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Peter Rejto, Artistic Director
Board of Directors: Helmut Abt, Thomas Aceto, Wes Addison, Jean-Paul Bierny, Nancy Bissell, Dagmar Cushing, Bryan Daum, Ted DiSante, John Forsythe, Joan Jacobson, Tahirih Motazedian, Eddy Muka, James Reel, Jay Rosenblatt, Randy Spalding, Walter Swap, Joseph Tolliver Webmaster: Bob Foster
Supported by the Arizona Commission on the Arts Steinway Piano is the Official Piano of the Arizona Friends of Chamber Music. Tucson Lifestyle is the exclusive Magazine Partner of the Festival.
All concerts and open dress rehearsals will be held at the Tucson Convention Center’s Leo Rich Theatre. Concerts and introductory commentary will start on time. Concert hall doors will be closed during the 20-minute introductory commentary. Doors will reopen 10 minutes prior to the concert. Taking photographs or making recordings is prohibited during performances. Arizona Friends of Chamber Music PO Box 40845 • Tucson, AZ 85717 • 520.577.3769 • www.ArizonaChamberMusic.org
Welcome! Thank you for joining us in our 18th year. Regardless of the concert or event you are attending while reading this, we promise a wonderful roster of musicians and programming masterminded by Peter Rejto, Artistic Director. We also hope you look at page 3, which details some Festival “treats” you may have yet to experience. Consider attending something new to you — whether it’s Saturday afternoon’s free Master Classes for oboe and piano, 12 total hours of open dress rehearsals, or the always musically delicious gala dinner and recital at the Arizona Inn. There’s something for everybody, so why not also introduce a friend to the joys of chamber music and so share the pleasures? We are most grateful for the financial support of the Arizona Commission on the Arts, the Tucson Business Community, and the many generous friends and volunteers who help make our Festival a continuing success.
Jean-Paul Bierny President of the Board
Arizona Friends of Chamber Music
COMMISSIONERS’ CIRCLE The Arizona Friends of Chamber Music created the Commissioners’ Circle for people who wish to sponsor new chamber works with us. Since 1997 we have featured World Premiere performances during the regular season, our Piano & Friends series, and the Tucson Winter Chamber Music Festival. Participation gives you the thrill of making a significant contribution to the creation of important new chamber music and to influence what will be composed in the 21st century. Please contact us if you are interested in joining. Sponsorships are currently available for upcoming commissions. We thank the following who have joined to date: Fred & Diana Chaffee; Tony & Ellen Lomonaco; Jean-Paul Bierny & Chris Tanz; Susan Small; Anne Nelson; Richard & Judy Sanderson; John & Helen Schaefer; Linda Friedman, Samuel & Jonathan Friedman, and Davina Friedman Doby; Linda & Stuart Nelson; George & Eleanor Marcek; Marya & Robert Giesy; Mr. & Mrs. Charles M. Peters; Mrs. Faria Vahdat-Dretler; Members of Tucson’s Czech Community; Henry Weiss; Carla Zingarelli-Rosenlicht; the Estate of Maxwell Rosenlicht; Richard & Galina De Roeck; Bob & Connie Foster; George & Eleanor Marcek; Paul & Dorothy Olsen; Joan Jacobson; Walter Swap; Members of the Arizona Senior Academy & Academy Village; Dan Coleman; the Aasheghan e Aavaaz Group; Harry & Lea Gudelsky Foundation; Bill & Lotte Copeland; Hal Myers; Karen Sternal; Ghislaine Polak; Herschel & Jill Rosenzweig; OMA; Helmut Abt; Harold G. Basser; Milos & Milena Chvapil; Sherrill Akyol; Wesley C. Green; and Serene Rein.
Special Events Youth Concert Wednesday, March 9, 10:30am Performance of excerpts from prior concerts with commentary by Festival musicians.
Open Dress Rehearsals 9am – 12 noon Tuesday, March 8 Thursday, March 10 Friday, March 11 Sunday, March 13 Leo Rich Theatre We invite families and friends of all ages to attend our free, open dress rehearsals.
Master Class for Oboe Allan Vogel 3:00pm – 4:00pm Saturday, March 12 Leo Rich Theatre Featuring students of Professor Neil Tatman of the University of Arizona School of Music.
Master Class for Piano Xak Bjerken 4:00pm – 5:00pm Saturday, March 12 Leo Rich Theatre Featuring students of Professor Tannis Gibson of the University of Arizona School of Music. Attendance by the public is open and encouraged.
Gala Dinner and Recital at the Arizona Inn Saturday, March 12, Evening 6pm – Cocktails 7pm – Musical selections by Festival musicians 8pm – Dinner Call 577-3769 for reservations Flowers courtesy of Arizona Flowers in the Village at Sam Hughes.
Repeat Performances If you miss a Festival concert or simply want to hear one again, please note that Classical KUAT-FM will broadcast recorded performances on 90.5/89.7 FM. Festival performances are typically featured in the station’s Musical Calendar. See http://radio.azpm.org/classical.
Sunday, March 6, 3pm
Pre-concert commentary at 2:30pm by James Reel
Robert Schumann Three Romances for Oboe and Piano, Opus 94
César Franck Quintet for Piano and Strings in F minor
Nicht schnell Einfach, innig Nicht schnell
Molto moderato quasi lento; Allegro Lento, con molto sentimento Allegro non troppo, ma con fuoco
Allan Vogel, Oboe Bernadette Harvey, Piano
Schumann (1810–1856) wrote his Three Romances in 1849, a productive year despite his increasing fragility due to bipolar disease. Since the early death of his close friend Felix Mendelssohn, Schumann was haunted by the fear of dying before he had fully expressed himself. “One must create while there is still light,” he frequently stated. External events at this time also sparked his productivity. In 1848 a spirit of revolt had begun to spread throughout Germany, primarily because Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV refused to give his subjects a written constitution. By the spring of 1849 the discontent reached Dresden, the home of Robert, Clara, and their six children. Robert, who had liberal views and sympathized with the people, wrote: “Only in my work do I find any rest from the terrible storm which burst on me from without.” Many of the compositions written with the stimulus of these political events show characteristics of folk music, always present in Schumann but now exaggerated. The Opus 94 Romances, like folksong, develop primarily through the reiteration of melodies rather than motivic development heard in his other works. Their themes have the strong downbeat beginnings and upward leaps characteristic of folksong. Like folk melodies, they are frequently doubled in thirds or, more starkly, by the unison in the accompaniment. The titles of the movements suggest the simplicity of folksong: “Not fast,” “Direct but heartfelt,” and (again) “Not fast.” The oboe, traditionally a pastoral instrument with a wide range of nuanced sonorities, effectively expresses these poetic mood pieces.
Borromeo String Quartet Xak Bjerken, Piano
The Belgian composer and organist César Franck (1822–1890) wrote one piano quintet, a work that stands apart from his other compositions because of its heightened drama and passion. Friends of the placid composer, who normally created serene and ethereal compositions, expressed shock at the fervor of this quintet. They suspected that its tempestuousness grew from Franck’s obvious infatuation with his red-haired Irish student at the conservatory, the beautiful Augusta Holmès. The Quintet’s premiere in 1879 was a disaster. Franck, never fond of detailed rehearsals, had asked his colleague Camille Saint-Saëns to sight-read the massive piano part. The audience watched in fascination as Saint-Saëns, who also admired Augusta, grew repelled to the point of nausea by the strong passions evident in the score. At the work’s conclusion, Franck attempted to present Saint-Saëns, the dedicatee, with a copy of the manuscript. Saint-Saëns refused the gesture and stalked offstage. Madame Franck, aware of her rival in the audience, also expressed disgust. The Quintet achieves drama in part through its extreme range of dynamics, which move impetuously from fortississimo (very, very loud) to pianississimo (very, very soft). A tightly unified work, the Quintet’s three movements all develop in sonata form. The first and third movements begin with full introductions and conclude with passionate codas as a summary of ideas. Of special importance is the second theme heard in the first movement, a motto marked “sweetly with passion” in which intervals pull toward and away from a pivotal note to suggest yearning. This idea is developed in each of the movements to create a cyclical form.
Sunday, March 6, 3pm Kevin Puts Alternating Current for Solo Piano
Ludwig van Beethoven String Quartet in C major, Opus 59 No. 3 Introduzione: Andante con moto; Allegro vivace Andante con moto; quasi Allegretto Menuetto: Grazioso Allegro molto
Bernadette Harvey, Piano Known for his distinctive and richly colored musical voice, Kevin Puts (b. 1978) has received many of today’s most prestigious honors and awards from such organizations as the Guggenheim Foundation, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and ASCAP. His catalog includes four symphonies, numerous commissioned chamber works, and concertos written for soloists Yo-Yo Ma, Evelyn Glennie, and pianist Jeffrey Kahane, among others. A native of St. Louis, Missouri, Mr. Puts received his training as a composer and pianist at the Eastman School of Music and Yale University. Since 2006 he has been a member of the Composition Department at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore. From the composer: “Writing piano music is a daunting task due to the enormous repertoire of great works pianists already have available to them. So in my preliminary improvisations for ‘Alternating Current’ I allowed myself to gravitate toward the aspects of piano pieces I have studied since childhood: the motoric clarity of toccatas by Bach, the ennobling harmonic progressions of Beethoven’s slow movements, and the terrifying neurosis of Ravel’s ‘Scarbo.’ “The title refers to the use of alternating meter, which occurs in all three movements, and also to the work’s flowing nature. The first movement is quick and Baroque. Like the other two movements, it alternates in mode as well as meter, shifting between the key signatures of D and F. “The second movement is a slow dance that contrasts descending triads with Beethovenian pedal points, repeated or held central pitches, which provide a tonal reference point and focus the music’s energy. My aim is a sense of quiet nobility. “The last movement is bubbling and restless, its dissonance achieved by placing the key of the first movement in one hand and the key of the second in the other. It contains a variety of things, including darting scherzando chords, soaring melodic arches, percussive, toccata-like rhythms reminiscent of Prokofiev’s piano works. The notion of being in two keys at once eventually gives way to a return of the first movement’s harmonies, this time in a more rhythmic, minimalist guise. This leads to a virtuosic ending that covers the entire range of the keyboard.”
