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Thir d P l a ce Li v in g D e s i g n : Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments

The Market at Main Stre et EAT | READ | ART 660 Main Street Woburn, MA 01801

By All yso n Fa ir wea ther Advisors: Rachelle McClure & Danielle Whiting ID Thesis II May 2012


AB STR ACT Studies show that social interaction in the public sphere occurs less and less in American society. This interior design thesis collects and analyzes research from a variety of sources to create a summary of potential design solutions applicable to an interior environment fit for social activities. The resulting project is the “Market at Main Street.” Composed of a café, gallery, bookstore, and shared lobby, the proposed project goal is to create a space that exemplifies the research findings and that will facilitate opportunities for social gathering behavior. Inspiration is taken from Ray Oldenburg’s “third place” theory layered with an original concept of “living design” and human proxemics. The interior environment plays a significant role in human behavior – change the way people feel and interact with a space through thoughtful, informed design decisions and people will change the way they interact with one another.


TABLE OF CONTENTS THESIS I Abstract

2

Thesis Paper

6

Existing Site

21

Square Footages & Programing

31

THESIS II Concept Development

39

Schematic Design

43

Code Research

51

Design Development: Third Place, Living Design, & Proxemics

59

Design Development: Research Inspired Design

67

Design Development: Focus Areas

79

Synthesis

101

About Me

103


THESIS PAP ER


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Physical Space The increasing influence of virtual technologies in daily life both reinforces our need for physically designed places and changes our experience of them. Communication technologies and mobile lifestyles emotionally alienate individuals despite our virtually connectedness, making face-to-face interaction more valuable than ever. Loretta Lees, in her article about context, culture, and place, believes that in a world of rapidly accelerating global flows, architecture is an important way of anchoring identities and of constructing, in the most literal sense, a material connection between people and places.1 Place is something to be animated by culture – something we constantly produce with others within architecture and the landscape.2 It is the medium between people, facilitating the flow of human activity. Without the proper environment to support social interaction, culture and place suffer as the Internet as a place becomes more popular.

Technology and Society Robert Putnam, political scientist and author of Bowling Alone, compiles studies focused on American social life that reveals people prefer to stay at home rather than to go out to socialize. Compared to leaving the home to gather with friends, Americans prefer to stay at home and not entertain guests in a ratio of two to one – a margin that is well on the rise.3 Other studies show that in the past decade or two the frequency with which Americans went out to bars, nightclubs, taverns, and the like declined by about forty to fifty percent.4 Entertaining friends is leaving the home as well as the public sphere. But if people do not go out to socialize and rarely dust off the dining table, then where do people go to interact with one another? 1

Loretta Lees. “Towards a Critical Geography of Architecture: The Case of an Ersatz Colosseum.” Cultural Geographies, 2001: 53. 2 Loretta, 75. 3 Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. (Simon and Schuster: New York, 2000): 100. 4 Robert, 101.

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Thesis Paper | The Market at Main Street

Perhaps the answer to this question is in the technological devices and mobile tools for connection that people use every day. “Is the World Wide Web a place?” asks Lucy Lippard, author of The Lure of the Local, an enlightening book about a “sense of place” in the public sphere.5 Lippard, Putnam and millions of Americans seems to believe that the Internet is the new “place” to be.6 With nowhere to physically go and no desire to leave, more and more American’s find comfort in the anonymous social networking of the virtual world. Instead of going out to mingle with others, people socialize from the comfort of their own couch. In the online virtual game “Second Life,” users create avatars that can get a virtual education, launch a business, buy land, build and furnish a home, and, of course, have a social life that may include love, sex, and marriage.7 Being connected to society no longer depends on physical distance; instead it depends on available technologies. According to Scott Caplan, author of “Preference for Online Social Interaction,” the online experience is a problem related to social perceptions. The internet is more appealing compared to face-to-face interaction because it is “safer” with less perceived social risk and responsibility. This type of controlled interaction is selective and strategic as people exercise greater manipulation over the impression others form of them.8 “Online we feel enhanced; there is a parallel with the robotic moment of more. But in both cases, moments of more may leave us with lives of less… With sociable robots we are alone but receive the signals that tell us we are together,” says technology and society specialist and author of “Alone Together,” Sherry Turkle. “What is a place if those who are physically present have their attention on the absent?9 Turkle illustrates the dramatic virtual reality of many similarly plugged-in users around the nation. Even when Americans do leave the shelter of the home to 5

Lucy R. Lippard, The Lure of the Local: Sense of Place in a Multicentered Society. (New Press: 1997): 248. 6 Sherry Turkle, Alone Together: Why We Expect More From Technology and Less From Each Other. (Basic Books: New York, 2011): 153. 7 Turkle, 158. 8 Scott Caplan, “Preference for Online Social Interaction: A Theory of Problematic Internet Use and Psychological Social Well-being.” Communication Research. (December 2003): 603. 9 Turkle 156.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

gather with others, people are still plugged in to the virtual world. In the article, “Place: The Networking of Public Space,” authors Varnelis and Freidberg illuminate this dissonance: “We gather at the communal watering hole as we always did; only now we don’t reach out to those around us. Instead, we communicate with far-flung souls using means that would be indistinguishable from magic for all but our most recent ancestors.”10 This creates a plurality of time and place while ironically putting an even greater distance between people sharing and occupying the same present physical space. Turkle poses the question: “A ‘place’ used to comprise a physical space and the people within it. What is a place if those who are physically present have their attention on the absent”?11

Third Place Design To create an atmosphere fit for physical connection and faceto-face interaction, designers must understand the social and physical characteristics of place that enhance the occupants’ experience. By better understanding those components that contribute to positive place experiences, designers can create spaces that promote comfort, gathering behavior, a sense of belonging, and a bond between people and place.

In The Great Good Place, urban sociologist Ray Oldenburg

defines these pleasurable social environments as “third places” (in contrast to the first and second places of home and work respectively). Third places are a place of refuge where people can regularly visit and commune with friends, neighbors, coworkers, and even strangers. As virtual technologies continue to play a bigger role in many contemporary lifestyles, the definition of place is blurred; however, revisiting characteristics of successful third places combined with the concept of living design will encourage gathering in social public places. In his book, Oldenburg discusses several physical aspects of third places, such as their proximity and easy access from home or work for many, and highlights that these places are likely to offer food and drinks.12 However, there are likely other physical features that differentiate 10

Varnelis, Kazys and Anne Friedberg. “Place: The Networking of Public Space.” Networked Publics. (Cambridge, MIT Press, 2008):

19.

11 12

Turkle, 156. Vikas Mehta and Jennifer K. Bosson, “Third Places and the Social Life of Streets.” Environment and Behavior. October 23, 2009: 780.

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Thesis Paper | The Market at Main Street

third places from other similar businesses or places. This paper aims to identify physical characteristics that interior designers can incorporate in social public spaces to encourage social interaction and gathering behavior. Incorporating characteristics of third place in interior design can enhance and support positive place experiences and the formation of bonds between people and place while easing evolving social dynamics influenced by virtual technologies. Some major characteristics of Ray Oldenburg’s “third place” theory include:

conversation as the main activity, accessibility and

accommodation, keeps a low profile, maintains a playful mood, acts as a social leveler, hosts a stream of regulars, and acts as a home away from home.13 Examples of these places are usually small businesses including cafés, coffee shops, local convenient stores, book shops, bars, and other places for social gathering.14 Lisa Waxman, author of, “The Coffee Shop: Social and Physical Factors Influencing Place Attachment,” reveals physical and social qualities of coffee shops that positively promote gathering behavior and place attachment. The five most important physical characteristics identified by Waxman include cleanliness, appealing aroma, comfortable seating, adequate lighting, and views to the outdoors. Waxman noted various design solutions in her research necessary to promote gathering behavior, bonds between people and place, and positive experiences in a third place coffee shop. According the research, seating design plays a significant role in the success of social behavior in a third place environment.15 Waxman begins by suggesting to place seating adjacent to walls or partial walls to create a sense of grounding and security – observations show that preferred seats were somewhat sheltered and located near windows, walls, and partial walls. Observations also show that patrons prefer upholstered furniture rather than hard surface seating.16 In addition, moveable chairs are a desired form of seating due to the choice, flexibility, and comfort they offer.17 13 14 15 16 17

