Gbassalor Road and toward the Fanti Town Community, along with four community kiosks.

The Global Sanitation Fund programme in Malawi is aimed at implementing sanitation and hygiene initiatives that will help the Government of Malawi to attain its vision of ensuring Sanitation for All in the country and its mission of ensuring that all Malawians access improved sanitation facilities, practice safe hygiene and re-use or recycle waste for the sustainable management of the environment and socio-economic development. The programme will help in reducing Malawi’s open defecation which the JMP 2013 Update (World Health Organization and UNICEF) estimates to stand at 7% in 2011. This reduction in open defecation will be achieved through: • t r i g g e r i n g 3,600 villages and 274 schools in the six districts using Community Led Total Sanitation and School Led Total Sanitation approaches, respectively, and promoting the adoption of improved sanitation and hygiene practices; • conducting sanitation marketing in support of the triggering; • developing the capacity of government, civil society organizations and private sector actors in hygiene and sanitation promotion; • supporting the planning and implementation of sanitation and hygiene activities at district level; • documenting lessons learnt to help improve programming in sanitation and hygiene.

Nigeria

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative Meets in Abuja The first Rural Water and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI) Coordination Committee took place in in Abuja, Nigeria on 5 December 2013. The meeting aimed to facilitate coordination at national and regional levels and to create an effective platform for coordinating RWSSI advocacy activities Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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NEWS in brief supplementing the African M i n i s t e r ’s C o u n c i l on Water’s (AMCOW) p o l i t i c a l Abuja gate leadership role. It provides the framework for exchanging regional experiences with rural water and sanitation programs In Africa.

Around Africa

Africa’s 54 countries. Only 19 countries on the continent are expected to achieve the Millennium Development Goals for water and only 7 for sanitation. The next RCC will take place on the occasion of the Africa Water Week in Dakar in May 2014.

Rwanda Sanitation Still a Challenge in Informal Settlements A preliminary report by the Institute for Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) on sanitation in Kigali, Kisumu, Kenya and Kampala, Uganda reveals that informal Kigali Poor Community settlements in these three cities still present challenges in sanitation.

Presenting the Nigerian government’s efforts in the rural water and sanitation sector, Rufus Onyeanusi, Deputy Director in the Federal Water Ministry, pointed out that “between 2011 and 2012, the Federal Government through the Federal Ministry of Water Resources rehabilitated 1000 numbers dysfunctional hand pump boreholes across Nigeria”. For his part, Bernard Mutinda Mulwa, Kenyan Director Water Supply, reported that within the Kenyan decentralization policy the rural Water Supply and Sanitation Researchers indicated that the research project, started in sector has received increased attention and funding. 2011, was conducted purposively in areas identified as the The representatives of the World Bank, France and worst in sanitation in order to find out the status of these Switzerland saw a lot of potential in RWSSI as its overall locations. In the city of Kigali, the two areas identified were objective is about reducing poverty of the rural populations Kimisagara and Gatsata in Nyarugenge district. through improving access to water and sanitation. In his presentation, Aime Tsinda, a PhD student researcher, They agreed that Rural Water and Sanitation Initiative indicated that problems of poor sanitation in Kigali, as Coordination Committee (RCC) offers a unique opportunity well as in the two other cities in the region, are associated to engage with key actors, including representatives from with informal settlements, poor accessibility of sanitation the water sector, but also from ministries of finance, civil facilities, lack of information, lack of empting services society organizations and development partners and media, due to the absence of affordable empting machines, cost from African countries. of transport of wastes, topography, insufficient space to The meeting issued three recommendations: build sanitation facilities, and at some points difficulties in • to highlight best practices in rural water and obtaining permits. sanitation in close collaboration with key knowledge Yet, he presented some other determinants of poor partners sanitation like tenancy, age, gender and financial capacities. • to strengthen the advocacy for rural water and According to him, tenants are less likely to improve sanitation investments in each country and at regional sanitation as they move homes often, unlike homeowners level who tend to be more interested in long-term investment in • to improve the monitoring and evaluation systems at their properties. national level for rural water and sanitation services, “If we want Rwanda to improve in sanitation, there is a with a special view on the UN strategic development need of partnership between tenants and landlords,” Tsinda goals from 2015 onwards pointed out. Chiji Ojukwu, representing the African Development Bank and Bai Mass Tall, the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) Executive Secretary, representing AMCOW, cochaired the meeting. They were welcomed by Bello Tunau, on behalf Sarah Reng Ochekpe, Nigerian Minister of Water. Access to safe drinking water and sanitation services remains a challenge for the rural population in most of 6

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Tsinda also revealed that houses managed by women are likely to be more compliant to sanitation than those managed by men. “Women are more likely to improve sanitation than men as in African tradition, sanitation is the role of woman,” he noted. The research findings also revealed that the more people use


NEWS in brief

Around Africa

same pit latrine, the more complicated is sanitation. In Kampala and Kisumu, researchers indicated that emptying systems for latrines is something that Kigali still lags behind in. John Mugabo, in charge of environment management at the Kigali City Council, said that the problem of poor sanitation is not only associated to lack of financial means. Commenting on poor empting services in the city, Mugabo associated it to the culture of Rwandans accustomed with closing the latrines after they are full. But, he indicated that the fact of not empting does not cause a great danger to people’s sanitation, as he explained that the city has adopted a way of reducing the size of the latrine once full, through using organic digesters which help in decomposition of the waste in latrines. On the issue of unplanned settlements, which are susceptible to flooding during rainy seasons, Mugabo stressed that the government has a plan to resettle people from the high risk flood zones as well as the implement the Kigali master plan to avoid unplanned settlement and its consequences. According to Katrina Charles, a researcher from Robens Center for Public and Environmental health at University of Surrey in the United Kingdom who spearheaded the research, slums in the cities present big problems of sanitation. She called upon residents to commit to sanitary living for their health.

Durban

professionals working in municipal management whose job it is to make the money stretch. “In spite of the fact that we’ve had consistently good rainfall for the last 10 years and Durban is getting wetter, we’re in deficit because of our inability to store water,” says Macleod. It’s a strange conundrum, and one that other cities are dealing with as well – cities like Chicago and Chennai, India, which are suddenly finding that, despite their copious rainfall, they suddenly have to worry about having enough water. “There’s simply not enough storage.

“Sanitation is a social good,” Charles said. Yet, she indicated that Rwanda is doing well in improving sanitation thanks to community workers and committed local leadership. “Rwanda is improving sanitation with Umuganda,” she stated.

South Africa Durban Loses a Third of Its Drinking Water Before It Reaches Its Destination Neil Macleod hurries into his office in downtown Durban. He’s in between meetings, and in true South African fashion, he’s running more than a bit behind schedule. Indeed, the sixty-something civil servant looks appropriately harried for a man whose job it is to save water in a city that loses over one-third of its supply before it reaches its intended destination. A respected engineer, Macleod has spent his entire adult life working for the eThekwini municipality, the Zulu name for Durban. He is the head of water and sanitation in this balmy metropole of four million residents, part of a dwindling pool of skilled Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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NEWS in brief Six dams can’t cope with the inward migration into the city and rain doesn’t fall in manageable dollops,” says Macleod. “We have to ensure we have enough water moving forward.” Easier said than done. The cost of dams and reservoirs is prohibitive. Desalination is also expensive – it costs R4 (40 US cents) to provide a kiloliter of water through the conventional system versus R10 ($1) via desalination. Durban has an annual budget of R31 billion and Macleod gets around R7 billion of that, about 20 percent of which is spent on capital projects. And so, Macleod believes, the cheapest and cleverest way to increase the city’s water supply is to manage the losses, which, in sprawling Durban, could quench the thirst of thousands. Every year the city loses a whopping 37 percent of its municipal supply in transit – 120,000 megaliters disappearing from a total of 321,600 megaliters of water in circulation. (One megaliter is equal to one million liters). Half of this water vanishes through an aging, leaking web of infrastructure that only grows bigger as the city develops ever outwards from the historical settlement around the port. The other half is lost to illegal water connections. Durban, postcard pretty though it may be, is also home to about 500 informal shack settlements housing approximately one million people.

