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No. 13 May-July 2011

A F R A A ’ S PA N A F R I C A N J O U R N A L O N A I R T R A N S P O R T AFRICAN AIRLINES ASSOCIATION


Setting a New Standard

in Business Class Boeing 777-200LR Worldliner

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foreword

A Year of Mixed Fortunes for African Aviation

T

he airline industry has historically been

cooperation among African airlines is partly to

lurching from crisis to crisis, separated

blame for the loss of market share by African

by brief periods of stability and

airlines to others. It is for this reason that

sometimes prosperity. The industry attained

AFRAA in its three-year Business Plan,

some stability in 2010 following two previous

launched earlier this year, is largely focusing

years of global financial and economic crisis

on encouraging airlines to forge closer

that significantly depressed air travel,

commercial and technical cooperation and

especially, business travel.

work more closely together to derive economies of scale.

Towards the close of 2010, the forecast was all rosy for the global industry and especially

AFRAA will launch a number of common

for Africa. Africa was predicted to grow

(joint) projects in 2011 aimed at lowering the

significantly in 2011, spurred by growing

cost of operations, increasing revenue and

investor interest in Africa, high global prices for

increasing market access and load factors.

mineral resources and a growing indigenous

Key among these projects will be the Joint

middle class.

Fuel Purchase programme. With oil prices at an all-time high, this project promises

In anticipation of this growth, many African airlines launched new routes last year,

significant saving in cost of fuel to participating airlines.

increased frequencies on some existing routes and invested significantly in aircraft.

African airlines must work together, invest in

Unfortunately, for some of those African

modern, cost efficient equipment and

operators, they now have to downsize their

technology as well as invest in human capital

operations, due to the hitherto unforeseen

development to compete effectively and

political crises and instability in North Africa

reduce their cost of doing business. If these

and Ivory Coast, the earthquake in Japan and

efforts are complemented by support from

subsequent tsunami and the hike in oil prices.

African governments and other stakeholders, the industry may make a loss this year but

The way forward for many African airlines

certainly the future looks bright.

seems uncertain as there is no solution in sight for the political turbulence that has engulfed the continent. AFRAA predicts that airlines in Africa will not see profitability in 2011 and even though the market will still witness growth this year, much of the traffic will be carried (especially in intercontinental routes) by nonAfrican airlines. The inadequate commercial

Dr. Elijah Chingosho AFRAA Secretary General


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contents

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Africa Wings VOLUME 01

A F R A A ’ S PA N A F R I C A N J O U R N A L O N A I R T R A N S P O R T

Publishers:

AFRICAN AIRLINES ASSOCIATION

Rukhsana Haq

Managing Editor:

Raphael Kuuchi

Senior Designer: French Translation: Production /Advertising:

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Camerapix Publishers International Limited

Editorial Director:

Copy Editor:

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Roger Barnard Sam Kimani Ephrem Kamanzi Azra Chaudhry (UK) Rose Judha (Kenya)

Africa Wings is published quarterly for Afraa by Camerapix Magazines Limited Correspondence on editorial and advertising matters may be sent to either of these addresses: Editorial and Advertising Offices: Camerapix Magazines Ltd. PO Box 45048, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya Telephone: +254 (20) 4448923/4/5 Fax: +254 (20) 4448818 or 4441021 E-mail: creative@camerapix.co.ke Camerapix Magazines (UK) Limited 32 Friars Walk, Southgate, London, N14 5LP Tel: +44 (20) 8361 2942 Mobile: +44 79411 21458 E-mail: camerapixuk@btinternet.com Printed in Nairobi, Kenya ©2011 CAMERAPIX MAGAZINES LTD All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 AFRAA diary

Communiqué from AFRAA’s desk

27

8 Interview Interview with the President of Royal Air Maroc 10 News Brief Airline news from the African continent 12 Tailored for the Future? With growing liberalisation and easier

15

18 Stress &

market access, pressure is mounting on Cabin Crew airlines to rethink their business models Airline cabin crews are subject to unique sets of demands at the same time that their industry is facing major challenges African

Development Bank (AfDB) – Support for African Airlines

Here is a welcome financial benefact

27

for African Airlines

16 High Fuel Prices – Here Again to Haunt Airlines Indeed, fuel remains the most

significant cost component of any

carrier’s operations

21 The Concorde Story – First Lady of the Skies

Presently reckoned as the yardstick by which other aircraft must be judged

25 Fly into the Future Precisely what the aircraft of the future

will look like is yet to be determined

27 Safety Issues

– Worldwide Fatal Accident Statistics for 2010 Are airlines safer today?


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AFRAA Executive Committee Meeting in Nairobi

Highlights of the 3 Year Business Plan

The Executive Committee of AFRAA held its 154th meeting in Nairobi, Kenya on 28th February 2011. Among other business, the Committee approved the three-year Business Plan of the Association and set an agenda for a meeting with the Executives of IATA during the forthcoming Annual General Meeting to be held in Singapore in June 2011.

The African Airlines Association (AFRAA) began 2011 on a high and enthusiastic note with the assumption of office of the new Secretary General, Dr. Elijah Chingosho, on 1 January 2011. The immediate task of

Committees. A number of joint projects are currently being implemented. These include: • Joint Fuel Purchase Steering Committee: To conclude modalities for the pooling of member airlines fuel volumes at specific stations and negotiating preferential prices on behalf of participating airlines.

the Secretary General was to submit a comprehensive Business Plan that addressed

Route Network Coordination Task Force: To realign the schedules and route network of airlines so as to improve connectivity, minimize transit times, encourage commercial cooperation and effective utilization of fleet.

The Environment Task Force: To assist airlines to adhere to industry best environment practices, adopt the ICAO Environmental System Management and lobby for a global solution to aviation emissions as well as realize the principle of common but differentiated application of the ICAO Council Resolution.

Africa IOSA Organisation Task Force: To explore the possibility of setting up an Africa-based IOSA firm to provide support to airlines in their preparation for IOSA audits at reduced costs. MRO Task Force: To review the feasibility of setting up structures for joint investments in major spares, and optimal use of African airlines MRO facilities.

the needs of members and challenges facing the industry in Africa. By the end of February the Business Plan was presented to the Executive Committee who, after review, approved it for implementation. This plan is now the “Blueprint” of AFRAA Strategy for the next three years: 2011 - 2013. Among others, the Business Plan highlighted the following as priorities of the Association:

The Executive Committee and AFRAA management during the 154th AFRAA Executive Committee Meeting.

The Executive Committee also reaffirmed the dates and venues of the Association’s 43rd Annual General Assembly as follows: Dates: 20 -22 November 2011 Venue: Marrakech, Kingdom of Morocco Host: Royal Air Maroc The Chairmen/CEOs of the following member airlines of AFRAA constitute the Executive Committee: Afriqiyah Airways, Air Burkina, Air Ivoire, Air Mali, Air Mauritius, Air Eng. Hussein Massoud Group Chairman, EgyptAir Seychelles, EgyptAir, and Chairman of the Ethiopian Airlines, AFRAA Executive Interair SA, LAM Committee. Mozambique Airlines, Royal Air Maroc, South African Express and Tunisair. The Chairman of the Executive Committee is Eng. Hussein Mr. Driss Benhima Chairman, Royal Air Maroc Massoud, Group and AFRAA President. Chairman of EgyptAir while the President and host of the 2011 AFRAA AGA is Mr. Driss Benhima, Chairman of Royal Air Maroc.

• Realign the Association with the needs of members. • Improve Safety in the AFI ( Africa Indian Region). • Embrace cooperation to reduce costs, improve service and realize synergy.

• Strengthen the continental representation and leadership role of AFRAA. • Improve the Association’s and member airlines’ image and reputation. • Facilitate airlines attaining environmental obligations.

• Liberalize the internal Africa market. To achieve these priorities a number of strategies have been evolved. A new organization structure is also being implemented. In addition, job descriptions were revised and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) set for all staff.

Task Forces and Steering Committees The Business Plan also proposed: The replacement of existing Standing Committees with project specific Task Forces and Steering

Airlines’ Pooled Customer Contact Centre Task Force: To review the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of setting up a Joint Customer Contact Centre as a one-stop-shop for telesales, communication with customers, and information dissemination, on a 24/7, 365 days a year basis. Airline Taxes and Charges Task Force: – To monitor the level of taxes and charges, lobby for reduction where necessary, with the view to reducing the burden on airlines and customers, lowering fares and stimulating more air travel.

All these projects will be implemented with the cooperation and diverse support of AFRAA partners. Already, AFRAA have written to all partners about the projects and soliciting their partnership in the implementation.


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AFRAA diary

AFRAA Signs MOU with African Union

Top Management Changes in AFRAA Member Airlines

AFRAA and the African Union Commission (AUC) through its Department of Infrastructure and Energy, signed an MOU on cooperation between the two organisations. The signing was done by Dr. Elham Ibrahim, Commissioner for Infrastructure and Energy for the AU and Dr. Elijah Chingosho, AFRAA Secretary General.

Mr. Jose Ricardo Viegas retires from LAM Mozambique Airlines as Executive Chairman and CEO after over 24 years. Mr. Viegas is replaced by Dr. Teodoro Andrade Wate as Chairman and Mrs. Marlene Mendes Manave as the new CEO of LAM.

The new partnership between AU and AFRAA will facilitate the pursuit of common priorities for the sustainable development of air transport in Africa, accelerate the implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision and address the continent’s Safety and environmental challenges.

Mr. Ricardo Viegas Outgoing Chairman and CEO, LAM Mozambique

After 9 years of distinctive service as CEO of Air Burkina, Mr. Mohammed Ghelala will retire in May 2011. He will be replaced by Mr. Sergio Rosa who has been appointed as the new CEO.

AFRAA Secretary General, Dr. Elijah Chingosho and The AU Commissioner, H.E. Dr. Elham Ibrahim, signing the MOU. Mr. Mohammed Ghelala, Outgoing CEO, Air Burkina

New Executive Appointments

route expansion, IT investment, and fleet modernization.