Borromeo String Quartet
A skillful diplomat and longtime Russian ambassador to the Hapsburg Court at Vienna, Count Andreas Rasumovsky felt the devastating 1805 Austro-Russian military defeat by Napoleon at Austerlitz, which left thousands of his countrymen dead. As a patriotic gesture, he commissioned Beethoven (1770–1827) to write “some quartets with Russian melodies” to be premiered in his palatial new embassy. Although engaged with other projects of his productive “middle period,” Beethoven devoted full attention to the three quartets, and they were completed the following year. These “Rasumovsky” Quartets mark a new era for the string quartet. Formerly a genre written for intimate chambers, the string quartet is here an expanded, quasi-orchestral form intended for a concert hall with a large audience. Beethoven at this time was obsessed by his desire to master sonata form — an established classical framework that organized motives, their development and recapitulation — to ground his adventurous thematic explorations. Opus 59 No. 3, like each of Beethoven’s five middle period quartets, opens with a sonata form movement that exploits contrasts of theme and harmony to achieve drama and varying nuances of mood. After slow and harmonically enigmatic introduction, a solid C major key center is established at the Allegro vivace, which develops two exuberant themes. Near the conclusion the dynamics increase from very soft to very loud as the tempo accelerates, creating an impressive coda. Unlike the first two Rasumovsky Quartets, Opus 59 No. 3 does not feature identifiable Russian themes. However, the elegiac slow movement (A minor) conjures the essence of a Ukranian folk melody with its characteristic melodic interval structure. Underpinned by steady pizzicato in the cello, the movement develops with subtle harmonic modulations. The graceful Menuetto (C major) is varied by a rhythmically incisive trio section (F major). An echo of the quartet’s introduction, a harmonically ambiguous bridge connects this movement to the finale. Clarity returns at the monumental Allegro molto, one of the most exciting movements in the quartet literature. A brilliant fugue that develops in sonata form, the movement surges forward with ever-increasing force and energy until its triumphant conclusion.
Today’s Concert Is Generously Underwritten by David & Joyce Cornell and Philip Pappas II, Sr. Financial Advisor of Ameriprise Financial. 5
Tuesday , March 8, 8pm
Pre-concert commentary at 7:30pm by James Reel
Camille Saint-Saëns Sonata in D major for Oboe and Piano, Opus 166
Lera Auerbach String Quartet No. 4, “Findings” (2007)
Andantino Ad libitum; Allegretto Molto allegro
1. Con moto, marcato Borromeo String Quartet 2. Andante (…from the silence of memories the theme is born?) 3. Religioso, dolce misterioso 4. Moderato (Michelangelo’s trumpets?) 5. Allegretto (Dance of shadows?) 6. Andante (A carousel in the time of war?) 7. Agitato scherzando (Games in the Jewish ghetto?) 8. Recitativo andante 9. Misterioso lento 10. Moderato energico 11. Scherzando 12. Andante, ma con moto 13. Andante misterioso sognando (Faces of Time?) 14. Prestissimo (The wind of oblivion?) 15. Andante 16. Adagio molto, misterioso, ad libitum
Allan Vogel, Oboe Bernadette Harvey, Piano
The French composer, teacher, and piano virtuoso Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921) enjoyed a productive career that spanned nearly eight decades. Remarkable in his stylistic stability, Saint-Saëns suffered the criticism of his colleagues, who heard his unchangingly refined and civilized compositions as belonging to Old France. Although isolated in his later years, this lifelong lover of animals took solace in both his work and his Paris zoo visits to “three gazelles who had become friends.” Saint-Saëns completed ten sonatas, the first as a six-year-old prodigy and the final three at 86, his last year of life. He decided to explore sonorities less familiar to him late in his career and in 1921 wrote three works for wind instruments, the first of which is Opus 166. Always obsessed with clarity and order, Saint-Saëns crafted the composition as a lean, spare work reflecting his recent preoccupation with his predecessor Rameau. The incisive Andantino is varied by a flowing section in E-flat major at its center. Meditative oboe recitatives frame the triple-time Allegretto, which unfolds like a gigue. The rapid third movement features virtuoso passages for the oboe. The sonata was sketched in Algiers and completed in Paris, where it was premiered by its dedicatee, Louis Bas.
Born in the former Soviet Union, Lera Auerbach (b. 1973) defected to the United States while still in her teens. She has since won wide recognition for her skills as writer, pianist, and composer. In 1996 she was named Poet of the Year by the International Pushkin Society, and in 2005 she was awarded the prestigious Hindemith Composition Prize in Germany. Auerbach writes about “Findings”: “The score is a group of manuscripts found in the attic of an old house near Hamburg, where I stayed for a night unable to continue my journey because of a storm. The owner of the house, upon hearing that I was a musician, asked me to look through a pile of music he had in the attic. Apparently, his father was a collector, but a collector of a most unusual sort. He would keep other people’s memories: scraps of paper, broken dishes, old dolls with missing arms, empty bottles of unknown medicines, and other peculiar and useless things. His son, an old man already, was determined to clean up the mess and turn the attic into an extra bedroom. His father had died a few years ago, and most of his collection no longer made sense to keep. “The attic was in a chaotic state, full of strange objects, books, spider webs, mannequins, all covered in thick layers of dust. The old man opened one of the trunks and brought out a yellow pile of handwritten music pages. He asked if they could be of any use to me. I said I did not know. Then he asked me to take these pages anyway and do with them as I pleased, or he would simply throw them away. I took the pages.
Tuesday , March 8, 8pm Robert Schumann Piano Quartet in E-flat major, Opus 47
“I saw by the handwriting that they had been written by more than one person. Pages were not numbered, and musical excerpts had no clear beginnings or endings. Some pages were half-eaten by mice; others torn; some had dark stains, possibly leftovers of wax or glue; and for the most part they were missing tempi and dynamic indications. “I did not know what to do. It all made so little sense, yet simply throwing these pages away did not feel right. After all, nothing is purely accidental in life and for some reason fate brought me to this strange house. I decided to call these musical fragments ‘Inventions’ in the literal translation: ‘findings,’ and to publish them together as such. I took some additional liberties and suggested some tempi as well as possible titles to some excerpts — images that came to mind, but these could be ignored as they were not in the original manuscripts. These composers may have had very different skills and backgrounds, and may have lived during different times, yet these short pieces formed a strange collection of unrealized musical dreams.”
Sostenuto assai; Allegro ma non troppo Scherzo: Molto vivace Andante cantabile Finale: Vivace
Axel Strauss, Violin Paul Coletti, Viola Antonio Lysy, Cello Xak Bjerken, Piano
Schumann (1810–1856) wrote much of his chamber music for strings during intense binges of writing within a single year. The energy expended on these major works of 1842 — three string quartets, the piano quintet and quartet — exhausted Schumann emotionally and physically. After he suffered the first of his mental breakdowns, his wife Clara sent him to recover at a Bohemian spa. Yet he remained in fragile health. Schumann wrote his piano quartet for Count Matvei Wielhorsky, an accomplished amateur cellist who performed at the work’s premiere. The cello is featured in eloquent solo moments, particularly in the songful third movement. The opulent piano part of this warmly romantic work was intended for the virtuoso Clara. At the same time he composed his Opus 47, Schumann closely studied Haydn’s and Mozart’s chamber music and listened attentively to the masterful scherzos of his friend Mendelssohn. Classical influence is heard in the opening movement, a spacious sonata form with dramatic climactic moments. The elfin G minor Scherzo, extended by a second trio section, is unified by a recurrent staccato figure. The Andante cantabile, a yearning three-part song heard first in the cello, develops with unusual harmonies — most notably the key shift from B-flat major to G-flat major at its center. Near the conclusion the cellist must lower his string from C to B-flat to play the final pedal chord. The Andante cantabile’s last three notes relate to the primary theme of the exhilarating Vivace, an intricate movement with energetic fugal sections and lyrical passages juxtaposed.