Tanzania Poor Sanitation Claims 1,500 Lives of Women and Girls At least 1,500 women and girls die every year from diseases related to water and sanitation in Tanzania It is that Photo: UNESCO estimated 1,500 women and girls die every year from diseases brought about by lack of access to sanitation and water in the country. According to the report published by Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, WaterAid and Unilever, nearly nine out of ten women in Tanzania risk shame, disease and dignity because they have nowhere safe to go to the toilet and 2.8 million women have no choice but to go to relieve themselves out in the open. “A collaborative approach between the Tanzanian Government, civil society and business is essential in getting the Millennium Development Goal sanitation target back 8

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Around Africa

on track in order to improve the health and prosperity of women in the country,” say the report. The report published on the first United Nations (UN) to recognise World Toilet Day, serves as a reminder of the around 40 million people lacking access to an improved toilet in Tanzania, with devastating consequences in particular for the wellbeing, health, education and empowerment of women and girls in the country. WaterAid Tanzania Country Representative, Dr Ibrahim Kabole calls for government, civil society and business community to team up towards tackling sanitation for women’s health in the country.

AMCOW Receives 2 million Euros in AWF Funding for Water Sector Reporting The African Water Facility (AWF) has offered the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) a €2 million grant to establish a monitoring and reporting system for the water sector in Africa. The project is in line with the Africa Water Vision call for action for the creation of a sustainable system for monitoring and sharing of information on all aspects of water use in the continent. Its objective is to develop a harmonized national, basin and regional water sector monitoring and reporting system in Africa to enable AMCOW to report annually to the African Union (AU) Summit on the state of water in Africa. The project will also assist AMCOW and AU to establish a data management system that will drive continuous credible reporting on the sector on the state of water development and use for decision making at the level of Heads of State and Governments. “AWF will continue to catalyze actions to propel the provision of water and safe sanitation to more African populations and to actualize more efficient development and management of our water resources. And one of the surest ways of doing this is to develop an efficient system of monitoring and evaluating what we do,” said Akissa Bahri, the AWF Coordinator at the signing of the contract at the just-concluded AWF Governing Council meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe. To AMCOW Executive Secretary, Bai Mass Taal, “This project will enable us promote greater country accountability on Sharm el-Sheikh Commitments made by our Heads of States on water and sanitation. However, the greater beneficiaries will be the people of Africa who


NEWS in brief are going to benefit from greater access to drinking water and safe sanitation as direct fallouts from such increased accountability actions by Governments and other actors in the sector.” The project to be implemented by AMCOW Secretariat over a period of 24 months consists of four main components: (i) preparation of a harmonized reporting system and format; (ii) preparation of the annual reports based on harmonized system (iii) capacity building of AUC and AMCOW including establishment of data management and reporting platform as well as training and (iv) project management. AWF Supports the Development of Irrigated Agriculture to Malawi The African Water Facility (AWF) has offered a €1.8 million grant to the Government of Malawi to help prepare a project designed to expand irrigated agriculture in the Lower Shire Valley. The project will help overcome the adverse effect of prolonged dry spells and frequent flooding to improve and spread agricultural production. It will also create opportunity for employment through the establishment of smallholder farming ventures and professionally operated irrigation services. Over 272,000 people are expected to benefit from this project. Malawi depends largely on rain-fed agriculture to achieve food security and socio-economic growth. Agricultural productivity and production under rain-fed conditions are low and uncertain, however, in particular owing to unreliable rainfall and natural disasters such as erratic rains, dry spells, pest and diseases, droughts and floods. Since Malawi is endowed with underutilized water and irrigable land, the Government places a high priority on irrigation development to increase crop productivity

Around Africa

and production, for food security for both domestic and export markets. The Lower Shire Valley is one of the most fertile areas of Malawi, boasting rich deep soils with important irrigation potential. The Government’s plan is to develop this potential within the administrative districts of Chikwawa and Nsanje in various phases to cover a total of 42,500 hectares, by extracting water from the river and conveying it by gravity to the irrigable area mainly through open canals. “The Government of Malawi has long wanted to develop irrigated agriculture in the Lower Shire Valley, but a number of challenges have stood in the way of project implementation,” noted Akissa Bahri, Coordinator of the African Water Facility. “In coordination with the World Bank, we are bringing our support to address these issues namely by assessing outstanding technical issues and supporting the Government in mobilizing financing. These studies will also help defining win-win ventures between smallholders and the private sector, so that this project can be economically sustainable and provide more benefits and jobs to local populations.” The estimated total cost of the project preparation activities is €5.3 million, of which €1.8 million is covered by the AWF, €3.4 million by the World Bank, and €73,000 by the Government. The grant will be specifically used to finance a feasibility study and preparatory activities to mobilize financing for the first phase of the irrigation plan which will cover 21,000 ha of land area, which could cost up to €231 million. The overall project will also explore a public-private partnership arrangement to mobilize private financing to cover part of the investment costs involved for the inlet and feeder canals.

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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NEWS in brief Launch of World Water Development Report announced

The United Nations World Water Development Report (WWDR) 2014 on Water and Energy seeks to inform decision-makers (inside and outside the water and energy domains), stakeholders and practitioners about the interlinkages, potential synergies and trade-offs, and to highlight the need for appropriate responses and regulatory frameworks that account for both water and energy priorities. The Report provides a comprehensive overview of major and emerging trends from around the world, with examples of how some of the trend-related challenges have been addressed, their implications for policy-makers, and further actions that can be taken by stakeholders and the international community. The Report will be launched on 21 March 2014 during the main celebrations of World Water Day in Tokyo, Japan. FDA Cracks Down On Antibacterial Soaps

Daily use of special germ killing soaps in homes may be causing more harm than good, according to health researchers. Credit Andy Melton

The Food and Drug Administration is cracking down on antibacterial soaps: The federal agency wants manufacturers to prove these products are safe – and are actually more 10

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Global Highlights

effective than regular soap. The move is prompted by concern that the widespread use of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance. Dr. Nasia Safdar is infection control director for University of Wisconsin Health and chief of staff of research at the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital in Madison. She supports a proposal requiring makers of hygiene products containing a germ killing ingredient called triclosan to submit safety data to the FDA. “Triclosan is an example of a chemical that is literally in so many different types of products it is mind boggling,” says Safdar. “There’s very little evidence that antibacterial in deodorants and things like that does anything to reduce your risk of infection.” The proposed FDA rule does not affect hand sanitizers, wipes, or antibacterial products used in health care settings. Safdar says daily use of special germ killing soaps in homes may be causing more harm than good. “When you go out into the larger world, the risk of infection is pretty small and so is it worthwhile using all these chemicals that will then engender resistance to those chemicals among the organisms they’re designed to target,” says Safdar. The proposed rule does not require the antibacterial soap products to be removed from the market. Rather, it asks companies to reformulate or re-label products if they can’t prove they are safe and effective. CGIAR Funding Doubles to $1 Billion The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has announced a doubling of its funding of $500 million in 2008 to $1 billion in 2013. CGIAR officials say that the commitment could help lift 150 million people in Asia out of poverty through higher rice yields, provide 12 million households in Africa with sustainable irrigation, and prevent 1.7 million hectares of deforestation. According to Frank Rijsberman, CEO of the CGIAR Consortium, “The $1 billion in funding will help finance CGIAR’s 16 global research programs and accelerate the development of scientific, policy and technological advances needed to overcome complex challenges – such as climate change, water scarcity, land degradation, and chronic malnutrition, greatly improving the well-being of millions of poor families across the developing world.” CGIAR anticipates that specific outcomes from its research programs could include, among others: access to vitamin and mineral rich food crops for 50 million malnourished people by 2018; increased harvests of grain legumes providing 2.1 million tons of extra protein in low-income regions by 2022; and a 30% rise in fish production and fish farming in Egypt, also by 2022.


