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HOLMATRO’S

EMERGENCY SHORING & LIFTING TECHNIQUES

A guide to equipment handling and techniques for use in emergency shoring and lifting operations


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HOLMATRO’S EMERGENCY SHORING & LIFTING TECHNIQUES

By : Brendon Morris Consultation

&

Training Manager Holmatro Rescue Equipment

© Copyright 01-2008 Holmatro Rescue Equipment B.V., the Netherlands All rights reserved 980.000.197


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Important notice This book contains information on rescue tools and rescue techniques that can be employed in different emergency situations. The situations shown in this book are examples only and are merely meant to assist the user of this book in understanding certain basic shoring and lifting techniques and tools available. Every single emergency situation is unique. Variables such as the kind and the actual condition of vehicles, the collapsed structure or trench, the number of patients and their actual condition and other external hazards all play a role in determining the appropriate actions and their sequence. It is important to note that you should always read and understand the manual for the relevant tools, use the standard operating procedures and follow the instructions of your department and incident commanders. The extrication scene is inherently hazardous. Your personal safety depends on the training provided by your agency, your use of the appropriate personal protective equipment and your understanding of the rescue equipment you or your agency utilizes. It is YOUR responsibility to read and understand all operation manuals associated with your rescue equipment, receive appropriate training in its use, and ensure that it is properly maintained. Your failure to take all of these steps may lead to death or severe personal injury of victims, yourself or any body else at the emergency scene. Holmatro disclaims any liability for any damage or injury, whether direct, indirect or otherwise, and whether asserted in contract, tort, warranty or otherwise, incurred as a result of the use of rescue techniques and/or rescue tools described in the book or the use of any other rescue techniques and/or rescue tools that are employed in an actual emergency situation, except to the extent, and limited to, the terms of any warranty provided by Holmatro for its own equipment. Holmatro makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to its own equipment from the contents of this book, including without limitation, any warranty of merchantability or warranty of fitness for a particular purpose.


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Author’s note The rescue of trapped persons is inherently dangerous work. Those who dedicate their time to this endeavor expect and deserve the best knowledge and tools required to do this type of work safely and effectively. This book hopes to provide the grounding to good knowledge in the fields of emergency shoring and lifting operations surrounding such rescue situations. Many consider emergency shoring and lifting operations to be very complex. My goal with this book is to provide a basis to the principles of emergency shoring and lifting operations, as needed for the safe rescue of persons trapped. The principles of emergency shoring and lifting reach across a range of specific extrication rescue disciplines. This said, it should be understood that this book is not intended as a detailed discussion on these disciplines* but rather a representation of collective knowledge on the fundamental principles and applications of emergency shoring and lifting in them. This book is intended to supplement training material and courses dedicated to the different disciplines described within its pages. It is not possible to cover every eventuality at an extrication rescue operation. The techniques described in this book should be seen as generic principles that can be adapted to the variety of situations one may come across. To this end, a large portion of this book is dedicated to explaining these principles and the safe use of equipment needed to perform them. It is well understood that some of the techniques and strategies covered in this book may be new to you and / or your organization. This book should never be seen as representing every good idea in the field. With this in mind, it must be mentioned that in all cases of conflict with the content of this book, guidelines from your local authority should be followed. When it comes to techniques not used before it is further well advised that these new techniques be practiced in a controlled training environment before using them in an actual emergency. Whatever your area of expertise, I trust that you will find this book a useful addition to your rescue training programs.

* One of the technical rescue disciplines discussed in this book is Vehicle Extrication Rescue. For a more detailed discussion on this topic take a closer look at the book Holmatro’s Vehicle Extrication Techniques. Brendon Morris Consultation & Training Manager Holmatro Rescue Equipment


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Contents SAFETY - Personal safety - Equipment handling

SHORING EQUIPMENT -

Terminology Struts Strut application comparison Length extensions Heads Building up a shore

LIFTING EQUIPMENT -

p.9 p.12

p.16 p.17 p.18 p.26 p.28 p.29 p.30

p.32

Introduction Lifting bags Hydraulic wedge jack Lifting jacks

p.33 p.34 p.36 p.37

HYDRAULIC ASSIST EQUIPMENT

p.38

6

p.8

Introduction Spreaders Cutters Rams Combination tools Self-contained hydraulic tools Hydraulic pumps

EQUIPMENT CARE & MAINTENANCE - Introduction - Care & maintenance

p.39 p.40 p.41 p.42 p.43 p.44 p.45

p.46 p.47 p.48


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Contents LOAD MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES - Triangle of stability - Center of gravity

VEHICLE RESCUE -

Introduction Vehicle on its side Vehicle on its roof Large vehicle stabilization Large vehicle lifting

COLLAPSED STRUCTURE RESCUE -

Introduction Collapsed structure safety Principles of emergency shoring Window / doorway shores “T” / Spot shores Progressive lifting

TRENCH COLLAPSE RESCUE -

Introduction Trench safety and terminology Trench rescue approach Rapid safe area creation

p.50 p.51 p.53

p.54 p.55 p.56 p.59 p.62 p.66

p.70 p.71 p.72 p.74 p.75 p.78 p.81

p.84 p.85 p.86 p.88 p.91

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

p.96

NOTES

p.97

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Personal safety The following personal protective equipment represents a minimum personal safety requirement for variety of technical rescue operations, including emergency shoring and lifting operations. This equipment does however not protect against every hazard that may be present in certain technical rescue operations. In some cases additional protective equipment may be required. · A helmet appropriate to the environment you are working in should be worn at all times. · Eye protection appropriate to the risk of the work you are doing should be used. · Appropriate gloves should be worn at all times to protect your hands. · Sturdy long-sleeved working clothes should be worn as a minimum requirement. Of course, if the environment requires more significant protection, this should be used. Incorporated reflective material is always beneficial for visibility. · Safety boots with ankle and toe protection are also a must for the technical rescue environment.

Some extra pieces of personal safety equipment may only be required in certain situations. Each rescuer should have access to this equipment in case it is required. · Hearing protection. · Knee and elbow protection. · Dust masks or other respiratory protection.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Personal safety While safety officers should always be assigned in rescue operations, ultimately every rescuer is responsible for his or her personal safety. To be sure of this, rescuers should always be aware of their surroundings and how they use their rescue equipment. Some generic points should always be remembered. · At all times observe the equipment manufacturers’ operating instructions.

· Pay attention to movement of objects you are working on and around, including shifting or moving overhead loads.

· Always monitor vibrations or movements that may affect the environment you are working in.

· Keep hands and feet away from any potential pinch points.

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· Always return all equipment not in use to the designated tool staging area and leave them in the safe position.


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Personal safety · Protect against the effects of prolonged exposure to extreme environments such as loud noise, bright light or extreme temperatures.

· The maximum allowable capacity of each piece of equipment should never be exceeded.

· Equipment should only ever be used for applications for which it has been designed. It is also vital to read and understand equipment manufacturers’ user’s manuals. · Because hoses are susceptible to damage (cuts, abrasion, kinks, burns, chemical contamination etc.) extreme care must be taken. Damaged hoses should never be used and should be immediately removed from service. · Always check equipment for damage and do not use equipment if it is not in good condition. Maintenance should be conducted according to manufactures’ recommendations.