Intermission Henri Dutilleux Choral from Sonate pour Piano, Opus 1 Bernadette Harvey, Piano Henri Dutilleux (b. 1916) is now recognized as France’s greatest living composer. As a Paris Conservatory student he won the prestigious Prix de Rome, but left his studies to become a medical orderly with the French army during World War II. Afterwards he taught at both the École Normale de Musique in Paris and the Conservatory. He wrote his first piano sonata (1946–48) for his wife, the virtuoso Geneviève Joy. This rhythmically and harmonically complex work reveals the influence of Stravinsky, Roussel, and Bartók, to whom he dedicated the work. Dutilleux wrote: “By resolving in one luminous synthesis the duality between folk music and learned music, has not Bartók been the herald for a new classical age?” The large-scale virtuoso third movement of the work is often performed separately. It opens with a vigorous chorale followed by four variations arranged as movements of a classical sonata form with these directions: Variation 1: “vivace, staccato, very rhythmic.” Variation 2: “more lively, in the character of a scherzo.” Variation 3: “calm, sweet and nostalgic.” Variation 4: “prestissimo, brilliant.” The final variation leads to an assertive return of the Choral.
Tonight’s Concert Is Generously Underwritten by Drs. John & Helen Schaefer. 7
Wednesday , March 9, 8pm
Pre-concert commentary at 7:30pm by James Reel
“Fire and Folly” All-Baroque performance by Apollo’s Fire, with Meredith Hall, Soprano: Jeannette Sorrell, Harpsichord & Direction Cynthia Roberts, Baroque Violin Johanna Novom, Baroque Violin René Schiffer, Baroque Cello
Monteverdi, his music can only be successful in the hands of performers deeply immersed in the baroque aesthetic. There are no tempo indications, no dynamics (i.e., soft and loud indications), not even indications of what instrument(s) should be used to play the accompaniment. His “15 Sonatas on the Sacred Mysteries of the Rosary” are unique in the violin literature. The only guide for the performer is the copper engraving placed at the beginning of each sonata, depicting an event in the life of Jesus or Mary. These little pictures are thus the clue to a mystery, in more than one sense. From this image, the performer must intuit the entire sonata. We perform the first sonata from the set, the “Annunciation,” in which the Angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her she will be the mother of the Messiah.
Baroque music was intended to move the “passions” or emotions of the listener. Tonight we explore the richly expressive and often improvisatory world of 17th- and 18th-century composers. Whether the subject was love or agitation, sorrow or fiery defiance, baroque composers used each musical phrase to convey an “affect,” or emotional mood — just as the great orators of ancient Greece and Rome used rhetorical phrasing to move people.
Antonio Vivaldi (1676–1741) Lunghi dal vago volto, RV 680 Agitata da due venti, from Griselda
Marco Uccellini (1603–1680) Duo Bergamasca
The 20th-century view of Vivaldi as a concerto composer who dabbled unsuccessfully in opera has given way in recent years, as his operas have begun to emerge, revealing the hand of genius in both opera and instrumental concertos. His 49 operas have recently begun to be published and performed, and his emotional power in this genre clearly places him beside Handel. In his other world, as the music-master of the famous Ospedale della Pietà (a convent-school for orphaned girls) in Venice, Vivaldi became the great developer of the instrumental concerto. In both realms, Vivaldi was a superstar in his time. Tonight we pay tribute to both sides of Vivaldi. The brilliant coloratura aria “Agitata da due venti” (Agitated by two winds) comes from his opera Griselda. The young heroine Costanza (daughter of Griselda) sings this aria at a moment when she is in great distress and confusion about choosing between two men.
We begin with the delightful “Duo Bergamasca” by Uccellini, one of the distinguished Italian violinist-composers in the early 17th century. He helped develop an idiomatic style of writing for the violin, including virtuosic runs, leaps, and forays into high positions, expanding the instrument’s technical capabilities and expressive range. The “bergamasca” was one of several popular dances in 16th- and 17th-century Europe, based on a repeating ground bass. (Other examples would be the “folia,” the “passamezzo” and the “ciaconna” or “chaconne.”) Uccellini demonstrates how much fun can be had with just four repeating bass notes.
Dario Castello (1590–1658) Sonata No. 2 for Violin & Continuo Castello, a younger colleague of the great Monteverdi at St. Mark’s in Venice, was a composer of striking imagination and daring invention. His publications are advertised as being “in stil moderno.” In fact, he achieved a wholesome blend of the old and new styles by alternating passages in the old strictly contrapuntal “canzona” style with contrasting sections in the new freely expressive style. His Sonata No. 2 is full of quick mood changes, leading to a dramatic and powerful conclusion. With nothing but a bass line and melody indicated (no tempos, dynamics, etc.) the piece can sound quite different every night.
Heinrich Biber (1644–1704) The Annunciation, from the Sonatas on the Mystery of the Rosary The great Austrian violinist-composer Heinrich Biber served the Archbishop-Prince of Salzburg for most of his life. The Archbishop-Prince eventually conferred the rank of nobility on Biber, an honor rarely given to musicians. It was, however, an honor well deserved. As a violinist, Biber was probably the greatest virtuoso violnist the world had ever seen. His only competition would have been the young Corelli in Italy, and as a composer he deserves to be ranked among the greats. The reason that Biber is not famous today is that, like
Lunghi dal vago volto I. Recitativo: Lungih dal vago volto della mia bella Elvira viver non posso. Oh Dio! e pur crudo destin per mio tormento or mi condanna à pascolar l’armento, mà qual da lunghi ammira non distinta beltade il guardo mio Pastorella che viene? Temo d’errar, mi perdo corro, io fermo, rido, e sospiro ad un ardo, gelo contento, e tormentato: mi sembra alla divisa non mi par al sembiante deh per pietade amor amico cielo sciogli dal mio bel sol la nube il velo.
Far from the lovely face I. Recitativo: Far from the lovely face of my beauteous Elvira I cannot live. Oh God! But cruel fate, to torment me, condemns me to pasture the flock; but what vision of beauty do I admire indistinctly from afar — do I see my shepherdess coming? Afraid to be mistaken I am lost, I run, I stop, I laugh, sigh, at once I burn and freeze, happy and tortured; the habit resembles her and is not like her; friendly skies, for pity of love, dissolve the clouds that veil my sun.
II. Aria: Augelletti voi col canto Questi selve impretiosite. Ed io posso sol col piante Consolare il mio dolor. Fate voi che dolce incanto Con amor ò con pietade e Chiami al bosco il mio tesor.
II. Aria: Little birds, you adorn these woods with your song. And I can only console my grief with weeping. Sweetly enchant with love or pity, and call my treasure to the forest.
Wednesday , March 9, 8pm III. Recitativo: Allegrezza mio core ch’al fin giunse alla meta l’avida mia pupilla ti riconosco ò bella ti rivegio mio bene l’abbracio Pastorella. Perdona ò cara à miei sospesi affeti perche errante Pastor veder non suole tra queste ombrose frondi aperto il sole.
III. Recitativo: Happy my heart which finally reaches its goal; my eager eyes recognize you, my beauty see you again, my dear one embrace my shepherdess. Pardon, dearest, my suspicious moods because the errant shepherd does not see in these shady groves, only clear sunlight.
IV. Aria: Mi stringerai sì, sì, Non partirai più nò. Bella ti rapirò Se il cor non cede. Avvinto al tuo sen Ti giuro amato ben Che mai ti mancherò D’amor, e fede.
IV. Aria: You will stay with me, yes, yes, You will not leave again, no, Fair one, I will abduct you, If your heart does not relent. Bound to your breast I swear, my well beloved, That I will never lack Love and faith for you.
Agitata da due venti Agitata da due venti, freme l'onda in mar turbato e 'l nocchiero spaventato già s'aspetta a naufragar. Dal dovere da l'amore combattuto questo core non resiste e par che ceda e incominci a desperar.
Buffeted by two winds Buffeted by two winds, the waves rage in the stormy sea and the frightened steersman expects to be shipwrecked. By duty and by love my heart is assailed, it cannot hold out, it seems to yield and begin to despair.
Barbara Strozzi (1619–1677) Lagrime mia
Intermission J. J. Froberger (1616–1667) Tombeau pour M. Blancrocher German keyboard composer and virtuoso Johann Froberger was among the most famous composers of the mid-17th century. He influenced nearly every major composer in Europe through his synthesis of the differing French, German and Italian styles, which he absorbed on his European travels. In addition to many keyboard suites, he composed several highly descriptive and personal harpsichord pieces, which are among the earliest known examples of program music. While visiting Paris, Froberger became acquainted with many major French composers of the time, including Chambonnières and Louis Couperin. From them he absorbed the French idiom of style brisé, which imitates lute arpeggiation. In turn, Louis Couperin was profoundly influenced by Froberger’s style; one of his unmeasured preludes even bears the subtitle “à l'imitation de Mr. Froberger.” In 1652, Froberger witnessed the death of his friend the famed lutenist Blancrocher, who reportedly died in his arms. This tragic event served as the inspiration for the Tombeau pour Monsieur Blancrocher, one of the most famous pieces in the harpsichord literature.
Lagrime mia Lagrime mia, à che vi trattenete, Perchè non isfogate il fier’ dolore, Chi mi toglie’l respiro e opprime il core?
My tears Tears of mine, why do you hold back, why don’t you wash away the pain which takes my breath and crushes my heart?
Lidia, che tant’ adoro, Perchè un guardo pietoso, ahimè, mi donò I paterno rigor l’impriggionò. Tra due mura rinchiussa stà la bella innocente, Dove giunger non può raggio di sole, E quel che più mi duole Ed accresc’il mio mal, tormenti e pene, È che per mia cagione prova male il mio bene E voi lume dolenti non piangete! Lagrime mie, à che vi trattenete?
