Page 1

Y%S ,xldfõ f.dùka i`oyd t<j¿ j.dfõ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh

l¾;D tia'tia' je,s.uf.a ^m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ& me<Eá ixrCIK fiajh .kafkdrej fmardfoKsh

lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m%ldYkhls 2012

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l¾;D tia'tia' je,s.uf.a - ^m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ&

WmfoaYl wdpd¾h frdydka úfÊfldaka

m%ldYkh ieliqu pduÍ ksÆIs is,ajd

;dCIKsl iydh Èiakd r;akisxy - ^úIhdkqnoaO úfYAI{& Wmd,s hdmd - ^m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ& fla'mS' fidaupkaø - ^m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ& iqñ;a chfldä - ^m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ&

ixialrKh wdpd¾h frdydka úfÊfldaka fyauud,d nuqKq wdrÉÑ pduÍ ksÆIs is,ajd

msgq ieliqu pñ,d ;=Idß l=,;=x.

msgljrfha ldgQka ks¾udKh wurodi ySkqlajej

msgljr mß.Kl ieliqu yd Ñ;% .hdks È,areCIs Bßh.u

ks¾udKh Y%jH oDIH uOHia:dkh

wkq.%yh Asian Food & Agriculture Cooperation Initiative

uqøKh lDIsld¾u uqøKd,h" .kafkdrej

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wdishdkq wdydr yd lDIsl他u iyfhda.s;d jevigyka f,al誰 ld他hd,fha iqN me;=誰 mKsjqvh Greetings from the Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI)! AFACI is an intergovernmental and multilateral cooperation body established by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) of the Republic of Korea, aiming to improve food production, realize sustainable agriculture and enhance extension service of Asian countries by sharing knowledge and information on agricultural technology. RDA, a governmental organization for agricultural research and extension services, has been trying to develop and distribute the agricultural technology for last fifty years. As a part of these efforts, I am honored to have opportunity to publish agricultural books for AFACI member countries with a special fund from RDA. This activity aims at facilitating the publication and distribution of agricultural technology books for providing agricultural technologies directly to local farmers and sharing educational materials in their local languages or English. I believe that it is meaningless not to be distributed and practically used no matter how great the technology may be. I truly hope that this book serves as a useful guide for farmers as well as becomes a touchstone for closer relationship between Sri Lanka and Korea. Thank you very much. Sincerely,

Cho, Yang-Hee Secretary General Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI) Secretariat

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lDIsl¾u wOHCI ckrd,ajrhdf.a mKsjqvh lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=j ishji iurk 2012 j¾Ifha§ YS% ,dxlSh f.dú ck;dj fj; ;dlaIKh ,nd§u i|yd m%ldYk rdYshla ìyslrkq we;' fuu ;dlaIK .%ka:ho tjka ishjia m%ldYkhls' ishji m%ldYk j,§ wm úfYaIfhka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka yqfola .;dkq.;sl l%uhg ;dlaIKsl lreKq muKla wvx.= m%ldYk ìyslrkjdg jvd wog iy fygg jeo.;a jk lDIsl¾ufha kj m%jK;d we;=¿ ;dlaIk .%ka:hla m%ldYkhg m;a lsÍuhs' fuys§ lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=fõ oekg isák m%ùK lDIs úfYaI{hka fukau úY%du ,;a lDIs úfYa{hkaf.ao kùk ;dlaIK l%u iy wkd.; oelau ms<sn| woyia m%ldY jkq we;' jdKsc lDIsl¾uh" mßir ys;ldó m,sfndaO md,kh" f.j;= j.dj, kj m%jK;d" N+ñ w,xlrKh yd m,;=re WoHdk md,kh jeks lafIa;% yryd fuu ishji m%ldYk ksl=;a jkq we;' fuu m%ldYK i|yd Asian FoodAndAgriculture Cooperation Intaitive (AFACI) wdh;kfha wkq.%yh ,eî we;' fla'Ô' Ys%hdmd," lDIsl¾u wOHCI ckrd,a" Message from the Director General of Agriculture At this juncture when our beloved Department of Agriculture is celebrating its Centenary, I am extremely proud and take pleasure in issuing this statement as the Director general of Agriculture. The Departments of Agriculture has already initiated action to release number of publication with timely guidelines to the local farmers, educating them on the latest technologies developed. The main objective of this publications is to create awareness of farmers regarding the timely need for them to adhere to the modern technologies developed by our scientist cater to the present national requirements instead of catering with the ancient proceediers which appear to be out dated for us to compete with the international levels in ensuring global self sufficiently in food. It provide a forecast on matters of relevant which will be beneficial to our farmers for their future development. Valuable ideas and suggestions supported by the present officers as well as the retired scientist are duly composed through these publications. These books provide content according to the present national importance such as commercial agriculture, Management of food orchard, intergrated pest management, Edible landscaping, Urban agriculture etc. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI) for their kind gesture for coming forward to provide sponsorship for these publications of historical value to the Department of Agriculture in its centenary year. K.G. Sriyapala, Director General, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka.

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mgqk 01

ye`oskaùu

1'1 1'2 1'3 1'4 1'5 1'6

t<j¿ j.djg taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh jvd jeo.;a jkafka wehs@ lDIsld¾ñl m,sfndaëka wêl m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;fha wjdis taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh ffcj md,kh u; mokï jQ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh ffcj md,kh ms<sn`o uQ,sl lreKq lsysmhla

02

ffcj md,kh u; mokï jQ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k jevigykl wvx.= úh hq;= uQ,sl Wml%u

2'1 2'1'1 2'1'2 2'1'3 2'1'4 2'1'5 2'1'6 2'1'7 2'1'8 2'1'9 2'2 2'2'1 2'2'1'1 2'2'1'2 2'2'1'3 2'2'1'4 2'2'2 2'2'2'1 2'2'2'2 2'2'2'3 2'2'2'4 2'2'2'5 2'2'2'6

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kj j.dj fCIa;%fha msysgqùug fmr wod< m,sfndaO .yK md,kh lr .ekSu fmr lkakfha j.d lrk ,o t<j¿ fnda. fYaI iy wkjYH$ wdidÈ; merKs j.djka úkdY lsÍu oaú;Shsl Odrl Ydl j,ska ieneúkau ;¾ckhla we;akï Wÿrd úh<Sug yeÍu mdxY= m%;sl¾u u`.ska mfia isák t<j¿ m,sfndaëka úkdY lsÍu kj j.dj kshñ; ld,hg iduQyslj weröu fnda. udrej ñY% fnda. j.dj kj j.dj jgd fjk;a j.d ;Srejla kj j.dj jgd wdjrKhla fyda Ôj jegla mqrka lsÍu kj j.dj fCIa;%fha msysgqùug fmr isgu m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka .yK jeä oshqKq lsrSu yd wdrCId lsÍu t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a úf,damSka t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a mrfmdaISka t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a jHdêcklhska$ frda.ldrlhska m,sfndaëkaf.a ;r`.lrejka t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka jeä lr .kakd l%u t<j¿ j.d mßirfha iajdNdúl jk .yKh fyj;a neoao wdrCId lr .ekSu m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h wju yd m%udo lsÍu c, ¥IKh wju lsÍu wdf,dal ¥IKh wju lsÍu ly meye;s W.=,a Ndú;fhka je,lSu iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a l%shdldß;ajh f.dú fCIa;% uÜgñka jeälr .; yels l%u

'' 01

'' 10

'' 15

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2'3 2'3'2 2'3'3 2'3'4 2'3'5

m%Yia: YIH Wml%u u`.ska osrsu;a yd ksfrda.S j.djla ,nd .ekSu fnda. udrej .=Kd;aul frdamK øjH Ndú;h ldnksl fmdfydr Ndú;h mdxY= fmdaIl md,kh c, md,kh

2'3'6

j,a me,Eá md,kh

2'3'7 2'3'8 2'4'

m%Yia: me, .yKh yd mr;rh j.dj mqyqKq lsÍu j.dfõ uq, isgu fN!;sl Wml%u Ndú;fhka m,sfndaOkdYl wjYH;djh wju yd m%udo lsÍu

2'3'1

'' 44

'' 48

^ffjria wdidÈ; Ydl" nelaàßhd frda. wdidÈ; Ydl" È,Sruh m;% ,m frda."m,sfndaOl l=reñKshka" m,sfndaOl o,Uqjka" m,sfndaOl ul=Kka" m,sfndaOl ì;a;r" m,sfndaOl ms,jqka" lrá iy m;% kgq ;=, isák lSghska" l`oka úÈk lSghska" f.ä iy lr,a úÈk o<Uqjka" l+ä;a;ka" msá ul=Kka yd fldrfmd;= lDóka" b,a ueiaidf.a lSg wjia:dj" iqÿ ueiaika me,uelalka iy m;% lkskakka&

2'5 w;HdjYH wjia:dj,§ m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h 2'5'1 m,sfndaOkdYl biSu fjkqjg fjk;a l%u j,g j.djg fh§u 2'5'2 wvq ud;%djlska fhÈh yels m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. f;dard .eksu 2'5'3 lDñ j¾Ol fydafudak weiqßka ksmojQ lDñ kdYl f;dard .ekSu 2'5'4 yels;dla ÿrg kj m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. f;dard .ekSu 2'5'5 ñksidg úI wju jQ m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. 2'5'6 iajdNdúl m,sfndaOkdYl j¾.

'' 56

03

t<j¿ j.dfõ m%Odk m,sfndaëka j¾. lsysmhla i`oyd iqÿiq úfYaIs; taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k jevigyka fláfhka

3'1 3'2 3'3 3'4 3'5 3'6 3'7 3'8 3'9 3'10

uQ, .eá;s jgmKqjka nelaàßhd ysgq ueÍu uQ, uKav,hg wdidokh jk È,Sr frda. l¨ lsh;a mKqjdf.a ydksh t<j¿ ffjria frda. b;d l=vd YÍr m%udKfhka hq;=" blaukska .=Kkh jk yd jHdma; jk m,sfndaëka jdhj fldgig je<f`ok È,Sr frda. m;% lk" f.ä$ lr,a$ lrá úÈk o<Uqjka m;% lk l=reñKshka yd úo hqI Wrd fndk ul=Kka b,a ueiaika

04

t<j¿ j.dfõ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh jvd;a fyd`Èka id¾:l ùug kï''''

'' 67

wdY%s; .%ka:

'' 69

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01 ye`Èkaùu Y%S ,xldfõ jd¾Isl t<j¿ j.d jmißh

m,sfndaO md,k hhs' fï ms<sn`oj ukd oekqu

fylaghdr 80"000la muK fõ' t<j¿

yd l=i,;djh iys;j t<j¿ j.dj i`oyd

j.dfõ

i`oyd

fhduq jqjfyd;a m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h

úYd, msßjehla fh§ug isÿ jk w;r bka

w;HjYH uÜgu olajd muKla iSud ù

yß wvla jeh jkafka m,sfndaO md,kh

fuu wNsfhda.h myiqfjka ch.; yelsh'

i`oyd ridhksl øjH Ndú;hgh' fuys§

tu`.ska iudch yd mßirh flfrys we;sjk

f.dùka úiska ksjerÈj m,sfndaëka y`ÿkd

wys;lr

fkd.ekSu;a ksjerÈ l%fudamdhka fhdod

fukau iuia: uyck;djg;a" mßirhg;a"

fkd.ekSu;a ksid kss¾foaYfhka f;drj wêl

fmdÿfõ .;a l, uq¿ rgg;a w;ajkafka

f,i wvq ld,dka;r j,ska m,sfndaOkdYl

ñ, l, fkdyels fiajhls' ta i`oyd wjYH

fhdokq ,nhs' fï ksid t<j¿ ksIAmdok

uQ,sl ;dCIKsl u`. fmkaùu ,nd§u fuu

úhou jeä jkjd muKla fkdj fi!LHuh

m%ldYkfha uQ,sl n,dfmdfrd;a;=j fõ'

.eg¨" mdßißl .eg¨" iy m,sfndaO md,k

fuys úia;r jk ish¨ ;dCIKhka foaYSh

.eg¨ jeks fjk;a nrm;, m%Yak /ila o

f.dú fCIa;% j, jir .Kkdjla isÿ l,

we;s lrhs' wju m,sfndaOkdYl m%udKhla

w;ayod ne,Sï ;=<ska jeä ÈhqKq lrk ,o

Ndú;d lrñka t<j¿ j.dfõ m,sfndaO

tajd ksid wm rfÜ f.dùkag fukau f.dú

md,k .eg¿j ch .ekSu i`oyd we;s

fCIa;% ;;a;ajhkag ukdj .e,fma' tu ksid

fyd`ou iy jvd;a ;sridr úi`ÿu jkafka

myiqfjka fyd`o m%;sM, ,eìh yelsjkq

iajdNdúl ffcj md,kh m%Odk fldg .;a

we;'

kshq;=

f.dùkag

j.dj

n,mEï

wjuù"

j.dlrejka

jvd;a ys;lr Wml%u u; mokï jQ taldnoaO



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1'1 t<j¿ j.djg taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh jvd jeo.;a jkafka wehs@

úYd, Ydl olajd jQ mrdihl m,sfndaëka isà' ta wkqj - iuyr ffjria" nelaàßhd" È,Sr" jeks

foaYSh mrsfNdack rgdj ;=< nyq, jYfhka

Ydl frda.ldrlhska

t<j¿ wdydrhg .efka' t<j¿ j.dfõ§

- iuyr lDóka" uhsgdjka" jgmkqjka"

wêl m%udKhkaf.ka fukau flá ld,dka;r

f.d¨fn,a,ka" mCISka" CISrmdhSka jeks

j,skao m,sfndaOkdYl fhdokq ks;ru oelsh wiajkq

ld,h

ms<sn`oj

i;aj m,sfndaOlhska

yelsh' wmf.a f.dùka fndfyda fofkl= fmr

- iuyr Ydl j¾. ^j,a me,Eá&

;elSula

wod, wjia:dj wkqj m,sfndaëka f,i

fkdue;slu ksid m<sfndaOkdYl fhdod

i,lkq ,nhs'

iq¿ ld,hlska wiajkq fk,d fj<`ofmd<g ksl=;a lrhs' tfukau OdkH" udI fnda.

lDIsld¾ñl

wdÈh fuka .nvd yelshdjla fkdue;s

wjYH;d i`oyd ñksid iu`. ;r`. lrkjdla

ksidu wiajkq fk,d Èk 03la muK jk

fukau ffcj úoHd;aul jYfhka fudjqka

úg wdydrhg .kq ,nhs' wdydr ieliSfï§

o wfkl=;a ish¿ Ydl NCIlhska fukau

jeämqr ;eïîula fkdlr w¾O jYfhka

lDIs-mdßißl moaO;sfhys iy mßirfhys

;ïnd fyda wuqfjkau wdydrhg .efka'

iajNdúl iu;=,s;;djh mj;ajñka b;d

fuu lreKq ish,a, ksid t<j¿ j,ska

jeo.;a fufyhla bgq lrkakd jQ Ôùka j¾.

m,sfndaOkdYl úI ùfï yelshdj b;d

fõ' fudjqkaf.a .yK iajdNdúlj wvq jeä

by,h' ta i`oyd ms<shula f,i t<j¿

fjñka iy úúO fõ. j,ska j.d mßirh ;=<

j.djkag fhdok m,sfndaOkdYl m%udKh

tyd fuyd .uka lrñka Ôj;a fõ' tneúka

wju lsÍfï n,j;a wjYH;djla mj;S'

fudjqka úkdYldÍ f,i u¾Okh lrkjdg

tneúka jvd fyd`o úl,am l%shdud¾.hla

jvd wjYH mßÈ yiqrejd .ksñka md,kh$

jYfhka t<j¿ j.djg taldnoaO m,sfndaO

l,ukdlrKh lsÍu jvd;a ys;lr fõ'

md,kh fhdod .ekSu b;d jeo.;a fõ'

m,sfndaOlhd

;u

ffcj

1'2 lDIsld¾ñl m,sfndaëka

1'3 wêl m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;fha wjdis

lDIsld¾ñl lghq;= j,§ ñksid iu`. ;r`.

fïjd m%Odk wdldr ;=klska oelaúh yelsh'

fldg wd¾Ól ydkshla isÿlrkakd jQ ´kEu

Ôúfhla lDIsld¾ñl m,sfndaOlfhla fõ'

ñksidg úI ùu

m,ssfndaOkdYl ish,a, YÍr .; jk l%uh"

kuq;a iuyr úfYaI wjia:dj,§ ydksh

ld,iSudj yd ud;%dj wkqj úúO whqßka iy

wd¾Ól fkdjQjo m,sfndaëka f,i ye`Èkaúh

wvq jeä jYfhka ñksidg úI jk w;r tajd

yel' CIq%ø Ôùkaf.a isg úYd, i;=ka iy



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mßyrKh lrk .nvdlrejka" fj<`ÿka"

f.dùka" f.dúìï wi, Ôj;a jk wh fukau m<sfndaOkdYl iys; wdydr wkqNj

wêl m,ssfndaOkdYl Ndú;h ksid lDIs

lrk iy tajd u`.ska wmú;% jQ c,h mdkh

ksIamdok úhou jeäùu isÿfõ' tfiau

lrk mqoa.,hskago fuu úI ùu isÿfõ'

m,ssfndaëka m%;sfrdaë;djh we;slr .ekSu

ms<sld" u<ore Wm;a" orejka fkdue;slu"

ksid Tjqka ridhksl f,i u¾Okh lsÍu

jl=.vq frda. jeks j¾;udkfha jd¾;djk

wmyiq jk w;r l,ska jd¾;d fkdjQ kj

úúOdldr jQ frda. ;;a;ajhka iy wl,a

m,sfndaO j¾. ìysfõ' fï ksid mj;sk

urK i`oyd fuh tla m%Odk fya;=jls' 

lDIsld¾ñl lghq;= i`oyd wys;lr n,mEu

m,sfndaOkdYl fjkqjg iEu úgu kj

mßir ¥IKh

m,sfndaOkdYl

j¾.

fhÈfï

n,j;a

wjYH;djla we;sù ;sfí' ;jo j.djg ys;lr Ôùka yd m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka

úkdY

fkdue;sj

j.d

ùfuka

m,sfndaOkdYl

lsÍug

wmyiq;djhla

we;s lrhs' wêl f,i yd ks;r ks;r m,sfndaOkdYl fhdok t<j¿ j.djka fndfyda

úg

wjidk

jkafka

lsisÿ

m,ssfndaOkdYlhlska iqj l, fkdyels f,i frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks W;aikak ùfuks'

t<j¿ j.d ìï wi, f.dv .eiqkq fujka ysia m,sndaO kdYl nÿka iq,N oiqkls

m,ssfndaOkdYl

c,hg"

fufia j.dj úkdY ùu" ,dNh u`o ùu iy jeks lreKq fya;=fjka kj mrmqr j.dfjka

jdhqf.da,hg"

wE;a ùuo isÿfõ'

mig iy Ôùkaf.a isrere ;=<g tl;= ùfuka mßir ¥IKh we;sfõ' úfYaIfhka

lDIs ksIamdok úhou ms<sn`o woyila

f.dúìï j, mfia iy c,fha i;=ka" Ydl

-idudkHfhka

iy CIqø Ôù úúO;ajh wvq ùug;a" tajd

t<j¿ fylagdr 80"000la muK j.d

úI iys; ùug;a m%Odk;u fya;=jla jkqfha

lrk w;r tla fylaghdrhlg tlajrla

m,ssfndaOkdYl ñY% ùuhs' fï ksid mfia iy

m,sfndaOkdYlhla fh§u i`oyd úhou

c,fha isák wys;lr fkdjk Ôùka úYd,

re'4000la f,i ie,l=fjd;a" by; uq¨

jYfhka úkdY jk w;r thg WodyrK

t<j¿ jmißhgu tla m,sfndaOkdYl

f,i l=Uqre j, iy we< fod, j, isá

fh§ula i`oyd muKla re'320000000la

foaYSh uiqka j`o ùu" úúOdldr jQ T!Iëh

^remsh,a ñ,shk 320la& muK úhoï fõ'

jirlg

Y%S

,xldfõ

Ydl j¾. j`o ù hdu oelaúh yel'



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1'4 taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh m,sfndaO ydkshla fyda .yKhla wd¾Ól

ta ksidu tu Wml%u j, hï wvqmdvq

jYfhka

lï we;s jqjo tajdhska iuia: m%;sM,hg

ydksodhl

fkdjk

uÜgug

wvqfldg mj;ajd .ekSu i`oyd tlsfklg

úYd,

.e,fmk mßÈ Wml%u tllg jeä .Kkla

wjia:d j,§ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfha

hï ie,iqulg wkqj taldnoaO f,i ^tla

m%;sM, CIKsl fkdjk kuq;a tuksid

Wml%uhl n,mEu wfkla Wml%u j,

os.=ld,Sk iy jvd;a úYajikSh m,sfndaO

n,mEu iu`. .e,fmk f,i& fhdod

md,khla

.ekSu taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh fõ'

flfrys iïmQ¾K

fuys§ m,sfndaëka u; tla tla Wml%uh

^u¾Okh& isÿfkdlrk w;r ydksodhl

u`.ska úúO m%udKfha n,mEï isÿl,;a

uÜgulg m,sfndaëka j¾Okh fkdjk f,i

ish¨u Wml%u j, wvq jeä jYfhka jk

mj;ajd .ekSula isÿ lrhs' tneúka fuh

n,mEï j, tl;=fjka wod< m,sfndaOlhd

mßirhg yd wd¾Ólhg jvd;a ys;lr

flfrys ie,lsh hq;= n,mEula isÿ lrhs'

l%uhls'

mdvqjla

isÿ

fkdfõ'

fndfyda

,ndfohs' fuysoS m,sfndaëka úkdYldÍ n,mEula

taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfha§ wvq jeä jYfhka úúO n,fõ. fhdod .efkk wdldrh



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1'5 ffcj md,kh u; mokï jQ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh

neoao t<j¿ j.d wi, ixrCIKh lsÍu;a" wod<

iajdNdúl

fya;=jk

ridhksl" fN!;sl" cdk ;dCIKsl" ffcj

wmf.a

i;=rkaf.a f.dùka

úkdYhg

isÿlrkakdjq

wfkl=;a lghq;= iSud lsÍu;a muKs' fujeks

md,k jeks hï m%Odk Wml%uhla uQ,sl

Wml%u iu`. taldnoaOj l,yels ;j;a

fldgf.k fyj;a mokï lrf.k taldnoaO

m,sfndaO md,k Wml%u lsysmhlao Ndú;d

m,sfndaO md,k jevigyka ixúOdkh lsÍu

l,úg

jvd;a m%;sM,odhlh' iajdNdúl ;;a;aj

fnfyúkau

id¾:l

m,sfndaO

md,khla ,nd .; yels fõ'

hgf;a § ,xldfõ f.dú ìï wjg ffcj úúO;ajh iy m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka .yKh fnfyúka wêlh' tneúka tjeks j.d fCIa;% j,§ ffcj md,kh u; mokï jQ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k jev igyka ls%hd;aul lsÍu jvd;a myiq yd m%;sM,odhl fõ' m%Odk t<j¿ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka

w;s

úYd,

ixLHdjla

furg

iajdNdúl i;=rka neoao yd j.dj w;r yqjudre ùu

iajdNdúlj jefvk me,Eá .yKfhys fyj;a neoafoys Ôj;a fõ' tneúka Tjqka ixrCIKh lr.;fyd;a myiqfjka" lsisÿ