Vikas and Jennifer, 780. Vikas and Jennifer, 780. Vikas and Jennifer, 780. Waxman, 44. Vikas and Jennifer, 782.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

However, Waxman believes owners and designers should discuss the optimum level of comfort to keep patrons coming in while also allowing adequate table turnover at the same time. When space planning the seating arrangements, it is essential for designers to consider the type of activity within the coffee house in order to appropriately locate power outlets in the space.18 For cleanliness, it is important to specify materials that are easy to clean or that have colors/patterns that hide dirt.19 Other important solutions for a successful seating arrangements and space planning include providing views to the outdoors, views of people and activity, natural light, flexibility of furniture arrangements, pleasant acoustics, and pleasant aromas.20 Ultimately, Waxman’s research reveals that good careful design planning can influence positive experiences in a third place environment. Some social benefits found in the research include opportunity for people to linger, to feel a sense of ownership, and establish territoriality. Feelings of trust, respect, and anonymity, the opportunity for productivity and personal growth, the choice to be social or to enjoy familiar strangers, and enjoy a support system of the patrons and staff were also important social aspects identified by Waxman.

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Ultimately, the designer is

responsible for creating spaces that meet human needs and enhance well-being. When these needs are met in the interior environment, bonds between people and place successfully occur. One popular, successful coffee shop encompassing Oldenburg’s third place theory and much of Waxman’s design research is Starbucks. The Starbucks café most often feels grounded in a neighborhood and encourages social gathering behavior much like Oldenburg describes in a third place environment.22 According to Lawrence Cheek, author of the article “On Architecture: Starbucks puts a double shot of hometown flavor into every store,” the success of Starbucks is a combination of sophisticated interior design and connections to place. Unlike many 18 19 20 21

Waxman, 45. Waxman, 43. Waxman, 42. Lisa Waxman, “The Coffee Shop: Social and Physical Factors Influencing Place Attachment,” Journal of Interior Design, (2006): 51. 22 Lawrence Cheek, “On Architecture: Starbucks puts a double shot of hometown flavor into every store,” SeattlePI

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Thesis Paper | The Market at Main Street

fast-food restaurants, there is variety in aesthetic from one location to another that allows the café to have a unique feel in each place. Brand identification, another key component to Starbucks success, is subdued with the use of familiar green umbrellas and earthy storefronts.23 Starbucks generally attempts to fit in with the neighborhood rather than flashing bold colors and other stereotypical characteristics of fastfood outlets. Ultimately, Starbucks manages to keep a low profile while maintaining a strong reputation as unique place to spend time. The look and feel inside Starbucks is far different from any other fast-food chain restaurant. “Starbucks is less about the transaction, and more about the experience,” says Launi Skinner, Starbucks senior vice president for store development, “Starbucks’ interior design often resembles a modern bookstore than a fast-food outlet because the goal is to nurture a long-term relationship with the customer rather than provide short-term refreshment.”24

One example that cultivates gathering

behavior in many Starbucks interiors is the nook-like arrangements of seating and varying ceiling heights to differentiate between individual spaces. Open areas under high ceilings provide “emotional release,” as customers move through the space to find their nooks.25 Variations in design create variations in feeling that make the interiors interesting and promote the positive experiences found in the third place environment. Recently, Starbucks image as a great place to gather and hang out has grabbed the attention of the fast-food giant McDonald’s. The franchise hopes to renovate 14,000 locations by 2015, spending over onebillion dollars.26 “McDonald’s has to change with the times,” says Jim Carras, senior vice president of domestic restaurant development for the giant chain, “And we have to do so faster than we ever have before.”27 The changes to the interior and exterior are dramatically different from the familiar the red-clown roofs, neon-yellow plastic chairs, and harsh fluorescent lighting. Borrowing design inspiration from Starbucks and European cafés, McDonald’s remodeling includes muting the pain colors 23 24 25 26

Cheek, Cheek, Cheek, Bruce Horovitz, “McDonald’s revamps stores to look more upscale,” (USA Today: June 9, 2011). 27 Horovitz,

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

to include soft oranges and greens, creating an earthy exterior with stone, replacing the industrial furniture with wooden tables, chairs, and soft seating, and incorporating more sophisticated contemporary lighting.28 Similar to the Starbucks nook, McDonald’s is also starting to divide the space into different seating zones rather than having an open sea of tables and chairs. Even the golden arch has transformed into a sleek, elegant sweep over the façade to show patrons that McDonald’s is moving in a more sophisticated direction. The main reason for McDonald’s renovations is to attract more patrons. Nicer looking stores attract more business, according to Horovitz. “Even a smash-hit new product fails to attract as much business as a redesign,” reveals Humes.29 In Tampa, many redesigned McDonald’s over the past year have seen double-digit sales boosts, he says. The chain no longer wants to rush customers in and out – instead the goal is to create a third place-like hang out similar to Starbucks. As the goals of the company evolve and the activities within the space change, the look, feel, and function of the interior environment must also follow. “The environment is a massive influence on how we behave,” says brand expert Philip Graves, “Change the environment, and you change how people perceive everything else.”30

Living design In comparison to larger chain cafés and restaurants, smaller owned businesses possess Oldenburg’s third place characteristics in a more natural way. In a study performed by Vikas Mehta and Jennifer K. Bosson in the outskirts of Boston, MA, findings revealed that personalization of a space positively enhances perceptions of third place environments. One interviewee observed that personalized places are those that grow and evolve as the people and activity of the place do: “…and the flowers and planters – they change every few weeks. It’s very personal and neighborly.”31 This provides patrons with psychological security while marking territory.32 Various studies have found the perception of safety 28 29 30 31 32

Horovitz, Horovitz, Horovitz, Vikas and Jennifer, 795. Vikas and Jennifer, 781.

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Thesis Paper | The Market at Main Street

to be negatively affected by the lack of personalization and care resulting in the presence of litter, graffiti, vandalism, and poorly maintained buildings.33 Personalization is familiar, original, and identifiable among other places while encouraging conversation and adding interest to the activities of the place. Designers can create an essence of personalization through branding, signage, and displays to give shop owners opportunity to showcase their goods. Another important characteristic of third place environments is the essence of social life that radiates visually and energetically from the place. Permeable street façades reveal the interior to the exterior such that people on the street are able to sense what is going on and understand the activities inside the buildings.

Designers can create

permeability with interactive storefront displays and spacious, open entryways. Emphasizing flow in the interior with varying ceiling heights, wall, signage, and other way-finding cues can also communicate social activity and gathering behavior. In addition to a sense of social liveliness, another distinguishing quality of the third place is the outdoor element. Another local resident in Mehta and Bosson study notes that, “Outdoor seating makes patrons more visible and several empirical studies show that people are attracted to places with people in them.”34 Gathering behavior can also be inspired through thoughtful form in design. In Antonio Gaudi’s Parc Guell in Barcelona, Spain, organic undulating benches were designed to curve and sway to create nooks for people to gather and converse.35 The serpentine design purposefully facilitates the formation of conversational groups. The benches are integrated into the park boundaries and seem to ebb and flow with the active and colorful lifestyle of the locals. Human needs and human satisfaction are carefully considered as the design acts as the medium that facilitates the interaction of people with place as well as between the people of that place.36 As the design medium engages the inhabitants, the spirit of a 33 34 35

