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Annual R e p o rt 2014

Africa free of hunger, poverty and malnutrition


Africa Harvest Annual R e p o rt 2014

Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (AHBFI) Nairobi • Johannesburg • Washington DC • Toronto

2015


Citation: Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (AHBFI) 2015. Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014. Nairobi, Kenya: AHBFI. 84 pp. All information in this booklet may be quoted or reproduced, provided the source is properly acknowledged, as cited above. Š 2015 Africa Harvest Website: www.africaharvest.org ISBN 978-0-620-66330-4 Cover photos: Top: Warden Michael tends young banana seedlings at a prison seedling nursery; and carrying sorghum to a waiting lorry. Middle: Measuring a sorghum head at the ABS Project CFT; and inspecting sorghum in the CFF. Bottom: Showing off a harvest of TC bananas; and threshing sorghum after a harvest.

Content & Internal Editor: Daniel Kamanga Editing and design: BluePencil Infodesign, Hyderabad, India (www.bluepencil.in) Content Credit: F Wambugu, M Njuguna, S Obukosia, D Kamanga, N Mburu, W Kiragu, D Marangu, A Aseta, M Wangui, R Mutiga Photography: A Korir & Project Teams Online: H Mutiga Printing: Pragati Offset Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India (www.pragati.com)


Contents Statement from the Chairman, Dr Moctar Toure

1

Executive summary from the CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu

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Introducing Africa Harvest

6

Food, Nutritional Security and Sustainable Livelihoods of Smallholders Program

8

Tissue Culture banana

9

Africa Harvest helps resolve blockages in complex banana value chain

9

Africa Harvest’s contribution to a vibrant TC banana sub-sector

10

Restoration of banana sub-sector in Kisii and Nyamira

12

New banana production technical manual for fast-tracking farmer capacity building

15

The critical role of farmer capacity building in strengthening TC banana value chain

16

Building banana businesses, one nursery at a time

18

How TC banana project attracted and created employment for the youth in Nyeri

20

Sorghum

22

Unlocking the commercial value chain for sorghum farmers

22

How meeting the challenge of grassroots capacity building has led to improved sorghum production

23

Technology Development and Deployment Program ABS Project facilitates technology development and deployment in Africa Natural Resource Management Program Ensuring farmer environmental training is central to hybrid sorghum technology transfer Agricultural Markets and Policy Program

26 27 36 37 44

Identifying, resolving gaps in the sorghum value chain to unlock markets in Kenya’s arid and semi-arid lands

45

How a refined aggregator model has helped diversify sorghum market and bring benefits to farmers

47


Communication for Development and Knowledge Management Program

54

Placing high value on partnerships and stakeholder relations yields results to project beneficiaries

55

Biotech outreach gains traction in Ghana and Burkina Faso while Kenya stalls

59

Africa biotech experts’ voice captured in new book

60

Communication support for sorghum project contributes to nearly a dozen confined field trials in Kenya and Nigeria

61

Biographies of Board of Directors

62

Finance, Administration and New Business Development Program

66

Doreen Marangu deepens capacity to work with farmers

67

Nehemiah Mburu’s Business Development and Project Management skills sharpened

68

Wangari Kiragu’s field skills prove critical in expansion of TC Banana project in Kisii

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ABS project matures Anthony Aseta, both as a Scientist and Project Manager

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Summary of financial performance

72

Income and expense indicators for period ending 31st December 2014

73

Balance sheet as at 31st December 2014

74

Donors' profile

75

Acronyms and Abbreviations

77


Statement from the Chairman, Dr Moctar Toure

T

he President of the Rockefeller Foundation, Dr Judith Rodin, has written an excellent book – The Resilience Dividend: Being Strong in a World Where Things Go Wrong. She points out that nobody can predict everything that will happen in the future. Be it the government, the private or philanthropic sector, there is need to build capacity that will enable an effective response to future challenges. How can an institution rebound after a major challenge? Dr Rodin argues that a resilience strategy should enable the institution to move on to even better adaptation, coping and response to the next shock event. This thinking is in line with the definition of resilience, which is the ability to recover from, or easily adjust to misfortune or change. The issue of resilience has been an important one for Africa Harvest over a number of years. Despite the challenging effects of the global financial crisis that have affected many not-for-profit Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs), Africa Harvest has continued to build strength in all areas. During the year under review, our institution strengths and capabilities and unique experiences have contributed to the organization’s resilience. The Africa Harvest Board of Directors continued to provide strategic governance support to the CEO and Management, helping ensure that, even in the challenging times, the organization continued to focus on its vision, mission and strategic plan. Overall, the organization has been successful in achieving the set goals within the programs and the funded projects. We have been able to meet our commitments to donors and development partners and have strengthened relationships with many organizations with which we have a shared vision. Statement from the Chairman

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Our institution resilience comes from among other things, building supportive relationships over the years, with diverse donors, development partners and strategic partners. An excellent example of our institution resilience is demonstrated by the survival and the outstanding achievements of the Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) Project which was initially funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). However, when, after the Project, the BMGF funding was not renewed, the project, through DuPont Pioneer, managed to get funding for technology aspects, through the Howard Buffet Foundation. We were also able to make relevant adjustments and with very limited budgets, continue with the project’s core objectives. Parent lines have been developed by our strategic technology partner, DuPont Pioneer in the USA, while in Africa the focus on biosafety and Contained Field Trials (CFTs) continued successfully. A compelling vision – such as that of Africa Harvest – to make a positive difference in the lives of the poor, is part and parcel of the institution’s resilience strategy. Many personal sacrifices have been made along the way because the Board, Management and staff buy into this vision and mission to improve the livelihoods of the poor rural smallholder farmers. The impact of changed lives encouraged everyone to do more with less, resulting in even more beneficiaries being reached by our various projects. We have also learnt that resilience develops as people and the institution gain better thinking and selfmanagement skills and knowledge on how to cope with unexpected changes. When the tough times hit, Africa Harvest was not fully prepared. However, through the CEO’s leadership and transparent sharing of challenges and possible solutions, the organization has developed a positive view of, and confidence in its strengths and abilities. The Board commends the CEO and Management for good communication and problem-solving that has helped carry everyone along. As Board Chair, leading the process of developing the 10 year Strategic Plan was a legacy issue for me. The year under review was the third year of implementation of the Strategic Plan. Important achievements were made, including continued efforts to be fully established in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where Africa Harvest is registered. We remain committed to expanding in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region; first, by implementing projects in South Africa – where we have a regional office – and expanding to Zambia and Malawi. In East Africa, our head office in Kenya has made tentative forays to Ethiopia and Tanzania. Despite our desire for expansion, resource constraints focused our programs to East Africa (Kenya and Tanzania) with a biotech communication outreach project in Ghana and Burkina Faso and the ABS CFTs in Nigeria. The Board is grateful to the many funders who have continued to invest in our work. We are confident that the hard times have strengthened us to continue providing more value as we change the lives of the poor, one person at a time.

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Executive summary from the CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu

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roviding leadership in tough times, has proved challenging but extremely rewarding. One of Africa Harvest’s 10 Guiding Principles is “commitment to partnerships that strengthen African agriculture.” In line with the vision – to be a lead contributor in making Africa free of hunger, poverty and malnutrition – the organization places special emphasis on partnerships and stakeholder relations. During the year under review, all programs and projects continued with an aggressive strategy of sharing progress and achievements with different partners and stakeholders.

Executive summary from the CEO

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We are particularly proud of our flagship, the Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) Project, which has successfully carried nearly a dozen confined field trials (CFTs) in Kenya and Nigeria. This success was a result of innovative partnerships. DuPont Pioneer continued to play the critical role of Technology Development. During the year under review, the project made excellent progress in improving on ABS lead events. Early in the year, DuPont Pioneer identified the most advanced and well characterized events; the lead event has about 12 µg β-carotene/g tissue which would supply about 40-50% of the daily recommended vitamin A and has vitamin E (HGGT) that gives stability to pro-vitamin A. These are unprecedented global achievements in biofortification. Africa Harvest continued to provide leadership in management, biosafety and regulatory, communication and capacity building. In Nigeria, Africa Harvest’s partnership with the National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA) on communication and issues management remained strong. In Kenya and Nigeria, the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Nigeria and the Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), formerly KARI continued to be involved in Product Development. As part of the CropLife project, the Communication Program continued participation – under the leadership of the Africa Biotechnology Stakeholders Forum (ABSF) – in the multi-stakeholder approach to facilitate removal of GM imports ban in Kenya. Our biotech outreach work in Ghana and Burkina Faso confirms Africa Harvest’s ability to add value at a continental and international level. Africa Harvest CEO and Communication Director were the editors of a new book, Biotechnology in Africa: Emergence, Initiatives and the Future. It brought together expert African authorities to critique various biotechnology initiatives and project future developments in the field in Africa from such diverse fields as economics, agriculture, biotechnology, law, politics, and academia. The book was launched in Accra, Ghana, during the African Nutrition and Epidemiology Conference (ANEC) meeting and later in Kenya by the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Honorable Senator, Mr. Kiraitu Murungi. Within our five programs, various projects were implemented during the year under review. Thousands of small scale farmers benefitted from our services; a few case studies are highlighted below. The European Union / International Fund for Agricultural Development EU/IFAD-funded project “Development of a Robust Commercially Sustainable Sorghum for Multiple Uses (SMU)Value Chain” project, implemented jointly with ICRISAT (a CGIAR Center), targeted 60,000 rural small-scale farming households in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) of Kenya and Tanzania for 3 years, and in 2014, the project was in the second year. In Kenya alone, the SMU benefitted over 28,000 farmers. In Tanzania, the project reached 12,000 households. Overall, the project more than surpassed its annual targets. One of our goals – under the Natural Resource Management (NRM) program – is to ensure that enhanced agricultural production is sustainable and, has minimum negative environmental impact, and can cope with the climate change. To achieve this goal, our projects in Kenya and Tanzania included training programs to ensure environment conservation and sustainable use of natural resources such as water and soils. All farmer

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outreach information and activities were designed to increase farmer awareness of the importance of optimal utilization of water. In Kenya, 57 demonstration plots on sorghum crop management were established in collaboration with the county government's extension officers, the Ministry of Agriculture officers, farmers, processors and grain aggregators. The goal was to “show and tell” different soil and water conservation farming practices and to demonstrate good practices on efficient water usage. Another of our programmatic goals is to facilitate development of agricultural value chains by involving and empowering all relevant stakeholders from farmers to consumers. Encouraged by our previous success where our outreach efforts reached over 200,000 households in the Central and Eastern Provinces of Kenya – who have planted over 1 million tissue culture banana seedlings; our focus shifted to Kisii and Nyamira Counties in the Western region of Kenya, an area historically known for banana growing. Banana production from these counties has declined significantly due to banana diseases and aged orchards, and limited application of Tissue Culture (TC) banana technology.. During the year under review, some 180,000 TC banana seedlings were planted in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, and the farmers were encouraged to start aggregating and marketing banana produce from their old orchards as they awaited the maturing of newly established orchards. This resulted in the marketing of 7,000 Metric Tons of green banana fruit through collection and marketing centers spread around the two Counties. This was achieved through Africa Harvest’s Whole Value Chain (WVC) approach with small scale farmers at the core and strong partnerships with key players such as banana traders. This work was supported by United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project (KHCP), with a goal of helping farmers access high-quality seedlings, practice good agronomic practices as a way of increasing productivity so as to achieve quantities and quality products that meet market demands. To support the innovative agricultural technologies, Africa Harvest continued to use innovative institutional approaches. During the year under review, the organization strengthened its partnership with the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). Through the CGIAR Research Program (CRP) on dryland cereals, ICRISAT has developed over 25 sorghum varieties which have been identified as suitable for various semi-arid areas in Kenya and Tanzania. Africa Harvest’s strength in the “last mile” – working with grassroot, smallholder farmers – was critical for farmer acceptance of some of the new sorghum varieties. The achievements summarized here and detailed in this report demands that I acknowledge the support and leadership of Africa Harvest Board of Directors, the Management and Staff. I’d also like to thank the funding agencies who have supported various projects, the partners and stakeholders. Most of all, we thank the farmers, who have not only been beneficiaries of our work, but active participants in improving how we deliver on our vision and mission.

Executive summary from the CEO

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Introducing Africa Harvest

Dr Wambugu speaking during a famers field day held at Kisii Agriculture Training Center in Kisii County.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Vision

Approach

To be a leading contributor in making Africa free of hunger, poverty, and malnutrition

Africa Harvest pursues its mission and goals through:

Mission

• Technology development and transfer

To apply innovative technologies and institutional approaches to improve livelihoods of rural communities – particularly smallholders – through science and technology-based sustainable models of agricultural development Strategic goals • Reduce rural poverty and food insecurity through improved agricultural systems by using science and technology • Ensure that enhanced agricultural production is sustainable and dependable, has minimum negative environmental impact, and can cope with the climate change • Improve the nutrition and health of smallholder farming families and poor consumers in Africa • Provide equitable access to information and knowledge on improved agricultural technologies to smallholders in Africa and develop farmers’ organizations to facilitate this process • Facilitate development of agricultural value chains by involving and empowering all relevant stakeholders from farmers to consumers

• Use of science and technology • Value chain development for key agricultural commodities • Empowerment of farmers, both men and women • Partnership with farming communities, research institutions, and other organizations that share Africa Harvest’s mission Values Africa Harvest’s actions are guided by a commitment to: • Excellence • Innovation and creativity • Institutional and accountability

scientific

integrity

and

• Gender consciousness • Diversity of opinion and approach • Service to farm families, especially smallholders • Cultural diversity • Indigenous knowledge • Environmental protection • Commitment to make an impact

Introducing Africa Harvest

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Food, Nutritional Security and Sustainable Livelihoods of Smallholders Program

A farmer prepares his harvest of TC bananas for delivery to a collection centre where they will be graded and sent to market.