1'6 ffcj md,kh ms<sn`o uq,sl lreKq lsysmhla

úhoulska f;drj

iqÿiq Wml%u u`.ska t<j¿ j.d fCIa;% wjg iy mßirhg lsisÿ

wys;lr n,mEulska f;drj id¾:l ffcj

wdydr odu yd wdydr cd,

wdydr u`.ska Ôù mßirh ;=, fmdaIKh .,d

md,khla ,nd.; yels fõ'

hdu úia;r flfrk wdydrodu iy wdydr

fï i`oyd iajdNdúl i;=rka msgrg j,ska

cd, t<j¿ j.d mßirfhyso ta wdldrfhkau

f.kú;a y`ÿkajd§u fyda wê ;dCIK

l%shd;aul fõ' m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl

Wml%u Ndú;fhka lD;su f,i fnda lr

i;=rkaf.a

ksoyia lsÍu fyda wjYH fkdfõ' fuys§

wdydrodufha

wjYH jkqfha wm wjg mßirfha fjfik

jk w;r iuyr iajdNdúl i;=rka j¾.

m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka ksjerÈj

wjia:dj wkqj tu ;;a;ajhg m;a úh

y`ÿkd .ekSu;a Tjqka iajdNdúlj Ôj;ajk

yel'

iajdNdúl isõ

jeks

i;=rka fmdaIS

tu uÜgu



ipvm final 0...indd 

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m%d:ñl ksIamdolhd fyj;a Ydl

ž

m%d:ñl mßfNdaclhd fyj;a Ydl NCIlhd

ž

oaú;Shsl mßfNdaclhd fyj;a m%d:ñl udxY NCIlhd

ž

;D;Shsl mßfNdaclhd fyj;a oaú;Shsl udxY NCIlhd

t<j¿ mrsir moaO;shl§a t<j¿ iy oaú;shsl Odrl Ydl u`.ska wdydr ksIamdokh lrk w;r tu`.ska m,sfndaëka o Tjqkaf.ka iajdNdúl i;=rkao fmdaIKh ,nd.kS' Wodlrú,

’

b,a ueiaika

’

mrfmdaIs; fonreka

’

ul=¿jka

;lald,s

’

o<Uqjka

’

ul=¿jka

’

mCISka

uE lr,a

’

l+ä;a;ka

’

bì l=reñKshka

’

lgqiaika

wdydr cd,hlg WodyrKhla



ipvm final 0...indd 

//0 ::0 PM


mdßißl msróv

iajdNdúl

úúO;ajh jeä kï tys ffcj md,kh

;;a;ajfha

t<j¿

b;d fyd`Èka isÿfõ' bjla njla ke;sj

mßir

m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h" iajdNdúl mßirh

moaO;sfha o úúO fmdaIS uÜgï w;r

.sks ;eîu jeks lghq;= ksid tjeks t<j¿

iïnkaO;djh m%udKd;aulj oelajQ úg

j.d mßir moaO;s j, ffcj úúO;ajh

msróvhl iajrEmhla we;'

b;d wvq uÜgulg my; nisk w;r tjeks

fuys tla tla fldgia w;r úYd,;aj

wjia:dj, ffcj md,kh wvqùu ksid

wkqmd;h

moaO;shl

ridhksl Wml%u jeks fjk;a m,sfndaO

tu fldgia w;r we;s wkqmd;hg iudk

md,k Wml%u flfrys iïmQ¾Kfhkau r`od

jkafka kï bfí isÿjk id¾:l ffcj

mej;Sug isÿfõ'

md,khla

iajdNdúl

mßir

m,sfndaëka

flfrys

,nd

.;yels fõ' tfy;a iajdNdúl ;;a;ajhg

idfmaCIj iajdNdúl i;=rka fldgi jvd;a

iajdNdúl ;=,kh

fjk;a ´kEu iajdNdúl mßir moaO;shl§

l=vd ù" m,sfndaOlhska fldgi jvd;a

fuka ñksid úiska úlD;s fkdlrk ,o

úYd, jqjfyd;a ffcj md,kh m%udKj;a

iy ffcj md,kh fyd`Èka l%shd;aul jk

fkdfõ' wêl m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h jeks

t<j¿ mßir moaO;shl o fyd`o iajdNdúl

wjia:djl§ ys;lr Ôùka úkdY ùfukao"

;=,khla oelsh yelsh' úúO YIH l%u

m,sfndaëka m%;sfrdaë;djh we;slr .ekSfuka

u`.ska ,nd.;a Èßu;a fnda. Ydl iy wjg

Tjqka úkdY fkdùfukao tjeks ;;a;ajhla

we;s fjk;a iajdNdúl me,Eá .yKh

we;súh yel'

úiska kssmojkq ,nk wdydr j,ska fldgila

¥

m,sfndaOlhskaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.aa iajdNdúl i;=rka

m,sfndaëka iy fjk;a Ydl NCIlhskaj

¥

m,sfndaOlhskaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka

tu fnda. Ydl Èßu;a neúka m,sfndaO ydks

¥

m,sfndaOlhska

¥

fnda. Ydl

fmdaIKh lrhs'

W!K mQ¾Kh lrñka fyd`o wiajekakla ,nd §ug tajd iu;a fõ' tu m,sfndaO iy fjk;a Ydl NCIlhska ksid Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rkag fmdaIKh ,nd .ekSug yelsfõ'

ffcj úúO;ajh

tneúka tu m,sfndaëka yd fjk;a

NCIlhskaf.a .yK wkjYH mßÈ j¾Okh

hï mßir moaO;shl Ôj;ajk Ydl úfYAI"

ùu bfíu md,kh fõ' fuu iajdNdúl

i;aj úfYAI yd CIqø Ôù úfYaI m%udKh

;=,k ;;a;ajh ksid fujeks t<j¿ j.d

tu mßir moaO;sfha ffcj úúO;ajhhs' t<j¿

j.d

mßir

moaO;shl

mßir moaO;shla È.= ld,Skj mj;ajd .;

ffcj



ipvm final 0...indd 

Ydl

yels fõ'

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fnda. Ydl" m,sfndaëka yd Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka w;r ;r`.h

wdydr

m%;sfrdaë nj wvq yd udxY, nj jeä

wdydr

^khsg%cka fmdfydr iy fijk jeks lreKq

ksIamdokh fldg yels;dla ;u j¾.h

ksido fufia úh yel'& fnda. j¾. we;súg

fndalsÍu i`oyd îc ksIamdokh lrkq

m,sfndaëka jeämqr thska myiqfjka wdydr

,nhs'

Ydl

,ndf.k ;u .yKh fõ.fhka jeä lr.kS'

NCIlhska jk m,sfndaëka o tu wdydr

m,sfndaëka i`oyd jvd;a lgql wdydr jk

,ndf.k yels;dla ;u j¾.hd fnda lsÍug

udxY, nj wvq ^khsg%cka fmdfydr .;sh

W;aidy .kS' we;a; jYfhkau Èßu;a

fkdjeä" fmdgEishï fmdfydr .;sh jeä

fnda. Ydl wdydr ksmojkqfha fuu Ydl

jeks ;;a;aj j,§& iy m%;sfrdaë;djhlska

NCIlhskaf.a wjYH;djkago m%udKj;a

hq;= fnda. j¾. muKla we;súg§ wdydr

jk ;rugh' fuu m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl

ys`.ùu ksid Tjqkaf.a m%ckkh wvqùuo

i;=rka o yels Wmßu muKska fuu

tu`.ska .yKh wvqùuo isÿfõ' tjeks

m,sfndaëkaf.ka ;u fmdaIK wjYH;dj

m%;sfrdaë fnda. mjd fCIa;%fha fkdue;s

bgq lrf.k yels;dla ;u j¾.hd fnda

wjia:dj,§ m,sfndaëkag fnfyúkau wdydr

lsÍug W;aidy .kS' fï iEu j¾.hlau

ys`. ùfuka tu .yK b;d iq¿ uÜgulg

tlsfkldf.ka fmdaIKh ,nd.ekSug iy

my; jefÜ' túg Tjqka m%Odk jYfhka u

tlsfkldf.ka wdrCId ùu i`oyd úúO

hefmkafka jk .; Ydl jk wod, fnda.

f,i úfYAIKh jQ Wml%u Ndú;d lrhs' fï

l=,fhau fjk;a Ydl j,sks' fïjdfha

ksid fnda. Ydl" m,sfndaëka yd Tjqkaf.a

m,sfndaëka flfrys we;s m%;sfrdaë;djh

iajdNdúl i;=rka w;r mj;skafka ksrka;r

fnfyúka wêlh" tajdfha we;s úúOdldr

;r`.hls' iqÿiq taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k

úI iys; iy wm%shldrl ridhksl øjH"

Wml%u fhdod .ekSu u`.ska fuu ;r`.h

nQj" bá ia:r" CISrh" wvq fmdaIHodhS nj"

fnda. Ydl fj; jdis iy.; jk f,i

oDV nj jeks

ilia lr.; yelsh'

wdydrhg .; fkdyels ù m,sfndaO .yK

fnda. Ydl m%NdixYaf,aIKfhka

fuu

Ydl

u;

hefmk

.=Kdx. ksid myiqfjka

m,sfndaëka yd Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a .yK fjkiaùu

wju fõ' fujeks Ydl tu m,sfndaëka

fï i`oyd ffcj idOl fukau wffcj

wjia:d j,§ mßir ;;a;aj ys;lr kï Tjqka

idOl o n,mdhs'

f.a iajdNdúl i;=rkag wdydr iq,N ùu

ffcj idOl jkqfha" wdydr" iajdNdúl

ksid tu .yk o j¾Okh fõ' ta whqßkau

i;=rka" ;r`.h" ñksia ls%hdldrlïh'

fCIa;%fha m,sfndaëka m%udKh wvq jk úg

f.a

oaú;Shsl

Odrl

f,io

yeÈkafõ'

fCIa;%fha m,sfndaëka ixLHdj jeä jk

Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rkag wdydr ys`.



ipvm final 0...indd 

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ùu" Tjqka Tjqkaf.au f.dÿre njg m;aùu"

fN!;sl

ñh hEu iy fjk;a m%foaY lrd ixl%uKh

lghq;=

ùu ksid tu .yK o wvqfõ'

i;=rkaf.a .yK

wvq ùug fya;=fõ'

tu`.ska

iajdNdúl

iajdNdúl i;=rka

jYfhka ksid

ndOd

lsÍu

m,sfndaëkaf.a

fl,skau

jeks

iajdNdúl i;=rka

úkdY jkjd fukau Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl iEu Ôúfhl=gu iajdNdúl i;=rka isák neúka

m,sfndaëkaf.a

fukau

jdiia:dkh jk neoao o úkdY jk neúks'

Tjqkaf.a

fï ksid m,sfndaëka u; bfí isÿjk ffcj

iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a o .yK ;udg wod,

md,khg wys;lr n,mEï we;s lrhs'

iajdNdúl i;=rka jeä jQ úg tu .yK wffcj idOl jkqfha" WIaK;ajh yd

wvq ù hhs' 

wd¾ø;djh wdÈhhs' ys;lr WIaK;ajh

;r`.h

iys; úh<s ld,.=Ksl ;;a;ajj,§ lDñ

m,sfndaëkaf.a fukau Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl

m,sfndaëka" ys;lr lDóka iy ffjria

i;=rkaf.a o úfYaIfhka wdydr jeks ffcj

wdidok jeä jk w;r È,Sr iy nelaàßhd

wjYH;d i`oyd ;r`.h jeä úg§ tu

j¾Okh wvqfõ' tfy;a wd¾ø;djh iy

.yKh wvq ùug fya;= fõ'

j¾Idj jeä úg§ lDñ .yK iy ffjria

ñksia l%shdldrlï

wdidok wvq lrk w;r È,Sr yd nelaàßhd

.yK j¾Okh iy me;sÍu isÿ lrhs' wêl yd wl%uj;a f,i m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h"

.sks

;eîu"

mßir

¥IKh"



ipvm final 0...indd 

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^2& ffcj md,kh u; mokï jQ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k jevigykl wvx.= úhhq;= uQ,sl Wml%u fuys§

iajdNdúlju

isÿjk

2'1'1 fmr lkakfha j.d lrk ,o t<j¿ fnda. fYaI iy wkjYH$ wdidÈ; merKs j.djka úkdY lsÍu

ffcj

md,kfhys n,mEu Wmßu f,i m,sfndaëka md,kh lsÍug fhdod.efka' tneúka foaYSh mßir ;;ajhkag;a" mjqf,a Y%uh ie,lsh hq;= f,i we;s iy f.dú;ekska ,dN bmhSfï n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka isák Y%S ,dxlsl t<j¿

t<j¿

f.dúhdg;a fuh b;d fyd`Èka .e,fma'

kj

j.djkag

meñKSu m%Odk jYfhkau isÿjkafka tu

fuys uQ,sl moku jkqfha" i.

m,sfndaëka

m,sfndaOlhdg Odrl jk merKs iy oekg

kj j.dj msysgqùug fmr m,sfndaO

mj;ajdf.k hk j.d j,sks' b,aueiaid"

.yK md,kh lr .ekSu iy

jïngq f.ä$ lrá úÈkakd" fndaxÑ ueiaid"

ii. kj j.dj msysgqùug fmr iajdNdúl

r;= lmq ul=Kd jeks iuyr m,sfndaëka

i;=rka .yK jeä ÈhqKq lr .ekSuhs'

tu Ydl l=,hgu wh;a fnda. Ydl j,ska

fuu`.ska we;sjk m,sfndaëka md,kh ;j

muKla fmdaIKh ,nd .kakd w;r fjk;a

ÿrg;a iïmQ¾K lsÍug my; oelafjk

iuyr m,sfndaëka wod, Ydl l=,h muKla

Wml%uo wu;rj Wmfhda.S lr.kS'

fkdj fjk;a Ydl l=,hkays t<j¿ fnda.

iii. m%Yia: YIH l%u u`.ska Èßu;a yd

j,skao fmdAIKh ,nd.kS' ^Wod-f.ä$ lr,a úÈkakd - Helicoverpa armigera" iqÿ

ksfrda.s j.djla ,nd .ekSu

ueiaid" me,uelald" m;% lSvEjd" uhsghd"

iv. j.dfõ uq, isgu fN!;sl Wml%u

m;% lkskakd" lsh;a mKqjd - Spodoptera

Ndú;fhka m,sfndaOkdYl wjYH;djh

iy Agrotis úfYaI" tms,elakd l=reñKshd"

wju yd m%udo lsÍu

uQ, .eá;s jgmKqjka" iuyr ffjria frda.

v. w;HdjYH wjia:dj,§ m,sfndaOkdYl

jeks& m,sfndaOkdYl wêlj iy ks;r

Ndú;h

2'1 kj j.dj fCIa;%fha msysgq ùug fmr wod, m,sfndaO .yK md,kh lr .ekSu

ks;r fh§u jeks lghq;= ksid md,kh

lr.; fkdyels f,i m,sfndaëka jeä jQ j.djla fï w;ßkao m%uqLia:dkh .kS' tjeks j.djka úkdY fkdlr kj j.djka weröfuka tajdgo uq, isgu m,sfndaO ydks

m,sfndaO .yK wju fldg kj j.dj

jHdma; ùu je,elaúh fkdyelsh' tneúka

weröu m,sfndaO ydks u`. yeÍug we;s

fujeks merKs" wdidÈ;" wkjYH t<j¿

fyd`ou l%uhhs'

j.djka kj j.djka wdrïNhg fmr isgu

10

ipvm final 0...indd 0

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úkdY lr oeñh hq;=h' fuys§ jeo.;a jk

wjia:dj,§ mq¿iaid oeóu iqÿiq fkdfõ'

lreKq my; mßÈ fõ

fuys§

wod,

m,sfndaëkag

kj

j.dj

ìysjk f;la Ôú;h mj;ajd .ekSug

wvqu jYfhka kj j.dj weröug i;s ;=klgj;a fmr

Odrl úh yels fnda. Ydl ish,a, úkdY lsÍu iïmQ¾Kfhkau l, hq;=h' tajd

merKs fnda. fYAI úkdY lsÍu ksid

fCIa;%fha iq¿ jYfhka fyda b;sß jqjfyd;a

tajdfhys Ôj;a jk m,sfndaëkag wdydr

tu`.ska hï m,sfndaO m%udKhla wdrCId

fkd,eî hdfuka Tjqkaf.a .yKh iS>%

ù kj fnda.h wdrïNfha isgu ydks lsÍu

f,i wvqfõ' fï i`oyd m%udKj;a ld,hla

wrUk neúks'

;=,§ t<j¿ j.d m%foaYh wod, j.djka

th m%foaYfha iEu f.dú iudðlhl=f.au iyfhda.fhka iduQyslj l, hq;=h

fkdue;sj mj;ajd .ekSu i`oyd fuu ld, iSudj i;s ;=klaj;a úh hq;=h' tfy;a lsisÿ m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;hlska f;drj iy

t<j¿ m,sfndaëkag wi, f.dú fCIA;%

iajdNdúl me,Eá wjg mj;ajd .ksñka

j, jeg lvq¨ ndOdjla fkdfõ' tneúka

isÿlrk ,o t<j¿ j.djkays wêl f,i

merKs$ wkjYH$ wdidÈ;$ fnda. fYaI

m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka isák

úkdY lsÍfuys ksis m%;sm,h ,nd.ekSug

neúka wjia:dkql+,j fuu ld,iSudj i;s

kï wod, m%foaYfha t<j¿ j.d iEu

;=klg jvd flá l, yelsh'

ia:dkhlu th fkdjrojd isÿúh hq;=h' ta i`oyd iEu f.dúfhl=f.au wjfndaOfhka

merKs fnda. fYaI iïmQ¾Kfhkau úkdY l, hq;=h

hq;= iduQysl iyfhda.h ,nd Èhhq;=h' th iEu t<j¿ j.djlu fmdÿ hym; msKsi

wod, j.d m%foaYh ;=, j.d lsÍug

fya;= jk w;r tfia fkdl,fyd;a fuu

n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk t<j¿ fnda.hkag

Wml%ufha ld¾HCIu;djh wvq fõ'

;¾ckhla úhyels m,sfndaëkag Odrl jk merKs$ wkjYH$ wdidÈ; fnda. fYaI

fjk;a lreKq

ish,a, uq,skau Wÿrd ;jÿrg;a m,sfndaëkag

merKs j.dj kslrefka fCIa;%fha ;nkjdg

thska fmdaIKh ,nd .; fkdyels ;;a;ajhg

jvd wjidk wiajkq fk,Su;a iu`.u tajd

m;a l, hq;=h' ta i`oyd tajd fCIa;%h

uq,skau Wÿrd úh<Sug yer m,sfndaëkag

;=,u úh<Sug yer mig fydÈka ñY%

;jÿrg;a Ôj;aúh fkdyels f,i úkdY

lsÍu" fldïfmdaiaÜ ksmoùu jeks l%uhla

lsÍfuka jvd;a fyd`o m%;sm, ,nd .;

wkq.ukh l, yelsh' nelaàßhd ysgqueÍu

yelsh' tfukau m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;d

jeks frda.S ;;a;ajhla ;snQ fnda. Ydl

fkdlrk ,o fyda b;d iq¿ jYfhka Ndú;d

fldgia muKla mq¿iaid oeóu iqÿiq jk w;r ys;lr Ôù .yKh úkdY jk ksid fjk;a

ipvm final 0...indd 

lrk ,o j.djl kï wjidk jk úg

11

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úfYAIfhka lDñ m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl

lrk È,Sr" ysgqueÍug fya;= jk nelaàßhd"

i;=rka b;d úYd, ixLHdjla tajdfha Ôj;a

b,aueiaika$ úúO o,Uqjka$ m;%lkskakd$

jk neúka mig ñY% fkdlr fCIa;%fha

me,uelald

;ekska ;ek f.dv .id ;eîu jvd;a iqÿiq

wjia:d" uq,a j,g ydks lrk jgmKqjka"

l%uh fõ' tu`.ska Tjqkag wdrCIs;j wjg

wjq,lfmdard l=reñKs lSghka" lsh;a mKqjka

we;s fjk;a Ydl fj; hdug yelsjk

wdÈh oelaúh yelsh' fujeks m,sfndaëka

neúks'

kj t<j¿ j.djgo ydks isÿ lrk neúka

jeks

m,sfndaO

fldaI

kj j.djg fmr mdxY= m%;sl¾u u`.ska

2'1'2 oaú;Shsl Odrl Ydl j,ska ieneúkau ;¾ckhla we;akï Wÿrd úh<Sug yeÍu

Tjqkaf.a .yKh wvqlr .; yelsh' tfy;a ks;r t<j¿ j.d fkdlrk iy iajdNdúl me,Eá

j,ska

m,sfndaëka

jeiS$mqrkaj

wvqfjkq;a

;snQ

mfia

m,sfndaOlhskaf.a

w¿;ska isgqùug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk t<j¿

iajdNdúl i;=rka jeämqr;a Ôj;a jk ksid

j.djka wh;a jk Ydl l=, j,g wh;a

túg mdxY= m%;sl¾u isÿlsÍfïÈ m%fõYï

fjk;a Ydl j¾. iuyr wjia:d j,§ jeä

úhhq;=h'

m%;sY;hlska iajdNdúl me,Eá ñY%Kfha

ys;lr Ôùka úkdY jk ksid th l,hq;af;a

oelsh yels jk w;r tajdfhys wod,

w;HdjYH yd b;d iSñ; ia:dk j,§

t<j¿ j¾. j,g wh;a frda. yd m,sfndaO

muKs'

úfYaIfhka

mi

ms,siaiSfï§

ydkso ;sìh yelsh' ^Wod( ffjria frda." rks, lr,a úÈk ul=Kka" r;= lmq ul=Kka" uels l=reñKshka" b,a ueiaika" Èhuka;s msg i,n o,Uqjka wdÈh& tjeks wjia:d j,§ muKla fyd`Èka y`ÿkd .ekSfuka wk;=rej tu Ydl Wÿrd fyd`Èka úh<Sug yeÍu ;jdka mi ms,siaiSu

l, hq;=h' fuh kj j.dj weröug wvq

ìï flàu yd mi fmr,Su

jYfhka i;s 3gj;a fmr isÿ l, hq;=h'

2'1'3 mdxY= m%;sl¾u u`.ska mfia isák t<j¿ m,sfndaëka úkdY lsÍu

mfia

os.=ld,Skj

t<j¿

j.d

Tjqkaf.a

pl%fha

yd fjk;a

je,,Shdu" ysret<sshg iy jd;dY%hg ksrdjrKh ùu" lDñ NCIl l=re,a,ka iy

ia:dk j, mfia úúO t<j¿ m,sfndaO

l=yqUqjka jeks úf,damSkag f.dÿre ùu"

wjia:d Ôj;a fõ' ta i`oyd WodyrK f,i

ipvm final 0...indd 

Ôjk

m,sfndaëka

wjia:djka ;e,S fmdäù hdu" .eUqrg

lrk

uQ, uKav,hg iy lfoa mdoia:hg ydks

isák

úh<S hdu wdÈfhka úkdY fõ'

12

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ysre t<sfhka mi ;eïîu

úh<s ld,fhaÈ md;a;s ilid" ;rula f;;a fldg" isÿre rys; iy wj¾K fmd,s;Ska j,ska tu md;a;s jid fmd,s;Ska jfÜg mia oud" fmd,s;Skh;a mi;a w;r jd;h isr lsÍfuka fuh l,yelsh' fuys§ ysre rYañh ksid mfia we;s c,h jdIam ù" tu c, úYd, j.d ìulg jqjo ysre t<sfhka mi ;eïîu l, yel

jdIam fyd`Èka r;a ù" mfia we;s c,ho r;a ù" mfia w`.,a 6-9 la muK .eUqrg ;eïîu

ldnksl fmdfydr mig ñY% lsÍu

isÿfõ' fufia i;s 2-3 la muK mi ;eïîu ksid ie,lsh hq;= uÜgulg m,sfndaO

kj j.dj i`oyd m<uqjrg mi fmr,d

úkdY lr.; yels fõ'fuu l%uh Ndú;d

ldnksl fmdfydr j.d ìfï iEu ;eklgu

lsÍu ksid mig fhÈh hq;= È,Sr kdYl yd

úiqrejd yer kej; mi flàfuka tajd

lDñkdYl fndfyda ÿrg wvq lr.; yels

fyd`Èka mig ñY%fõ' fï i`oyd f.du" fyda

jk w;r nelaàßhd ysgqueÍfï ;;a;ajh

fldïfmdaiaÜ fyda l=l=,a fmdfydr j¾.

