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201 4 Vol 4

On Christmas Eve 1 91 4, a spontaneous cease-fire was observed across the whole of the Western Front. The Christmas Truce of the First World War, a singular event unprecedented in the history of warfare, initially received widespread media coverage in the New York Times of 31 December 1 91 4, followed by British newspapers, such as

the Mirror, The Illustrated London News and the Times, which printed front page photographs of British and German troops mingling and singing Christmas carols.

Undermining Propaganda

The French government was the first to severely censor any reports on what they called "fraternisation with the enemy." Political pressure was brought to bear to censor all reports of the event from mainstream history books for decades. For years the extraordinary event was known only by word of mouth from participants. The damage caused by the Christmas Truce to propaganda campaigns to demonise the enemy, was regarded as a serious threat to the war. It has taken

Knox 500

201 4 marks the 500th Patrick Hamilton Betrayed anniversary of the birth of By an act of Parliament, 1 7 Scottish Reformer, John Knox. July 1 525, the importation of Luther's books into Scotland Reformation in Scotland was prohibited. In 1 528, the As the books of Martin Luther Archbishop of St. Andrews and Tyndale's translation of summoned Hamilton for "a the New Testament entered debate." However, he had no Scotland, they were received intention of debating with great interest. Patrick Hamilton; it was a trap. Before Hamilton, a student at St. any of his friends could come Andrews, wrote a book that to Hamilton's defence, a was condemned as heretical. church court hurriedly found He fled to Germany, met with him guilty of "heresy". Luther and returned to Scotland, to begin preaching Martyrdom the Protestant Faith with great While most heresy trials took boldness. weeks, Hamilton's was rushed through in less than 1 2 hours. It took 6 long, excruciatingly

decades to unearth the details of the fascinating events surrounding Christmas 1 91 4.

Devastating

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In This Issue 1 The Christmas Truce - 1 00 Years Ago 1 Knox 500 8 Standing for Life 8 Upcoming Events 1 0 Young Reformers Out to Change the World 1 2 Christians Marginalised in South Africa "Give me Scotland 1 4 Statutory Rape and the Age or I die!" of Consent painful hours for Hamilton to 1 5 Christian Homeschooling Resources die by burning at the stake. Patrick Hamilton was 1 5 Sanctity Life Sunday Scotland's first Protestant 1 6 South African History Boxset

martyr. He was just 24 years

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execution of Wishart, 1 6 Scottish nobles assassinated Beaton in a most brutal way. Before being struck down Beaton was admonished: "Repent thee of thy former wicked life, but especially of the shedding of the blood of that notable instrument of God, Master George Wishart, which... cries for John Knox with double-handed broadsword protecting George Wishart vengeance... We from God are sent to avenge it... Thou hast been, and Persecution old. His death inspired remain an obstinate enemy against Cardinal David Beaton, widespread interest in the Jesus Christ and His holy Evangel." George Wishart Archbishop of St. Andrews, Reformation and an intensified had 5 Protestants executed opposition to Catholicism. Andrews Hamilton's last words were: in 1 544 and twice tried to St. He pulled no punches Then a group of ardent Satan. "How long, O Lord shall darkness have the popular Wishart Protestants, and one observer noted that the Castilians, while others cover this realm? How long will murdered. After one failed took over the at the of St. outer branchessnipped you suffer this tyranny of men? attempt on his life, out of Andrews and city of the papacy, garrisoned Knox "struck at the root to destroy concern for his safety, the themselves in the castle Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!" there. the whole!" This was the Protestants organised for Impressed by Knox's teaching Conversion Wishart to move his location beginning of the public career Through the preaching of daily to avoid capture. John abilities, they asked him to of one of the most powerful Thomas Guilliame, a converted Knox, armed with a large become the castle's chaplain. preachers of the Reformation. friar, John Knox was converted double-handed broadsword, (Although Knox had studied in 1 543. The exhilarating effect was part of the bodyguard Law and Theology at the Captured and Condemned of this newfound faith and appointed to travel with University of St. Andrews and The French fleet laid siege to freedom, the joy of Wishart. Those who came to had been ordained, because St. Andrews Castle, which experiencing God's grace in a service by George Wishart of the excess of priests in surrendered in July 1 547. The Christ, transformed Knox found, instead of the normal Scotland, he had ended up rebels were taken to Rouen, a tutor and had not in France. Knox and most of forever. mass in Latin, congregational becoming previously as a parish the Protestants were singing and a fiery, hour-long priest.) served The Courage of Wishart Knox was condemned for life to serve Tall, handsome and well- sermon in their own tongue. overwhelmed, reduced to tears as galley slaves. mannered George Wishart Sacrifice and declined the offer, not became the spokesman for In 1 536, Wishart was feeling worthy. Galley Slave Scotland's growing Protestant condemned as a heretic, Knox was 33 years of age movement. Wishart travelled strangled and burned by order Called when he was condemned to throughout the country of Cardinal Beaton. As the fire Over the next few days, the the galleys. His strong proclaiming Reformation was lit, Wishart declared: "This congregation persisted in character, which was doctrines with skill and flame hath scorched my body, yet extending to him the call. evidenced throughout the rest while attending a local his life and ministry served conviction. hath it not daunted my spirit. But Then, church service in St. Andrews, him well throughout this he who from yonder high place Knox heard Dean John Annand ordeal. beholdest us with such pride, shall, affirming Catholicism, within a few days, lie in the same that it was "the Bride ofclaiming Christ". Rejecting Idolatry as ignominiously as now he is seen Knox stood up in his pew and On one occasion, while mass proudly to rest himself." interrupted him, declaring that was being celebrated on the the Roman Church was no galley and the Salve Regina PO Box 23632 Claremont Revenge 7735 Cape Town South Africa bride of Christ, but a (O, Holy Queen) was sung, a Within 2 months of the Tel: 021 689 4480 prostitute. The Roman papacy statue of the Virgin Mary Fax: 021 685 5884 Email:info@christianaction.org.za had degenerated further from (Nostre Dame) was handed Web: www.christianaction.org.za the Faith of the Apostles than around for all on board to Publisher Africa Christian Action the Jews had from Moses kiss. He refused: "Trouble me Editor when they had crucified Christ. not; such an idol is accursed!" Dr Peter Hammond Associate Editors When this statue was again Dorothea Scarborough The Rotten Roots of Rome thrust before Knox's face to Taryn Hodgson At this, the congregation kiss, he grasped it and threw DTP Brendon Sch채fer loudly demanded that Knox the idol overboard declaring: justify his remarks in a sermon "Now, let our lady save herself. She PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE Christian Action is published quarterly by the following Sunday - which is light enough, let her learn to Africa Christian Action. All articles and he did. Knox declared that swim!" news items from this publication may be reproduced, or quoted from, on condition the Roman church had that due credit is given to Christian Action. become the synagogue of Please also post, or email, us a copy of Cardinal David Beaton

