Basics e h T h it W g in rt Sta
Vocabulary A-post. The front post on any vehicle B-post. The middle post on a four door
vehicle C-post. The rear post on any vehicle
Vocabulary ď‚§ Rocker channel. The connection between the
bottom of the front firewall and the rail below the front door ď‚§ Safety restraint system (SRS). Devices that reduce injury in the event of a accident. Typical examples include safety belts and airbags
Auto Extrication Safety All members shall be in full PPE including
helmet with visor down Secondary eye protection should be worn The incident commander shall assign an extrication group leader All members will work as directed by the extrication group leader
Auto Extrication Safety Never place your hands between the tool and
the car Let the tools do the work, you will never be able to control the tool Be cognizant of SRS (safety restraint systems) Don’t cut any orange wires Always cut the battery cables
The Anatomy of a Vehicle Recognizing how a vehicle is put together
and how to attack it’s weakest points will allow you to be successful Most new cars are made in a unibody form allowing them to crumple in desired area’s You will not be able to cut through all types of metal on newer cars
Vehicle Anatomy A-Post A-Post
Vehicle Anatomy Rocker RockerChannel Channel
Hybrid Vehicles ď‚§ Hybrid vehicles present some different issues
when they are involved in a car accident or fire. ď‚§ Most hybrids use an electric motor at low speeds and to get started and then when the gas motor engages it charges the battery system of the electric motor.
Hybrid Vehicles The battery system on a hybrid vehicle is a high
voltage system consisting of numerous batteries. The battery cables that are a part of the high voltage system are orange. Do not cut the orange cables!!! Hybrids are designed with numerous redundancies to ensure the high voltage system is shut down in the event of a crash.
Safety Restraint Systems (SRS) Seat belt pretensioners Air bags, driver and passenger Side curtain air bags Lower leg air bags
Seat Belt Pretensioners ď‚§ Seat belt pretensioners work in concert with
the air bags as they deploy ď‚§ As the air bag receives the signal to deploy the seat belt pretensioner pulls the seat belt tight against the body
Seat Belt Pretensioners ď‚§ This allows the body to be held tightly against
the seat as the air bag deploys ď‚§ Most seat belt pretensioners are deployed using sodium azide (a chemical reaction producing a gas)
Seat Belt Pretensioners Precautions ď‚§ Seat belt pretensioners if not activated by the
collision still contain either the sodium azide solution or a compressed gas cylinder ď‚§ Either the sodium azide or the compressed gas cylinder can be activated by our extrication techniques
Seat Belt Pretensioners Precautions ď‚§ You must always investigate to find un-
deployed SRS prior to beginning extrication ď‚§ In rare instances the pretensioners can tighten the seatbelt so tight against the chest it will decrease lung volume
Air Bags, Driver and Passenger ď‚§ Air bags are deployed when a vehicle detects
forces on the vehicle that exceed a pre-set parameter ď‚§ Air bags do not always deploy, because these parameters may not have been met ď‚§ New generation air bags also have the ability to detect how much weight is in the seat and adjust the airbag deployment force
Air Bag Precautions Un-deployed airbags can deploy during
extrication. You must identify them quickly Cutting the battery cables essentially eliminates the risk within five minutes Removing doors from the hinge side will keep our members away from any airbag deployment Moving the occupant as far back in the seat as possible will reduce the risk of the airbag injuring them in an unwanted deployment
Side Curtain Air Bags Side curtain air bags are designed to protect
occupants from side impacts There are two types
Curtain types that extend down the length of the
window opening Cylindrical type that protect only the area they occupy
Side Curtain Air Bag Precautions Un-deployed side curtain air bags present many
of the same problems that driver and passenger air bags pose Most side curtain air bags are deployed using a compressed gas cylinder Peeling back trim around the A,B and C posts can expose the un-deployed cylinders Cutting through an un-deployed cylinder could result in serious injury to you or your patient
SRS Identification There is no standard identification system for
safety restraint systems Many are clearly marked, but many are not On the next slide you will see some of the SRS markings, this is only a small example and you must use extreme caution when extricating patients from vehicles with undeployed SRS
Securing a Vehicle Make sure the vehicle tires are chocked front
and back. Make access to the battery (‘s) and cut the negative battery cable. Deploy a hose line during all extrications.
Preparing for an Extrication Deploy a tarp to place the remaining tools on.
( Sawz-all, air bags, halligan and any other tools you think may be helpful). One individual should remain with the jaws pump if possible. Do not freelance this only complicates an already stressful situation.
Preparing for an Extrication Once it has been determined that an extrication
will be needed the following things should occur. Assignment of an extrication leader. Deployment of the tools. Place the tools either at the front or back of the vehicle (this makes it easier to conduct work on one side of the vehicle and then pass the tools to the other side).
Auto Extrication Priorities Determine the number and severity of
patients Extrication group leader will determine which patient needs to be extricated first and the method of how that will happen In general we will follow the order of ROOF, DOOR and DASH
Roof ď‚§ Removing the roof of a vehicle often times
will allow not only good access to the patient for care, but in some instances can provide you with an easy way to remove the patient from the car without needing to remove the door ď‚§ All cuts should be made on one side prior to passing the tool to the other side of the car
Roof Keep in mind to look for SRS prior to cutting Cutting through the post’s is often made
easier using the sawzall
Door ď‚§ The door often times can create access to the
patient, but can be time consuming depending on the severity of damage to the car
Door ď‚§ If there has been air bag deployment
removing the door from either the hinge or nader pin side is not a concern ď‚§ If the air bags have not deployed the removal of doors shall occur from the hinged side of the door
Door Keep in mind that a door is designed to resist
front to back spreading. What we need to do is roll the door of it’s hinges or off the nader pin. Using leverage is going to be your greatest advantage.
Dash ď‚§ Rolling a dash will allow you to remove the
steering wheel from the chest area and allow access to the patients legs and feet. ď‚§ The easiest way is to make a relief cut in the rocker channel and then press up from the bottom using the ram. ď‚§ You must make sure the ram is secured on both ends and is pressing up on an area that has adequate resistance.
Dash You can also roll a dash using a come along
and chains. Your fire department may not carry these tools but many of the neighboring departments may...Ask around. You simply attach one chain under the car and one chain onto the steering wheel and use the come along to pull the steering wheel out of the way.
Conclusion We realize that knowledge levels in the area
of auto extrication vary. Each member needs to know how to run the tools, be safe and have a basic understanding of auto extrication. Now that you have been given the classroom knowledge it is time to get out and use the tools on the training ground.