Lidia, whom I adore, Because she gave me a pitying glance, Has been imprisoned by her severe father. The innocent girl is locked up within walls Which the sun’s rays cannot penetrate, And what pains me most, And increases my torment, Is that I am the cause of my beloved’s suffering. And you, my eyes, are not weeping! Tears of mine, why do you hold back?
Lidia, ahimè, veggo mancarmi, l’idol mio, Che tanto adoro! Stà colei tra duri marmi per cui spiro E pur non moro. Se la morte m’è gradita, Or che son privo di spene, Dhè, toglietemi la vita (Ve ne prego) aspre mie pene! Ma ben m’accorgo, che per tormentarmi maggiormente, La sorte mi niega anco la morte. Se dunque è vero, o Dio, che sol del pianto mio. Il rio destino ha sete.
Alas, how I miss my Lidia, my idol, I love so much! She is shut up within marble walls and I sigh but I do not die! If death might be granted to me now that I have no hope, take my life, (I beg of you) oh my sufferings! But I am well aware that in order to torture me even more. Fate even denies me death, it is true then, oh God, that destiny desires only my tears.
Bernardo Storace (1630–1665) La Folia, Harpsishord variations Antonio Vivaldi (1676–1741) Sonata for Two Violins and Continuo, La Folia (Madness) To conclude the program, Vivaldi’s triosonata “La Folia” (Madness) takes us back to the ground-bass dance genre that opened the show. Scholars believe that the great Folia tune and dance originated in Portugal, where young girls would engage in the folly of a wild dance in triple meter, beginning proudly and growing faster and faster toward the end. It was said that the folia traditionally ended with the frenzied girls collapsing in exhaustion. The folia tune with its haughty sarabande-like rhythm if full of the dramatic tension of courtship and seduction. Thus it has served as the inspiration for variations by dozens of baroque composers, including Corelli, Marais and Geminiani, as well as Vivaldi. My personal opinion is that Vivaldi’s version is the most compelling.
René Duchiffre (b. 1961) Sonata Apollonia, for Cello and Continuo
— Notes by Jeanette Sorrell. Thanks to St. Philip’s in the Hills Episcopal Church for use of their Richard Kingston harpsichord
Tonight’s Concert Is Generously Underwritten by Emma & Gerald Talen. 9
Thursday , March 10, 8pm
Pre-concert commentary at 7:30pm by James Reel
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Quintet for Oboe and Strings in C minor, K. 406
Curt Cacioppo “Kinaaldá” for String Quartet
Allegro Andante Menuetto in canone: Trio al rovescio Allegro
Part I: Fantasy Part II: Theme, Variations and Reprise
Allan Vogel, Oboe Axel Strauss, Violin Paul Coletti, Viola Gina Coletti, Viola Antonio Lysy, Cello
Borromeo String Quartet
American composer, pianist, and educator Curt Cacioppo (b. 1951) discusses the background of his work, composed for the Borromeo Quartet in 2010: “‘Kinaaldá’ is a product of my long standing, self-directed research in Native American studies and association with mentors such as Navajo elder and spiritual leader John Co’ii Cook. The majority of the work was written at my retreat on Cape Cod, an odd place to produce work inspired by Sacred Mountains of the southwest. However, I follow the Red Sox when I’m at the Cape, for one reason because center fielder Jacoby Ellsbury is Navajo. So with a sense of play, I decided to spell out his name in musical notes and solfège syllables, and use it as a subject for the courante variation sections and fugue. The courantes are all about running, and Jacoby is good at stealing bases. He had a lot of injuries that year, and I was hoping maybe the music — a powerful means of healing among the Navajo — might act as medicine. “The work is one of four quartets that comprise a cycle entitled ‘Womb of the Sacred Mountains.’ Like each of the other works in this series, it traces a particular episode from the Navajo creation story, in this case, the rite of passage of the principal Navajo deity, Changing Woman. ‘Kinaaldá’ is in two parts, a Fantasy followed by a set of Theme and Variations. “The Fantasy narrates the events leading up to the actual first kinaaldá ceremony, which marked Changing Woman’s coming of age. At the beginning, Changing Woman, on the threshold of adulthood, is in dialogue with the cloud colors that hover over the Sacred Mountains. First Man appears and helps her gather thoughts and feelings, especially her loneliness. Along with First Man come Nilch’i, the Wind, and Talking God, one of the Holy People who created First Man and First Woman. Together they prepare the stage for Changing Woman’s kinaaldá and mention the Sun-Bearer, who will become her husband. After Nilch’i has purified the environs, a Medicine Song begins the ceremony. Then the ‘molding’ occurs — the initiate’s symbolic shaping by a female elder into a strong, tall, fertile, beautiful, and wise mother of the community. The initiate then dances in a joyous, sacred manner. Toward the end of Part I, Changing Woman’s impregnation occurs, which will bring forth Monsterslayer and his twin brother, Born for Water. Eventually the twins will make the world habitable for humans, all the diverse groups of which Changing Woman creates from her own flesh. Part II starts with the Theme that represents Changing Woman in full flower, also representing Summer. Variations ensue.”
In 1787 Mozart (1756–1791) transcribed his K. 388 Wind Serenade, an octet written five years earlier, for the quintet medium of two violins (or oboe and violin), two violas, and cello. Needing to repay substantial debts, he attempted to publish this rescored work quickly. Unfortunately, he found no publisher for K. 406, the second of his five string quintets, and the work emerged posthumously. Both K. 388 and its quintet rescoring are driving and intense works only remotely connected to the 18th-century serenade, a genre intended for light evening entertainment. Their powerful and chromatic writing, active inner voices, and ingenious counterpoint demand attentive listening. The Allegro explores a multiplicity of varied motifs in sonata form. A calmly contrasting Andante (E-flat major) develops two themes stated initially by the first violin. A contrapuntal tour de force, the minuet unfolds with intricate imitation among the instruments. The C major Trio al rovescio (in reverse) states the minuet’s theme both in its original form and upside down. The Allegro finale offers seven variations on a lyrical theme and a coda.
Thursday , March 10, 8pm Harry Freedman Trois Poèmes de Jacques Prévert for Soprano and Strings Nuages (Clouds) Déjeuner du matin (Breakfast) Page d’écriture (Arithmetic tables)
Meredith Hall, Soprano Joseph Lin, Violin Axel Strauss, Violin Paul Coletti, Viola Antonio Lysy, Cello
Perhaps Canada’s most renowned composer, Harry Freedman (1922–2005) wrote expansive melodies influenced by jazz, blues, and the evocative lines of modern painting. Longtime English hornist with the Toronto Symphony, Freedman launched his compositional career by writing film, tv, and radio scores. After receiving a commission from the Canada Council for the Arts in 1962, he collaborated with French poet and screenwriter Jacques Prévert (1900–1977) in a setting of his Trois Poèmes. Prévert’s surreal poems enjoyed tremendous popularity in mid-century France, and many were set to music by French composer Joseph Kosma. Their collaborative song “Les Feuilles mortes” (The Autumn Leaves, with verse from Prévert’s 1946 book “Paroles”) earned international recognition. Nuages Je suis allée chercher mon tricot de laine et chevreau m'a suivie le gris il se méfie pas comme le grand il est encore trop petit
Clouds I went to get my woolen sweater and the little grey goat followed me He has no fear like the big one does He's still too small
Elle était toute petite aussi mais quelque chose en elle parlait déjà vieux comme le monde
She was rather small herself but there was already something worldly wise about her
Déjà elle savait des choses atroces par exemple qu'il faut se méfier et elle regardait le chevreau et le chevreau la regardait et elle avait envie de pleurer
She had already learned some terrible things For example that one has to be on guard and she looked at the kid and the kid looked at her and she wanted to cry
Il est comme moi dit-elle un peu triste et un peu gai Et puis elle eut un grand sourire et la pluie se mit à tomber.
