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jdKsc m,;=re Whka j;= l,uKdlrKh

l¾;D wdpd¾h iqN ySkaflkao ^ia:dkNdr m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ - tallh 2& WoHdk fnda. m¾fhaIK yd ixj¾Ok wdh;kh .kafkdrej fmardfoKsh

lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m%ldYkhls 2012


l¾;D wdpd¾h iqN ySkaflkao ^ia:dkNdr m¾fhaIK ks,OdÍ &

úOdhl iïnkaëldrl wdpd¾h frdydka úfÊfldaka

m%ldYkh ieliqu pduÍ ksÆIs is,ajd

;dCIKsl iydh Èiakd r;ak isxy - ^úIhdkqnoaO úfYAI{&

ixialrKh wdpd¾h frdydka úfÊfldaka Èiakd r;akisxy ñh pduÍ ksÆIs is,ajd

msgq ieliqu pñ,d ;=Idß l=,;=x.

joka ieliqu ÿ,añKS Èidkdhl - tallh 2

msgljrh yd Ñ;% .hdks È,areCIs Bßh.u

ks¾udKh Y%jH oDIH uOHia:dkh" .kafkdrej

wkq.%yh Asian Food & Agriculture Cooperation Initiative

uqøKh lDIsl¾u uqøKd,h" .kafkdrej


mKsĂşvh Greetings from the Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI)! AFACI is an intergovernmental and multilateral cooperation body established by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) of the Republic of Korea, aiming to improve food production, realize sustainable agriculture and enhance extension service of Asian countries by sharing knowledge and information on agricultural technology. RDA, a governmental organization for agricultural research and extension services, has been trying to develop and distribute the agricultural technology for last "fty years. As a part of these efforts, I am honored to have opportunity to publish agricultural books for AFACI member countries with a special fund from RDA. This activity aims at facilitating the publication and distribution of agricultural technology books for providing agricultural technologies directly to local farmers and sharing educational materials in their local languages or English. I believe that it is meaningless not to be distributed and practically used no matter how great the technology may be. I truly hope that this book serves as a useful guide for farmers as well as becomes a touchstone for closer relationship between the Sri Lanka and Korea. Thank you very much. Sincerely,

Cho, Yang-Hee Secretary General Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI) Secretariat


lDIsl¾u wOHCI ckrd,ajrhdf.a mKsjqvh lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=j ishji iurk 2012 j¾Ifha§ YS% ,dxlSh f.dú ck;dj fj; ;dlaIKh ,nd§u i|yd m%ldYk rdYshla ìyslrkq we;' fuu ;dlaIK .%ka:ho tjka ishjia m%ldYkhls' ishji m%ldYk j,§ wm úfYaIfhka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka yqfola .;dkq.;sl l%uhg ;dlaIKsl lreKq muKla wvx.= m%ldYk ìyslrkjdg jvd wog iy fygg jeo.;a jk lDIsl¾ufha kj m%jK;d we;=¿ ;dlaIk .%ka: hla m%ldYkhg m;a lsÍuhs' fuys§ lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=fõ oekg isák m%ùK lDIs úfYaI{hka fukau úY%du ,;a lDIs úfYa{hkaf.ao kùk ;dlaIK l%u iy wkd.; oelau ms<sn| woyia m%ldY jkq we;' jdKsc lDIsl¾uh" mßir ys;ldó lDñ md,kh" f.j;= j.dj, kj m%jK;d" N+ñ w,xlrKh yd m,;=re WoHdk md,kh jeks lafIa;% yryd fuu ishji m%ldYk ksl=;a jkq we;' fuu m%ldYK i|yd Asian Food And Agriculture Intaitive (AFACI) wdh;kfha wkq.%yh ,eî we;'

Cooperation

fla'Ô' Ys%hdmd," lDIsl¾u wOHCI ckrd,a"