o ;rula wvqlr .; yelsh' fuh uq,skau

óg¾ 1 lg ms<sfj,ska lsf,da .%Eï 3la 4la

;jdka i`oyd isÿlr miqj l%ufhka fjk;a

iy 2la ne.ska muK fhÿjfyd;a ridhksl

md;a;s i`oyd o fhÈh yelsfõ' ;rula

fmdfydr j,ska f;drj jqjo t<j¿ j.d

>klï fmd,s;Ska Ndú;d lr tajd isÿre

l,yels fõ' ^ldnksl t<j¿ j.d lsÍu

fkdjk fia m%fõYï lr ;nd .ekSfuka j.d

- m¾fhaIK f;dr;=re-2009 wdpd¾h tï'ta'

lkak lsysmhlau kej; kej; m%fhdackhg

,;S*a&

.;yels ùfuka ta i`oyd hk úhou o wju

ldnkssl fmdfydr mig ñY% ùu ksid"

lr.; yelsh'

tajdfha isák Trichoderma

jeks

È,Sr mfia isák frda. ldrl È,Sr j, l%shdj uev mj;ajhs' 

ul=¿jka" m;a;Ehka" úf,damsl l=reñKshka jeks i;=ka mfiys isák úúO lDñ m,sfndaëka wdydrhg.kS'

md;a;s isÿre rys; fmd,s;Skhlska wdjrKh fldg ysre t<sfhka mi ;eñîu

ldnksl wï, j¾. iy fjk;a ixfhda. ydkslr CIqø Ôù l%shd uev mj;ajhs'

13

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'1'5 fnda. udrej

mfia CIqø Ôù úúO;ajh jeälr nelaàßhd" È,Sr jeks uQ, uKav, frda.

ldrlhkag

tfrysj

tlu Ydl l=,hg wh;a ^tlsfklg kEoEhska

l%shd

jk& fnda. j¾. tlu ìul È.ska È.gu

lrhs'

j.d lrk úg tajdfha m,sfndaëka fmdÿ

2'1'4 kj j.dj kshñ; ld,hg iduQyslj weröu

neúka ydks ;;a;ajh l%ufhka jeäfõ' túg tjeks ;;a;ajhla md,kh lsÍu b;du wmyiq fõ'

t<j¿ j.d m%foaYhl f.dùka iduQysl

tneúka hï j.d ìul j.d lkakfhka

lghq;a;la f,i merKs j.djka wjika

lkakhg fjkia Ydl l=, j,g wh;a fnda.

jk úgu úkdYlr oud wvq jYfhka i;s

udre lrñka j.d lsÍfuka bfíu m,sfndaO

;=klaj;a .; jQ miq kej; j.dj weröu

.yk

iqÿiqfõ' fuys§ ish¨u f.dùka iduQyslj

jkq we;' fujeks fnda. f;dard .ekSfï§

c, iq,N;djh jeks fjk;a j.dj id¾:l

WmldÍ jk f,i úúO Ydl l=, j,g wh;a

ùug n,mdk lreKqo i,ld n,d kj j.dj

jk fnda. j¾. lsysmhla my; oelafõ'

wkjYH

f,i

jeäùu

md,kh

werôh hq;=h' iduQyslj iy iïmQ¾Kfhkau merKs j.djka úkdY lr we;s neúka fï

l=,h

jkúg m%foaYfha t<j¿ m,sfndaO .yK

l=l¾ìfÜisfha

fnda.h

lrú," jegfld¿" msmsCoaCod"

wju uÜgul mj;S' m%foaYfha kj t<j¿

mf;da," lelsß" jÜglald"

j.dj weröu;a iu`. kej; l%u l%ufhka

mqyq,a" ,nq" .¾lska" ;=U lrú,

m,sfndaO .yK jeä ùug mgka .kS'

f,.shqñfkaisfha

fuúg hï j.djla m%udo ù werUqjfyd;a m,sfndaO

.yK

;rula

fyda

uE lr,a" fndaxÑ" oU," lõms" uqx

jeä

fid,fkaisfha

wjia:djl th wrïN flfrk neúka

jïngq" t,ngq" ;síngq" ñßia" ud¨ ñßia" fldÉÑ" ;lald,s

ta i`oyd m,sfndaO ydks jeä jYfhka n,mEula we;s lrkq ,nhs' hï t<j¿ j.d m%foaYhl wod, m,sfndaO .yk myiqfjka iy fmdÿfõ md,kh lr ;nd .ekSu i`oyd

ue,afõisfha

nKAvlald

lDis*f¾isfha

rdnq" f.dajd" fkdaflda,a" wn

.%eñfka

ù" nvbß`.=" bo,a bß`.=" l=rlalka" fufkaß" ;Kyd,a

fï whqßka ish¨u f.dùkaf.a nqoaêu;a$ iduQysl odhl;ajh b;d jeo.;a fõ'

wïn,s*f¾isfha

îÆKq" r;= ÆKq" ,Slaia

bhqf*daìfhaisfha

uCofCodlald

fldkaj,aúhq,disfha n;," lkal=ka lSfkdfmdäfhaisfha îÜrEÜ

14

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'1'6 ñY% fnda. j.dj wh;a t<j¿ fnda. ;ks j.djla f,i

2'1'8 kj j.dj jgd wdjrKhla fyda Ôj jegla

úYd, mßudKfhka j.d lsÍfï§ tajdfha

msg;ska

m,sfndaëka fmdÿ ksid tjeks ydks uq¨

m,sfndaëka /jàula fyda fN!;slj ndOdjla

fCIa;%h mqrdu fõ.fhka me;sÍ wêl

fuhska

m,sfndaO .yKhla f,i nrm;, ydkshlaa

foaYSh øjH j,ska o fuh l,yels jqjo

lsÍfï yelshdj jeäh' tfy;a fjkia l=,

fuhska iuyr ys;lr Ôùkag ndOd ùuo

j,g wh;a t<j¿ j.djka tlla yer tlla

fkdje,elaúh yelsh'

hïlsis j.d ìul tlu Ydl l=,hlg

;Sre fyda fldgq md;a;s f,ig udre lrñka

kj isÿfõ'

j.d

N+ñhg

isyska

oe,a"

meñfKk fmd,s;Ska"

j.d l,fyd;a tjeks ;;a;ajhla myiqfjkau

2'1'9 mqrka lsÍu

j,lajd

;dCIKh

È.gu t<j¿ j.d lrk ia:dkj, iuyr

wmf.a merKs f.dùka fyaka j.dfõ§ fyd`Èka

wjia:d j,§ iuyr m,sfndaëka md,kh

Wmfhda.S lrf.k we;s w;r j¾;udkfha§

l, fkdyels f,i È.ska È.gu ydks lrkq

o f.j;= j.dfõ§ Ndú;d fõ'

oelsh yelsh'tjeks wjia:d j,§ uq¿ j.d

f,.shqñfkaisfha

m%foaYfhau udi 3-5 la muK j.dj w;ayer

l=l¾ìfÜisfha

iajdNdúl Ydl j¾Okhg bv yeÍfuka

.;

yelsh'

fuu

tjeks ydks bfíu md,kh fõ'

f,.shqñfkaisfha l=l¾ìfÜisfha f,.shqñfkaisfha

2'2 kj j.dj fCIa;%fha msysgq ùug fmr isgu m,sfndaëka f.a iajdNdúl i;=rka .yK jeä ÈhqKq lsÍu yd wdrCId lsÍu

l=l¾ìfÜisfha j.d ;Sre f,i fjkia l=, j, j.djka i`oyd WodyrKhla

2'1'7 kj j.dj jgd fjk;a j.d ;Srejla

t<j¿

kj j.dj wdjrKh jk f,i thg i;s

.kakd m,sfndaëka fukau m,sfndaëkaf.ka

3lg muK l,ska me, lr.;a fjk;a

fmdaIKh ,nd .kakd iajdNdúl i;=rkao

Ydl l=,hlg wh;a j.d ;Srejla u`.ska

iajdNdúlju Ôj;afõ' óg wu;rj fï

m,sfndaëka /jàula isÿlr tu`.ska m,sfndaO ydks$ .yKh jeäùu m%udo l, yelsh' fuys§ kj j.djg wod< m,sfndaëka /jàu fukau fN!;sl ndOlhla f,i ls%hd

fofldgigu wh;a fkdjk WodiSk Ôùkao

mßirhkays

fnda.

j,g

wu;rj Ydl j,ska fl,skau fmdaIKh ,nd

oelsh yelsh' m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.aa l%shdldß;ajh fyj;a ffcj md,kh ksid bfíu ie,lsh hq;= ;rï

lsÍuo isÿfõ'

15

ipvm final 0...indd 

j.d

m,sfndaëka

úkdY

ùula

isÿfõ'

fuu

//0 ::0 PM


ixisoaêhg ys;lr ;;a;ajhka kj j.djg

ia:dk j, y`ÿkd .ekSug wmyiq jk f,i

fmr

t<j¿

ieÕù isàu" CIKslj mek f.dÿre w,a,d

j.d mßirfha wêl iajdNdúl i;=rka

.ekSu" tjeks f.dÿre veyef.k .scq f,i

.yK mj;ajd .ekSu;a tu`.ska uq, isgu

wdydrhg .ekSu jeks yeiSßï fmkajk

m,sfndaëkaf.a j¾Okh bfíu md,kh;a

ksid myiqfjka Ydl u; hefmk" idfmaCIj

l,yelsh' ta i`oyd iqÿiq jeo.;a lghq;=

fiñka

lsysmhls'

fjkalr y`ÿkd .; yelsh' fï i|yd m%Odk

isgu

mj;ajd

.ekSfuka

l%shdlrk

m<sfndaOlhskaf.ka

WodyrK lsysmhla my; olajd we;'

2'2'1 t<j`M m<sfndaëka f.a iajdNdúl i;=rka

Ydl jdiS ul=¿jka ^Araneae f.da;%h&

;udf.a ffcj wjYH;djh ^úfYaIfhka

ul=¿jka ish,a, udxY NlaIl jk w;r

fmdaIKh

t<j`M

m%Odk jYfhkau lDóka wdydr fldg .kS'

j.dfõ m<sfndaOlhskaf.a l%shdldß;ajh iy

fudjqkag mdo hq.,a 04la" ir, weia 06-08la

.yKh wvq lrkakdjQ cSùka fõ' fudjqka

we;s w;r YS¾fI!rih iy Worh f,i

wdldr lsysmhlg m<sfndaëka fj; ydks isÿ

YÍrh m%Odk fldgia follska hqla;h'

lrhs'

m%Odk;u

2'2'1'1 t<j`M m<sfndaëkaf.a úf,damSka

miqmi fl,jßka ul=¿ kQ,a ksmoùfï

fudjqka

,nd

t<j`M

.ekSu&

i|yd

m<sfndaëka

Worfha

muK olajd jQ úYd, mrdihl ul=¿jka oel.; yelsh' fudjqka oe,a úhd tuÕska

lrf.k tuÕska fmdaIKh ,nd .kS' ndysr

f.dÿre w,a,d .kakd j¾." ieÕù isg

rEm ,CIK wkqj fukau yeisßfukao

mek f.dÿre w,a,d .kakd j¾." f.dÿr

fudjqka myiqfjka y``ÿqkd .; yelsh'

miq mi osj f.dia w,a,d .kakd j¾."

fudjqka f.dÿre jk m<sfndaOlhdg jvd

tla jru mek f.dÿr w,a,d .kakd j¾.

Yla;su;a iy fndfyda úg ;rula úYd,

wdoS jYfhka úúOdldr jQ yeisßï rgdjka

isrerla iys;h" fõ.j;ah" oreKq .;s.=K

fmkajhs' tfukau rd;%s ld,fha;a" osjd

we;' Yla;su;a mdo" úYd, iy ;shqKq

ld,fha;a" uq¨ oji mqrdu;a f.dÿre w,a,d

uqL Wmdx." f.dÿr wvmk lr.ekSu

.kakd j¾. isà' t<j`M m<sfndaO md,kh

i|yd Wmfhda.S lr.kakd fjk;a Wml%u

i|yd m%fhdackj;a jk ul=¿jka w;r

fudjqka i;= w;r meyeos,sj lemS fmfkk

Ydl" mqIam" l|ka u;" mi u;= msg" fld,

r;=$ l¨$ ly$ ;eô,s jeks j¾K j,skao

frdvq w;r" mi ;=, wdoS jYfhka úúO

hqla;h' fudjqka ks;r fõ.fhka weúosñka

ia:dk j, cSj;a jk j¾. we;' fudjqka

fyda mshdUñka f.dÿre fiùu" f.dÿre

ipvm final 0...indd 

jkafka

yelshdjhs' isref¾ os. ñ'ñ' 01 isg 20

f.dÿre

miq mi fõ.fhka yUd hEu" j.dfõ úúO

,CIKhla

f.a YÍr m%udKh wkqj f.dÿre lr .kakd

16

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m<sfndaëkaf.a YÍr m%udKh r|d mj;sk

b;d úYd, m%udKhla oeóu isÿ l,o

w;r b;d l=vd YÍr we;s ul=¿jka iy

tu`.ska ìysjk megjqka tlsfkld f.dÿre

ul=¿ megjqka tu m%udKfha m<sfndaëka

lr

jk iqÿueiaika" lSvEjka" me, uelalka"

f.dÿre ùfuka iajdNdúlj .yK md,kh

uhsgdjka" m;% lkskakka jeks ridhksl

fõ' tneúka megjqka wdrCId fldg j.djg

f,i md,kh lsÍug b;d wmyiq m<sfndaO

úiqrejd yeÍfuka tljr w;súYd, ul=¿

j¾. ffcj md,kh i|yd fnfyúkau

.yKhla iy fyd`o m,sfndaO md,khla

WmldÍ

,nd .;yel'

fõ'

fudjqka

jrlg

ì;a;r

.ekSfuka

iy

fjk;a

ul=¿jkag

oe,a úhk ul=¿fjla - Araneidae l=,h

msñ ul=¿fjla - Salticidae l=,h

jDl ul=¿fjla - Lycosidae l=,h

ì;a;r leoe,a, wdrCId lrk ovhï ul=¿ uj

17

ipvm final 0...indd 

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bìl=reñKshka iy tu lSghka

fudjqka

Ydl jdiS ul=¨ j¾.

Coccinellidae

l=,hg

wh;a

w¾O f.da,dldr" ly$ ;eô,s$ r;=$ l¨ j¾K j,ska hq;= l=vd bífnl=f.a yevh we;s

l=reñKshka

jk

w;r

ly$iqÿ

meye;s" os.á ì;a;r 6-12la muK tl

b,a ueiail= f.dÿre lr .;a ovhï ul=¿fjla Oxyopidae l=,h

fmdl=rg ouhs' thska msgjk os.= mdo yd os.= wfOdaykq iys; lSghka iqyqUq,a l=reñKshka fukau fõ.fhka weúosñka l=ä;a;ka" msá ul=Kka" fldrfmd;= lDóka" l=vd o<Uqjka iy fjk;a m<sfndaëkaf.a ì;a;r wdosh f.dÿre lr .kS' ms,d wjia:dfõoS Ydl j,g we,S isák w;r osk 21-28 loS muK cSjk pl%h iïmQ¾K jk ksid;a" tla .eyeKq l=reñKshl=g ì;a;r 150-200 la muK cSú; ld,h ;=,oS oeñh yels ksid;a"

m;% hg isák l=vd ul=¿fjla

b;du blaukska fnda ù t<j`M m<sfndaëka ffcj md,khg WmldÍ fõ' È. ñ'ñ' 01 isg 10 muK olajd jQ YÍr m%udKfhka" úúO j¾K yd fudaia;r j,ska hq;= j¾. úYd, ixLHdjla we;' fudjqka úúOdldr jq m<sfndaëka j¾. ixLHdjlg tfrysj fudjqka l%shdlrk w;r osjd ld,fhaoS

m;% há me;af;a isák b;d l=vd ul=¿fjla

jeämqr l%shdYS,s fõ'

jïngq f.ä úÈkakdf.a i,nhd f.dÿre lr .kakd ovhï ul=¿fjla

r;= meye bì l=reñKshd

18

ipvm final 0...indd 

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ly meye bìl=reñKsfhla

bì l=reñKs lSghd

ms,d wjia:dj

uhsghka wdydrhg .kakd bì l=reñKshka

ì;a;r j,ska msgjk bì l=reñKs lSghka

ì;a;r j,ska msgjk tu lsSghka úYd,kh lr

19

ipvm final 0...indd 

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fõ.fhka weúosk" iagems,skaâ l=reñKshka iy

tu

lSghka

(Paederus

úfYaI

-

Staphylinidae l=,h& o by; j¾. fukau úúOdldr m<sfndaëka iy tu ì;a;r o wdydrhg .kS'

msá ul=Kl=f.a yevh .;a bì l=reñKs lSgfhla 

fjk;a úf,damsl l=reñKshka

rd;%s ld,fhaoS jeämqr l%shdYS,s fmd<j u;" fld, frdvqq w;r iy Ydl u; o isg m<sfndaëka f.dÿre lr .kakd l¨ meye;s ìï l=reñKshka o" ly$ ÿUqre$l¨ j¾Kfhka

hq;=

ghs.¾

ìï l=reñKsfhla

l=reñKshkao

^Carabidae l=,h& b;d jeo.;a úf,damSkah' fõ.fhka ÿjk fudjqka lsh;a mKqjka" tu ì;a;r" tu ms<jqka

(Spodoptera úfYaI

iy Agrotis úfYaI& iy fjk;a m<sfndaëka wdydrhg .kS' Èjd

ld,fhaoS

jeämqr

l%shdYS,s

r;=$

ÿUqre$ ;eô,s$ l¨ j¾.hkaf.ka hq;= fnd;,a l=reñKshd

ñ'ñ' 08la muK os. fnda;,a yeve;s l=reñKshka ^Ophionea úfYaI - Carabidae l=,h& fõ.fhka Ydl u; weúosñka iy ks;r mshdUñka l=ä;a;ka" l=vd o<Uqjka" m<sfndaO ì;a;r jeks f.dÿre wdydrhg .kS' osjd ld,fhaoS jeämqr l%shdYS,s ÿUqre$ ;eô,s$ l¨ j¾Kfhka hq;= ñ'ñ' 10- 20la muK os. we;s" Worhg jvd flá mQ¾j

by, iagems,skaâ l=reñKsfhla my, bì l=reñKs lSgfhla

mshdm;a ^t,ssg%d& we;s" ìu u; iy Ydl u;

20

ipvm final 0...indd 0

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n;al+rka - Odonata f.da;%h

uyd n;al+rka iy ySka n;al+rka hkqfjka m%Odk j¾. folla jk w;r úúO w,xldr j¾Khkaf.ka

hq;=

j¾.

b;d

úYd,

ixLHdjls' uyd n;al+rka ñ'ñ' 70la muK olajd os.= úh yels w;r jid isák úg mshdm;a Wmia:rhg iudka;rj ;nd .kS' ySka n;al+rka ñ'ñ' 40la muK olajd os.=

uyd n;al+frla

jk w;r jid isák úg mshdm;a tl;= lr Wmia:rhg ,ïnlj" isrerg by<ska ;nd.kS' fudjqka jeä jYfhka" mshdUk m<sfndaëka jk b,aueiaika" i,nhska jeks lDóka f.dÿre lr.kS' fudjqka ì;a;r oukafkao" tuÕska we;sjk YsIqjka cSj;a jkafkao" iajNdúl ;;a;ajfha we;s c,dY j, ksid ¥IKh wju j.d ìï wi, fudjqka nyq,j oelsh yelsh' hï

t<j¿

mßirfha

j.d

iajdNdúl

m%foaYhl ;;a;ajh

ySka n;al+frla

mj;sk iy

¥IK ;;A;ajh ms<sn`oj tys ießirk

úf,damsl ul=Kka(

Heteroptera f.da;%hg

n;al+rkaf.a iq,N;djh wkqj hï b`.shla

wh;a

Reduviidae,

Anthocoridae, Nabidae jeks l=, .Kkdjlg

,nd.; yelsh' tA wkqj jeä n;al+rka

wh;a

m%udKhla oelsh yels kï tys iajdNdúl

úf,damsl

ul=Kq

j¾.

rdYshls'

fudjqka ñ'ñ' 3 muK isg ñ'ó' 35 la

mßirh fyd`Èka wdrCId ù we;s nj;a tys

muK olajd È.e;s" wêl úúO;ajhlska

wfkl=;a ys;lr Ôùkao nyq,j isák nj;a

hq;= úf,damSkA jk w;r YÍr m%udKhg

CIKslj wjfndaO lr.; yelsfõ'

wkqj m<sfndaO ì;a;r" lSghka" ms,jqka" YsIqjka iy iqyqUq,ka hk ´kEu j¾.hla f.dÿre lr f.k tu hqIh Wrd fndhs' fudjqkaf.a <má wjia:dj jk YsIqjkao iqyqUq,ka fukau úf,damsl fõ'

21

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Reduviidae l=,hg wh;a úf,damsl ul=Kka

Ydl jdiS ìxl=kavka ^f,aia úka.a lSghka&

fudjqka Neuroptera f.da;%fha lSghka jk w;r os.= iy W,a wfOdaykqq úfYaIfhka lemS fmfka' YÍr m%udKhg wkqj .e<fmk o<Uqjka"

l=ä;a;ka"

uhsgdjka"

lDñ

ì;a;r jeks m<sfndaëka wdydrhg .kS' iqyqUq,df.a mshdm;a j, we;s f¾kao jeks rgdj ksid f,aiaúka.a (Lacewing) hk ku fudjqkag fhfoa' ì;a;r m;% há me;af;a os.= kgq j,ska iú lrhs' flá ld,Skj blaukska fnda jk ksid m<sfndaOkdYl biSu wju iy iajNdúl mßirh wdrCId ù we;s úg b;d blaukska fnda ù Wiia ffcj md,khla ,nd fohs' iqyqUq,a f,aia úka.a u,ameKs" Ydl hqI wdÈh wdydrhg .kS'

ÿUqre f,aia úka.a iqyqUq,d

fld< f,aiaúka.a iqyqUq,d

22

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mshdUñka isáh yels" iajNdúlj jefjk me,Eá j, u,a j,ska meKs wdydrhg .kakd ueiaika ì;a;r oeófuka fujeks lSghka ìysfõ' fudjqka mdo rys;" isref¾ fij,

jeks

iajrEmhla

we;s"

ñ'ñ'

12la muK olajd os. jk iqÿ$ ÿUqre$ fld, jeks j¾K j,ska hq;= lSghkah' l=ä;a;ka" msá ul=Kka jeks m<sfndaëka fudjqkaf.a f.dÿre f,i .ksñka tu rxpq

jDka; iys; f,aia úka.a ì;a;r

w;f¾u jdih lr ms,d wjia:dj njg m;afõ' lDñkdYl ksid b;d myiqfjka úkdY jk fudjqka ì;a;r /ila ouñka flá l,la ;=,§ fndajk ksid b;d fyd| ffcj md,khla ,nd fok w;r lD;Suj jqjo fnda lr wjYH úg Ndú;d l, yels fõ' os,sfik f,dayuh fld,$ rkajka meyefhka hq;= os.= mdo iys; Chrysosoma ueiaikao

o<Uqjl= f.dÿre lr .kakd f,aia úka.a lSgfhla

^Dance fly - Dolichopodidae l=,h& wm f.a t<j`M j.djkays ks;r oelsh yels úf,damsl ueiafils' fudjqka jeämqru iqÿ ueiaika" lSvEjka" iqyqUq,a m;% lkskakd jeks m<sfndaëka f.dÿre lr .kS' óg wu;rj Asilidae l=,hg wh;a ueiaikao ^Wod(Robber fly& fjk;a ueiaika j¾. .Kkdjlao t<j`M m<sfndaëkaf.a úf,damSka

f,aiaúka.a lSghka

f,i oelsh yels w;r fudjqka b.sf,k

úf,damsl ueiaika yd tu lSghka(

m<sfndaëka f.dÿre lsÍug jvd;a oCI;d fmkajhs' fuu ueis j¾. ì;a;r fndfyda .Kkla ouk neúka f.dÿre jeämqr we;s