· Be aware of potential tool movements and reactions of tools that may lead to injury or trapping of rescuers or patients.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Equipment handling A - Shoring When working with emergency shoring equipment the following general safety points should be noted regarding their safe operation. 路 Wherever possible, position shores on a stable, flat solid base without protrusions or loose material. If this is not possible, be sure to make use of the appropriate heads and accessories such as base plates and tension straps to counteract the unstable situation.

路 The rescuer should never move under or in the path of a load that has not been secured by either cribbing or shores that have been mechanically locked off.

路 Shores should never be side loaded. In all cases shores should be placed in such a way that the load only acts down the centre of the shore.

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Other safety points, specific to different rescue applications, will be covered in the operational chapters of this book.


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Equipment handling B – Lifting equipment No matter what lifting equipment is used, there are a few points that must always be taken into consideration for safe working with such tools.

· In all cases any lift or space created must be followed with chocks or mechanically locked shoring.

Beware of placing fingers under a lifted load. Always push cribbing into place carefully.

· Always closely observe all the effects of the lifting process to ensure that the situation is not being made unstable.

· Always star t with the most appropriate tool for the initial insertion space you have. This will ensure the efficient use of available capacity and stroke.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Equipment handling 路 At no time should more than two high-pressure lifting bags be used on top of one another. The practice of using bags on top of each other should only be seen as a last option when absolutely necessary. If two high-pressure bags are stacked, be sure to place the largest bag at the bottom. Also be sure to have them centered on one another.

Low-pressure high-volume bags should never be used stacked on each other. 路 While lifting bags are designed to be resistant to damage, all efforts should be made to ensure lifting surfaces are free of sharp edges or protrusions as these may damage the bag. In certain cases where this cannot be controlled it may be necessary to provide appropriate soft flexible protection.

路 Avoid off center loads.

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Use of unsecured headers above lifting equipment should be avoided as the risk of them being displaced does exist.


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Equipment handling C – Hydraulic equipment Hydraulic equipment such as spreaders, cutters, rams and jacks play an important role in various technical rescue situations. The following general points should always be considered, no matter what technical rescue discipline these tools are being used for.

· Tools should only be carried and operated using the designated handles and controls.

· Never put your hands on the blades, arms or heads of any of these tools.

· Do not use the hoses to carry, pull or move the tool or pump. 15


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Terminology To allow for good communication during shoring and lifting operations all rescuers on the scene should use standard equipment terminology. The following labeled diagram displays the terminology that will be used throughout this book when discussing shoring.

ho

extension

lm

at

ro

heads

ho

lm

at

ro

strut

Using standard terminology such as this will dramatically increase team efficiency as well as remove any chance of misunderstandings that may lead to unsafe actions. Using the Holmatro® PowerShore™ Emergency Shoring System as an example, we will have a closer look at each of these components and identify which of the different components are best suited to different shoring situations. Don’t be concerned if you still do not fully understand the application of every piece of equipment by the end of this chapter. The chapters to follow will give step-by-step examples of their use. Of course you can always come back to this chapter at any time while going through the examples to see what system would be best to use.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Struts Variations in strut types occur due to the different combinations of locking and operation systems available. There are three different types of operating systems for struts. These are hydraulic, pneumatic and manual. There are also two types of locking systems for struts. These are Auto-lock and Locknut locking systems (which are similar in nature to the pin and collar systems).

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manual

Strut operating systems

Auto-lock locking system

hydraulic

pneumatic

Locknut locking system

These 3 operating and 2 locking system combinations make the possibility for 5 different types of struts. Hydraulic (Oil)

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Pneumatic (Air)

Manual

Automatic locking

Hydraulic Auto-lock strut

Pneumatic Auto-lock strut

Manual Auto-lock struts do not exist

Locknut locking

Hydraulic Locknut strut

Pneumatic Locknut strut

Manual Locknut strut

All of the struts can be used with any of the extensions and heads. The whole system, from struts through to extensions and heads, is universally compatible. This means that any number of combinations can be used to develop the exact system required to shore a particular environment.


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Struts A - Manual struts These are the simplest of the strut types even though they have the same rated strength as all the other types. The difference between this strut type and the others is that they are extended and retracted manually. The advantage of this is that there is no need for compressed air or hydraulic pressure to open these struts. This also however, means that these struts cannot be extended from a remote location (remote shoring). For this reason, this type of strut is not supplied in an automatic locking (Auto-lock) type strut.

Simple vehicle shoring application with manual struts The use of manual struts is in most cases limited to structural collapse environments or simple vehicle shoring scenarios where no remote shoring requirements exist.

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Manual struts in window

Securing a manual strut in a doorway


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Struts Manual threaded type: this strut has a very small retracted length and is ideal for shoring small gaps or any situation where a small insertion space is required.

Manual Locknut type: this strut has the same Locknut system and stroke as available on the hydraulic and pneumatic strut types.

The biggest advantage of the manual strut system is the fact that there is no need for a supply of compressed air or a hydraulic pump to operate it. This means that it can be used in any remote area or confined space without any need for hoses or pumps to set the system in place. As seen in the picture a hook wrench can be used to tighten the strut in place.

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No air or hydraulic supply needs to be used to secure a manual strut type


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Struts B - Pneumatic struts These struts can be used with compressed air in situations were remote shoring or follow-up shoring is required. The Locknut type struts can also be used as manual struts where no compressed air is available or required or where remote shoring is not necessary.

Remote shoring used in trench rescue Remote shoring: the process by which a shore is positioned in an unsafe area and then extended from a remote safe location by either pneumatic or hydraulic pressure.

Follow-up shoring: shoring used to follow a load that is being lifted by other mechanisms such as lifting bags. This shoring is extended and locks automatically (due to compressed air inside the strut) as the load is lifted. It is intended to hold the load in the event of lifting system failure. It is important to remember that the shore is only totally safe when the locking mechanism is engaged. 21

Follow-up shoring used to back up a lifting bag


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Struts Pneumatic Auto-lock type: the automatic locking system of this strut makes it possible to perform remote shoring. It is, however, not suitable for use in inflexible spaces such as in most building shoring situations. In this environment the force needed to set the automatic locking system may disturb the balance of forces already in place.

This strut is very useful for follow-up shoring of heavy lift operations or in trench rescue where remote shoring is required. Pneumatic Locknut type: makes use of a Locknut system for mechanically locking the extended strut. This Locknut system is the same as the one used on the hydraulic and manual Locknut struts.

This is a very universal strut and can be used for vehicle, trench or structural collapse shoring. This type of strut can also be used for follow-up shoring during heavy lift operations but does not allow for remote shoring (it does not automatically lock). In other words, the rescuers will have to physically secure the Locknut themselves as the strut extends. 22

Rescuer securing the Locknut


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Struts C – Hydraulic struts Hydraulic struts are the most versatile of all the strut types. The reason for this is the combination of a shoring system with the ability to perform lift operations. These struts are a little heavier than their pneumatic and manual counterparts but have various advantages in terms of multiple applications.