Message from the Director General of Agriculture At this juncture when our beloved Department of Agriculture is celebrating its Centenary, I am extremely proud and take pleasure in issuing this statement as the Director general of Agriculture. The Departments of Agriculture has already initiated action to release number of publication with timely guidelines to the local farmers, educating them on the latest technologies developed. The main objective of this publications is to create awareness of farmers regarding the timely need for them to adhere to the modern technologies developed by our scientist cater to the present national requirements instead of catering with the ancient proceediers which appear to be out dated for us to compete with the international levels in ensuring global self suf"ciently in food. It provide a forecast on matters of relevant which will be bene"cial to our farmers for their future development. Valuable ideas and suggestions supported by the present of"cers as well as the retired scientist are duly composed through these publications. These books provide content according to the present national importance such as commercial agriculture, Management of food orchard, intergrated pest management, Edible landscaping, Urban agriculture etc. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI) for their kind gesture for coming forward to provide sponsorship for these publications of historical value to the Department of Agriculture in its centenary year. K.G. Sriyapala, Director General, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka.


mgqk 1'

m,;=re lrAudka;h ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''13 - 16

2

jdKsc m,;=re Whka msysgqùu'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''17 -36 2'1 bvula f;dard .ekSsu 2'2 m,;=re úfYaI yd m%fNao f;dard .ekSsu 2'3 jHdmD;s ie,eiau 2'4 fnda. msysgqùfuz fCIa;% ie,eiau 2'5 N+ñh iqodkuz lssrsSu 2'6 N=ñh ieliSu 2'7 há;, myiqluz ixjrAOkh 2'8 flduzfmdaiagz ksIamdokh 2'9 frdamK \%jH ,nd.ekSsu 2'10 fCIa;%fha isgqùfuz rgdj 2'11 me< isgqùsu i|yd iq\qiq ld,h 2'12 me< isgqùsu 2'13 w;=re fnda. j.dj

3

m,;=re j.dfjka m%Yia: M,odjla i|yd m,;=re Whka md,kh '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''37-89 3'1 mi kv;a;=lrk wdldrh 3'2 mfia fmdaIl iq,Nùu 3'3 Ydl fmdaIKh l<ukdlrKh 3'4 m,;=re Ydl iy fmdaIKh 3'5 fm`Il W!K;d 3'6 mfika fm`Il bj;aùsu 3'7 fmdaIl jsIùu 3'8 fmdfydr Ndjs;h

4

c, l<ukdlrKh ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 90-110 4'1 c, wjYH;dj 4'2 mdxY= f;;uk ksrAkl 4'3 c, iuzmdok l%u 4'4 c,fha .+Kd;auh 4'5 c,iuzmdokh m%udKj;a fkdùu 4'6 c, ixrCIKh 4'7 jeis c,h Wmfh`ckh

5

fr`.” m,sfndaO l<ukdlrKh'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''111-138 5'1 m,sfndaOl njg m;aùu 5'2 lDñs m<sfndaOlhdf.a ydks


5'3 5'4 5'5 5'6 5'7 5'8 5'9 5'10

m,sfndaO ydks m<sfndaO ydksj,g n,mdk idOl m<sfndaO ydks wju lr.ekSu lDus m,sfndaO l<ukdlrKh m,sfndaO l<ukdlrKh l%u frda. m,sfndaOlhskaf.a ydksh frda. l<ukdlrKh Wml%u m,sfn`O md,k l%u

6

lmamd\qj iy 6'1 6'2 6'3 6'4 6'5 6'6

mqyqKq lsrSsu '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''139-158 lmamd\q lsrsu yd mqyqKQ lsrSsu YdLd me;srùu lmamd\q l%u lmamd\qfjka miq kv;a;=j mqIam iy M, lmamd\qj lmamd\q WmlrK

7

j,a me,eá l<ukdlrKh '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''159-166 7'1 j,a me<Eá md,kfha wruqKq 7'2 j,a me<Eá md,k Wml%u

8 '''167171 ìu kv;a;=j '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 8'1 fma,s w;r Ydl jeiau iy fma,s ;=< me< w;r me<Eá j,ska f;drj mi wdjrK j.djka f;dard .ekSu wdjrK j.d j, jdis 8'2 iuzmqrAK j.dju jeiaulska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hdu jiqkla w;=rd,Su 9

u,a W;af;ackh$ m%ckl ldhsl úoHdj''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''172-198 9'1 u,a W;af;ack wjêh 9'2 mrd.kh iy M, msysgqùu 9'3 mrd.ldrlhska 9'4 mrd.kh l,ukdlrKh 9'5 mrd.khg n,mdk mdrsirsl idOl 9'6 u,a ye,Su l,ukdlrKh 9'7 M, msysgqùu flfrys n,mdk idOl 9'8 m,;=re f.ä ye,S hdu wNsfhda.hla