NEWS in brief

Global Highlights

Raise water spending, get $1.0 trillion benefits Sharply higher spending on water supplies, twinned with a crackdown on corruption, would yield more than a trillion dollars a year in economic, health and environmental benefits, a U.N.-backed study said on December 5, last year. “Corruption is the elephant in the room” for improved water supplies, said Zafar Adeel, director of the U.N. University’s Institute for Water, Environment and Health, which was a co-producer of the report. The study said investments of $840 billion to $1.8 trillion a year, or up to about 2.2 percent of world gross domestic product, would be needed over 20 years to provide universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation and to improve other services such as irrigation and hydro power.

the Water Integrity Network in Berlin, which has ties to Transparency International. “Much of the impact of this corruption falls on the poor and those without access to water,” according to Wednesday’s report, produced with the U.N. Office for Sustainable Development and the Stockholm Environment Institute. Adeel said that companies and aid agencies could try to invest directly in local projects in developing nations, bypassing central governments, to limit the risk of corruption. Major companies in the water sector include France’s Veolia and Suez, and Xylem Inc and GE Water of the United States. All say they try to stamp out corruption. Malaria deaths among children under five halved since turn of the century World Health Organisation report identifies 51% drop among under-fives between 2000-12 and 45% fall across all ages

Dr. Zafar Adeel

That would mark a sharp rise from the current $500 billion invested each year but yield benefits of at least $3.0 trillion a year, or more than $1.0 trillion above the highest projected spending, it said. Benefits would include “direct economic return, livelihood creation, health system savings, and the preservation of nature’s ecosystem services”, according to the study, which said it was the first long-term estimate for water costs. Adeel told Reuters the benefit and cost estimates were intended to help debate about water, a sector that faces strains from a rising world population, pollution and climate change. Drinking Water Almost 2.5 billion of the world’s 7 billion people lack access to sanitation, and about 770 million lack safe drinking water, U.N. data show. The report cited a 2008 study by Transparency International that said about 30 percent of spending on water-related infrastructure in developing nations today is lost to corruption. Transparency International said, for instance, that aquifers in 90 percent of Chinese cities were polluted because of lax enforcement of environmental laws. In Mexico, it said irrigation subsidies were skewed towards the biggest farmers. “I’ve no indications that the fight against corruption, except perhaps for some small cases, has made much progress” since 2008, said Teun Bastemeijer, director of

A mother holds antimalarial drugs at a medical centre in the DRC. Malaria-related deaths among young children are falling

The number of children under the age of five dying from malaria has halved since 2000 and is predicted to fall still further over the next two years, according to the World Health Organisation’s flagship report on the disease. Between 2000 and 2012, malaria deaths among under-fives fell by 51%, says the 2013 world malaria report, published on Wednesday. Across all age groups, global deaths fell by an estimated 45%. If the trend continues, deaths will fall by 63% for children under five and by 56% for all ages by 2015, big steps towards meeting global targets to reduce malaria cases and mortality rates. The report estimates that 3.3m malaria deaths have been averted since 2001, more than two-thirds in the 10 countries with the highest number of malaria cases in 2000. About 3m of those deaths would have been among children under five living in sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO says greater political commitment and funding to prevent and treat the disease since 2000 has cut incidences of malaria globally by 29% and in Africa by 31%. In 2012, there were estimated 207m cases of malaria Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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NEWS in brief

Global Highlights

worldwide and 627,000 malaria deaths, most of which occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Source: UN Wire Devastation of Typhoon Haiyan still haunts children Children need support, education to overcome trauma, build resilience UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake, after a four day visit to the Philippines, said that he was deeply impressed by the spirit of the people and the communities working with the government, United Nations and other partners to rebuild their lives and futures. The massive typhoon disrupted the lives of nearly six million children and destroyed the homes of 1.4 million children and their families. “While I had followed the reports of progress closely from UNICEF’s New York Headquarters, no statistics can adequately capture the physical and human challenges that remain,” said Lake. “I came here not only to see the progress first-hand, but also to thank our UNICEF staff who have been here from the start and will continue to support the rebuilding effort for the long term.” UNICEF has mobilized experts from all over the world to support the relief effort, increasing the staff on the ground to over 100 people to coordinate a plan for recovery to strengthen services for children. This will include working with the government and partners in supporting back-tolearning efforts; strengthening the child protection system, working on reestablishing and rehabilitating water systems and the cold chain for delivery of safe vaccines and providing services to children threatened by malnutrition. The children’s agency helped restore water to the city of Tacloban eight days after the Typhoon struck, and aims to assist in restoring safe water to more than 60 communities. The Philippine government re-opened schools in the area on December 2, and principals and educators were already working to help children resume learning even in the absence of books and classrooms. All over the islands, communities are working together to clean schools; 193 classroom-sized tents have been erected for close to 20,000 students, and over 50,000 children are benefitting from UNICEF school supplies. UNICEF is providing child-friendly tents for children and mother-baby tents staffed with trained volunteers are there to help children process the pain of their experiences. UNICEF is also working closely with teachers and administrators to support the challenges of working with children who have suffered great loss. 12

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

The children’s agency has trained 44 police and social workers throughout the affected areas to identify children who have been separated from their families and may be in need of special care. “None of this could have been done without the support UNICEF has received for the Philippines from around the world, especially from individuals and private sector partners through our national committees,” said Lake. Lake met and spoke with children, teachers and parents at numerous schools, learning spaces, child-friendly tents and vaccination sites in Leyte and Eastern Samar on December 14 & 15, 2013. Stars Impact Awards 2014 The Stars Foundation has launched the 2014 Stars Impact Awards recognizing outstanding national organizations working to improve the lives of disadvantaged children in the areas of WASH, Education, Health and Child Protection. This year applications were invited from the new region of Latin America and the Caribbean, in addition to a number of new countries in our existing regions of Africa-Middle East and Asia-Pacific. There are 24 Awards in total that will be split across these three regions and we will be awarding in the four categories of Health, Education, Protection and WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene). The main Impact Award will be given to four winners per region that will each receive $100,000 of unrestricted funding together with a bespoke package of consultancy, PR support and media training. Runners Up will receive up to $50,000 of unrestricted funding in addition to consultancy support. Our approach is different from most donors as we support organizations rather than projects to ensure their sustainable role in responding to their communities’ needs.


NEWS in brief New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good! The Tiger Roars: New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good!

Excerpts - DIV is delighted to announce a new Stage 1 award of over $170,000 to Bear Valley Ventures Ltd to conduct a field trial of the Tiger Toilet in India, Uganda, and Burma. The Tiger Toilet is a latrine system that has the potential to be an affordable, compact, and superior alternative to pit latrines and septic tanks. It harnesses the capabilities of composting worms such as the Tiger Worm (Eisenia fetida), to digest the solids within the system, making it very compact and particularly suitable to high density urban environments. The project aims to address the global challenge of providing access to adequate sanitation; worldwide, over 4 billion people currently use latrines that can be unpleasant and unhygienic or lack sanitation provisions entirely. Sewered systems will never be a reality for many around the world; therefore an on-site (i.e. a system that does not require piping the waste off-site for treatment) option is needed. Presently the best on-site option is a septic tank, which is often financially out of reach.

Walter Gibson, Director of Bear Valley Ventures, adds that “Vast numbers of people in the world have to put up with inadequate sanitation every day of their lives. It’s imperative that we develop better, more affordable solutions that address their needs and aspirations for a decent toilet. We believe the Tiger Toilet represents one such option. We are very grateful to USAID for this support which allows us to test its potential.” The Tiger Toilet is linked to a normal pour flush system, so the user experience is therefore the same as using a septic tank or a pour flush latrine. The waste then enters a tank which contains the worms and a drainage layer. The solids are trapped at the top of the system where the worms consume it, and the liquid is filtered through the drainage layer. Extensive laboratory scale trials found that the worms reduce the solids in the system by above 80%, and the effluent quality is higher than that from a septic tank. An initial prototype has been running at the Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales, UK for over a year. Source: USAID Development Innovation Ventures

Global Highlights

‘Water for Life’ UN-Water Best Practices Award The purpose of the ‘Water for Life’ UN-Water Best Practices Award is to promote efforts to fulfil international commitments made on water and water-related issues by 2015 through recognition of outstanding best practices that can ensure the long-term sustainable management of water resources and contribute to the achievement of internationally agreed goals and targets contained in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. The Award is open to projects or programmes achieving particularly effective results in the field of water management or in raising awareness in water issues. The prize is awarded yearly in two categories, one in ‘best water management practices’ and another one in ‘best participatory, communication, awareness-raising and education practices’. The 2014 edition focuses is on Water and Energy in line with World Water Day 2014. The application period for the 2014 edition is now closed. The winners in each category will be announced during a special ceremony which will take place during the main celebrations of World Water Day 2014 in Tokyo, Japan.

Main World Water Day celebrations to take place in Japan

The main celebrations of World Water Day will be organized by UNU and UNIDO on behalf of UN-Water on 20-21 March 2014 and will take place at the UNU Headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. On this occasion, the World Water Development Report 2014 on Water and Energy will be launched, and the UN-Water “Water for Life” Best Practices Award will be given. The winner of the Stockholm Water Prize will also be announced.

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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Sanitation

Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation By Cor Dietvorst and Blake McKinlay microfinance issues, and country studies from Ghana, Kenya, among others. Reports/Webinars Understanding Willingness to Pay for Sanitary Latrines in Rural Cambodia: Findings from Four Field Experiments of iDE Cambodia’s Sanitation Marketing Program, 2013. N Shah,

IDinsight.

Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report (1) WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda. The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are: 1. Think like a business 2. Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs 3. Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market

4. Track progress and lessons

The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant. Many thanks to Blake McKinlay from iDE for suggesting the topic for this issue and for sharing an interesting study in Cambodia on determining the impact microfinance has on the uptake of latrines. Other resources include a justpublished Water for the People review of its microfinance experiences in seven countries, a SHARE blog post on 14

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Given the low willingness to pay for latrines with cash, efforts to sell latrines at market price without any financing mechanism will lead to continued low penetration. The major implication of this study is that offering microfinance loans for latrines will dramatically increase uptake of latrines, while also making distribution significantly cheaper per latrine sold. Large-scale efforts to offer financing packages for latrines should be aggressively pursued in rural Cambodia and have the potential to increase latrine coverage from the current national rural level of 20 percent to 60 percent. Evaluating the Potential of Microfinance for Sanitation in Tanzania, 2013. S Trémolet, SHARE

Microfinance could be used in two main ways to promote access to sustainable sanitation services: by enabling households to spread out the costs of investing in household sanitation solutions (such as latrines and septic tanks), thereby improving the affordability of such investments and by supporting the development of a broad range of sanitation service providers, including masons, communal toilet block operators, or pit latrine emptiers. Improved Sanitation and its Impact on Children: An Exploration of Sanergy, 2013. H Esper.

This child impact case study examines the positive impacts of improved sanitation on households and communities, using Sanergy’s experience in Kenya. This for-profit enterprise operates franchises in Nairobi’s slums and provides modular sanitation facilities and entrepreneurial training. Market-Based Financing: WSP/RWSN Webinar Series,

2013.

This webinar explores experiences with using local banks to provide commercial or semi-commercial loans for the


Water & Energy construction, expansion, and major rehabilitation of rural and small town water schemes, using cases from Kenya and Uganda. (1) Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation: a synthesis of Water for People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO, USA: Water for People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitationmicrofinance.pdf>

To learn how best to facilitate sanitation microfinance, Water for People has been piloting various lending models with diverse partners in seven countries (Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda, and Uganda). This report aims to synthesize these experiences to inform general guidance for initiating and improving programs, providing lessons learned and recommendations. Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013

Water Shortages Slow Energy Production Worldwide

New Thirsty Energy initiative to help countries mitigate impact of water scarcity on energy security The World Bank is launching a new initiative at the World Future Energy Summit and International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi that will help developing countries better plan and manage scaling-up energy capacity to meet rising demand, in tandem with water resource management. Producing energy requires a lot of water. Yet, the availability of and access to water is negatively impacting energy production around the world. Last year alone, water shortages shut down thermal power plants in India, decreased energy production in power plants in the United States and threatened hydropower generation in many countries, including Sri Lanka, China and Brazil. The problem is expected only to get worse. By 2035, the world’s energy consumption will increase by 35 percent, which in turn will increase water consumption by 85percent, according to the International Energy Agency. “The world’s energy and water are inextricably linked. With demand rising for both resources and increasing challenges from climate change, water scarcity can threaten the long-term viability of energy projects and hinder development,”said Rachel Kyte, World Bank Group Vice President and Special Envoy for Climate Change. Part of the challenge for the energy sector is the competing demand for water. This demand will grow as the world’s population reaches 9 billion, requiring a 50 percent increase in agricultural production and a 15 percent increase in already-strained water withdrawals. With two-thirds of the world’s population - or 5 billion people - urbanized by 2030, cities in developing countries will be under tremendous pressure to meet the demand for food, energy, and water services. Yet today, some 780 million people lack access to improved water and 2.5 billion, more than one-third of the world’s people, do not

have basic sanitation. Thirsty Energy is a global initiative aimed to help governments prepare for an uncertain future by: • • •

identifying synergies and quantifying tradeoffs between energy development plans and water use piloting cross-sectoral planning to ensure sustainability of energy and water investments designing assessment tools and management frameworks to help governments coordinate decision-making

With the energy sector as an entry point, initial workhas already started in South Africa and dialogue has been initiated in Bangladesh, Morocco, and Brazil where the challenges have already manifested and thus where demand exists for integrated approaches. Failing to anticipate water constraints in energy investments can increase risks and costs for energy projects. In fact, the majority of energy and utility companies consider water a substantive risk and report water-related business impacts. The issue is too large for any partner or sector to tackle alone. “Water constraints on the energy sector can be overcome, but all stakeholders, public and private, must work together to develop innovative tools and use water as a guiding factor for assessing viability of projects,” said Maria van der Hoeven, Executive Director of the International Energy Agency.The absence of integrated planning is unsustainable.” Solutions exist, but countries must continue to innovate and adapt policies and technology to address the complexity of the landscape. These solutions include technological development and adoption, improved operations to reduce water use and impacts in water quality, and strong integrated planning. Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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People

Secretary-General’s Statement on the Death of Nelson Mandela The former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela died on 5 December, 2013 aged 95. Mr Mandela is survived by his wife Graça Machel, three daughters Makaziwe, Zenani and Zindzi, as well as 20 grandchildren.

The late Mandela

New York, 5 December 2013 Nelson Mandela was a singular figure on the global stage -- a man of quiet dignity and towering achievement, a giant for justice and a down-to-earth human inspiration. I am profoundly saddened by his passing. On behalf of the United Nations, I extend my deepest condolences to the people of South Africa and especially to Nelson Mandela’s family and loved ones. Many around the world were greatly influenced by his selfless struggle for human dignity, equality and freedom. He touched our lives in deeply personal ways. At the same time, no one did more in our time to advance the values and aspirations of the United Nations. Nelson Mandela devoted his life to the service of his people and humanity, and he did so at great personal sacrifice. His principled stance and the moral force that underpinned it were decisive in dismantling the system of apartheid. Remarkably, he emerged from

27 years of detention without rancor, determined to build a new South Africa based on dialogue and understanding. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission established under his leadership remains a model for achieving justice in societies confronting a legacy of human rights abuses. In the decades-long fight against apartheid, the United Nations stood side-by-side with Nelson Mandela and all those in South Africa who faced unrelenting racism and discrimination. His 1994 address to the General Assembly as the first democratically elected President of a free South Africa was a defining moment. The Assembly has declared 18 July, his birthday, “Nelson Mandela International Day”, an annual observance on which we recognize and seek to build on his contributions to promoting a culture of peace and freedom around the world. I was privileged to meet Nelson Mandela in 2009. When I thanked him for his life’s work, he insisted the credit belonged to others. I was very moved by his selflessness and deep sense of shared purpose. Nelson Mandela showed what is possible for our world and within each one of us -- if we believe, dream and work together. Let us continue each day to be inspired by his lifelong example and his call to never cease working for a better and more just world.

Former South African President Nelson Mandela poses with his grandchildren...

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Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Oprah Winfrey Recalls Memories of...

Happy couple Nelson Mandela and his wife and wife Graca Machel

Nelson Mandela and Queen Elizabeth II ride in a carriage along The Mall

Mandela with Clinton

Michelle Obama with Mandela

Former president Nelson Mandela and the late Princess Diana


People Cap-Net welcomes Sonia Luz Cap-Net UNDP welcomed Sonia Luz in December 2013 as Programme Associate. She’s originally from Portugal, and obtained her BA in the UK and MSc in Denmark both focusing in international development, global Sonia Luz politics, history and economics. Besides these subjects she also did research about Social Cohesion and decriminalization of Drugs in Portugal for her Master Thesis. She brings with her extensive UN experience in capacity development, training and human resources from working in UN and EU agencies. Sonia enjoys travelling, getting to know new cultures and languages and is also interested in areas of social cohesion and development. Sonia will also join Cap-Net in the new office in Rio de Janeiro starting this year 2014.

Dr. Therese Sjömander Magnusson Dr. Therese Sjömander-Magnusson has taken up the post as the Director for SIWI’s the Transboundary Waters Programme starting December 1. Dr. Sjömander-Magnusson is a geographer and a water resource expert with a research background Dr. Therese from Linköping University. She has Sjömander-Magnusson extensive experience from working on transboundary water resources in Africa and joins SIWI from Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), where she was Senior Water and Sanitation Advisor and Deputy Head of the Policy Support Unit.

Former UN General Assembly president appointed to disaster risk reduction, water post Han Seung-soo of the Republic of Korea has been appointed to rally commitments from Member States, the private sector and civil society to support the United Nations’ work on water related disaster risk reduction, it was announced today. Han Seung-soo Mr. Han will be Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s Special Envoy for Disaster Risk Reduction and Water, a position is particularly relevant given the advancements being made on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda to follow the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The appointment also comes amid preparations for the post-2015 Hyogo Framework for Action, which will

succeed the 10-year Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) created at the 2005 conference in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. The HFA sets five priorities for action, and offers guiding principles and practical means for achieving disaster resilience. Its goal is to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 by building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Mr. Han served as Chairperson of the Global Green Growth Institute Governing Board and, in 2011 – 2012, was a member of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability prior to the Rio+20 Summit. He also served as his country’s Prime Minister between 2008 and 2009 and as President of the 56th session of the UN General Assembly in 2001. According to information from Mr. Ban’s spokesperson, Mr. Han also previously served as Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Climate Change and “has deep understanding of climate change and its impact on the frequency and intensity of water related disasters.” He currently serves as Chair of the High-Level Experts and Leaders Panel on Water and Disasters and as a member of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation. A recipient of an Honorary Knighthood from HM Queen Elizabeth II in 2004, Mr. Han is a current member of the Club of Madrid.