Hydraulic strut used in heavy rescue situation

The hydraulic lifting capacity of these struts means that they can be deployed in a variety of lifting operations from heavy vehicle rescue through to lifting concrete or other barriers in a structural collapse environment. With proper training, the hydraulic Locknut type strut can also be safely used for shoring in non-movable or inflexible shoring environments such as doorway or window shores. In this situation it is important that operators understand the importance of not creating any lifting forces that may destabilize the building. 23

Hydraulic shores carefully used in an inflexible structural collapse situation


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Struts Hydraulic Auto-lock type: the automatic locking system of this strut makes it possible to perform remote shoring. It is, however, not suitable for use in non-movable or inflexible shoring environments (see page 23) for example, in building shoring. In this situation the force used to set the automatic locking system may disturb the balance of forces in place. This system should not be used where a lifting force may disturb the stability of the situation.

This strut is very useful for follow-up shoring of heavy lift operations. It even has the ability, when used together with a second hydraulic strut that acts as a backup, to perform the lifting and shoring simultaneously.

Hydraulic Auto-lock strut being used for combined shoring/lifting operation 24

In trench rescue, where remote shoring is required, these struts can also be used. However they are a little heavier than the pneumatic type.


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Struts Hydraulic Locknut strut: the Locknut system used on this hydraulic strut is exactly the same as on the equivalent pneumatic and manual struts. This strut can however only be extended using the hydraulic pump, unlike the pneumatic type struts that can be extended manually as well as with a compressed air system.

This is a very universal strut and can be used in vehicle stabilization and trench or building collapse shoring. This strut can also be used together with a second hydraulic strut, to perform lifting and shoring simultaneously. In trench rescue, where remote shoring is required, these struts can also be used. It should be noted though that they are a little heavier than the pneumatic type. This is however the only strut type that can be used for remote de-shoring. Remote de-shoring: the process by which a shore that is positioned in an unsafe area can be removed working from a remote safe location. This is done by retracting the strut in a controlled manner using the hydraulic pump. The Locknut will need to be released for this technique to be used.

Both hydraulic strut types require a hand pump to extend them. This may seem troublesome but remember that it is this same hydraulic pressure that makes it possible to provide a 10 t. / 22,000 lbs lifting capacity. This is an advantage which, in most cases, outweighs any difficulties of having a pump attached for extension. Each pump also has a gauge on it, allowing the operator to know exactly how much lifting force is being exerted and what the limits are if working over a certain length shore. This issue of load capacity in relation to shore length is covered in more detail on page 28.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Strut application comparison The following table illustrates which struts are suitable in different applications.

Heavy vehicle rescue stabilization with lifting operations

Manual Locknut strut

Pneumatic Locknut strut

Can be used for stabilization when using lifting bags or jacks for lifting. This strut type has no lifting capacity which limits its use in this application.

Can be used for stabilization when using lifting bags or jacks for lifting. Can be used for manual follow-up shoring. This strut type has limited lifting capacity.

Light vehicle rescue Good strut for this stabilization / application. backup shoring

Trench rescue shoring

Collapsed structure lifting operations

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Collapsed structure shoring

Good strut for this application. Especially when working in narrow trenches, and when used for secondary / replacement shoring. Can be used for stabilization when using lifting bags or jacks for lifting.

Good strut for this application.

Good strut for this application. This strut type can be well used for secondary / replacement shoring.

This strut type has no lifting capacity which limits its use in this application.

Can be used for stabilization when using lifting bags or jacks for lifting. Can be used for manual follow-up shoring. This strut type has limited lifting capacity.

Good strut for this application. Especially when working in confined spaces.

Good strut for this application when used without air supply (as a manual strut).


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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Pneumatic Auto-lock strut

Hydraulic Locknut strut

Hydraulic Auto-lock strut

Can be used for stabilization when using lifting bags or jacks for lifting. Can be used for automatic follow-up shoring. This strut type has limited lifting capacity.

Good strut for this application. Can be used for lifting and stabilization in one.

Good strut for this application. Can be used for lifting and stabilization in one. This strut can be used for remote shoring and lifting.

Can be used for this application.

Good strut for this application. Can be used for lifting and stabilization in one.

Good strut for this application. Can be used for lifting and stabilization in one. This strut can be used for remote shoring and lifting.

Good strut for this application. This strut can be used for remote shoring.

Good strut for this application. This strut can be used for remote shoring.

Good strut for this application. This strut can be used for remote shoring.

Good strut for this application. Can be used for lifting and stabilization in one.

Good strut for this application. Can be used for lifting and stabilization in one. This strut can be used for remote shoring and lifting.

Good strut for this Not suitable for application. Does however this application. require well trained user aware of lifting capacity.

Not suitable for this application.

Can be used for stabilization when using lifting bags or jacks for lifting. Can be used for automatic follow-up shoring.

This strut type has limited lifting capacity.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Length extensions For the PowerShoreTM system, extension pieces are used to customize the length of the shore you are creating. Any of the extensions can be used with any of the struts and heads. Each extension is color coded so that it can be easily identified. The overall strength of the system is dependent on the total length once it is in place. The graph below shows how, up until 1.325 m / 53 in. the strength of the system created will have a maximum capacity of 100 kN or 10 t. / 22,000 lbs. After this, the shore will gradually begin to lose load bearing capacity as the system is lengthened, with a limit of 4.5 m / 180 in. shown. Shores built on the basis of this graph will provide a 4:1 safety factor.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Heads There are various types of heads that can be used to create your shoring system. Different heads can be used depending on the environment and type of system you need to create. The following table gives a breakdown of some of the applications for the different head types.

Tilting heads: This is probably the most universal of all head types. They can be used at different angles in a variety of directions. Tilting heads often have nailing holes so can be used where nailing to a header or footer is required.

Swivel heads: These heads have interlocking mechanisms that allow them to be used together with more than one of the same type of head for different shoring systems that can redirect forces at different angles. These heads are generally used in combination with a base plate.

Cross heads: These heads grip well on the underside of vehicles and are often used in systems for the stabilization of vehicles on their sides.

Beam support heads: These types of heads are mostly used in structural collapse shoring operations. They normally support 10x10 mm / 4x4 in. or 10x15 mm / 4x6 in. timber and have nailing holes. In some cases they can also be used in heavy lifting operations where a timber header is used to spread the lifting force of the strut.

V-block heads: These V-block heads are generally used in vehicle rescue where they do a good job of gripping onto inverted vehicle sills. They can also be used in other situations for supporting utilities such as pipes.

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EMERGENCY SHORING AND LIFTING TECHNIQUES A Guide to Equipment Handling and Techniques for Use in Emergency Shoring and Lifting Operations

Building up a shore A - MAPS approach For a good approach to creating a shoring system we should always follow the MAPS system. Measure – Either by actual measurement or by simply assessing the length of shores you will need.

Assemble - Build up your shores in a safe location away from any hazards. Position – The assembled shores are then moved into place in the working area.

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Secure – The shores are opened slightly until they perfectly fit the location for which they are intended.


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Building up a shore B- Shore assembly When assembling a shore, the first thing to remember is the terminology as discussed earlier (page 17). We can only consider a shore complete when it has been correctly assembled using the most appropriate strut, heads and where necessary, extensions. In considering the actual assembly of the shore there are a few essential steps that must be followed. 1. Choose the most appropriate struts for the application for which you will be using the shore. (See strut application comparison on pages 26-27). 2. Select the heads you will require for the situation. (See table of head types on page 29).