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The issue of food security and sustainable livelihoods is central to all development intervention. This program focuses on delivering appropriate technologies and critical farm inputs to beneficiaries. It is founded on the premise that sufficient and nutritious food is a pre-requisite to dealing with development issues. The key impediment to Africa’s food insecurity is the underdeveloped agricultural sector. Over-reliance on primary agriculture, low fertility soils, minimal use of external farm inputs and environmental degradation are key challenges. Others include both pre- and post-harvest loss, minimal value-addition and lack of product differentiation. The Food and Nutritional Security and Sustainable Livelihoods of Smallholders Program addresses the need to mobilize rural communities. In Africa, smallholder farmers make up 70 per cent of people that depend solely on agriculture for livelihood and suffer most challenging farming problems. The program, therefore, seeks to pioneer innovative capacity building solutions for good agronomic practices, post-harvest handling, value addition and marketing. Other themes under this program include strong gender, HIV and AIDS (GHA) mainstreaming for rural communities. Emphasis is on women and youth empowerment, agricultural value chains development and mobilization and capacity building of agro-entrepreneurs. During the year under review Africa Harvest implemented a number of projects covered in this section.

Tissue Culture banana Africa Harvest helps resolve blockages in complex banana value chain For more than 10 years, Africa Harvest has worked systematically on the banana value chain in nine of Kenya’s banana growing counties: Kiambu, Murang’a, Kirinyaga, Nyeri, Embu, Meru, TharakaNithi, Nyamira and Kisii. Though banana is the most important fruit1 and the third most import crop2 in the country, the value chain is still encumbered with myriads of challenges. Some of these challenges include high prevalence of pests and disease and limited knowledge and use of clean 1 Horticulture Validated Report 2012 2 Scaling out the benefits of tissue culture banana technology in Kenya through the whole value chain model. A report on mapping out the status of banana production in Kenya. – Africa Harvest, May 2012 (not edited)

planting materials among the small scale farmers, and those who form the bulk of banana farmers in Kenya. The marketing systems are disorganized, with most of the trading being done through informal channels and systems. Furthermore, value addition, when it happens, is at a cottage level. Africa Harvest’s projects have been designed to respond to, but are not limited to some of the challenges mentioned above. Every project area has a specific focus area or unique challenge that needs to be resolved. Over the years, the following funders have partnered with Africa Harvest to resolve challenges facing Kenya’s banana value chain: • DuPont and its subsidiary, DuPont Pioneer funded the Chura Community Tissue Culture Project in Kiambu County for three years (2004–06).

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• The Rockefeller Foundation supported the banana work in two phases. The first phase ran from 2004–06 while the second phase ran from 2007–09. The first phase Developing a pro poor tissue culture banana industry in Kenya Project was implemented 2004–06 in Murang’a and Meru counties. • The second phase ran for a further two years (2007–09) and solidified the work that had been done in the first phase. It was also expanded to two new counties. This project, Tilting the benefits of tissue culture banana technology to create a sustainable, poverty alleviating banana value chain in Kenya was implemented in Murang’a, Kirinyaga, Embu, TharakaNithi and Meru counties. • The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) funded a two-year project (2009–11). The project was designed to revitalize and consolidate gains in the banana industry in Kenya. It was implemented in Meru, Kirinyaga, Murang’a, Kiambu, Embu, TharakaNithi and Nyeri counties • USAID/KHCP has funded banana work from 2011 until the time of writing this report. The target counties were Nyeri, Kisii and Nyamira. Essentially, all the projects are implemented using the Whole Value Chain (WVC) model, to ensure attention has been paid to bottle necks identified in a definite and deliberate way. The execution of the projects or the methodology is through creating awareness on TC banana technology and its benefit within the target communities. After that, farmers are organized into cohesive producer and marketing groups to improve on their efficiencies. They eventually function as independent business groups.

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To show the superiority of TC banana plantlets, demonstrations are established in strategic areas. Planting materials derived from suckers are planted next to the TC as a control. The demonstrations also exposed the farmers to different banana varieties. Building of cohesive farmer groups is key to successful implementation of the projects. This is done through regular training of mobilized groups. They are trained in group management and business skills. Trained farmers tend to be more cohesive and their business groups function better, especially in acquiring inputs and marketing their produce. To improve access to clean planting materials, entrepreneurs dealing with nursery materials are supported through training on nursery management and business skills. This has been necessitated by the fact that most of the TC banana propagators have been within and around Nairobi. This has made it difficult for many of the small scale farmers to access the TC banana planting material. To improve on market access and linkages, the producer groups are trained in business skills and also linked to largescale banana traders who operate in the big cities. Africa Harvest’s contribution to a vibrant TC banana sub-sector In Kenya, the use of clean TC banana plantlets was introduced to banana farmers in 1997. Africa Harvest – together with the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), now KALRO, and other partners – has been involved in this work since inception. According to a national-wide baseline survey conducted by Africa Harvest in 2012 that mapped the status of banana production in Kenya3, 35% of farmers started using the technology within five 3 Scaling out the benefits of tissue culture banana technology in Kenya through the whole value chain model.A report on mapping out the status of banana production in Kenya. – Africa Harvest, May 2012


years of its introduction. This shows that the level of knowledge on the need to use clean planting seedling in orchard establishments has been increasing over time among banana smallholder farmers in Kenya. Africa Harvest worked directly with nearly 50,000 households who have adopted bananas as a direct effort of the organization. To reach this number of beneficiaries, Africa Harvest’s farmer outreach targeted over 10,000 farmers over the last decade. Success is reflected in the 1,086,687 million banana seedlings that have been planted by different projects. Given that input and labour costs are Ksh 448 (US$ 5, based on current exchange rates) to establish one TC banana seedling, it shows that the beneficiaries invested Ksh 487 million (or US$ 5.3 million) in orchard establishment costs. Nevertheless, adoption has continued and is estimated that it stands at 5.7 million TC banana seedlings among the adopters. A total of 388 demonstration farms established on farmer fields over the years have played a great role in improving acceptability of TC banana among the target communities. Africa Harvest has undertaken intensive capacity building on good agronomy in banana farming, as well as farmer group management. Some 1,616 farmers have been trained as trainers of trainers (ToTs) to backstop other banana farmers once projects end.

Traditionally, farmers use banana suckers as seeds. With the Tissue Culture technology, plantlets are multiplied in a lab and hardened in nurseries (such as in these pictures). Africa Harvest has worked closely with funders, partners and stakeholders to locate the nurseries as close as possible to farmers.

Other sustainability measures include establishment of satellite nurseries. This improves seedling access to the farmers. Twenty four entrepreneurs have been trained and provided with material necessary to start nurseries or expand their existing businesses. Africa Harvest works closely with key partners in the implementation of the projects. KARI has provided necessary technical support on TC technology and agronomy practices. The Ministry of Agriculture

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has provided entry and contacts to the target communities. They have also ensured sustainability by providing a continuation once the projects close. Smallholder farmers in Kenya hold the Africa Harvest and KARI in high esteem and success of the projects sometimes hinges on the endorsement of projects by the two organizations. Restoration of banana sub-sector in Kisii and Nyamira The Kisii County banana industry ranks second after Meru County at over Ksh 2 billon (about US$ 23 million), compared with Meru’s Ksh 4.5 billon (US$ 50 million). In Nyamira County, Kisii’s neigbor, the banana sub-sector is ranked 11th nationally, with a value of over Ksh 1 billion (or about US$1.2 million). In view of the importance of banana in the two counties, and given the fact that banana productivity had been declining over several years, Africa Harvest, with funding support from KHCP- and USAID-initiated projects to arrest and reverse the productivity decline. Non-certified banana seedlings, high infestation by pests and diseases, poor agronomic practices, poor marketing and lack of organized markets were the obvious culprits. During the last year of the project, Africa Harvest intensified its uses of the WVC approach. Working with like-minded organizations and forging the necessary partnerships ensured successful execution of its project. Small scale farmers remained the core of the project, with a view to ensuring that the quality of final products met market demands. During the period under review, a lot of emphasis was put on building the capacity of the different players in the value chain, based on the earlier needs assessment research.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014

Africa Harvest worked with existing farmer groups, and where none existed, groups were formed following successful awareness creation. Africa Harvest partnered with other players in the banana value chain such as Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, lead farmers and chiefs and their assistants to identify farmer groups that had banana production as a common interest. The organization sought to increase the productivity and incomes of banana farmers in Kisii and Nyamira counties. This was done through building the technical capacity of the various players in the value chain, improving access to clean, disease-free TC banana seedlings and creating the necessary linkages between the producer groups and the banana traders. Being the project's final year, Africa Harvest continued to drum up banana seedling access and green banana marketing activities among the beneficiaries. Key highlights during the period under review include: • Gross Earning by beneficiaries from sale of green bananas – Ksh 7,300,570 (over US$ 81,000). • Total project investment (planting material only) – Ksh 3.9 million (US$ 43,000) based on average of Ksh 260 for inputs and labor to plant one banana seedling. • TC bananas planted – 180,000 • Sales and production of green bananas – 7,000 MT • New beneficiaries enlisted – 5,589 [of these, 3,268 were women and 2,321 were men and 18% of the total (994) were from youth groups]. • Capacity building on agronomy and effective group management on the 5,022 farmer beneficiaries mobilized in the year • Beneficiaries trained during farmer field days – 1,731.


• Beneficiaries trained during Africa Harvest open days – 1,001. To ensure the project’s sustainability, during the period under review, Africa Harvest focused on capacity building along the TC banana value chain. The project’s technical staff was trained to handle all the aspects of the banana value chain. This training was later expanded to community mobilizers to ensure project sustainability after the project comes to an end. The modules or topics covered during the training were: establishment of banana orchards; good

agronomic practices in banana production; management of pests and diseases of economic importance in banana production; effective management of producer groups, and marketing and marketing linkages. At least 35 farmers, drawn from committees that are running the banana collection and marketing centers, underwent business management training. The training designed covered: entrepreneurship and business development; value chain analysis; development of business and group strategic plans; designing and actualizing valid marketing plans, and

Warden Michael tends young banana seedlings at GOK Prison seedling nursery in Kisii County.

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Members of Nyansara self help group show off tissue culture bananas in their nursery during a monitoring visit by key stakeholders organized by Africa Harvest in Kisii County.

understanding the tactical issues that need to be considered to operationalize banana marketing. About 15 nursery entrepreneurs or their representatives underwent intensive training on how to ensure clean, disease-free planting materials; nursery establishment; management and common diseases of the nursery and their management; entrepreneurship; business planning and financing, as well as regulatory requirements, such as registration and certification by the relevant government authorities. Among the lessons learnt from this project, one is that the short funding period makes it very difficult to unlock maximum value from the crop’s value 14

Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014

chain. For example, within the time available, it was difficult to identify – and support – the most promising hardening nursery entrepreneurs. Other challenges included a subtle culture of individualism by the beneficiaries making it difficult to aggregate substantial volumes of green bananas at producer group level and collection center level for sale. The adoption of clean planting materials by target beneficiaries was also slow. Most of them still felt the cost of Ksh 110 (US$1.20) per TC banana plantlet was high and most opted to source suckers from their own or neighbor’s farms. Also, since the groups and individuals farmers often sourced the


banana plantlets directly from the nurseries, without going through Africa Harvest, it was difficult to track how many of the plantlets were being bought by the actual beneficiaries in the group. New banana production technical manual for fast-tracking farmer capacity building For the last 10 years, Africa Harvest has been working with small scale farmers involved in banana production. Our objective has been twofold: first, to increase banana productivity and second, to raise incomes. Effective training of these farmers is at the heart of the Africa Harvest success story while working on the banana value chain. Our studies show that the typical Kenyan banana farmer owns one hectare of land and practices mixed

farming. Their average age is 55 years and many of them have at least primary level education. However, one also finds retirees, who often have post-primary level of education. Based on this, Africa Harvest’s training is delivered at two levels: the farmer group level and the Training of Trainers’ (ToT) level. Training these farmers is certainly a stimulating and a challenging exercise, considering that these are adult learners, of mixed ages and of different education levels. This therefore calls for innovative ways of delivering the lessons.

Below and right: Farmers reap the immediate benefits of TC technology, which include healthy-looking bananas. However, the long-term effect of Africa Harvest’s interventions include increased incomes to farmers as the banana value chain becomes more efficient.

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The training focuses on three major topics: effective group formation and management; good agronomic practices in banana production; and farming bananas as a business. It is normally carried out by Africa Harvest’s agronomists who operate at the grass roots. More often, the extension officers in the Ministry of Agriculture are involved in the training. However, when it is a specialized training like the ToT, other stakeholders such as KALRO researchers and business consultants are invited to provide training. This has therefore meant that the training content is sometimes as varied as the different institutions or individuals administering it. For some time, we have seen the need to standardize the content. Over the years, farmer trainees have also indicated that there was need to have accurate training manuals they can refer to as they train their fellow farmers. The farmers and ToTs also specified the kind of content that was vital to them in becoming effective farmers. During the year under review, and through the support of USAID/KHCP, the process of putting together a manual on banana production and management was started. Africa Harvest and the KHCP team developed an outline of the contents that needed to go into the manual. Next, a team of experts in banana production were identified. The team was drawn from KALRO, Kisii. The manual was subjected to a final validation exercise before the final printing. This involved key stakeholders in the banana value chain in Kisii and Nyamira Counties. They were drawn from the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Kenya

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Industrial Research Development Institute (KIRDI), Agricultural Sector Development Support Program (ASDSP) and the Directorate of Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA). The critical role of farmer capacity building in strengthening TC banana value chain For more than a decade, Africa Harvest has been working with small scale farmers involved in banana production. During this time, the focus has been on two objectives: to increase banana productivity; and, to raise incomes of target beneficiaries. Effective training of farmers is at the heart of the Africa Harvest success story. It is integral to resolving problems that beset the banana value chain. This training is done at two levels: the farmer groups and the training of trainers. Training farmers is certainly a stimulating and a challenging exercise, considering that these are adult learners, of mixed ages and of different education levels. This therefore calls for innovative ways of delivering the lessons. More often, the extension officers in the Ministry of Agriculture are involved in the training. However, for technical or specialized training, other stakeholders such as KALRO researchers and business consultants are brought in as resource persons. Over the years, Africa Harvest has gathered feedback from the farmer trainees. It underlined the need to have accurate training manuals that the farmers can refer to as they train their fellow farmers. The feedback also specified the kind of content that is vital to them in becoming effective farmers or ToTs.