Vikas and Jennifer, 781. Vikas and Jennifer, 783. James Johnson Sweeney and Josep Lluis Sert, Anotni Gaudi. (Praeger: New York, 1970): 141. 36 James and Josep, 141.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

living place becomes one with the people of that place. An individual and his or her environment are not separate entities; rather, they absorb in a dynamic, reciprocal relationship. Gaudi often envisioned his buildings animated with life. He believed that an architecture that is more alive can add delight to the environment, unlike the majority of buildings we see around us that are a result of “careful and factual but dull analysis”.37 Living architecture grown from careful analysis of social dynamics acclimates to change. Living social environments facilitate the interaction of individuals and place as seen in Gaudi’s Parc Guell. Sensory interaction is another signifying component of a third place environment. Mehta and Bosson continue to illustrate that many third places left their doors or windows wide open, letting people outside see and hear the activities inside and in some cases, smell the goods for sale. One user of the area comments, “Some stores have no communion with the sidewalk environment. I walk by but feel shut out. There’s not enough interaction.”38 Permeable interiors that interact with the entryway encourage curious onlookers to interact with the place and the people of that place. Softening the medium between the interior and exterior diminishes alienating barriers.39 In his book, Oldenburg notes that informal social spaces tend to surrender the presence of outward statuses or leveling, allowing equality among inhabitants and a romantic interior full of lively, scintillating, colorful, and sensually engaging conversation.40 This blending of boundaries and physical sensory engagement further contributes to the life of the space. When creating an interactive social space, designers must be cautious of monumentality in design. The visual image often overpowers the actual experience. For example, Moshe Safdie’s Habitat ’67 in Canada is a highly energized answer to the problem of separation in apartment living by creating an environment that appears to grow and materialize like a community of living organisms. However, this solution is visual – it lets the viewer see differentiated dwellings, but it does not let the viewer

37 38 39 40

James and Josep, 174. Vikas and Jennifer, 798. Vikas and Jennifer, 799. Ray, 26.

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Thesis Paper | The Market at Main Street

experience the illusion of the activity or feel oriented in place.41 Monumentality in architecture may be visually memorable, but this does not make it meaningful. As Pallasmaa states, “every place can be remembered, partly because it is unique, but partly because it has affected our bodies and generated enough associations to hold it in our personal worlds.”42 The human senses of touch, taste, smell, sound, and sight enhance our emotional connections to place in an intimate and multidimensional experience. A sense of place, as the phrase suggests, does indeed emerge from the senses.43 Safdie’s Habitat ’67 visually excites the memory of the observer but sensually separates the experience of interaction necessary to create gathering and bonding behavior. The design appears to theoretically enhance the social lives of the inhabitants while in reality, these spaces spatially separate individuals. According to Jan Lakin, author of the article “Retaking Place,” an open design concept was a radical notion not too long ago. Now, designed space for a broad spectrum of programs, including restaurants, offices, libraries cafes, retail, and healthcare facilities examined in the article, all accommodate flexible, open design concepts to encourage community, physical collaboration, and inevitable change. Design possibilities include permeable interior walls, such as frosted, etched, or clear glass partitions, have the capacity to visually link public spaces while differentiating between different zones.44 Flowing open floor plans can also establish an inviting communal place. Lakin also discusses current trends in design that explore “hubs” – highly-specific mini-environments designed for less than ten people in opposition to a huge monumental space.45 This organization allows people to “find their own kind of space” and different “speeds of being there.”46 In other words, accommodating spaces are the most useful and inviting. These collaborative design guidelines can easily be layered with Oldenburg’s third place design concepts to create an essence of community. Lakin’s most important message to designers is to design with 41 42 43 44 45 46

Kent and Charles, 138. Juhani, 41. Lippard, 34. Jan Lakin, “Retaking Place.” Perspective, (2012): 37. Lankin, 38. Lankin, 39.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

evolution in mind. Interior spaces must be transformative and explore design solutions that can easily accommodate change of activity and user needs. Flexible furnishings, adjustable tables, pivoting screens, and moveable partitions are potential opportunities for this. “You need to make space adjustable and be willing to break from established models, since new technologies will inevitably change room configurations and impact space planning,” says International Interior Design Association (IIDA) president Felice Silverman. As virtual technology continues to grow in daily use, changing from old to new version, our designed spaces must also reflect and anticipate inescapable change. Lankin concludes by saying, “It is important to begin design with human needs, not with virtual technologies. This focus might help designers think twice about how technology, if not well designed and thoughtfully integrated into physical places, can undermine its potential to connect us, ultimately negating what makes places unique and irreplaceable.”47

Conclusion It is essential for designers today to emphasize the importance of social physical place. “Today, if you perceive a sharp distinction between real and virtual space, you are definitely an old consumer,” says Lance Boge, an independent consultant specializing in retail design.48 Although online social networking connects individuals in a virtual world, design has the capacity to connect people in a living, physical “third place” social environment. Essentially what “third places” want to create are meaningful experiences. Winnifred Gallagher, author of “The Power of Place,” summarizes this insightful idea by writing, “The basic principle that links our places and states is simple: a good or bad environment promotes good or bad memories, which inspire a good or bad mood, which inclines us toward good or bad behavior.49 The project goal is to create an interior environment representative of a forum, hearth, or marketplace full of social and cultural activity that will encourage the good experiences that Gallagher discusses. This “Marketplace” will facilitate the exchange of 47 48 49

Lankin, “Retaking Place.” Lankin, 37. Winifred Gallagher, The Power of Place: How Our Surroundings Shape Our Thoughts, Emotions, and Actions. (Poseidon Press: New York, 1993): 132.

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Thesis Paper | The Market at Main Street

cultural and social practices in a face-to-face, full-bodied, unique, sensory experience, rather than the flat, dimensionless online virtual experience. Ultimately, the inhabitants will unplug and renew the desire to cultivate and embrace the value of social public spheres. Interior spaces will include a restaurant, cafĂŠ, bar, lounge, gallery exhibition space, small stage for live performances, and a book store. These spaces are the most likely settings to harvest “third placeâ€? characteristics and public social interaction. Although the Internet may create the illusion of place, this cybernetic space warps the human perception of real-time place and faceto-face interactions. Technological tools distract individuals from the haptic experience of the people and places that we interact with every day. Therefore, contemporary public social place needs to take design inspiration from traditional successful third place environments layered with concepts of living design to empower communal exchange between people and place. Developing these relationships will renew the arts of culture, commensality, and conversation. Employing architectural form, body language, texture, context, and other expressive design elements will communicate liveliness while traditional third place qualities such as permeability, communion, originality, and sensory engagement will mobilize communal social activity. Transferring the converging activity of the individual experience of the Internet and mobile devices back to the hearth of the social realm will electrify the unity of people, place, and design as the occupants release from their virtual worlds and experience the dimensions of living design.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Works Cited Cheek, Lawrence, “On Architecture: Starbucks puts a double shot of hometown flavor into every store,” SeattlePI, 25 April 2005. Web. <http://www.seattlepi.com/ae/article/On-Architecture- Starbucks-puts-a-double-shot-of-1171711.php> Gallagher, Winifred. “How Places Affect People.” Architectural Record (1999): 74-75. —. The Power of Place: How Our Surroundings Shape Our Thoughts, Emotions, and Actions. New York: Poseidon Press, 1993. Horovitz, Bruce, “McDonald’s revamps stores to look more upscale,” USA Today, 9 June 2011. Web. <http://www.usatoday.com/ money/industries/food/2011-05-06-mcdonalds-revamp_n.htm> Lees, Loretta. “Towards a Critical Geography of Architecture: The Case of an Ersatz Colosseum.” Cultural Geographies (2001): 51-56. Lippard, Lucy R. The Lure of the Local: Sense of Place in a Multicentered Society. New Press, 1997. Mehta, Vikas and Jennifer K. Bosson. “Third Places and the Social Life of Streets.” Environment and Behavior (2009): 779-805. Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place. New York: Paragon House, 1989. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Great Britain: Wiley-Academy, 2005. Putname, Robert D. Bowling Alone: The Collapse of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000. Sweeney, James Johnson and Josep Lluis Sert. Antoni Gaudi. New York: Praeger, 1970. Turkle, Sherry, Alone Together: Why We Expect More From Technology and Less From Each Other. New York: Basic Books, 2011. Varnelis, Kazys and Anne Friedberg. “Place: The Networking of Public Space.” Networked Publics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008. 15-42. Waxman, Lisa, “The Coffee Shop: Social and Physical Factors Influencing Place Attachment,” Journal of Interior Design, (2006): 42-53.