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Release and Freedom

The English Protestant government of King Edward VI took a direct interest in the plight of these prisoners and in February 1 549, after 1 8 months as a galley slave, Knox was released, at the direct intervention of King Edward VI, as part of a prisoner exchange.

Knox the Puritan

Knox spent the next 5 years in England as an honoured guest, preaching in Berwick and Newcastle. In 1 551 , Knox was appointed a royal Chaplain of King Edward VI. As Chaplain, he had the opportunity to preach before the king and contributed to the preparation of the second "Book of Common Prayer" (BCP).

Bloody Mary and Exile

When King Edward VI died, 6 July 1 553, the future of Protestants in England looked bleak. Mary Tudor made clear her intention to reinstate Catholicism as the national religion. Knox described Mary as the "wicked English Jezebel". Knox, along with thousands of other English Protestants, sought refuge in Protestant Germany and Switzerland.

Switzerland

Early in 1 554 Knox travelled to Geneva, where he met John Calvin. Knox described Calvin's Geneva as "the most perfect school of Christ that ever was on earth since the days of the Apostles." While Knox was in exile in Europe, Protestant congregations were forming

back in Edinburgh, Dundee, St. Andrews, Perth and Brechin. Most of these were clandestine meetings using the English "Book of Common Prayer".

Geneva and Scotland

Knox helped co-pastor an English congregation in Geneva. In August 1 555 he returned to Scotland and spent 9 months preaching extensively throughout the land. The Catholic bishops summoned him to Edinburgh in May 1 556 to face legal charges. Knox returned to Geneva where he assisted members of his congregation in a new translation of the Bible into English, the "Geneva Bible".

When is it Right to Fight?

Knox was coming to believe that Christians had the obligation to revolt against a tyrannical monarch. A ruler's highest obligation was to preserve pure faith and worship. In Knox's "A Godly Letter" (1 554) he taught that the nation could incur corporate guilt for tolerating evil. If the people permitted Catholicism to remain, the nation would be subjected to Divine judgment and plagues. God punished the entire tribe of Benjamin, for example, not because all were adulterers, but because some were tolerated.

Idols for Destruction

In his 1 549 leaflet: "A Vindication That The Mass is Idolatry", Knox taught that idolatry entails not only worshipping what is not God, but also in trusting anything besides God. To honour anything in religion contrary to God's Word is idolatry. "The mass... is an abomination". The mass promoted a false atonement based on works.

Calvin's Geneva: "The most perfect school of Christ since the days of the Apostles"

up a Jehu to slay an idolatrous ruler. Knox demanded that God's Law be upheld in Scotland. If the people obeyed the unjust commandments of evil rulers, they would receive a far more terrible punishment from God than any ruler could inflict upon them for treason. Not to revolt against an idolatrous ruler was "plain rebellion against God".

Zwingli by the mayor and council of Zurich, Calvin had the support of the Geneva City Council, the English Reformation at that time had King Edward VI. However, since no civil authority in Scotland was able to provide protection for Protestants, Knox believed that the abusive powers should be overthrown.

Knox maintained that, when in a minority, the faithful are only required to separate themselves from idolatry. However, when the believers are in a dominant position, and reasonably unified, they must not simply separate from idolatry, they must also abolish it. If exterminating idolatry meant overthrowing a tyrannical ruler, then that was necessary. "If princes exceed their bounds... there is no doubt that they may be resisted with power."

England", Knox condemned those leaders who had connived to restore the nation to Catholicism under Queen Mary Tudor. "Had she... been sent to hell before these days, then should not their iniquity and cruelty so manifestly have appeared to the world."

A Call for Resistance From Separation to Victory In his 1 555 "Admonition to

Bloody Mary

In 1 558, Knox published his most notorious "The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women" aimed directly at "Bloody Mary" - the queen of England at that The Minister of Justice time. Knox stated that "Bloody Luther was protected by Mary" was a rebel against God, Prince Fredrick of Saxony, "a traitoress and rebel against

Rebellion Against God

The Academy in Geneva Christian Action

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God." He called for the faithful to "remove from honour and authority that monster in nature." In his, "Appellations To the Nobility and Commonality of Scotland" he extended to the common people the right and duty to rebel against tyranny.