He is like me she said A little sad a little gay and then she smiled a great big smile. And the rain began to fall
Déjeuner du matin Il a mis le café Dans la tasse Il a mis le lait Dans la tasse de café Il a mis le sucre Dans le café au lait Avec la petite cuiller Il a tourné Il a bu le café au lait Et il a reposé la tasse Sans me parler
Breakfast He poured the coffee Into the cup He poured the milk Into the coffee He put the sugar In the cafe au lait He stirred it With the teaspoon He drank the cafe au lait And he replaced the cup Without speaking to me
Il a allumé Une cigarette Il a fait des ronds Avec la fumée Il a mis les cendres Dans le cendrier Sans me parler Sans me regarder
He lit A cigarette He blew some Smoke rings He put the ashes In the ashtray Without speaking to me Without looking at me
Il s'est levé Il a mis Son chapeau sur sa tête Il a mis son manteau de pluie Parce qu'il pleuvait Et il est parti Sous la pluie Sans une parole Sans me regarder
He stood up He put His hat on his head He put on His raincoat Because it was raining And he left In the rain Without a word Without looking at me
Et moi j'ai pris Ma tête dans ma main Et j'ai pleuré
And I, I put My head in my hands And I wept
Thursday , March 10, 8pm Page d’écriture Deux et deux quatre quatre et quatre huit huit et huit font seize... Répétez ! dit le maître Deux et deux quatre quatre et quatre huit huit et huit font seize Mais voilà l’oiseau-lyre qui passe dans le ciel l’enfant le voit l’enfant l’entend l’enfant l’appelle: Sauve-moi joue avec moi oiseau ! Alors l’oiseau descend et joue avec l’enfant Deux et deux quatre... Répétez ! dit le maître et l’enfant joue l’oiseau joue avec lui... Quatre et quatre huit huit et huit font seize et seize et seize qu’est-ce qu’ils font ? Ils ne font rien seize et seize Et surtout pas trente-deux De toute façon Et ils s’en vont. Et l’enfant a caché l’oiseau dans son pupitre et tous les enfants entendent sa chanson et tous les enfants entendent la musique et huit et huit à leur tour s’en vont et quatre et quatre et deux et deux à leur tour fichent le camp et un et un ne font ni une ni deux un à un s’en vont également. Et l’oiseau-lyre joue et l’enfant chante et le professeur crie: Quand vous aurez fini de faire le pitre! Mais tous les autres enfants écoutent la musique et les murs de la classe s’écroulent tranquillement Et les vitres redeviennent sable l’encre redevient eau les pupitres redeviennent arbres la craie redevient falaise le porte-plume redevient oiseau.
Maurice Ravel Piano Trio in A minor
Arithmetic tables Two and two are four four and four are eight eight and eight are sixteen... Once more! says the teacher Two and two are four four and four are eight eight and eigth are sixteen But look! there is the lyre-bird high in the sky the child sees it the child hears it the child calls to it Save me play with me bird! And the bird comes down and plays with the child Two and two are four Once more! says the teacher And the child plays and the bird plays with him. Four and four are eight eight and eight are sixteen and what do sixteen and sixteen make? Sixteen and sixteen don’t make anything and especially not thirty two No way! And off they run. And the child has hidden the bird in his desk and all the children hear its song and all the children hear the music and eight and eight leave in turn and four and four and two and two in their turn leave the room and one and one are neither one nor two One and one leave too And the lyre-bird plays and the child sings and the teacher shouts: When are you quite through playing the fool! But all the other children are listening to the music and the walls of the classroom quietly crumble And the windows become sand again and the ink is once again water the desks again become trees the chalk returns to the cliff the pen holder once again becomes the bird.
Modéré Pantoum: Assez vif Passacaille: Très large Final: Animé
Bernadette Harvey, Piano Joseph Lin, Violin Antonio Lysy, Cello
In February 1914 Ravel (1875–1937) left Paris to be near his mother in St. Jean-de-Luz, a small Basque village near the Spanish border. He planned to work on two projects — a piano concerto incorporating Basque themes and a piano trio — but abandoned plans for the concerto and incorporated its themes, which he described as “Basque in color,” into the trio’s first movement. Composition proceeded well until the outbreak of World War I, which coincided with initial work on the finale. Ravel was eager to serve in the military, and in fact later became an ambulance driver for the French army. Yet he was reluctant to leave his aged mother. He wrote to a friend: “If you only knew how I am suffering. If I leave my poor old mother, it will surely kill her. But so as not to think of this, I am working with the sureness and lucidity of a madman.” Because of his feverish pace, the trio was soon completed. With its brilliant writing, wide range of instrumental color, and refined elegance, the A minor Piano Trio is considered to be one of Ravel’s finest compositions. The first movement explores Spanish rhythms and melodies with French gracefulness. Its two themes are based on a popular Basque folk dance with a persistent 3-2-3 rhythm. After a brief development, the movement concludes as a fragment of the opening theme fades into a rhythmic outline tapped in the piano’s low register. Ravel entitled the scherzo movement “Pantoum,” a Malay poetic form in which the second and fourth lines of one stanza become the first and third of the next. Its rapid rhythms, pizzicati, and harmonics create a dazzling effect. In the middle section the strings continue their brilliant passage work in a fast meter while the piano articulates contrasting chorale-like phrases in 4/2 time. The clear melodic contours, distinct rhythms and lucid structure of the third movement, a passacaglia, suggest Ravel’s classical orientation. Ten variations of its opening theme are arranged in arch form. The statements begin quietly and gradually gain fervor, then calm as the movement approaches its conclusion. The energetic Animé, following without pause, opens with fortissimo repeated violin arpeggios. The primary theme, related to the principal theme of the first movement, is heard in the piano. Virtuosic trills, arpeggios, and tremolos propel the movement toward its exhilarating conclusion on a high A major chord.
Tonight’s Concert Is Generously Underwritten by Sandy & Elliott Heiman. 12
Friday, March 11, 8pm
Pre-concert commentary at 7:30pm by James Reel
Charles Martin Loeffler Two Rhapsodies for Oboe, Viola, and Piano (1905)
Dmitri Shostakovich Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, Opus 67
L’Étang (The Pool) La Cornemuse (The Bagpipe)
Andante moderato Allegro con brio Largo Allegretto
Allan Vogel, Oboe Paul Coletti, Viola Bernadette Harvey, Piano
Loeffler (1861–1935), the poetic son of German intellectuals, was born in Alsace and educated in Berlin and Paris. Convinced that “America rewarded musical merit far more generously than Europe,” Loeffler emigrated to the United States at age 20 to become assistant concertmaster of the Boston Symphony. In 1903 he resigned his position to devote himself to his thoroughbred horses and compositions. Loeffler produced a small body of exquisitely refined musical works, each exuding a distinctively mystical character. Loeffler based Two Rhapsodies on the darkly atmospheric French poems of Maurice Rollinat (1853–1903). He originally created vocal settings for Rollinat’s verse, but in 1905 he rewrote these as wordless mood paintings that conjure the poems’ essences. The Two Rhapsodies develop with colorful harmonies and the melodic and rhythmic fluidity characteristic of 19th-century French composers. Although a drone suggestive of bagpipes is incorporated into the second rhapsody, Loeffler insisted that he did not intend to convey a program. Music critic Philip Hale translates the final lines of each poem. From The Pool: “Now the moon, piercing at this very moment, seems to look here at herself fantastically; as though, one might say, to see her spectral face, her flat nose, the strange vacuity of teeth — a death’s head lighted from within, about to appear in a dull mirror.” From The Bagpipe: “He is dead. But under cold skies, as soon as night weaves her mesh, down deep in my soul, there in the nooks of old fears, I always hear his bagpipe groaning as of yore.”
Axel Strauss, Violin, Antonio Lysy, Cello Xak Bjerken, Piano
Shostakovich (1906–1975) wrote his second piano trio in the summer of 1944 as a tribute to his recently deceased friend, the musicologist Ivan Sollertinsky. Earlier that year, Sollertinsky, although a young man, had died of a heart attack incurred while evacuating the war zone in Leningrad. Shostakovich described his jovial and eccentric friend: “He was a brilliant scholar who spoke dozens of languages and kept his diary in ancient Portuguese to keep it safe from prying eyes. He found great pleasure in a merry and liberated life, even though he worked very hard. Sadly, people will probably only remember that his tie was askew and that a new suit on him looked old in five minutes.” Sollertinsky introduced Shostakovich to music of the eastern European Jews, and it affected him profoundly. He stated: “This music can appear to be happy when it is tragic. It is multi-faceted…laughter through tears.” Throughout his memorial trio, Shostakovich incorporates themes suggestive of both Russian folk song and ethnic Jewish dance music. At the time he composed the trio, Shostakovich had just received grim reports about the massacres of Jewish concentration camp inmates at the hands of the Nazis. Although he never professed programmatic intentions, many listeners at the work’s premiere heard depictions of doomed persons dancing at the edges of their graves in the work’s finale. The elegiac Andante begins with a remarkable sonority — a wistful theme played in high harmonics by the cello accompanied by the violin in its lowest register. After this introduction, the movement develops folklike themes in a calm atmosphere. The following scherzo movement, propelled by energetic dance rhythms, conveys turbulent joie de vivre. The Largo is a dark and funereal chaconne built on repetitions of eight chords intoned by the piano as the violin and cello sing a continuously varied, sorrowful duet. This powerful movement serves as the introduction to the finale, the dramatic center of the trio. Tension builds as ever more frenzied themes suggest macabre dances of death. Fragments of the earlier themes return. The closing notes, a quiet recollection of the movement’s beginning, suggest serene resolution.