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E X ISTIN G SITE


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | A l l y s o n F a i r w e a t h e r Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Figure 17 Site map of the Guastavino Tile Factory in Woburn, MA

Location

Location

660 Main Street is an old factory building built in the early 1900s by the Guastavino family in Woburn, MA.

Now the building is used as a

commercial office headquarters for Tocci Building Company. The site in unique to Main Street as it is one of the only buildings surrounded completely by a natural landscape in a private wooded nook of trees, plants, and a garden.

History

History

Rafael Guastavino came to the US in 1888 as an innovative architect and engineer fascinated with developing new techniques for ancient roman vaulted ceilings and spiral staircases. Guastavinoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work captured the eyes of many famous American architects.

In addition to his vaulting

techniques, Guastavino also introduced one of the most popular ceramic tile manufacturing companies of the first half of the 20th century, most noticeably during the Beaux Arts movement. His works can be seen in over 1,000 buildings across the US, including the Boston Public Library, Grand Central Station in New York, the Nebraska State Capitol dome, and hundreds of other significant buildings. Guastavinoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main factory was located in Woburn, MA for over fifty years.

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PROJECT


E x i s t i n gExisting S i t e CSite o n d i |t iThe o n sMarket | The â&#x20AC;&#x153;Marketplaceâ&#x20AC;? at Main Street

The Guastavino Tile Factory site was located in Woburn because of the proximity of the adjacent railroad and the Middlesex Canal. The factory is a long rectangular building with large semi-circular arched windows admitting plentiful natural light. This characteristic was unusual for the time, however, Guastavino believed in the importance of occupant comfort. He wanted his factory workers to be able to enjoy a view of the outdoors during their strenuous hours of labor. Figure 18 Map showing the location of the Guastavino Tile Factory. The site is located on Main Street in Woburn, MA.

Exterior Building Conditions

Exterior Building Conditions

The shell of the building is constructed of brick, stone, and other heavy masonry components.

An addition in the early 2000s contrasts

contemporary lightweight corrugated metals and glazing systems to the existing historic, solid exterior.

As mentioned earlier, large arched

windows and skylights allow ample natural light and views to the surrounding landscape. There are two main entrances, a loading dock, several parking areas, and a primary and secondary access road. Although the Guastavino Tile Factory deserves to be part of the Historic Building Preservation, during the renovation in 1999 a misunderstanding led to its disproval from the registry. The dormers added to the front of the building were considered damaging to the historical integrity of the building according to the Historic Building Preservation.

PROPOSAL

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Applying of Living Design in Public Informal SocialDynamics Life | A lto l y Built s o n Environments F a i r w e a t h e r| Allyson Fairweather ThirdConcepts Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social

Back Entrance

Back Entrance

Figure 19 View from back parking lot

Figure 20 Detal of arched windows on first floor and masonry materials

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PROJECT


E x i s tExisting i n g S i tSite e C o n| dThe i t i oMarket n s | The at “Marketplace” Main Street

Front Entrance

Front Entrance

Figure 21 View of front

Drawing provided by Tocci Building Corporation

Figure 22 View of front entry

PROPOSAL

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Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | A l l y s o n F a i r w e a t h e r Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Life to | ABuilt l l y sEnvironments o n F a i r w e a t|h Allyson er Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of SocialSocial Dynamics Fairweather

Two-Story Vault

Two-Story Two-Story Vaul Vaultt

Figure 23 Ceramic tile vaulted ceiling Figure 23 Ceramic tile vaulted ceiling

Exterior Elevation

Exteri Exterioorr ElEleevati vatioonn Drawing provided Drawing provided by Tocci Building by Tocci Building Corporation Corporation

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PP RR O O JJ EE C C TT


E x i sExisting t i n g S i tSite e C o |n d itio n s | The “Marketplace” The Market at Main Street

Building Section

Building Section

Drawing provided by Tocci Building Corporation

Second Level

Second Floor Interior

Figure 24 Second floor

PROPOSAL

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ng gofSS Social oDynamics nd d ii tt ii o on n ssto|| Built The Environments “Marketplace” | Allyson Fairweather EE xx ii ss tt ii n ii tt ee CC o n The “Marketplace” Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts

Two Story Mezzanine

Two-Story Mezzanine

Figure Figure 27 27 Vaulted Vaulted Ceiling Ceiling

Figure Figure 28 28 Entryway Entryway Archways Archways

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PROPOSAL


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | A l l y s o n F a i r w e a t h e r Existing Site | The Market at Main Street

First FloorWindows & Archways

First Floor Windows & Archways

Figure 29 First Floor

Figure 30 First floor ar windows

First Floor Interior Elevation

First Floor Interior Elevation

Drawing pro by Tocci Bui Corporation

PROJECT

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E x i s tof i nSocial g S i t eDynamics C o n d i t ito o nBuilt s | The â&#x20AC;&#x153;Marketplaceâ&#x20AC;? Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts Environments | Allyson Fairweather

First Floor Archways

First Floor Archways

ing provided occi Building Corporation

Figure 31 g Archways

Vertical Egress

Vertical Egress

g provided cci Building orporation

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PROPOSAL


SQ U AR E F O OTAG ES & P R O G R A M M IN G


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

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Square Footages & Programming | The Market at Main Street

Cafe Program Items to address:  What types of food/drink will be sold? Is this a coffee shop atmosphere?  Who is the target café-goer? Is this a café for younger generations, older generations, or both?  How will the café overlap with the gallery and library?  How will acoustics be treated in these overlaps?  Will the noise from the stage interfere with the other spaces in the Marketplace?  What type of seating will there be around the stage? Will there be tables?  Is the stage accessible from any of the other spaces in the program?  If there is a performance stage, will there be a separate section of seating?  How will lighting be addressed?  The atmosphere of the café will dictate the vibrancy of the social activity within – how will this relate to the adjacent spaces? What type of atmosphere will the café have?  How will the space transform from casual café seating to other social functions, i.e. wine tasting event or a live performance?  Should there be more than one entry to the café to accommodate late night patrons after the library and gallery close? Type of Space

Seating areas

Service Bar

Restrooms

Activities

Space

Number of Units

Occupants per Unit

Total Number of Occupants

Unit Square Feet

Total Square Feet

10

10

100

15 SF

1500 SF

10

15 SF

150 SF

-

130 SF

260 SF

Informal gathering, waiting tables

Banquette seating, moveable tables, booths, lounge chairs and comfortable furniture

Preparing drinks, serving food, entertaining guests

Bar seating, bar tables, drink prep counter, dishwasher, clean glasses and silverware, product display, cash register

1

10 (3 Café employees and 7 Guests)

-

1 Water closet per 40 occupants

2

-

33


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Kitchen

Includes washroom and preparation of food

Stage

Storage

Manager’s Office

Circulation

34

Live music performances, comedy, poetry, and other arts For storage of food and café products Oversees Café Operations

-

Stove, oven, deep fryer, preparation counters, freezer, walk-in refrigerators, trays, plates, glass, and silverware, hand washing sinks, dish washing sink

1

4

4

200 SF

800 SF

15 SF

105 SF

Platform, microphone, speakers, stool

1

7

7

Shelving and floor space

1

-

-

-

100 SF

Desk with return, computer, filing, seating for one guest

1

1

1

-

100 SF

Sub Total:

3,010 SF

-

-

# of Occupants:

128

-

-

20% of Sub Total TOTAL:

602 SF 3,612 SF


Square Footages & Programming | The Market at Main Street

Gallery Program Items to address:  How will the gallery space interact with the bookstore and café?  Will the gallery be a quiet space or an interactive space involved in the curious guests of the adjacent activities?  How will lighting be addressed?  Is there an opportunity to extend a portion of the casual café seating into the gallery so that the patrons are gathering amongst the exhibition display?  What types of events will take place in the gallery other than exhibitions? Type of Space

Activities

Space

Number of Units

Occupants per Unit

Total Number of Occupants

Unit Square Feet

Total Square Feet

Display of exhibition work

Wall mounting space, display cases, casual seating, proper lighting, ambiance

8

8

64

15 SF

960 SF

Reception

Greeting of guests, registration, gallery information, coat check

Reception desk for two, under counter storage, computer, cash register, coat rack

1

2

2

50 SF

100 SF

Managers Office

Organization of gallery exhibitions

Desk with return, filing, shelving, seating for two guests

1

3

3

33 SF

100 SF

Shelving, mounting supplies, displays, etc.