Controversy

Within weeks of its publication, "Bloody Mary" died and the Protestant Queen Elizabeth ascended to the English throne. Many saw Knox's bold stand against the tyranny of "Bloody Mary" vindicated by her sudden removal and the accession of a Protestant Queen to the throne. However, most saw it as a monumental political mistake and distanced themselves from Knox. Knox admitted: "My First Blast has blown from me all my friends in England!"

Reforming Scotland

In May 1 559, Knox arrived in Perth. His fiery sermon against Catholic idolatry was so effective that when the service was over, the congregation immediately began to demolish altars, smash images, statues and crucifixes. They removed all the superstitious trappings of Romanism. They militarily occupied Perth, Sterling, St. Andrews, and by the end of June, Edinburgh. There, Knox was elected minister at St. Giles Kirk in High Street. His Reformation preaching reverberated throughout Scotland.

Thanksgiving & Confession

Later that month the Scottish Parliament met at St. Giles, in Edinburgh, for a great Thanksgiving service where Knox preached to them. The Parliament then ordered Knox and 5 of his colleagues to write a confession of faith. Hurriedly put to paper in 4 days, The Scots Confession is vibrant and spontaneous, filled with prophetic and militant language. It was adopted by Parliament and remained for 90 years, the Scottish 4

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churches' official Theology. (In 1 647, it was superseded by the Westminster Confession.)

Faith in Action

The Scots Confession stands out in how it specifies practical Christian ethics. It urges good citizenship, honourable living and a commitment to social justice.

A Higher Duty

The Scots Confession not only permits the overthrowing of tyrants, but makes such action mandatory. Tyrants are defined as the real rebels to the King of kings. Article 1 3 defines workers of iniquity as: "filthy persons, idolaters, drunkards and thieves...murderers, oppressors and cruel persecutors." The Scots Confession makes clear that no civil power is absolute. Civil leaders are permanently on probation and no Christian should give unqualified allegiance to any government. Christians must reserve the right of just rebellion against tyrants. As Knox declared: "Dangerous times demand vigorous faith."

National Reformation

On August 1 7, Parliament abolished the mass, repudiated papal jurisdiction over Scotland, and rescinded all laws at variance with the Reformed Faith.

Comprehensive Reform

Also in 1 560, Knox's Treatise on Predestination was published in Geneva. The Geneva Bible was also published. This was the work of the English congregation that Knox had pastored. In December 1 560 the "First Book of Discipline" drawn up by Knox and his colleagues was submitted to the General Assembly. Knox laid out plans for the comprehensive application of the Gospel to every area of Scottish life. He wanted a school in every parish, a college in every town, a university in every city and regular, organised provision for the poor.

John Knox - a man that neither feared nor flattered any flesh.

Mary Queen of Scots

Although the Reformation Parliament of 1 560 had worked with John Knox to mandate a Calvinist Scotland, the return of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots in 1 561 put that in jeopardy. The Queen refused to assent to the new order and Scotland remained officially Catholic. Mary Stuart was heir to England's throne if Elizabeth died. With her strong ties to Philip II in Spain, and the Guises in France, the Catholic threat to Scotland's emerging Reformation was serious.

The Papist Threat

to unite the Catholics of England and Scotland. When the Queen became pregnant, her young husband accused the Queen of adultery with her private secretary, David Rizzio. Lord Darnley (now King Henry) participated in the murder of Rizzio, 9 March 1 556. On 1 5 June 1 556, Mary Stuart delivered a son: James Charles Stuart (who grew up to become James I of England).

Murdering Her Husband

In revenge for voicing his suspicions, Mary Stuart arranged through her boyfriend, the Earl of Bothwell, the assassination of her husband, King Henry (Lord Darnley). Mary coaxed Henry back to Edinburgh, lulled his suspicions and arranged for him to be blown up by explosives. Both Protestants and Catholics in Scotland were outraged. Mary had Bothwell stand a mock trial, at which he was acquitted, then gave him Dunbar Castle and various lands to his associates.

The Scots were well aware that in the Netherlands Protestants were being tortured, beheaded, hanged, drowned, burned and buried alive by the Vatican's heavy hand. They had recently witnessed the wave of horrible executions under "Bloody Mary" in neighbouring England. As rumours circulated that Mary Stuart would marry Don Carlos, the son of Philip II of Spain (the arch persecutor of Protestants), Knox preached Confronting the Queen a withering sermon declaring Knox confronted Bothwell with charges of adultery, complicity that: "all papists are infidels!" in murder and rape. When A Clear and Present Danger Bothwell married Queen Mary, Philip II was well aware that May 1 567, the nation became Mary Stuart was the Vatican's convinced that she had helped best hope of restoring murder her husband. There Catholicism to England: "She were widespread calls for her is the one gate through which to be deposed and the people religion can be restored in England. turned against her. Knox All the rest are closed." demanded that the Queen stand trial for murder and Immorality and Intrigue adultery - both capital crimes. Mary Stuart married Lord Mary Stuart was forced to Darnley of England, hoping abdicate and the nobles

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organised a swift coronation of the infant, James VI of Scotland (later he would become James I of England and of the United Kingdom).