Davis & Shirtliff Achieves Erc Certification The Energy Regulatory Commission recently introduced a requirement that all engineers and technicians in the Solar industry be certified. Davis & Shirtliff (D&S) Solar Engineers recently qualified at the highest T3 level, some of the first in the country to achieve this. The T3 License is the highest level by ERC and entitles the holder to carry out installation, testing, inspection and commissioning of advanced solar PV systems work including Grid Connected & Hybrid Solar PV Systems.

From Left, Caroline Mwangi (D&S Solar Engineer), Eustance Murithii (ERC- Head of Technical Energy Efficiency), Norman Chege (D&S Solar Manager) & David Ngari (D&S Solar Engineer) Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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17th African Water Association Congress 17-20 February 2014 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire AfWA-2014Organised by: African Water Association (AfWA) and SODECI s.a. Theme: Mobilizing Resources and Governance of Water and Sanitation in Africa Sub-Themes: Integrated Management of Water Resources and Climate Change Capacity Building for improved Water and Sanitation Services advances in Water and Waste Water Treatment Technologies pro poor Water and Sanitation Services financing options for Water and Sanitation Services

7th Global FRIEND-Water Conference 24-28 February 2014 Hanoi, Viet Nam The Flow Regime from International Experimental and Network Data (FRIEND)-Water Conference 2014 will focus on the theme “Hydrology in a Changing World: Environmental and Human Dimensions.” FRIENDWater aims to facilitate understanding about how climate, human and river basin factors influence the spatial and temporal distribution of water. The 2014 conference will share knowledge on changes in hydrological processes and their impacts, including ecological flows, erosion and sedimentation, and will discuss how to develop adaptable water management and water policies to account for these impactscontact: UNESCO Secretariat e-mail: b.lwanga@unesco.org www: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/ MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/FRIEND-Water2014_ first_circular.pdf

released in August this year, shows that significant gains have already been achieved, such as increased budgets, strengthened national planning and country-level dialogue among ministers, technical stakeholders, civil society, donors and development banks.

AfricaSan 4: Fourth Africa Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene May 2014 Dakar, Senegal Organised by: African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) AfricaSan is an AMCOW initiative to help agencies and governments shape strategies for action to realize the eThekwini Commitments on sanitation in Africa. It provides a forum for sanitation technical experts to exchange lessons about approaches and technologies that work best in their local circumstances. AfricaSan 3, held in 2011 in Rwanda, drew nearly 900 people from 67 countries, including 23 African Ministers and deputy Ministers in charge of Sanitation, Water, Local Government, Health, or Infrastructure.

Water Convention 2014 (an event of Singapore International Water Week) 1st to 5th June 2014 Singapore Website: http://www.siww.com.sg/water-convention Contact person: Charmaine Tan Water Convention 2014 will examine world water trends along 5 themes: Delivering Water from Source to Tap, Effective and Efficient Wastewater Management, Water for Liveability and Resilience, Water Quality and Health & Water for Industries.

The Road to the 2014 SWA High Level Meeting

Organized by: Singapore International Water Week Pte Ltd Deadline for abstracts/proposals: 31st July 2013

11 April 2014

World Water Week in Stockholm

The third SWA High Level Meeting (HLM)

31 August - 5 September 2014

Convened by UNICEF, on behalf of the SWA Partnership, it will be hosted bythe World Bank. There is a great deal of opportunity, as well as work to be done, in the lead-up in order to generate political attention and press for greater action and accountability in the delivery of commitments.

Stockholm, Sweden

The 2012 High Level Meeting was unprecedented in attracting over 50 ministers and high-level participants. It demonstrated the increase in political prioritization of WASH that SWA has been able to achieve. The annual Progress Update of the 2012 SWA HLM commitments, 18

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

The World Water Week in Stockholm is the annual meeting place for the planet’s most urgent water-related issues. Organized by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), it brings together 2,500 experts, practitioners, decision-makers and business innovators from around the globe to exchange ideas, foster new thinking and develop solutions. In 2014, the World Water Week will be held under the theme “Energy and Water”.


Post-2015 Agenda & Groundwater

International Year of Water Cooperation Closes with Post-2015 Agenda Inputs Participants at the closing ceremony of the International Year of Water Cooperation reflected on achievements during the Year, discussed fostering further cooperation and considered the way forward, with a focus on water and the post-2015 development agenda. The ceremony took place from 5-6 December 2013, in Mexico City, Mexico. In addition, over 1000 events took place globally as part of the Water Cooperation Campaign, ranging from cycling and walking for water events, to the Ramsar Wetlands Day. Blanca Jiménez-Cisneros, International Hydrological Programme (IHP) of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), summarized the Year, including its main messages, at the ceremony. JiménezCisneros said water cooperation: builds peace and is key to socioeconomic development, poverty eradication, social equity, gender equality and environmental sustainability; creates tangible economic benefits; and is crucial to preserve water resources, ensure their sustainability and protect the environment. The closing ceremony featured messages from the Year’s milestone events. For example, a High-level Panel at World Water Day recognized water as “a prerequisite in the future development framework […] to attain vital economic, equity, employment, health, educational, agriculture/food and energy benefits and for maintaining

ecosystem services and supporting resilience to climate change.” The Declaration from the High-level International Conference on Water Cooperation recommended including “issues of water resources, drinking water and sanitation, and wastewater” in the post-2015 development agenda. The ceremony also included panels on: water security and cooperation; challenges and opportunities of cooperation, including the roles of decision-making, education and science and South-South cooperation; and the role of water in the future we want. UNESCO and UN Water will prepare a final report on the Water Cooperation Campaign, with the aim of promoting water cooperation and raising awareness on water-related objectives in the post-2015 development agenda. Individuals can contribute to the report by sharing outcomes through a questionnaire. UNESCO and UN Water will submit a second report to the UN General Assembly (UNGA) with recommendations on a water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), which will be presented to the 69th Session of the UNGA in September 2014. UNESCO organized the closing ceremony on behalf of UN Water, with the support of the Government of Mexico.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Making the case for groundwater

F

armers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have always had to deal with an unforgiving climate. The relentless cycles of drought and downpours that characterize much of the region have shaped agricultural practices for generations. Moreover, weather patterns look set to become even more unpredictable as climate change takes a firmer hold.

irrigation is growing. In some cases, irrigation has been shown to treble farm yields. An estimated 400 million rural people in Africa already rely on groundwater for their domestic needs. Although groundwater is not widely used for irrigation, it is nonetheless abundant in many areas and perennial in nature. This makes it well suited to small-scale development.

Smallholder farmers from the Cape through to the Sahel are often poor and, therefore, they lack the resources and capacity to adapt to changes. This is especially true when it comes to water management: just 5% of arable land in SSA is irrigated. As the weather becomes more and more erratic, relying on rainwater alone becomes more risky. “It has become increasingly clear that with the unstable nature of the climate, one cannot depend on rain-fed agriculture,” says Gideon Amatey, a Ghanaian rice farmer. “It can fail you at any time.”

However, despite this, Africa’s farmers continue to rely almost entirely on rainfall. Of the small area of agricultural land which is irrigated in SSA, only 10% comes from groundwater.

Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in groundwater

So, why do smallholders not make more use of groundwater? “The constraints on groundwater irrigation do not seem to be directly linked to groundwater availability,” says Paul Pavelic, Principal Researcher – Hydrogeology, at the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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Installing a water pump Photo: Joe Ronzio / IWMI

as smallholders could sustainably add over 13 million hectares of irrigation across SSA. A two-part special issue of the journal, Water International, and edited by IWMI’s Paul Pavelic, Karen Villholth and Shilp Verma, provides the first comprehensive analysis in recent years of the challenges of intensifying groundwater irrigation in SSA for improving smallholder livelihoods. The second part of the special issue has just been published. The first paper in part 2 of the special issue looks at policies and institutional factors that might explain why smallholders abstain from using groundwater. Policies and institutions “Based on two case studies from Ghana and Ethiopia, and other information from a larger set of country studies, we examined the possibility of increased groundwater irrigation in SSA,” says Mark Giordano, Associate Professor of Environment and Energy, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, USA. “We looked at policy and institutional challenges associated with direct factors, such as groundwater and irrigation policy, and then other indirect factors, such as commodity price controls, which may also impact groundwater adoption.” Based on the findings, the researchers were able to situate these challenges in a broader political economy of SSA, explaining how irrigation development priorities are set. Their findings showed a variety of reasons that explain the low levels of smallholder groundwater irrigation. “For instance, our research suggests that policy and institutional factors are, at least, partially the reason,” says Giordano. 20

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

The researchers found that water and irrigation policies often tend to ignore groundwater. However, they also identified that, even if groundwater is considered, these policies are somewhat biased against its development, focusing only on how to regulate its use. Certainly, precautionary measures make sense as groundwater tends to be easily overexploited. However, one might ask, why not promote groundwater use mainly in areas with high poverty rates and little groundwater use? Other factors found by the researchers also suggest that farmers might not see the point of investing in groundwater irrigation. Trade barriers and poor rural electrifications make access to groundwater and operational costs just too expensive. Poor supply chains and weak market linkages reduce the value of goods produced with groundwater, a large proportion of which are likely to be high-value crops. High costs of credit make access to technology difficult, and land tenure makes investments in groundwater wells risky. What is needed? “Our study clearly shows that groundwater irrigation needs to be given more consideration,” says Srinivas Chokkakula, co-author of the report. “Of course, the conditions under which groundwater may or may not be a choice depends on location, but we need to make sure groundwater is at least part of the discussion. What’s needed is a closer examination of the indirect policies which may be holding back groundwater development, and creating an environment in which farmers can profitably invest in groundwater where it is applicable.”


Damon focused on clean water for world The Oscar-winning actor Matt Damon deals with a matter of life and death at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. Davos is a gathering of the world’s global elite. differentiation is that it has a micro-finance program that is neither aid nor subsidization. Instead, it’s a credit program that encourages people in emerging markets such as India, where the need is greatest, to pay for water delivery systems — often, wells and pipes — that it helps to create and install. The idea is modeled on the pioneering micro-finance ideas of Muhammad Yunus.

Water.org founders Gary White, left, and Matt Damon in Davos, Switzerland, on Jan. 23, 2014.

“Everybody’s got a different reason to be interested on water in terms of security and scarcity. Our interest (Water.org’s) is in access to it,” Damon said.

“It’s just so unthinkable to those of us who grew up in America or Canada that anybody could ever lack access to clean water,” said Damon, 43, who has traveled to this stunning Alpine setting close to the borders of Austria and Italy to talk about a seemingly mundane, yet frustratingly deadly problem.

He said that 250,000 people have gone through Water.org’s credit program, in most cases borrowing around $150, and that 97% of those loans have been repaid. Water.org recently launched an investment fund that will seek to raise capital that can then be used for micro-loans.

Nearly 1 billion people lack a safe and consistent way of getting water, and onethird of the world’s population — 2.5 billion people — don’t have regular access to sanitation facilities. More people have a cellphone than have a toilet, and every 20 seconds, a child dies for lack of access to clean water and sanitation, according to Water.org, the non-profit that Damon founded with Gary White, a widely praised engineer and social entrepreneur who has been active in the water field for more than two decades.

“Gary and Matt are very aware of the importance of designing systems that can be managed by the local community,” said WaterAid’s Winder.

“Years ago, I took a side trip to the slums of Guatemala City and was blown away by the kids collecting contaminated water, and the sewage there, so I started learning more about the problem and realized that with water, I could match up my interest in engineering with social justice,” said White, also in Davos. The water crisis is a problem that has many fronts, and organizations devoted to finding solutions favor different approaches, says David Winder, chief executive of WaterAid, a fellow firm in the field. Some groups are more explicitly engaged in hands-on engineering, while others are geared more heavily toward advocacy. Industry expert’s say that Water.org’s point of

The water crisis is a major topic at this year’s WEF and ranked third in the WEF’s top 10 global risks for 2014. In reply to a question about what gets done during Davos week, Damon said: “It’s better to have these conventions where these issues are put on the table than not. Coming to a place like this, it’s undeniable that we are all sharing the same world. Serious discussions are taking place, so hopefully, serious things will get done.” White chipped in: “Without being too presumptuous, it’s about bringing the poor to the table. They are the ones dying every day for lack of clean water.” Damon’s interest and commitment to the issue appears beyond dispute. “This is my one hobby outside of making films,” he said Thursday in Davos. “It’s my other job.” He said he did not know exactly how much time he spends working for Water.org, but he suspected that it was at least 10%. “It comes in bursts,” he said. “It’s not really possible to do a quick trip to India.”


Publications

A Market Led, Evidence Based Approach to Rural Sanitation Monitor Inclusive Markets, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, has written a white paper titled “A Market Led, Evidence Based Approach to Rural Sanitation” on supply side market-based approaches to scale rural sanitation in India, based mainly on findings from the PSI-led “Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements” (3SI) project in Bihar and supplemented by additional investigation of interventions in other parts of India. The white paper explains that demand for toilets does exist in rural India, and the availability of quality and affordable products as well as financing are key levers to unlocking this demand. It goes on to propose business models that could profitably deliver solutions that meet customer needs, and highlights players in the sanitation ecosystem who could serve as the “market maker,” conducting market-building activities and creating an enabling environment for growth. Please visit www.inclusive-markets.org/sanitation to see a more complete set of outputs from the 3SI project as well as annexures to the white paper providing overviews of some organizations already delivering sanitation solutions or providing sanitation financing in rural India. GWF Showcases Solutions to Peri-Urban Water Access in South Asia

The Global Water Forum (GWF) published a discussion paper that examines transboundary solutions to the periurban water access deficit in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) using case study examples from Bangladesh and India. The paper, titled ‘Redressing the emerging governance crisis in peri-urban water access: Evidence from South Asia,’ describes challenges in peri-urban water access, including the under-representation of peri-urban areas in government statistics. The paper’s author, Gregory Pierce, argues that this under-representation contributes to a poor understanding of urban-rural dynamics. Pierce identifies the “uncertain status in local governance structures” of peri-urban households as the main obstacle to ensuring 38

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

adequate water service for such households. He highlights water disparities between urban and rural areas, noting that clean water typically flows into central city areas from the periphery while wastewater effluent flows out from cities to peri-urban areas. The two examples showcase social entrepreneurship as a solution to peri-urban household water service provision. In Punjab, India, peri-urban and rural communities provide land and raw water access to Water Health International (WHI). WHI then provides over five million people in the communities with potable water at prices below the market rate. Veolia Grameen provides potable water to villages outside of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Both WHI and Veolia Grameen deliver water services at below market prices. Veolia Grameen sells treated surface water from the peri-urban area to central Dhaka businesses to support the costs of providing water to the villages, while WHI received some donor funding to begin its operations. Pierce concludes that market and ‘needs driven’ solutions, rather than state-led policy solutions, are most common in addressing peri-urban water access. The GWF is an initiative of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Chair in Water Economics and Transboundary Governance at the Australian National University. (Publication: Redressing the Emerging Governance Crisis in Peri-urban Water Access: Evidence from South Asia) Introducing Efficient Low Cost Smoked Pots for Water Purification Introducing Efficient Low Cost Smoked Pots for Water Purification for Developing Countries. Hydrol Current Res 2013, 4:2. D Chung, et al. Ceramic materials are easy to make using most African soils. They have been used for a long time mainly for cooking and water storage. However, in other low income economies these clay ceramic filters have been shown to have the potential of being improved by being embedded with carbonaceous materials for water purification. In this research we have produced efficient physiological and biological gravity operated smoked pots for water purification. We used well calculated volume ratios of black clay, red and sand soils (B:R:S) and soil balls; All these were baked at different smoke infusing kiln temperatures for efficient water purification. We analyzed water purification efficiencies of the pot ceramics and the trickling rates at different conditions. We isolated the best B:R:S to be the 40:40:20. We found significant reductions in turbidity (99.95%), salinity (21.42%), microbial populations, total dissolved solutes (TDS) (17.19%), pH (1.39%) and electrical conductivity


Publications (EC) (16.92%). These ceramics can be crucial for common or nomadic communities in sub-Saharan rural areas and in times of disaster to guarantee a cheap continued supply of clean potable water for better health amongst the low income earning societies. Ramsar Addresses Wise Use of Urban and Periurban Wetlands

The Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention) has released a briefing note, titled ‘Towards the wise use of urban and peri-urban wetlands,’ which expands on the ‘Principles for the planning and management of urban and peri-urban wetlands’ agreed by the contracting parties and aimed at helping managers and planners of towns and cities ensure the wise use of wetlands. The briefing note, authored by Robert McInnes, Society of Wetland Scientists and representative to the Ramsar Convention’s Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP), is based on the recognition that unsustainable urbanization continues to drive wetland loss and degradation in some parts of the world. It stresses that, increasingly, efforts to make towns and cities more sustainable recognize wetlands as essential natural infrastructure that can deliver various benefits. The briefing note provides further guidance on how to deliver the dual goals of wise use of wetlands and sustainable urbanization. Key messages in the briefing note include that: benefits that wetlands deliver underpin human well-being in towns and cities; society can shape the evolution of towns and cities by integrating the principles of wetland wise use into planning and management decision making; wetlands can mitigate risks from a changing climate, support food production and generate income through tourism and recreation; and the benefits provided by wetlands should be recognized.