Africa Harvest’s Anthony Aseta speaks to farmers during an outreach in Kisii.

One of the critical aspects of the TC banana value chain is value addition. Africa Harvest team in Kisii visited a facility that develops products out of banana.

Farmer Njogu weighs TC Banana produce at a local aggregation center. Mr Njogu a farmer in Kirinyaga County delivering bananas to a collection center.

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Building banana businesses, one nursery at a time Personal testimony: Joel Mokaya, Hardening Nursery Operator in Kisii. I remember the day I met the Africa Harvest field officer Eliud Mutahi in Kisii town. He was surprised to discover I owned a small nursery. At the time, I was a 25-year-old, married, and a father of one. I was a casual laborer at a relative’s nursery for a few years. After my wife had a child, the financial needs of my family grew. My need to earn more pushed me to use the knowledge I had acquired and begin my own nursery business. I started with a few banana seedlings. I was struggling with teething problems when some friends told me of Africa Harvest. After visiting my nursery, Mutahi introduced me to the KHCP project and informed me of the opportunity to grow and expand my business through the use of TC technology. After my very first training, I went home to implement what I had learnt. To be honest, since I had previously worked at a tree nursery, much of what I learnt was not completely new. However, the techniques and knowledge changed my business forever. I realized that I had been very inefficient in running my business and these poor practices were eroding my profits. Through the help of Africa Harvest, I began using a net to protect young seedlings from the harsh effects of nature. I also stored water for constant supply. With access to clean planting materials and some of the techniques I learnt, I was able to ensure the quality from my nursery was dependable and consistent. In fact, this access to clean planting materials has really changed my life. For many years, Kisii was known for being the top banana producing region in Kenya. However, diseases lowered production and destroyed some of the preferred varieties of banana. The KHCP project created a huge demand for clean planting material. As a seedlings provider, this created an important and sustainable business for me. I began by purchasing seedlings from either Nakuru or Nairobi at an average cost of Ksh 50 each and selling the hardened plantlet at Ksh 80, a 60% profit. After initial struggles to make ends meet, I realized that the profit was in selling volumes. I drew on my training once again and armed with confidence, went in search of tenders and bigger buyers. I was fortunate to get an order with the Kisii County government for a one off delivery of 20,000 seedlings, an order which I only managed to fulfill with the help of my friends. I also diversified the sales from my nursery to include grafted avocado and mango trees. I now also stock eucalyptus and other varieties of trees so as to give my nursery more sources of income than just the TC banana. The profit from that county government order helped me establish my business and secure my family. I am also very proud to say that I bought a car. Who would have thought that a 25-year-old young man such as me, living in Kisii, would be able to afford to buy a car, paid for, in cash!

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Training of farmers on tissue culture bananas in the nursery at Kisii central.

Africa Harvest CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu, during a visit to the TC banana project in Kisii. She encouraged nursery entrepreneurs to ensure they provide high quality planting material and to respond to the diverse needs of farmers. Right: Helda Maisiba, Africa Harvest Agronomist, Kisii South admires a healthy crop of bananas.

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How TC banana project attracted and created employment for the youth in Nyeri The Gitero self-help youth group – Anthony Nderitu

My friends and I were looking for opportunities to make a living in the village. We had tried everything and couldn’t find jobs in our local community. Our older siblings and relatives had moved to big towns and cities to find work. Stories of how hard their lives were confirmed the saying that “the grass is not always greener on the other side.” Eight of us formed the Gitero Self-Help Youth Group and approached a local Catholic church to use part of their idle land. We began by planting red and white cassava but the crop did not perform well. We also did not have the resources to purchase seeds of other crops. While deciding on the next move, we met a man who introduced us to Africa Harvest. We soon attended training programs under the KHCP project where we were first exposed to the business of farming. Farming in our community is largely dominated by commercial tea and coffee. However, many homes are trapped in the cycle of poverty because they just make enough money to get by. During the three training sessions we attended, we were exposed to modern farming techniques. We learnt about good agronomic practices to improve yields, financial management and value addition.

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We were motivated by the training. Africa Harvest also supported us to make the next critical step. They put up a TC banana demonstration plot consisting of 25 plantlets which we were to manage. Another organization invested a further 100 plantlets in our orchard. We had a very good first harvest. However, we now had a new problem: we did not have a market for our harvest. We thought that ripening the bananas would help broaden marketing opportunities. Although we eventually managed to secure orders from two small local colleges, we would often throw away many over-ripe bananas that we simply could not sell. The problems forced us to make use of the value addition training we had received. We made banana crisps, flour and ornaments. We did not have the resources to purchase many of the tools required to process banana crisps. However, the training we received did not only expose us to the ideal situation, but to work with what we have. We began collecting the over ripe bananas that did not sell, and cut them into thin slices with a knife. We then spread them out to dry in the sun. After they dried, we used a spoon to pack them in small plastic bags and seal these using a candle flame. We also used dried banana stems to make ornaments and decorations like hats, table mats and wall hangings. Creating the designs was the hardest part as all our ornaments are made from original ideas. We are now looking to making chairs as there seems to be a demand for these. When our group started farming that idle piece of land, many of the youth in the area felt it was an exercise in futility. Most thought we should rather be casual laborers or travel to the city and look for work. But today, our group has grown to having 18 permanent members, seven of whom are female. Youth in our community are motivated by the enterprise we have established and many want to join our venture. Our oldest member is 24 and our youngest members are still in school. Value addition has also opened up a world of opportunity for our group. Dried bananas have a much longer shelf-life compared to the four day window for fresh produce. The banana crisps are easier to store, transport and handle and result in minimal losses. We are also putting the financial management training we received to good use. Our group opened an account and each member saves at least Ksh 100 (slightly over US$1.20) monthly. In addition, we are looking to save or access credit to empower us to buy equipment worth approximately Ksh. 50,000 shillings (US$560) to upscale our business. Earlier, our challenge was having an excess supply and limited market. Today, we cannot produce enough ripe bananas to supply our crisps enterprise. We have resorted to buying from other local farmers to meet the demand. We have hope for the future and are proud to be in the banana business thanks to the work done by Africa Harvest through the KHCP project. Other groups from Nyeri who also participated in the project now process bananas into flour; and together, we are revolutionizing the banana industry in Nyeri County.

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SORGHUM Unlocking the commercial value chain for sorghum farmers Linking sorghum farmers to the market outlets for surplus grain Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal crop globally and the third most important crop (after maize and beans) in Eastern and Central Africa. However, this crop had been neglected for a long time due to its low contribution to the national, regional or global economy. In Kenya, sorghum is an “orphan crop” and very little had been invested in commercializing the

sorghum value chain. This is no longer the case after concerted efforts by both public and private research and development institutions to promote the production of sorghum in the semi-arid areas. Africa Harvest, through the SMU Project – funded by the EC through the IFAD – has been in the forefront in supporting the adoption of high-yielding sorghum varieties adapted to the harsh climatic conditions in the semi-arid areas. The ICRISAT, through the CRP on dryland cereals, has developed over 25 sorghum varieties that have been identified as suitable for various semi-arid areas in Kenya and Tanzania. The availability of diverse varieties with varying food and non-food attributes has enabled the sorghum value chain to attract processors who are

Extension Officer Julius Kinywee training on fertilizer application at Makueni.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


From left to right: Dr Henry Ojuolong (ICRISAT), Dr C K Kamau (KALRO, Katumani), Patrick Audi (ICRISAT), Doreen Marangu (AHBFI) and Mary Mburugu (Meru County Agriculture Ministry) showcasing sorghum foods.

producing beverages (alcoholic and non-alcoholic), animal feeds, human foods and fuels. Nguku Products Ltd is one such processor who realized the commercial value of sorghum. The company buys sorghum from small scale farmers from Kitui, Makueni and TharakaNithi Counties. It gets its sorghum supply from the SMU project area and manufactures poultry feed. The company reduces transaction costs of bulking the small quantities from small scale farmers by sub-contracting the grain aggregators working in the project. This has reduced the company’s production costs and improved profit margins. The company’s success story has attracted poultry farmer groups rearing local and improved poultry in the sorghum growing areas. The devolution of powers to the county governments led to prioritization of poultry and cattle rearing subsectors. This indicates that if the development of the prioritized value chains is supported, there will be a demand for sorghum, an important ingredient of

animal feeds. Two farmer groups have already started producing animal feed, joining the already developed milling companies to serve the rapidly expanding – and yet to be fully served – market. How meeting the challenge of grassroots capacity building has led to improved sorghum production The perception of sorghum as an inferior crop, compared with maize, means that smallholder farmers in the semi-arid areas have invested very little effort, especially with regard to good agronomic practices. Most farmers often scatter sorghum seed into unploughed land or in between other crops. As a result, sorghum production has remained very low. As part of strengthening the sorghum value-chain – with the eventual goal of increased production and better market – Africa Harvest has built partnerships with the county-based Ministry of Agriculture, aggregators and other service providers. The goal

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Above: An Africa Harvest team visits one of the arid areas in Kenya to appreciate the challenges that sorghum farmers face. Left: Africa Harvest team in heated discussions with sorghum farmers.

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is to identify and deal with existing knowledge gaps in the sorghum value chain. The key knowledge gaps include poor agronomic practices, lack of or disjointed inputs’ delivery, low or non-existent access to credit and dysfunctional markets. For example, through outreach and training the Tharaka farmers’ perception that sorghum makes the soil infertile was debunked. Tharaka North sub-county is currently the leading small-scale sorghum producer in the country. In the 2013–2014 cropping season it produced 85% of the total sorghum supplied to the East Africa Breweries Limited (EABL).

Doreen Marangu and field officers during inspection of demos in Tharaka South.

Over 33,000 farmers from Kitui, TharakaNithi, Makueni and Meru County – target beneficiaries of the SMU project – have received training on sorghum crop production, utilization and farming as an investment. In 2014, more emphasis has been on value addition, credit financing and crop insurance.

Japhet Kaungu, field officer of Tharka South at Imenti North PVS-PHS demos.

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Technology Development and Deployment Program

KALRO’s Mr Dominic Nzeve taking dimensions of ABS Sorghum heads during the 5th ABS CFT trial at KALRO, Kiboko.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Africa Harvest used to work on technology development and technology deployment as two separate – although related – programs. After assessing the two programs’ against the strategic direction over the next decade, it was decided to combine the two. Under the new program, Africa Harvest seeks to encourage technology identification, acquisition and deployment; this must be done with greater sensitivity to Gender, HIV and AIDS (GHA) responsiveness. Africa Harvest recognizes that many African and international organizations have done, and continue to do excellent research and development. We work more closely with these organizations. Our value addition is focused more on project implementation; applied or “operational research” is done to fast-track technology uptake. The Technology Development and Deployment Program (TDDP) is sub-divided into five thematic groups: i) Technology identification and acquisition: This factors in gender mainstreaming and ensures sensitivity and responsiveness to HIV and AIDS ii) Facilitating implementation-focused, adaptive research based on agricultural technologies that respond to specific issues and needs identified by target small-scale farmers iii) Operational research for technology generation iv) Capacity building for technology transfer v) Ensuring functional biosafety and regulatory frameworks

ABS Project facilitates technology development and deployment in Africa The institutional experience and expertise in biotechnology acceptance and uptake is best captured through the Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) Project. The project is an excellent case study of Africa Harvest’s role in technology development and deployment. As biotechnology gains traction in Africa, the Technology Development and Deployment Program will continue to provide leadership in the development of target countries’ bio-safety and regulatory framework, capacity building and technology transfer. During the year under review, the DuPont Pioneer team of scientists continued to lead the technology development aspects while Africa Harvest and its

partners in Kenya and Nigeria focused on technology deployment aspects related to CFTs, as well as capacity building. The project covers four thematic areas of the TDDP; namely, technology identification and acquisition, facilitating implementation-focused research, capacity building for technology transfer, and ensuring functional biosafety and regulatory frameworks. The Technology Development team was led by DuPont Pioneer and involved close collaboration with National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and other partners including, Iowa State University, UC Davis and University of California. During the period under review, the Technology Development team made excellent progress in improving on ABS lead events. In the beginning of 2014, ABS