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3. Choose the length of extension you require. Remember to always use as much extension as necessary to save the stroke of the strut for any adjustments or lifting you may need to do. holmatro

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Always remember to use the least amount of separate extension pipes to create the extension length you need. This will keep the complete shore lighter. holmatro

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Always keep the shortest extension pipes at the end of the shore and not in the middle. This makes it easier to adjust length and decreases susceptibility to side loads. holmatro

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Introduction There are many different types of rescue equipment that can be used for lifting operations. In this chapter we will limit our discussion to those pieces of equipment that are solely designed for the purpose of lifting heavy loads from the ground up. These are: • Lifting bags - High pressure low volume - Low pressure high volume • Hydraulic wedge jacks • Rescue lifting jacks • Hydraulic shores Hydraulic shores can be used for lifting loads and have the advantage of being able to be used for shoring at the same time. These struts have been discussed in the previous chapter. It should be said that there are various other pieces of equipment such as spreaders that can also be used for heavy lifting. These will however be discussed in the Hydraulic Assist Equipment chapter.

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Staged lifting equipment


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Lifting bags There are several types of lifting bags available to rescuers. The most widely used are high pressure low volume bags and low pressure high volume bags. Both these are useful in different rescue situations. A – High pressure lifting bags High pressure low volume lifting bags, commonly called high pressure lifting bags, work on a pneumatic system of 8 bar / 116 psi pressure. These bags, available in various sizes, are exceptionally versatile and very robust in design. They are primarily used in situations where lifting heavy loads with a very small initial insertion space is required. They are also very useful in situations where small working spaces limit the use of larger hand tools and other lifting devices.

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Lifting bag used in small insertion space created by a hydraulic wedge


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Lifting bags B – Low pressure lifting bags Low pressure high volume lifting bags, normally referred to as low pressure bags, make use of more air to affect a lift. These bags work on a 0.5 bar / 7.25 psi pneumatic system and use the large surface area of the bag to create lift. They are useful in those situations where lifting or stabilizing of heavy loads with large surface areas is needed. They are especially useful on soft or uneven terrain. These bags are also used in certain trench rescue incidents. Available in different sizes, these bags are most often used in sets of two side by side to increase stability.

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Low pressure lifting bag used over the large surface area of the side of a tanker

Low pressure lifting bags used on soft ground


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Hydraulic wedge jack A hydraulic wedge jack, sometimes referred to as a power wedge, is an exceptionally useful auxiliary tool.

Its ability to create a 50 mm / 2 in. opening from an insertion space of only 6 mm / 0.25 in. means that it is able to create opportunities to use high pressure lifting bags where this would otherwise not be possible. The hydraulic wedge jack can also be used for forcing open certain types of doors.

Wedge jack creating space for high pressure lifting bag

Wedge jack used to force open a rolling door

The wedge jack works by pushing a wedge out of the tool between two narrow hardened plates. This creates over 20 tons of lift force between these plates.

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Working action of a wedge jack


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Lifting jacks Hydraulic lifting jacks have been used for many years in industrial applications. Despite their simple design, lifting jacks are very useful rescue tools. These jacks have been optimized for use by rescue professionals.

Jacks are often used in sets of two with one jack proportionally smaller than the other. This allows for progressive lifting from one jack to the next. Toe jacks are also commonly used by technical rescue teams. These jacks were originally designed for use on trams but their toe design gives them the added versatility of being a low and high clearance jack in one.

Two proportionally sized lifting jacks used for progressive lifting

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Toe jack used for high clearance lift

Toe jack used for low clearance lift


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Introduction A wide variety of hydraulic rescue tools are available for assisting the rescuer during emergency shoring and lifting operations. These include simple single acting jacks through to advanced specially designed cutting tools for dealing with advanced vehicle construction. For the purpose of this book only the basic tools used to assist in lifting and shoring operations will be covered. For a more detailed review of hydraulic equipment used for extrication rescue take a look at Holmatro’s Vehicle Extrication Techniques.

Hydraulic double acting hose systems: CORETM above, traditional below

The large majority of the hydraulic rescue tools are double acting. This means that they have the ability to create force on both opening and closing. Double acting equipment is usually powered by a portable pump connected to the tools by a hose system. In a coaxial hose system such as the Holmatro R CORETM system this may appear to be a single hose. However, there are in fact 2 hoses in the system, one providing hydraulic power to the tool inside the one taking returning hydraulic oil back to the pump.

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Spreaders Spreaders’ functions include spreading, squeezing and pulling, making them useful for all sorts of rescue situations. While they are mostly used for vehicle extrication, a heavy duty spreader is often seen as an essential piece of equipment for general technical rescue applications. By using different tips, a spreader can be transformed into a powerful squeezing, pulling, cutting or lifting tool.

Cutting tips used on a spreader

Spreader used for space creation 40

Extra caution should be used when lifting with a spreader as limited points of contact can lead to instability. A load lifted with a spreader should always be chocked.


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Cutters Hydraulic cutters are available in various shapes and sizes. Larger heavy duty type cutters are well suited to cutting strong and often bulky components of vehicles. To this end a good hydraulic cutter is considered an essential piece of any complete rescue equipment set.

Smaller, more portable mini type cutters are also useful in the emergency shoring and lifting environment. These cutters can be used to cut locks or reinforcement type bars in hard to reach locations where space is often limited. This type of mini cutter is also growing in popularity among technical rescue teams due to its versatility.

Mini cutter cutting reinforcement bars

Mini cutter cutting hardened chain

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Rams Rams are primarily used in vehicle extrication rescue for pushing vehicle components away from trapped patients. They can of course be used anywhere where there is a need for pushing power over large distances. When fitted with different heads, some rams (check with your supplier) can also be used with chains as a pulling tool.

In general a ram is not considered to be a lifting tool. In this regard the use of rams for long distance lifting should be avoided as any shift of the load may lead to extensive damage to the ram if the piston is bent. It is also important to remember that rams do not have mechanical locks so are always reliant on the maintenance of hydraulic pressure to hold the load.

Ram with pulling head attached (not all rams have the ability to pull) Mini telescopic ram used for space creation 42

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Combination tools Combination tools, better known as combi tools, combine several functions in one tool.

The biggest advantage of such a tool is the fact that spreading, lifting, squeezing and cutting can be done without having to change tools. It should also be mentioned however, that combi tools have less capacity than dedicated cutters and spreaders. This means that in certain cases a dedicated spreader or cutter may still need to be used. The use of accessories for pulling with chains is also possible on a combi-tool.

Combi tool used for lifting

Battery combi tool used for cutting

Extra caution should be used when lifting with a combi tool as limited points of contact can lead to instability. A load lifted with a combi tool should always be chocked.

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Self-contained hydraulic tools Self-contained hydraulic tools have become increasingly popular in the past years. These tools are usually driven by either built in hand operated pumps or through the use of battery technology. Battery technology has advanced significantly in the past few years. This means that running hydraulic tools with electrical motors powered by battery technology is more effective than before. It has of course always been possible to run tools off batteries, but before now this would have required a large battery, less practical for the rescue scene.