Accountability in Water Resources Management and Relevant Capacities in Latin America,’ highlights potential entry points for capacity development to: raise public awareness of the issue; improve institutional coordination; advocate for water integrity; and strengthen regulatory and political frameworks. The report shows that while most countries in the region have adopted integrated water resources management (IWRM) policies and have introduced good governance standards for transparency, public participation, accountability and access to justice, these are not yet fully implemented. The case studies are from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The report recommends: adopting guiding principles in national water policies; combating corruption in sectors such as drinking water and sanitation, hydropower, irrigation and environmental management; and engaging the private sector in these efforts, on the basis of increasing their competitiveness. Based on the eight case studies, the authors recommend that capacity building efforts: promote training in IWRM, including its integrity dimension; work with unions, NGOs and universities to address corruption control and render public officials accountable; train the judiciary and law enforcement agencies on addressing corruption in the water sector; and develop a shared vision among national water-related sectors. The report was commissioned by Cap-Net/UNDP and UNDP’s Water Governance Facility at SIWI. (Publication: Mapping of Integrity and Accountability in Water Resources Management and Relevant Capacities in Latin America) (Water Governance Facility Website) Source: International Institute for Sustainable Development.

The 4th edition of the UN World Water Development Report (WWDR4)

UNDP, SIWI Map Capacity Building Efforts to Address Corruption in the Water Sector

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) Water Governance Facility at the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) released a collection of national case studies of how integrity, responsibility, accountability and transparency are being addressed in the water sector in eight Latin American countries, as a basis for building capacity to combat corruption. The report, titled ‘Mapping of Integrity and

The fourth edition of the World Water Development Report (WWDR4), ‘Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk’ is a comprehensive review of the world’s freshwater resources and seeks to demonstrate, among other messages, that water underpins all aspects of development, and that a coordinated approach to managing and allocating water is critical. The Report underlines that in order to meet multiple goals water needs to be an intrinsic element in decisionmaking across the whole development spectrum. It was launched at the 6th World Water Forum in Marseille by Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director General, and Michel Jarraud, UN-Water Chair.

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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Roundup Mars Lake Discovery

Utah. The study, which covers 14 percent of southeast Greenland, is intriguing because the small area gets 32 percent of the entire ice sheet’s snowfall. In order to analyze the ice, the team drilled for samples in 2010 and 2011. The first set of samples was from three locations. A year later, the team took four more samples from about the same location, but at a lower elevation. Of these four samples, two emerged with liquid water pouring off the drill, even though it was minus four degrees Fahrenheit. The water was found at the first and second hole, at depths of 33 feet and 82 feet, respectively.

This mosaic of images from Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) shows geological members of the Yellowknife Bay formation, and the sites where Curiosity drilled into the lowest-lying member, called Sheepbed, at targets “John Klein” and “Cumberland.” NASA/JPL-Caltech

The site where NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity landed last year contains at least one lake that would have been perfectly suited for colonies of simple, rock-eating microbes found in caves and hydrothermal vents on Earth. The Mars rover Curiosity just found out that Martian soil is 2 percent water! Anthony tells us what that means for the age-old question of whether life once existed on Mars and what it means for future human colonists on the red planet. Analysis of mudstones in an area known as Yellowknife Bay, located inside the rover’s Gale Crater landing site, show that fresh water pooled on the surface for tens of thousands -- or even hundreds of thousands -- of years. “The results show that the lake was definitely a habitable environment,” Curiosity lead scientist John Grotzinger, with the California Institute of Technology. The really big surprise, however, was that clays drilled out from inside two mudstones and analyzed by the rover are much younger than scientists expected, a finding that extends the window of time for when Mars may have been suitable for life.

Newly Discovered Water Reservoir In Greenland Ice Sheet The discovery of an extensive, 27,000-square-mile aquifer in the Greenland Ice Sheet may likely enhance our understanding of the way snow and ice melts and eventually leads to rising sea levels. Researchers at the University of Utah reported the details of the aquifer’s discovery in the journal Nature Geoscience. A study, measuring snowfall accumulation and how it varies from year to year, has been ongoing in southeast Greenland since 2010 under Rick Forster, the study’s lead author and a professor of geography at the University of 40

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

A 27,000-square-mile aquifer within the Greenland Ice Sheet could affect the way that scientists calculate the rate of sea level rise, as the ice sheet melts.

US$ 20,000 Could Be Yours Latrine lighting in emergencies: innovation challenge

By Cor Dietvorst The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) has US$ 20,000 on offer for a proposal for an economical, sustainable lighting system for latrines in refugee or displaced persons camps. Communal latrine facilities in camps are often underutilised at night when it is dark for fear of harassment and attacks especially for women and children. Existing lighting systems tend to be costly as most camps do not have a central electrical system as a power source. Also, battery systems tend to get stolen for valuable parts. This Challenge is to design a lighting system for communal latrine facilities that will promote safety and utilization. The system must be robust, economical and not easily vandalized or stolen. This is a Theoretical Challenge that requires only a written proposal to be submitted. Award winners does not need to transfer their exclusive IP rights to the HIF, but instead grant HIF non-exclusive license to practice their solutions. Deadline: 16 March 2014 For more information and to register for the Challenge, go to: www.innocentive.com/ar/challenge/9933339


January

Non-revenue water (NRW), or water that has been produced and “lost” before it reaches the customer, is estimated to be around 15% in developed countries and 35%-50% in developing countries.

March

In addition to cultural taboos restricting the activities of menstruating girls and women, girls often miss school due to the lack of proper sanitation facilities. In some areas, girls are likely to miss three to four days in a month, which is 20% of total school attendance.

Feruary

While smoking in public places is prohibited in India since 2008 and local government institutions have tried to ban open defecation practices, 15% of India’s adult population smokes and 50% practices open defecation.

April

The simple act of washing hands with soap can cut the risk of diarrhea by 48%.

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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Buyers’ Guide ANALYTICAL EQUIPMENT (In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

BOREWELL CASING

(In Kenya) ESLON PLASTICS OF KENYA LTD P.O. Box 41761-00100 Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 651271-4 Mob: +254 733 333204 Fax: +254 20 552419 E-mail: eslon@africaonline.co.ke Contact: Mr. S.D. Shah

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Drain Cleaning equipment

(In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

(In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

INSTEEL LIMITED P.O. Box 78161 - 00507 Nairobi, Kenya Ol Kalou Road Tel: +254 20 555080 Mobile: +254 733 608 558 Fax: +254 20 357 7270 E-mail: insteel@insteellimited.com Website: wwwinsteellimited Contact: Mr. A. Parikh Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel CLEANING CHEMICALS & DETERGENTS (In Kenya) BLUE RING PRODUCTS LTD P.O. Box 56337-00200 Nanyuki Road Industrial Area Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 551701, +254 20 551702 Fax: +254 20 551703 E-mail: info@bluering.co.ke Contact: Maina Rwambo

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couplings

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

Dams and Pans (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel


Buyers’ Guide Down Pipes

Fabricated fittings (In Kenya)

(In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Filtration sand (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel GALVANIZED STEEL WATER PIPES & FITTINGS

Email:eamw@bidii.com (In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Energy solutions (In Kenya) NALCO (PTY) LTD. 6th Floor Victoria Towers Kilimanjaro Avenue Upper Hill P.O. Box 24738 Nairobi 00200 Tel: +254 20 272 3820 / 1 Fax: +254 20 272 3822 Email: fkibathi@nalco.com Website: www.nalco.com/za

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INSTEEL LIMITED P.O. Box 78161 - 00507 Nairobi, Kenya Ol Kalou Road Tel: +254 20 555080 Mobile: +254 733 608 558 Fax: +254 20 357 7270 E-mail: insteel@insteellimited.com Website: wwwinsteellimited Contact: Mr. A. Parikh