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203 event was the most advanced and well characterized lead event with about 12 µg β-carotene/g tissue which would supply about 40-50% of the daily recommended vitamin A and has vitamin E (HGGT) that gives stability to pro-vitamin A. Vitamin A instability occurs in all sources of vitamin A and to the best of our knowledge it is only the ABS project which is addressing the issue through stabilizing pro-vitamin A with vitamin E. During the reporting period the ABS technology team developed other ABS events with higher levels of β-carotene including ABS 235, which has accumulated 40 µg and ABS 239 up to 60 µg β-carotene/g tissue. This high level of pro-vitamin A implies that the ABS Project has the capacity to provide adequate amount of vitamin to mothers and children, within the proportion of amount of sorghum normally consumed daily. It is also noteworthy that although excessive consumption of vitamin supplement can lead to toxicity, pro-vitamin from plants does not lead to toxicity. The human body has a mechanism of stopping the conversion of pro-vitamin A into retinol once adequate amounts have been consumed and converted. Several factors determine the amount of pro-vitamin A; these include stability while cooking, stability in storage and initial amounts of b-carotene in the tissue. How much of the food containing Vitamin A should be eaten? One key determinant is how much of pro-vitamin A is converted into retinol, the form that is used by the body. Determining the conversion rate was a key milestone achieved by the Technology Development team during the period under review. In collaboration with US Davis, the Technology Development team determined that the β-carotene conversion rate in gerbil for ABS is 4.3 µg β-carotene

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to 1 µg retinol, which is similar to that of Golden Rice-2 (3.8 µg to 1 µg retinol), but much better than that of Orange Maize (6.5 µg to 1 µg retinol). This result indicates that the ABS is an effective source of vitamin A to combat vitamin A deficiency. The promising ABS event developed under leadership of DuPont Pioneer is important to Kenya and Nigeria. In both countries the ABS event – with high nutrient traits – is back-crossed into improved locally adapted sorghum varieties. This aspect of product development involves application for permits to facilitate the transfer of sorghum events from USA to Kenya and Nigeria. The plants are then grown under CFTs with strict adherence to national and international biosafety and regulatory regulations. The fifth and the seventh CFT To date, the ABS Project team has successfully conducted five and seven seasons of CFTs in Kenya and Nigeria, respectively. This success can be attributed to introgression of ABS traits into improved local sorghum varieties carried out under strict adherence to the genetic and material confinement measures developed by the project team and close working relationship with the National Biosafety Committees in Kenya and Nigeria. This report covers results from the fifth CFT in Kenya and seventh CFT in Nigeria. Results from 2014 CFT experiments in Kenya The Kenya CFTs are led by the KALRO under the Principal Investigator, Mrs. Esther Kimani. The team works closely with Africa Harvest, which offers oversight in project coordination, communication, biosafety and regulatory issues. Both KALRO and Africa Harvest work closely with the National Biosafety Authority (NBA) of Kenya.


Overview of Africa Biofortified Sorghum Confined Field Trial Field in Kenya, 16 June, 2014.

Table 1 shows the number of crosses made to transfer ABS nutritional traits into improved local sorghum varieties. Apart from Tegemeo x ABS 188- F1, the number of crosses and genotype combinations are adequately balanced. Crossing by removing the male section of the flower by hand, known as hand emasculation method was used because it gave higher successful positive crosses than heat emasculation. The agronomic maintenance of the field was very good. Harvesting took place in August

2014. Table 1 shows the number of seeds harvested for each generation of crosses. Results from 2014 CFT experiments in Nigeria During the period under review, Nigeria carried out their 6th and 7th CFTs at the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) located in Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria in Kaduna State. For the sixth season, planting was done in February 2014. ABS188 was crossed to three local sorghum varieties and

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Table 1. Phosphomannose Isomerase assessment of ABS sorghum and their progenies Genotypes

Plot No.

Number of plants assayed

Positives

% Positives

BC2 (Tegemeo x ABS 188)

4

147

23

15.65

BC2 (Gadam x ABS 188)

5

143

18

12.59

BC2 (KARI Mtama 1 x ABS 188)

6

133

63

47.37

BC2 (Tegemeo x ABS 188) (heat emasculated)

10

83

4

4.82

BC2 (Tegemeo x ABS 188)

22

123

63

51.22

BC2 (Gadam x ABS 188)

23

143

60

49.96

BC2 (KARI Mtama x ABS 188)

24

32

16

50

804

247

Total plants assayed

ABS 188 (brown), null (black) and Tx430 (blue) in the SAMSORG 17 bed at the IAR, Nigeria on 20 December, 2014.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


ABS Project’s Principal Investigator in Nigeria, Prof Mary Yeye (left), oversees harvest at the CFT. Incineration of ABS material in Nigeria.

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backcrossed to SAMSORG 14, 17 and 40. For the seventh CFT, the plants are grown at staggered dates to synchronize their flowering for hybridization. SAMSORG 17 and SAMSORG 14 are photoperiodic; as such they are first germinated under darkness before transplantation. The highest ABS backcrosses generation to local sorghum varieties expected will be at Backcross 3 (BC3).

During the reporting period, NBA approved ABS 203 for CFT experimentation in Kenya. NBA participated in two ABS CFT staff training and attended all harvesting and planting sessions. Through these efforts they keep vigilance on the biosafety and regulatory process of CFT experimentation.

The critical role of NBA in Kenya

Similar to the NBA of Kenya, the role of the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) of Nigeria is to approve all permits for CFT experimentation. Unlike in Kenya NBC does not participate in training of staff who work in the CFT. During the reporting period, NBC approved ABS 203 for CFT experimentation in Nigeria. Similar to NBA, NBC kept vigilance on the biosafety

The NBA is responsible for approving all permits for CFT experimentation. They also approved and attended all planting and harvesting sessions of the ABS CFT every season and also participated in training all CFT staff before every planting and harvesting. The ABS Nigeria team inside the CFT after a planting activity.

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The critical role of NBC in Nigeria


Mr Antony Aseta (of AHBFI) training CFT workers prior to harvesting, June 2014.

and regulatory process of CFT experimentation in Nigeria.

participants attended the pre-harvest training of ABS CFT in September.

Capacity building of CFT staff

The following were topics covered by the facilitators

The NBA regulations in Kenya require that all staff who works in CFT site be trained in Biosafety and Regulatory aspects of CFT of GMOs. In compliance with these NBA CFT regulations, all CFT workers were trained prior to every planting and harvesting and untrained personnel were not allowed to work in the CFTs. The training was jointly done by Africa Harvest, KALRO, NBA and Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services (KEPHIS) staff. For pre-planting, a total of 20 workers were trained. For pre-harvesting 27

• Biosafety laws and regulations of GMOs; • ABS CFTs: Case study of Kenya and Nigeria; • Handling of transgenic material and procedures of collecting data; • Biosafety and regulatory procedures for CFT, harvesting, seed processing, packaging, labeling and safe disposal of ABS plant materials. It is partly because of capacity building that the ABS project has maintained strict regulatory compliance without negative incidences on the environment.

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Phosphomannose Isomerase test showing successful ABS product development The procedure used for making high-nutrient sorghum for farmers and consumers in Africa involves repeated crossing of high nutrient traits from ABS 188 into local improved farmer preferred sorghum varieties developed by ICRISAT and NARS. After every crossing step the progenies of the crosses are assessed to determine whether the genes regulating the nutrients have been successfully transferred and also to determine whether they are

stable in the local improved sorghum varieties. This determination is done using a biochemical test called Phosphomannose Isomerase (PMI). When the test is positive, it implies that the high nutrient genes have been successfully transferred into local sorghum varieties of all generations, that is, from F1s to backcrosses. Table 1 shows the results of PMI analyses done in March 2014 where a total of 804 plants of backcross two (BC2) were tested as per the manufacturers’ protocol. It can be deduced from the results that the

KALRO team undertaking PMI determination to ascertain ABS traits among crosses.

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transfer of ABS high nutrient traits by backcrossing into local improved sorghum cultivars is an effective way of developing sorghum with enhanced provitamin, bioavailable zinc and iron for farmers and consumers. However, it is noteworthy that the PMI test is a preliminary test. Other confirmatory

tests will be done, including the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) that will show that all the genes are present, and bioavailability studies that give data on the amount of nutrients actually available to the human body.

KALRO’s Mr Dominic Nzeve and Dr Titus Magomere measuring a sorghum head at the ABS Project’s Confined Field Trial in Kiboko, Kenya.

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Natural Resource Management Program

To ensure farmers have adequate reserves during the dry season, farmers are taught about water conservation.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) points out that there is a close link between environmental degradation and rural poverty. Desertification, water pollution, environment-related conflicts, climate change and loss of biodiversity, all present major challenges, especially to poor rural people, many of whom depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. The Natural Resource Management Program is Africa Harvest’s response, designed to give sharper focus and promote the management of natural resources. The program hopes to achieve its goals through five themes: •

Integrated (soil) nutrient management

Water and soil conservation and management

Promotion of agro-forestry;

Biodiversity conservation, and

Climate change mitigation strategies and promotion.

During the year under review, the program made good progress. The NRM program has cross-cutting themes across all Africa Harvest projects. Key outcomes included community sensitisation, distribution and planting of banana and tree seedlings.

Ensuring farmer environmental training is central to hybrid sorghum technology transfer Water is the scarcest natural resource in the ASALS. Through its NRM program, Africa Harvest has ensured training packages on the environment are central to all farmer outreach. The goal is to increase the farmer awareness and ensure optimal utilization of water. During the period under review, 57 demo plots on crop management were established in collaboration with county extension officers from the Ministry of Agriculture, farmers, processors and grain aggregators. Different farming practices were applied on different plots and farms to demonstrate the effect of different water usage. Left: Farmers in Arid and Semi Arid Areas are constantly trained on how to manage scarce resources, especially water.

For instance, in Tharaka where the soils are clayeyloamy and cake easily when dry, demonstrations on use of rippers enabled improved adoption of this land preparation practice. The farmers better appreciated integrated soil conservation practices such as zero tillage and crop rotation on the demo plots and the impacts these practices have on crop yields and hence farm incomes. Outreach was through participatory variety and hybrid selection meetings and the Farmer Field Schools (FFS). Sorghum farmers and processors were involved in technology selection, testing and validation to ensure that what is developed and promoted for adoption is best suited for their agroecological areas. In areas with sandy soils with very low water retention capability, rain water harvesting was incorporated in farmer training. During the

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In addition to training on good agronomic practices for maximum yields, the SMU demonstration plots have been used to illustrate the most profitable farming systems to farmers. Sorghum intercrops with different legumes have proven to have a higher gross margin per area than a pure stand of sorghum in the small scale farming setting. The intercrop provides a full diet and is a diversification to avoid any total losses due to water stress or disease infestation. The legumes Farmers prepare to plant. Here, they are taught on how to prepare gullies to help hold and increase soil nitrogen, retain water. contribute to extra income generation by farmers and setting up of participatory variety and hybrid reduce soil erosion. Given these benefits, the farmers selection trials fields, it was demonstrated to the are adopting those sorghum varieties which give farmers how different rain water harvesting methods optimal returns in combination with legumes. The can be applied. Such methods include closely-spaced, sorghum varieties adopted more are those that have tied ridges and furrows and contours on sloping preferred taste, are drought tolerant, yield higher, are lands. The farmers appreciated these water and soil easy to cook, and have the ability to fetch a price conservation methods which now form an integral premium for both farmers and industrialists. aspect of improving productivity of their farms. Training farmers to make their own manure The demonstrations have also helped in the effective dissemination of new sorghum varieties. Farmers Africa Harvest trains farmers in soil fertility are conserving their soils and utilizing available management practices. There has been excellent water more effectively to meet their household feedback on training related to making on-farm food requirements without depleting the natural compost manure and investing in plants that enhance resources. Rippers are now available for hire in the soil fertility, such as Tithonia diversifolia, a species SMU project areas due to the increasing demand for of flowering plant  in the  Asteraceae  family that is mechanised conservation practices. commonly known as the  tree marigold or  Mexican

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Wangari Kiragu (inside gully) explains how farmyard manure is prepared using Tithonia diversifolia and other inputs during a visit to a farm in Kisii County.

sunflower. It has shown great potential in raising the soil fertility in soils depleted in nutrients. This plant is a weed that grows quickly and has become an option as an affordable alternative to expensive synthetic fertilizers. The plant has been shown to increase other crops’ yields and soil nutrient, especially with reference to Nitrogen  (N),  Phosphorus  (P), and Potassium (K). Farmers are also trained on better ways of preparing their land for planting. An example is minimal tillage, which discourages the use of slash and burn method, known to destroy soils by predisposing it to soil erosion. Contour farming is also encouraged as well as the use of crop stovers to create barriers along the contours. This reduces water runoff, further minimizing soil erosion.

Encouraging the use of ‘Cover Crops’ to stop soil erosion Africa Harvest’s Farmer Outreach Package includes standard use cover crops, such as grasses and legumes, for both bananas and sorghum. These crops have been shown to provide a range of benefits, including the reduction of negative effects of raindrop impact on soil, slowing water movement to minimize soil erosion, provision of root channels in the soil to improve water infiltration and air movement into the soil as well as consolidation of the soil surface to allow easy access of machinery into the plantations. Farmers are trained and encouraged to use ground hugging cover crops adapted to lower light environments. These crops should not be too invasive, to avoid them competing with the crop of

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Wangari Kiragu and Antony Aseta both of Africa Harvest discuss farmyard manure preparation procedure using Tithonia diversifolia and other inputs in a beneficiary’s farm in Kisii County.

interest, be it banana or sorghum. The cover crops should not have nematodes.

farming: environmental stewardship, farm profitability and prosperous farming communities.

Sensitization on soil nutrition, health and management

Once a banana plantation is established, Africa Harvest trains beneficiary farmers on how soil should be managed to provide the best environment for the plant roots. This involves the application of fertilizers and soil additives aimed at improving the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil to benefit the banana crop growth.