Completely self-contained hydraulic tools (whether battery or manually driven) are very useful for work in remote or difficult to reach places. They have become common place pieces of equipment in most urban search and rescue (USAR) teams.

Self-contained tool used in USAR environment

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Self-contained tool carried over difficult terrain Self-contained combi tool used for cutting


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Hydraulic pumps Hydraulic pumps are available in a variety of types. Petrol driven pumps are however the most popular. New technology used in these pumps makes them lighter, more portable and quieter than previous models. Hand and foot operated pumps make good backup systems and can also be used in those environments where operation of another sort of pump is not possible. For hydraulic shoring operations only hand pumps may be used. This is due to the fact that hydraulic shoring requires precise control which is not possible with a conventional motor driven pump.

Single acting hand pumps used with hydraulic shoring for fine control of lifting

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Foot pump used with wedge jack

Light weight pump - easy to carry to the scene


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Introduction Good care of equipment on a regular basis will greatly increase the useable life of your equipment and will also ensure its proper function when you really need it. To this end, equipment care and maintenance should be incorporated into all training programs. It should be mentioned that regular user maintenance and inspection does not replace the need for periodic factory authorized service of your rescue equipment. In general, annual inspection and service of your equipment should be performed by a manufacturer certified technician. The equipment will be tested and the necessary routine maintenance, such as the changing of fluids, will be done. It is also important to remember that a rescuer’s care and maintenance does not include making repairs. Damaged or faulty equipment requires the attention of a manufacturer certified technician.

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Equipment being serviced by a technician in a mobile workshop


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Care & maintenance The following represents an overview of day-to-day care of the different equipment groups discussed in this book. This chapter should in no way be seen as a complete discussion of all maintenance issues surrounding all the different pieces of equipment available. Always consult your users’ manual for complete instructions on care and maintenance. Equipment manufacturers should always be able to provide you with more detailed descriptions of product specific care and maintenance issues. A - Shoring · Check that all parts are clean and free of damage, including couplings, either air or hydraulic.

· It is especially important with automatic lock type shores to make sure the threads are clean and free of damage. In the case of pin and collar systems, make sure that all pins and other loose parts are properly attached. Locking mechanisms should also be tested, making sure they are functioning properly.

· Other auxiliary equipment to your shoring, such as hydraulic hand pumps or pressurized air regulators, should also be inspected.

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Care & maintenance B - Lifting bags · Check the general condition of the bag: - Remove any glass or other minor debris that has splintered into the surface. - Bags should be kept clean using only soap and water. · Bags must be removed from service if there are any signs of damage or significant wear. Including but not limited to: - The non-slip surface being worn away. - Presence of cuts or punctures. - Aramid inlay threads are visible. · Check the condition of the connection nipple. Worn or damaged nipples can lead to a bad connection. Other than these, an annual inspection by an authorized technician is strongly advised.

C – Hydraulic assist equipment For a more detailed discussion on the care and maintenance considerations for hydraulic equipment, take a look at the “Equipment care” chapter of Holmatro’s Vehicle Extrication Techniques. The following points represent an absolute minimum of what will be required by the manufacturer: · Regularly visually inspect components for external damage. · Check all fluid levels on pumps. · Keep all equipment clean and free of damage, including hoses and couplers. · All tools should be left with their arms, blades or pistons in the safe position i.e. slightly open, not under pressure.

Any worn or damaged hose should be immediately removed from service.

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Triangle of stability When shoring equipment is used for stabilization of lifted loads, the principle of working within an established triangle of stability should be applied. This means that the shoring system one makes should always be assembled and positioned in a way that will ensure it is capturing any potential destabilizing forces. In this first theoretical diagram we see that a lift angle strait upwards (90째) will be very effective at lifting. At this angle all of the opening stroke of the shore will contribute directly to the lift. At the same time however a 90째 angle does not provide any stability against lateral movement.

By using angles during lifting we create a more stable situation. A shore angled between 45째 and 60째 protects against lateral movements. As we see in the theoretical diagram below, three angled lifting forces may not be as effective at lifting, (they loose some lifting force acting against each other and not all lifting stroke contributes to the actual lift) but do act against the potential destabilizing lateral forces.

In reality, most lifting performed during rescue operations is actually a type of tilting. In other words, we are not trying to completely lift a load off the ground. This is good news, as lifting something completely off the ground will often lead to a very unstable situation (See next chapter on center of gravity). When performing such lifting operations, it is important not to forget the need for control of the lateral forces as seen in the theoretical diagrams above.

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Triangle of stability In the case of a tilt situation, whether lifting or stabilizing, it is usually best to control lateral forces by using connection straps between the base of your shore(s) and the object you are stabilizing / lifting. When creating this network of straps it is important to control all the potential forces. This is best done by creating a sort of triangle in which you can work safely with your shore. By using the two diagrams below as examples we will discuss how the straps between the shores and the object, control all potential Horizontal and Lateral forces.

Horizontal forces 路 Straps used to close the triangle of forces stop the bottom of the load from being pushed away from the strut. 路 They also stop the base(s) of the strut from being pushed away from the load. Lateral forces 路 Straps used to close the triangle of forces stop the load from moving from side to side. 路 They also stop the base(s) of the shoring from slipping to one side or the other. 52

The importance of creating and working within this triangle of stability is critical to successful application of a shoring system. This is especially true in vehicle rescue where loads can easily move especially when wheels are still in contact with the ground.


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Center of gravity Another important principle of load management is the consideration of a load’s center of gravity. Top-heavy loads are particularly vulnerable to tipping over. This is all the more true if these loads are lifted. Understanding where the approximate center of gravity of a load lies will help the rescuer choose the best possible placement and use of their stabilizing and / or lifting equipment. In some cases estimating the center of gravity can be complicated. For this reason, principles such as using points of connection as high as possible on the load are helpful. It is well understood that lifting a load from a point of attachment above the center of gravity is going to provide the most efficient lift. In terms of stability however, this lifting from above can lead to uncontrolled movement, especially at the point where the load leaves the ground. Of course, in some cases such a lift is just not possible or practical. In these cases it becomes necessary to lift from below.

When lifting or tilting from below, the rescuer should try to make the point of attachment as high as practically possible. This should ideally be in line with or just above the center of gravity. Again this may not always be possible, in which case extra consideration for destabilizing lateral forces (as discussed earlier) should be controlled and / or closely monitored. A further consideration when stabilizing or lifting loads from two sides is to line up your points of attachment. As one can see in the diagrams below, points of attachment that are not lined up tend to cause the load to shift laterally rather than lifting up and / or stabilizing the load.

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Introduction In the case of a collision, vehicles often come to rest in unusual positions. With the understanding that movement of the vehicle during rescue efforts may lead to further injury of those trapped inside, it becomes very important to be able to rapidly stabilize a vehicle in the position it is found in before extrication rescue efforts can begin on the vehicle.

Shored tanker in under-run situation It is important that we firstly develop a clear understanding of the difference between securing a vehicle and stabilizing a vehicle. Let’s for instance take the example of a car on its side. If we simply tie this vehicle off with some rope this may well secure the vehicle (in that it would not fall over) but it would not be stable. In order to truly stabilize a vehicle we have to create ground up stabilization that will ensure the vehicle will not move due to any of our extrication efforts. Once this has been achieved one can say that the vehicle is stabilized.