1

1

1

100 SF

100 SF

70

Sub Total: 30% of Sub Total TOTAL:

1,260 SF

-

# of Occupants: -

Open Gallery

Storage

Circulation

-

-

-

378 SF 1,638 SF

35


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Bo okstore Program Items to address:  This will be the quietest space in the program  How will the bookstore interact with the café and gallery?  How will security be addressed in the bookstore?  Are the café and bookstore completely separate spaces or are they intertwined? Can coffee and books be purchased from the same counter?  Will there be items related to the gallery space for sale at the bookstore?

Type of Space

Activities

Space

Number of Units

Occupants per Unit

Total Number of Occupants

Unit Square Feet

Total Square Feet

Purchase books, search bookstore inventory

Check-out counter for two, under counter storage, computer/ cash register (1)

1

2

2

20 SF

40 SF

Display of books

Shelving

12

10

120

15 SF

1,800 SF

Seating areas

Group or individual

Small and large tables, desk lamps, lounge chairs, coffee tables

5-6

6

33

15 SF

500 SF

Managers Office

Oversees bookstore operations

Desk with return, computer, filing, seating for one guest

1

2

2

50 SF

100 SF

Storage

Storage of bookstore supplies and products

Shelving and floor space

1

-

-

-

300 SF

Shared Café/ Bookstore Space

Lounge space in between Café and Bookstore that allows for informal gathering

Bench, lounge chairs, bar seating, secure display of art, pivoting doors between spaces

1

33

33

15 SF

500 SF

Check-out

Book display

36


Square Footages & Programming | The Market at Main Street

Circulation

-

-

-

# of Occupants

190

-

-

Sub Total: 20% of Sub Total TOTAL:

3,240SF 648 SF 3,888 SF

Misc. Shared Public Spaces Items to address:  Is there a reception desk in the main entry of the building or is there a guided kiosk?  Where will the mechanical and electrical closets be in the program?  Is there a need for additional storage?  Will the gallery, library, and café each have separate entrances or will these spaces collaborate as one, requiring only one entry in the reception area?  How will the shared entrance support both this program and other potential tenants in the unused square footage of the building?  Will the lobby be on both floors or only the first floor?

Type of Space

Activities

Total Number of

Space

Unit

Total

Bank Transactions

ATM machine

1

-

-

-

50 SF

Public Restrooms

-

Existing

2

-

-

296 SF

592 SF

Facility Storage

-

-

-

-

-

-

200 SF

Janitorial Closet

Cleaning supplies

-

-

-

-

30 SF

1

1

1

-

150 SF

-

1

-

-

-

90 SF

Kiosk

1

-

-

-

100 SF

Sub Total: 20 % of Sub Total

1,212 SF

ATM

Facilities Manager Office Mechanical/ Electrical Closet Directory

Circulation

Storage of mechanical/ electrical equipment Directory assistance

-

Sink, shelving Desk with return,

-

-

-

-

TOTAL:

242 SF 1,454 SF

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Overall â&#x20AC;&#x153;Marketplaceâ&#x20AC;? Program (Approximate Total SF of Existing First Floor is ~12,428 SF)

38

Overall Estimated Total for Marketplace Program:

10,592 SF


CO N CEPT DE V ELO PM ENT


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

DE CO N STR U CTED P IN W HEEL The deconstructed pinwheel revolves outward on each corner to illustrate a dynamic evolution of growth, interdependence, openness, and energy. Various degrees of unfolding produce various degrees of open or closed interaction. This continually changing cycle of regeneration represents collaborative relationship dynamics and the power of synergy in form.

R ADI ANT INTER ACTIV E EVO LV IN G

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Concept Development | The Market at Main Street

41


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

M O O D B OAR D

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SCHEM ATIC DESIG N


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Bubble Diagram Step 1

Bubble Diagram Step 2

Bubble Diagram Step 3

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Schematic Design | The Market at Main Street

Bubble Diagram Step 4

Bubble Diagram Step 5

Bubble Diagram Step 6

45


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Cafe Nook Sketch

Gallery Nook Sketch

Bookstore Reading Nook Sketch

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Schematic Design | The Market at Main Street

Bookstore Entrance

Gallery Pivoting Wall

47


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Bookstore Custom Shelf Unit

Bookstore Custom Shelf Unit

48


Schematic Design | The Market at Main Street

Cafe Pivoting Doors

Cafe Pivoting Doors

49


SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CODES Note: Information taken from Massachusetts CMR 521


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

RESTAURANTS

17.1 GENERAL Restaurants shall include, but not be limited to, cafeterias, lounges, bars, and other places open to the public where food or beverages are served. 17.2 SEATING At least 5% but not less than one, of the tables shall be accessible, be on an accessible route, and in compliance with the following: 17.2.1 17.2.2

Distribution: Accessible tables shall be distributed by size and location throughout the space or facility. A 36 inch (36” = 914mm) access aisle shall be provided between all accessible tables. No seating shall overlap the access aisle. See Fig. 17a.

17.2.4

17.2.5

52

Knee Clearances: If seating for people in wheelchairs is provided at tables or counters, knee spaces at least 27 inches (27” = 686mm) high, 30 inches (30” = 762mm) wide, and 19 inches (19” = 483mm) deep shall be provided. See Fig. 17b. Height of Tables or Counters: The tops of accessible tables and counters shall be from 28 inches to 34 inches (28” to 34” = 711mm to 864mm) above the finish floor or ground. See Fig 17b.


Code Analysis | The Market at Main Street

17.3

DINING COUNTERS WITHOUT SERVICE At counters where food is consumed but there is no service, a 60 inch (60” = 1524mm) portion of the dining counter shall be accessible, on an accessible route, and in compliance.

17.4

COUNTERS AND BARS WITH SERVICE At counters exceeding 34 inches (34” = 864mm) in height, where food or drink is served for consumption by customers seated on stools or standing at the counter, a portion of the main counter shall be accessible or service shall be available at accessible tables within the same area. The accessible portion shall be a minimum of 60 inches (60” = 1524mm) in length and comply with 521 CMR 17.2.4 and 17.2.5.

17.5

DINING AREAS All dining areas, including raised or sunken dining areas, mezzanines, loggias, and outdoor seating areas, shall be accessible.

17.7

TABLEWARE AND CONDIMENT AREAS Self‑service shelves and dispensing devices for tableware, dishware, condiments, food and beverages shall be installed to comply with zone of reach as defined in 521 CMR 5.00:   DEFINITIONS. See Fig. 17d.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

17.8

RAISED PLATFORMS Where a head table or speaker’s lectern is located on a raised platform, the platform shall be accessible in compliance with 521 CMR 24.00:  RAMPS, or 521 CMR 28.00:  ELEVATORS. Open edges of a raised platform shall be protected by a curb or by placement of tables.

17.9

VENDING MACHINES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT Spaces for vending machines and other equipment shall be located on an accessible route and shall comply with zone of reach as defined in 521 CMR 5.00:  DEFINITIONS.