Capt. Amar Abdullah Akari was appointed as the CEO of Afriqiyah Airways (this was before the political unrest in Libya and the subsequent imposition of the UN no-fly zone over the Libyan airspace).

The following appointments were made in some AFRAA member airlines and industry organisations during the first quarter of 2011:

Mr. Innocent Mavhunga Ag. CEO, Air Zimbabwe.

Ato Tewolde GebreMariam CEO, Ethiopian Airlines. Mr. Garry Albert Deputy CEO, Air Seychelles.

Mr. Andre Viljoen Ag. CEO, Air Mauritius.

Messrs. Jose Viegas and Mohammed Ghelala are credited with many achievements in their respective airlines including IOSA Certification,

Mr. P. E. Chilambe CEO, Air Malawi.

Mr. Meshesha Belayneh took over as the new ICAO Regional Director for Eastern and Southern Africa office, based in Nairobi in January 2011. He replaces Mr. Geoffrey P. Moshabesah who is now on retirement. The IATA Africa office, based in Johannesburg now has a new Regional Vice President in the person of Mr. Mike Higgins. The appointment was made by the Director General and CEO of IATA, Mr. Giovanni Bisignani. Mr. Higgins will oversee IATA’s initiatives in Africa. On 16 March 2011, Mr. Higgins paid a working visit to AFRAA Headquarters in Nairobi, where he and the Secretary General, discussed areas of mutual cooperation and support for African airlines.

Air Namibia Visits AFRAA Air Namibia Ag. MD, Mrs. Theo Namases, paid a visit to AFRAA to brief the Secretariat on developments in the airline and plans to position the airline as a major player in the industry. As part of its strategy, Air Namibia is investing in new aircraft, entering into commercial cooperation with other African operators, and benchmarking its services against some of the very successful African airlines. Commending the Ag. MD of Air Namibia for her vision and laudable plans for the airline, the Secretary General of AFRAA, Dr. Elijah Chingosho used the opportunity of the visit to brief the delegation about the activities of AFRAA under his leadership.

AFRAA Secretary General, Dr. Chingosho and Air Namibia Ag. Managing Director, Mrs. Theo Namases.


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New Airlines

Senegal Airlines A new national Airline, Senegal Airlines started operations in January from its Dakar base. The airline is a government (36%) and private sector (64%) initiative. It replaces the defunct Air Senegal International which suspended operations in 2009. Senegal Airlines currently operates A320 aircraft.

Camair-Co Cameroon’s new national flag carrier, Camair-Co started operations on 28 March 2011. The airline was set up with the support of Lufthansa Consulting. CamairCo will serve both domestic and international destinations from its Douala hub. It currently operates a B767-300ER and a B737-700 aircraft.

Velvet Sky A new low-cost airline, Velvet Sky, has been launched in South Africa. The Durban-based airline plies the South African “Golden Triangle” routes of Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town. Velvet Sky operates B737-300 aircraft.

AFRAA Diary

IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA) Registry Air Malawi Air Malawi successfully passed the rigorous IOSA audit and is now registered in the IATA IOSA Registry. Despite its limited resources, Air Malawi is determined to attain and maintain the highest level of safety standards in the industry.

Arik Air In March 2011, IATA presented the IOSA Certificate to the Executive Vice President and Managing Director of Arik Air, Mr. Chris Ndulue, during the IATA Day event in Lagos, Nigeria. This follows the Airline’s successful completion of the audit. Arik Air brings to two the number of airlines in Nigeria currently on the IOSA register. The other airline is Air Nigeria.

New AFRAA Partners In the first quarter of 2011, the following air transport service providers applied to join the AFRAA partnership programme: • Atlantic Air Industries Maroc • ATPCO • AWAS • CHAMP Cargo Systems • Pratt & Whitney • Servair

Africa World Airlines A team of Ghanaian and Chinese investors have launched a new airline, Africa World Airlines in Ghana. The airline has been issued with its Air Carrier Certificate by the Ghana Civil Aviation Authority and is scheduled to start operations by the middle of the year.

The African Airlines Association would like to thank all its partners, especially the new ones for volunteering to partner with the Association in catering to the growing needs of airlines in Africa. AFRAA looks forward to a mutually beneficial working relationship with its partners.


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Aero Industrial Sales Company Gains Appreciation The 42nd Annual General Assembly (AGA) of the African Airlines Association (AFRAA) was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and hosted by Ethiopian Airlines from 21st to 23rd November 2010 at the UN Conference Center. Aero Industrial Sales Company (AIS) provided support and sponsorship for the AGA. Mr. Tewodros Tamrat, Acting Secretary General of the African Airlines Association, said: “We are particularly grateful for your sponsorship of the Delegates’ tour on 21st November 2010”. A Certificate of Appreciation was presented to Mr. Mohammed Mahmoud, President of Aero Industrial Sales Company by Mr Girma Wake the (then) Chief Executive Officer of Ethiopian Airlines.

From left to right: Mr Dahir Mohamed, Senior Sales Manager of AIS, Mr Tewolde Gebre Mariam, Chief Executive Officer, Ethiopian Airlines, with Mr Mohammed Mahmoud, President of AIS.

AIS is an FAA AC 00-56 accredited aviation parts and materials distributor to commercial airlines and overhaul shops, worldwide. The company, which is based at Rosedale, New York, USA, has been in operation since in 1986 and is staffed by highly skilled and experienced professionals. Visit: http://www.aeroindustrialsales.com

From left to right: Mr Girma Wake (former Chief Executive Officer of Ethiopian) presenting the certificate of appreciation to Mr Mohammed Mahmoud, President of Aero Industrial Sales Company.

Tel:

718.949.3300

|

Fax:

718.949.9893

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Mr. Driss Benhima, President and Chairman, Royal Air Maroc.

Interview with the President of Royal Air Maroc

1. Royal Air Maroc is one of the very successful

from 50 destinations to more than 70, its fleet

The airline has adopted a carefully thought

airlines in Africa despite the stiff competition

from 29 to 54 aircraft and its traffic doubled.

growth strategy into Africa in terms of network

from foreign airlines. What accounts for the

Our operations also grew by 18 to 20 per cent

expansion. From about 10 destinations in West

airline’s success?

on average from 2004 to 2009, increasing our

Africa in 2006, we increased to 22 with the

traffic from 3.5 million passengers to 6 million

launch in 2010 of Pointe Noire and Bangui.

currently.

The 23rd destination to be opened soon is

The coming into force of the Open Sky Agreement between Morocco and the European Union led to a total transformation of the Moroccan airline landscape with the emergence of numerous low cost carriers. When they started, the low cost airlines were focusing on tourist destinations but they quickly expanded their operations to Casablanca, Royal Air Maroc’s main hub. At the same time, our airline was facing another type of competition from Gulf airlines with larger aircraft and aggressive service quality. These airlines positioned themselves on the long-range destinations, particularly Asia, and contributed to increasing the competition. This situation neither weakened nor destabilized Royal Air Maroc. The airline survived the market share war and the drop of fares, and started growing. Its network grew

Luanda. Currently, we are focusing on Eastern During this period, and thanks to a conducive

Europe with the launch of Moscow and

environment, our airline’s hub became the first

Warsaw so as to enhance the attractiveness

for West Africa and third worldwide for traffic

of the Casablanca hub and to boost the sales

between Europe and West Africa, behind Paris

potential of the whole network.

and London. This was strong growth achieved by our airline.

3. Why has Royal Air Maroc established a number of subsidiary companies instead of

This performance was a result of Royal

focusing on the core business of passenger/

Air Maroc’s appropriate strategy based

cargo transportation?

on diversification of markets owing to the exceptional position of its Casablanca hub.

RAM is currently a major Moroccan group with a turnover of 1.7 billion dollars. The subsidiary

2. Your network into sub-Sahara Africa only

policy adopted by Royal Air Maroc since 2002

extends to the West African sub-region. Do

is aimed at creating value by turning some

you have plans to expand to Eastern and

business units into profit centres to achieve

Southern Africa any time soon?

higher levels of efficiency of the various


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interview

business functions which were outsourced.

commercial partnerships so as to offer to our

which can be done either at sub-regional

The subsidiary companies are mainly in three

customers a more diversified network and

level or under strategic partnerships among

areas: Services with the establishment of

more travel options across the world.

African airlines. The infrastructure deficit in landlocked countries has delayed the growth

Atlas Catering, Casa Aéro, Atlas on Line, RAM Academy and Atlas Multiservices; Tourism with

6. How successful have been the operations of

of intra-African connections. Indeed a study

Atlas Hospitality which became the second

the low cost subsidiary, Atlas Blue?

has revealed that in the next ten years 700 potential routes will be established in Sub

company countrywide in terms of number of

Saharan Africa.

beds with the construction of 16 hotels; and

In February 2004, Royal Air Maroc established

Aviation Industry where three industrial Joint

Atlas Blue subsidiary company based in

Ventures were established, namely Snecma

Marakech. This subsidiary was set up with

While liberalization is taking place everywhere

Morocco for engine overhaul services,

a different business model from Royal Air

else in the world, it is still an issue in Africa. The

Aérotechnic Industries focusing on Airbus

Maroc. Atlas Blue operated a tourist point-

spirit of Yamoussoukro has certainly moved

aircraft maintenance, and Matis Aerospace

to-point network and MRE. After a few

the process forward, not yet at a continental

specialising in manufacturing aircraft cabling

years of operation, and following requests

level but at sub-regional level. Liberalization

systems.

by customers, tourist industry operators

principles are also being implemented at

and professionals, the Atlas Blue model

bilateral level and that’s a step forward.

The airline division has offloaded the low cost

evolved closer to a traditional airline model.

This process should proceed steadily as

business with the return of Atlas Blue to the

Subsequently, due to size-related issues and

sustainability of airlines depends on it.

core business. The only remaining subsidiary

fierce competition from low cost giants, the

company in the airline division is RAM Express

Atlas Blue brand was discontinued and its

9. As President of the African Airlines

whose aim is to foster economic, social and

fleet merged with RAM’s. This was to enhance

Association you will be hosting the 43rd

touristic development of the regions and to

international operations of the RAM Group

Annual General Assembly in November this

offer connectivity from the Casablanca hub to

which also took over the entire point-to-point

year. What message do you have for your

other provinces of the Kingdom.

network previously operated by Atlas Blue.

fellow CEOs and invited guests attending the conference?