Protestantism. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1 567, and her infant son, James VI was crowned, Stuart was appointed Regent. He was described as: "a Puritan The Reformation Triumphs with natural charm and At this coronation, Knox diplomacy". preached from the pulpit about the baby Joash who Oppression & Insurrection was anointed and crowned At the same time, Europe was while Queen Athaliah cried boiling. The Spanish Duke of "treason" from her palace! The Alva had fallen upon the sermon included details from Calvinist rebels of Holland the Bible as to how the nobles with fire and sword. 8,000 had gone from the coronation Dutch Protestants were of Joash to kill Athaliah, to executed. Another 30,000 had tear down the temples of Baal their property confiscated. and to restore the rule of the Then in 1 568, the Inquisition prophets in the land. While condemned all 3 million Dutch Knox was calling for the trial Protestants to death as of Mary Stuart, she escaped "heretics!" The Dutch valiantly and raised an army of 6,000 resisted and declared Catholics. However, when her independence. Philip II was army was confronted by the facing a great revolt. Along disciplined Protestants, Mary's with the war in the army melted. She fled to Netherlands, and civil war in England and sought the France, a papal bull protection of her cousin, excommunicating Elizabeth Elizabeth. inspired a Catholic uprising. The Catholic armies of James Stuart Northumberland destroyed James Stuart, Mary's half- Bibles and prayer books, rebrother, became Regent of instituted the mass in Durham Scotland. James Stuart (1 531 - Cathedral and moved to 1 570) had been an influential rescue Mary Stuart to make figure in Scottish politics. By her Queen of England. age 1 9, he was already a member of the Privy Council. Removing the Threat He became Mary Queen of Elizabeth's army crushed the Scots' Chief Advisor when she rebellion and after numerous returned to Scotland. other intrigues and However, as he was won over conspiracies to assassinate to the Protestant Faith and her and place Mary on the became a member of the English throne were exposed, Lords of the Congregation, reluctantly agreed to Mary's he used his power to maintain trial and execution. and extend the influence of The Reformation Monument in Geneva

Mary queen of Scots, declared: "I am more afraid of the prayers of John Knox than of an army of 1 0,000."

Assassination

Fearless

The assassination in February 1 570 of the Protestant Regent of Scotland, James Stuart, plunged Scotland into civil war. Later that year, Knox suffered a stroke. But he continued to preach throughout the last months of his life. Even as his health was deteriorating, he insisted on being carried to the pulpit.

At his grave, one man declared: "Here lies a man who neither flattered, nor feared, any flesh."

God's Firebrand

John Calvin described Knox as: "God's firebrand" and as a "brother...labouring energetically for the Faith." Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, had been heard to declare, trembling and in tears: "I am more afraid of the prayers of John Knox than of an army of 1 0,000." John Knox's famous prayer: "Give me Scotland or I die!" was thoroughly answered in his lifetime.

Success

Before he died, in 1 572, Knox had the joy of seeing the Reforms of 1 560 ratified by the Scottish Parliament. Papal authority in Scotland was outlawed. All future rulers of Scotland were to swear to uphold the Reformed doctrine. The day before he died Knox said: "I have been fighting against satan, who is ever ready for the assault; I have fought against spiritual wickedness and have prevailed." The dedicated labours of John Knox resulted in Scotland becoming the most Calvinist nation in the world.

"I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith." 2 Timothy 4:7 Dr. Peter Hammond www.ReformationSA.org

The Verdict of History

Otto Scott in "The Great Christian Revolution" writes: "Knox had humbled a reigning monarch, toppled a government, ousted a hierarchy, converted the people and could regard, towards the close of his life, the landscape transformed by his efforts and the teaching of his mentor, Calvin. Knox's triumph in Scotland...severed a tentacle of France and lessened the threat to the Reformation of England." Knox statue in Edinburgh

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Continued from Page 1 The Christmas Truce - 1 00 Years Ago

frontline of barbed wire and trenches running from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier.

Emily Hobhouse

sense alike prompt us to join hands with the women… and urge our rulers to stave off further bloodshed?... May Christmas hasten that day…"

The famous Englishwoman, Emily Hobhouse, who had exposed to the world the horrors of Lord Kitchener's scorched earth campaign against the Boer Republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State and the horrors of the British concentration camps in South Africa, was the most prominent campaigner against British involvement in the First World War.

Female Solidarity

Open Christmas Letter

Love for One's Enemies

Emily Hobhouse authored the Open Christmas Letter calling for peace. 1 01 British women signed Emily's Open Christmas Letter which was endorsed by 1 55 prominent German and Austrian women in response. Under the heading: "On Earth Peace, Goodwill towards Men", Emily Hobhouse wrote: "Sisters: The Christmas message sounds like mockery to a world at war, but those of us who wished, and still wish, for peace, may surely offer a solemn greeting to such of you who feel as we do." She mentioned that "as in South Africa during the Anglo Boer War (1 899-1 902), the brunt of modern war falls upon non-combatants and the conscience of the world cannot bear the sight."

The German Mothers responded: "To our English Sisters, sisters of the same race, our warm and heartfelt thanks for Christmas greetings… women of the belligerent countries, with all faithfulness, devotion and love to their country, can go beyond it and maintain true solidarity with the women of other belligerent nations, that really civilised women never lose their humanity…" Emily Hobhouse also oversaw the raising of funds and shipping of food and medicines to the women and children of Germany and Austria who were suffering as a result of the English Naval blockade.

Preaching for Peace

Numerous ministers were proclaiming from the pulpit: "That the guns may fall silent at least upon the night when the Angels sang." Although these messages were officially rebuffed, and supressed in the heavily censored media, many of the soldiers in the frontlines seemed to share these sentiments.