Friday, March 11, 8pm Joseph Lin “Trio for Friends” for Violin, Viola, and Cello
Johannes Brahms String Sextet in G major, Opus 36
Allegro non troppo Scherzo: Allegro non troppo Poco adagio Poco allegro
Joseph Lin, Violin Paul Coletti, Viola Antonio Lysy, Cello
Borromeo String Quartet Gina Coletti, Viola Peter Rejto, Cello
In 1858 Brahms (1833–1897) met and fell in love with Agathe von Siebold, a professor’s daughter and an accomplished singer. The following year he exchanged rings with her. But when a friend suggested that he should proceed with the wedding, Brahms panicked. He wrote to Agathe: “I love you! I must see you again, but I cannot wear fetters! Write me whether I may come back to fold you in my arms, to tell you that I love you!” Agathe refused to see him. Much compromised, she left for Ireland to become a governess. Years after their relationship had ended, Brahms continued to feel remorse for his scandalous behavior. To ease his conscience, he wrote his second string sextet for Agathe and wove the musical spelling of her name into the music. Omitting only the T, he crafted the second theme of the first movement out of the letters A-G-A-H (the note B in German usage)-E. After the sextet was completed in 1864, Brahms wrote to a friend: “Here I have freed myself from my last love!” The first violin plays the soaring opening theme of the Allegro non troppo, and the cello begins the ardent second theme. The music gains intensity, and the first violin and first viola forcefully articulate the “Agathe” theme three times. After extensive development of motives, the movement concludes with a reflective coda. The three-part second movement begins with a graceful theme based on a neo-baroque piano gavotte that Brahms had written 10 years earlier. The trio section, written in a contrasting triple meter, suggests a rustic peasant dance. A condensed version of the opening scherzo then returns. The Poco adagio is a set of five variations of a melody reminiscent of the sextet’s opening motive. Brahms based this theme on a sketch that he had sent to Clara Schumann, perhaps his deepest love, ten years earlier. The dance-like finale develops two contrasting themes and concludes with a brilliant coda.
Although Joseph Lin (b. 1979) is known primarily as a virtuoso violinist, he is also a composer whose attractive works reflect his deep knowledge of both Western and Chinese music. In recent years he has lived in China and traveled there extensively. In 2004 he studied gin qin, the ancient Chinese seven-string zither, as a Fulbright Scholar in Beijing. In 2005 Mr. Lin began an annual chamber music workshop at the China Conservatory in Beijing. Mr. Lin will discuss his composition before the performance. The World Premiere of Joseph Lin’s Trio for Friends was made possible by the following member of the Arizona Friends of Chamber Music Commissioners’ Circle: Bob Foster.
Tonight’s Concert Is Generously Underwritten by Dr. Herschel & Jill Rosenzweig. 14
Sunday, March 13, 3pm
Pre-concert commentary at 2:30pm by James Reel
Claude Debussy Quartet in G minor, Opus 10 Animé et très décidé Scherzo: Assez vif et bien rythmé Andantino, doucement expressif Très modéré
Olli Mustonen Quartet for Oboe, Violin, Viola, and Piano (World Premiere) Quasi una passacaglia “Es muss sein”
Borromeo String Quartet
Allan Vogel, Oboe Axel Strauss, Violin Paul Coletti, Viola Xak Bjerken, Piano
The composer (b.1967) writes about his new work: “The first movement begins in a slow tempo (Grave) and initially consists of three separate elements, which almost seem not to be in any sort of contact with each other: a passacaglia-like bass line in octaves in the low register of the piano; sighing intervals ascending and descending, played by the oboe and the violin; and then the viola starts to sing a sort of cantus firmus. Later the music becomes quieter and seems to anticipate some kind of a storm. Suddenly a presto erupts, based on variations of motives presented in the opening section. There is a densely chromatic fugato, and the music grows more and more intense, finally culminating into a return of the tempo and the motives of the opening section, but this time in fortissimo and in a truly monumental character. At the end of this movement, the music seems to quiet down, but the viola echoes the restless chromatic figures of the fugato — mysterious chords in the piano seem to indicate the possibility of a new kind of music. “The second movement begins with three ascending chords, then lamenting, chromatically descending chords take over the piano part. However, the other instruments continue developing the ascending motive presented in the beginning of the movement. A new kind of ‘more hopeful’ music emerges, only to be interrupted by a reappearance of the lamenting chords, this time louder and even more desperate. However, like tears, they eventually fade away and something reminiscent of the mysterious chords at the end of the first movement appears. There is a feeling that the music, although still extremely soft and slow, has reached an important turning-point. A new motive, marked ‘estatico,’ eventually causes a huge accelerando and crescendo — the hopeful music, heard briefly earlier in the movement, reappears and the quartet reaches an ecstatic conclusion. I dedicate the work to my wife, Sole, who is an oboist.”
Musical impressionism flowered with Claude Debussy (1862–1918), who continued the movement generated in the 1870s by the painter Monet and the symbolist poet Mallarmé. Debussy sought to impart a similarly ineffable atmosphere by emphasizing color and nuance rather than systematic thematic development. He achieved his sensitive and haunting style through brief melodies, often based on ancient or exotic scales, supported by shifting harmonies and rapidly changing meters. An early work, the Quartet in G minor (1893) reveals both established techniques and evidence of Debussy’s revolutionary new language. Its movements conform to traditional sonata, scherzo, and three-part song form structures. The influence of his older contemporary César Franck can be heard in the quartet’s cyclic form — a unifying device in which related thematic material permeates all movements. Yet the quartet’s evocative sonorities anticipate the fully impressionistic world Debussy created in his next work, “Afternoon of a Faun” (1894). The quartet opens with a strongly accented theme in the ancient Phrygian mode. Kaleidoscopic permutations of this material recur throughout the entire quartet. The second movement, a piquant scherzo animated by colorful pizzicato figures, led Franck to observe that “Debussy creates music on needle points.” At the 1889 Paris Exposition a Javanese gamelan orchestra had enchanted Debussy, and his contemporary critics heard similarly exotic effects in this scherzo. The third movement, cast in three-part song form, is framed by a passionate song for muted strings; a lyrical episode for viola and cello falls at its center. The finale opens with a quiet introduction and accelerates with a fugato section based on the quartet’s opening theme. This agile movement inventively synthesizes material from the preceding three. The movement concludes with a brilliant coda.
The World Premiere of Olli Mustonen’s Quartet for Oboe, Violin, Viola and Piano was made possible by the following members of the Arizona Friends of Chamber Music Commissioners’ Circle: Charles and Suzanne Peters; Serene Rein; Carla Zingarelli-Rosenlicht; and Jean-Paul Bierny & Chris Tanz.
Sunday, March 13, 8pm Heitor Villa-Lobos Suite for Voice and Violin
Antonin Dvorˇák Piano Quartet in E-flat major, Opus 87
Quéro ser Alégre
Allegro con fuoco Lento Allegro moderato, grazioso Finale: Allegro ma non troppo
Meredith Hall, Soprano Joseph Lin, Violin
The largely self-taught Villa-Lobos (1887–1959) exploited both his native folk tradition and Brazilian popular music to create a unique national style. Although he composed more than 1000 works, Villa-Lobos is best known for his suites, many of which are entitled Choros as homage to Brazil’s strolling ensembles of serenaders. In 1923 Villa-Lobos was awarded a Brazilian government grant to study and compose in Paris. He then wrote his Suite for Voice and Violin, based on songs of the Cabacio, the dwellers of Brazil’s jungle interior. Brazilian arts enjoyed a vogue in Paris of the 1920s, and French critics admired the “advanced modernism” of this harmonically pungent and rhythmically propulsive suite. Its undercurrent of exotic menace added to the allure. The second song, “I Wish to be Happy,” is a wordless vocalise, or vocalization.
Joseph Lin, Violin Paul Coletti, Viola Antonio Lysy, Cello Bernadette Harvey, Piano
Encouraged by his eager publishers, Dvorˇák (1841–1904) composed the majority of Opus 87, the second of his two piano quartets, within the period of a month. He wrote to a friend: “I’ve now already finished three movements of a new piano quartet and the finale will be ready in a few days. As I expected, it came easily and the melodies just surged upon me, thank God!” The work was completed in 1889, and the premiere was held the following fall. Dvorˇák’s Opus 87 can be heard as complementary to his other great piano chamber works of the late 1880s such as the “Dumky” Trio and the A major Piano Quintet. There is textural similarity in all these compositions since the strings form a unit to balance the strong piano lines. These spirited works are products of his nationalistic phase, a time when he found inspiration in his native Bohemian folk idiom. The strings introduce the bold principal motive of the Allegro con fuoco and the piano offers an even more forceful reply. The viola (Dvorˇák’s instrument) brings in the second subject, a flowing idea in G major. Highly colorful changes of harmony occur in the development. After a brief recapitulation, the movement concludes with a coda that begins “tranquillo” but rapidly crescendos to an emphatic statement. The remarkable Lento (G-flat major) explores five distinct ideas. A dialogue between the cello and piano leads to a calm theme for violin, followed by an agitated piano statement. A passionate motif for the entire ensemble decrescendos into the plaintive fifth theme, heard in the piano. The movement concludes in hushed tones. The delightful scherzo movement plays with two themes suggesting Czech folk dance; its lively trio section unfolds as a canon. The powerful Finale, in sonata form, begins in the unusual key of E-flat minor. Its two subjects are ingeniously varied, occasionally with notable passagework for viola. The work’s original key of E-flat major returns at the recapitulation, and the movement concludes with an energetic coda.
Maurice Ravel Vocalise-étude en forme de habanera, for Voice and Piano Meredith Hall, Soprano Bernadette Harvey, Piano Ravel (1875–1937) wrote his Vocalise-étude during his “Spanish period,” the productive decade following his departure from the Paris Conservatoire. A native of the Basque region near the Spanish border, Ravel during this time experimented with the Iberian rhythms and harmonies he had admired in his youth. This 1907 exercise is a wordless song in the style of the habanera, a slow dance that originated in Cuba. The brief and haunting Vocalise develops with ornate melismas sung on vowel sounds.