Soil is a natural resource of overwhelming magnitude. It is too often taken for granted. Its importance as the “anchor” for all plants is not fully appreciated. Soil is a physical support system for crop production and survival. In all its programs and projects, Africa Harvest sensitizes farmers about soil nutrition, health and management. For example, banana farmers are encouraged to integrate three main goals of sustainable

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014

A well-managed nutritional program will help keep the soil and the plantation healthy. Testing the soil is the first thing done before establishing a banana plantation. Bananas perform best in soils with a pH of 5.0 (calcium chloride) or above. For this reason, before


any change is made to the soil, there is the need to find out the baseline information and status of the soil by conducting soil testing.. This helps define the most effective and economical fertilizer program. The Africa Harvest field team trains beneficiary farmers on how to carry out soil sampling, before the samples are dispatched to Crop Nutrition Kenya Limited. Results are sent back to farmers in 21 days by CropNuts, as Crop Nutrition Kenya Limited is commonly known. This is a very important soil management strategy since it not only saves farmers the cost of having to add nutrients that could already be existing in the soil, but also saves soil as a natural resource from potential destruction due to too much

chemicals, while replenishing its ability to efficiently support crops as well. Farmers embrace mulching as part of good agronomy All Africa Harvest farmer groups must undergo comprehensive training in agronomic practices. One of the key training modules is mulching. It is designed to help farmers improve the soil structures on their farms through the use of organic matter. Mulch is organic matter applied to the soil surface in a layer up to 10 cm thick. Bananas, for example, grow better where the soil is well structured and

Africa Harvest trains farmers in soil testing. In this picture, farmers dry soil samples before delivery to Crop Nutrition Kenya Limited for testing.

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A banana orchard showing mulching, using banana leaves and stems. Banana trash is an ideal mulch for banana plantations. It allows recycling of nutrients, and reduces the reliance on applied fertilizers.

has built up organic matter. Well-structured soil has better aeration, which gives roots a greater volume of soil to grow into. Soil structure is improved by increased levels of organic matter which is known to encourage soil dwelling organisms, which in turn help retain and recycle plant nutrients. Mulching benefits the soils in many ways, including: • Protecting soils from raindrop impact, helps reduce both splash and run off erosion. • Improves soil microbial and soil invertebrate (that is, worms) activity and diversity. • Reduces soil temperature variations. • Increases root growth, which helps to counteract nematode damage and improve the nutrient holding capacity of the soil. • Improves the structural stability of the soil by adding organic matter.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014

• Improves infiltration and water-holding capacity of the soil. • Suppresses weed growth and reduces moisture loss from the soil. Agroforestry outreach is an integral part of small scale farming systems Africa Harvest projects are designed to harness the sustainability of existing natural resources which include land and water. Awareness on their management and conservation is created within the target community. The goal of agroforestry training is to ensure farmers plant suitable tree species that will meet their firewood, construction and soil conservation needs. Generally, farmers are encouraged to use improved tree species.


Farmers are encouraged to plant trees and establish terraces at specific points in their farms in order to capture and reduce the speed of water especially during the rainy seasons. The communities are also encouraged to dig or rehabilitate communal shallow dams besides being encouraged to uphold traditional methods of protecting water, such as taboos to control access, usage and contamination of water. In drier areas, communal dams have been established to harvest water during the rainy seasons.

Farmers are advised to plant trees around their farms to act as windbreakers and also to provide domestic firewood. Africa Harvest Board of Directors visit the Kamunyi Sand Dam in Wote.

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Agricultural Markets and Policy Program

Farmers load bananas onto a lorry. From the collection centre, the bananas will be sold at a market or delivered to institutional buyers

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The Agricultural Market and Policy Program promotes: •

Participatory market research and opportunity identification

Market development and marketing system innovations

Capacity building of farmers, with gender-specific modules, as a deliberate strategy of increasing market access and improving bargaining power of farmers

Establishment of credit, input and output market linkages

Establishment of produce marketing centers

Policy reviews, analysis and advocacy

• Strengthening of public-private partnerships During the year in review, the program recorded many significant achievements, more specifically greater efficiencies, and unlocking more value in TC banana and sorghum value chains.

Identifying, resolving gaps in the sorghum value chain to unlock markets in Kenya’s arid and semi-arid lands In 2012 – during the first phase of the SMU project – Africa Harvest, working with South Eastern Kenya University (SEKU), conducted the first baseline survey to identify critical gaps in the sorghum value chain. The data collected was used to guide project implementation. During the year under review, project evaluation carried out in the first quarter of 2014 indicated that some gaps still existed. Another survey was needed to collect additional information to build on the information already gathered. Africa Harvest initiated negotiations with SEKU with a view of carrying out this complementary survey in the target counties. Greater focus was placed on sorghum’s contribution to household livelihoods and the target county economies in order to learn from the first phase and

make adjustments for improved outcomes in the second phase of project implementation. The study established the current status of sorghum production in Kenya, and more specifically in the target counties. It also mapped out existing sorghum value chains, detailing their development pathways. Factors that influence the diversity in sorghum production practices, in different geographic locations, were assessed. The economic contribution of sorghum within the current farming systems, household decision making processes and their response to the project activities was also captured. During the period under review, Africa Harvest continued its work on making the sorghum value chain more effective. This was achieved through continued strengthening of the “aggregator model.” This business model defines a firm that does not produce or warehouse any item, but collects (aggregates) data and information on goods and/or services from several competing sources. In our case, the model

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A visit to KARI, Katumani, one of the research centres in the ASALs.

denotes a close co-operation of all stakeholders in the sorghum value chain to enhance efficiencies, improve outputs and streamline bottlenecks. Adaptation of the model ranges from direct intervention by Africa Harvest in service provision to the current iteration where an entrepreneurial sorghum farmer or trader is identified and supported to provide both downstream (input services to farmers) and upstream (linkage to market) services, on a commercial basis. Our experience is that this farmer or trader often starts as a community or opinion leader; as the individual builds confidence and business gains traction, the aggregator is formalized into a business.

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surplus grain is sold. This effort went hand in hand with outreach to rope in more sorghum buyers to expand the market and diversify sorghum usage. New animal feed and food (for human consumption) processors have started purchasing sorghum from the aggregators, thereby improving opportunities through a market diversification strategy.

During the year under review, the role of Africa Harvest and ICRISAT was to build capacity of key stakeholders in the model, improve the enterprise development capacities of the aggregators and engage in market development activities in partnership with the stakeholders.

Sorghum already has multiple uses in line with the goal of the project. The main market outlet though, remains the East African Malting Limited (EAML), which continues to mop up the grain produced by smallholder farmers at predetermined price of Ksh 33.00 per kg (US$ 0.39), delivered to their warehouse in Nairobi. This price is attractive to farmers but other buyers are finding it prohibitive, raising the question of sustainability. At the farm gate, a kilo of good quality grain fetched between Ksh 22.00 and Ksh 25.00. During the year under review, the rains were generally not adequate to sustain a full crop cycle. Most farmers who relied on a ratoon crop were however able to harvest a sizeable crop.

The key to our success was actively linking the sorghum farmers to market outlets to ensure

Bicycles, motor cycles, animal-drawn carts as well pick-ups are the most common modes of

Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


transporting surplus sorghum grain to collection or aggregation centres in the target areas. Transporters involved in this activity play the critical role of supporting the bulking of the surplus grain from small scale farmers into marketable volumes. These are then transported to the end-users or processors in a cost-effective manner. How a refined aggregator model has helped diversify sorghum market and bring benefits to farmers The year under review was the third and final year of the EU/IFAD funded project titled “Development of a Robust Commercially Sustainable Sorghum for

Multiple Uses Value Chain in Kenya and Tanzania� or the SMU project. The key goal of the project has been diversifying sorghum end-use markets with a view to improving the livelihoods of 60,000 rural small-scale farming households in ASAL areas of Kenya and Tanzania. To achieve its goals, the project had activities along five key components, namely: 1. Characterize the sorghum value chain and its contribution to household economies 2. Develop and test pilot value chains for various end-uses of Sorghum 3. Capacity building of value chain actors

Farmers are mechanizing certain activities, such as threshing to make the value chain more efficient.

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4. Development and participatory sorghum cultivars for multiple uses

testing

of

5. Support Public-Private Partnerships along the value chain Demand-pull strategy Market development activities during first phase of the project (2011–2013) were based on strengthening value chain activities to satisfy existing demand from the malting industry in Kenya and Tanzania, where demand (for high quality, low tannin Sorghum grain) was well in excess of supply. EABL and their sister company in Tanzania, Serengeti Breweries Limited, provided the demand-pull with estimated market demand standing at 24,000MT in 2013/2014. Demand parameters for the use of sorghum in malting had been established in the process and therefore, downstream production activities were aligned to meet these requirements. The project worked with 12,000 households that were organized into 480 groups to enhance access to inputs, improve agronomy and productivity, test cultivars and demonstrate their qualities, demonstrate utilization through recipes as well as link them to markets for surplus grain. Productivity enhancement and promotion of appropriate business models Notable achievements during the first phase included the introduction and piloting of the Aggregator Model whose implementation received catalytic funding from UNDP Africa Facility for Inclusive Markets (AFIM). The model proved successful in enhancing access to inputs (seeds, land preparation services) labor saving technologies in the form of threshers and aggregation of surplus grain at remote locales through the sub-aggregator system.

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During the year under review, supporting services like banking and insurance were introduced to farmers as part of the value addition of the Aggregator Model, based on requests by the smallholder farmers working with six aggregators in Kenya. The capacity of these aggregators was further enhanced in areas of specific need using a participatory and collaborative approach including business development, record keeping and financial linkages. In addition to building the capacity of farmer groups in good agronomic practices, group dynamics, governance and leadership matters, the project also supported the aggregators by engaging support staff to help in matters of data collection, record keeping and report writing. Market diversification strategy Sorghum can be put to multiple uses. A market diversification strategy is essential and catalytic to increased production. It is also an essential riskmanagement tool for farmers. The second phase of the SMU project focused on opening up alternative enduser markets for surplus sorghum grain. Alternative avenues identified for intensification and further action included animal feed (dairy and chicken) and increased household consumption through Ready to Use Foods. For the latter, the following markets were targeted: suppliers to food relief programs; school feeding programs; and, niche special markets, e.g. for diabetics. A number of potential end user off-takers including the World Food Program (WFP), Unga Farm Care, Jubilee Feeds Limited (Thika) and Nguku Products (Machakos) were identified and steps taken to open up discussions and create partnerships. In fact, some of these alternative outlets like Nguku Products were instrumental in mopping up close to 500MT of sorghum grain, during the year under review and


in the face of the decline in demand by EAML. That decline was occasioned by a fiscal policy initiative in September 2014, re-introducing a 50% excise duty on sorghum-based beer. Support for Public-Private Partnerships The Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) platforms offer an opportunity to entrench long-term sustainability as well as an avenue for scaling up small-scale, ruralbased agricultural interventions. The fifth objective of the SMU project was designed to identify potential partnerships and support their development, particularly in seed development and access. During the period under review, partnerships with eight seed companies were initiated and formalization, through MOUs, effected. The project also participated in the formation and operationalization of county stakeholder platforms to support development of the sorghum value chain. The project team is active in four of these forums: Meru, TharakaNithi, Kitui and Makueni Counties. A key recommendation from the stakeholders workshop held during the year was for the project to extend support services to aggregators by reviewing agreements entered into between them and the market off-takers. The goal is to ensure that these partnerships are mutually beneficial and support the sustainable development of the sorghum sub-sector.

and limited organizational capacity of producer groups makes it difficult, if not impossible, to engage governments to resolve unfavorable policies. Providing smallholders with a tool or a mechanism that helps tilt the scales to their advantage - while maintaining overall market equilibrium - is one way to address this situation. Africa Harvest and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) received funding from IFAD, in late 2013, to work with smallholder farmer groups in Kenya and Tanzania to enhance their participation in value chains through capacity building and organizational strengthening. The 16 month long project (ESEVaC) was implemented between July 2013 and October 2014 and worked with 113 farmer organizations and groups. These groups were formed during implementation of two loan programs funded by IFAD and closed in 2009 for Agricultural Marketing Systems Development Program (AMSDP) in Tanzania and 2013 for MKEPP-NRM Mount Kenya East Pilot Farmers training in Moshi.

Smallholder farmers empowered to access market information through mobile phones in Tanzania The inability to access markets information is a major cause in the vicious cycle of low returns to farmers. Lack of timely access to information is linked to low quality of produce. In turn, low or absent information

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Farmers training and capacity building is critical for the success of various Africa Harvest projects.

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Project for Natural Resource Management (MKEPP) in Kenya. Working in partnership with Mtandao wa Vikundi vya WakulimaTanzania (MVIWATA), a national association of small-scale producers in Tanzania, Africa Harvest facilitated the scaling out and adoption of Mviwata Agricultural Market Information Systems (MAMIS) among 31 farmer groups in Mwanga, Moshi and Rombo districts. MAMIS is a mobiletelephony based platform that provides farmers real time information on market prices, available buyers and the quantity required by the market through Short Message Service (SMS). It operates through a partnership with a mobile service provider and a network of market information agents in various markets across Tanzania. In addition to sensitizing and building the capacity of target beneficiaries in the use of MAMIS, the project helped to bring on board three additional markets (cereals, Irish potatoes, bananas and horticulture) around the Kilimanjaro province (MbuyuniMwika and Himo). Smallholder farmers in Rombo, Mwanga and Moshi, in Tanzania, are now able to access market information, from 31 different markets and for 38 different commodities, at a minimal cost of Tsh 70 (US 4 cents) per message. Further, 15 cereal traders were added to the network to provide market outlets for farmers in the Northern Tanzania region of Kilimanjaro and its environs. The target smallholder farmers as well as others within Mwanga, Rombo and Moshi areas are now able to get information on prices from as far as Dar-es-salaam from the comfort of their homes. In the past, farmers would have had to send a representative, or two, to physically visit traders, collect information and get back to the group members.