4. What are the challenges the airline is facing?

7. Where does Royal Air Maroc intend to be in African aviation in the next five years?

As the 43rd AFRAA Annual General Assembly draws nearer, my message to the industry is

The major challenges our airline faces include strong exposure to low tariff markets, almost

For the Kingdom of Morocco cooperation with

as follows: Africa must meet the challenge of

70% of our European market where we face

sister African countries is a high priority as it

development and occupy its rightful place in

competitors with a low cost structure, and

has built strong friendship relations with them

globalization to become a hub of peace and

a high growth potential linking any point in

over the centuries. Royal Air Maroc, national

prosperity. In this regard, air transport has a

Europe to any point in Morocco and whose

carrier of Morocco, is proud to contribute to

crucial role to play as a driver of integration

offensive has barely started.

the strengthening and development of the

and intra-African trade development and

privileged ties between Morocco and other

as a development engine for the continent.

The steps made with the cost reduction and

countries of the continent. Inspired by this

Therefore, only liberal policies and removal of

revenue enhancement programmes as well as

pride, Royal Air Maroc has developed its

barriers can help African air transport fulfill its

operational and quality excellence have not yet

presence on the continent for decades. As to

mandate as a catalyst supporting economic

achieved all the objectives.

where we intend to be in African aviation in the

and social development of the continent.

next five years, our objective is to play a leading At some point we will certainly face the very

role on the continent.

10. How is AT responding to the challenges posed by the EU Environmental Trading

strong consolidation taking place among all the

Scheme?

continents and for which we need to be ready. Many companies have already gone out of

8. In your view how can cooperation among

business in this industry.

African airlines be enhanced?

5. Do you plan to join any of the global

Cooperation among African airlines remains

requirements to face climate change. We have

alliances anytime in the future?

critical, in view of the high development

already started the process of preparing for

potential of the continent and interdependence

implementation of the regulation while waiting

We must follow the global trend of joining

among world economies. Africa has no choice

for a global consensus to be reached under the

alliances with world airlines, particularly through

but to further develop intra-African air links

auspices of ICAO.

The Environmental Trading Scheme imposed by EU came as a response to global


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news brief

Kenya Airways Grows Fleet with New Embraer

expansion programme by serving the medium to long-range African destinations.

By taking delivery of a brand new Embraer airliner in January, Kenya Airways has demonstrated its intentions to grow and modernize its fleet.

The new Embraer 190, the first of two aircraft that Kenya Airways had ordered from Jetscape, is perfect to meet the increasing demand of business travel in Africa.

The very first E190 Advanced Range (AR) aircraft from Embraer’s factory in San Jose Dos Campos, Brazil, joins Kenya Airways’ present fleet of Embraer 170s, bringing the total of E-Jet aircrafts to six. The aircraft has been registered as 5Y-KYP. Speaking at the firm’s head office, Kenya Airways Chief Operating Officer Bram Steller noted that the new Embraer would greatly help the airline’s regional route

Mr Steller also mentioned that it was a very appropriate model for regional routes of Kenya Airways in the 100-seat range and pointed out that the aircraft came with a business class section that was in high demand on the current E170 routes. The aircraft will be put to service on the Lusaka, Lilongwe, Nampula, Harare and Addis Ababa Djibouti routes.

Seychelles President, James Michel.

Air Seychelles will Continue to Fly Creole Spirit In March Seychelles President, James Michel, visited the headquarters of Air Seychelles at the International Airport, where he met with the Acting Executive Chairman Ambassador Maurice Loustau Lalanne and the staff of various departments to talk to them about their work and the changes taking place at the national airline, as well as financial difficulties in its operation. “ As President of the Seychelles I will never let our airline down... There are a lot of challenges today, and there have been many in the past, and we have surmounted them. Today I am proud of Air Seychelles,” said President James Michel to the staff. Air Seychelles' financial difficulties had been the subject of speculation but the President reassured the staff of Air Seychelles that the government would continue to support their job security. “Air Seychelles is the lifeline of our tourism industry... I can guarantee to you that it will survive. Seychellois staff will not lose their jobs, and we will make sure the company prospers with the new management structures coming into place... We have to fly our Creole Spirit around the world... I am convinced that Air Seychelles will continue to do so.” Following his visit to the Air Seychelles headquarters, the President noted that the aviation industry around the world was experiencing similar problems to the national airline, and that in many cases, government intervention was necessary. On the topic of competition faced by Air Seychelles from an increasing number of flights by Emirates and Qatar Airways, the President said that this would be a challenge for Air Seychelles and that work would be undertaken to minimize the impact on the company.

Success of Precision Air The rise of Precision Air to the level of a quasi-national airline in view of the decline of Air Tanzania over the past year has brought new connections to the Tanzanian travelling public. Precision has resumed its scheduled services linking Mwanza with its "opposite number", Bukoba, once again, the two lakeside municipalities separated by Lake Victoria. The company’s top management also confirmed that they were expecting the delivery of a leased B737, allowing them to spread their wings across the wider region with flights to Johannesburg, Pemba, and Nampula in Mozambique, Moroni in the Comoros, Lubumbashi in Congo DR, and Lusaka in Zambia. Precision Air’s key shareholder is Kenya Airways, but an IPO has already been scheduled during which the present owners will divest an initial 30 percent to be floated on the Dar es Salaam stock exchange, which will allow Tanzanian individuals and businesses to share in the success of Precision Air, give them greater financial strength, and cement its present market position as Tanzania’s leading airline.

The Minister for Transport, Hon. Omari R. Nundu, points at the foundation stone of the Precision Air Hangar after he unveiled it on 4 February 2011 at the Julius Nyerere International Airport in Dar es Salaam. The facility will be the only full-maintenance, repair and overhaul ATR service provider in East and Central Africa.


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Tailored for the Future?

Today, every airline is striving for the same objective; to create the lowest cost business model that will achieve the highest efficiency while growing revenues. Reports Raphael Kuuchi, Commercial Director - AFRAA

A

irlines all over the world seem to stagger from one crisis to another, separated by brief spells of steady operations. Generally, airlines survive crises by looking to governments to protect them from external competitors (seeking increased market share) and for financial bailout to keep them in operation. Even in the west, governments arrange support to ailing airlines. Government support protects creditors and ensures that capital remains available to airlines through bad times and good times. With growing liberalization and easier market access, pressure is mounting on airlines to rethink their business model in order to establish reliable sources of revenue and to reduce costs to levels that are sustainable without outside assistance. Airlines that cannot recreate themselves will soon find themselves in liquidation. In Africa, the air transport market looks more promising now than ever before, having grown at an average of over 6% per annum in the last decade, and projected to continue through to 2025. This growth offers enormous opportunities, but also poses challenges for airlines, airports and regulators. A period of uncertainty however hangs over many airlines in Africa. While market liberalization is taking place, the process is painfully slow and the enabling environment far from conducive. Many of the continent’s airlines are small and weak and therefore ill-positioned to take advantage of the evolving opportunities. Increased competition, safety concerns, evolving regulatory and technological developments are modifying the industry and placing pressure on airlines to either change or perish. The emergence of low cost airlines has changed the business focus to that of costsaving, improved efficiency and building

competitiveness through differentiated business operating models. Today, every airline is striving for the same objective; to create the lowest cost business model that will achieve the highest efficiency while growing revenues. Achieving this model is crucial to the long-term success of airlines, given the higher fuel prices, the environmental uncertainties and their associated risks to the airlines’ cost equation.

The Traditional Airline Model In a climate of continuous change and uncertainty airlines are bound to face varying challenges. As African airlines try to adjust to the evolving realties, they will have to reconstruct more clearly their corporate missions and redefine the kind of business they wish to be in. This will facilitate the choice of the right strategies to pursue for long-term survival and success. The way the airline industry evolved over the years required that traditional airlines provide inhouse, most of the services and functions they require. In most airlines, there exist separate departments dealing with engineering, catering, ground handling, ticketing, sales and reservations and so on. These functions are considered important for the efficient running of airlines and so management decides to control them directly. Though some work is contracted out by traditional airlines to third parties, this is normally in locations outside the airline’s home-base. Besides providing services to their own operations, airline departments offer handling, catering, cargo and engineering support to other airlines using the idle time of their resources to generate supplementary revenues especially if passenger growth falls or yields decline. As the dynamics of running an airline evolves, the traditional airline model is now seen as

inappropriate, wasteful and inefficient in many ways especially where it applies to small airlines. The model is prone to employing too many staff and committing limited resources to capital investments that are grossly underutilized. For example, an airline with five aircraft and a fully resourced engineering department may not be making maximum use of its resources. This is costly and airlines can hardly afford it these days.

Need for Transformation The search for a solution that will make small airlines more competitive and efficient is eminent. With global alliances and liberalized skies elsewhere, the airline business is becoming complex and offers more opportunities for the big, well aligned and financially endowed. This is why Air France took over KLM. The future of the industry will witness more consolidation and alliances and these will get bigger and more powerful. To address the inadequacies of the traditional airline model in a strategic manner, airlines need to introduce fundamental changes into their operations for sustainable business development. Such transformation will create new growth opportunities by enhancing the productivity of assets and relieving capacity constraints. In many cases, the entire business model could be transformed to achieve the target efficiency and cost structure required to win in today’s competitive environment. Historically, African airlines have pursued short-term cost-cutting solutions that ultimately proved to be unsustainable and inflexible. However, airlines that aim to derive sustainable market presence, competitive advantage and strong shareholder value, approach the problem from a long-term strategic perspective. They transform their business structure and systems in order to continuously adjust to the ever-changing economic and market realities.