A stabilized vehicle is one that will not move as a result of normal extrication rescue procedures applied to it. Some of the procedures covered in this chapter can also be found in the book Holmatro’s Vehicle Extrication Techniques. The focus of this book is however more on stabilization requiring shoring. If you would like to know more about basic stabilization or how to perform extrication after stabilization take a look at Holmatro’s Vehicle Extrication Techniques.

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Vehicle on its side

OBJECTIVE: To minimize movement of the vehicle, that may negatively affect trapped patients or injure rescuers. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: Special attention should always be given to potential hazards. In this case (vehicle on its side) this can include dangerous fluids that may have leaked out of the vehicle due to its position. THE PROCEDURE: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is a basic manual strut (see pages 26-27). To ensure the vehicle will not roll towards its roof side, start by supporting it under the A and C pillars.

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Think ahead, avoid placing stabilization in areas where you are likely to need to cut later during the extrication.


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Vehicle on its side

Now place a base for your shore on the other side of the vehicle. It may also be useful to preposition the tension straps you will need later to secure the base of your shore.

Remember to consider triangulation of the forces in your system, see pages 51-53 for more details.

Next, position your shore between the vehicle and the base. Remember to pay attention to the point of contact between the vehicle and your shore ensuring a stable point of contact. A cross head usually works best for this.

Finally, secure your shore by tightening the tension straps between the base and the vehicle. At the same time recheck your chocks on the other side.

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Vehicle on its side It is important to have stable contact points between the vehicle and your straps. Also always try to attach your straps as low as possible.

In some cases it may also be necessary to stabilize the top / roof side of the vehicle.

By using two hydraulic struts it is also possible to lift a vehicle on its side in a very controlled manner so as to free a trapped limb.

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No matter what type of stabilization system is created, the principle of the triangle of forces should always be followed. See pages 51-53.


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ho

lm

a tr

o

Vehicle on its roof

OBJECTIVE: To minimize movement of the vehicle, that may negatively affect trapped patients or injure rescuers. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: Special attention should always be given to potential hazards. In this case (vehicle on its roof) this can include dangerous fluids that may have leaked out of the vehicle due to its position. THE PROCEDURE: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is a hydraulic Auto-lock type (see pages 26-27).

Chock the space between the roof of the vehicle and the ground. This may be easiest with inverted step chocks. 59


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Vehicle on its roof

In some cases it may be necessary to add additional blocks between the engine compartment and the windshield for added stability.

The pillars of a vehicle on its roof are, in most cases, supporting the weight of the underside of the car. For this reason, shoring to take over this support should be applied before cutting any of the pillars to create space.

Remember to consider triangulation of the forces in your system, see pages 51-52 for more details.

By using the tension straps attached to the base of your shores in combination with the opening of the shores, the system should be secured.

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Remember not to use too much of the stroke of your shores that you may need later during space creation.


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Vehicle on its roof

It should now be possible to make any cuts through pillars that may be necessary for space creation.

If components of the vehicle will be lifted with the ram to create space, the change in height should be secured by following up with the struts.

When the space has been created and the shores are locked in place. Detach and remove any unnecessary hoses that may be tripped over. 61


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Large vehicle stabilization

OBJECTIVE: To stabilize large vehicles that are not positioned in their normal orientation (not on all wheels or unevenly loaded). SITUATION ASSESSMENT: Always consider the load that a heavy goods vehicle may be carrying. Also think about how your movement of a truck may affect this load. Finally remember that large vehicles normally have heavy suspension with a large amount of travel which can complicate stabilization and lifting. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is a hydraulic Locknut type (see pages 26-27).

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These types of rescue situations can vary significantly. For this reason a range of important considerations are given rather than a step by step procedure.


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Large vehicle stabilization Always begin with an initial safety assessment considering any hazards to your approach.

When it is time to begin stabilizing the vehicle, always begin by chocking any wheels that are still touching the ground.

Don’t forget the large suspension normally found on these vehicles. Wheels touching the ground may not be fully loaded, and so may easily roll. It is also important to strap down components of the vehicle or load that may move during rescue efforts. Consider, for instance, a floating cabin on a heavy goods vehicle.

Before deciding on shoring placement, it is good to get an overview of the situation allowing one to better understand where the center of gravity lies and what type of load shifts may occur.

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Large vehicle stabilization With a good understanding of the different forces at play in your situation, it will now be possible to construct the best shoring system to support the load.

Always start with the base plate, making sure, by using tension straps, that you control all possible horizontal and lateral forces within the triangle of stability (see pages 51-52).

When considering assembly of your shores, make rough measurements first. This will help the rescuer maximize the use of shore stroke for any adjusting that may be required later.

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Large vehicle stabilization Use a minimum of two shores. This helps balance the load being shored as well as providing a back up.

When positioning your shores consider the most appropriate angle (see pages 51-52). It is best to use a swivel type head in this situation so that the load will always be directed through the axis of your shore.

Once you have positioned your shores always be sure to take up all the slack in the straps connected to the base of your shore.

Always remember to construct shores to replace the integrity of vehicles structure (such as a roof) that is going to be cut away during the rescue effort. 65


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Large vehicle lifting

OBJECTIVE: To tilt or lift the weight of a large vehicle in such a way as to allow extrication of entrapped persons. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: Always consider the load that a heavy goods vehicle may be carrying. Also think about how your movement of a truck may affect this load. Finally remember that large vehicles normally have heavy suspension with a large amount of travel which can complicate stabilization and lifting. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is a hydraulic Locknut type (see pages 26-27).

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The need for lifting large vehicles is not limited to trucks. While a truck vs. car under-run is used in this step by step approach, the principles discussed can be applied to a host of other lifting rescue situations.


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Large vehicle lifting Always begin with an initial safety assessment considering any hazards to your approach.

After the initial assessments, always start by properly chocking any wheels in contact with the ground. This includes both the vehicle to be lifted and the vehicle trapped below.

The next step requires the strategic placement of your shoring system’s bases. These should be secured using a network of straps between the bases and the vehicle that will be lifted.

To ensure the best use of available stroke for lifting, make rough measurements of the shore length you will need before assembling your shore.

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Large vehicle lifting As discussed in the chapter on load management (see pages 51-53), a good balance between the ideal lifting and stabilizing angle of your shoring system will have to be chosen. Always remember to consider the final result of your intended lift, bearing in mind that the angle and length of your shores will change as the lift is performed.

Use a minimum of two shores. This helps balance the load being lifted as well as providing a backup.

Once the shores are in place at the appropriate angle, all slack should be taken out of the tension straps between the shores’ bases.

Never move under an unsecured load. When working near an unstable load always work on one knee, allowing one to move away quickly if required.

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Before beginning to lift the load, always recheck the chocking of wheels still in contact with the ground. It is also good to post rescuers at different locations around the load to check for any abnormal movement during the lift.


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Large vehicle lifting Coordination of the lifting process should be controlled by one assigned rescuer from a position with a good view of the full lifting process. All lifted loads need to be secured. This can be done using chocks and blocks however this may be impractical when dealing with large distances. Shoring is more efficient and effective for this task.