Benefits accruing to these farmers include: access to up-to-date (updated twice weekly) information on prices, buyers and required quantities; reduction in transaction costs (and hence more income); ability to produce what the market needs; quality and quantity; and, enhanced access to markets. Enhancing smallholder participation in markets through farmer training and organizational development The awareness of, and access to markets are necessary conditions to enable smallholder farmers to extract value from agricultural-based value chains. But these two conditions are not sufficient to ensure sustainability and large-scale impact. The subsistence nature of smallholder production systems, low adoption of improved technologies, limited knowledge on use of technologies (when adoption occurs), low utilization of productivity enhancing inputs (such as fertilizers) and limited ability to work together in cohesive groups, are some of the major bottlenecks that need to be addressed. Smallholder farmers require capacity enhancement to prepare them, both mentally as well as technically, to address market requirements in a sustainable way, thereby enhancing their experiences and the value they derive from these relationships. The ESEVaC project was implemented over the course of 16 months in Kenya and Tanzania with the goal of strengthening enterprise development capacity of smallholder farmers. Apart from achieving long-term sustainability, the project was designed to identify critical lessons that can enrich the IFAD investments nationally and regionally. Overall 113 farmer organizations received training in organizational strengthening and enterprise

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In Tanzania, Africa Harvest organized a capacity building workshop, which was attended primarily by women.

development. There were 82 organizations in Kenya and 31 in Tanzania making a total of 5,197 farmers. Of these 3,108 (59.8%) were female and 2,089 (40.2%) male. Topics of instruction included: group dynamics, conflict management, leadership, record keeping and management, preparation of financial statements, founding and management of micro-enterprises, marketing, risk and risk management, Market Information Systems and corporate governance. Africa Harvest and stakeholders grapple with sorghum excise duty for manufacturers as livelihoods of 30,000 farmers are affected The Agricultural, Markets and Policy Program closely monitors policies related to Africa Harvest crops of interest. Policies affect consumption, markets and contribution to rural economies and overall growth.

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During the year under review, the SMU Project was affected by the re-introduction of a 50% excise duty on beer made from sorghum, cassava and millets. The undesired effect of this fiscal policy instrument was manifested rather quickly through price increases of beer and related products as well as depressed demand for sorghum, especially as an input for the brewing process. Over 30,000 smallholder farmers who were engaged in the production of sorghum for the malting industry were negatively affected. Efforts by stakeholders to have the government rescind the decision by suspending the excise duty are still on-going. Given this development, alternative strategies to increase the uptake of sorghum through increased consumption at the household as well as in the


community level – in schools, hospitals and special diets for diabetics – are therefore necessary. Use of sorghum in alternative industrial processes including substituting maize as a source of carbohydrates, especially in animal feed manufacturing, is also being pursued. Participants at the SMU stakeholders planning workshop ranked policy advocacy high on the list of strategies required to enhance the role of sorghum in household as well as commercial platforms. One such intervention would be to lobby the governments (both national as well as county level) to include sorghum in the purchase of strategic grain reserves, akin to the practice in Tanzania. Future policy efforts will focus on ensuring better appreciation of sorghum’s contribution to securing household food security as well as its economic potential as a commercial crop. There’s also the need to close the productivity gap, which is still well below genetic potential of both traditional varieties as well as improved sorghum cultivars coming out of research initiatives.

Africa Harvest, with the support of development partners and stakeholders will continue to focus on challenges related to low use of inputs, poor agronomic practices (including cultural methods), limited access to and affordability of inputs (including information) as well as lack of organized markets for sorghum grain. Focus will continue on challenges related to low utilization of sorghum and its derivative products at household as well as commercial level, which provides little or no incentive to increase production as well as productivity. A supportive policy environment is critical to achieving this objective, especially with respect to food standards. For example, a policy that promotes the use of sorghum in production of Ugali (maize meal) and bread by blending it with maize and wheat respectively would require the current standards on maize meal and bread to be revised. The potential upside of such an initiative would be beneficial to both the producers of sorghum – who are predominantly smallholder farmers – as well as the economy, through import substitution and foreign exchange savings.

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Communication for Development and Knowledge Management Program

Africa Harvest CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu makes a presentation to Kenya’s GM Ban Task Force.

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The Communication for Development and Knowledge Management Program seeks to manage, identify synergies and facilitate institutional innovation from knowledge generated from Africa Harvest programs and projects. This involves effective processes of capturing, distributing and utilizing internal and external knowledge to achieve the vision and mission of the organization. After more than a decade of transforming the lives of poor communities, Africa Harvest realized there is rich information from partners, stakeholders and target beneficiaries. This information can enrich future project implementation, especially with regard to increasing project ownership by target communities. During the period under review, the program continued the process of collecting information from different projects and sharing this internally and externally through meetings, workshops and conferences, websites and social networks such as Twitter and Facebook. For effectiveness, the Communication for Development and Knowledge Management program has been defined into seven themes: •

Public engagement strategy

Technology acceptance

Innovative use of ICT

Community engagement with behaviour change monitoring

Publications and use of other multimedia modes

Documentation and knowledge management

Placing high value on partnerships and stakeholder relations yields results to project beneficiaries One of the Africa Harvest’s 10 Guiding Principles is “commitment to partnerships that strengthen African agriculture.” In line with the vision – to be a lead contributor in making Africa free of hunger, poverty and malnutrition – the Communication Program places special emphasis on partnerships and stakeholder relations. During the year under review, all programs and projects continued with an aggressive strategy of sharing progress and achievements with different

partners and stakeholders. This was done through on- to-one meetings, strategic and review meetings with project teams, traditional as well as online media outreach. Articles were published in the print media and in specialized journals while online platforms such as Twitter and Facebook were also utilized. In the USAID-KHCP Project in Kisii, Africa Harvest worked closely with KALRO and key stakeholders in the banana value chain to strategically re-position the TC banana crop within the region. The project produced a banana manual in collaboration with KALRO, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, KIRDI, ASDSP and the Horticultural Directorate (formally HCDA).

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partnered with the NABDA on communication and issues management. During the year under review, the project reached out to African nutritionists at the ANEC. The project was well received and ANEC provided the project with a side-event, focusing on the role of biotechnology in nutrition. The project also reached out to regulators in Nigeria, Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso.

Africa Harvest Communication Director, Mr Daniel Kamanga assists CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu with her presentation during a biotech stakeholders’ meeting in Kenya.

The strong partnership ensured success in ensuring technology adoption and uptake of new varieties of bananas in place of low-yielding local varieties which are not suitable for commercial production. Communication activities with regard to the banana value chain remained strong during the year under review. Through the ABS project, Africa Harvest continued advocating for new technologies in its efforts to make a positive impact in Africa. The project’s three critical aspects were retained and partnerships deepened. DuPont Pioneer continued to play the important role of Technology Development. In Kenya and Nigeria, the IAR and KALRO (formerly KARI) continued to be involved in Product Development. Africa Harvest continued to provide leadership in management, biosafety and regulatory affairs, communication and capacity building. In Nigeria, Africa Harvest

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The Project published the progress made in various scientific journals. A video documentary – aired on BBC – was completed in partnership with DuPont. Numerous articles were published in various newspapers, including: “Sorghum project brings hope for better days” People Daily (2 May 2014), Nairobi, Kenya and “Sorghum to be more nutritious” Daily Nation (2 May 2014), Mombasa, Kenya. During the year under review the SMU Project continued working and advocating on the aggregator model in ASALs. This was supported by the dissemination of information and demonstration of new sorghum varieties that are higher yielding and better adapted to both biotic and abiotic stresses in ASAL ecologies of the Eastern Province of Kenya. The key project partners are ICRISAT and IITA. In partnership with the two organizations, a workshop was hosted in Moshi. It brought together 40 participants, representing 32 farmer groups, value chain actors (agro-dealers, grain merchants, etc.) Tanzania Coffee Research Institute (TACRI), and the National Farmer Groups Association of Tanzania, MVIWATA. To help facilitate training of the project beneficiaries and enhance the sustainability of the interventions, Africa Harvest deemed it strategic to train the Subcounty Agriculture Officers (SCAOs) in Kenya as


Africa Harvest Communication Director, Mr Daniel Kamanga, was one of the resource persons at a Regional Media Capacity Building Workshop help in Kumasi, Ghana.

well as officers attached to the District Agriculture and Irrigation Office (DAICO) in Tanzania. Some 82 farmer groups and one farmer cooperative in Kenya and the 32 groups in Tanzania were trained. During the year under review, Africa Harvest and its partners hosted 50 participants representing the SMU project stakeholders from both public and private institutions in the two countries. Institutions represented were: the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation/water services county and sub-county heads, KALRO, IFAD, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), WFP, EAML, Namburi Agricultural Company (NACO), county agriculture and trades and investment representatives, microfinance institutes (Equity Bank), UNGA Farm Care, aggregators and end-users. The SMU Project partnership also worked with the following aggregators in addressing barriers and bottlenecks along the sorghum value chain:

• Beatrice Nkatha has a large network of farmers and market outlets. She is based in Mukothima, Tharaka North where, together with Africa Harvest field staff, she provided aggregation services for approximately 6,000 farmers during the year under review. She bought 2,602.4MT of surplus grain from the TharakaNithi farmers, valued at Kshs. 85,866,000/00 (USD 1, 010,188.00) and sold this grain to different end-users. Of this amount, 2,500MT (96%) went to EAML, 79MT to WFP, 19.8MT to Nguku Products and 3.6MT to Jefra Foods. • IgambaNg’ombeMulti-purpose Cooperative Society limited (IMCOS) is the aggregator serving Meru South value chain actors. They purchased 70 tons of surplus sorghum grain from farmers valued at Kshs. 2,310,000/00 (USD 27,176.47) and sold it to EAML. • Caritas (Meru Diocese) operates in the larger Meru region. From the project area, Caritas

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Africa Harvest (Dr Silas Obukosia and Mr Daniel Kamanga) and Pioneer DuPont (Dr Jim Gaffney) visited INERA to discuss various issues related to biotechnology Burkina Faso; In the photo above, the then INERA Director General, Dr Francois Lompo (standing, fourth from right), with his team.

purchased 130 tons of surplus sorghum from farmers, valued at Kshs. 4,290,000/00 (USD 50,470) which was supplied to the WFP. • Mwailu Development Enterprises offers aggregation services to farmers in Makueni County. Inspite of extensive damage to sorghum grain by QueleaQuelea birds, the firm purchased about 100 Metric tons of surplus grain from farmers. The market value of that grain was Kshs. 3, 300,000/00 (USD 38,823.00). • SHALEM Investment Ltd is based in Meru County and serving farmers in Imenti North Sub-county. The aggregator is an agent of EABL and therefore a good link to the market for farmers in Meru County. Through SHALEM, over 3,000 farmers sold their surplus grain during the year under review. As part of the bigger plan of market development, Africa Harvest continues to seek and develop

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partnerships with new off-takers of quality sorghum grain. Those identified include: • Nguku Products Ltd is located in Athi River, Nairobi. It manufactures poultry feed and related products for use on their farm and for sale to farmers in Kitui, Machakos, Makueni and Mwingi. The company purchases raw materials (sorghum, millet and corn) from farmers in the aforementioned districts. During the period under review, the company purchased 20 metric tons of grain from SMU aggregators. This is expected to increase as the current brood of 60,000 chicken is expected to grow steadily thus providing an alternative avenue for sale of quality surplus grain. • Unga Farm Care (East Africa) is an affiliate of the Unga Holdings Ltd and one of the leading animal feed manufacturing companies in the


region. It has four mills and has a presence in Nakuru, Nairobi and Mombasa. It produces 15,000MT of feed per month; 30% poultry range (4,500 MT), 40% dairy range (6,000 MT) and the rest (4,500 MT) pig feed and pelleted feeds for broilers chicks. The company mainly purchases sorghum by contracting large-scale farmers and traders. The SMU farmers have not yet sold to this market but negotiations are underway for the aggregators to deliver sorghum in large volumes. The capacity building of the aggregators, field clerks and farmers on quality requirements will enable them supply required quality and quantity of sorghum. • JKUAT Nissin Foods Ltd: Africa Harvest is in discussion with this company that is in the process of establishing a factory to produce low-price and high-nutrient sorghum noodles for the low-income group market. The utilization of locally produced inputs will be determined by the cost effectiveness as compared to importing the product. Currently, the company imports finished products from India. • JUFRA Foods Ltd is an affiliate of Jufra Agro Strategies in Chuka, Meru. It supplies agricultural inputs and equipment, after sales services and general agricultural consultancy to farmers. Jufra Foods processes wheat, sorghum (red and white), pearl millet and finger millet into composite flours. The same ingredients are also wet milled to process the traditional porridge mainly consumed in Meru and Tharaka-Nithi Counties. As part of the partnership – especially in training farmers in value addition - Jufra has supplied five wet milling plants in TharakaNithi and two in Meru County. Jufra’s demand for sorghum in the same period was 3,600 kg which was delivered by one of the aggregators in TharakaNithi.