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Opportunities for Collaboration One thing that African airlines have failed to do is work together through commercial/technical collaboration. Cooperation can be through code sharing, interlining, special pro-rate agreements (SPAs), mutual ground handling, pooled programmes (loyalty schemes, engineering, fuel), common sales/ticketing outlets, schedule/ capacity co-ordination and franchising. The African Airlines Association (AFRAA) has always advocated collaboration and commercial cooperation among airlines. This is because in the airline industry size has enormous advantages. Collaboration will build that critical mass and enable airlines to derive synergy in their operations and economies of scale through a more efficient use of their resources. Cost and service delivery efficiencies will enable airlines to compete more effectively. As airlines share resources and technology, skills will be exchanged and individual operating risks reduced through risk sharing. Further, collaboration will reduce if not eliminate the sometimes unhealthy competition among airlines and together, operators can expand market coverage and venture into new territories. Through harmonization of operations, airlines can develop widespread and interconnected networks, dominate operations at their respective hubs and outmanoeuvre foreign competitors through effective pricing, schedule/ flight frequency adjustment and networks rationalization. Cooperation and cross-border investment in airlines will make access to regional markets easier and speed up intraAfrican liberalization.

Airline of the Future Going forward, African airlines may have to decide whether they want to remain in the aviation business (air transport, catering, handling, engineering, cargo, etc) or focus their limited resource on the core business of air transportation. This decision will inform the type of business model to adopt. Since the 1990s, alternatives to the legacy carrier model have evolved. During this time, airlines around the world have modified the way they conduct business in line with changing trends and the dictates of liberalization and technology. In the future, airline business will follow one of four models: (i) Traditional airline (discussed earlier),

(ii) Virtual airline, (iii) Aviation business and (iv) a hybrid of ii and iii - Comparative advantage.

Virtual Airline-Outsourcing The need for airlines to be more efficient and focus on their core business will make outsourcing an attractive business proposition in the future. Under this model, any service that can be provided more efficiently and costeffectively by an external supplier (third party) than the airline would be outsourced. Airlines practicing this model would outsource to third party providers services such as handling, engineering, catering and engineering among others. Service level agreements will specify quality standards thereby relieving management of these tasks to focus on the core business (where the airline has comparative advantage). This model may be easier to implement by start up airlines seeking to avoid being encumbered with underutilized employees and facilities. Many of the successful Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) operate this model. For existing airlines, severing off some departments or subsidiaries may create industrial relations conflict with labour unions as it often involves retrenchment and laying-off of excess staff. The ability to lower costs is the virtual airline’s greatest advantage. In 2007, American Airlines signed a 7.5 year, $217m deal with IBM to provide support for the airline’s training, recruitment and staffing needs and supply HR related technology systems. United Airlines outsourced all of its heavy maintenance on B747s and B777s to South Korean and Chinese firms. In the area of cargo, Unit Load Device (ULD) outsourcing is in vogue and offers airlines best practices in ULD management and shared operational synergies with other airlines at cheaper costs.

The recent announcement by Ethiopian Airlines to upgrade some of its business units into subsidiaries is in pursuit of capitalizing on areas it clearly has comparative advantage over other providers elsewhere In adopting this model airlines must note that the cyclical nature of the industry could render it susceptible to economic downturns. If passenger traffic declines or yields drop and revenues dip, there will be no supplementary

revenue coming in from third party catering, ground handling and maintenance services to offset the dwindling traffic revenue. There are also often concerns regarding safety and security when it comes to outsourcing. However, knowing the service provider’s quality standards certification and compliance level and using industry standards to benchmark service delivery often help in allaying this concern.

Aviation Business ModelCreate Subsidiaries If an airline’s mission is not focused on the CORE airline but instead on the broader aviation business, this model may serve it well in the future. Such an airline will delink activities of the supporting departments (ground handling, catering, cargo, maintenance) from the main airline and incorporate them as separate, potentially profitable subsidiary companies. Besides providing support to the airline (passenger core), each business unit broadens its customer base and generates most of its revenue from external clients. Lufthansa Systems and to some extent Singapore Airlines are the most successful examples of this model. In Africa, Egyptair, Ethiopian, South African Airways and Royal Air Maroc are gravitating towards this model. By setting up separate businesses with specific objectives, targets and independently accountable management, it becomes easier to achieve effective control and make each business unit more customer and resultsfocused. The key benefit of this model is that during an economic downturn, when traffic revenues are adversely affected, revenue from services to external parties by these subsidiary businesses will offset the dwindling core business earnings. The chances of the airline continuing to be profitable are much brighter under this model in downturns than in the case of the virtual airline or the traditional model. However, in circumstances where the airline is expected to buy all its catering, handling, maintenance and overhaul services from its non-core subsidiaries, this could deprive it from obtaining cheaper deals available through third party providers elsewhere. For this reason, Lufthansa Airlines is allowed to seek the best deals in the market instead of depending


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on the services of the other businesses in the Group. As independent profit oriented businesses, the subsidiaries are expected to be efficient in order to win third party contracts. The core airline therefore stands to benefit from such efficiencies as well. However, there is a dilemma on what to do with the airline itself if the non-core businesses over time prove consistently profitable while the airline is not.

feature

that are in sync with modern trends of business. Clinging to an airline model that is no longer in tune with current business realities is akin to applying a typewriter instead of a high speed computer in the business and expecting to compete effectively and profitably. Airlines must adopt the right business model, work together, share resources/expertise, outsource

what they are less competent at delivering and leverage available technology to remain competitive and profitable. The time to transform the traditional airline model into a results oriented, flexible and technology driven one is more critical now than ever before •

Focus on Comparative Advantage The third and probably most feasible future airline model is the comparative advantage model. This is a hybrid of the earlier two models and requires the airline to retain all the non-core business units it has comparative advantage in delivering, and outsource those it cannot provide competitively. Non-core activities external parties can deliver cheaply are outsourced.

TACKLING THE GAME THE CIO CHANGING AGENDA TRENDS

By retaining the core business plus any non-core activities the airline has comparative advantage in providing, the airline is able to offer competitively priced services to third parties besides meeting its own needs cheaply. The recent announcement by Ethiopian Airlines to upgrade some of its business units into subsidiaries is in pursuit of capitalizing on areas it clearly has comparative advantage over other providers elsewhere.

New speakers confirmed for The Air Transport IT Summit agenda: t Peter F. Hartman, President and CEO, KLM t Jaan Albrecht, CEO, Star Alliance Services GmbH t Vivek Badrinath, Executive Vice President - Chief Executive Officer, Orange Business Services t Francesco Violante, CEO, SITA t Philip Wolf, President and CEO, PhoCusWright Inc. t Nawal Taneja, Industry Author and Professor Emeritus, Department of Aviation, Ohio State University t Dr. Christoph Klingenberg, Senior Vice President Information Management & CIO Lufthansa Passage, Deutsche Lufthansa AG t Normand Boivin, Vice President, Airport Operations and Aviation Development, Aéroports de Montréal

The African continent abounds in internationally certified training centres, Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) facilities capable of delivering world class services at competitive cost but they are grossly under-utilized. By focusing on and rendering services each airline is best at and extending these services to other airlines, the industry will maximize the utilization of these facilities and generate additional revenue, while also reducing cost of operations. Similarly, African airlines would be better off pooling their limited resources to develop joint projects that are beneficial across the board instead of engaging in the unhealthy competition of replicating similar ones that are costly to set-up and underutilized. African airlines should try to understand, anticipate and embrace change. The focus should be bold and on adopting strategies

22-23 JUNE 2011 BRUSSELS

REGISTER NOW FOR THE IT INDUSTRY EVENT OF THE YEAR

www.sitasummit.aero

THE AIR TRANSPORT IT SUMMIT FREE to SITA, IATA and ACI Members Co-hosted by

The IT Industry Event of the Year Hosted by


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business talk

African Development Bank (AfDB) Support for African Airlines

A

frican airlines need to modernize their fleets, not only to benefit from lower operating costs, but also to reduce emissions that are harmful to the environment. However, some airlines – particularly the small ones – can find it difficult to raise the required finances at a competitive rate. The result is that one sometimes finds airlines operating some very old aircraft that are costly to maintain and have a poor reliability record. The operating environment has been changing rapidly. Airlines need to invest in the latest information technology and embrace the e-commerce opportunities that improve the bottom line of the operators. New regulations on safety, security, environmental developments and other areas also impose additional costs to airlines. The intense competition in the industry means that airlines have to adapt quickly and employ sophisticated management and marketing techniques to keep pace. Airlines need to employ highly qualified personnel and provide competitive salaries and conditions of service so that they can retain skilled employees in the organization rather than lose them to operators outside the continent.