1' m,;=re l¾udka;h fylaghdr ñ,shk 6’5lg jeä N+ñ m%foaYhla iys; \qm;la jQ Y%S ,xldj wdishd uydoaúmfha Ydl yd i;a;aj ffcj úúO;ajfhka fmdfydi;au rgla njg ms<s.efka’ tlsfklg fjkia jQ lDIs mdrsirsl l,dm 46la mj;sk ksid mqMZ,a úúO;ajhla iuia: osjhsk mqrdu olakg we;s w;r ta ;=< m<;=re fn`. j, mj;sk úúO;ajh o lemS fmfkhs’ iajdNdúl jkdka;r fukau lDIsldrAñl j.d ìuz j,o nyq, f,i m<;=re úfYaI me;srS ;sfnz’ m<;=re j.dj furg wE; w;S;fha isgu mej;s njg;a m% d .a f t;s y dis l ^l% s ’ mq ’ 600oS m uK& ld,fhaoS furg úiQ udkjhka m<;=re wdydrhg .;a njg;a mqrdúoHd;aul idlaIs jdrA;d ú ;sfnz’ ,xldjg nq\q oyu y"kajd fok ,o l%s’mq’43 ishjfiaoS furg md,kh l< uqgisj rc;=udf.ka ñyska;,d l\q mduq,oS úuik ,o nqoaOs mrSlaIK .egMZfõoS i|yka jQfha o wU .ila ms<sn|jhs’ ta jk úg;a furg wU j.djka mej;=k nj thska meyeos,s fõ'

furgg y"kajd fokq ,eîh' furg m<;=re lafI;%h lrAudka;hla f,i ia:dms; lsrSu i|yd bx.%Sisyq 1815ka miq furg ;=< úfYaI jevigyka rdYshla l%shdjg ke.+y' rdclSh WoaNso WoHdkh 1822 oS fmardfoKsfhaoS msysg jQ bx.%SiS cd;slfh` tu WoHdkh mdol lrf.k úúO m<;=re úfYaI furgg f.kajQ w;r, f.j;= j.dlrejka yd j;= j.dlrejka w;r fnod oSu i|yd m<;=re noaO me< ksmoùfuz mqMZ,a jevigyka l%shd;aul l<y” 17jk ishji wjika jk úg f,dj iqm%isoaO WoaNso úoHd{hska /ilau ,laosjg f.kajd wjYH Wmfoia ,nd .ekSu;a” úúO wOHkhka is\q lsrSu;a iuÛu m<;=re j.dj i|yd úfYaI rdcH wkq.%yhla ,eìKs’ l%s’j’ 1860oS y.a., WoaNso WoHdkh wdruzN ùu;a iuÛu f;a j;= yd fl`ms j;= wdY%s;j m<;=re j.d lsrSug we;s yelshdj wOHhkh lrk ,oS’ Wm ksjrA;k l,dmSh m<;=re úfYaI jk wem,a” fmhdrAia” iafg%`fnrs” ma,uz” mSpz” wdoS m<;=re y.a., WoaNso WoHdkh flakaø lr .ksñka wjg yd

furg ,kafoais hg;a úcs; iuh jQ 1638-1795 ld, jljdkqfjzoS

kqjrt<sh m%foaYfha f;a j;= wdY%s;j w;ayod n,k ,oS’ ta i|yd wjYH noaO me< úfoaY j,ska wdkhkh lr wk;=rej jeämqr noaO me< ksmojd fnod yerSu is\ql< nj fmfka” (T. Petch)

u,hdishdkq l,dmfhka uex.=iaáka, cuznq, \Qrshka, rUqgka, f,dú, kñkuz jeks úúO m<;=re úfYaI rdYshla

1904 oS ix.uh

,xld msysgq

lDIsldrAñl ùu uÛska 13


m<;=re j.dj m%p,s; lsrSugo mqfr`.dó fufyjrla bgq úh’