Syrphidae l=,fha ^Flower fly) ueis lSghska

iajdNdúl ;;a;aj hgf;a§ b;d blaukska

fï w;=ßka jvd;a lemS fmfkhs' Worfha

.yKh jeälr .kS'

ly$ ÿUqre$ l¨ bß iys;" tl ;ek

23

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úf,damsl ueiaika yd ueis lSghka

i¾*sâ ueiafila

i¾*sâ ueis lSgfhla

i¾*sâ ueis lSgfhla

l%sifidaud ueiafila

i¾*sâ lSghka

úYd,kh lrk ,o i¾*sâ ueiaika yd lSghka

^fld, meye j¾.h yd ÿUqre meye j¾.h&

24

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úf,damsl fonr j¾.

jkaoka

Hymenoptera f.da;%hg wh;a Vespidae

fudjqka Mantodea f.da;%hg wh;a jk

l=,fha

iuyr

fonreka

.efka'

fudjqka

w;r

hg;g

w;r ish¿u j¾. lDñ NCIlh' t<j¿

fonrd"

l=U,d"

j.djkays fukau mi u;=msg isák jkaoka

úf,damslhska

úYd,

j¾. o isák w;r ksfid,aukaj /l isg

ixLHdjla t<j¿ j.djkays oelsh yelsh'

;ud wi,ska hk lDñ m,sfndaëkaj tljr

fudjqka

m,sfndaOlhska

mek f.dÿre lr.kS' fudjqkaf.a ì;a;r

f.dÿre lr .kakd w;ru ;u megjqka

j,ska ìysjk l=vd YsIqjkao ;u isref¾

f.a fmdaIKh i`oyd f.dÿre .nvd lsÍuo

m%udKhg .e,fmk f.dÿre w,a,d .kS'

isÿlrhs' t<j¿ j.djka

wi, fonr

fudjqkaf.a bÈß mdo hq.,h úYd, ù fldl=

l+vqjla we;súg o<Uqjka ys`. jkafka fï

iys; ù f.dÿre we,a,Sug úfYaIKh ù

ksidh'

we;' YÍrh fi'ó 5-10 muK È.h' ì;a;r

l,d`ÿrejd

jeks

o<Uqjka

jeks

fldmqjla f,i Ydl j,g w,jd ;nk neúka tajd tl;= lr wdrCIs;j t<j¿ j.djkays ;nd fudjqkaf.a fiajh jeämqr ,nd.; yel'

o<Uqjl= f.dÿre lr.kakd foUfrla

miauq¿ ul=fkl= f.dÿre lr

jkaokaf.a ì;a;r fldaIfhka

.kakd fonfrla

msg;g tk megjqka

25

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l=yqUq l=,fha i;=ka (Formicidae)

Èñhka" lähka iy l=yqUqjka fï i`oyd WodyrK fõ' fudjqka o,Uqjka" l=reñKshka iy ul=Kka jeks m,sfndaO j¾. f.dÿre lr .kS' úfYaIhka t<j¿ wiajekakg n,j;a f,i ydks lrk b,aueiaid" jïngq f.ä yd lrá úÈkakd jeks m,sfndaëkag fudjqka b;d id¾:l úf,damSka fõ' kuq;a iSks ødjK msglrk úo hqI Wrd fndk

lDñhl= f.dÿre lr .kakd jkafola

l+ä;a;ka" fldrfmd;= lDóka" msául=Kka jeks lDóka me;srùu yd wdrCId lsÍu ksid fudjqka Ndú;fha§ .eg¨ mek k.S'

úh<s m;%hl yevh .;a jkafola

Èñhkag f.dÿre jQ ul=fKla 

t<j¿ m,sfndaëka f.dÿre lr .kakd fjk;a i;=ka( i`oyd

uhsgdjka"

WodyrK m;a;Ehka"

lgqiaika$yQkka$islk¨ka Wr.hka"

f,i

úf,damsl f.dakqiaika"

jeks

f.ïnka$ueähka

iy

iuyr lDñ

NCIl l=re,a,ka oelaúh yelsh' lDñ

m;%hl yevh .;a jkafola

NCIl l=re,a,ka i`oyd WodyrK jkqfha

26

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fou,sÉpka"

fmd,alsÉpka"

ljqvka"

ms,syqvqjka " úúOdldr ueis udrdjka" l=l=,ka wdÈh jk w;r fndfyda fjk;a j¾. o ;u megjqkag lDóka wdydr f,i ,ndfohs' f.d¿ fn,a,kaf.a m%Odk;u úf,damslfhl= jkafka weá l=l=<kah' mshdUk lDóka úYd, jYfhka wdydrhg .kakd ;j;a úf,damslhl= f,i lDñ NCIl jjq,ka wu;l l, fkdyelsh' fujeks ys;lr úf,damsl i;=ka j¾. úYd, m%udKhla lgqiafila

wmf.a t<j¿ j.dfjys oelsh yels w;r Tjqka b;du;au ksy`v fiajhla iqÿiq mßir ;;a;aj hgf;a§ wm fjkqfjka bgq lrhs'

l¿ lsh;a mKqjka jeks mfia isák m,sfndaëka l=l=,ka f.a f.dÿre njg m;a fõ Ydl u; fjfik f.ïfnla

mi ;=, fjfik f.ïfnla

ljqvd mshdUk lDóka f.dÿre lr.kS

27

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tu m,sfndaO ì;a;r j,ska msgjkqfha

2'2'1'2 t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a mrfmdaISka

ì;a;r

yeisßï fkdue;s lDóka fõ' fudjqka f.a

fmdaIKh ,nd.kS' iEu úgu Odrlhd

wdidok ksid wod, ydkshg m;ajk Odrl

úYd, Ôúhl= jk w;r mrfmdaIs;hd

lDñ ì;a;r j, idudkHfhka ;sìh hq;=

idfmaCIj l=vd isrerlska hqla;h' tla

meyeh fjkia ù l¿ meyehg yqqrejk

lsysm

w;r ì;a;r fudard msg;g meñfKk

fofkl=g jqjo fmdaIKh ,nd .ekSug yelsh'

tfia

kuq;a

fuys§

isÿr m,sfndaëka msgjk isÿrg jvd l=vdh'

úia;r

fujeks ì;a;r mrfmdaIs;hskaf.a jvd;a

flfrkqfha idudkH mrfmdaIs;hskag jvd

jeo.;a ,CIKh kï m,sfndaO ydkshla we;s

t<j¿ m,sfndaëka ffcj md,khg jeä

ùug fmru m,sfndaëka fï u`.ska úkdY ù

jYfhka odhl jkakdjQ Parasitoid kï

hduhs' w;a ldphla /f.k m,sfndaOkdYl

úfYaIs; mrfmdaISka ms<sn`ojhs' fudjqka

t;rï biSu isÿfkdlrk t<j¿ j.djl

f.a ydksh ksid wod, m,sfndaëka ñhhk

we;s lDñ ì;a;r fyd`Èka mßCId lrk úg

w;r fuu j¾.fha iqyqUq,a lDóka ksoyia cSúfhl=

f,i

mßirfha

m,sfndaOl ì;a;r fmdl=re w;f¾ j¾Kh

Ôj;afjhs'

fjkia

túg Tjqka fmdaIKh ,nd .kafka tu m,sfndaëkaf.ka

fkdj

fndfyda

j¾.

l,

yels

fCIa;%hg kej; y`ÿkajdÈh yelsh' tfukau fCIa;%h wi, fijk we;s ia:dkhl isÿre iys; WK .ila isgqjd tu isÿre ;=,ska fujeks lDñ ì;a;r WK mqrela ;=< ;ekam;a

t<j¿ m,sfndaëka f.a ì;a;r mrfmdaIs;hska(

lsÍfuka

m,sfndaO

m,sfndaëkaf.a ì;a;r j,ska fmdaIKh ,nd

ì;a;r

Hymenoptera

.kS' fï ksid tu m,sfndaëkaf.a l<,

ipvm final 0...indd 

wjia:

^jeä úia;r i`oyd msgq wxl 39 n,kak&

tu

ì;a;rh ;=<§u úkdY fõ' wjidkfha§

<má

iqyqUq,ka ksoyia ù kej; j.djg meñfKa'

tajd ;=< ;u ì;a;r ;ekam;a lrk w;r lSghka

m,sfndaëkaf.a

dj úkdY jk w;r fujeks mrfmdaIs;

fudjqka m,sfndaëkaf.a ì;a;r u; fyda l=vd

yelsh'

mrfmdaIs;hska msgjk úg Tjqka wdrCIs;j

jvd;a m%fhdackj;a fõ'

ìysjk

oelsh

lr ks;r mßCId l,fyd;a tajdhska fujeks

jqjo

wjia:dj wkqj j¾. fldg wOHhkh lsÍu

tu`.ska

ì;a;r

ì;a;r l=vd iy msßisÿ Ndck j,g tl;=

fudjqka fmdaIKh ,nd .kakd m,sfndaO

fujeks

tfukau tjeks j.djl we;s m,sfndaOl

úg

u,ameKs" mrd." fjk;a Ydl hqI wdosfhks' úúOdldrfhka

iqyqUq,a

ly$ ÿUqre meyehg yqre t;rï fõ.j;a

Odrlhd jk w;r mrfmdaIs;hd úiska

mrfmdaIs;hska

lDókaf.a

wjia:djhs' fudjqka b;d l=vd YÍr we;s l¿$

mrfmdaIs;;djfha§ fmdaIKh ,ndfokafkaa

Odrlhl=f.ka

mrfmdaIS

mrfmdaIS;hka f.da;%fha

f,i

Encyrtidae

iy Trichogrammatidae l=,hkag wh;a

28

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iuyr b;d l=vd fonr j¾. lemS fmfkhs'

yd lrá úÈkakd iy fjk;a o,Uqjkaf.ao

Trichogramma úfYaI m,sfndaëka j¾.

ffcj md,khg fnfyúka WmldÍ fõ'

.Kkdjlau ì;a;r mrfmdaIs;hska f,i 

m%isoaOh' fudjqka ñ'ó' 0'5g jvd È.ska wvq neúka mshú weiska ksÍCIKh wmyiqh"

t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a lSg mrfmdaIs;hska

úYd,k ldphla Ndú;fhka fyd`Èka mßCId

fudjqka

m,sfndaOl

lSghskaf.a

YÍrh

l, yelsh' iqyqUq,ka ly$ ÿUqre$ l¨

u; fyda ;=< ì;a;r ;ekam;a lrk w;r

j¾K ñY%j we;' ì;a;r tlla fyda úYd,

tu`.ska ìysjk l=vd lSghska fmdaIKh

.Kkla m,sfndaOl ì;a;rfha ;ekam;a

,nd .kakd ksid m,sfndaOl lSghd ñhhhs'

lrhs' fudjqkaf.a lSg yd ms,d wjëka o

fudjqkaf.a j¾.h iy Odrl lSghd f.a

ta ;=<u .; lrk w;r fufia wdidÈ;

;;a;ajh wkqj jrlg ouk ì;a;r .Kk

m,sfndaOl ì;a;r l¨ meyehg yqrefõ'

fjkia úh yel' fudjqka m%Odk jYfhkau Hymenoptera f.da;%hg wh;a fonreka j¾. fukau Diptera f.da;%hg

wh;a

iuyr ueiaikao úhyel' fujeks fonr j¾. È.ska ñ'ó' 2 isg 30la muK olajd úh yels w;r ly$ ÿUqre$ ;eô,s$ l¨$ f,dayuh ks,a$ fld, jeks j¾K j,ska hqla;fõ' fudjqkag ì;a;r ;ekam;a lsÍug isÿj we;af;a fnfyúka l%shdldÍ lSg wjia:dfjys ksid fudjqkaf.aa .eyeKq i;=ka fnfyúkau l%shdYS,S" È.= mdo iy fndfydaúg

È.=

äïN

ksOdhlhlskao

^Worfha miq mi we;s È.= isyska W,la jeks wjhjh& hqla;h' fudjqkaf.a iqyqUq,a fonreka fndfydaúg neoafoys msfmk l=vd u,a j¾. j, meKs$ mrd. iy fjk;a Ydl hqI wdydrhg .kakd w;r ms,d wjia:djo fndfyda úg Odrl lDñhdg

m,sfndaOl ì;a;r u; isák Trichogramma fonreka

WodyrK(-

wdikakj oelsh yelsfõ'

T. chilonis ì;a;r mrfmdaIs;hd ;lald,s$

WodyrK - Cotesia úfYaI iy Opius

ñßia$ uE$ fndaxÑ$ nKavlald lr,a úÈkakd

úfYaIhkag whs;s iuyr fonr j¾. yd

^Helicoverpa úfYaI) iy jïngq$ ngq f.ä

Tachinidae l=,hg wh;a iuyr ueiaika

29

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úkdY jQ o<Uqjd ueÈlr .;a mrfmdaIs; fldaI

lSg mrfmdaIs; fldaIh - o<Uqjd úkdY ù we;

o<Uqjl= u; ì;a;r ouk mrfmdaIs; fonfrla

le,aisfâ l=,fha mrfmdaIs; fonfrla

o<Uqfjla u; ì;a;r ouk mrfmdaIs; fonfrla

geÑksfâ mrfmdaIs; ueiaid iy Ôjk pl%fha wjia:d

30

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t,j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a ms,d mrfmdaIs;hska

fudjqka

m,sfndaëka

u;$

;=<

ì;a;r oeófuka ìysjk lSghska úiska tu m,sfndaOlhd úkdY lrkq ,nhs'

fudjqka t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a ms,d wjia:dj ;=<$ u;$ wi, ì;a;r oud tu`.ska ìys-

jk lSghska u`.ska tu ms,d wjia:dj úkdY

lSg-ms,d mrfmdaIs;hska(

fudjqka

lrkq ,nhs'

ì;a;r

m,sfndaOlhdf.a

WodyrK - Èhuka;s msg i<nhf.a ms,jdg

oukqfha

lSg

wod,

wjia:dfõ§

jk

w;r tu`.ska ìysjk mrfmdaIs; lSghska

ydks lrk Diadromus collaris fonrd iy

tu m,sfndaOl lSghd" ms,jd jk f;la

msmsCoaCod i<nhdf.a ms,jdg ydks lrk

tu isrer u; ydks lrñka cSj;a fjhs'

Brachymeria fonr úfYaI 

iqyqUq,a

wjidkfha§ m,sfndaOl ms,jd ñhhk w;r ta ;=, mrfmdaIs; lSghdo ms,d wjia:dj

t,j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.aa iqyqUq,a wjia:djg ydks lrk mrfmdaIs;hska

.; lr mrfmdaIs; iqyqUq,ka f,i msg;g meñfKa' 

frda.ldrl È,Sr i`oyd mrfmdaIS È,Sr(

fujeks È,Sr j¾. frda. ldrl È,Srfhka fmdaIKh ,nd .ekSu ksid tu frda. bfíu md,kh fõ' WodyrK(-

Trichoderma È,Srh - mfika uQ, uKav,hg we;sjk È,Sr frda. i`oyd wys;lr f,i n,mEfuka tu ydks bfíu md,kh fõ' fudjqka

mfia

Ô¾Khg j¾Okh øjH

we;s

WmldÍ

jk

W;af;ackh

Y%djh

lrk

ldnksl

øjH

ksid;a

Ydl

lrk

ridhksl

ksid;a

;jÿrg;a

ys;lr fõ' úúOdldr jQ Trichoderma úfYaI

.kKdjla

iAjdNdúl

ldnksl

fmdfydr iys; mfia Ôj;ajk w;r thska mrfmdaIs; wdidokhlska ñh.sh l+ä;a;ka

T. harzianum

31

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kï úfYaIh fnfyúkau

ckm%sh ù we;' iajdNdúlju ire mfia

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;snqko fujeks j¾. oyhshd" fldïfmdaiaÜ wdÈh iu`. ñY% fldg iuyr rgj, wf,úh i`oydo ksIamdokh flf¾' tfy;a wm

rfÜ

iajdNdúlju

fujeks

Ôùka

nyq,j isák ksid m,sfndaOkdYl iy ridhksl fmdfydr wju fldg yels muK iajdNdúl fmdfydr iy m,sfndaO md,k Wml%u Ndú; lrñka t<j¿ j.d lrk úg iajdNdúlju fujeks ffcj md,k ixisoaëkA l%shd;aulfõ'

2'2'1'3 t,j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a jHdêcklhska$ frda.ldrlhska

mrfmdaIs; jgmKq wdidokhlska ñh.sh o<Uqfjla yd thska msgjk tu jgmKqjka 

fudjqka t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a YÍr ;=,g

Baculoviridae keue;s

we;=¿ ù ta ;=<ska fmdaIKh ,ndf.k"

wh;a

Granulosis virus (GV) keue;s j¾. fol

wvqfldg" fndfyda úg ñh hdug fya;= jk

fï i`oyd m%Odk jYfhkau Ndú;d fõ'

frda.ldrl CIqø Ôùka yd jgmKqjkah'

fujeks ffjria wdidokfhka úúOdldr

fudjqka fndfydaúg ta ta m,sfndaO j¾.

jQ t<j¿ m,sfndaaë o<Uqjka úkdY l,

i`oyd úfYaIs; fõ' m,sfndaO .yKh jeä

yelsh' fuu ffjria wxY= m,sfndaëka úiska

jQ úg" m,sfndaOkdYl biSu wju jQ úg iy

wdydrhg

wd¾ø;djh jeä úg fujeks frda. me;sÍu

.ekSfuka

Tjqkag

wdidokh

jkafka tajd wka;%h yryd isrerg we;=¿

bfíu jeäfõ' fudjqka ys;lr Ôùkag úI

jk ksidh' miqj tajd .=Kkh ù lDñka

jkafka;a ñksiqkag úI jkafka;a" b;du

f.a

l,d;=rlska ksid wdrCIs; m,sfndaOkdYl

ls%hdldß;ajhg

ndOd

lrk

w;r

wjidkfha§ ñh hdug fya;=fõ' fujeks

f,io Ndú;hg .efka' fuu frda.ldrlhska

ffjria wdidok b;d blaukska me;sfrk

CIqø m%dkSka ksid mshú weiska oelsh

w;r wdidokh jQ lDñ m,sfndaëka lymdg

fkdyels jk w;r wdidÈ; m,sfndaëka

fyda iqÿue,s ùu" ,m we;sùu" l¨ meyehg

fmkakqï lrk frda. ,CIK j,ska y`ÿkd

yeÍu" Ydlh Èf.a by,g .uka lsÍu"

.efka' iuyr fujeks ffcj m,sfndaOkdYl

wdydr .ekSu keje;aùu" ysi my;g isák

j¾. fj,`ofmdf,yso mj;S' fïjd wêl

f,i t,a,d jeàu" isrer ;=, Èhr msÍu jeks

ysret<sh ksid myiqfjkau úkdY ù hdu

ipvm final 0...indd 

l=,hg

Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) iy

.=Kkh ù" Tjqka frda.S fldg" ls%hdldß;ajh

wjdishls'

ffjri

,CIK fmkajhs' fufia tla m,sfndaOlhl=

32

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ñhhk úg l¨$ ÿUqre mdg ù Èhr msg;g

ú;a" ;j;a ffjri mßirhg ksoyia ù tu

m%foaYfha fuhg md;% jk ish¨u o,Uqjka

thuringiensis fyj;a Bt fõ' iajdNdúl

jqjo ñh hdug bv ;sfí' fuu ffjri

;;a;aj hgf;a§ fujeks nelaàßhd mi"

ñksiqkag fukau ys;lr Ôùkago lsisÿ

jd;h we;=¨ wm wjg mßirfha ks;ru

ydkshla fkdlrk ksid m,sfndaO md,khg

mj;S' fuu nelaàßhdfõ úúO udÈ,s úúO

fuh .eg¿jlska f;drj Ndú;d l,

m,sfndaëkag frda. we;slrk nj fidhd

yelsh' fïjd weiqßka ksmojk ,o ffcj

f.k we;'

m,sfndaOkdYl úhÜkduh" bkaÿkSishdj

nelaàßhd w;=ßka

m%Odk

jkafka

Bacillus

WodyrK(-

jeks rgj, Ndú;d fõ'

o,Uqjkag - Bt var aizawai & kurstaki iuyr l=reñKs lSghskag

- Bt var tenenbrionis

ueis$ uÿre lSghskag - Bt var israelensis fïjd weiqßka ffcj lDñkdYl j¾. ksIamdokh fldg úúO rgj, Ndú;hg .efka' b,lal jk m,sfndaëka úiska fuu nelaàßhd wdydrhg .ekSfuka Tjqka ñh hEu isÿjk w;r ñksiqkag iy ys;lr ffjria wdidokfhka ñh.sh o,Uqjka

Ôùkag fuh úI fkdjk ksid mßir ys;ldó fjhs' fuu nelaàßhdfõ we;s úI wod, lDñhdf.a wdydr ud¾.hg ydks isÿlsÍu ksid l%shdldß;ajh wvqùu" wdydr .ekSu keje;aùu iy ñhhdu isÿfõ' fujeks wdidÈ; lDókaf.a isrer ;=< wmú;% Wl= Èhrhlska msÍhk w;r ysi bÈuqkq iajdNdjhla o iq,Nj oelsh yelsh' ñhhdfuka wk;=rej ÿUqre$ l¨ meyefhka l=Kq ù hhs' wd¾ø;djh jeä ùu fujeks

ffjria wdidokfhka ly mdg jQ o,Uqfjla

frda. jeämqr jHdma; ùug fya;= jqjo wêl j¾Idj" úisreï c, iïmdokh iy wêl ysret<sfhka fujeks jHdëcklhska fia§hdu fyda úkdY ùu isÿfõ'

33

ipvm final 0...indd 

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iuyr wjia:dj,§ bì l=reñKshka jeks ys;lr i;=kago ydks úh yel' 

Metarhizium úfYaIfha È,Sr - iuyr l+ä;a;kag o,Uqjkag iy l=reñKshkag ydks lrhs'

Verticillium

úfYaIfha

È,Sr

-

iqÿueiaika" me,uelalka" l+ä;a;ka jeks m,sfndaëka u¾Okh lrhs' iuyr rgj, 

nelaàßhd wdidokfhka ñh.sh o,Uqfjla

yß;d.dr j, m,sfndaëka md,khg

È,Sr

fhdod.kS'

m,sfndaOl lDókag frda. we;slr Tjqka

fujeks

úkdY lrkakdjQ È,Sr j¾. /ila we;s

lDókaf.a

w;r tajd ys;lr Ôùkag;a ñksidg;a

jeä

fïjdfha

l%shdldß;ajh

wd¾ø;djh

b;d jeo.;ah'

^jd;fha

fldgia

i`oyd

lDñhdf.a îcdKq

j,ska wdjrKh jQ m,sfndaëka j.djl ÿgq

ÿ¾j,

lrñka

j¾Okh

ù"

urKhg È,Sr isrefrka

idok

ksid

m;afõ' cd,

msg;g b;d

kej;