No shored load is secure until it is mechanically locked.

Mechanical locking of shores should be done at the same time on both sides. This will help avoid rollover if there is failure of the lifting system. When locking the shores be sure to grip the locknut from below so as to avoid a pinch hazard.

Throughout the lifting process recheck the chocks. Only lift the load as much as necessary to achieve the rescue.

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Introduction This chapter gives insight into the basic applications of emergency shoring and lifting in collapsed structure environments. For each specific application type a detailed explanation of the build up and use of the PowerShoreTM system is provided. Details on secondary extensive shoring such as raker systems, secondary timber shores or more long term industrial type shoring are not discussed as they fall outside the scope of this book. This book focuses on initial emergency shoring. The main aim of any emergency shoring is to create a rapid safe area for emergency operations. Bearing in mind that rescue operations may already be on the go when the emergency team arrives the two main goals of emergency shoring are: 路 to protect access and exit routes to and from trapped patients 路 to create safe working areas around emergency operations that can later, if necessary, be replaced by secondary shoring.

Shores built to protect a rescue scene

Spot shore used to protect an exit route

It is important that we understand why and where emergency shoring is required on the rescue scene. Shoring by industrial standards is the temporary support of structures during construction and / or demolition etc. in order to provide stability that will protect property as well as workers and the public. Emergency rescue shoring on the other hand is a temporary support of only those parts of the structure required to perform search and rescue operations at a reduced risk to patients and rescuers. Emergency shoring is generally built using systems that can be assembled and deployed rapidly.

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Collapsed structure safety Working in and around collapsed structures is inherently dangerous. The following diagram highlights some of the many safety considerations when working in such an environment.

Heavy items on the roof such as air-conditioning units or large water tanks may fall off or through a damaged roof.

Sections of floor or wall panels may only be hanging from rebar and likely to fall. Broken glass from windows may fall with even the slightest wind.

Secondary explosions or aftershocks may lead to additional falling objects, but may also lead to further collapse. 72

Broken gas and water lines will be hazards.


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Cables supplying electricity to the building may be damaged leading to an electrical hazard.

Various loose items such as signs or panels may fall.

Damaged columns are a sign of heavy structural damage.

In an effort to control movement in and out the hazardous area, always enforce the use of working zones. The inner, or action zone, is for rescuers actively involved in rescue operations; the secondary zone is reserved for all other emergency personnel. All nonemergency service persons should be kept clear of these two zones.

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Principles of emergency shoring Just because it is emergency shoring does not mean it can be assembled in an inferior or unsafe way. All emergency shoring should be built using the same engineering principles as found in more extensive secondary shoring. The only difference is that emergency shoring needs to be rapidly assembled and deployed. A shoring system should be like a double funnel or wine glass. It needs to collect the load at the top of the shore, redirect that load through the shore and then finally redistribute the load on a stable surface below or at the other end of the shore.

load collection

load redirection

load redistribution

Depending on the nature and amount of structural damage to the building or structure you are working on, varying amounts and types of shores may be required. Your specialized “Collapsed Structure Rescue Team” or “Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) team” should have a structural specialist to help make the calculations of how many and what type of shores will be required. Timber is normally used at the top and / or bottom of your emergency shoring system to collect and distribute the load according to the double funnel principle. In addition some consider timber to also act as an audible or visual warning of increased load as it deforms. 74

Wherever possible use timber between your shore and the damaged structure.


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Window / doorway shores

OBJECTIVE: To support openings in walls thus creating a safe access and / or exit route for rescuers. These shores may later be replaced with secondary shoring. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: They may also be used in buildings where door or window headers have been damaged. This type of shore should be built up in a safe area and then moved into place. THE PROCEDURE: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is any Locknut type strut (see pages 26-27).

This shore system makes use of two shores with one header and footer the width of the opening. The shore system should be assembled in a safe area and then moved into place. 75


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Window / doorway shores First make rough measurements or estimations of the width of the opening. On the basis of this, cut or choose two pieces of wood to use as the header and footer of the system.

After placing the header and footer on top of each other in the opening, measure the length of shore required.

Now select the appropriate struts and extensions for the measured space and assemble two shores of the same length.

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Auto-lock struts should not be used for this type of shore (see pages 26-27).


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Window / doorway shores Now that the shores are assembled, nail the heads to either end of the wood header ensuring the shores remain parallel. In some cases it may be helpful to leave space to the outside of the shores to allow secondary shoring later if required. A wood footer can be prepared in the same way.

Always position any air or hydraulic connection points to the outside of the window or doorway.

The assembled shore system can now be moved into place.

Now extend and lock the shores in place using the required system.

Manual system used.

Hydraulic system used.

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Remember never to lift or push with a shore system in a collapsed structure environment.


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“T” / Spot shores

OBJECTIVE: To provide initial stabilization of dangerous areas where fully braced systems (such as column shores) may be constructed later. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: The exact number of T / spot shores required to stabilize a certain area will have to be calculated to ensure that the correct amount of stabilization is achieved. The structural specialist on your team will be able to help with these calculations. THE PROCEDURE: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is any Locknut type strut (see pages 26-27).

This type of shore should be assembled in a safe area and then moved into place. They are normally installed with wood above and below to spread the load.

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Depending on the nature of the ground you are working on, it may be best to make use of tilting heads at the base.


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“T� / Spot shores First make rough measurements or estimations of the shore length needed. If a doorway shore is already in place, a measurement of the extra length to the roof can be added to the height of the doorway shore.

Now select the appropriate struts and extensions for the measured space and assemble your shore in a safe environment. A beam support head should be nailed to the center of the timber header. A timber footer may be prepared in the same way if required.

Auto-lock struts should not be used for this type of shore (see page 26-27).

The shore complete with header and / or footer can now be moved into place.

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“T” / Spot shores

Now extend and lock the shore in place using the required system.

Remember never to lift or push with a shore system in a collapsed structure environment.

Remember that as the length of any shore increases, load capacity decreases (see page 28).

As a final step remove any hoses or other components that may get in the way during rescue operations. 80


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Progressive lifting

OBJECTIVE: To safely and systematically lift a heavy load, making use of complementary lifting equipment. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: Always lift with a good overview of the situation. Small lifting actions in one area can dramatically affect the structure elsewhere. THE PROCEDURE:

Start by ensuring all necessary lifting equipment is readily available. This equipment should ideally be staged close by. 81


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Progressive lifting Start by creating an opening for your high pressure lifting bag(s). In many cases this is best done with a hydraulic wedge. The space created by the hydraulic wedge should be secured using wedge blocks.

Never place you fingers under or near a load being lifted.

Now slide your lifting bag into place. This is best done with a wedge block against the bag so that your fingers are not in danger. Always position your bag(s) completely (past the center of the bag) under the load before inflating.

All lifted loads should always be backed up using blocks, wedge blocks or a mechanically locked shoring system.

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As the lifting bag is inflated, the progression to the next lifting tool can be considered. In this case the logical progression is to a lifting jack.


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Progressive lifting

If the lifting bag needs to be left in place, a shut-off hose with a safety valve should be used.

Larger lifting bags can also be backed up using automatic follow-up shoring (see pages 21-22).