Obtaining the finances to meet the above requirements is a challenge for African airlines, particularly the small and medium sized ones. Therefore, the AfDB needs to play its part to finance the modernization, restructuring and working capital requirements of African airlines. Quite often the bank is more amenable to consider financing for aviation infrastructure projects such as airports. The bank needs to appreciate that the costly infrastructure can only be viable if patronized by more and more airlines. Hence the AfDB needs to play a great facilitating role in the growth and development of African airlines. It is heartwarming to learn from recent reports that on 23rd March 2011 in Tunis, the AfDB approved a loan of USD 40 million for Ethiopian Airlines to support the purchase of five B777-200LR passenger jets. This indeed, is a welcome development. It is hoped that the bank will extend similar support to more African carriers so that the continent can realize the African Union and NEPAD goal of social, economic and political integration of African people through the provision of safe, reliable and economical air transport services by African operators •


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High Fuel

Prices

By Mrs. Juliet Indetie, Manager, Corporate Finance & Accounts, AFRAA

Here Again to Haunt Airlines

F

uel remains the most significant cost component of any

Air fares are going up both domestically and internationally as

carrier’s operations, The former Chief Economist at CIBC and

unrest in the Middle East continues to boost oil prices, forcing

award winning author, Jeff Rubin, had predicted that the price

airlines to absorb what could be billions in jet fuel costs. Travel

of oil in 2011 had a very good chance of being above 100 dollars a

analysts say that independent business travellers would likely bear

barrel, mainly due to the BP oil spill in 2010, the damage of which

the brunt of the fare hikes.

was expected to have long term effects. The spreading unrest across the Middle East has resulted in a steep increase in the price

‘Like poker players dealt a bad hand, they're trying to act calm, but

of crude oil which soared to a two year high and this has had an

$100-plus oil is starting to really scare the people who run the USA's

adverse effect on the price of jet fuel as refineries have increased

airlines. Record prices for both crude oil and refined jet fuel are

heating oil output, leaving less capacity to make the aviation fuel.

threatening to send US carriers spiralling toward deep losses, drastic service cutbacks, job cuts and, perhaps by the year's end, an

The airline industry is perhaps the most affected by high fuel costs

industry wide cash crunch.’ (Dan Reed, USA TODAY).

as prices have skyrocketed within a short span of time. According to IATA, fuel expenses are expected to total $61.2 billion this year, an

In March the assessment across the regions as per IATA:

almost 50% increase over last year's $41.2 billion. IATA cut its 2011

25 March 2011 Share in World Index

industry profit forecast to $8.6 billion from 25 March 2011

Share in World Index

cts/gal

$/bbl

$9.1 billion, citing the recent spike in jet-fuel prices. “Political unrest in the Middle East has sent oil over $100 per barrel,” said Giovanni Bisignani, IATA’s

$/mt

Index Value 2000= 100

vs. 1 week ago

vs. 1 month ago

vs.1 yr ago

Jet Fuel Price

100%

320.6

134.6

1061.1

368.1

0.1%

6.5%

51.4%

Asia & Oceania

22%

318.9

133.9

1058.1

382.7

-0.8%

8.0%

52.8%

December. If there is no ability to pass these costs

Europe & CIS

28%

322.4

135.4

1067.1

364.9

0.6%

6.2%

51.0%

along in the form of higher airfares, these increases

Middle East & Africa

7%

314.6

132.1

1042.6

394.6

-0.1%

7.2%

52.9%

North America

39%

320.2

134.5

1061.2

357.6

0.3%

5.9%

50.8%

Latin & Central America

4%

329.3

138.3

1064.9

383.1

0.4%

5.2%

49.5%

director general. “That is significantly higher than the $84 per barrel that was the assumption in

come right off the bottom line. Increases in fuel prices affect the airlines as there is a direct impact on the cost of operation, and fuel cost increases have repeatedly triggered economic recessions, which in turn result in a substantial decline in demand for air travel and air cargo. The rise in the price of Jet fuel is prompting airlines to raise fares, tack on new fees, and to consider offering fewer flights or flying smaller planes. Airline stocks have taken a beating after unrest in Tunisia and Egypt spread to neighbouring Libya, which sits on more oil reserves than any other African nation. Industry officials warned that a sustained crisis in several oil-producing nations could hurt the industry's fragile recovery, noting that international air traffic rose 8.2% in January from a year ago, but oil prices could derail a razor-thin 1.5% profit margin.


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economics

The chart shows the movement of fuel prices before the political

The rapid increase in fuel costs for airlines operating in Kenya are

crisis in North Africa and some of the other oil producing countries.

said to have driven the share price of Kenya Airways to a two year low, as the value of KQâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shares has slipped by nearly a third since

American Airlines, spending about 30% of its operating costs on

the beginning of the year. Investors, both individual as well as

fuel, have begun charging additional fees for food, drink, and

institutional, are getting jittery over the fallout of continuously rising

luggage to compensate for their higher overhead costs. Others, like

fuel costs.

US Airways, are retiring jets, cutting domestic seating capacity by as much as eight percent by the end of this year, and eliminating 1,700

There is also a new concern about the increasing exit of the major

jobs to lower operating costs and reduce fuel use. A report by the

fuel suppliers from Africa resulting in a very limited number of

Business Travel Coalition warns that already-depleted cash reserves

suppliers in some locations. In some cases the major suppliers in

are dwindling fast, and unless the fuel crisis lessens, airlines face

their exit strategy teamed up with local suppliers before eventually

not the now-familiar protracted restructuring in bankruptcy, but

exiting the market. Some of the fuel suppliers do not meet the

outright and immediate extinction.

required international fuel quality standards and specifications. Fuel is an important component for flight safety and Airlines in some

Even before the Libyan revolt, British Airways raised ticket prices on 8 February 2011, noting it has to spend more than $11 million a day

instances are forced to tanker which adds to the cost.

on fuel costs. Libya supplies about 2% of the world's oil supply, and

Conclusion

has strong ties to several European markets. BA cited a 14% increase

Fuel prices have a profound effect on the airline industry. Much of

in jet fuel prices since its last fuel surcharge in December. The new

an airline's pricing and cost structure is based on fuel being

surcharge meant that ticket prices rose more than $54 for first class

available at a certain price.

tickets and more than $38 for coach and premium economy class tickets, called World Traveller and World Traveller Plus on BA.

Some airlines have had to make drastic adjustments which include:-

Corporations are looking at the long term while fighting short run implications. While business travellers are increasingly relying on

a) Fees

teleconferencing and telecommuting, there will definitely be an

To generate extra revenue, airlines develop additional fees for

impact on air traffic

previously free items such as checked bags, blankets and food.

Outlook for African Airlines

b) Review Flight Schedules

In Africa fuel prices still remain higher than in other regions for

Rising fuel prices have caused airlines to reduce the number of

various reasons, among which are the relatively small volume

flights on its schedules to conserve fuel and raise the "load factor,"

required by airlines and their weak negotiating power with fuel

or the number of paying passengers per available seat.

suppliers who in some cases may be government sanctioned monopoly providers. High charges levied on fuel also adversely

c) Hike Fares

affect the price of aviation fuel. Interestingly, some oil producing

To counter increased operating costs, fares are loaded with a fuel

countries in Africa such as Nigeria have higher fuel prices than non-

surcharge to generate more revenue. Fuel surcharges have had

oil producing countries.

negative effects on traffic and are not always a viable option.


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Stress & Cabin Crew (A research study carried out by Anna-Marie Gertze)

S

tress has become a major concern to industries in recent years because of its potential impact on both employee wellness and performance. This tendency can be very problematic for the airline industry and ultimately for the management of that company. Airline cabin crews are subject to unique sets of demands at the same time that their industry is facing major challenges, like globalization, rules of competition and regulations which are constantly amended and, above all, the fundamental changes of the industry structure. One of the obligations of airline management is to ensure a maximum output/performance of the highest quality and at a minimum cost. However, if they are faced with cabin crews who struggle with excessive stress and low performance, management problems may be serious.

Background on the Cabin Crew The aviation industry faces the mounting challenges of globalization, rapid technology changes, intense competition and spiralling costs, to improve equipment and services. As a result, managers face a new set of challenges as they strive for improved productivity and product quality, and efficient, productive employees. In the current uncertain economic environment, the management of Airlines must continue to enhance the value of assets and, most importantly, human assets. It is, however, challenging because airlines go through constant changes, and the adaptation process to these

some of the media. According to an Internet study done by Morley-Kirk (2003:3-6), the following are some of the hazards of cabin crew work which can add to cabin crew stress: • Long working hours leading to stress, and fatigue. Jet lag can cause circadian dysrhythmia which may affect sleep, digestion, and hormone rhythms. • The lifting and stowing of baggage, the lifting of bar boxes, pushing and of pulling trolleys and the opening of aircraft doors, can lead to back, neck, lower limb and shoulder injuries.

changes may be stressful for employees, especially cabin crews.

"O’Hara and Roscoe (1990:32) state that anyone under pressure and stress might make the wrong decisions"

The airline industry itself is known to be a highly stressful environment which is regulated by international laws which force airlines to manage stress effectively. Airlines are required to adhere to health and safety standards set by IATA regulations (International Air Transport Association), to minimize the risk of huge accident or safety claims. The reality for the thousands of women and men working as cabin crews is far from the glamorous images portrayed by

• Abusive and intoxicated passengers present a risk of physical violence and verbal threats which, as well as injury, can lead to post traumatic stress disorders. An increase in the number of "air rage" and "ground rage" attacks illustrates how vulnerable this group of workers is. Many members of the public forget that the cabin crews are primarily there to ensure the safety of passengers. • Poor air quality inside planes can lead to hypoxia and other respiratory effects, nausea, headaches, dryness, fainting and fatigue. There is also the possibility of chemical contamination of air from lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and infectious diseases such as TB. • Cabin crews are often exposed to body fluids such as blood and spittle and could be at risk in contracting infectious diseases such as Hepatitis B. • Pesticide sprays: regular exposure to pesticide sprays has also been linked to certain health problems such as lung diseases.