Today’s Concert Is Generously Underwritten by Wesley C. Green and Jean-Paul Bierny & Chris Tanz. 16
Festival Musicians Artistic Director Peter Rejto, Cello has performed throughout the US and abroad in hundreds of performances as soloist and with the Los Angeles Piano Quartet of which he is a founding member. Mr. Rejto has appeared at the summer festivals of Aspen, La Jolla, Round Top, Carmel Bach, Marlboro, Fairbanks, Sitka, Santa Fe, Grand Canyon, and BRAVO! Colorado. His many honors include winning the Young Concert Artists International competition and the Debut Award of the Young Musicians Foundation, Los Angeles. He has recorded for Sony Classical, Silva Classics, Summit, Music Masters, and Pickwick. ¬
Xak Bjerken, Piano has given solo and chamber music recitals in Europe and throughout the US. Mr. Bjerken has appeared as soloist with many orchestras and has performed major venues, including Alice Tully Hall, Weill Recital Hall, Library of Congress, the Kennedy Center, and Disney Hall. He has held chamber music residencies at the Tanglewood Music Center and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto, Italy, and has been the pianist of the Los Angeles Piano Quartet for the past 10 years. Mr. Bjerken has held chamber music residencies at the Tanglewood Music Center, Spoleto Festival and Olympic Music Festival, and served on the faculty of the Eastern Music Festival. His recordings can be found on the Artona, Koch International, Chandos, Albany Records, CRI and Mobius Productions labels. He earned degrees at UCLA, studying with Aube Tzerko, and the Peabody Institute as a student and teaching assistant to Leon Fleisher. Mr. Bjerken is an Associate Professor of Music at Cornell University where with his wife, Miri Yampolsky, he co-directs Mayfest, an annual international chamber music festival. ¬
Apollo’s Fire Baroque Ensemble is named after the classical god of music and the sun, and is dedicated to the performance of 17th- and 18th-century music on the period instruments for which it was written. The ensemble has been praised internationally for stylistic freshness and buoyancy, animated spontaneity, technical excellence, and creative programming. Apollo’s Fire was founded in 1992 by Jeannette Sorrell, Harpsichordist and Conductor, who studied with Gustav Leonhardt in Amsterdam. She is also the recipient of the 1994 Erwin Bodky Award, given by the Cambridge Society for Early Music; an honorary doctorate from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland; and the Cleveland Arts Prize. Ms. Sorrell and her principal string players — including Cynthia Roberts, Baroque Violin; Johanna Novom, Baroque Violin; and René Schiffer, Baroque Cello are committed to the baroque ideal of emotional expression and rhetorical communication through music. Apollo’s Fire tours internationally and has performed at such venues as the Aspen Music Festival, the Boston Early Music Festival, the Library of Congress, and the Chautauqua Institution. The ensemble recently made its European debut tour, with standing ovations in Spain and the Netherlands and a sold-out concert at London’s Wigmore Hall, where the concert was broadcast by the BBC. In addition, the ensemble has been featured on various PBS, NPR, CBC, and BBC broadcasts. Apollo’s Fire records for the British label Avie Records, and its recordings have been much acclaimed in Europe and the U.S. Apollo’s Fire and Jeannette Sorrell are recipients of the Noah Greenberg Award from the American Musicological Society, given for an outstanding project involving the collaboration of scholars and performers. ¬
The Borromeo String Quartet experienced an explosive debut in 1989 and has since become one of the busiest ensembles in the world. It takes its name from the area in Northern Italy near Lago Maggiore, where it played its first concerts together. The Borromeo has been heard in the world’s most illustrious concert halls and is regularly invited to perform in distinguished chamber music series and festivals across the US and abroad. It has enjoyed collaborations with noted composers John Cage, Osvaldo Golijov, John Harbison, Gunther Schuller, and Lera Auerbach, among others. In April 2007 the Quartet was the recipient of prestigious Avery Fisher Career Grant, and in 2006 the Aaron Copland House honored the Borromeo’s commitment to contemporary music by creating the Borromeo Quartet Award, an annual initiative that will premiere the work of important young composers. As Quartet-in-Residence at the prestigious New England Conservatory of Music for 17 years, the Borromeo has made chamber music a principal mission. Its master class series regularly attracts SRO crowds. The four members of the Borromeo Quartet are among the most accomplished musicians of their generation: Nicholas Kitchen, Violin, was a recipient of the Albert Schweitzer Medallion for Artistry and a Presidential Scholar in the Arts. He created seven seasons of innovative programming as Artistic Director of the Cape Cod Chamber Music Festival and performs as a member of the Music From the Copland House ensemble. Kristopher Tong, Violin, began his career as concertmaster of the Utah Youth Symphony at age 14. He was on the faculty at the Yellow Barn Festival’s Young Artists Program, was principal second violin with the Verbier Festival Orchestra, and has also performed with the Mizayaki Festival Orchestra in Japan. Mai Motobuchi, Viola, started playing
Festival Musicians violin at age five and gained recognition in Asia as first prize winner in the 1989 All Japan MBS Youth Music Competition, and in the All Japan Ensemble Competitions in 1990 and 1991. She has collaborated with Yo-Yo Ma and Seiji Ozawa, and is in demand as a teacher on two continents, serving on the faculties of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston and the Tenrikyo Institute of Music in Tenri, Japan. Yeesun Kim, Cello, made her orchestral debut at age 13 with the Korean Broadcasting Service Symphony, and has since performed in more than 20 countries. She has collaborated with Rudolph Serkin, Joshua Bell, Christophe Eschenbach, and Leon Fleisher, among others. ¬
Meredith Hall, Soprano, delights audiences internationally with her “lustrous sound and fluent legato” (San Francisco Chronicle) and “bravura musical performance matched by a riveting dramatic tone” (Boston Globe). Equally at home in opera and oratorio, she is especially in demand for baroque and classical works, particularly those of Mozart and Handel. In oratorio, Ms. Hall has appeared with many organizations, including Boston’s Handel and Haydn Society, Symphony Nova Scotia, Les Violons du Roy, The Vancouver Chamber Choir and the Handel Festival. Ms. Hall has recorded for Deutsche Grammophon Archiv, Philips, Naxos, Dorian, among others, with such groups as Les Musiciens du Louvre, Le Concert Spirituel, The Musicians of the Globe, and Tafelmusik. ¬
Gina Coletti, Viola, was born in Seoul, Korea and raised in the US. Musical travels have brought her to China, Japan, Israel, Europe, and throughout North America. As a chamber musician she has participated in festivals such as the Camerata Deia in Spain, the Dilijian Chamber Music Series, and Synergy Ensemble in Los Angeles. She has performed with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Los Angeles Opera, Los Angeles Master Choral and served for several years as principal of the Mozart Chamber Orchestra. As an educator, Ms. Coletti teaches privately and has served on the faculties of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as Artist in Residence and at summer courses in Prague and Italy. Ms. Coletti has also served as Director of Junior Chamber Music Los Angeles, which brings chamber music to talented young students across the Southland. She has a Masters degree from the Juilliard School. ¬
Bernadette Harvey, Piano, is one of Australia’s most sought after pianists. She received her DMA from the Eastman School, where she was a winner in several international piano competitions. Afterward she moved to Boston and taught at the New England Conservatory and the Longy School of Music. She returned to Australia in 1997 to direct the Australian Women’s Music Festival and form a piano duo with her brother. As a core member of the Sydney Soloists and The Collective, Ms. Harvey has become a mainstay of Sydney’s music scene. She performed as a soloist and in collaboration for the Aurora Festival, toured regional New South Wales for Musica Viva, and appeared at the Sydney Chamber Music Festival, in addition to live radio broadcasts. Recently, she joined the Keyboard Unit of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, where she teaches Piano and Piano Pedagogy. ¬
Paul Coletti, Viola, made his New York, San Francisco and Chicago debut recitals at age 23. He has been both a conductor and soloist with the New Japan Philharmonic Orchestra in Tokyo, has given jazz and tango concerts with Claude Bolling, has written and arranged music for pop albums, and many of his own compositions have been recorded on Sony labels and published by Oxford University Press. His career includes concerts in major US cities, the Sydney Opera House, London’s Queen Elizabeth Hall, the Berlin Philharmonie, Osaka, Paris, Salzburg and at the Edinburgh Festival., among others. Since moving to Los Angeles, he has performed as soloist under Gerard Schwarz in Disney Hall with the LA Philharmonic. Mr. Coletti has made frequent national and international radio and television appearances, notably performing Bartok’s viola concerto with Lord Yehudi Menuhin televised live from Berlin. He has given master classes worldwide and has been a Professor at John Hopkins University, Head of Chamber Music at UCLA, and at age 25 was Head of Strings at the University of Washington. Paul Coletti currently teaches at the Colburn School Conservatory of Music. ¬