1936 oS lDIslrAu fomdrA;fuzka;=fjz WoHdk úoHd wxYh msysgqùfuka

1912 oS lDIslrAu fomdrA;fïka;=j msysgqùu;a iuÛu m<;=re j.dj ms<sn|j úfYaI Wkka\qjla we;s jQ nj fmfka’ f,dj ckm%shu m<;=re m%fNao

fj,|m< b,a,qu i|yd m<;=re fn`. jeä oshqKq lsrSu;a, jdKsc m<;=re j.dj i|yd lghq;= iuzmdokh lsrSu;a wruqKq flrsKs’ m<;=re ixjrAOk

;j\qrg;a furgg wdkhkh lrk ,o w;r, m<;=re j.dj m%p,s; lsrSu i|ydu jQ jHdma;s ks,OdrSka m;alsrSu;a” ta i|yd úfYaIs; jQ

lñgqj 1940oS ia:dmkh lrk ,\qj, WoHdk úoHd wxYfha m<;=re m%fNao jeä oshqKq lsrSfuz yd jdKsc m<;=re ksIamdokh kexúfuz ldrAhhka

jevigyka l%shd;aul lsrSsu;a lDIslrAu fomdrA;fïka;=j uÛska is\qúks’ m<;=re m%fNao noaO lsrSfuka

j,g m%dfh`.slj Wmldr lsrSu wfmalaIdj úh’ fï wkqj 1938 jk úg úYd, m%udKfha m<;=re Whka

noaO me< jHdma; lsrSu m%uqL ldrAhla jQ w;r” m<;=re .ia j, M,odhS;djh jeä lsrSu i|yd ;dlaIKh ixjrAOkh lsrSug úfYaI wjOdkhla fhduq flrsks’

me,afjfyr, ysÛ=rlaf.dv, ñKsfma, kd,kao, u,afmd;, ììf,a, mrka;ka, hdmkh iy fmardfoKsfhaoS msysgqjk ,oS’ noaO lsrSug iq\qiq .%dyl ms<sn|

flfia jqjo 1933 muK jk úg lDIslrAu fomdrA;fïka;=j ’jdKsc m<;=re WoHdk msysgqùu¶ furg m<;=re lrAudka;h kexùug wjYH

mrAfhaIK iy m%fNao w;ayod ne,Suz fuu ia:dk j, m%Odk jevigyka f,i mj;ajdf.k hk ,oS’

m%Odk l%shdudrA.hla jk nj fmkajd oS ;sîKs’ ^DAAR, 1933& fuz jk úg úYd, wU Whka j;= o” ^me,afjfyr” kd,kao” ñkafkarsh” mrka;ka&# meKs fodvuz j.djkao ^ìì,” ñkafkarsh& olakg ,eìKs’ ììf,a meKs fodvuz# ìc rys; fmar” iemos,a,d” fidaf,` yjdhs mefmd,a, kS,uz wU” fmdf,dla w,s.egfmar” uef,aIshka cuznq wdoS m<;=re m%fNao rdYshla j.dj ioyd ksrAfoaY lr ;sìKs’

14

1960 oYlfha oS lDIslrAu fomdrA;fïka;=j úiska m<;=re j.dj jHdma; lsrSfuys,d WmldrS jk jeo.;a m%dfh`.sl mshjr lsysmhla .kq ,eîh’ fï w;r Wiia .=Kd;aufha m<;=re noaO me< uyd mrsudKfhka ksmoùu osrs.ekaùug” fm!oa.,sl me< ;jdka ,shdmosxÑh yd Tjqkag wjYH ;dlaIKsl WmfoaYK yd mqyqKqj ,nd oSu” y"kd.;a úfYaI m<;=re fn`. j.dj i|yd wvq fmd<S Kh


l%u ls%hd;aul lsrSu” jdKscj m%uqL;djfha ,d i,lk ,o m<;=re

mqMZ,a fjñka ixjrAOkh ùu werUqk ksid m<;=re i|yd foaYSh b,a¨u

fn`. i|yd jHdma;s ks,OdrSka m;a lsrSu” m<;=re wdydr lrAudka;h ^m<;=re wdY%s; wdydr ieliSfï lrAudka;& ixjrAOkh iy úfYaI

jeäùug mgka .;af;ah’ úfoaYSh m<;=re furg fj<|m, msrS hkakg jQ w;r# m<;=re mrsfN`ckho ie,lsh hq;= f,i jrAOkh ùu olakg

jHdmD;s l%shd;aul lsrSu b;d jeo.;a m%dfh`.sl jevigyka nj lsj hq;=h’ m<;=re wmkhkhg we;s úNjh i,ld n,d fï jk úg Y%S ,xld m<;=re