Fraternising with the Enemy

Christmas Hastens Peace From the first week of "Is it not our mission to preserve December, informal truces life? Do not humanity and common were observed by soldiers on

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the frontline. In a letter dated 7 December 1 91 4, Charles De Gaulle expressed his dismay at fraternisation with the enemy, where French and German troops had exchanged newspapers and recovered their dead and organised burial parties in no-mans-land. French General d'Urbal, expressed alarm over soldiers staying too long in the same sector becoming friendly with their enemies, to the extent that they were conducting conversations between the lines and even visiting one another's trenches!

Compassion for Ones Foes

No-Man's-Land

This truce spread rapidly across the entire Western Front with over 1 00,000 German and British troops involved in this unofficial cessation of fighting. Soon Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, Belgian and French troops joined in the Christmas celebrations in the frozen strip of no-man's-land. Joint worship services were held. Respectful burial services were conducted by the combatants for the dead between their lines. Soldiers swopped ration packs , wine, pies, chocolates and souvenirs, such as buttons, badges and hats.

After heavy rains near Ypres, where the Germans held the high ground and the British the lower ground, English troops came out of their flooded trenches in full view of the Germans who expressed their sympathy and did not open fire on their soaked and vulnerable enemy. The 2nd Essex Regiment recorded on 1 1 December, in their War Diary, that their officers and men met the German Saxon Korp half way between the trenches and exchanged food, cigarettes, Frontline Football chocolates and conversations. The next day football matches were played between the lines. Silent Night officer Robert Greys On Christmas Eve German British wrote of football match soldiers began decorating between the the 1 33 Saxon their trenches with Christmas Regiment and his Scottish trees and candles. The troops. The Germans 3 Christmas Truce began in the - 2. The Glasgow Newswon on 2 region of Ypres, in Belgium, January, reported that the where the Germans were Argyll and Sutherland enthusiastically singing won their match Christmas carols in their Highlanders 4-1 . Royal Field Artillery Lt. trenches. When British soldiers Albert Wynn, wrote of their joined in singing Silent Night soccer match against and then responded with Hannovarians, near Ypres,the on carols of their own, the two Christmas Day. sides began shouting Christmas greetings to each Refusal to Open Fire other. Shortly after that Commanders threatened soldiers spontaneously came repercussions for lack of out of their trenches and discipline and numerous walked across no-mans-land officers ordered their artillery to greet one another, to open fire on the fraternising exchange gifts and souvenirs.

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Continued from Page 6 The Christmas Truce - 1 00 Years Ago

troops in no-mans-land. On none of these occasions did the artillery obey orders. There are numerous complaints on record by officers shocked at the total breakdown of discipline as men point blank refused orders to open fire on their own soldiers, mingling with the enemy, in no-mansland, on Christmas Day. General Sir Horace SmithDorrien, (a survivor of the battle of Isandlwana, during the Anglo-Zulu War), then commanding the British II Corp, issued orders forbidding fraternisation with the enemy and complained that his orders were disregarded by the soldiers!

Whole units had to be pulled back from the front and sent to other fronts, when they displayed reluctance to fire on "enemy" that they had celebrated Christmas with. Numerous artillery units began to fire only at precise locations, at pre-arranged times, to avoid causing casualties. Many instances of soldiers firing high, and ineffectually, were reported.

Youth Hostel Ministry

Richard Schirrmann was so impressed by the comraderie experienced between his German regiment and French soldiers during the Christmas Truce, even exchanging addresses with one another, that he went on to found the Youth Hostel Association in 1 91 9, to provide meeting places where young men of all countries could get to know one another.

The Eastern Front

There were also sporadic observances of a Christmas Truce on the Eastern Front where German, Austrian Hungarian, and Russian commanders observed ceasefires for the duration of Christmas.

Attempts to Crush the Christian Spirit of the Soldiers

Numerous French and British officers were court martialled for participating in this fraternisation with the enemy.

Front, Christmas 1 91 5. On some sections of the Western Front, carols and gifts were exchanged between German and British troops and at least one football match, with about 50 soldiers on each side was recorded in 1 91 5.

Imperial War Museum

Court-Martialed

Joyeux Noël Film

The Christmas Truce is now openly acknowledged at the Imperial War Museum in London with photographs of German and British troops celebrating Christmas together.

Sir Ian Colquhoun of the Scots Guards was court-martialed for defying orders by maintaining a short truce to bury the dead between the lines, on Christmas Day 1 91 5. 1 91 5 Truces Because he was related to An Easter Sunday Truce was British Prime Minister H.H. attempted by German units Asquith, this punishment was in 1 91 5, but they were commuted. suppressed by British artillery fire. In November 1 91 5 a Suppressing Christmas Saxon unit briefly fraternised German attempts in December with a Liverpool Battalion, 1 91 6 and 1 91 7 to observe and conducted burial services Christmas Truces were together. In December 1 91 5, rebuffed by British Artillery there were explicit orders barrages. directed by Allied commanders, and elaborate Vimy Ridge 1 91 6 procedures made, to forestall Recently evidence has come any repeat of the previous to light of a successful Christmas Truce. But even the Christmas Truce in 1 91 6, multiple artillery barrages between German and ordered along the entire Canadian soldiers near Vimy frontline, throughout Ridge, where they exchanged Christmas Day by the British, Christmas greetings and were not completely effective presents. The Canadians and and a number of truces were Germans visited one another's observed on the Western lines on 25 December 1 91 6.

The 2005 French film, Joyeux Noël dramatizes the Christmas Truce of 1 91 4 through the eyes of French, Scottish and German soldiers on the Western Front.

The Prince of Peace

It remains an extraordinary testimony to the power of the Gospel that, during such a terrible time of world war, soldiers of so many armies, on opposite sides, could cease fighting, come out of their trenches and embrace their enemies, in honour of the Prince of Peace.