• Other potential off-takers include Kabansora Millers Limited, located in Nairobi and among the largest millers in the country, and Mombasa Millers and Farmers Choice Limited. Africa Harvest has also continued to deepen its partnership with the county governments in the SMU areas. For instance, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) has been developed and shared with the county government of Tharaka-Nithi. Biotech outreach gains traction in Ghana and Burkina Faso while Kenya stalls During the year under review, with continued support from CropLife International (CLI), Africa Harvest continued to work in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Kenya. In Ghana, a high-powered delegation of Africa Harvest CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu, the Regulatory Director, Dr Silas Obukosia and Communication Director, Mr Daniel Kamanga, attended the bi-annual Africa Nutrition and Epidemiology Conference. There were discussions on Ghana’s biotech policy during the ANEC meeting. Africa Harvest provided leadership for a special biotech side event, attended by Ghanaian regulators and policymakers. Dr Wambugu made a presentation at the ANEC conference and, together with the rest of the Africa Harvest team, participated in several other outreach activities, including a onehour TV interview. Africa Harvest’s work in Ghana also included media capacity building. Working with other biotech partners, the need for a unified approach to biotech outreach was discussed and will be implemented in 2015. Africa Harvest will provide leadership in Communication and Issues Management.

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In Burkina Faso, Africa Harvest was involved in discussions that led to the formation of a joint biotech outreach strategy. Africa Harvest reached out to critical role players during the period under review. Two of the key issues discussed were the need for unified issues management and centralized logistical support for visiting delegations to showcase the country’s success as a biotech champion. Meetings were held with the then Minister for Innovation, Dr. Gnisse Konate, officials of the Environment and Agricultural Research Institute (INERA) and biosafety regulators.

World Food Prize conference in Iowa, USA. Africa Harvest’s experience in media management helped in the design of stronger media networks and strategies for all our regional, national and local audiences.

In Kenya, during the period under review, Africa Harvest focused on three critical issues:

The editors brought together expert African authorities to critique various biotechnology initiatives and project future developments in the field in Africa from diverse fields like economics, agriculture, biotechnology, law, politics, and academia, to set the continent’s biotech development agenda.

• Continued participation – under the leadership of the ABSF – in the multi-stakeholder approach to facilitate removal of GM imports ban • Within the above framework, Africa Harvest provided leadership in the biotech stakeholders’ engagement with the new Senate and its Agricultural Committee, which will be critical in the removal of the ban • Strengthening the voice of academia in the removal of the ban through strategic support of the Kenya University Biotech Consortium (KUBICO) Among the communication tools and resources developed for the Kenya outreach were position papers and policy briefs on areas of concern to the GMO task Force, focusing on Health of GM Foods and Capacity of the NBA to regulate the technology. Africa Harvest leadership in the media task force resulted in overwhelming media coverage. Although the ban has not yet been removed, anti-GM efforts have been neutralized. Africa Harvest also worked closely with CLI to identify African journalists to participate at the

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Africa Biotech experts’ voice captured in new book The book Biotechnology in Africa: Emergence, Initiatives and Future, edited by Dr Florence Wambugu and Mr Daniel Kamanga was published and officially launched at the 6th Africa Nutritional Epidemiology Conference in Accra, Ghana.

Africa Harvest CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu and former Director General of CSIR in Ghana, Professor Walter Alhassan, present JoyTV showhost, Mr Nana Ansah Kwao, with a book after a TV interview.


The book argues that there is a great future for biotechnology in Africa which sidesteps western interests that do not match those of the local populace. In these diverse chapters, Africa’s political and scientific leaders demand a greater say in how research and development funds are allocated and spent. They argue that Africa’s political leaders must both see clear benefits and have elbow-room to drive the change required. The book was written by 37 African biotech authorities, a third of whom are women. The book is about Africans writing about biotech in Africa. Another outreach activity around the book during the year under review was the Nairobi launch by Mr.Kiraitu Murungi, the Chairman of the Senate Standing committee on Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries. The launch was attended by heads of biotech institutions in Kenya and the media.

Africa Harvest CEO, Dr Florence Wambugu, presents a copy of the book co-edited with Mr Daniel Kamanga, to Dr Adewale Adekunle, Director, Partnerships and Strategic Alliances at Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA).

Communication support for sorghum project contributes to nearly a dozen confined field trials in Kenya and Nigeria In 2014 the ABS project continued with its communication and outreach efforts to keep stakeholders engaged with the project and its progress towards introducing pro-vitamin A (beta carotene) into sorghum. The project was presented for the third year in a row at the Third Annual Biosafety Conference in Kenya. The conference was organised by the NBA. This was one among 10 events where the ABS project highlighted within the year under review. The ABS Project presented a progress report covering activities in Nigeria and Kenya. These focused on human and infrastructural capacity building, contribution to biosafety standards in development, handling, transfer and use of GM material. The ABS Project also played a major role in helping the removal of the current GM food imports ban. At the NBA conference referred to earlier, the project presentation focused on the issue of food safety. The project leadership also reached out to policy makers to provide them with information on agricultural biotechnology and the need to allow the country’s regulatory system provide required leadership on policy matters.

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Biographies of Board of Directors

Africa Harvest Board of Directors in 2014.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Dr Moctar Toure is a Senegalese national and serves as the Chair of the Board. He is a soil scientist who turned into an institutional development expert from experience. He obtained his Diplomed’IngenieurAgronome from the Ecole Nationale Superieure d’Agronomie de Rennes (France) in 1970 and his Doctorate from the University of Rennes (France) in 1973. He spent the first 15 years working for the Senegalese NARS, where he rose to the position of Director General of the Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA). He served for 4 years as the National Director for all Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Research in the Ministry of Sciences and Technology. He then moved to the World Bank and for about 18 years, served in various capacities including Executive Secretary for the Special Program for African Agricultural Research (SPAAR). Two years prior to retirement, he moved to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to lead the Land Degradation Team. Currently, he is a member of many advisory committees and is involved in consulting tasks. Mr Joseph Gilbert Kibe is the Chairman of the Kenya Horticulture Development Authority. In the past, he has served as a civil servant in Kenya and as Permanent Secretary in various government ministries. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Makerere University College of the University of London. He has rich experience in policy formulation and implementation, HR management and

budgeting and accounting for financial and physical resources. He is currently involved in agricultural developments as an investor, with particular interest in international horticultural trade. His special interest in financial investment and corporate governance has led to his current involvement as Director in over 10 private sector companies and not-for-profit foundations and trusts. Dr Florence Muringi Wambugu is the founder, Director and Chief Executive Officer of Africa Harvest Biotech since 2002. She is a plant pathologist with specialization in virology and genetic engineering. She has a Ph.D. from the University of Bath in England, and has had post-doctoral research experience at Monsanto, USA. For over 30 years, she has dedicated her life to agricultural research, where she made significant contributions to the improvement of sorghum, maize, pyrethrum, banana and sweet potato. Previously, she worked as the Africa Regional Director of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) AfriCenter in Nairobi, and as a Research Scientist at KARI. She has published over 100 articles and co-authored various papers. She is also the author and publisher of Modifying Africa. In 2005, she led an international consortium that was awarded US$ 21 million under the global competitive grant by the BMGF. She is a recipient of several awards and honors, including the Norwegian YARA Prize in 2008. She is currently a Board Member in several international agencies.

Biographies of Board of Directors

63


Professor Shabd S Acharya is the Chair of the Program Committee of the Board. He is Honorary Professor at the Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur (India). He is Chief Editor of the Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing; Chairman of the Editorial Board of Agricultural Economics Research Review; Chairman of the Consortium Advisory Committee for India’s National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP); Project on Risk Assessment and Insurance Products for Agriculture; and Chancellor’s Nominee on the Board of Selection of the Rajasthan Agricultural University. He serves as a consultant to numerous international organizations. Prof Acharya has numerous distinctions. He has written extensively on agricultural economics, agricultural marketing, prices, agricultural development and policy analysis. His publications include 17 books, 44 chapters in other books, 409 research papers/articles, and 73 research monographs/reports. Ms Prudence Ndlovu is the Chair of the Nominations and Governance Committee of the Board. As Managing Director of Eagle People Organizational Development (EPOD) Global (Pty) Ltd., Ms Ndlovu has spent the last six years at the helm of this entrepreneurial venture, offering human capital solutions. She has over 15 years’ experience as a Human Resources specialist in large corporations, advising on full function human resource strategy and management. She holds a postgraduate degree in Business Studies, specializing in HR management and a training management qualification. Her corporate experience spans blue

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014

chip companies including J Sainsbury’s Plc, Pick ‘n Pay, and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Ms Ndlovu is the Vice Chairperson of Gauteng of the Business Women’s Association of South Africa, providing enterprise development support and capacity building programs for women entrepreneurs. Professor Dr Matin Qaim is Professor of International Food Economics and Rural Development at the University of Goettingen, Germany. He has a Ph.D. in Agricultural and Development Economics from the University of Bonn and has held academic positions at the Universities of Hohenheim (Stuttgart), Kiel, and Berkeley (California). He has extensive research experience related to poverty, food security, and productivity growth in the small farm sector. He has implemented and coordinated research projects in various countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, including on the socioeconomic impacts of agricultural biotechnology and GM crops. Dr Qaim has published widely in scientific journals and books, and has been awarded academic prizes. Dr Blessed Okole is the Chair of the Audit Committee of the Board. He is the Senior General Manager for Infrastructure and Planning in the Technology Innovation Agency, South Africa. He holds a Ph.D. from the Technical University of Berlin, Germany. He was the CEO of LIFElab, the Biotechnology Innovation Center in Durban, and has 18 years’ international experience in the Research and Development sector of the biotechnology industry. Prior to joining LIFElab,


he held the position of Business Development Manager and Strategic Partnership Manager for the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences unit. He was also the interim Director for the NEPAD Southern African Network for Biosciences (SANBio) and the Technology Manager, Plant Biotechnology at AECI, a specialty product and services Group of companies. He has several peerreviewed publications and holds three patents. Dr Grace Malindi, recently retired as the Director of Agricultural Extension Services at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security in Malawi after 38 years in public service. She held various positions, including that of Training Officer, Gender-based Participatory Development Specialist, Deputy Director for Extension Services and Director of Extension Services. Dr Malindi holds a Ph.D. in Human Resources and Community Development from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, and has extensive experience in agricultural extension, gender mainstreaming, farmer training and participatory rural community development. She played a pivotal role in revolutionizing Malawian agriculture from a food deficit nation to a vibrant food surplus nation. Dr Malindi is a member of the Association for International Agricultural Extension Education (AFAAS), Association of Women in International Development (AWID) and the American and Canadian Home Economics Association. Dr Grace has received numerous awards and served on various advisory boards in Malawi.

Ms Larkin Martin has been – for over 20 years – the manager of two family-owned farms, Martin Farm and the Albemarle Corporation in Courtland USA. She Holds a Bachelor of Arts in European History from Vanderbilt University and is the newest member of the Alabama Ethics Commission. Larkin has extensive history as a farmer. She is an astute businesswoman. In 2012 she was selected as an Eisenhower Fellow for studies done on Kenyan and Turkish agriculture. Her strong analytical skills and industry knowledge is drawn from years of experience and networking in the US agricultural sector. She is the past chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and served as Chairman and Director of the Cotton Board. She currently serves on the Farm Foundation Board.

Biographies of Board of Directors

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Finance, Administration and New Business Development Program 66

Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


As a non-profit organization, Africa Harvest sources funds from both public and private-sector funders interested in Africa’s development. More specifically, we work with funders who have a similar vision of helping Africans overcome livelihood challenges through agricultural technology-based interventions. Within the current Strategic Plan, Africa Harvest targets to significantly raise its annual financial outlay to achieve the growth and impact. Our goal is to grow the current US$ 4 million income to US $ 15 million by 2020. For this strategy to be implemented effectively, Africa Harvest has been developing and growing its human capacity, especially with regard to enhancing efficiency in financial management and program implementation. During the year under review, the Finance Administration and New Business Development Program focused on increasing the capacity of Africa Harvest’s team of professionals in designing and implementing projects that link the entire agricultural value chain to quickly deliver major socio-economic gains. Project-based training focused on aspects of project management, idea generation, proposal development, project design, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Project teams learnt the critical elements of building of alliances by forming consortia and coordination of activities of large projects. As the Strategic Plan implementation continues, Africa Harvest will require individuals capable of systematically focusing on needs-driven initiatives in resolving the key problems that resource-poor smallholder farmers face in Africa’s rural areas. They will have to facilitate formation of scientific consortiums of public and private sector institutions to develop products that positively

impact the poor. Africa Harvest has a proven track record of delivering modern agricultural technology, including improved plant germplasm, rootstocks, and improved seeds to resource-poor farmers. However, the future belongs to private-sector driven, value-chain focused interventions. Doreen Marangu deepens capacity to work with farmers Serving as the Manager of the “Development of a commercially sustainable Sorghum for Multiple Uses Value Chain (SMU) project” in Kenya and Tanzania enriched my experience and developed my capacity to work with farmers. My work focused on the broad goal of economic empowerment of the rural community to sustainably meet their food and nutritional requirements and ensure sustainable livelihoods. My work involved organizing project field teams and sorghum value chain actors, and training them on enterprises development and profits maximization. Working with the sorghum value chain has changed my perception on market development. It has helped me to appreciate the roles played by political environments and government policies in influencing markets. When we started working on the SMU project, grain production and productivity at the farm level seemed the only areas requiring attention in the sorghum value chain since a major commercial off-taker was willing to purchase all the low tannin grain from farmers. During the year under review, changed tax policies resulted with the trend changing drastically. It required a rethink of our approach.