Always be extra cautious when lifting loads at angles. Be sure that your lifting action will not cause the load to shift uncontrollably. This is best controlled by good chocking.

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Introduction Around the world trenches are dug for various reasons such as the laying of pipes and cables or for creating foundations. The number of trench collapses varies significantly from country to country. The cause, however, is almost always the same. Trenches collapse due to inadequate shoring by those responsible for digging the trench. In order to be able to work in a trench safely, so as to extricate the injured and / or entrapped persons, it is necessary for the rescue services to be able to rapidly create a safe area around the patient. While this chapter provides a basic overview of emergency shoring used in trench rescue, it is not meant to take the place of specialized trench rescue training Collapsed trench required to perform such rescue operations. If rescuers are not aware of the risks and how to work safely in and around a trench, this can easily lead to death and injury. It is essential that rescuers do not move into a trench that is not properly shored. Moving into an unsafe trench will only put the rescuers at risk of becoming injured, entrapped or worse in the very likely event of a secondary collapse.

Properly shored trench

Rescuers should never move into an un-shored trench. 85

Even in training, caution should be taken in and around un-shored trenches. For many of the pictures used in this chapter a safe concrete training trench was used.


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Trench safety and terminology In all cases it is vitally important that a trench rescue scene is approached with extreme caution. Many hazards can exist on such a scene and are beyond the scope of this technical skills orientated book. It is, however, strongly advised that for complete knowledge on this matter, an established trench rescue training program is used. The diagram below highlights some of the many considerations that have to be taken into account when working at a trench rescue scene. It also serves to explain the trench terminology that will be used in the rest of this chapter.

Ladder(s) for access.

Atmospheric monitoring and necessary ventilation.

Low pressure bag used for backfill behind shoring. Staging area for additional secondary shoring material.

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Shoring planks. Shoring boards.


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Limited access side Head

Soil pile Toe

Wall

Edge

Edge Working side

Toe

Toe

Floor

Inner or action circle for rescuers directly involved.

Secondary zone reserved for all other emergency service personnel. All non-emergency service persons should be kept clear of these two zones. 87

Shoring board used as edge padding.


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Trench rescue approach

OBJECTIVE: To create a safe working environment around the edge of the trench, so as to allow shoring work to be done, minimizing the risk of further collapse. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: The greatest risk to the approaching rescuers is a secondary collapse leading to the rescuer becoming trapped in the trench. The following approach aims to minimize this risk. THE PROCEDURE: This procedure represents the absolute minimum of safety steps that need to be taken in an approach to a trench rescue.

Always approach the trench from the head, with caution, using edge padding to spread your weight over the ground. 88


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Trench rescue approach After placing a ladder in the trench at the head, encourage those in the trench who are not entrapped to leave the trench.

From here one can now assess the shoring needs.

Once contact has been made with a conscious patient this contact should never be broken.

In the meantime, other members of the team can begin to place boards at the edge of the trench so as to spread the weight of rescuers who will be working there. It may also be necessary to position more ladders to allow escape for those remaining in the trench or for any rescuers that may accidentally fall in during rescue efforts.

Never approach the edge of a trench without edge padding in place no matter how stable it might seem.

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Trench rescue approach It may also be necessary to clear the soil pile from close to the edge to allow access. After doing this, always place boards on the ground to help spread the weight.

Perform gas monitoring continuously and provide necessary ventilation.

Rescuers should never move into an un-shored trench.

Finally, your trench rescue equipment should be staged in a specific order, allowing quick and easy access to the tools required. 90


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Rapid safe area creation

OBJECTIVE: To rapidly create a safe working area (safe haven) from where rescue and emergency medical care can be given to trapped persons. SITUATION ASSESSMENT: A location for rapid safe area creation should be chosen based on where the patient(s) is / are located.

THE PROCEDURE: STRUT CHOICE: a good strut type for this application is any Auto-lock type strut (see pages 26-27).

Position the shoring team with one rescuer on the limited access side (where the soil pile normally is) and at least two on the working side (see page 87).

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Rapid safe area creation From the working side, position the first shoring plank into the toe on the opposite (limited access) side of the trench. This shoring plank should be left lying against the edge of the working side of the trench.

Now slide the first shoring board over the shoring plank already in place.

Next pass the shoring plank and board together to the limited access side of trench. These can then be held in place by the one rescuer on the limited access side of the trench. 92


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Rapid safe area creation From the working side place the second shoring plank into the toe of the working side of the trench. Pass the top of this shoring plank to the limited access side where it should be rested against the shoring plank and board already in place.

Again from the working side, slide the second shoring board into place using the shoring plank to guide it into the working side toe. After doing this the shoring plank can be handed back to the working side.

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Rapid safe area creation While the shoring planks and boards are being positioned, the first shores can be configured, based on the width of the trench.

Using ropes lower the first shore to the bottom of the trench no more than 0.6 m / 2 ft. from the floor. Then extend the shore enough to hold it in place using the required system. The advantage of an Auto-lock type strut is that it will lock in place without a rescuer having to move into the trench.

Now check for the need to backfill with soil or lifting bags in any spaces left between the shoring boards and the walls of the trench. After doing this the shore can be extended. Locking is achieved automatically when using an Auto-lock type strut.

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Never enter a trench that is not completely shored with a mechanically locked system.


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Rapid safe area creation The same procedure should be followed for the top shore. The top shore should not be positioned more than 0.6m / 2 ft. below the edge of the trench. There should not bemore than 1.2 m / 4 ft. between shores. If necessar y, more than two levels of shoring may need to be used.

Shores that do not lock automatically should be locked starting with the top shore as rescuers move into the safe area created. Hoses of locked shores can be removed.

At the same time, nailing the shores in place can begin.

Until the shores are nailed in place, all ropes used to lower the shores should be secured above. In some cases it may be necessary to replace your emergency shoring with other secondary shores such as wood or simple industrial type shores. This is normally seen in long trenches where multiple safe areas need to be created.

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Acknowledgments This book would not have been possible without the assistance and valuable input of the following persons and organizations. For their roles in formulation and discussion of the many techniques and strategies described in this book: · Rod Campbell - Central University of Technology, South Africa · Rob Owen – Fishbone Research Limited, United Kingdom · Road Accident Rescue Committee – Queensland Fire and Rescue Service, Australia · Peter Fiset – Holmatro Rescue Equipment, United States · Dave Dalrymple – Roadway Rescue, United States For their assistance in proof reading and content consultation: Ad Rombouts, Fran Dunigan, Giff Swayne, Malcolm Stirk, Tony Barboza For technical assistance and photographs: · Holmatro Rescue Equipment · Piba, Antwerp Provincial Institute of Fire and Ambulance Service Training, Belgium · Anne Arundel County Fire Training Academy, United States · Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Sweden · Wennergren Maskin, Sweden · Durban University of Technology Dept. Emergency Medical Care & Rescue, South Africa Finally a special word of thanks to all the operational rescuers from around the world, who have shared their personal rescue experiences with me. Your valuable input is greatly appreciated.

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Notes

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Notes

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This publication is brought to you by:

www.holmatro.com

ISBN: 978-90-812796-1-1


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ISBN 978-90-812796-1-1


Holmatro ESLT EN