"For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the Government will be upon His shoulder. And His Name will be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His Government and peace there will be no end…" Isaiah 9:6-7

Memorial in France

Dr. Peter Hammond

A Christmas Truce Memorial was unveiled in Frelinghien, in France, on 1 1 November 2008, on the spot where 25 December 1 91 4, the Royal Welsh Fusiliers played football with the German 371 Battalion. The Germans won 2-1 . Christian Action

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Day of the Covenant 25 December 201 4

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Victory Over TV Porn!

On Monday, 3/1 1 /201 4, in the Western Cape High Court, Mr Justice Bozalek, struck down the licence granted by ICASA in April 201 3 to On Digital Media (formerly Top TV) which had permitted them to broadcast 3 pornographic TV channels. The Justice Alliance of South Africa (JASA) and its two coapplicants, Cause for Justice and Doctors for Life (DFL), were awarded their costs against both ICASA and ODM. The effect of the judgment is that broadcasting of the porn channels must cease immediately. TopTV/StarSat has now appealed against the judgement, which will be heard on 5 December. Please continue to pray for the

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“Then Jesus told His disciples a parable to show them that they should always pray and not give up.” Luke 1 8:1 This is a winnable war. What

Christian lawyers representing JASA, Doctors for Life and Cause for Justice. The Christian Action Network presented submissions at the ICASA hearings on Top TV’s licence in 201 2 and 201 3 (the first time ICASA refused to grant Top TV a licence, the second time they reneged and granted them the licence, prompting JASA, Doctors for Life and others to launch this case in the High Court). Thank you for praying!

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is the Biblical antidote to the porndemic? And what can you do to protect yourself and your family? How can we take back the culture from the pimps and pornographers? Africa Christian Action’s book Porndemic will equip you, with the help of God, to begin to transform your community. You can view an interview with the author on the Video Gallery on the www.christianaction.org.za website. Taryn Hodgson

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Christians Marginalised in South Africa by Dorothea Scarborough

In early September 201 4 an atheist group calling itself Organisasie vir GodsdiensteOnderrig en Demokrasie (OGOD) initiated a court action against six South African schools which promote the Christian worldview in a country whose constitution is secular. They are probably hoping that the Johannesburg High Court will create a precedent verdict which will make it possible to outlaw all Christian teaching and activity in schools. The name OGOD amply describes their blasphemous orientation. For the Third Commandment says: “You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain” (Exodus 20). The targeted schools are all Afrikaans. They open the day with Scripture reading and prayer. The children pray before sports matches, and the classrooms display crosses and Bible verses. Though no child is coerced into participating, many of them have joined a Christian Student Association which teaches leadership skills and an attitude of goodwill to all men. The love of God and neighbour is paramount.

Garsfontein (Pretoria); and three high schools: Linden (Johannesburg), Hoërskool Oudtshoorn and Langenhoven Gimnasium (Oudtshoorn). Prior to the court action no complaints had been received by teachers and parents. But on their website the atheists are showing their colours. Their crusade is not against the Anglican or Catholic religion, or against the charismatic one, nor against the social gospel. They want to outlaw Protestantism, especially Calvinism. This branch of religion, with its liberty of spirit and its Protestant work ethic, has historically produced the freest, most advanced, most successful and prosperous people and nations. Protestantism, they claim, produces “Christian elitism and faith apartheid.” AfriForum has pledged to pay the costs, and the Federation of School Governing Bodies of South African Schools (FEDSAS) is helping the schools. So is the African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) and an organization called FOR SA which protects War against Protestantism and promotes religious The six targeted schools are freedom. (info@forsa.org.za, three primary schools in Tel 021 -556-5502) Gauteng: Randhart (Alberton), Baanbreker (Boksburg) and The SA Authorities are Secular/Humanist/Animist Though 70% of South Africans are claiming to be Christian, the authorities are mostly secular/animist and hostile to Protestantism, claiming that Protestantism was responsible for separate development. They speak negatively of the Afrikaners and create a climate in which atheists can freely agitate against Christ and Christianity. The general elections earlier this year brought a swing away from 12

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the Christian worldview, for President Jacob Zuma appointed a number of hardcore communists to high office. For instance, the ministries of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Minister Senseni Zokwana is chairperson of the SA Communist Party); the Ministry of Trade and Industry (Minister Rob Davies is a senior member of the SACP); and the Ministry of Economic Development (Minister Ebrahim Patel is also a senior member of the SACP) are in communist hands. The Minister of Higher Education and Training, Dr Blade Nzimande, is the General Secretary of the South African Communist Party. It is in these areas that the Afrikaners (Boers) are particularly affected and which can be used to disadvantage them. South Africa is a mainly Protestant country, and Calvinism has shaped her to a remarkable extent. For during their rule, the Christian Afrikaners codified much of the Protestant religion into civil law. Contrary to all the propaganda against her, South Africa became the freest and richest nation on the African continent, having to protect her borders against a huge influx of starving Africans from

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the north. Since 1 994, however, a humanist/communist/animist government has changed much of the law. National submission to Almighty God was renounced. President Nelson Mandela, though worshipped worldwide as a saint, was exposed as a staunch communist. 1 ) It was he who abolished public Christianity. Righteousness fled, and sin came in. Crime and corruption became rampant, and prosperous South Africa is being plundered. Jacob Zuma, the State President, declared that corruption was not a crime in Africa. It was a crime only in a “Western paradigm.” Even if called a crime, say his lawyers, it should not be punished, because there are “no victims.” 2) Protestant Christianity stands in the way of this kind of thinking. Hence the many attempts to banish and abolish it. The Protestant religion which the OGOD atheists want to take out of the schools, is the major bastion against godlessness. But not all who call themselves Protestants are immune to man-centred ideologies. Has not even the Protestant Church questioned Jesus’ divinity? Has it not Continued on page 1 3