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67


A key lesson I have learnt is that value chain development should focus on increasing the efficiency of existing links or establishing new ones. There is also need for closer co-operation between value chain stakeholders and private sector, institutional buyers. Part of Africa Harvest’s contribution has been the capacity building of partners especially in the county and national governments Enhanced collaboration among financial institutions, transport agencies, storage facilities among others has also brought about the achievement of the SMU project objectives. Nehemiah Mburu’s Business Development and Project Management skills sharpened My engagement as a Business Development Officer/Project Manager at Africa Harvest has been a rich and highly rewarding experience in my career development and personal growth. I live a dynamic life, requiring a diversified skills set and the ability to multi-task across a number of initiatives. The year 2014 presented numerous opportunities for me to enhance my skills and knowledge. I participated in the design of a seven-year Sustainable Livelihoods program, by IFAD Kenya Country Office, targeting smallholder farmers in Arid and Semi-Arid lands. I also took part in a workshop, organized by IITA in Ibadan Nigeria, to discuss Youth Entrepreneurship for Agricultural Transformation in Africa. During the year, I also managed the implementation of ESEVaC project, in partnership with IITA, in Kenya and Tanzania. I also assisted in implementation of the SMU Project and in the development of concept notes and project proposals. 68

Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014

These engagements helped enhance my skills-set in program design, curriculum development, farmer training, market information systems and enterprise development. My leadership and management abilities were stretched, especially in developing governance structures for smallholder farmer organizations. Working in Africa Harvest has helped me sharpen my skills in proposal development and writing, people management, conflict resolution, project management, report writing and Result-based Monitoring and Evaluation. Being part of the learning tour to North Carolina State University – for the BMGF-commissioned Landscape Study – helped expand my skills and knowledge in designing, streamlining, deploying and sustaining a market-led value chain. Wangari Kiragu’s field skills prove critical in expansion of TC Banana project in Kisii Project management can be a daunting job; even for seasoned persons. Every new project brings new challenges with it. The year 2014 was not different. It was the final stretch for the USAID KHCP banana project that I had managed for over three years. This was a period of both personal and professional growth. I developed an eye for detail, and ensured implementation of activities was on schedule, in addition to ensuring the project remained within budget. Tight deadlines helped inculcate endurance and perseverance and the requirement for monthly, quarterly and yearly reports helped spruce up my writing skills.


My people skills were stretched and developed tremendously; I had to closely liaise with key actors in the banana value chain to achieve the project objectives. This meant assembling teams from different organizations to provide the necessary technical support for the identified gaps in the value chain. One exercise that stood out for me during the year was the production of a Field Technical Manual on Banana Production. Assembling a line-up of content writers and reviewers assisted to improve not only my negotiation skills but also enhanced my knowledge and understanding on procurement requirements and procedures. ABS project matures Anthony Aseta, both as a Scientist and Project Manager With two degrees from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) – Bachelor of Science in Botany and Master of Science in Botany, specializing in general Microbiology – I joined Africa Harvest as one of four interns in July 2010. I was attached to the then Africa Harvest Consultant and Chief Scientific Advisor Prof. Shellemiah Keya. From him, I received the best mentorship a young person can hope for. Later, I joined the ABS project and worked with seasoned scientists that included Dr Silas Obukosia, Mr Ken Mburu and the late Dr Joel Mutisya of the defunct KARI (now KALRO). By extension, I was also learning from the team of DuPont Pioneer scientists.

to help confirm that there were no sorghum relatives growing in the locality. Then came the competitive selection of a company that eventually constructed the CFT electric fence. The work was so meticulously done that it became a point of reference to many other CFTs on the continent. It is an embodiment on how genetic and material confinement can be efficiently done in Africa. The trials of transgenic ABS started in earnest, preceded by a mock trial to sharpen skills for the ABS field staff. I was also involved in partner relationship management. I continue to work with KALRO scientists as well as regulators from the NBA and the KEPHIS in managing the CFT. The well-structured, routine and thorough biosafety training before the planting and harvesting sessions have enriched my knowledge. For example, monitoring the event crosses being done – in the process of introgression of traits into Africa sorghum varieties – re-awakened my plant breeding as well as biotechnology skills hitherto acquired in college. Five CFT trials later, and armed with the experience gained over the years, my passion for biotechnology, specifically biosafety, and managing CFTs is at an all-time high. I enjoy training the ABS CFT staff on biosafety and the need to lay emphasis on genetic and material confinement.

By the time I joined the ABS team, the CFT site had just been selected. A study was initiated to identify the plant population growing in the area. This was

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Monitoring and Evaluation Anthony Aseta Anthony Aseta has been in charge of Monitoring and Evaluation of the Kenya Horticulture CompetitivenessKHCP Project, funded by USAID. From April 2012 to the December 2014, he developed close working relationships with both Project Managers and Programme Directors, thereby enriching his intra-personal and inter-personal people skills. “Project monitoring and evaluation can be demanding and at times challenging due to the amount of data that needs to be captured and managed,” says Aseta. “However, the experience has widened my knowledge scope, aided my personal growth and strengthened my professional development”. Africa Harvest implements projects funded by different development partners. Through working with these diverse local and international partners, Aseta was exposed to various monitoring and evaluation strategies.” I have acquired technical skills that have enabled me to contribute towards strengthening the institutional monitoring and evaluation and data management framework,” he says.

Below and opposite page: The 2014 Africa Harvest’s Annual Senior Management Team (SMT) Retreat: (Left to Right) Doreen Marangu and Wangari Kiragu, Michael Njuguna listens keenly, Anthony Aseta and Silas Obukosia, and Njuguna and CEO, Florence Wambugu.

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Africa Harvest staff 2014.

Finance, Administration and New Business Development Program

71


Summary of financial performance Introduction The total income in 2014 as accounted by grant funding and other incomes was $1,761,244, which was a 3% decrease when compared to the 2013 income of $1,818,175. The funds were received from seven (7) different donors listed below, and from individuals. Africa Harvest 2014 – List of Donors In 2014, Africa Harvest received funding from seven donors and individuals who contributed a total of US$ 1.76 M compared with 2013 when the foundation received US$ 1.81 M. The funds were mainly restricted donations and fees received from the following partners; • Crop Life International • Pioneer Hybrid International • Bill & Melinda Gates • International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT) • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • USAID Fintrac • Grand Challenge Canada (GCC) • Individuals

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation

Income and expense indicators for period ending 31st December 2014 2014

2013

US$

US$

1,752,168

1,814,901

9,076

3,274

1,761,244

1,818,175

Sub Grant payment to partners

74,119

84,855

Program development expenses

579,972

733,864

44,944

32,425

Program operations expenses

738,863

722,227

Consultancy

183,004

127,788

Board expenses

49,058

42,975

Depreciation

23,150

29,831

Amortization

1,322

1,539

1,694,432

1,775,504

(880)

25,942

-

(1)

Surplus / (Deficit) for the year

65,932

68,612

Other Comprehensive income

-

-

65,932

68,612

Donations Other Income Expenditure

Communication expenses

Net foreign exchange gain/ (losses) Finance costs

Total comprehensive income

Finance, Administration and New Business Development Program

73


Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation

Balance Sheet as at 31st December 2014

ASSETS Non-current assets Vehicles and equipment Intangible assets Current assets Grants receivable Other receivables Cash and bank balances

TOTAL ASSETS

2014 US$

2013 US$

114,158 6,176 120,334

129,852 7,498 137,350

208,739 43,305 66,356 318,400

417,803 48,048 65,542 531,393

438,734

668,743

335,350

269,418

103,384 103,384

243,000 156,325 399,325

438,734

668,743

FUND AND LIABILITIES Accumulated fund and reserves Accumulated fund Current liabilities Unexpended grants Payables

TOTAL FUND AND LIABILITIES

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014


Donors' profile Crop Life International

CropLife International supports the Communication Program which focuses on increasing awareness about the benefits of biotechnology in Ghana and Burkina Faso. The emphasis is to generate and disseminate knowledge to empower stakeholders including farmers, policy makers, and the public, to make informed decisions about agricultural biotechnology for Sustainable development. For more information on CLI visit: http://www.croplife.org/

DuPont Pioneer

DuPont Pioneer has funded the Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) Project. At the end of the year, the Project was in the process of concluding the fifth seasons of confined field trials of ABS in Kenya and Nigeria. The ABS gene flow study by the University of Nairobi has been concluded in Kenya and guidelines for Confined Field Trails Experimentation for Kenya and Nigeria, published. For more information on DuPont Pioneer visit: www.pioneer.com

Bill & Melinda Gates

The Foundation funded a consultancy study whose overarching goal was a study to generate comprehensive information and data on the status of tissue culture application in Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania and other countries. The study identified priority areas where TC investments are most needed to help in the design of future program. The study recommended ways of strengthening local capacities of public and private tissue culture laboratories to produce clean, high quality pre-basic and basic planting materials of banana, cassava and sweet potato in the same three countries. www. gatesfoundation.org/

International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) funded ICRISAT, in partnership with Africa Harvest, to implement the project Development of a Robust Commercially and Sustainable Sorghum for Multiple Uses (SMU) Value Chain in Kenya and Tanzania. The project rationale is to exploit the value chain opportunities and potentials of using sorghum as food, feed and cash income that will contribute to the achievement of food security and poverty reduction. The project facilitated farmer market linkages for the increased production that is beyond the family food needs. www. icrisat.org/

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) funded IITA, in partnership with Africa Harvest, to build the capacity of smallholder farmers and enhance their participation in value chains through capacity building and organizational strengthening. The 16 month long project (ESEVaC) was implemented between July 2013 and October 2014 and worked with farmer organizations/groups in Kenya (Embu, Meru and Tharaka Nithi Counties) and Tanzania (Mwanga, Rombo and Moshi districts). Target beneficiaries were trained on group dynamics & governance, leadership, conflict management, market information systems and linkages to markets, micro enterprise founding and development and corporate governance. www.iita.org/

Finance, Administration and New Business Development Program

75


76

Financial Transaction Reports Analysis Center (FINTRAC)/ USAID

The Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project (KHCP), funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented under the auspice of FINTRAC, promoted the growing of tissue culture bananas in Kisii and Nyamira Counties in Kenya. The project's overarching goal was to promote the production of tissue culture bananas in the two counties and at the same time, establish consistent and solid market linkages for the produce. For more information on USAIDKHCP visit: http://www.growkenya.org/partners.aspx

Grand Challenge Canada (GCC)

Grand Challenge Canada (GCC) supported the affordable bio-digester for improved health project whose goal was to mitigate the negative impact of indoor air pollution by proposing an alternative solution. The funded phase was a proof of concept which involved community sensitization in 3 Sub-Counties of Kiambu County in Kenya on the impacts of indoor air pollution; installation of 20 bio-digester plants to demonstrate and prove the effectiveness of the biogas units in reduction of smoke related disease incidences; demonstrate the benefits of the digested bio-slurry in improving crop productivity, nutrition and other economic benefits. www.grandchallenges.ca/

Individuals

A number of individuals made personal donations to advance the mission and vision of Africa Harvest.

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Acronyms and abbreviations

ABS Africa Biofortified Sorghum ABSF Africa Biotechnology Stakeholders Forum AFIM Africa Facility for Inclusive Markets AGRA Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa AMSDP Agricultural Marketing Systems Development Program ANEC African Nutrition and Epidemiology Conference ASAL Arid and Semi-Arid Lands ASDSP Agricultural Sector Development Support Program BMGF Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation CFT Contained Field Trial CLI CropLife International CRP CGIAR Research Program DAICO District Agriculture and Irrigation Office DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EABL East Africa Breweries Limited EAML East African Malting Limited EU European Union FFS Farmer Field Schools HCDA Horticultural Crops Development Authority IAR Institute of Agricultural Research ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Arid Tropics IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

Acronyms and abbreviations

77


INERA

Environment and Agricultural Research Institute

JKUAT Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology KALRO

Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization

KARI Kenya Agricultural Research Institute KEPHIS

Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services

KHCP

Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project

KIRDI

Kenya Industrial Research Development Institute

KUBICO

Kenya University Biotech Consortium

MAMIS

Mviwata Agricultural Market Information Systems

MKEPP-NRM Mount Kenya East Pilot Project for Natural Resource Management MOU Memorandum of Understanding MVIWATA Mtandao wa Vikundi vya Wakulima Tanzania NABDA National Biotechnology Development Agency NACO Namburi Agricultural Company NARS National Agricultural Research Systems NBA National Biosafety Authority NBC National Biosafety Committee NGO Non-governmental Organization NRM Natural Resource Management PPP Public-Private Partnerships SADC Southern African Development Community SCAO Sub-county Agriculture Officers SEKU South Eastern Kenya University

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Africa Harvest Annual Report 201


SMS Short Message Services SMU Sorghum for Multiple Uses SUA Sokoine University of Agriculture TACRI Tanzania Coffee Research Institute TC Tissue Culture TDDP Technology Development and Deployment Program ToT Training of Trainers USAID United States Agency for International Development WFP World Food Program WVC Whole Value Chain

Acronyms and abbreviations

79


Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (AHBFI)

NAIROBI (HQ) 3rd Floor, Whitefield Place School Lane, Westlands PO Box 642 Village Market 00621 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: + 254 20 444 1113 Fax: + 254 20 444 1121 kenya@africaharvest.org

JOHANNESBURG 34 Forbes Road Blairgowrie, Randburg PO Box 3655 Pinegowrie 2123 Gauteng, South Africa Tel: + 27 11 079 4189 southafrica@africaharvest.org

www.africaharvest.org

WASHINGTON DC Blake Building Farragut Square 1025 Connecticut Avenue NW Suite 1012 Washington DC 20036, USA Tel: +1 202 828 1215 Fax: +1 202 857 9799 usa@africaharvest.org

TORONTO Scotia Plaza 40 King Street West, Suite 3100 Toronto, ON Canada M5H 3Y2 Tel: +1 416-865-6600 Fax: +1 416-865-6636 canada@africaharvest.org

Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014  

Africa Harvest Annual Report 2014. The year that revolutionised Agriculture in Africa whilst enriching the lives of rural communities. We re...

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