17.10

CASH REGISTER Where payment is made at a cash register, the counter shall be no higher than 36 inches (36” = 914mm) from the floor to the top of the counter. See Fig. 17e.

RETAIL ESTABLISHMENTS

GENERAL Retail establishments shall include but not be limited to: banks, beauty shops, pharmacies, dry cleaners, clothing stores, grocery stores and supermarkets.

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Code Analysis | The Market at Main Street

7.2

SALES SERVICE AND INFORMATION, OR TELLER WINDOWS Shall comply with the following:

7.2.1

Cash register transactions: See Fig. 7a and 7b.

a. b. c. d.

Location: The counter shall be on an accessible route complying with 521 CMR 20.00:  ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. Length: A portion of the counter shall be at least 36 inches (36” = 914mm) in length and be located closest or nearest the cash register. Height: That portion of the counter shall not exceed 36 inches (36” = 914mm) above the finish floor. Distribution: The accessible counters must be dispersed throughout the building or facility.

7.3 AISLES All aisles in retail establishments shall have a minimum clear width of 36 inches (36” = 914mm). Such aisles shall be maintained at all times to provide a clear width of 36 (36” = 914mm) inches. 7.7

SHELVING AND DISPLAY UNITS In retail establishments shelving and display units shall be located on an accessible route. The requirements of 521 CMR 6.5, Forward Reach and 521 CMR 6.6, Side Reach shall apply to those display units encouraging interactive participation including but not limited to, devices such as headphones in stores which sell music tapes and compact disks.

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

SPACE ALLOWANCE & REACH RANGES 6.1

WHEELCHAIR PASSAGE WIDTH - See Fig. 6a.

6.2

WIDTH FOR WHEELCHAIR PASSING The minimum width for two wheelchairs to pass is 60 inches (60” = 1524mm) See Fig. 6b.

6.3

WHEELCHAIR TURNING SPACE The space required for a wheelchair to make a 180‑degree turn is a clear space of 60 inches (60” = 1524mm) diameter (See Fig. 6c) or a T‑shaped space. See Fig. 6d.

6.4

CLEAR FLOOR OR GROUND SPACE FOR WHEELCHAIRS shall comply with the following:

6.4.1

Size and Approach: The minimum clear floor or ground space required to accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair and occupant is 30 inches by 48 inches (30” x 48” = 762mm x 1219mm) (See Fig. 6e). The minimum clear floor or ground space for wheelchairs may be positioned for forward or parallel approach to an object (See Fig. 6f and 6g). Clear floor or ground space for wheelchairs may be part of the knee space required under objects.

56


Code Analysis | The Market at Main Street

6.5

FORWARD REACH If the clear floor space only allows forward approach to an object, the maximum high forward reach allowed shall be 48 inches (48â&#x20AC;? = 1219mm) (See Fig. 6k). The minimum low forward reach is 15 inches (15â&#x20AC;? = 381mm). If the high forward reach is over an obstruction, reach and clearances shall be as shown in Fig. 6l.

57


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

6.6

SIDE REACH If the clear floor space allows parallel approach by a person in a wheelchair, the maximum high side reach allowed shall be 54 inches (54â&#x20AC;? = 1372mm) and the low side reach shall be no less than nine inches (9â&#x20AC;? = 229mm) above the floor (See Fig. 6m). If the side reach is over an obstruction, the reach and clearances shall be as shown in Fig. 6n.

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DESIG N DE V ELO PM ENT : PROXEMICS, THIRD PLACE, & LIVING DESIGN Overlapping concepts of “third place” theory, “livinf design,” and human Proxemics plays an essential role in the design of the Market at Main Street. The circular symbols on the floor plan represent examples of areas designed with social activity in mind.


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

THIRD PLACE The Market at Main Street design identifies physical and social qualities of interior social environments that positively promote gathering behavior and social interaction. These gathering places, with the potential to enhance connections to place and bonds between people, are called “third places.” In The Great Good Place, urban sociologist Ray Oldenburg defines these pleasurable social environments as a place of refuge where people can regularly visit and commune with friends, neighbors, coworkers, and even strangers. Third places most often offer a place to relax from the more formal roles of life and the opportunity for control or anonymity. Some major characteristics of Ray Oldenburg’s “third place” theory include: conversation as the main activity, accessibility and accommodation, keeps a low profile, maintains a playful mood, acts as a social leveler, hosts a stream of regulars, and acts as a home away from home. Examples of these places are usually small businesses including cafés, coffee shops, local convenient stores, book shops, bars, and other places for social gathering. To create an atmosphere fit for community gathering, designers must understand the social and physical characteristics of place that enhance the occupants experience. By better understanding those components that contribute to positive place experiences, designers can create spaces that promote comfort, gathering behavior, a sense of belonging, and a bond between people and place.

60


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

LIVING DESIGN Gathering behavior can also be inspired through thoughtful form in design. In Antonio Gaudi’s Parc Guell in Barcelona, Spain, organic undulating benches were designed to curve and sway to create nooks for people to gather and converse. The serpentine design purposefully facilitates the formation of conversational groups. The benches are integrated into the park boundaries and seem to ebb and flow with the active and colorful lifestyle of the locals. Human needs and human satisfaction are carefully considered as the design acts as the medium that facilitates the interaction of people with place as well as between the people of that place. As the design medium engages the inhabitants, the spirit of a living place becomes one with the people of that place. An individual and his or her environment are not separate entities; rather, they absorb in a dynamic, reciprocal relationship. Gaudi often envisioned his buildings animated with life. He believed that an architecture that is more alive can add delight to the environment, unlike the majority of buildings we see around us that are a result of “careful and factual but dull analysis”. Living architecture grown from careful analysis of social dynamics acclimates to change. Living social environments facilitate the interaction of individuals and place as seen in Gaudi’s Parc Guell.

Parc Guel, Barcelona, Spain

61


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

PROXEMICS

Intimate Space is a radius of 1’-6” where lovers, family, small children, and close friends are allowed to enter.

Personal Space is a protected area with a radius of 4’-0” where strangers are not welcome.

Social Space is a range of space with a radius of 12’-0” in which most public interactions occur. Speech and expression are clear and communications are efficient and accurate.

Public distance is the range of space where it is not considered rude to ignore someone; and it does not allow interaction.

62


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

First Flo or Plan 0’ 2’ 4’

8’

16’

63


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

Flo or Plan Legend

RCP Legend

16â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

64


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

First Flo or RCP 2’ 4’

8’

65


DESIG N DE V ELO PM ENT : RESEARCH INSPIRED DESIGN The following pages identify and describe the most important design elements found in the Market at Main Street. This information ties together the thesis paper with the designed space. Each category is accompanied by a symbol that appears in drawings and text throughout the design development phase. Refer back to these pages to understand the influence behind each design decision.


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

NOOK Conversational seating arrangements, also referred to as “nooks” or “hubs,” are mini-environments designed for less than ten people. This spacial organization encourages gathering behavior through angled and circular form. Similar to Antoni Guadi’s benches at Parc Guell, these areas are integrated into the design Design possibilities in the Main Street Market include various areas in the cafe, lounge, and bookstore.

Diagram of Conversational Seating Nooks

Enlarged Plan of Custom Bookshelf

68


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

Elevation of Custom Bookshelf - A

Elevation of Custom Bookshelf - B

Section at Custom Bookshelf

69


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

FLEXIBILITY

Furniture comfort is also a key component to enjoying social space. Moveable chairs are a desired form of seating due to the choice, flexibility, and comfort they offer. Flexible furnishings allow visitors to create their â&#x20AC;&#x153;own pace of being there.â&#x20AC;? Creating the opportunity for controlling and customizing the physical environment improves an individuals experience of the space while encouraging interaction with the place and people. Flexible furnishings also enhance the adaptability of the design. For example, the Main Street Market ottoman can be stored beneath tables when not in use, allowing a range of activities to occur. Another example can be seen in the cafe seating area where tables and chairs can be freely rearranged.