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Continued from Page 1 2 Christians Marginanlised in South Africa

claimed that He came to liberate man from hunger, poverty and material needs? That he wants to promote equality and a utopian classless society? Christ the Saviour did not come to promote a socialist world programme. He is our Creator, our Judge, our Lawgiver, our King. He saves us. (Isaiah 33:22) His “kingdom is not of this world.” (John 1 8:36) He has not “come to destroy [the Law]… but to fulfil.” (Matthew 5:1 7) He did not say: ‘God loves the poor more than the rich.’ He says: “Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God.” (John 3:5-6). He was not executed because He resisted the state authority. He gave His life: “Now hath he… put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.” (Hebrews 9:26)

The Belhar Confession

Whereas Russia and its soviet satellites are turning away from an atheist Marxist religion, learned men in the West remain mesmerised by its utopian hope. In South Africa, hitherto level headed theologians are embracing liberation theology which, like atheism, is making the Gospel null and void. The most dramatic example of this is the elation with which the Dutch Reformed Church is accepting the Belhar Confession, a document which speaks about Unity, Reconciliation and Justice in socialist terms. It was drafted in 1 982 at the height of the South African revolution

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(“liberation struggle”) It is a protest document against apartheid and was later linked to the “Accra Confession” (1 989) of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, whose socialist one-world aims are clearly expressed in the subtitle, “Covenanting for Justice in the Economy and the Earth.” The New South Africa is now 20 years old. Apartheid was finally abolished a generation ago, but the Belhar (supported by the Accra) Confession (BC) is being adopted only now. Prof. Piet Meiring, a Missiologist and Moderator of the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa, says he has never felt that Belhar was aimed at the Afrikaners, yet he admits, “We are the people who are being marginalized.” - To him, “Belhar is a beautiful present for the Church. What a pity that it takes the Church so long to open it.” 3) However, a few years ago, Dr Allan Boesak, one of the BC’s original author/promoters, allowed South Africans a preview of what the beautiful present contained. “Justice,” he said, means to accept homosexuals into the Church. He was addressing the synod of the Uniting Reformed Church (URC), but the delegates disagreed. When they persisted, he became so angry that he left the august meeting, laying down all his offices. 4) It obviously mattered little to him that God calls homosexuality an abomination. 5) Once having

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been accepted by the Reformed churches, the “beautiful present” will be fully opened and may bring forth more ungodly surprises.

God in School and Church

The court case against the Christian schools and the belated condemnation of apartheid through the Belhar Confession, are a double onslaught against the Afrikaners from within their own ranks. This onslaught is meant to destroy Protestantism and wipe out Calvinism. It has taken more than 20 years of false guilt manipulation, anti-Afrikaner propaganda, farm murders, and affirmative action to break down Afrikaner resistance. Now their very identity is at stake. Martin Luther’s great achievement was that he directed Christendom back to the Bible, pointing to the great principle of Sola Scriptura. The Scriptures alone contain all knowledge necessary for salvation and holiness – not councils, not synods, not traditions, nor any new and manipulated theologies or political theories. He emphasised the great Protestant Truths: Solus Christus (Christ alone), Sola Gratia (by grace alone), Sola Fide (by faith alone). He warned, saying: “Where the HoIy Scriptures do not rule paramount, I advise nobody to send his child. Everything which does not teach God’s Word incessantly, must perish… I am much afraid that schools will prove to be wide gates to hell, unless they diligently labour in explaining the Holy Scriptures, engraving them on the hearts of the youth. I would advise no one to place his child -

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where the Scriptures do not reign paramount. Every institution in which men are not constantly occupied with the Word of God must become corrupt.” Martin Luther said this 500 years ago. Who will today contend for these evangelical truths? God says to His people: “These Words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart; and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children….” (Deuteronomy 6:1 -9) Let us then fight the good fight with all our might. Christ is our strength, and Christ our right. May God bless you richly, D. Scarborough Gospel Defence League P. O. Box 587 Sea Point 8060 Cape Town South Africa dscarborough@telkomsa.net www.gospeldefenceleague.org Footnotes 1 . New Statesman, 1 0.1 2.201 3, Why Mandela’s Communist Party Membership is important. 2. City Press, 1 2.1 0.1 4, Zuma wanted charges dropped because corruption is a Western thing. 3. Kerkbode, Prof Piet Meiring, ‘n Mooi geskenk wat die kerk moet oopmaak, Deel 1 93, Nommer 2, page 24, 1 August 201 4. 4. Sunday Times, 5.1 0.08, Boesak quits church over anti-gay row. 5. Archbishop emeritus Desmond Tutu said he would rather go to hell than worship a homophobic god.