ú;a

È,Sr

ishqï

l=vq$

¥ú,s f,i fyda fl`È f,i úúO j¾K

úg tfia jkafka fujeks È,Sr j, l%shdj

j,ska ksÍCIKh l, yel' fuu îcdkq

ksid nj y`ÿkd .ekSu jeo.;a jk w;r

iq,`.ska$ jeiafika$ iam¾Yfhka jHdma; ù

wêl f,i È,SrkdYl Ndú;h fï i`oyd

fjk;a lDó m,sfndaëkao wdidokh lrhs'

wys;lr fõ'

wdidÈ; lDóka wdydr .ekSu kj;ajk

Wod(

w;r frda.S ù ñhhhs' fujeks iuyr

Beauveria

bassiana

mfia

jeä

oelsh

yels

jHdê

yd

isis,a

È,Srhls'

ù

wjidkfha§

isà' iqÿ$w¨ meye;sj mqia$ È,Sr cd,d

ckl

ndysrdjrKfha úkdY

frda.S

fudjqka m,sfndaO j¾.

jYfhka

m,sfndaOl

úI øjH o ksl=;a lrk ksid fuu lDóka

f;;ukh&

wkqj úfYAIs; jk w;r j¾. .Kkdjla

j¾.

ia:dkhlska we;=¿ ù" YÍrfha wNHka;r

ydks fkdlrk ksid ffcj md,khg b;d iqÿiqh'

È,Sr

úh<s

È,Sr j¾. j, îcdKqOdksOr È.= isyska fl`È f,i lDñhdf.a isrefrka msg;g meyeÈ,sj fmfkk w;r iuyr j¾. tfia

wjia:dfõ§ me;sÍu wvqh' wdidÈ;

fkdù uq¿ lDñhdu iqÿ meyehla .kajñka

lDóka iqÿ$ w¿ mdgfõ' lDñ m,sfndaO

È,Sr cd,d j¾Okh lrhs' neoao wdY%s;j

j¾. .Kkdjlg wdidokh fõ' iuyr

msysá" È,SrkdYl biSu wvq j.dj, f;;a

ul=Kq j¾." o,Uqjka" l=reñKshka

ld,hg fujeks È,Sr j, l%shdldß;ajh

jeks m,sfndaëkag fuh wdidokh jqj;a

nyq,j oelsh yel' fujeks ys;lr È,Sr

34

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'2'2 t<j¿ m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka jeä lr .kakd l%u

iajdNdúl ;;a;ajfha we;s ^jkdka;r j, fuka& mfiys iajdNdúlju isák ksid mig ks;r lDñkdYl$ È,SrkdYl$ j,a kdYl fh§fuka tajd ksrmrdfoa úkdY ù

2'2'2'1 t<j¿ j.d mrsirfha iajdNdúl jk .yKh fyj;a neoao wdrCId lr .ekSu

mfiys Ôù nj wvq lrhs'

fuu iajdNdúl i;=rka iajdNdúlj Ôj;a jkqfha iajdNdúl jk .yKh fyj;a neoafoysh' úúO Ôùka f.dÿre lr .ekSu" Tjqkaf.a

mrfmdaISka

f,i

l%shd

lsÍu

fmdaIHodhS Ydl hqI ^u,a meKs jeks& wdydrhg .ekSu" mrd. jeks Ydl fldgia wdydrhg o<Uqjl=g È,Sr frda.h je,§fï wjia:d

.ekSu wd§ f,i fudjqka neoafoka úúO wdldrhkag fmdaIKh ,nd .kS' Bg wu;rj neoafoys ñksia l%shdldrlï iy mßir ¥IKh wju ksid fudjqkag tys ksoyfia Ôj;aùug yels ù we;' tneúka merKs j.dfõ wjia:dfõ fnda.h

fnda.

fYaI

isgu j.d

j.d

fkdlrk

úkdY

lrk

ìfuys

kj

yels

iEu

ia:dkhlu neoao wdrCId lsÍfuka iajdNdúl

2'2'1'4 m,sfndaëkaf.a ;r`.lrejka fnda.

j,g

ydks

jHdêcklhskag fujeks Ôj;afõ'

Ôùka

i;=rka úYd, jYfhka kj j.dj i`oyd /l.; yelsh' fuys§ j.d N+ñh jgd fjk;a lrk

tfrysj

l%shdlrk

iajdNdúl

mßirfhau

fudjqkao

È,Sr"

ia:dkj, fukau j.d ìu ;=< kshr" jeg"

iuyr

we, fomi" j.d fkdlr w;ayer ouk md;a;s jeks iEu ia:dkhlu yels mßÈ neoao wdrCId l, yel'

nelaàßhd" w;r

fndfyda iajdNdúl i;=rka u,ameKs iy

bvlv"

mrd. wdydrhg .kakd neúka neoafoys

Wmia:rhg iúùu jeks lreKq ms,sn`oj

W`ÿ msh,sh" ksÈl=ïnd" fudKr l=vqïìh"

fudjqka hï ;r`.ldß;ajhla we;slrhs'

f;dar" uql=Kqjekak" yq,x;,d" ;DK j¾."

ffjria

fyda

jgmkqjkau

jHdêcklhskaf.a

wdydr"

jk

35

ipvm final 0...indd 

//0 :: PM


je,a fmfk, wdÈ Ydl j, l=vd m%udKfha u,a msmS ;sîu b;d m%fhdackj;a fõ' j.dj wjg neoafoys Ydl úúO;ajh jeä ùu tys fjfik iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a úúO;ajh jeä ùug fya;=fõ' túg úúOdldr jQ iajdNdúl i;=rka úYd, mrdihla ,nd .; yels ùfuka

úúO m,sfndaëkag

úúOdldr f,i ydks isÿ lsÍug yelsfõ' t<j¿ j.d m%foaYhkays j,akdYl Ndú;h fnfyúkau wys;lr jkafka tu`.ska Ydl úúO;ajh úkdY ù j.d ìï j, we;s fndfyda m%fhdackj;a me<Eá j¾. j`où hk neúks' taksid tu ia:dkj, ys;lr Ôù fnda. Ydl mdoia:fha muKla j,a bj;a lsÍu

iy iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a úúO;ajho wju ù bfí isÿjk ffcj md,kfhys m%n,;ajh ke;sù hhs' tu`.ska jl% f,i tu j.djkag m,sfndaOkdYl

fh§fï

wjYH;djh

jeäfõ' tfukau j,akdYl j, úI n,mEu fnda. Ydl j, Èßh flfryso wys;lr f,i n,mdhs'

md;a;s ;=, j,a kdYl biSfuka ish¿u j,a me, úkdY lsÍu

kshf¾ yd j.dj jgd neoao b;sß lsÍu

kshf¾ iy j.dj jgd neoao b;sß lsÍu

36

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'2'2'2 m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h wju yd m%udo lsÍu

lDóka jeks iajdNdúl i;=rka úkdY

kj t<j¿ j.djl uq,a wjêfha§ iq¿

j.djl uq,a wjia:dfõ§u lDñkdYl mig fh§fuka -

lrhs'

uÜgñka we;s hï m,sfndaO ydks i`oyd fyda wdrCIl Wml%uhla f,i m,sfndaOkdYl

Ndú;fhka" tu j.dfõ isák iajdNdúl

mfia isák úúOdldr jQ iajdNdúl i;=rka úkdY fõ'

i;=rka úkdY ùu fyda m,dhdu isÿfõ' fï

m,sfndaëka md,kh i`oyd fjk;a l%uhla

ksid isÿjkafka bfíu j¾Okh ùug bv

fhdod.; fkdyels wjia:djkag muKla

;snqKq ffcj md,kh wju ù ;jÿrg;a

m,sfndaOkdYl iSud lsÍu fyj;a wju

m,sfndaOkdYl

wjYH;djhla

m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;fhka by; oelajQ

we;sùuhs' tfy;a kj j.dfõ m,sfndaOkdYl

iajdNdúl i;=rka ie,lsh hq;= m%udKhlska

fh§u m<uq udihl muK ld,hla j,lajd

wdrCId lr.; yelsfõ'

fh§fï

.;fyd;a tys iajdNdúl i;=rka jeäù tu`.ska

bfíu

isÿjk

ffcj

2'2'2'3 c, ¥IKh wju lsÍu

md,kh

jeäù È.gu m,sfndaOkdYl j,ska f;drj jqjo id¾:l j.djla l,yels ;;a;ajhla we;sfõ' m,sfndaOkdYl fkd;snQ hq.fha isá wmf.a merKs f.dùka fuu l%ufhka fyd`Èka m%fhdack ,nd we;'

j.djl uq,a wjia:dfõ§u È,SrkdYl biSfuka

frda.ldrl È,Ssr iu`. ;r`. fldg tajdfha j¾Okh hgm;a lrk È,Sr

iajdNdúl ;;a;ajfha we;s c,dYhla

lDñ m,sfndaëka u; mrfmdaIs;j bfí isÿjk ffcj md,kh t<j¿ j.d

j¾Okh ù Tjqka úkdY lrk È,Sr

ìïj, fyd`Èka isÿùug kï tys mßir

jeks ys;lr È,Sr j¾. úkdY ù hhs'

¥IKh wju úh hq;=h' tfia fkdjqjfyd;a

j.djl uq,a wjia:dfõ§u lDñkdYl ^úfYaIfhkau mq¿,a l%shdldÍ lDñkdYl& biSfuka-

iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a úúO;ajh fukau ixLHdjo wvqjk neúka wjYH muKg

m,sfndaOl lDóka f.dÿrelr

.kakd úf,damslhska

m,sfndaOl lDókaf.ka fmdaIKh

,nd Tjqka úkdY lrk mrfmdaIs;

ffcj md,kh isÿfkdfõ' f.dúìï j,

mßir ¥IKh ms<sn`o b;d fyd`o o¾Ylhla jkqfha ta wi, we;s c,dY j, ;;a;ajhhs' f.dúìï

j,

isÿjk

m,sfndaOkdYl"

37

ipvm final 0...indd 

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ridhksl fmdfydr jeks mßirhg wys;lr

iajdNdúl l%shdldß;ajhg jeämqr ydkslr

øjH ish,a, wjidkfha c,dY j,g tl;=

f,i n,mdhs' fuh wdf,dal ¥IKh fõ'

ùfuka b;d blaukska tajdfha c, ¥IKh

úfYaIfhka tjeks wf,dalhg wdl¾IKh

we;s ù tys ffcj úúO;ajh fnfyúkau

jkakd jq fndfyda lDóka wkjYH f,i

wvqfõ' túg tjeks c,dY j,ska f.ïnka"

úkdY jk w;r thska jeä fldgila

n;al+rka

WodiSk lDóka fõ' ta w;r ys;lr lDókao

jeks

t<j¿

m,sfndaëkaf.a

iajdNdúl i;=rka ìysùuo wvqfõ'

ie,lsh hq;= m%udKhla isà' fudjqka w;r

fï ksid ffcj md,kh jeä uÜgul

m,sfndaëkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka jk lDó

mj;ajd .ekSug kï tu m%foaY j, mßir

j¾. fndfyduhla isák neúka ffcj

¥IKh wju ùu;a" ta ksidu iajdNdúl

md,kh fyd`Èka isÿjk t<j¿ j.dìï

;;a;ajfha c,dY mj;ajd .ekSug yelsùu;a

wjg t,suyfka w;HdjYH fkdfõ kï iqÿ

w;HdjYHh'

meye;s wdf,dalh oe,aùu fkdl, hq;=h'

2'2'2'4 wdf,dal ¥IKh wju lsÍu

2'2'2'5 ly meye;s W.=,a Ndú;fhka je,lSu t<j¿ iqÿueiaika"

j.djkays

isák

me,uelalka"

l+ä;a;ka" m;%lkskakka

jeks m,sfndaëka ly meyehg wdl¾Ykh jk neúka ly meye;s c, W.=,a fyda lymeye;s

wef,k

W.=,a

fyda

;nd

Tjqkaf.a .yK wvq lr.; yelsh' tfy;a fyd`o ffcj md,khla iys; t<j¿ j.djl tjeks m,sfndaëka t;rï ixLHd;aulj

iqÿ wdf,dalh oe,a ùfuka iajdNdúl i;=rka úkdY fõ

jeä fkdjk w;r ta fjkqjg .yKh jeä fjñka mj;sk f.dúhdg ys;lr jq

ienE iajdNdúl;ajh kï rd;%s ld,fha§

úúO iajdNdúl i;=rka tjeks W.=,a j,g

w`ÿr mej;Suhs' tfy;a wo mj;sk iudc rgdj

wkqj

f.dúìï

muKla

wdl¾Ykh ù wjdis iy.; f,i úkdY

fkdj

fõ' fujeks W.=,a j,g mrfmdaIs; fonr

iajdNdúl jkh nyq, m%foaY j, mjd ksjdi

j¾." bì l=reñKshka" úf,damsl iy

wi, rd;%sfha t<suyfka jqjo wêl f,i

mrfmdaIs; ueiaika" ul=¨jka jeks i;=ka

úÿ,s wdf,dalh mj;S' fuys§ mdrcïnq,

myiqfjka yiqù ñhhhs' tneúka fyd`Èka

lssrK wêl iqÿ meye;s wf,dalh ^m%;s

ffcj md,kh isÿlrk j.djlg ly

§ma; myka" CFL nqnq¿ jeks&úúO Ôùkaf.a

meye;s W.=,a Ndú;h wys;lrh' tfy;a

38

ipvm final 0...indd 

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fyd`Èka mÍCId lr ne,Sfuka wk;=rej b;d

2'2'2'6 iajdNdúl i;=rkaf.a l%shdldÍ;ajh f.dú fCIa;% uÜgñka jeä lr.; yels l%u

úfYaIs; wjia:djkays§ muKla tjeks l%u fhdod .; yelsh' ^49 iy 56 msgq n,kak& ly meye;s W.=,a ksid iajdNdúl i;=rka úkdY fõ

ì;a;r mrfmdaIs;hska j.djg ksoyia ùug bv yeÍu

fï i`oyd tjeks m,sfndaOl ì;a;r tl;= fldg msßisÿ Ndck j, oud l=yqUqjka jeks i;=kaf.ka wdrCIdlr fCIa;%fha fijk we;s ;ekl ;nd.; hq;=h' WK .il mqrela j, isÿre idod ta ;=<ska fuu ì;a;r we;=,a lr ;nd .ekSu" l=vd ùÿre fnda;,a jeks Ndck j, ;nd ys;lr lDóka ksoyia lrk w;r m,sfndaëka úkdY ùug bv yeÍu jeks lghq;= fï i`oyd iqÿiq fõ'

ì;a;r mrfmdaIs; lDóka j.djg ksoyia lsÍu

39

ipvm final 0...indd 

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ul=¿ megjqka j.djg ksoyia lsÍu

Ydl jdiS úúO ul=¿jkaf.a ì;a;r leo,s

m%fõYfuka ;ekam;a lr ;ndf.k Èk

jYfhka iajdNdúlj jeã we;s Ydl mßCId

lSmhlska b;d l=vd ul=¿ megjqka /ila

lsÍfï§ fidhd .; yelsh'

tajd f.da,d

,nd.; yelsh' fujeks w¨; Wmka ul=¿

ldr jk w;r fmdl=rla f,i we;' ul=¿

megjqka Èk 2-3 la .; jQ úg l=i.sks we;sùu

kQ,a j,ska wdjrKh fldg ul=¿ oe,l fyda

ksid Tjqfkdjqka urd wkqNj lsÍug fm,fò'

Ydl m;%hl w,jd fyda ul=¿ uj úiska

tneúka Bg fmr Tjqka t<j¿ j.dfõ úúO

Tijdf.k isákq oelsh yelsh' fïjd

ia:dkj,g ^Ydl u;g& m%fõYfuka úiqrejd

wi, ul=¿ kQ,a ;sîfuka o ul=¿ uj ta

yeÍfuka tljru úYd, ul=¨ .yKhla

wi, wdrCId lrñka .ejiSfukao tajd ;j

iy tu`.ska fyd`o m,sfndaO md,khla

ÿrg;a y`ÿkd.; yelsh' ul=¿ j¾.h wkqj

,nd .; yelsh' fumßÈu ì;a;r leo,s

fujekakl ì;a;r 20-200 jeks m%udKhla

fjkqjg ul=¨ megjqka rxpq iys; leo,s

;sìh yelsh' tjeks tla ì;a;r leoe,a,la

j,ska fl,skau j.djg úiqrejd yeÍuo

msßisÿ ùÿre fyda ma,diaála Ndckhl

l, yelsh' fuu Wml%uh ^Lynx)

ovhï

40

ipvm final 0...indd 0

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ul=¿jka" msñ ul=¿jka" jekakkag b;d myiqfjka l,yels w;r f,dl=$ l=vd iy oe,a úhk$ fkdúhk ´kEu ul=¨ j¾.hla i`oyd isÿfldg n,d isáh§u m%;sM, b;d myiqfjka ,nd .; yelsfõ'

ul=¿ megjqka tlsfkld f.ka wE;a jk whqre ì;a;r wdrCId lrk ,sklaia ul=¿ uj

;u fldaIh ;=, isák msñ ul=¿ megjqka

Ndckhl isák ul=¿ megjqka yd ul=¿ uj

,skalaia ul=¿ megjqka úisr hdug iQodkïj

,skalaia ul=¿ megjqka úisr hdug iQodkïj

41

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lSg iy ms,d mrfmdaIs;hska j.djg ksoyia ùug bv yeÍu

iajdNdúl i;=rka l+vq ;=< .=Kkh lr j.djg ksoyia lsÍu

úúO o<Uqjka" tu ms,jqka"b,a ueis lSghska" tu ms,jqka iy fjk;a tjeks m,sfndaëka fyda tajd iys; Ydl fldgia tl;= lr tajdfha isák mrfmdaIs; fonreka ksoyia ùug yels jk fia ;eìh yelsh' fï i`oyd ma,diaála nd,aÈhlg m;=,g fi'ó 15 la >klug úh<s mia oud thg Wäka m,sfndaO fldgia oud uÿre oe,lska nqre,a fkdjk fia nd,aÈfha lg fyd`Èka ne`o j.dj wi, fijkl ;nkak' fuhg jeis

fï i`oyd ;rula jeä wjOdkhla iy

c,h fkdjefgk fia wdjrKhlao lrkak'

oekqula wjYH fõ' ´.kaÈ frÈ fyda uÿre

m,sfndaë iqyqUq,ka mssg jqjo Tjqka úYd,

oe,a j,ska idod.;a ógrhla muK Wi yd

ksid uÿre oef,ka msgúh fkdyels kuqÿ

m<, wjYH os.lska hq;= wdjrK fldgqjla

l=vd isrere iys; mrfmdaIs; iqyqUq,ka fuh

;=< uqx weg" lõms jeks myiqfjka fidhd

;=<ska j.dj fj; wdrCIs;j meñfKa'

.; yels îc j¾.hla me,fldg" tajdg rks, j.djlska l+ä;a;ka rxpq iys; ßls,s lsysmhla f.kú;a oud l+ä;a;ka myiqfjka fndalr.;

yelsh'

tfukau

l+ä;a;ka

fyd`Èka tys jHdma; jk úg jgmsgdfjka m%fõYfuka w,a,d .kakd bìl=reñKshka" tu lSghka" i¾msâ ueis lSghka iy f,aiaúka.a lSghka jeks iajdNdúl i;=rka thg y`ÿkajdÈh hq;=h' fï ;=< ;DK j¾. iy l=vd u,a msfmk j,a me,Eá lsysmhlao ;nd .ekSfuka mrd. iy u,a meKs iemhSu l, yelsh' Èk 45la muK fuu moaO;sh ksis mßÈ kv;a;= lsÍfuka úYd, bìl=reñKshka m,sfndaO iys; fnda. fldgia j, isák

iy wfkl=;a úf,damslhska .yKhla ,nd

mrfmdaIs;hska ksoyia ùug bv yeÍu

.; yels w;r Tjqka m%fõYfuka w,a,d fyda uÿre oe, ;djld,slj újD; lsÍfuka

42

ipvm final 0...indd 

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fudjqka t<j¿ j.djg ksoyia lr .; yelsh' tu l+vq ;=< uqx fyda lõms j.dj ÿ¾j, ùu wdrïN jk úgu l%ufhka Ydl bj;alr kj îc m%frdayKh lr y`ÿkajd §fuka È.ska È.gu fujeks úf,damSka iemhSula isÿl, yelsh' tfia lrkafka kï È.gu tjeks úf,damSka fuhg msg;ska y`ÿkajd §uo wjYHh'fujekakla id¾:lj isÿlrk úg tu`.ska l+ä;a;kaf.a úf,damSka wjg mßirhg úáka úg uqod yßk wjia: dfõ§ tys isák l+ä;a;ka msgùu wju jk ì;a;r fldaIh wdrCId lrk

mßÈ th l,hq;=h' ^fï i`oyd iqÿiq oe,a

jDl ul=¿ uj

frÈ j¾.( Organdie/ Muslin/ Mosquito net& 

úh,s ;DK fyda msÿre f.dvj,a fCIa;%fha ;ekska ;ek ;eîu

l=yqUq l=,fha .Kdjdi y`ÿkajd §u

Èñ f.dgq" l=yqUqjka iys; úh<s fmd,a w;=$ flfi,a mr`ve,a wdÈh j.dj ;=<

fufia lsÍfuka ìu Èf.a yd me<Eá u;

;eîfuka o,Uqjka" l=reñKshka" ul=Kka

ÿjñka m,sfndaëka f.dÿre lr .kakd

jeks iuyr m,sfndaëka Tjqka úiska f.dÿre

ul=¿jkag

ul=¿jka

lr .kS' kuq;a úo hqI Wrd î iSks ødjK

wdrCIdj"

msglrk l+ä;a;ka" msá ul=Kka jeks

jdiia:dk iy f.dÿre jeämqr ,eîfuka

m,sfndaëka y`ÿkajd§u yd wdrCId lsÍu

Tjqkaf.a .yKhka jeälr .; yelsh'

fudjqkaf.ka

fudjqka

wjia:dj wkqj lghq;= l, hq;=h' ul=¿jka

fyj;a

^úfYaIfhka

Lycosidae

lsh;a

jDl

l=,h&

mKqjka

we;=¿

úúO

jeks

m,sfndaëka f.dÿre lr .kS'

fjk;a

isÿjk ys;lr

ksid

tA

i;=kao

ms<sn`oj fudjqka

úkdYlr ouk neúka fudjqka y`ÿkajd §fï§ tA ms<sn`ojo ie,lsh hq;=h'

msÿre u; ul=¿jka isák ia:dk

43

ipvm final 0...indd 

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lDñ NCIl mCISka f.kajd .ekSu

fmd,alsÉpka"

ms,syqvqjka"

úúOdldr

2'3 m%Yia: YIH Wml%u u`.ska

Èßu;a yd ksfrda.S j.djla ,nd.ekSu

jQ

ueisudrdjka" l=l=,ka wdoS l=re¨ j¾.

Èßu;a f,i yd ksfrda.Sj jevqkq fnda.