Elevation of Cafe Seating

Enlarged Plan of Custom Display Table

70


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

Section at Custom Display Table

Elevation A of Custom Display Table

71


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

PERMEABILITY

Permeable interiors that overlap with adjacent spaces encourage curious onlookers to interact with the place and the people of that place. Softening the medium between interior spaces diminishes alienating barriers. In his book, Ray Oldenburg notes that informal social spaces tend to surrender the presence of outward statuses or leveling, allowing equality among inhabitants and a romantic interior full of lively, scintillating, colorful, and sensually engaging conversation. This blending of boundaries and physical sensory engagement further contributes to the life of the space. Designers can create permeability with interactive and spacious, open entryways, pivoting doors, and glass partitions to give the essence of connectivity while defining different zones. Enlarged Plan of Pivoting Doors

72


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

ADAPTABILITY Social environments must be designed with evolution in mind. Interior spaces must be transformative and explore design solutions that can easily accommodate change of activity and user needs. Flexible furnishings, adjustable tables, open floor plans, pivoting screens, and moveable partitions are potential opportunities for this. Adaptability allows for flexible, open design concepts to encourage community, physical collaboration, and inevitable change. The Main Street Market utilizes pivoting and folding doors to transform from intimate, private settings to open, social spaces in both the cafe, shared space, and gallery.

Enlarged Plan of Folding Doors Open

Enlarged Plan of Folding Doors Closed

73


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

MATERIALS Studies show that cleanliness is one of the top priorities of a successful social interior environment. It is important to specify materials that are easy to clean or that have colors/patterns that hide dirt. Since the Main Street Market employs different types of moving furniture and flexible partitions, it is also important to specify durable floor materials to prevent damage and wear. Color can be expressed in material selection. Warm tones, such as red and burgundy inspire energy, motive action, and excites the human emotions. Splashes of golden orange ignite feelings of happiness and social connectivity.

ACOUSTICS

Pleasant acoustics are essential in social environments. Sounds of activity, depending on the mood of the atmosphere, can either be inviting or bothersome. Sound absorbing materials such as carpet, fabric acoustic panels, and sound diffusers are used throughout the space to control uninviting noise. Ambient music is another element to include to help set the mood for visitors.

SENSE OF PLACE

The human senses of touch, taste, smell, sound, and sight enhance our emotional connections to place in an intimate and multi-dimensional experience. A sense of place, as the phrase suggests, does indeed emerge from the senses. The cafe food services will provide stimulating aromas of fresh ground coffee bean to stimulate taste and smell while the bookstore stimulates the sense of touch as visitors browse the shelves of books. The gallery excites the sense of sight. These activities combined with social interaction make the Main Street Market an unforgettable experience.

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Design Development | The Market at Main Street

LIGHTING

Adequate lighting for the activities of a social interior are essential for the comfort and success of the space. The reading nooks in the bookstore provide adjustable wall mounted desk lamps for users to customize for his or her own needs. Lighting can also act as a way finding tool or space deifying cue.

Elevation of Bookstore Reading Nook

CEILING DESIGN

One example that cultivates gathering behavior is varying ceiling heights to differentiate between individual spaces. Open areas under high ceilings provide emotional release as visitors move through the space to find his or her â&#x20AC;&#x153;nook.â&#x20AC;? Variations in design create variations in feeling that make the interiors interesting and promote the positive experiences found in the third place environment.

Cafe Seating Beyond Bar

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Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

VIEWS OF NATURE Studies show that providing views to the outdoors and access to natural light contributes to a healthy interior environment. In the cafe, the existing storefront glazing and rear windows are lined with seating. Not only do visitors have views of the outdoors, but potential visitors approaching from the exterior can catch a glimpse of the activity within, further encouraging interaction with the place.

Cafe Dining Room

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Design Development | The Market at Main Street

77


DESIG N DE V ELO PM ENT : FOCUS AREAS The Market at Main Street Gallery, Bookstore, Cafe, and Shared Space intertwine in a synergetic organizational layout. The space plan works to facilitate the end user activities and social interaction occurring within the space. Refer back to the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Research Inspired Designâ&#x20AC;? portion of the Design Development phase for more design decision details.


Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather

Th e M a in St re et M a r k et Sh a re d S p a ce Lobby Northwest Entrance Elevation

Lobby Entrance Northeast Elevation

Alternate Shared Space Plan

80


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

It is important to select durable materials, particularly on the floor, to protect from wear when rearranging the space. The shared space and lobby will receive the most traffic flow. The entryways to both the cafe and the gallery are sliding pocket doors the recede seamlessly into the walls. This increases flow and an essence of community between each area of the Main Street Market. The shared space can remain an open area or can be transformed into a small function hall or dining area. This creates the opportunity for a variety of user activities.

Shared Space Flo or Plan 81


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

SS-3

WV-1

CN-1

PT-4

CN-3

WV-2

82

ST-1


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

The ceiling design helps highlight the reception desk upon entering the Market.

Lighting adds visual character with large custom fixtures exemplifying the open, communal essence of the shared space.

Lobby RCP 83


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

Th e M a in St re et M a r k et G a ll e r y

84


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

ART

The moveable ottoman allows visitors to comfortably experience the gallery from various perspectives. When not in use, the ottoman is stored beneath the custom display tables. The windows between the bookstore and gallery provide view to the people and activities in the adjacent spaces. This creates the opportunity for curiosity, conversation, and exploration of the space.

Gallery Flo or Plan

The pivoting doors of the private gallery can transform the space into a private meeting area, classroom, or open extension of the main gallery. The adjustability of the space widens the opportunity for various activities to take place.

85


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

FB-1

CN-1

GL-1

CN-3

FB-4

86

WV-2


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

ART

Varying ceiling heights and materials highlight artwork while adding a unique visual element to the space. Sound diffusers on the ceiling help control unwanted noise in one of the most quiet areas in the Main Street Market. Appropriate lighting for artwork and displays is essential for the success of the space. Suspended track systems with adjustable fixtures allow maximum compatibility for the use of the space.

Gallery RCP 87


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

88


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

Building Section at Bo okstore and Gallery 89


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

Th e M a in St re et M a r k et B o o k s to re

90


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

R E AD

The reading nooks are intimate spaces that create the opportunity for gathering behavior. Moveable ottoman allow visitors to adjust the seating arrangements while the book displays and windows to the gallery provide ample spatial interaction. Moveable ottomen are stored beneath table displays and create the opportunity for gathering behavior and a unique experience Views of the adjacent spaces encourage interaction with the different areas of the Main Street Market.

Bo okstore Flo or Plan 91


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

WD-1

WV-1

PT-1

FB-2

PT3

CPT-1

92

CPT-2


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

R E AD

Varying ceiling heights and soffits play an important role in delineating the different spaces of the bookstore. The open area of the bookstore ceiling is higher while the reading nooks have lower, more intimate ceiling designs. Fabric acoustic panels on the ceiling help control unwanted noise in the quiet reading area.

Plentiful lighting creates optimum conditions for reading and browsing the displays. At the reading nook tables, adjustable wall lights help meet the needs of each individual user.

Bo okstore RCP 93


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

Th e M a in St re et M a r k et C a fe

94


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

E AT

The Main Street Market Cafe offers a variety of seating arrangements for a variety of user experiences and needs. Studies show that preferred seats are somewhat sheltered and located near windows and wall. Moveable chairs, tables, and ottoman allow choice, flexibility, and comfort. Both the north and south walls provide views to the outdoors and plentiful natural light.

Cafe Flo or Plan

Folding doors at the lounge and dining room create the opportunity for various activities to occur - both private and public. These interchangeable spaces improve the flexibility and use of the cafe.