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• Cosmic radiation: Cabin Crew members may also be endangered by exposure to cosmic radiation which is about 100 times higher at typical cruise attitudes than on the ground. This ionizing radiation is harmful to health. It can cause cancer, and is particularly dangerous to unborn children. • Poor temperature controls can lead to discomfort. • HIV/AIDS According to international regulations, cabin crew members are further required to be able to handle intense stress because they are sometimes confronted by actual life-threatening situations such as unprepared emergency landings, which require their response to be fast and immediate. According to Looker and Gregson (2003:32), the body goes on an emergency full alert and prepares for physical activity. Because of the speed and urgency of this level of response, it has been called the “alarm reaction” and also the “emergency response”. The person may be running away from danger or could be staying to fight in order to save lives. O’Hara and Roscoe (1990:32) state that anyone under pressure and stress might make the wrong decisions. If a cabin crew member does this, the results could lead to a catastrophe. It might result in a spiral effect which could include huge claims against the airline, the downfall of the airline, wasted taxpayers’ money, job losses, and the airline itself being excluded from the IATA and ultimately from operating as a passenger carrier.

confusing and controversial concepts in the psychological vocabulary. A variety of factors have been included under this term, ranging from long-term effects on significant life events, such as marriage, divorce, or illness, to the short-term effects of working in hot, cramped, or noisy environments or under mounting pressures of time or workloads. A major source of confusion arises from the tendency to use the term to refer to both the external circumstances (e.g. high temperatures) and the effects which may result from exposure to these circumstances, e.g. irritability, illness, etc. (O’Hara and Roscoe, 1990:2). Statt (2000:139) argues that the modern term "stress" has been traced to its linguistic origin by psychologists working in this field. As cited in Statt (2000:139), Arnold, Robertson and Cooper (1991) notes one version has its origin in the Latin stringere, meaning "to draw tight", whilst another version of Fontana (cited in Statt, 2000:139) traces it back to the Old French word destresse meaning "to be placed under narrowness oppression". The connotations of being constricted and put upon do seem to be a graphic description of what people probably think of as the experience of stress. When we look at the psychological effects of stress we will find positive, negative and neutral aspects of the term all used, illustrating once more that in psychology much depends on the context of the phenomenon in question and the nature of the individual reaction to it. There are great individual differences in the perception of what is stressful, and in the reactions to these perceptions. Stress according to Robbins (1996:611) is not bad in and of itself. While stress is typically discussed in a negative context, it also has a positive value. It is an opportunity when it offers personal gain. This research will however, focus mainly on the negative aspects of stress as these seem to form the dominant mode in which people experience it. Orpen (cited in Mullins, 2005:707) questions the prevalent view among managers which seems to be that stress at work is something to be avoided at all costs. Just as there are circumstances when individuals may have too much stress, there are also circumstances when individuals have too little stress for an effective performance. This view also appears to be supported by Gwyther (cited in Mullins, 2005:701) who points out that although stress appears to have become the public enemy number one and is viewed as the culprit of a myriad complaints, the term is bandied about far too readily, and there is a need to stand back and attempt to place facts into a perspective where a measure of stress is natural. A degree of stress at work is not an unhealthy factor as nothing would ever get done without it. A certain amount of stress may not necessarily be seen as a bad thing and may even help to promote a higher level of performance.

But What is Stress?

McKenna (cited in Mullins, 2005:706) stated that in human terms any situation which is seen as burdensome, threatening, ambiguous or boring is likely to induce stress. This is the type of situation which would normally strike the individual as requiring immediate attention or concern and is viewed as unfortunate or annoying. There tends to be the feeling that the situation should not exist, but because of it the person feels disappointed or annoyed and eventually is prone to anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inadequacy, with a low frustration tolerance.

Despite its common usage and popular appeal, the term “stress” remains one of the more

York (cited in Mullins, 2005:707) contends that despite all the businessspeak, people become seriously vague when it comes to definitions and this raises the question: "What is stress?" Is it a new name for an

old-fashioned condition such as unhappiness or overwork, or is it peculiar to our uniquely pressured times? York suggests that there is something in the idea that stress isn't just about hard work or happiness, but about conflict, confusion and frustration. It is about the anxiety generated by multi-tasking and the balancing of priorities, meeting contradictory demands, and knowing where to start as well as papering over the cracks when one wants to do too much. Having expanded all the definitions of stress, the researcher recommended that according to Brown and Harvey (2006:252) stress be defined as “a pattern of emotional and physiological reactions in response to demands from internal or external sources”. For example, having to work late one evening is not stressful; stress is how the person reacts to having to work late. Working late, however, is a stress factor. Stress factors are the cause of stress. Stress factors are external events which create a state of disequilibrium within the individual. This definition was used to support this study on stress. (How do we respond and curb excessive stress? Let’s find out next time) •


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history of wings

The Concorde Story First Lady of the Skies by Peter Holthusen

The British Airways Concorde G-BOAA – under the command of Captain Norman Todd, with Captain Brian Calvert as secondin-command and Senior Engineer Office John Lidiard – climbs to her subsonic cruising altitude over the English Channel on the inaugural flight from London Heathrow to Bahrain in 1976.

I

t is now 35 years since Concorde made her first supersonic passenger flight, proving beyond question the faith of those who carried the project through to practical reality in the face of fierce opposition, but this remarkable aircraft never really recovered from the horrific Air France crash near Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris on 25 July 2000 in which 113 people died. At exactly 11.40 am on the morning of 21 January 1976, at London Heathrow Airport, the British Airways Concorde G-BOAA began to roll. Accelerating rapidly down runway 28L, to the distinctive sound of the four reheated Rolls-

Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593-610 engines, the aircraft slipped the bonds of gravity and climbed out over the approach lights of the reciprocal runway, with the undercarriage retracting. Commercial supersonic air travel had begun. As the British Airways Concorde, under the command of Captain Norman Todd, with Captain Brian Calvert as second-in-command and Senior Engineer Officer John Lidiard, reached her subsonic cruising altitude over the English Channel, the crew heard that the Air France Concorde F-BVFA had enjoyed an equally successful departure from Paris Charles

de Gaulle. The odds, people had said, were heavily against achieving a simultaneous takeoff, but as so often in the past Concorde had proved her pessimists wrong. The Air France Concorde flew to Rio de Janeiro via Dakar; the British Airways Concorde flew to Bahrain. The first transatlantic service to Washington followed on 24 May 1976. The New York flights began in November the following year. In October 1994, after 18 years, British Airways suspended their London to Washington service, the Miami extension to that route


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The claustrophobic flight deck of Concorde. The two control columns with their familiar 'ramshorn' shape can be clearly seen. To the right is the Flight Engineer's instrumentation panel.

leave London and arrive in New York more than an hour before they left". Supersonic flight was still proving to be extremely popular until the Air France crash in 2000. In the run-up to Christmas the previous year, Concorde achieved the highest load factors the percentage of seats filled by fare paying passengers of any aircraft type in the British Airways fleet. The 'First Lady of the Skies' may have been approaching adulthood, in terms of "human years", but her unique operating characteristics meant she was still a flighty young lass in comparison with conventional aircraft that first "raised their skirts" off the runway at the same time. Because of her speed and route network,

having been discontinued in March 1991. With the cutting of the latter two routes, BA saved six hundred supersonic sectors per year thus prolonging Concorde's useful years of service. Concorde's fastest transatlantic crossing was on 7 February 1996, when it completed the 3,750 mile New York to London flight in 2 hours 52 minutes and 59 seconds. By June 1996, 108 British Airways pilots and 41 flight engineers had successfully completed the Concorde conversion course. Contrary to popular belief, the Concorde flightdeck was not only the domain of men, for on 25 March 1993, Senior First Officer Barbara Harmer, a former hairdresser and British Caledonian pilot became Concorde's first woman pilot. Since the inaugural service from London Heathrow to Bahrain in January 1976, the seven Concordes in British Airwaysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; fleet had made some 63,000 flights, clocking up more than 150,000 flying hours, almost 110,000 of them supersonically, and travelling some 126 million miles the equivalent of a journey from the Earth to the Moon and back more than 200 times. The airline had therefore built up more experience of supersonic flight than all of the air forces of the world put together, but the 'First Lady of the Skies' was in fact far younger than her "human years" suggested. After 27 years in service, Concorde still evokes wonder, and it was my good fortune to fly

Concorde carried out less than a quarter of a typical subsonic passenger jets' flying hours, landings and take-offs, the key criteria used for measuring the ageing of an aircraft.

"As a pilot, I get a thrill every time I take the controls, and I can't see that changing" on the aircraft on a number of occasions. On one particular flight between London and New York in 1997 I was invited to visit the flight-deck, where Captain Jock Lowe, British Airways' Commercial Manager Concorde, who had flown the supersonic flagship throughout her service, said to me: "Concorde was breathtaking and awe-inspiring when she made her first commercial flight in 1976. She still is and she'll still be turning heads long into the new millennium. As a pilot, I get a thrill every time I take the controls, and I can't see that changing". Captain Lowe continued: "She was years ahead of her time when she first took to the skies and, with no firm signs of a supersonic successor in the wings, she is set to remain that way well into the 21st century. "That means that for many more years to come, businessmen and women who make up to 80 per cent of Concorde's customers, plus those travelling for the first time, sitting alongside sports, pop and film stars and even Lottery winners, will still be able to

Each of British Airways' seven Concordes clocked up an average of just three flying hours a day, against more than 13 hours a day for a Boeing 747-400 and more than seven for a Boeing 757. So, just as dogs and cats' lives can be measured in "dog years" or "cat years", as opposed to "human years", in "flying years" Concorde was still a spring chicken. Concorde's phenomenal speed helped her keep younger still. The heat generated in the airframe by passing through the atmosphere at 1,350 miles an hour, faster than a speeding bullet, dried any moisture which may have gathered within the aircraft's internal structure on the ground and which, on conventional aircraft, would normally hasten corrosion. Regular checks had always shown Concorde to be almost completely dry and free of corrosion. Her condition on the day of her retirement in 2003 was comparable to that of a three to four-year-old subsonic aircraft. These corrosion checks formed part of one of the industry's most robust maintenance programmes. Quite apart from routine servicing before every flight and more comprehensive checks in the hangar at regular intervals, each of the airline's Concordes was regularly stripped down and rebuilt as part of the on-going process to ensure they were in as good a condition as the day they first entered service.