/ila

lDó

i;=rka

j.djlg fndfyda m,sfndaO ydks j,g

f,i

l%shdlrk

l=l=,ka"

Tfrd;a;= foñka fyd`o wiajekakla ,ndÈh

f.d¨fn,a,kaf.a m%Odku i;=frls' fujeks

yelsfõ' túg tu fnda. Ydl j,g

l=re,a,ka

m,sfndaëka iu`. ;r`. lsÍfï yelshdj

m,sfndaëkaf.a w;r

m,sfndaëka

weá muKla

fkdj

ys;lr lDóka iy ul=¿jkao f.dÿrelr

jeäjk

neúks'

ta

i`oyd

lDIsl¾u

.kakd neúka

tjeks ys;lr i;=ka wvq"

fomd¾;fïka;=fõ ks¾foaY u`.ska úúOdldr

o,Uqjka jeks m,sfndaëka fnfyúkau jeä

YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u úia;r lr ;sfí'

wjia:dj,§ muKla lDñ

NCIl mCISka

ta w;=ßka t<j¿ j.djkays m,sfndaO ydks

f.kajd .ekSu WÑ;h' ;jo l¨ lsh;a

j,g Tfrd;a;= §fï yelshdj jvd;a ÈhqKq

mKqjka md,khg fou,sÉpka" l=l=,ka jeks

lrk Wml%u my; oelafõ'

l=re,a,ka b;d úYd, fufyhla bgq lrhs'

2'3'1 fnda. udrej

tneúka tjeks wjia:dj, § fíiï jeks me;,s Ndck j, c,h mqrjd t<j¿ j.dj

tlu Ydl l=,hlg wh;a fnda. j¾. tlu

;=< ^l=re,a,kag îug$kEug iqÿiq jk

ìul È.ska È.gu j.d lrk úg tlu

f,i& ;eîfuka tjeks l=re,a,ka jeämqr

wdldrhl CIqø fmdaIH øjH È.ska È.gu

f.kajd .; yelsh'

mfika bj;a jk ksid fmdaIK W!K;d we;sù tu j.djkays Èßh l%ufhka wvqù hhs' tneúka hï j.d ìul j.d lkakfhka lkakhg fjkia Ydl l=, j,g wh;a fnda. udre lrñka j.d lsÍfuka bfíu tu j.djkays Èßh$ m,sfndaëkag Tfrd;a;= §fï yelshdj jeälr.; yelsh' tfukau tjeks m,sfndaO j.dfjka j.djg me;sÍu o wju lr.; yelsh'

44

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'3'2 .=Kd;aul frdamK øjH Ndú;h

Wrdf.k

È.=ld,Skj

Ydl

fj;

,ndfohs 

fyd`Èka fïrE f.ä fyda lr,a j,ska ,nd.;a

mfiys c,h È.= ld,Skj rojd

m,sfndaOydks j,ska f;dr îc" frdamK

f.k úh<s wjia:dj,§ o Ydlhg

øjH f,i Ndú;d lsÍfuka Èßu;a t<j¿

úvdjla fkd§ Èßh /lfok w;r

me, ,nd .;yelsh' tfia fkdjqk fyd;a

c,jykho ÈhqKq lrjhs' 

Èßh wvq me< we;s ù tajdfhka yg.kakd

mi nqre,a lsÍu ksid mdxY= jd;kh

j.dfõ m,sfndaOydks j,g Tfrd;a;= §fï

ÈhqKq

.=Kh wvqfjhs' iuyr m%fNao j,g wh;a

we;slr j.djg jvd fyd`o fmdaIK

t<j¿ j¾. iuyr m,sfndaO ;;a;ajhkag

;;a;ajhla iy mdxY= È,Sr" jgmKq

Tfrd;a;= fok w;r merKs yd foaYSh j¾.

ydks jeks uQ, uKav, m,sfndaëkag

fmdÿfõ m,sfndaëkag jvd fyd`o Tfrd;a;=

Tfrd;a;= §fï

§ula fmkajhs' tneúka tjeks j¾. j.d

lrhs'

lsÍfuka m,sfndaO md,k lghq;= myiq

lrjhs'

yelshdjla

we;s

È.=ld,Skj mfia legdhk yqjudre

muK mig ñY% lsÍfuka ksfrda.S" fyd`o wiajekakla ,ndfok" Èßu;a t<j¿ j.djla

isák m,sfndaëkag tfrysj ls%hd lrkjdg

,nd.; yelsh'

wu;rj fnda. Ydlj, Èßh yd ksfrda.S nj jeä lsÍug my; i`oyka mßÈ WmldÍ

2'3'4 mdxY= fmdaIl md,kh

fõ' w;HdjYH

ish¿u

yd

wxY=

Ydl

fmdaIl

ud;%&

wjYH

lDIsl¾u ld,Skj

fomd¾;fïka;=j m¾fhaIK

mj;ajd

úiska

È.=

tla

tla

m%udKhg fnda. Ydl fj; È.=

t<j¿ fnda.h i`oyd Wmßu wiajekakla

ld,Skj ,ndfohs

,nd .;yels f,i ridhksl fmdfydr ks¾foaYhka ksl=;a lr ;sfí' (Fertilizer

mfia wdï,sl;djh m%Yia: uÜgulska

Recommendation

mj;ajd .ekSu WmldÍ fjhs' 

uKav,hla

fï ksid jeämqr ldnksl fmdfydr yels

lsÍfuka by; 1'2'3 ys oelajQ mßÈ mfiys

uQ,

ys;lr fjhs

ldnksl fmdfydr t<j¿ j.dfõ mig ñY%

^m%Odk

fyd`o

Odß;dj by, f.dia Ydl fmdaIKhg

2'3'3 ldnksl fmdfydr Ndú;h

ù

for

Horticultural

Crops- 2007) tfy;a j.d lrk mfia we;s

ridhksl fmdfydr j, we;s fmdaIl

Ydl fmdaIl m%udK by, uÜgul mj;S

CIrKh

kï fuu ks¾foaYhkag jvd wvq m%udK j,ska

ùu

wju

fldg

tajd

45

ipvm final 0...indd 

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fmdfydr fhÈh yelsfõ' ta i`oyd lDIsl¾u

jeämqr me;sÍfï wjodkula we;sfõ' mfia

fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m¾fhaIK wdh;khlska

c, m%udKh jeä ùu ksid o" uQ, uKav,fha

mia mßCIdjla lr .ekSu u`.ska j.d

È,Sr frda. i`oyd we;s yelshdj jeäfõ'

lsÍug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk t<j¿ j¾.

jdhqf.da,fha f;;ukh jeäùfuka È,Sr

wkqj mdxY= fmdaIl wjYH;djh ms<sn`oj

ydks j,g md;% ùfï yelshdj jeäfõ' fï

wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yelsh' Bg wu;rj

ksid c,h ys. ld,hg fnda. j,g wjYH

mig ñY% lrkq ,nk ldnksl fmdfydr

c, iïmdokh lsÍu fukau c,h jeä

j, we;s fmdaIl m%udKho .Kkh fldg

wjia:dj,§ ksis mßÈ c, jykh lsÍu o

tho ie,ls,a,g f.k ks¾foaYS; ridhksl

fnda.fha Èßu;a Ndjhg w;HdjYHh'

fmdfydr

m%udK

;jÿrg;a

wvqlr.;

j¾Idj fyda tf,i Ydl f;uk c,iïmdok

yelsfõ' ridhksl fmdfydr mig ñY%

l%u ksid t<j¿ Ydl u; isák úúO

jkfia fh§u;a" tajd ish,a, tlajru

m,sfndaO wjia:d fia§ Ydlfhka bj;a

fkdfhdod fldgia jYfhka fh§u;a" yels

ùu" Tjqkag úúO CIqø Ôù wdidok we;sù

iEu úgu me<h jfÜgu fh§u;a" Èßu;a

ñhhEu" Tjqka f;;a ùfuka$ isis,a ùfuka

j.djla ,nd .ekSug Wmldr lrhs'

Ôù l%shdldß;ajh wvq ù ydks lrk iy m%ckk fõ.h wvq ùu jeks jdis w;afõ'

2'3'5 c, md,kh

tneúka úh<s wjia:dj,§ lDñ m,sfndaO md,kh i`oyd úiqreï c,iïmdok l%u fhdod .; yelsh' tfy;a ys;lr Ôùka nyq, wjia:dj,§ tjeks c,iïmdok l%u iy j¾Idj u`.ska Tjqkaf.ao l%shdldß;ajh wvq ùu iy úkdY ùu isÿfõ' u;=msg c, iïmdokh u`.ska nelaàßhd frda. blaukska jHdma; jk ksid ta ms<sn`oj wjodkula we;s úg§ fCIa;%h yryd c,h .,d fkdhk

mfia

iy

jdhqf.da,fha

mj;sk

c,

mßÈ c, iïmdokh lsÍu iy j¾Idfjka

iq,N;djh wkqj fnda. Ydl j, Èßh iy

,efnk c,h .,d fkdhk mßÈ md;a;s iy

ksfrda.S Ndjho fjkia fõ' mfia yd

ldKq ieliSuo b;d jeo.;ah'

jdhqf.da,fha c,h ys`.ùfuka fnda. Ydl j,go c,h ys`. ù lDñ m,sfndaOlhskag

2'3'6 j,ame,Eá md,kh

Tfrd;a;= §fï yelshdj wvqfõ' tu`.ska

j,a me,Eá jkqfha iajdNdúlj jefvk

lDñ m,sfndaO iy uhsgd ydks jeä jk

me,Eáuh' l,ska i`oyka l, mßÈ tajd

w;r lDñ jdylhka u`.ska ffjria frda.o

j.dj fkdue;s ia:dkj, ;sîfuka ys;lr

46

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'3'7 m%Yia: me, .yKh iy mr;rh

Ôùka wdrCId ù bfí isÿjk ffcj md,kh jeä ÈhqKq lrhs' kuq;a tjeks me<Eá" fnda. Ydl j,g jvd Èßu;aj j¾Okh jk

fuu`.ska isÿlrkqfha t<j¿ me, i`oyd

ksid fnda. Ydl wdikakfha iy md;a;s j,

wjYH fmdaIKh iy wjldYh i`oyd

;sîu iqÿiq fkdfõ' túg tu Ydl mdxY=

bv ,nd foñka N+ñh Wmßu f,i Ndú;d

fmdaIKh" c,h iy bvlv i`oyd fyd`Èka

lsÍuhs' fï i`oyd fnda.fha m%fNaoh yd

;r`. fldg fnda. Ydl wNsnjd jefvk

,ndfok fmdaIK ;;a;ajh fnfyúkau

neúks' tfukau iuyr wjia:dj,§ fnda.

n,mdk

j¾Okh wvmK lrk ridhksl øjHkao

w;r

ms<sn`oj

lDIsl¾u

fomd¾;fïka;=j úiska m¾fhaIK mj;ajd

fujeks Ydl j,ska ksl=;a lrhs' tneúka

Wmßu wiajekakla ,ndfok t<j¿ me,

t<j¿ j.d md;a;s j, jefvk j,a me<Eá

.yK yd mr;r ks¾foaY f,i ksl=;a lr

iïmQ¾Kfhkau bj;a lsÍu jvd;a iqÿiqh'

;sfí'

fï i`oyd j,akdYl Ndú; lsÍfuka úhou jeäùu" fnda. flfrys úI n,mEu" jákd$

tu ks¾foaYhkag wkql+,j t<j¿ j.d

ÿ¾,N me<Eá j¾. j`o ù hdu" c,hg úI

lsÍfuka Èßu;a j.djla ,nd.; yels

tl;= ùu isÿúh yels neúka jvd;a iqÿiq

ù th m,sfndaO ydks md,kh lsÍug

jkafka Wo¿ .Eu" Wÿrd oeóu" f¾lal

WmldÍfõ' tfukau me, .yKh jeä ù

lsÍu" jiqka fh§u" mi flàu jeks Wml%u

jÿ¨ iajdNdjhla we;s jqjfyd;a jdhj

fõ'

fldgig je,fok È,Sr frda. jeä ùug

t<j¿ j.dj fkdue;s ia:dk" kshr" jeá"

bv we;'

2'3'8 j.dj mqyqKq lsÍu(

ud¾.h fomi wd§ ;ekaj, iajdNdúl me,Eá jeãug bv yeÍfukao fnda.h we;s ia:dkj, tajd bj;a lsÍfukao tajdhska we;sjk jdis w;alr .kakd w;r wjdis bj;a lr .; yels fõ' j.d ìfuys fnda. h fkdue;s ia:dk j, jqjo j,a me<Eá$ iajdNdúlj we;s jk me,Eá j,g ´kEjg jvd j¾Okh ùug bv fkdÈh hq;=h' túg tajdfha uq,a wE;g úys§ f.dia j.d md;a;s j,skao fmdAIKh Wrdf.k j.djg ydks lrk neúks'

ksis mr;rhg isgqjk ,o ;lald,s j.djla

47

ipvm final 0...indd 

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t<j¿ j.djkag Wmßu f,i ysre t<sh

wjia:dfõ isgu& m,sfndaOkdYl fhÈh

iy bvlv ,ndfoñka j¾Okh ùu;a

hq;=

wkjYH fldgia iy jÿ¨ .;sh bj;a

fkdùug iy ta ksidu m,sfndaOkdYl

lrñka tajdfha m,sfndaO me;sÍug we;s

m%udo lsÍug fyda Ndú;d fkdlr isàug

bvlv wju lsÍu;a fï u`.ska isÿlrhs'

Wmfhda.S lr.; yelsh' j.dfõ úhoï

uÜgu

olajd

m,sfndaëka

jeä

wju lsÍfï n,j;a wjYH;dfjka fmf,k

2'4 j.dfõ uq, isgu fN!;sl Wml%u Ndú;fhka m,sfndaOkdYl wjYH;djh wju yd m%udo lsÍu

iy mjqf,a idudðlhskao j.d lghq;= j,g iyNd.S lr .; yels YS% ,dxlsl f.dú mjq,a i`oyd fujeks l%u b;d fyd`Èka .e,fma' uÿrejka" lerfmd;a;ka" ueiaika jeks .Dyia: m,fndaëka ;,d oeóuo ysfia

fN!;sl fyda hdka;%sl jYfhka m,sfndaëka

isák Wl=Kka mSÍfuka fyda w;ska bj;a

f.a l%shdldß;ajh wvq flfrk f,i n,mEï

lsÍfuka md,kh lsÍu o óhka jeks i;=ka

fldg tu .yKh iy ydks md,kh lsÍu

i`oyd W.=,a wegùuo w;S;fha isgu wm

fuhska woyia lrhs' m,sfndaO iys; fldgia

ðjk rgdj yd ne§ mj;sk fujeks fN!;sl

tl;= fldg úkdY lsÍu" j.dfjka tajd fjka

Wml%u jk neúka fuh t;rï wuq;=

lsÍu" ms,siaiSu" r;a lsÍu" myr §u fyda

fohla fkdfõ' fujeks Wml%u Ndú;fhka

;,d oeóu jeks Wml%u fukau wdidokhg

^úfYaIfhka j.dfõ uq,a wjia:dfõ §& wod,

,laúh yels f.ä jeks fldgia fyda uq¿

iajdNdúl i;=rka .yKh wjYH uÜgu

j.dju wdjrKh lsÍuo fy!;sl Wml%u

olajd jeä jk f;la m,sfndaëka md,kh

fõ' oe,a" fmd,s;Ska" flfi,a mr`ve,a$ fmd,a

lr.; yelsjk w;r ffcj md,kh iy

w;= " Ôj jeg" fjk;a j.dj wdÈfhka wod,

wksl=;a Wml%u iu`. tajd fydÈka .e,fmk

j.dj jg lsÍu yd wdjrKh lsÍu u`.ska

neúka taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k jevigyka

´kEu m,sfndaO ydkshla kj j.djg

i`oyd

s,.dùu flfrys ndOd lrk neúka tjeks

w;r

Wml%u úI

mßir

n,mEu"

ys;ldó

iajdNdúl

iy

id¾:l

f,i

Wmfhda.S lr.; yelsh'

m,sfndaO ydks we;sùu m%udo l,yel' fujeks

myiqfjka

2'4'1 ffjria wdidÈ; Ydl

jk

i;=rka

j.dj wjg we;ss iajdNdúl Ydl ñY%Kfha

úkdY ùu" m%;sfrdaë m,sfndaëka we;sùu

ffjria frda.S hehs iell, yels Ydl

jeks wys;lr m%;sM, tu`.ska u`.yrjd

we;skï

.; yelsh' fï i`oyd t;rï úhoula

frda. me;sÍfï wjodkula mj;sk ksid

wjYH fkdjqk;a Y%uh jeämqr wjYHfõ'

tajd ÿgq ú.i uq,skau Wÿrd úh<Sug yeÍu

tfy;a fujeks Wml%u u`.ska j.djl uq,a

iqÿiqh' WodyrKhla f,i fndaxÑ ly ùfï

wjia:dfõ isgu ^wvq m,sfndaO uÜgula we;s

ipvm final 0...indd 

48

tajdhska

fnda.hgo

ffjria

ffjria frda.hg fnfyúka iudk ,CIK

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we;s frda.S rks, j,a me<Eá j.d ìï wjg we;s wjia:d j,§ tajd úkdY fkdlr frda.h jg msgdfõ fkdue;s ;;a;ajhla we;s lr .ekSu l, fkdyelsh' j.dj wdrïNfha isgu ffjria hehs iel l, yels fnda. Ydl ÿgq ú.i uq,skau Wÿrd úh<Sug yeÍfuka fjk;a fnda. Ydl j,g tu frda. me;sÍu wvqlr .; yelsh'

ffjria wdidÈ; nKavlald Ydlhla

kuq;a j.dfõ tjeks Ydl m%udKh 30-40] lg muK jeäkï tfia .,jd oeóug jvd úhoï wju fldg yels wiajekak ,nd .ekSu jvd;a jdisodhlh' m%foaYfha t<j¿ fnda. j,g ffjria frda. me;sÍfï wjodku jeä úh<s wjia:dj,§ c,h biSfï c, iïmdokh iy ly mdg W.=,a Ndú;fhka jdyl lDóka úkdY fldg tu frda. me;sÍfï fõ.h wvq lr.; yelsh'

ffjria wdidÈ; yq,x ;,d Ydlh

ffjria wdidÈ; jÜglald me,hla

ffjria wdidÈ; rks, j,a me,hla

49

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2'4'2 nelaàßhd frda. wdidÈ; Ydl

2'4'4 m,sfndaOl l=reñKshka

;rula úYd, isrere iys; fujeks l=reñKs

úfYaIfhka fid,fkaisfha l=,fha fnda.

j¾.

we;=¿j

nelaàßhd

wjq,lfmdard jeks& fndfyda ÿrg fN!;sl

ysgqueÍuo lDismf¾isfha fnda. j,g l¨

l%u u`.ska úkdY l,yel' újD; f,dl=

meye;s l=Kq ùu iy uDÿ l=Kq ùu jeks

lgla iys; Ndckhlg N+ñf;,a jeks

nelaàßhd frda.o we;sfõ' fujeks frda.

lDókag úI øjH iaj,amhla oud thg

je,`ÿkq úg kej; iqjl, fkdyels ksid

tjeks l=reñKshka tl;= lsÍfuka úkdY

ta nj y`ÿkd.;a jydu uq,skau Wÿrd

l, yel' j.dfõ fyda m,sfndaO ydksfha uq,a

t<j¿

j.djkag

iqÿiqh'

^ìì,s

l=reñKshka"

wjia:dfõ

isgu

;jo ysgq ueÍfï Ydl W.=,a,k ,o

Èkm;du

isák

ia:dkfha ;sfnk mia wä 1 1$2 la 2la muK

m%udKhu ke;;a 2$3 la muK úkdY

.eUqrg lemQ j,lg oeóuo iqÿiqh'

lsÍu iEfya' tfiau fujeks l=reñKshkag

úh<Sug

yer

mq¨iaid

oeóu

fufia

tms,elakd"

l,hq;=

l=reñKshka

w;r

iïmQ¾K

we`.s,af,ka ú§fuka fyda w;ska myr §fuka

2'4'3 È,Sruh m;% ,m frda.

o wvmK l, yel' tfiau ìu jegqKq miq md.d oeóuo iqÿiq fN!;sl Wml%uhls'

frda. ldrl È,Sr îcdKq jd;fha mdù fyda c, ìxÿ iu`. mfika meñK m;% u; ;ekam;a ù me,ùfuka È,Sruh m;% ,m frda. we;s fõ' m;%fhka fmdaIKh ,nñka j¾Okh jk È,Srh ál ld,hlska îcdKq úYd, m%udKhla ksmojd jd;h fj; uqod yßk w;r tu îcdKq tu j.dfõu fjk;a m;% lrd m;% ,m frda.h jHdma; lrjhs' fï ksid fujeks frda. wdrïNfha isgu ^tjeks m;% ,m merKs ù tajdhska È,Sr îcdKq we;sùug fmr& tu m;% lvd tl;= lr úh<s fld,frdvq iu`. ms,siaiSu fyda fldïfmdaiaÜ ksIamdokhg fhdod .ekSfuka

m,sfndaOl lDóka md.d oeóu

frda.h j.dj ;=< me;sÍfï fõ.h wvqfldg ta i`oyd È,SrkdYl biSu m%udo l,yel'

50

ipvm final 0...indd 0

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2'4'5 m,sfndaOl o,Uqjka

fldfydU f;,a fyda N+ñ f;,a ñY% inka j;=r jeks úI ødjKhlg jeà úkdY fõ'

by; 2'4'4 mßÈu fõ" óg wu;rj fudjqka uDÿ YÍr iys; ksid b;d myiqfjka ;,d oeóug yelsh' tfy;a frdau iys; o,Uqjka iam¾Y lssÍu iqÿiq ke;s neúka m;%h msákau ;,d oeñh yelsh' iuyr o,Uqjka m;% frda,a lr fyda f.dgq.id ta ;=< isák neúka tajdg msg;ska w,a,d myiqfjkau ;,d oeñh yel' iuyr o,Uqjka ^Wod(

Spodoptera úfYaI& ì;a;r fmdl=rlska tu lSghka ;rula úYd, jQ miq

ìysjk neúka uq,a wjia:dfõ§ b;d l=vd o,Uq rxpqjla f,i tlu m;%hl isg wdydr .kS' fuúg fudjqka hdka;%slj úkdY lsÍu b;d myiq yd iqÿiq fõ' tfy;a m,sfndaO kdYl wju f,i Ndú;d flfrk t<j¿ j.djkays

mrfmdaIs;

wdidok

iys;

o,Uqjka jeä jYfhka isáh yels neúka ta ms<sn`oj ie,ls,su;a úh hq;= w;r Tjqka úkdY fkdl, hq;=h' rks,

lr,a

úÈk

o<Uqjl=

jk

ks,a

ì;a;r j,ska msgjk Spodoptera lSghka

iuk,hd" f.dajd l=,fha m;% lk tla o<Uq j¾.hla jeks b;d iq¿ m%udKhla yereKq úg wfkla ish¿u t<j¿ m,sfndaë o<Uqjka i,nhskaf.a ì;a;r j,ska ìysfõ' tneúka

tjeks

o<Uqjka

jeä

jk

wjia:d j,§ muKla rd;%S ld,fha§ my; mßÈ ir, wdf,dal W.=,la u`.ska tu i,nhska úkdY l, yelsfõ' fuh j.dfõ Wig iudk Wilska j.dj ;=< ;eìh hq;=h' fuhg iqÿ meye;s úÿ,s nqnq,la fhdod .; yels kï jvd;a id¾:lh' wdf,dalhg we§ tk tjeks i,nhska fuu fíifuys we;s

m,sfndaOl i,nhkag wdf,dal W.=,la

51

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2'4'6 m,sfndaOl ul=Kka

oehs yÿkd.; yelsh' fï i`oyd wod, fnda.fhys m%Odk m,sfndaëka ms<sn`oj ukd

by; 2'4'4 mßÈu fõ" yn,amdo ul=Kka"

jegySula wjYH jk w;r tys§ Tjqka f.a

rks, lr,a úÈk ul=Kka" r;= lmq ul=Kka"

ndysr fmkqu fukau Tjqkaf.a yeisÍuo

miauq¨ ul=Kka" jÜglald .`o ul=Kka jeks

m,sfndaëka

fufia

md,kh

b;d jeo.;a fõ' Tjqkaf.a yeisÍu f,i

l,

wdydr .ekSu" ixprK iajNdjh" fjk;a

yelsfõ' fndfyda ul=Kkaf.a <má wjia:dj

lDókag m%;spdr oelaùu" wdÈh jeo.;a

^YsIqjd& rxpq jYfhka isák ksid myiqfjka

fõ' tu lDóka m,sfndaëka kï Tjqka

fN!;slj úkdY fldg .yKh iSud l,

Ydlfhka wdydr ,nd .kakd w;r wdydr

yelsfõ'

i`oyd t;rï fõ.fhka ixprKh lsÍula isÿfkdlrhs' tfy;a Tjqka úf,damslhska kï Tjqkag Yla;su;a uqL Wmdx. iy mdo we;s w;r fjk;a lDóka f.dÿre lr.ekSfï ú,dYhla ^fõ.fhka weú§u" ie.ù isg mekSu jeks& fmkakqï lrhs' ì;a;r j,ska mrfmdaIs;hska ìysjkafka kï Tjqka b;d l=vd ^CIqø& iqyqUq,a mrfmdaIs; fonreka nj y`ÿkd.; yelsh' túg Tjqka wod, ì;a;r j,g jvd b;d l=vd" jk w;r mshdm;a