95


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

Th e M a in St re et M a r k et Lo u n g e

96


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

E AT

Varying ceiling heights and materials act as a wayfinding tool in the cafe. To highlight the bar as a focal point, the wood veneer floor-toceiling feature elemen t grabs the visitors attention upon entering the space. Contrasting ceiling heights between the lounge/dining area and the main cafe help create different atmostpheres,

Sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch all help form the essence of a special place. The cafe environment will house the most social activity in the Main Street Market and will act as the anchor attracting various types of visitors.

Cafe RCP 97


Applying Concepts of Living Design in Public Informal Social Life | Allyson Fairweather

FB-3

CN-2

FB-5

CN-3

SS-2

98

WD-2


Design Development | The Market at Main Street

Finish Schedule Millwork Tag

Material

Manufacturer

Style

Color

Description

FB-1

Fabric

HBF Textiles

Intersect

Terra Cotta

100% Recycled Polester Terratex

FB-2

Fabric

Luna Textiles

Embarcadero

Brannan

Heavy Duty Contract Use

FB-3

Fabric

Carnegie

Rail Tail

#20

Sustainable; Heavy Duty Contract Use; Contains 75% Post Consumer Recycled Poluester Sustainable; Heavy Duty Contract Use; FB-4

Fabric

Luna Textiles

Hammered Metal

Kupro

Contains 75% Post Consumer Recycled Poluester

P-LAM-1

Plam

Lamin-Art

Textured Finish

P-LAM-2 Plam

Lamin-Art

Chrystalis Finish

SS-1

SolidSurface

WV-1

Veneer/Laminate

Torzo Sustainable Surfaces TreeFrog Lamin-Art

Sand Dune #2453-T Red Oxide #2438A

Hemp

Cocoa

Recycled Content

Wenge FSC

70000

FSC Certified

Figured Makore

WV-2

Veneer

WD-2

Wood

Tag

Material

Manufacturer

Style

Color

Description

CN-1

Stained Concrete

Scofield

Lithochrome Tintura

Light Grey

Low VOC, environmentally-friendly stain

CN-2

Stained Concrete

Scofield

Lithochrome Tintura

Old Hickory

Low VOC, environmentally-friendly stain

CN-3

Stained Concrete

Scofield

Lithochrome Tintura

Wheat

Low VOC, environmentally-friendly stain

New Ground

Beige Ground

Recycled Content;

Jazz Tile

Harmony #30761

24"x24" Carpet Tile; Ashlar

Jazz Tile

Tone #30585

24"x24" Carpet Tile; Ashlar

Sustainable Flooring

Veneer-Art

#922

Strandwoven Timber Millwork Mocha

Pre-Finished Real Wood Veneers FSC Certified

Floors

Fiandre ST-1

Stone

Architectural

24"x6"

Surfaces CPT-1

Carpet

CPT-2

Carpet

Shaw Contract Group Shaw Contract Group

Walls Tag

Material

Manufacturer

Style

Color

Description

GL-1

Glass

SkyLine

Geometrics Eco Etch

Bamboo

Clear bamboo pattern on eco-etch field

GL-2

Glass

SkyLine

Fosiglas

Basalt

Textured pattern with gloss finish

Antique White

PT-1

Paint

Sherwin Williams

PT-2

Paint

Sherwin Williams

PT-3

Paint

Sherwin Williams

PT-4

Paint

Sherwin Williams

PT-5

Paint

Sherwin Williams

WC-1

Wallcovering

Carnegie

Meta

#8

Certified; SCS Indoor Addvantage Gold;

WC-2

Wallcovering

Invironments

Allegory

Starlight

Class A Fire-Rated

WC-3

Wallcovering

D.L.Couch

Tableau

Chestnut

Class A Fire-Rated

WC-4

Wallcovering

D.L.Couch

Coulee

Midnight Metal

Class A Fire-Rated

WS-1

Bonded Quartz

Forms+Surfaces

Bonded White

Crinkle

Tag

Material

Manufacturer

Style

Color

MT-1

Woven Wire

Armstrong

Metalworks Mesh

#6433

SW6119 Well-Bred Brown SW7027 Tatami Tan SW6116 Baked Clay SW6340 Tony Taupe SW7038 Sustainable;

Cradle-to-Cradle ilver

Class A Fire-Rated

Ceilings Description

99

4" Unperferated Plank Suspension System -


PT-3

Paint

Sherwin Williams

PT-4

Paint

Sherwin Williams

PT-5

Paint

Sherwin Williams

WC-1

Wallcovering

WC-2

Tatami Tan SW6116 Baked Clay

SW6340 Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments | Allyson Fairweather Tony Taupe SW7038

Finish Schedule Cont.

Sustainable;

Cradle-to-Cradle ilver

Carnegie

Meta

#8

Certified; SCS Indoor Addvantage Gold;

Wallcovering

Invironments

Allegory

Starlight

Class A Fire-Rated

WC-3

Wallcovering

D.L.Couch

Tableau

Chestnut

Class A Fire-Rated

WC-4

Wallcovering

D.L.Couch

Coulee

Midnight Metal

Class A Fire-Rated

WS-1

Bonded Quartz

Forms+Surfaces

Bonded White

Crinkle

Tag

Material

Manufacturer

Style

Color

MT-1

Woven Wire

Armstrong

Metalworks Mesh

#6433

MT-2

Metal Plank

Armstrong

Metworks Linear

Gun Metal Grey

GYP-1

Gypsum Board

USG

Drywall Suspension System

WD-1

Wood Plank

Armstrong

Woodworks Linear

Class A Fire-Rated

Ceilings

SD-1

Fabric Sound Diffuser

Armstrong

Barrel Diffuser

Style

Description 4" Unperferated Plank Suspension System Class A Fire-Rated High Recycled Content; Fire-Rated

WV-2 Fabric Terra (TR)

Class A Fire-Rated 2' x 2' Tegular system

Furniture Tag

Type

Manufacturer

Color

A-1

Ottoman

Custom

FB-1

A-2

Ottoman

Custom

FB-2

B

Chair

Custom

FB-1

C

Stool

Custom

D

Modular Bench

Davis Furniture

Method

FB-4

T-1

Table

Lowenstein

Roco Table

WD-2

2'-6" x 4'-6"

T-2

Table

Lowenstein

Roco Table

WD-2

2'-6" x 3''-0"

T-3

Table

TBD

WD-2

7'-6" x 3'-0"

FB-2

Flo or Finish Schedule

Ceiling Finish Schedule

100

Description


Synthesis | The Market at Main Street

SYNTHESIS

Winnifred Gallagher, author of The Power of Place,

states, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The basic principle that links our places and states is simple: a good or bad environment promotes good or bad memories, which inspire a good or bad mood, which inclines us toward good or bad behavior.â&#x20AC;? The project goal is to create an interior environment representative of a marketplace full of social and cultural activity that will encourage the good experiences that Gallagher discusses. The Market at Main Street will facilitate the exchange of cultural and social practices in a face-to-face, full-bodied, unique, sensory experience. Important design guidelines include conversational seating arrangements, flexible furniture, natural light, views to the outdoors, appropriate material selection, sensory engagement, and designing with change in mind. With thoughtful and informed design decisions, interior designers have the capacity to unify individuals within the built environment in a sophisticated, cohesive space.

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About Me | The Market at Main Street

AB O UT M E Throughout the course of the senior thesis project, I developed my design identity in great detail. Taking inspiration from past travels and a curiosity for social dynamics, the Main Street Market grew to represent not only my abilities as a designer, but also the type of experiences I enjoy most in life. Although a home-body at heart, I always crave travel and new eye-opening experiences. I am passionate for discovering new landscapes and enjoy learning new skills, both for past-time and professional development. Throughout my education at Endicott, I spent numerous hours peer tutoring younger design students in the hopes of inspiring future generations of designers. Thank you to my professors, peers, friends, and family for your endless support and guidance.

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Allyson Fairweather Senior Thesis  

Third Place Living Design: Applying Concepts of Social Dynamics to Built Environments