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The 'First Lady of the Skies' seen here in the landing configuration on the approach to New York's JFK International Airport.

and beyond. As my thoughts returned to the present, I glanced at the 'Marilake' indicator which now read Mach 1.01, Concorde was now flying supersonic. In 1947, Yeager's plane buffeted wildly as he approached the Mach 1 regime, yet here I was enjoying gourmet cuisine of fresh Maine lobster, Oscietra caviar and vintage champagne from the Concorde cellar without having to don a G-suit, which was the really sensational thing about Concorde; there was nothing to feel. Concorde measured 204 ft in length – but that stretched by almost 10 inches in-flight, due to the heating of the airframe. Another performance profile was her characteristic droop nose which was lowered to improve

A programme funded by British Airways and Air France, in consultation with the British Civil Aviation Authority and its French counterpart, the DGAC, was originally carried out by the aircraft's manufacturers, British Aerospace and Aerospatiale in France, to predict Concorde's life expectancy. This took into account data from the original "life expectancy" indications of the aircraft, drawn up when they were first constructed, which concluded in 1983 after simulating 21,000 flight cycles, subjecting a specimen aircraft to the most intense testing possible. Even the most used Concorde in the British Airways fleet had at that time recorded less than 6,000 flight cycles. Concorde's original design, by manufacturers British Aerospace and France's Aerospatiale, incorporated the most up-to-date space-age technology. This had been added to over the years, with the latest developments fitted to all the aircraft. During her time in service, British Airways and Air France had regularly redesigned the aircraft's passenger cabin, to reflect changes in contemporary styles. In 1993, British Airways spent £7 million on improved seating, better galleys and the CD-quality digital in-flight entertainment systems. Many of Concorde's passengers were regular supersonic travellers, so the actual number of individuals to have joined the exclusive 'Fasterthan-Sound Club' was far fewer than the 2.5

million passengers credited overall. The most frequent passenger, an oil company executive from Guildford, Surrey, in the United Kingdom clocked up almost 70 round-trips a year. At the time of her retirement in 2003, a typical Concorde passenger was the business executive who appreciated the unique advantages that come with flying supersonic. Principal among them was time saving. Cruising at 1,350 miles an hour, twice the speed of sound, a typical London to New York crossing took just three and a half hours. Travelling westwards, the five-hour time difference meant that Concorde actually arrived before she had taken off, in local time at least. During my last flight to New York in 1997, I couldn't help but wonder at this marvel of aeronautical excellence. Here I sat in the sumptuous cabin of Concorde, discreetly elegant in shades of grey leather and soft fabric, while flying at an altitude of 55,000 ft – literally on the threshold of space. Observing the 'Marilake' indicators at the front of the cabin, showing flight progress to the passengers, I pondered the exploits of pioneering aviators such as United States Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, who, 50 years earlier, almost to the day, became the first man to break the 'sound barrier', piloting the rocket-powered Bell X-1 "Glamorous Glennis", an accomplishment that spawned supersonic flight and took man to the stars

pilots' visibility on landing. The four engines – specially modified Rolls-Royce/ SNECMA Olympus 593's – gave more than 38,000 lbs of thrust each, with "reheat". This added fuel to the final stage of the engine to produce the extra power required for take-off and the transition to supersonic flight. For a growing band of businessmen, day trips from London to New York and back were scheduled regularly into their diaries. Around a fifth of all those on board the daily 10.30 am BA001 service from Heathrow to New York were tucked up in bed back home in the UK by the end of the day. Some of them did not even leave the Concorde Lounge at New York – using the special conference rooms British Airways made available at its JFK terminal for their business meetings. By regular subsonic aircraft, such a journey would have taken two working days at least. Quite apart from this time-saving, Concorde's passenger cabin was pressurised to a more comfortable level than on subsonic aircraft, reducing flight fatigue still further. Concorde's principle scheduled services were from London or Paris to New York. Over the winter months there was, for British Airways, a once, sometimes twice weekly, scheduled service to Bridgetown, Barbados. Concorde also operated a range of charter flights, which took the aircraft to more than 150 other destinations worldwide. However, her fate was determined on 25 July 2000, when Air France Concorde Flight 4590 burst into flames shortly after leaving Paris.


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During her time in service, British Airways and Air France had regularly redesigned the aircraft's passenger cabin, to reflect changes in contemporary styles.

The ill-fated jet, bound for New York, crashed into the Hôtelissimo Les Relais Bleu Hotel in the town of Gonesse, 10 miles north of the city. It is understood the aircraft, which had taken off from Charles de Gaulle Airport just two minutes earlier, plummeted to the ground after one of the port engines caught fire on take-off as a consequence of hitting debris on the runway discarded from a Continental Airlines’ McDonnell Douglas DC-10 during take-off from the same runway. Following the accident all the British Airways and Air France Concorde fleet were taken out of service. A total of £17 million was spent on safety improvements and the aircraft went back into service on 7 November 2001. After the atrocities of September 2011 the

same year, there were many who thought that Concorde would just not be able to pay its way, but when British Airways opened for flight bookings at 9.00 am on the morning of 16 October there was a rush for tickets. But Concorde never really recovered from the tragedy and was retired two years later. This remarkable aircraft completed its last commercial passenger flight on Friday, 24 October 2003, ending three decades of supersonic travel. On disembarking in New York, actress Joan Collins said there were "cheers and tears" among the passengers when the plane landed. In an era when the contours of the world map are changing and high-technology is

The aesthetic beauty of Concorde G -BOAB cutting an almost surreal outline against the Heathrow skyline shortly after returning from New York.

taken for granted, Concorde still remains the indispensible link between man and flying machine in perfect harmony. This is the yardstick by which other aircraft must be judged •

"Concorde's original design, incorporated the most up-to-date space-age technology"


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feature

Boeing 787 Dreamliner.

Fly into the Future Here at the beginning of 2011, although the dynamics of the future market remain uncertain, some of its fundamentals are clear. Precisely what the aircraft of the future will look like is yet to be determined. However, fuel prices and environmental concerns will be an increasing influence on the future strategy of any civil aerospace business. Robert Nuttall, Vice President Strategic Marketing, Rolls-Royce plc gives us an insight. Any marketled strategy must take into account not only how the world is today when the product is designed, but also how the world is likely to be in the future when the product is in service. And, with fuel reaching US$2.50 per gallon at the beginning of 2011, it seems clear that any product designed during the 1990s, when fuel was less than 50 cents a gallon (and when there was significantly less focus on the environmental impact of air travel), is in no way optimised for the economics of the future.

C

ustomers are demanding market-led solutions that meet their requirements rather than supplier-led products. It is also given that the way to address this demand is through technological advancement which can be applied on an industrial scale and simultaneously throughout the entire complex aviation system. Rolls-Royce is convinced that the ability of products, be they aircraft or engines, to stand the test of time is entirely due to the leadingedge technology incorporated into every part of the aircraft and the engine. These products are designed specifically for the customer and, importantly, where engines and aircraft are simultaneously optimized for each other by deep integration of the design teams. An excellent example of this is the Rolls-Royce Trent family of engines with six distinct engines, each designed specifically for a new aircraft culminating in the Trent 1000 on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Trent XWB on the Airbus A350 XWB. Crucial to the position of Rolls-Royce is that this optimised engine and

aircraft approach makes each of these Trents the launch engine, market leader or both on its aircraft.

targeted at new aircraft that we are convinced the industry will require and will enter service in that timescale.

It is the philosophy of continual technological advancement across the entire system, complete integration between the different elements of the system and their optimization which has driven, and will continue to drive, the Rolls-Royce strategy in the civil aerospace market. All solutions that have followed this philosophy have proven successful.

In addition, Rolls-Royce continues to explore the Open Rotor, which will be targeted for entry into service towards the middle of the next decade.

Clearly the economic and environmental challenges facing the industry will place increased demand for more innovative technologies that are highly integrated with aircraft optimized around the needs of the future. With this in mind, we at Rolls-Royce have taken the decision to prioritise our civil technology programmes to target two families of advanced turbofan engines to enter service towards the end of this decade. These engines will be

These three engine projects will each be supported by dedicated technology streams, elements of which are already underway based upon our understanding of the future requirements of our customers. Advance2 is our technology stream for a new two-shaft family of engines targeted at the large cabin, corporate market; regional jets and the single-aisle market (previously 150-seat market). This family will provide an engine family in the thrust requirement between 15,000 to 25,000lb thrust â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an all-new two-shaft engine family that will be ready for entry into service in the 2016/17 timescale. This project will create a new engine family


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with one engine core through a set of building blocks. The Advance2 core has already been running for the past two years at our facility in Germany, and, we believe, has proven to be the best, most efficient core in this market. Around this we can build a great engine for a 150-seat aircraft with a state-of-the-art fan from our large engine family, or a similar but smaller fan for the large corporate and regional markets or, by removing a stage of compression, a great engine for the medium corporate market. The technology embodied in this family of engines will, compared to the engines that they will replace, reduce fuel consumption by 15-20% as well as reducing noise and other emissions. Advance3 is the second part of this strategy and concerns the development of the threeshaft concept for larger aircraft. The widebody market is an area where Rolls-Royce is already number one with the Trent so no company knows this market better.

Airbus A350 XWB.

Rolls-Royce continues to explore the Open Rotor, which will be targeted for entry into service towards the middle of the next decade. This technology stream includes our Advance3 core programme called the ‘Environmentally Friendly Engine’ which returns to testing in 2011; an Advanced Low Pressure System (ALPS) programme and our Lean Burn combustor programme, ALECSYS just three of the Advance3 programmes targeted at reducing fuel consumption, CO2, NOx and noise. The third strand of the strategy is our Open Rotor technology. The Open Rotor is this industry’s only genuine, potential game-changer for the 100 to 200 seat market and is unique in offering the potential of a genuine leap in performance. It offers a step-change in performance of a 30% reduction in fuel burn compared to any engine in the 20,000 to

35,000lb thrust class flying today. Our Open Rotor, a clear manifestation of the RollsRoyce belief in the relentless pursuit of new technology, is targeted for entry into service in the next decade. So this is a statement of the Rolls-Royce civil aerospace product strategy to 2025, giving a clear signal of our direction and our continued intent to be a major player across the breadth of the civil aviation markets. Looking forward, it means that we will have engines entering service that, on average, will reduce the fuel burn of aircraft replaced in that 15-year period by at least 15 %. And that 15% saving, across the world’s aircraft fleet, will mean a saving of about ten billion gallons of fuel per year and annual savings to the industry of US$25 billion at today’s fuel price. Perhaps more importantly, it translates into savings of 100 million tonnes of CO2 each year from engine technology alone, not to mention significant reductions in noise, NOx and other emissions. •


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Safety Issues

Worldwide Fatal Accident Statistics for 2010 The table below shows the worldwide fatal accident statistics for 2010. The accidents that took place in Africa are highlighted in yellow. Date

Aircraft Type

Airline

No. of Fat

Location

1

5 Jan

Gates Learjet 35A (Cargo)