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel GENERAL STEEL FABRICATORS (In Kenya) JANTECH ENGINEERING LTD P.O. Box 45268 - 00100 GPO. Nairobi, Kenya Maasai Road off Mombasa Road, Tel: +254 20 536420 /1 Cell: +254 727 531040 Fax: +254 20 553938 536422 jantech@jandu.biz Email: GROUND WATER CONSULTANCY (In Kenya) WATERWELLS (K) LTD P.O. Box 729-00502 Dagoreti Corner Naivasha Road Nairobi Tel: +254 20 3873259 +254 20 2103696 Mobile: +254 733 976381 +254 20 3875349 Fax: E-mail: waterwells@wananchi.com Contact: Mr E M Mwai Guttering (PVC & Steel)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 +254 20 555854 Fax: E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Generators (In Kenya) DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com

Wireless: +254 20 2062380 Mobile: +254 722 641820 Fax: +254 20 2714598 Email: enquiries@afriwater.org

Email:eamw@bidii.com

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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Buyers’ Guide Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel hand pumps

HYGIENE PRODUCTS (In Kenya)

(In Kenya)

BLUE RING PRODUCTS LTD P.O. Box 56337-00200 Nanyuki Road Industrial Area Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 551701 / 20 551702 Fax: +254 20 551703 E-mail: info@bluering.co.ke Contact: Maina Rwambo

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

Irrigation Engineers

(In Kenya)

(In Kenya)

DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 +254 20 555854 Fax: E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Irrigation systems & equipment

Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel HOT WATER CYLINDERS (In Kenya) JANTECH ENGINEERING LTD P.O. Box 45268 - 00100 GPO. Nairobi, Kenya Maasai Road off Mombasa Road, Tel: +254 20 536420 /1 Cell: +254 727 531040 Fax: +254 20 553938 536422 Email: jantech@jandu.biz HDPE Pipes & fittings (In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

44

Irrigation SYSTEMS & EQUIPMENT

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

LABORATORY EQUIPMENT (In Kenya) NALCO (PTY) LTD. 6th Floor Victoria Towers Kilimanjaro Avenue Upper Hill P.O. Box 24738 Nairobi 00200 Tel: +254 20 272 3820 / 1 +254 20 272 3822 Fax: Email: fkibathi@nalco.com Website: www.nalco.com/za


Buyers’ Guide Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel pollution control equipment (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 +254 20 555854 Fax: E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel pp threaded systems (In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel PPR PIPES (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

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prepayment meters systems

PUMPS (In Kenya)

(In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com Kirloskar Kenya Limited See the advertisement below

Pressed PVC PIPES (In Kenya) ASTRAL TECHNOLOGIES Ltd P.O.Box 11267-00400,Nairobi Tel: +254 -2421994, 2324601/2/3 Fax: +254 -2324604/6532935 Mobile: +254-727 373 158 email: design@astralcpvc.co.ke website: www.astralcpvc.co.ke Website: www.astralpvc.co.ke

presSED STEEL WATER TANKS (In Kenya) JANTECH ENGINEERING LTD P.O. Box 45268 - 00100 GPO. Nairobi, Kenya Maasai Road off Mombasa Road, Tel: +254 20 536420 /1 Cell: +254 727 531040 +254 20 553938 536422 Fax: Email: jantech@jandu.biz pressure controls (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com

Wireless: +254 20 2062380 Mobile: +254 722 641820 Fax: +254 20 2714598 Email: enquiries@afriwater.org

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 +254 20 555854 Fax: E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel pvc foot & ball valves (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

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Buyers’ Guide RAINfLOW GUTTERING

sanitary products

Sewer cleaning equipment

(In Kenya)

(In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel spectrometers

Septic tanks (In Kenya) (In Kenya)

Email:eamw@bidii.com

Roofing materials (In Kenya)

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel septic treatment systems (In Kenya)

EAST AFRICAN METAL WORKS LTD P.O. Box 41847-00100 Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 558147 / 558671 Wireless:+254 20 3530507 / 3530556 Fax: +254 20 553048 E-mail: eamw@bidii.com Contact: Mr Amin Mr Njenga

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

BLUE RING PRODUCTS LTD P.O. Box 56337-00200 Nanyuki Road Industrial Area Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 551701 +254 20 551702 Fax: +254 20 551703 E-mail: info@bluering.co.ke Contact: Maina Rwambo Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel steel pipes ANTI-CORROSION COATING (In Kenya) INSTEEL LIMITED P.O. Box 78161 - 00507 Nairobi, Kenya Ol Kalou Road Tel: +254 20 555080 Mobile: +254 733 608 558 Fax: +254 20 357 7270 E-mail: insteel@insteellimited.com Website: wwwinsteellimited Contact: Mr. A. Parikh steel water pipes & fittings (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel SWIMMING POOLS (In Kenya)

Book this space for your classified advertisement

Ring us for more information

46

Wireless: +254 20 2062380 Mobile: +254 722 641820 Fax: +254 20 2714598 Email: enquiries@afriwater.org

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com


Buyers’ Guide Unipots (In Kenya)

Wastewater Treatment (In Kenya)

(In Kenya)

DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805 / 555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

KRIDHA Limited See the advertisement below

Leading Water and Wastewater solution providers Key focus on recycling, with compliance of client & environmental standards Local fabrication & Short Lead Time Exceptional Customer Service Email:eamw@bidii.com

uPVC Pipes (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805 / 555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 +254 20 555854 Fax: E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel uPVC Sewer / DRAINAGE PIPES (In Kenya) ESLON PLASTICS OF KENYA LTD P.O. Box 41761-00100 Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 651271-4 Mob: +254 733 333204 Fax: +254 20 552419 E-mail: eslon@africaonline.co.ke Contact: Mr. S.D. Shah

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

water accessories

Manufacture , Installation & Servicing Plants & Equipment for Industrial & Commercial Effluent Recycling, Sewage Treatment & Recycling, Water Softening , Demineralization , Reverse Osmosis , Water Fluoride Reduction plus various custom made applications Media (Activated Carbon, Sand, Ion Exchange Resins, Bio-filters), Water Treatment Chemicals & many more affiliated products.

Kridha Ltd

water FILTERS (In Kenya) DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 +254 20 555854 Fax: E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel WaTER heaters

www.kridha.com

31 Enterprise Road Industrial Area Nairobi , Kenya

Tel: +254 725 249 249 +254 734 756 813 020-3546665, 020-2072233 Email: business@kridha.com marketing@kridha.com

(In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel WaTER meters

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 +254 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

(In China)

Laison Technology Ltd. Zhejang University National Science Park, Hangzhou, 310007,China Tel: +86 571 89715425 Fax: +86 571 89715426 Email: laisontech@gmail.com Website: www.laisontech.com Contact: Mr. Clark

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

47


Buyers’ Guide (In Kenya) DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Water Projects (In Kenya) Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel Water Purification Plants

(In Kenya)

DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805 / 555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

KRIDHA LTD P.O. Box 17777-00500 31 Enterprise Road Industrial Area Nairobi , Kenya Tel: +254 725 249 249 / 734 756 813 020-3546665, 020-2072233 Email: business@kridha.com marketing@kridha.com Website: www.kridha.com

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel WATER INTERNATIONAL (K) LTD Enterprise Road Industrial Area,Between Rd A & B, Auto Litho Bldg Tel: +254 20 2367055 / 6 +254 720 450272 +254 735 588113 Email: charity@pureflow.co.ke Website: pureflow.co.kew Water supply (In Kenya)

WATER Pumps (In Kenya) DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com

48

WATER TESTING EQUIPMENT

(In Kenya)

Kirloskar Kenya Limited See the advertisement below

Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805 / 555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625 / 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com Contact: H. Patel

EAST AFRICAN METAL WORKS LTD P.O. Box 41847-00100 Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 558147 / 558671 Wireless:+254 20 3530507 / 3530556 Fax: +254 20 553048 E-mail: eamw@bidii.com Contact: Mr Amin / Mr Njenga

Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2014

WATER TESTING (In Kenya) DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LTD Nairobi – Head Office Dundori Rd, Industrial Area P.O. Box 41762-00100 Tel: (+254 20) 6968 000 / 558335 Fax: (+254 20) 557617 E-mail: d&s@dayliff.com Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd P.O. Box 43524 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Homa Bay Road Tel: +254 20 558805/555879 Mobile: +254 720-521625, 734-521625 Fax: +254 20 555854 E-mail: info@nil1949.com Website: www.nil1949.com


Africa water, sanitation & hygiene magazine jan feb 2014 vol 9 no 1