Joseph Lin, Violin and Composer, has earned broad recognition for his mature artistry. Hailed as a “master of the violin” by the Boston Globe, Mr. Lin was awarded First Prize at the Concert Artists Guild International Competition in 1996 when just 17, and was named Presidential Scholar in the Arts the same year. In 1999, he became the youngest musician ever to be chosen to receive the Pro Musicus International Award. More recently, he won First Prize at the inaugural Michael Hill World Violin Competition in New Zealand, and one of the top prizes at the 2000 Hanover International Violin Competition. Mr. Lin graduated from Juilliard’s Pre-College Division and from Harvard, where he studied with Lynn Chang. In 2004 he studied Chinese music as a Fulbright scholar and in 2005 began an annual Chamber Music Workshop at the China Conservatory in Beijing. He is also a founding member of the Formosa String Quartet, which won first prize at the 2006 London International String Quartet Competition. Mr. Lin is Assistant Professor of Violin at Cornell. Mr. Lin recently joined the renowned Juilliard String Quartet as the ensemble’s new first violinist. Along with the Quartet’s extensive performing schedule, he will begin teaching as a faculty member of the Juilliard School. ¬
Festival Musicians Antonio Lysy, Cello, has achieved international stature, performing as soloist in major international concert halls, including the Royal Festival Hall, the Concertgebouw, the Tonhalle, Wigmore Hall, Sala Verdi, Berlin Philharmonie, among others. He has collaborated with distinguished conductors such as Yuri Temirkanov, Charles Dutoit, Sir Yehudi Menuhin, Sandor Vegh and Kees Bakels. Recent engagements include recitals, chamber music collaborations and summer festivals in the US, Switzerland, Italy, Portugal and Canada. He is Musical Director and founder of the annual Incontri in Terra di Siena Chamber Music Festival in Tuscany, Italy, now in its 19th season. Mr. Lysy has received critical acclaim for recordings with international radio networks and the Claves, Dinemec Classics, Fonè, and Pelléas labels. Since 2003 he has been a Professor at UCLA. ¬
Axel Strauss, Violin, is the first German musician to win the Naumburg Violin Award (1998). In that same year Mr. Strauss made his American debut at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. and his New York City debut at Alice Tully Hall, establishing a reputation for virtuosity and musical sensitivity. The Salt Lake Tribune writes: “Strauss quickly established that he is a virtuoso…His interpretive prowess was delightful.” Mr. Strauss has appeared in recitals and as soloist nationally and internationally. He has collaborated with conductors such as Maxim Shostakovitch, Rico Saccani, Joseph Silverstein, and Alasdair Neale. Prior to moving to the US he won a series of European musical competitions, including top prizes in the Bach, Wieniawski and Kocian competitions. He maintains a busy performance schedule and serves as Professor of Violin at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music. He performs on an 1845 violin by J. F. Pressenda of Turin on extended loan through the generous efforts of the Stradivari Society in Chicago. ¬
Olli Mustonen, Composer, was born in Helsinki in 1967, where he took his first harpsichord lessons at age five and was taught to play piano by age seven. A year later he attempted his first compositions, leading to composition studies with Einojuhani Rautavaara. Since 1989, Mr. Mustonen has been playing an active role in Finland’s musical scene as Composer, Artistic Director, Conductor, and Concert Pianist. As a pianist, Mustonen has given concerts with numerous major international orchestras, leading to close working relations with renowned conductors such as Daniel Barenboim, Pierre Boulez and Christoph Eschenbach, and international recording awards, including the Edison and the Gramophone Awards. As a composer, Mr. Mustonen expresses a predilection for contrapuntally interwoven compositions and works of the 20th century, as influenced by 17th- and 18th-century ideas. He concentrates on instrumentation and rhythm, in addition to genre names such as Gavotte, Toccata, and Petite Suite. Mr. Mustonen was recently named Artist in Residence, pursuing both composing and performing, for the Usedom Music Festival. ¬
Allan Vogel, Oboe, has been hailed by the Los Angeles Times as “an aristocrat of his instrument, an oboe virtuoso with few equals.” He is one of America’s leading wind soloists and chamber musicians. Principal oboist of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, Mr. Vogel has soloed with orchestras throughout the country and has been featured at the Marlboro, Santa Fe, Aspen, Mostly Mozart, and Oregon Bach Festivals. Allan is a frequent guest with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center and toured internationally several times. American Record Guide called his recording Oboe Obsession “the single finest disc of oboe music ever recorded.” Renowned for his performances of the Baroque literature, Mr. Vogel serves on the advisory board of the American Bach Society and is a member of Bach’s Circle Baroque Ensemble. He is on the faculty of the California Institute of the Arts, the University of Southern California and the Colburn Conservatory of Music. ¬
Thank You The Arizona Friends of Chamber Music gratefully acknowledges the contributions and in-kind services provided by the following individuals, businesses, and organizations for this year’s Festival. Their support is essential in establishing and maintaining our newest Arizona musical tradition. Assistance received after February 8, 2011 is not reported here because of scheduling deadlines.
Associates ($100 – $249)
Corporate Patrons ($2500 – $4999)
Jean-Paul Bierny and Chris Tanz David and Joyce Cornell Mr. Wesley Green Dr. & Mrs. Elliott and Sandy Heiman Herschel and Jill Rosenzweig Emma and Gerry Talen
Thomas and Susan Aceto Mary Lonsdale Baker Jim Cushing Mr. Philip M. Davis Mr. Martin Diamond and Ms. Paula Wilk Leonid Friedlander and Yelena Landis Mrs. Linda Friedman Lee Kane Ms. Maxine Manewal Dr. & Mrs. Frank Marcus Mr. William McCallum John and Stephanie Meyer Dorothy Olson Mr. Herbert Ploch R. W. and C. H. Reeves Mr. Boyer Rickel Ms. Shirley Snow Mr. T. D. Taubeneck Jan Wezelman and David Bartlett
Casino del Sol Philip Pappas II, Ameriprise Financial
Supporters ($1000 – $2499) Mr. & Mrs. Charles M. Peters Drs. John and Helen Schaefer
Contributors ($1000 – $1499) Celia A. Balfour and Robert L. Gilbertson Tony and Ellen Lomonaco Jayant Shah and Minna Mehta Everett and Lee Wyers
Advocates ($500 – $999) Ms. Dagmar Cushing John and Terry Forsythe Dr. Marilyn Heins Keith Kumm and Sandy Pharo Tom and Rhoda Lewin Dr. & Mrs. Harold and Marjory Margulies Mr. & Mrs. Gordon and Teresa Pusser Mr. & Mrs. John Rupley James and Lenore Schilling Reid and Linda Schindler Paul A. St. John and Leslie P. Tolbert
Friends ($250– $499)
Allies ($25 – $99) Nancy Cook James H. Dauber Mr. Raul Delgado Drs. José and Margot Garcia Arthur and Judy Kidder Mr. & Mrs. Larry and Rowena Matthews John R. McDonald Mr. Hal Myers Ms. Gisele Nelson Mr. John Offutt Ms. Lusia Slomkowska Ms. Barbara Straub Mr. Ramon Vasquez
Corporate Supporters ($1500 – $2499) Arizona Commission on the Arts1 Merrill Lynch & Company Foundation: Jerry Short, Steve Strong, Elizabeth Weiner-Schulman, Matthew Apostolik Radiology Ltd. Ruidoso Chamber Music Festival
Corporate Contributors ($1000 – $1499) Anonymous Copenhagen DOWNTOWN Kitchen + Cocktails Hotel Arizona Ley Piano Company Research Corporation for Science Advancement Tucson Lifestyle Magazine
Corporate Advocates ($500 – $999) Arizona Flowers Astra Gregory V. Gadarian, Attorney at Law, PLLC KUAT Radio & TV Long Realty Cares Foundation Marriott University Park Udall Law Firm, LLP Vazquez Portfolio Group, UBS Financial Svcs.
Corporate Friends ($250 - $499) Jane Larriva Rojas/Morgan Stanley Smith Barney
Mr. Harold Basser Nancy Bissell Richard and Galina De Roeck Thomas Hanselmann Mr. & Mrs. Sidney Hirsh Mr. Eddy Muka Harry Nungesser Ms. Rita Rosenberg Randy Spalding Mr. & Mrs. Gerald and Bette Zatuchni
1) Support from the Arizona Commission on the Arts is through appropriations from the Arizona State legislature and grants from the National Endowment for the Arts.
Cover illustration: Brenda Semanick • Program notes: Nancy Monsman Program design: GroundZero • Recording Engineer: Matthew Snyder • Stage Manager: Brandon Sinnock 20
Merrill Lynch Salutes the Arizona Friends of Chamber Music Call 1-800-937-0651 Elizabeth Weiner-Schulman Steve Strong Jerry Short Matthew Apostolik Merrill Lynch 5210 E. Williams Circle, Suite 900 Tucson, AZ 85711 The difference is Merrill Lynch.
Proud supporter of the Arizona Friends of Chamber Music Tucson Winter Chamber Music Festival
181 W. Broadway 520.624.8711 www.thehotelaz.com
Arizona Flowers 500 N. Tucson Blvd., Ste. 190 In The Village at Sam Hughes
Mark Your 2012 Calendars! The 19th Tucson Winter Chamber Music Festival is scheduled for March 4 â€“ 11, 2012. Featured performers include the Tokyo String Quartet, violinist Benny Kim, violist Helena Baillie, pianist and composer Lera Auerbach, and others to be named. See our website at Arizonachambermusic.org for continuing updates.
Complete program for the 2011 Tucson Winter Chamber Music Festival. March 6th - March 13 (Audio: 1996 Festival, Janacek Quartet #1 played by...