Royal Air Freight

South of Chicago, IL, USA

2

2

22 Jan

Beechcraft 1900C-1

Alaska Central Express

Off Sand Point Municipal Airport, AK, USA

2

3

25 Jan

Boeing B737-8AS

Ethiopian Airlines

SW of Beirut Int’l Airport, Lebanon

4

25 Jan

Embraer EMB-110C Bandeirante

Piquiatuba Taxi Aereo

Near Senador Jose Portitio, PA, Brazil

90

8

2

5

14 Feb

Cessna 550B Citation Bravo

Time Air

Near Schona, Germany

2

6

13 Apr

Airbus A300B4-203F (Cargo)

AeroUnion

Near Monterrey-General Mariano Escobedo Int’l Airport, Mexico

2

7

21 Apr

Antonov 12BP (Cargo)

Interisland Airlines

Barangau Laput, Philippines

8

12 May

Airbus A330-202

Afriqiyah Airways

Near Tripoli Int’l Airport, Libya

9

15 May

Antonov 28

Blue Wing Airlines

N.E. of Poeketi, Suriname

10

17 May

Antonov 24B

Salang Pass, Afghanistan

44

11

22 May

Boeing 737-8HG

Air India Express

Mangalore Bajpe Airport, India

158

12

14 June

Cessna 208B Grand Caravan (Executive)

Servicios Aéreos Milenio

Felipe Carrillo Puerto Airfield, Mexico

13

19 June

CASA 212 Aviocar – 100 (Non-Scheduled)

Aéro-Service

Near Minton, Cameroon

14

28 July

Airbus A321-231

Airblue

Islamabad, Pakistan

Pamir Airways

Age

3 102

9mths

8

9 11

31

152

15

31 July

Convair CV-580

Conair Aviation

Near Lytton, BC, Canada

2

16

3 Aug

Antonov 24RV

Katekavia

0.4 km W of Igarka Airport, Russia

12

17

9 Aug

DHC-3 Otter

GCI Communication Corp.

16 km NW of Aleknagik, USA

5

18

16 Aug

Boeing 737-73V (WL)

AIRES Colombia

San Andres Island-Gustavo Rojas Pinilla Airport (Colombia)

2

19

24 Aug

Embraer 190LR (ERJ-190-100LR)

Henan Airlines

1,5 km from Yichun Lindu Airport (China)

42

20

24 Aug

Dornier 228-101

Agni Air

Near Bastipur, Shikharpur, Makwanpur District, Nepal

14

21

25 Aug

Let 410UVP-E20C

Filair

Near Bandundu Airport (DRC)

20

22

31 Aug

Cessna 550 Citation II

Trans Air

Misima Island Airport (Papua New Guinea)

19

4

23

3 Sept

Boeing 747-44AF

United Parcel Service UPS (Cargo)

16 km S of Dubai Airport (United Arab Emirates)

2

24

13 Sept

ATR-42-320

Conviasa

8 km SE of Puerto Ordaz Airport (Venezuela)

17

25

6 Oct

Cessna 501 Citation I/SP

Aviones Taxi AIFE

Off Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)

8

26

12 Oct

Lockheed L-100-20 Hercules

National Air Cargo

30 km E of Kabul Airport (Afghanistan)

8

27

21 Oct

Let 410UVP

TRACEP (Cargo)

Near Bugulumisa (DRC)

28

4 Nov

ATR-72-212

Aerocaribbean

Near Guasimal, Sancti Spiritus Province (Cuba)

68

29

5 Nov

Beechcraft 1900C-1

JS Air

1 km W of Karachi-Jinnah International Airport (Pakistan)

21

30

11 Nov

Antonov 24B

Tarco Airlines

Zalingei Airport (Sudan)

31

28 Nov

Ilyuhsin 76TD

Sun Way (Cargo)

5 km W of Karachi-Jinnah International Airport (Pakistan)

2

6

33

40

8+4

32

4 Dec

Tupolev 154M

Dagestan Airlines

Moskva-Domodedovo Airport (Russia)

2

33

15 Dec

DHC-6 Twin Otter 310

Tara Air

Palunge Hill (Nepal)

22

34

19 Dec

Beechcraft 390 Premier IA

Windrose Air Jetcharter (Executive)

1 km N of St. Moritz-Samedan Airport (Switzerland)

2 TOTAL

854+4

S

tatistics from the Flight Safety Foundation show that the year 2010 witnessed 34 fatal airline accidents with 858 fatalities worldwide. Six of the accidents (18% of the total) involved African operators with 230 fatalities. The rate is a marked improvement compared with the average of about 30% over the last 10 years. In 2009, there were 8 fatal accidents on the African continent. In 2010, four of the six accidents involved turbo propellers (which includes the Antonov 24B which crashed in Sudan on 11 November 2010). There are certain countries that have consistently recorded accidents, namely DRC and Sudan. The DRC registered two fatal accidents while Sudan had one. Efforts need to be made to reduce accidents in these two countries for the safety record on the continent to continue to show an improvement. The consistent high numbers of accidents in these countries over the years tarnish the image of the whole African airline industry.


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However, AFRAA and other stakeholders will need to continue efforts to improve safety in the region as the rate of accidents is still above world average rates. AFRAA will continue to work closely with ICAO, AFCAC, IATA and others through lobbying States to carry out their safety oversight responsibilities seriously, encouraging regional safety oversight agencies to pool the limited material and skills resources, lobbying for the adoption of IOSA for all African airlines before the issuance of air operators’ certificates, encouraging States to create separate independent oversight entities and redoubling the training and human resource development of safety personnel, among other activities. Flight Operations Safety: Runway Excursions Research by the Flight Safety Foundation and IATA has shown that runway excursions are the most common type of accidents. A runway excursion is when an aircraft on the runway surface departs the end or the side of the runway surface which can occur at takeoff or landing. According to IATA, between 2004 and 2008, there were a total of 501 commercial accidents of which 136 of these, or about 27%, were runway excursions which resulted in a total of 463 passenger and crew fatalities. Over 80% of the runway excursions take place during landing. It is therefore important for the industry to address this threat. The primary landing threats include un-stabilized approaches, failure to make a go-around decision, abnormal touch-downs and pilot techniques, contaminated runways and meteorological factors, landing performance calculation errors, mechanical malfunctions during landing and noncompliance with Human Factors and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). To deal with these threats, pilots need to discuss the threats during the approach briefing, to go-around if they violate the stabilized approach criteria, complying with Airline SOPs with respect to non-flying pilot go-around call outs. Go-arounds should be considered as an option throughout the approach, flare and touch-down. Takeoff excursions were shown by the IATA research to constitute about 18% of the total excursions. Threats are inaccurate takeoff miscalculations, improper rejected takeoff (RTO) or go, no-go decisions, loss of aircraft

directional control during takeoff as well as increased risk due to multiple factors. However, it is the landing threats that need a lot of attention on how to reduce this risk of accidents.

Regionalizing Safety Oversight The relatively high accident rates on the African continent are due to various reasons. Among them is a weakness in safety oversight in some States. One way around this challenge is regionalization of safety oversight. This would ensure the optimal utilization of scarce resources such as skilled inspectors and auditors. It would also be viable to provide them with competitive remuneration and conditions of services to retain them. Encouraging progress is being made in various regions and AFRAA strongly supports this positive and progressive development. Very often, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) also provides airport and air navigation services. This creates obvious conflict of interest hence AFRAA supports ICAO’s recommendation to have autonomous CAAs that would carry out oversight of all service providers.

Adoption of IOSA More and more stakeholders on the continent are recognizing the importance of airlines (whether or not they are members of IATA or AFRAA) adopting the IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA). Currently, 36 African carriers listed below have IOSA certification and several other airlines are in the process of preparing for IOSA audits. This is a welcome development and it is enhancing the adoption of a safety culture by African carriers.

15. Arik Air (Nigeria) 16. Atlas Blue (Morocco) 17. Comair (South Africa) 18. EgyptAir 19. Ethiopian Airlines 20. Interair South Africa 21. Kenya Airways 22. LAM Mozambique Airlines 23. Libyan Airlines 24. Lotus Air (Egypt) 25. Nationwide (South Africa) 26. Nouvel Air (Tunisia) 27. Precision Air Services 28. Royal Air Maroc 29. SAFAIR (Proprietary) Ltd 30. South African Airways 31. South African Express Airways 32. South African Airlink 33. Sudan Airways 34. TAAG Angola Airlines 35. TACV Cabo Verde Airlines (Cape Verde) 36. Tunisair AFRAA is keen to help airlines that are still in the process of seeking IOSA certification. In this regard, the AFRAA Training Programme has safety and security as the major focus areas. In addition, AFRAA works closely with IATA Training Fund to avail a number of free courses to airlines to help them maintain the highest safety and security standards and industry best practices. The major airlines including the likes of EgyptAir, Kenya Airways and Ethiopian Airlines are always open to help others to improve their safety and security systems.

Safety Training AFRAA has over the years trained hundreds of airline personnel on safety courses and this is going to continue. The IATF has contributed immensely to this training effort by availing free courses that were eagerly patronized by airline personnel keen to help improve the safety record on the continent.

are IOSA certified:

For more information on the AFRAA training programme for 2011, visit our website: www.afraa.org.

1. AMC Airlines (Egypt) 2. Afriqiyah Airways 3. Air Algerie 4. Air Austral (Reunion Islands) 5. Air Burkina 6. Air Cairo (Egypt) 7. Air Madagascar 8. Air Malawi 9. Air Mauritius 10. Air Memphis (Egypt) 11. Air Namibia 12. Air Nigeria 13. Air Seychelles 14. Air Zimbabwe

Several AFRAA member airlines provide world class courses cost effectively not only on safety but also on security, commercial, skills and managerial courses. Carriers are encouraged to make use of these training facilities to save their airlines money while benefitting from EASA/FAA approved training courses including simulator facilities. For information on these providers of high quality training facilities on the continent, visit http://www.afraa.org/mro.html.

In Africa, the following 36 airlines

AFRAA Wings Magazine - May-July 2011 Issue 13  

AFRAA Wings Magazine is a publication that intends to inform Africans and the world in general on the latest news and events emanating from...

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