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STATUTORY RAPE AND THE AGE OF CONSENT The following is an abbreviated version of our Submission to the Department of Justice on the Sexual Offences Amendment Bill. The proposed Bill removes the automatic statutory rape charge when sexual intercourse has occurred between 1 2 to1 6 year olds with a two year age gap between each individual. The amendments follow the two Constitutional Court matters contesting the constitutional validity of criminalising consensual sexual conduct between children of 1 2 to 1 6 and the mandatory inclusion of the names of children convicted of sexual offences against other children on the National Register for Sex Offenders. As a Friend of the Court, the Justice Alliance of South Africa (JASA) opposed the attempt by the Teddy Bear Clinic at the Constitutional Court to reduce the age of consent. The Constitutional Court gave their judgment on 3 October 201 3, upholding JASA’s request that the matter of consensual sex between children under 1 6 should be referred back to Parliament. The deadline for written submissions has passed, but there will be an opportunity to present verbal submissions at Parliament in 201 5. The proposed Amendment puts an enormous pressure on a girl to prove that she did not consent. To illustrate this point, it is helpful to imagine the following scenario:

Imagine This Scenario

Suppose a 1 2 year old girl (in standard 4 or 5, grade 6 or 7) is raped by a 1 4 year old “cool” boy at school (standard 7 or grade 9). Under this Bill, that 1 2 year old will now need to have the courage to lay a charge and go through the court process to disprove that 14

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she gave consent. What if the boy says she is a liar and gave her consent? Who will believe her side of the story? What if gossip about the incident and the fact that the boy has been charged with rape is spread around the whole school? Everyone will know she has made a complaint against the ‘cool kid’. There are girls facing situations like this all the time. Most of them are too scared to lay a charge of rape at the police.

Not Old Enough to Vote, behaviour which is likely to Alcohol, or Smoke - harm the child, and be bitterly Peer Pressure in a Hyper- Drink but can Give Consent to regretted later. Sexualised Culture Sex? Young people today face Courts Should Not Create incredible peer pressure in a We find it bizarre that a child Policy hyper-sexualised and violent society. There is now the added influence of pornography exposure and/or addiction. Boys are getting exposed to pornography at a young age and are acting out what they see. Research has shown that the average age of exposure to pornography is 1 1 . It would not be an exaggeration, to say that pornography is easily available to children, as are cigarettes, which are also prohibited by law for sale to children. (Research on South African children’s exposure to pornography is given in Africa Christian Action’s book Porndemic). Girls are disproportionately more vulnerable to sexual bullying. Can consent given under extreme pressure really be called consent?

of 1 2 years of age, is not legally allowed to vote, drink or buy cigarettes and yet, should this Bill be passed, will be allowed to consent to sex? Can a 1 2 year old really give informed consent? Informed consent involves knowledge, appreciation and consent of the sexual act and potential consequences. This new Bill is even more bizarre considering that it was proposed in the new national standards for liquor legislation to have the age for using liquor increased to 21 years!

Courts are not, and should not be, in the business of creating policy. We would like to emphasise the need to firmly maintain the separation of powers. We will listen to what they have to say (about the boundaries of the Constitution) but it is up to us and Parliament to create policies that best protect our children, especially girls. Our girls need more protection, not less.

Reducing Child Abuse

If we are serious about reducing child abuse in South Africa, then a good start would Expert Evidence be banning abortion and JASA’s expert evidence cited pornography and reintroducing in the case warned against prayer and Bible reading in the dangers of early sexual schools. activity both on psychological grounds and in view of the “Jesus said to His disciples: enormous danger of HIV and ‘Things that cause people to other diseases amongst stumble are bound to come, teenagers too young to be but woe to anyone through Difference In Maturity aware of the risks and prone whom they come. It would be There is a massive difference to impulsive behaviour. better for them to be thrown in intellectual and emotional into the sea with a millstone maturity between a 1 2 year Deterrent tied around their neck than old and a 1 4 year old. There In common with almost all to cause one of these little is also still a big social western countries, it is right ones to stumble. So watch difference even between a 1 3 and proper for South Africa yourselves.’” Luke 1 7:1 -3 to have this legislation (as it year old and a 1 5 year old. currently is) on the statute Taryn Hodgson books, as a deterrent against

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SUBSCRIPTIONS * Free DVD “NOAH and the Last Days” or “The Final Frontier” with every subscription to CA, or renewal. * Subscribers pay R60 per year (only R5 per month!), and this will cover the printing and postage costs, of 4 issues a year. (Overseas subscribers $20. USA subscribers please send to Frontline Fellowship USA PO Box 728, Manitou Springs, CO 80829 (E-mail: info@frontlinefellowship.net) Other overseas subscribers send to Christian Action in South Africa. Supporters pay R1 20 (only R1 0 per month!) and not only cover direct costs, but very importantly contribute to the research, writing and action expenses. Each supporter will receive a free copy of The Year I Got Everything I Wanted by Cameron Conant or Minding Your Emotions by Steve Shores and regular updates by Email. Partners pay R1 200 or more (only R1 00 per month!) and enable us to expand the action we take, address more issues, make more resources available, become better equipped and staffed and make a greater difference. Each Partner will receive a free audio MP3 boxset of Understanding History plus a complimentary copy of Victorious

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(380 pages, 250 pictures). We are the Salt of the Earth and the Light of the World. The future of Africa is in the balance. Will Christians resolve to work for Reformation and pray for Revival, or remain passive and accept the humanists' agenda? ----------------------------------------------To Subscribe or Support: Send a cheque or postal order to Christian Action, PO

Box 23632, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South Africa Christian Name: _______________ Surname: ____________________ Postal Address: _______________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Email: ______________________ I want to be a subscriber R60 I want to be a supporter R1 20 I want to be a partner R_____ OR pay into account: Name: Christian Action Network Bank: Standard Bank Account number: 072906901 Branch: Kromboom Branch number: 026209 Please use your name as the reference, and fax us the deposit slip (fax number: 021 -685 5884), with your name and postal address, or e-mail the amount, date paid, reference and your postal address to: mail@christianaction.org.za. Christian Action

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