;,d oeuQ r;= lmq ul=Kq hqj,la

iys; l¨$ly$ÿUqre meyehkag yqre mshUd

2'4'7 m,sfndaOl ì;a;r

hdug myiqfjkau fm,fUk lDóka fõ'

fïjd ksjerÈj y`ÿkdf.k úkdY lsÍu

lDñ ì;a;r j,ska msg jkafka m,sfndaëka

jvd;a jeo.;a jkafka tfia fkdjqkfyd;a

kï tjeks ì;a;r j.dfjka bj;a l, hq;=

ys;lr

úkdY

jk w;r iajdNdúl i;=rka kï Tjqka j.dj

úh yels neúks' óg wu;rj ì;a;r

;=<u úisrejd yeÍu jeo.;a fõ' tu ì;a;r

mrfmdaIs;hskaf.a wdidokh iys; ì;a;r

y`ÿkd .ekSug fkdyels úg tajd fijk

j,ska tu mrfmdaIs;hkau ìysjk ksid

iys; ia:dkhl j.djg ó'10la muK ÿßka

tajdo wdrCId l, hq;=h'

m,sfndaOl

;nk ,o by,ska isÿre l, WK mqrella

lDñ ì;a;r y`ÿkd .ekSug

wmyiq kï

;=<g oeófuka iajdNdúl i;=rkag bka

tjeks ì;a;r fjk fjku tl;= lr l=vd

msg ù hd yelsfõ' ^2'2'2'6 n,kak&t<j¿

fnda;,a j, oud ks;r mßCIdfjka isàfuka

j.djkays§ fufia úkdY lsÍu jvd;a myiq

tajdhska ìysjk fkdfïrE lDóka w;a

lDñ m,sfndaOl ì;a;r jkafka fmdl=re

ldphlska mßCId lr jeo.;a m,sfndaëka

jYfhka we;s tajdh' thg WodyrK f,i

Ôùka

f.a

ì;a;r

o

52

ipvm final 0...indd 

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lsh;a mKqjd ^iafmdfvdmafgrd úfYaI&"

b;d jeo.;ah" myiqh' Ydlfha újO

tms,elakd l=reñKshd" yn,a mdo ul=Kd"

ia:dkj, isák ms,jqka ;,d oeóu" mq¨iaik

miauq¨ ul=Kd" rks, lr,a úÈk ul=Kd

ia:dkhlg oeóu fyda fmd,s;ska nE.hla

jeks

oelaúh

;=< isrfldg wõfõ ;eîu l,yel' lDñ

yel' m,sfndaOl o,Uqjka ìysjk iuyr

kdYl biSu t;rï isÿ fkdlrk t<j¿

i,nhkaf.a ì;a;r jqjo meyeÈ,sj oelsh

j.d j,§ mrfmdaIs; wdidokhka iys;

yels úg w;ska msßue§fuka myiqfjka

^l=vd lSghka úiska ydks lrñka isák&

úkdY

m,sfndaOl ms,jqka ks;r oelsh yels neúka

m,sfndaëkaf.a

l,yelsh'

ì;a;r

b,aueiaid

ì;a;r

oukafka lrú, l=,fha <má f.ä j,

Tjqka úkdY fkdl, hq;=h'

fmd;a; isÿrelr Bg háka jk ksid msg;g Y%djh ù ;sfí' tjeks <má f.ä

2'4'9 lrá iy m;% kgq ;=, isák lSghka

j, b,aueis ì;a;r /ila we;s neúka

jïngq lrá$ f.ä úÈkakd" lrú, l=,fha

tajd lvd fyd`Èka wõj we;s ia:dkhl

Ydl j,g ydks lrk .eg ueiaid ^.vq

w;=rd úh<Sug ;eîfuka tajd úkdY l,

ueiaid&" fndaxÑ ueiaid fukau nKavlald

yelsfõ'

ì;a;r

kgq ueiaido fujeks m,sfndaëka fõ' fujeks

úf,damsl bìl=reñKs ì;a;r iu`.o" lsh;a

ydks b;d iq¨fjka we;súgu lráfha

mKqjdf.a

ul=¨jkaf.a

lSghka isák ia:dk lvd$ ;,d oeóu"

ì;a;r iu`.o iudk;ajhla olajk neúka

lráhu lvd mq¨iaik ia:dkhlg oeóu

ta ms<sn`oj úfYAIfhka úuis,su;ajkak'

fyda fmd,s;Ska nE.hla ;=, isrfldg wõfõ

tjeks ia:dk j,ska ue,shï jeks øjH

tms,elakd ì;a;r

l=reñKs iuyr

;eîu l,yel' mrfmdaI;hska wdidokh

2'4'8 m,sfndaOl ms,jqka

ù we;akï by; 2'4'8 § fuks' nKavlald fldaI

kgq ueiaidf.a ydksh$ fndaxÑ ueiaid

wjia:d Tjqka wdydr .;a ia:dk j,;a"

f.a ydksh l=vd me< j,g we;s úg wdrïNl

Ydlfha fjk;a ia:dkj,;a" mfia;a oelsh

wjia:dfõ§ me<h msákau Wÿrd by;

yelsh'

mßÈ úkdY lsÍu me< .yKh jeä

úúO

wjia:dj

o<Uq

tfukau j.dj

m,sfndaëkaf.a

b,aueiaikaf.a wjg

mfiA;a"

ms,d

wjia:djkays§ b;d id¾:l l%uhls'

úh<S

.sh ydksh iys; f.ä ;=<;a oelsh yelsh' fujeks ms,jqka kshñ; wjia:dj

2'4'10 l`oka úÈk lSghska

t<Uqk úg kej; iqyqUq,a i,nhska fyda

l=l¾ìfÜisfha iy fid,fkaisfha l=,hka

b,aueiaika njg m;aù kej; ì;a;r oud

jeks iuyr t<j¿ j.d j, fujeks ydks

m,sfndaO ydksh ;jÿrg;a jeä lrhs'

isÿlrk i,n lSghska fydaa l=reñKs lSghska

tneúka fudjqka fN!;sl f,i úkdY lsÍu

úáka úg oelsh yel' fujeks ydkshla

53

ipvm final 0...indd 

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wdrïNl wjia:dfõ§

kï Ydlhg ydks

yelsh' l+ä;a;kaf.a ydksh we;súg tu m;%

fkdjk fia msyshla jeks WmlrKhlska tu

hg me;a;g fndl=gq jk w;r l=yqUqjka$

ia:dkh ;=jd, lr lSghd muKla úkdY

lähka .ejfikq oelsh yelsh' tfukau

l,hq;=h' ydksh ;j ÿrg;a me;sfrhs

l+ä;a;ka Y%djh lrk iSks ødjK Bg

kï tjeks Ydl ish,a, Wÿrd mq¨iaid

háka we;s m;% j, ;ejÍfuka tajd f;,a

oeóu iqÿiqh' fujeks ydks j,§ tu .ia

.Ejdla fuka È,sfia' fuu`.ska tu ia:dk

ue,ùu" ydksh iys; ia:dkfha isÿre j,ska

y`ÿkdf.k tajdfha isák l+ä;a;ka rxpq

lSghdf.a

meóKSu"

;,d oeñh yelsh' fuf,i tla mqoa.,hl=g

l`oka bÈóu isÿjk ksid myiqfjkau uq,a

idudkHfhka mehlg t<j¿ m;% ishhl

wjia:dfõ§u y`ÿkd.; yelsh' fujeks

muK isák l+ä;a;kaa úkdY l,yels w;r

ydkshlska úkdY jQ j.djla kï j.dj

th o< jYfhka l+ä;a;ka oi oyila

wjika jkjd;a iu`.u ish¨u fnda. Ydl

muK fõ' j.djg i;s 3-4 la muK jhi

W.=,a,d blaukskau mq¨iaid oeóu u`.ska

jk úg § fudjqka f.a úf,damslhka jk

wjg we;s fjk;a j.djka ;=<ska ydksh

bìl=reñKshka" tu lSghska iy úf,damsl

È.ska È.gu we;sùu j,lajd .; yelsh'

ueis lSghskao fudjqkaf.a rxpq w;r isák

2'4'11 f.ä iy lr,a úÈk o,Uqjka

neúka Tjqka /l .; hq;=h'

u<

øjH

msg;g

by; 2'4'5 mßÈu fõ" jïngq f.ä úÈkakd

2'4'13 msá ul=Kka yd fldrfmd;= lDóka

jeks ydks wjia:dj,§ f.äh ;=, lSghd

fudjqkao

isák neúka tu f.ä msákau lvd by;

wdrïNl wjia:dfõ§ isgu ydksh iys;

mßÈ úkdY l, hq;=fõ' tjeks wdidÈ; f.ä

fldgia lvd mq¨iaik ia:dkhlg oeñh

Ôù lSghka iys;j j.dj wjg m%foaYhkays

yelsh' thg wu;rj fuu m,sfndaëka

oeófuka thska iqyqUq,a i,nhska we;s ù

iu`. iyÔjkfhka fudjqka wdrCId lrk

ydksh ;jÿrg;a jeäfõ' fujeks f.ä

iy fudjqkag m%jdyk myiqlï i,ik

lvd lSghska ;,d oeóu fyda úh<s fld,

l=yqUqjka" lähka iy Èñhkaf.a .Kdjdi

frdvq w;=rd ta u; ;nd mq¨iaid r;a lsÍuo

hdka;%slj úkdY lsÍuo tjeks l=yqUq j¾.

iqÿiq fõ'

j,g j.dj ;=<g meñKSu je,elaùug

rxpq

jYfhka

isák

w;r

ls%hdlsÍuo iqÿiqh'

2'4'12 l+ä;a;ka fudjqka rxpq jYfhka isák w;r uDÿ YÍr we;s ksid wdrïNl wjia:dfõ§u w;ska ;,d oud myiqfjka md,kh lr.;

54

ipvm final 0...indd 

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ùug bv we;s ksid fudjqka úkdY lrkjd

2'4'14 b,aueiaidf.a lSg wjia:dj

fjkqjg fi'ó' 15la muK Wi mia ;Ügqjla iys; ma,diaála nd,aÈhlg oud uÿre

.eyeKq b,a ueiaid lrú, l=,fha f.ä

oe,lska th fydÈka wdjrKh lr ;eîfuka

j, fmd;a; úo jrlg ì;a;r 12la muK

ìysjk b,a ueiaika tysu isrjk w;r

tu fmd;a;g háka ;ekam;a lrk w;r

m%udKfhka l=vd isrere we;s mrfmdaIs;

thska we;s jk by`o mKqjka f.äfha uoh

fonrekag uÿre oe, ;=,ska kej; j.djkaa

wdydrhg f.k úkdY lrhs'

fj; hEfï yelshdj ,efí' fujeks Ndck

b,a ueiaidf.a ì;a;r ;ekam;a l, miq

j.dj wi, .ia fijkl ;eìh hq;=h'

tu ia:dkfhka ue,shï jeks øjHla msg;g

f.ä úÈk o,Uqjka jeks fjk;a ;rula

meñfKk w;r tu lSghka uoh wdydrhg

úYd, isrere we;s m,sfndaëka o fuhg

.kakd úg tu f.ä l%ufhka ly meyehg

oeñh yelsh' fuu iqyqUq,a m,sfndaëka th

yqreùu;aa" j¾Okh wl%uj;a ùu;aa isÿfõ'

;=<u ñhhk f;la fujeks Ndckhla újD;

fujeks ì;a;r fyda b;d l=vd lSghska iys;

lsÍu lsisfia;au fkdl, hq;=h'^42 msgqjo

l=vd f.ä lvd tl;= lr wõj fydÈka we;s

n,kak&

ia:dkhlg oud úh<Sug yeÍfuka b;d

fufia úkdY lrkjdg wu;rj t;rï

myiqfjka fudjqka úkdY l,yel'

úYd, fkdjQ j.djl kï <má wjia:dfú

kuq;a lSghska ;rula fyda jeã we;akï

isgu lrú, l=<fha f.ä j,g fmd,s;Ska

iy f.ä úYd, kï fmd,s;ska nE.hl

wdjrKhla oeófuka b;d fyd|ska fuu

oud fyd`Èka jid wõfõ ;eîu" úh<s fld,

ydksfhka j,lajd .; yelsh' lrú,"

frdvq j,g Wäka ;nd .sks;nd fuu f.ä

msmsCoaCod iy mf;da, i|yd fyd|ska jevqKq

r;a lsÍu jeks l%uhlska úkdY l, hq;=fõ'

f.ählg jvd fi'ó' 15la muK os.ska jeä

fyd`Èka jevqkq fuu by`ohskag ÿkakla fuka

fmd,s;Ska nghla oeñh hq;= w;r jegfld¿

rjqï ù mekSfï yelshdj we;' fudjqka mig

i|yd tu f.äj, os.g muKla ;sîu

jegqKq jydu mi ;=<g ßx.d f.dia ms,d

iEfya' jegfld¿ f.ä fudark úg fmd;a;

wjia:djg m;aù" kej; b,a ueiaika njg

>kjk ksid ydks fkdlrk w;r lrú,

m;aù fuu ydksh ;j ÿrg;a me;sÍu isÿ

iy mf;da, meiqKq f.ä j,go b,aueiaid

lrk ksid fujeks ms,jqka ish,a, úkdY

ì;a;r ouk neúks' fï i|yd >klï

lsÍfuka fuu ydksh fyd`Èka md,kh

fmd,s;ska ng Ndú;d l,fyd;a kej;

lr.; yelsfõ'

kej; os.= ld,hla fufia f.ä wdrCId lr.; yelsh' fufia nE.a oeófuka tajd

t;rï m,sfndaOkdYl biSu isÿfkdlrk

iq<Õg lerlS f.ä j, kgqj weUÍ hdug;a

j.djl kï ie,lsh hq;= m%udKhlska fudjqka fj; mrfmdaIs; fonreka wdidokh

ipvm final 0...indd 

jeis ld,fhaoS fïjdfha f;;ukh /oS f.ä

55

//0 :: PM


l=Kq ùug;a yelshdj mj;sk ksid tfiaùu

b;d ;=kShg wdf,am fldg j.dj ;=, t,a,d

je<elaúh hq;=h' fuu fmd,S;Ska ngj,

;eîu;a fï i`oyd iqÿiqh' kuq;a iajdNdúl

m;=< újD;j ;eîu b;d jeo.;ah'

i;=rka fyd`o uÜgula mj;sk t<j¿ j.djka i`oyd fujeks W`.=,a Ndú;d lsÍfuka Tjqka o úkdY jk ksid tfia fkdl, hq;=h' me,uelalka .yKh md,kh lsÍug msÿre" úh<s ;DK jeks jiqkla fh§u o iqÿiqh'

2'5 w;HdjYH wjia:dj,oS m<sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h by; i|yka m<sfndaO md,k Wml%u ish,a, lr ;sìhoS;a iuyr wjia:dj,oS iuyr m<sfndaëka wd¾Ólj ydksodhl uÜgu lrd ,Õdùug bv ;sfí' tjeks wjia:djl

oS

iqÿiq

m<sfndaOkdYlhla

Ndú;d lr tu m<sfndaO ydksh md,kh l, hq;=h' ta i|yd ks¾foaY fldg we;s m<sfndaOkdYl Ndú;d l, hq;= w;r tys§ ìu f.ä yefok jÜglald" msmsCoaCod" mqyq,a

j.dfõ isák iajdNdúl i;=rka yels;dla

jeks j¾. i`oyd f.ä <má ld<fhaoSu úh<s

ÿrg wdrCId jk mßÈ tajd fhdod .ekSu

;Kfld<" msÿre jeks fohlska wdjrKh

ksid ;jÿrg;a È.ska È.gu m<sfndaOkdYl

lsÍfukao fuu ydksh j<lajd .; yel'

fh§fï wjYH;djh uÕyrjd .; yelsh' ta i|yd jeo.;a Wml%u lsysmhla my;

2'4'15 iqÿ ueiaika" me,uelalka iy m;% lkskakka

mßÈ fõ'

2'5'1 m,sfndaOkdYl biSu fjkqjg fjk;a l%u j,g j.djg fh§u

hï j.djl wdrïNfha isg m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;d lsÍu ksid iajdNdúl i;=rka b;d

m<sfndaOkdYl j.dj mqrdu biSu ksid tys

wvqfjka isák wjia:djl§ muKla fujeks

isák ys;lr cSùka fj;o tajd myiqfjka

m,sfndaëka i`oyd ly meye;s W`.=,a Ndú;d

.uka lr Tjqkago úI n,mEï we;s lrhs'

l, yelsh' ly meye;s me;,s Ndck j,g

tneúka biSfuka f;dr m<sfndaOkdYl

inka ñY% c,h mqrjd j.dj ;=, ;eîu;a ly meye;s fmd,S;Ska j, .%Sia jeks øjHhla

ipvm final 0...indd 

fhoSulska Ydlj, jdhj fldgia wdY%s;j

56

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iy mi u;=msg cSj;aa jk ish¨u ys;lr

2'5'3 lDñ j¾Ol fydafudak weiqßka ksmojQ lDñ kdYl f;dard .ekSu

cSùka idfmaCIj fndfyda ÿrg wdrCId lr.; yelsh' fujeks l%u i|yd WodyrK jkafka"

iuyr kj m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. fujeks 

îc m%;sl¾u f,i fhdod .ekSu -

fujeks

os,Sr

lDñkdYlo

kdYl

we;'

tajd fõ' fïjd wod, lDñ m,sfndaOl

fukau

fuuÕska

j¾.hg muKla úI jk neúka ys;lr

i;s

Ôùka" iajdNdúl i;=rka" mßirh yd

3-4 la tjeks m<sfndaOlhskaf.ka

ñksidg jk n,mEu wju fõ' fï ms,snoj

j.dj /l foa'

jeä úia;r m,sfndaOkdYl ks¾foaYj, iy

osh fldg fyda leg jYfhka uq,g

weiqrefï i|yka fõ'

iy mig fhoSu'

muKla wdf,am lsÍu fydaa biSu

2'5'4 yels;dla ÿrg kj m,sfndaO kdYl j¾. f;dard .ekSu

weu iy W.=,a f,i Ndú;h

fndfyda wjia:d j,È merKs m,sfndaOkdYl

m<sfndaO

m<sfndaO ydksh mj;sk ia:dk j,g

ydksh

iys;

j¾. i`oyd ld,hla ;siafia m,sfndaëka

fldgia

yqre ù ;rul m%;sfrdaë ;djhla we;s

j.dfjka wdjrK uÕska fjkalr

lrf.k isàu ksid tajd Ndú;d l,o ksis

tajdg muKla biSu 

m<sfndaO lvd

ydksh

bj;alr

iys; tajdg

mßÈ m,sfndaëka u¾Okh fkdfõ' tjeks

fldgia

wjia:d j,§ ks¾foaYs; fkdjk mßÈ jeä

muKla

jdr .Kkla fh§u" jeä idkaøKhlska

m,sfndaOkdYl fh§u

fh§u" j¾. ñY% fldg fh§u jeks jerÈ l%shdjkag

2'5'2 wvq ud;%djlska fhÈh yels m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. f;dard .ekSu fujeks

m,sfndaOkdYl

j¾.

wmf.a

f.dùka

fkdoekqj;a

lu ksid fm,fò' merKs m,sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h fjkqjg kj m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. fh§fuka fuu ;;a;ajh u. yrjd .; yel' tu`.ska mßirhg tl;= jk wys;lr

f;dard

øjH m%udKh wvq lr .; yels fõ'

.ekSfuka mßirg tl;= jk úI øjH m%udKh wju l,yels jk w;r fndfyda kj m,sfndaOkdYl j¾. fujeks tajd fõ' fï ms<sn|j jeä úia;r m<sfndaOkdYl ks¾foaY j, iy weiqrefï i|yka fõ'

57

ipvm final 0...indd 

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2'5'5 ñksidg úI wju jQ m<sfndaOkdYl j¾. fujeks m<sfndaOkdYl j¾. y÷kd .ekSug tys f,an,fha my;ska we;s j¾K ;Srej iy ta u; i|ykaj we;s wk;=re we`.ùfï jdlHh Wmldß fõ'

ly mdg - ydksodhlhs

ks,a mdg - wjodkï iys;hs

fld, mdg - ^lsisjla i`oyka fkdfõ&

ta wkqj yels;dla ÿrg fld, mdg fyda ks,a mdg j¾K ;Srejlska hq;a m<sfndaOkdYl j¾. Ndú;d lsßu u`.ska ñksidg we;súh yels úIùu wju lr.; yelsh'

2'5'6 iajdNdúl m<sfndaO kdYl j¾.

iajNdjfha mj;sk øjH j,ska ;kd.;a j¾. fõ' tneúka isÿúh yels mßir ydks wju fõ' WodyrK # Ydlidr j¾. ^fldfydU îc $ m;% hqI" wfkdaod îc hqI" bÕ=re"ly wd§ foaYSh T!IO j¾.&

w¿

f.du

úúO m;% j¾. c,fha m,a fldg

tu Èhr fmrd Ndú; lsÍu

58

ipvm final 0...indd 

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^3& t<j¿ j.dfõ m%Odk m,sfndaëka j¾. lsysmhla i`oyd iqÿiq úfYAIs; taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k jevigyka fláfhka iEu t<j¿ m,sfndaOlfhl= i`oydu Ndú;d l,yels mq¿,a iy iajdNdúlj isÿjk ffcj md,kh u; jeämqr hefmk taldnoaO md,k l%ufõohla by;ska iúia;rd;aulj olajd we;s w;r my;ska oelafjkqfha f;dard.;a m%Odk t<j¿ m,sfndaëka j¾. lsysmhla i`oyd b;d jeo.;a jk md,k Wml%u lsysmhla fláfhks' 

3'1 uQ, .eá;s jgmKqjka

ydksh mj;sk ia:dk j, isg ydksh fkdue;s ia:dk j,g c,h .,d

j.d lrk w;r ;=r mqrka lsÍu

ikafyïma

jeks

fld<

hdug bv fkd§u

fmdfydr

3'2 nelaàßhd ysgq ueÍu

imhk me<Eá j¾. j.d lr kej;

mig ñY% lsÍu

j.d lrk w;r ;=r mqrka lsÍu

fnda. udrej ^úfYaIfhka ;DK fyda

ikafyïma

fmdfydr

mig ñY% lsÍu

mig ldnksl fmdfydr jeämqr ñY% lsÍu

fld<

imhk me<Eá j¾. j.d lr kej;

rks, l=,h iqÿiqh& 

jeks

fnda. udrej ^úfYaIfhka nv bß`.=

ydksh we;s ia:dk y`ÿkdf.k ^l,ska

jeks ;DK l=,fha j¾." rks, l=,h"

j.dfõ fnda. j, frda. ,CIK

nKavlald l=,h iqÿiqh&

wkqj iy tajd uq, iu`. bÈÍu

u`.ska& ysre t<sfhka mi ;eïîu

lsÍu

iy fjk;a mdxY= m%;sl¾u 

ksfrda.S frdamK øjH Ndú;h

me;sÍu

je,elaùu

i`oyd

mig ldnksl fmdfydr jeämqr ñY%

ydksh we;s ;eka y`ÿkdf.k ^l,ska j.dfõ fnda. j, frda. ,CIK wkqj& ysre t<sfhka mi ;eïîu iy

tu

fjk;a mdxY= m%;sl¾u isÿ lsÍu

ia:dkj, mia fjk;a j.dìï j,g f.k fkdhEu iy k`.=,a" Wo¨ jeks

me;sÍu

je,elaùu

i`oyd

tu

wdhqO msßisÿ lsÍfuka miq kej;

ia:dkj, mia fjk;a j.d ìï lrd

Ndú;h

f.k fkdhdu iy k`.=,a" Wo¨ jeks wdhqO msßisÿ lsÍfuka miqj kej; Ndú;h

59

ipvm final 0...indd 

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ydksh we;s ia:dk j, isg fkdue;s

ia:dk j,g c,h .,d hEug bv

îc m%;sl¾u isÿ lsÍu

fkd§u 

j¾Id

c,fhka

fufia

frda.h

fyd¢ka

frda.h

wdrïNfha§u

kssjerÈj

kdYl uq,g fh§u

tu Ydl W.=,a,k ,o ia:dkfha

mfia wdï,sl;djh jeäkï w¿ yqKq

;sfnk mia j,lg oeóu

fhdod mS'tÉ w.h 5'5 - 6 olajd jeä

tjeks ia:dkj, mi c,fhka hg

lr .ekSu

3'4 l¨ lsh;a mKqjdf.a ydksh

3'3 uQ, uKav,hg wdidokh jk È,Sr frda. 

j.d lrk w;r ;=r mqrka lsÍu

ikafyïma

jeks

fld<

mdxY+ m%;sl¾u ^mi flàu" iS iEu" f¾lal lsÍu" ldnksl øjH mig ñY% fldg mfia ys;lr Ôùka jeälr .ekSu" ysre t<sfhka mi ;eïîu&

fmdfydr

wjg we;s fld,frdvqq wdÈh tl;=

imhk me<Eá j¾. j.d lr kej;

lr fCIa;%h wjg msßisÿj mj;ajd

mig ñY% lsÍu

.ekSu 

fnda. udrej ^fjk;a l=, j,g wh;a

fi'ó' 30 la muK m<, fmd,s;Ska máhlska

fnda.&

uq,a

wjia:dfõ§

j.dj

wdjrKh lsÍu ^fuys hg odrh

mig fyd`Èka ÈrE ldnksl fmdfydr

mfika hg l, hq;=h&

jeämqr ñY% lsÍu 

ydksh we;s ;eka y`ÿkdf.k ^l,ska

j.dj weröug i;s ;=lkg muK fmr isg iy j.dfõ uq,a wjia:dfõ§

j.dfõ frda. ,CIK wkqj& ysre

c, n`ÿka iy wdrCIdj ,nd §fuka

t<sfhka mi ;eïîu iy fjk;a

fou,sÉpka" l=l=,ka jeks l=re,a,ka

mdxY= m%;sl¾u isÿ lsÍu 

mi

mq¨iaid úkdY lsÍu

;jdka

md,kh

y`ÿkdf.k ks¾foaYs; mßÈ È,Sr

iu`. fnda. udrej

;jdka

ydksh iys; Ydl uq, iu`. W.=,a,d

lr i;s 4g jvd ;eîu fyda f.dhï

mßÈ

ÔjdkqyrKh lsÍu&

myiqjk f,i md;a;s ieliSu

ks¾foaYs; ^úfYAIfhka

me;sÍug yels ksid c, jykh

ks¾foaYs; mßÈ È,Sr kdYl fhdod

j.djg f.kajd .ekSu

ksfrda.S îc Ndú;h

60

ipvm final 0...indd 0

//0 :: PM


uq,ska fjk;a ia:dkhl ;jdka lr

miqj fCIa;%fha me, isgqùu 

uq¨ m%foaYfhau j,a kdYl iy lDñkdYl biSu wju lsÍu

îc m%;sl¾u f,i lDñkdYl fhdod

iajdNdúl neoao wdrCId lsÍfuka ys;lr Ôù úúO;ajh iy .yKh

.ekSu

jeälr j.dfõ uq, isgu ffjria 

j.dfõ wdrïNfha§u j.dj jgd

jdyl

fldfydU îc ksiaidrlh$N+ñf;,a-

m,sfndaëka

iajdNdúlju

md,kh lr .ekSu

inka-ff;f,daoh$ .| iys; 

lDñkdYlhla jeks øjHlska ndOl

m%foaYfha fnda. úúOdx.SlrKh jeä lsÍu ^úúO fnda. iy úúO m%fNao

máhla f,i ìug biSu

j.d lsÍu& ^foaYSh t<j¿ j¾. iy

3'5 t<j¿ ffjria frda. ^msmsCoaCod úÑ;%h$ fld<fldv ùu$ ñßia" jïngq" ;lald,s fld<fldv ùu$ fndaxÑ ly ùu$ nKavlald úÉ;%h jeks& 

m%;sfrdaë m%fNao o we;=,;aj& 

ksfrda.S îc Ndú;h

lDñkdYluh îc m%;sl¾u isÿlsÍu

khsg%cka fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ jeämqr fkdfh§u

merKs fnda. fYaI iïmQ¾Kfhkau" iduQyslj iy merKs j.dj wjika

jkjd;a iu`.u ^kj j.djg i;s 3

wvq fkdlsÍu

lg j;a fmr& Wÿrd úh,Sug yeÍu 

fmdgEishï fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

j.dj wdrïNfha isg j.dfõ u,a

j,a me<Eá j, ffjria frda. ,CIK

yg .kakd wjia:dj f;la fyda uq¿

we;s tajd ÿgq ú.i Wÿrd oeóu

me< .Kkska 30-40] la muK f;la ffjria wdidÈ; me< Wÿrd úh,Sug

fjkia l=, j,g wh;a fnda. iu`.

yeÍu

fnda. udrej  

tjeks fnda. kj j.djg i;s ;=klg

c,iïmdokh

fmr j.dj jgd isgqjd tu`.ska

wdjrKh ùug bv yeÍu 

Ôj jeglska wdjrKh lsÍu

ksis l,g muKla j.dj weröu -

j.dfõ jdhj fldgia f;fuk mßÈ

ffjria jdylhska md,kh lsÍu wmyiq wjia:dj,§ ly meye;s c, W.=,a iy wef,k W.=,a Ndú;h

b;du;au nrm;, wjia:dj,§ udi 04l muK ld,hla uq¨ m%foaYfhau

m%udo ù j.dj weröfuka fuu frda.

f.dùka iduQyslj mqrka lsÍu

fhka jeämqr ydks we;sfõ

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nrm;, wjia:dj,§ ks¾foaYhkag wkqj

^mq¨,a

ls%hdldÍ

fkdjk&

ys;lr Ôù úúO;ajh iy .yKh

lDñkdYl Ndú;h

jeä lr j.dfõ uq, isgu ffjria jdyl

3'6 b;d l=vd YÍr m%udKfhka hq;=" blaukska .=Kkh jk yd jHdma; jk m,sfndaëka ^iqÿ ueiaika" l+ä;a;ka" me,uelalka" m;% lkskakka" uhsgdjka" m;% lSvEjka jeks& 

merKs fnda. fYAI iïmQ¾Kfhkau"

fnda.

udrejg

iys;j

m%foaYfha

l, fnda.

tjeks fnda. kj j.djg i;s ;=klg

iduQyslj iy merKs j.dj wjika

fmr j.dj jgd isgqjd tu`.ska

jkjd;a iu`.u ^kj j.djg i;s

wjrKh ùug bv yeÍu

fmr j.djg lDñkdYl wju f,i

Ôj jeglska wdjrKh lsÍu

lDñkdYluh îc m%;sl¾u isÿlsÍu

khsg%cka fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ jeämqr fkdfh§u

lDóka ksoyia jk f,i fnda. fYaI 

kj j.djg óg¾ 10la muK wE;ska

fmdgEishï fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ wvq fkdlsÍu

f.dv .id ;eîu 

È.= ld,Skj ydksh m,kh l,

ydksh jeä úh<s wjia:dj,§ j.dfõ jdhj fldgia f;fuk mßÈ c,

fkdyels f,i we;súg m%;sfrdaë

iïmdokh ^Wod- Sprinkler)

.=K we;s foaYSh t<j¿ m%fNao" nv bß`.=$ fufkaß$ l=rlalka$ f.dajd$

nrm;, wjia:d j,oS ly meye;s c, W.=,a iy wef,k W.=,a Ndú;h

lerÜ$ n;,$ m,d j¾. jeks fnda. iu`. fnda. udrej

b;du;au nrm;, wjia:dj,§ udi

ksis l,g muKla j.dj weröu -

04l muK ld,hla uq¿ m%foaYfhau

m%udo ù j.dj weröfuka fuu ydks

f.dùka iduQyslj mqrka lsÍu

jeä ùug bv we; 

iajdNdúlju

úúOdx.SlrKh

Ndú;d lr we;akï mrfmdaIs;

by; fnda.o

yeÍu

m,sfndaëka

md,kh lr .ekSu

;=klg j;a fmr& Wÿrd úh<Sug

iajdNdúl neoao wdrCId lsÍfuka

nrm;, wjia:d j,§ ks¾foaYhkag

uq¿ m%foaYfhau lDñkdYl" j,akdYl

wkqj ^mq¿,a ls%hdldÍ fkdjk&

biSu wju lsÍu

lDñkdYl Ndú;h

62

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3'7 jdhj fldgig je<f`ok È,Sr frda. ^m;% ,m" f.ä l=Kq ùu wdÈh& 

mqyqKq lsÍu 

lrkafka kï fujeks frda. we;s úg

iduQyslj yd merKs j.dj wjika

thska je,lSu 

3lgj;a fmr& Wÿrd mi iu`. fldgd

c,iïmdokh Woh ld,hg muKla iSud lsÍu

ñY% lsÍu fyda fldïfmdaiaÜ fmdfydr

j.dfõ uq, isgu wdidÈ; fldgia

ksIamdokhg fhdod .ekSu

lvd"

fjk;a l=, j,g wh;a fnda. iu`.

ms,siaiSu

fnda. udrej 

ksis l,g j.dj weröu

m%;sfrdaë .=K we;s foaYSh t<j¿

tl;=

lr"

úh<Sug

yer

by; lghq;= ish,a, isÿl,;a md,kh fkdfõ kï ks¾foaYs; mßÈ È,Sr kdYl Ndú;h

m%fNao o we;=,;a jk mßÈ m%foaYfha

3'8 m;% lk" f.ä$ lr,a$ lrá úÈk o,Uqjka

fnda. úúOdx.SlrKh 

j.dj f;fuk f,i c, iïmdokh

merKs fnda. fYAI iïmQ¾Kfhkau" jkjd;a iu`.u ^kj j.djg i;s

jÿ¨ iajdNdjh bj;a lsÍu yd j.dj

j.dj jgd fjk;a l=,hlg wh;a 

fnda. ;Srejla i;s 3lg l,ska

merKs fnda. fYaI iïmQ¾Kfhkau" iduQyslj yd merKs j.dj wjidk

j.dlr wdjrKhla ,nd§u

jkjd;a iu`.u ^kj j.djg i;s

Ôj jeglska wdjrKhla ,nd §u

3lgj;a fmr& Wÿrd úh<Sug yer

ldnksl fmdfydr yels;dla Ndú;d

mi iu`. fldgd ñY% lsÍu fyda

lsÍu iy mi flàfï§ tajd mig

fldïfmdaiaÜ fmdfydr ksIamdokhg

ñY% lsÍu

fhdod .ekSu

khsg%cka fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

Ndú; lr we;akï mrfmdaIs; lDóka

jeämqr fkdfh§u 

ksoyia jk f,i kj j.djg óg¾

fmdgEishï fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

10la muK wE;ska fnda. fYaI f.dv

wvq fkdlsÍu 

fmr j.djg lDñ kdYl wju f,i

.id ;eîu

ks¾foaY mr;rh iy me, .yKh 

mj;ajd .ekSu

iajdNdúl i;=rka /l .ekSu i|yd j.dj

fkdue;s

ia:dkj,

neoao

yels;dla wdrCId lr .ekSu

63

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m%;sfrdaë .=K we;s foaYSh t<j¿

l+ôhkag$ mCISkag wdydrhg §u"

m%fNao" nv bß`.=" l=rlalka" fufkaß"

r;a lsÍu" fmd,s;ska nE.hla ;=<

n;, jeks fnda. iu`. fnda. udrej

isr lsÍu" mrfmdaIs;hska ksoyia jk

^wod, o,Uq j¾.h wkqj tu ydksh

f,i oe,lska jeiQ n`ÿkl isrlsÍu

fkdue;s fjk;a fnda. j¾.o fuhg

jeks&

we;=,;a l, yel&

fukau ksismßÈ úkdY lsÍuo tlfia

j.dlr wdjrKhla ,nd§u Ôj jeglska j.dj wjrKh lsÍu

mdxY= m%;sl¾u ^mi flàu" mi

mi ;eïîu" c,fhka i;shla muK

fmdgEishï fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

úh<s wjia:d j,§ j.dj f;fuk

wkjYH f,i m,sfndaOkdYl fh§u wju lsÍu

mi hg lr ;eîu& u`.ska miq.sh

j.dfjka we;s jQ fudjqkaf.a mfia

ydksh

nrm;,

f,i

jeä

jk

wjia:dj,§ iqyqUq,a i,nhska úkdY

isák fldaI wjia:d úkdY lsÍu

lsÍu i`oyd wdf,dal W.=,a Ndú;h

ldnksl fmdfydr yels;dla Ndú;d

lsÍu iy mi flàfï§ tajd mig

w;HdjYH

wjia:dj,§

o,Uqjkag

úfYaIs; jQ ^mq¿,a l%shdldÍ fkdjk&

ñY% lsÍu

ks¾foaYs; lDñkdYl Ndú;h ìys

jk

ì;a;r

yels

3'9 m;% lk l=reñKshka yd úo hqI Wrdfndk ul=Kka

muKg tl;= lr mrfmdaIs;hska isáhfyd;a ksoyia ùug yels mßÈ j.djg ó'10la muK wE;ska iqÿiq

khsg%cka fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

f,i c, iïmdokh

fmr,Su" f¾lal lsÍu" ysre t<sfhka

o<Uqjka

lsÍu

wvq fkdlsÍu

tl;=

jeämqr fkdfh§u

j.dj jgd by; j¾. j,g wh;a fnda. ;Srejla i;s ;=klg l,ska

lvd

jeo.;ah&

m%foaYh mqrdu fnda. úúOdx.SlrKh

^fuys§

merKs fnda. fYaI iïmQ¾Kfhkau

mßÈ ;ekam;a lsÍu

iduQyslj yd merKs j.dj wjika

m%Odk jYfhka uq,a i;s 4l muK

jkjd;a iu`.u ^kj j.djg i;s

ld,h ;=<§ iy bka miqj jqjo ^iq¿

3lgj;a fmr& Wÿrd úh,Sug yer

jYfhka we;s úg& hdka;%slj úkdY

mi iu`. fldgd ñY% lsÍu fyda

lsÍu' ^N+ñf;,a jeks úI øjHla

fldïfmdaiaÜ fmdfydr ksIamdokhg

iys; Ndckhlg oeóu" ;,d oeóu"

fhdod .ekSu

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iajdNdúl i;=rka /l .ekSu i|yd

j.dj fkdue;s ia:dk j, neoao

jYfhka we;s úg& hdka;%slj úkdY

yels;dla wdrCId lr .ekSu

lsÍu ^N+ñf;,a jeks úI øjHla

m%;sfrdaë .=K we;s foaYSh t<j¿

iys; Ndckhlg oeóu" ;,d oeóu"

m%fNao" nv bß`.=" l=rlalka" fufkaß"

l+ôhkag$ mCISkag wdydrhg §u"

n;, jeks fnda. iu`. fnda. udrej

r;a lsÍu" fmd,s;ska nE.hla ;=<

^wod, m,sfndaO j¾.h wkqj tu

isr lsÍu" mrfmdaIs;hska ksoyia jk

ydksh fkdue;s fjk;a fnda. j¾.o

f,i oe,lska jeiQ n`ÿkl isrlsÍu

fuhg we;=,;a l, yel&

jeks&

fnda. úúOdx.SlrKh

j.dj jgd by; j¾. j,g wh;a

Ôj jeglska j.dj wjrKh lsÍu

mdxY=

mi

;eïîu"

flàu"

miq.sh

j.dfjka

fmdgEishï fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

úh<s wjia:d j,§ j.dj f;fuk

w;HdjYH

wjia:dj,§

ks¾foaYs;

mßÈ lDñkdYl Ndú;d lsÍu

we;sjQ

fudjqkaf.a mfia isák wjia:d úkdY

3'10 b,aueiaika

lsÍu

khsg%cka fmdfydr wkjYH mßÈ

f,i c, iïmdokh

c,fhka

i;shla muK mi hg lr ;eîu& u`.ska

lsÍu

wvq fkdlsÍu

mi fmr,Su" f¾lal lsÍu" ysre t<sfhka

tl;=

jeämqr fkdfh§u

j.dlr wdjrKhla ,nd§u

^mi

lvd

jeo.;ah&

fnda. ;Srejla i;s ;=klg l,ska

m%;sl¾u

^fuys§

fukau ksismßÈ úkdY lsÍuo tlfia

uq,a i;s 4l muK ld,h ;=<§ ^iq¿

úfYaIfhka lrú, l=,hg wh;a

ldnksl fmdfydr yels;dla Ndú;d

merKs fnda. fYaI iïmQ¾Kfhkau"

lsÍu iy mi flàfï§ tajd mig

iduQyslj yd merKs j.dj wjika

ñY% lsÍu

jkjd;a iu`.u ^kj j.djg i;s

ì;a;r wjia:dfõ§ yels muKg

3lgj;a fmr& Wÿrd úh<Sug yer

tl;= lr mrfmdaIs;hska isáhfyd;a

mi iu`. fldgd ñY% lsÍu fyda

ksoyia ùug yels mßÈ j.djg

fldïfmdaiaÜ fmdfydr ksIamdokhg

óg¾ 10la wE;ska iqÿiq mßÈ ;ekam;a

fhdod .ekSu

lsÍu

fmr j.djg lDñ kdYl wju f,i Ndú; lr we;akï mrfmdaIs; lDóka ksoyia jk f,i kj j.djg óg¾

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10la muK wE;ska fnda. fYaI f.dv

lsÍu$ isÿre ke;s >klï fmd,s;Ska

.id ;eîu

nE.a j, oud fyd`Èka lg neo wõfõ ;eîu$ lDñkdYl ødjKhl .s,ajd

iajdNdúl i;=rka /l .ekSu i|yd

;eîu

j.dj fkdue;s ia:dk j, neoao yels;dla wdrCId lr .ekSu 

j.djla kï fïjdfha mrfmdaIs;hska

fjk;a l=, j,g wh;a fnda. iu`.

isák neúka

fnda. udrej 

fnda. úúOdx.SlrKh

j.dj jgd fjk;a l=, j,g wh;a

jid ;eîu 

j¾. fuhg úfYaIfhka iqÿiqh&

ixia:dksl

lDñkdYl

wdf,am fldg j.dfõ t,a,Su 

iSks ødjK" lDñkdYl ñY% fldg ;eka

mdxY= m%;sl¾u ^mi flàu" mi

;eka j, biSfuka iqyqUq,a ueiaika

fmr,Su" f¾lal lsÍu" ysre t<sfhka

úkdY fõ' ^kuq;a fndfyda ys;lr

mi ;eïîu" c,fhka i;shla muK

ueiaika iy ys;lr fonrekao fïjd

mi hg lr ;eîu& u`.ska

wdydrhg .ekSu u`.ska úkdY úh

miq.sh j.dfjka we;sjQ fudjqka

yelsh&

f.a mfia isák fldaI wjia:d úkdY 

lsÍu

fm%daàka weu iu`. lDñkdYl ñY% fldg ;eka ;eka j,g biSu

ldnksl fmdfydr yels;dla Ndú;d 

lsÍu iy mi flàfï§ tajd mig

lshq,sfhda

jeks

øjHhla

iys;

^fmrfudaka& W.=,la Ndú;d lsÍu

ñY% lsÍu 

msmsCoaCod l=,fha f.ä lmd tu mDIaGhg

Ôj jeglska fyda fjk;a foaYSh øjH j,ska j.dj wjrKh lsÍu

wkjYH f,i m,sfndaOkdYl biSu wju lsÍu

j.dlr wdjrKhla ,nd§u ^rks,

Tjqkag msgúh yels

f,i ;ekam;a fldg uÿre oe,lska

fnda. ;Srejla i;s ;=klg l,ska

lDñkdYl wju f,i bisk ,o

ì;a;r oud we;s <má f.ä yd l=vd lSghka isák wjia:dfõ§ f.ä lvd wõfõ úh,Su

jevqKq lSghka iys; f.ä m%fõYfuka lvd tl;= lr úh<s fld, frdvq u; ;nd .sks ;nd jeä WIaK;ajhlg r;a

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^4& t<j¿ j.dfõ taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh jvd;a fyd`oska id¾:l ùug kï'''''''  hym;a fÉ;kdfjka" iqNjd§j iy úYajdifhka hq;=j taldnoaO m,sfndaO

md,k lghq;= isÿ lrkak'  iajdNdúl mßirh iy ys;lr Ôùka fj; ldreKsljkak" wdrCId

lrkak'  m,sfndaëka" Tjqkaf.a iajdNdúl i;=rka iy WodiSk Ôùka ms<sn`oj fyd`o

wjfndaOhla we;slr .kak'  m,sfndaëka u¾Okh lsÍu fkdj ydksh wju jk f,i Tjqka yd Tjqkaf.a

ls%hdldß;ajh hgm;a fldg mj;ajd .kak'  j.dfõ Èßu;a nj iy;sl lrkak'  m,sfndaO$iajdNdúl i;=rka .yK yeisfrk wdldrh iy ld,.=Kh

wkqj wod, Wml%u ie,iqï lrkak'  j.dfõ wd¾Ól wiajekakg jeä n,mEula isÿlrk m,sfndaëka md,khg

jeä wjOdkhla fokak'  j.dfõ id¾:l;ajhg jvd;a WmldÍ jk Wml%u b;du;a fyd`Èka bgq

lrkak'  Wml%u jeä m%udKhlska jeä id¾:l;ajhla ,eìh yelsh'  ks;r w;ayod ne,Sï lrkak" w;aldph Ndú;fhka iy m,sfndaëka$

iajdNdúl i;=rka we;s lsÍfuka b;d fyd`o oekqula ,eìh yelsh'  ;u oekqu" w;aoelSï iy l=i,;djka wfkla f.dùka iu`. yqjudre lr

.kak'

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wdY%s; .%ka:  Biological control, Van Driesche & Thomas Bellows (1996) Chapman & Hall,

New York.  Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetable and Soyabean in

South East Asia, Shepard B.M., et al (1999) Qnaliny Printing Co., U.S.A.  Insect pest management, David Dent (1991) CAB International, U.K.  Study of Insects, Borror, D.J., et.al. (1989) Saunders College Publishing,

U.S.A.  Integrated Pest management – Potential Constrains and Challenges. Koul,O.,

G.S. Dhaliwal and G.W. Cuperus. (2004) CABI Publishing, London.  Biological Control in the Tropics - The Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological Control in the Tropics (1999) CABI Publishing, Malaysia.

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Pest Control  

Writen By Mr. Waligamage

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