,enqKs’ 1981 oS furg m%:u úfoaY wdOdr iys; m<;=re jHdma;sh (SRL/ FAO/012) f,`l wdydr iy lDIslrAu ixúOdkh wkq.%yfhka WoHdk úoHd

uKav,h ^DAAR’ 1977& msysgqjk ,o kuq;a jdKsc ugzgfï m<;=re ksIamdokhla ixjrAOkh jk njla

mrAfhaIK yd ixjrAOk jHdmD;sh l%shd;aul úh’ tu jHdmD;sh uÛska furg m<;=re lafIa;f % ha mrAfhaIK

fkdfmkqks’

lsrSu” f,dj ckm%shu m<;=re úfYaI yd m%fNao furg mrAfhaIK ugzgfuka y"kajdoSu ^Heenkenda 1998&” fuu jHdmD;sfhka is\qjqkq lemS fmfkk

m%uqL;d fn`.” i|yd m%Yia: foaY.=Ksl l,dm” Wiia wdrhka$m%fNao y"kdf.k ksrAfoaY lsrSu” jrAOl m%pdrKh lrk ,o Wiia .=Kd;aufha fr`mK øjH iemhSu” Wiia wdrfha$m%fNao j, ujz Ydl WoHdk msysgq ùu” fm!oa.,sl me< ;jdka ,shdmosxÑh” úfYaI{ ks,OdrSka m;a lsrSu” jHdma;s jevigyka fn`. wkqj yd osia;%slal wkqj l%shd;aul lsrSu” wdydr ;dlaIKh yd ksIamdok osr. s ekaùu hkdoS úfYaI l%h s dudrA. ksid fï jk úg m<;=re j.dj osjhsk mqrdu idrA:lj jHdma; fjñka ;sìKs’ újD; wdrA:sl m%;sm;a;shla 1977 os furg l%shd;aul ùu;a iuÛu úYd, jYfhka jdKsc l%shdldrluz j, msìoSula we;súh’ ixpdrl jHdmdrh

odhl;aj fjhs’ fuu jHdmD;sh furg m<;=re lafIa;%fha w;s úYd, fjkila is\qlr” m<;=re wxYfha jeo.;alu biau;= lr cd;sl uÜgfuka fmkajd fok ,oS’ fï uÛska lDIslrAu fomdrA;fïka;=j;a” m<;=re f.dùka yd jHdmdrsl m%cdj;a Yla;su;a lsrSu yd osrsu;a lsrSu meiish hq;= fiajhls’ jir 1995 oS jir 5la i|yd wdishdkq ixjrAOk nexl=j yd Y%S ,xld rch tlaj nyqjdrAIsl fn`. ixjrAOk jHdmD;sh l%shd;aul jQfha furg m%:u j;djg iyk fmd<shla u; jdKsc m<;=re ksIamdokh osrs.ekaùuhs’ fï uÛska foys” fodvuz” wU” mefmd,a” wkakdis” flfi,a” 15


rUqgka wdoS fndfy`uhla fn`. jdKsc j.djka f,i msysgqjk ,o w;r tu m<;=re ksmoùfï fj<| uOHia:dk msysgqùu” tajd ilialr wdydr ksmojk lrAudka;Yd,d msysgq ùu iy fj<|m, iuznkaOSlrKh lsrSfï jdKsc jevigyka b;d lemS fmfkk wdldrhg furg ixjrAOkh lrk ,oafoa fuu jHdmD;sh uÛsks’ fuz iuÛZu f.j;= jeks l=vd m<;=re f.dúm<j,a úYd, ixLHdjla msysgjkq ,enQ w;r, l=vd mrsudKfha m<;=re ieliquz luzy,a o msysgqjk ,oS’ fuz ishMZ ixjrAOk l%shdldrluz i|yd wvq fmd<shg ‘Kh myiqluz’ ,nd fok ,o w;r th furg m<;=re lafIa;%h kj ixjrAOkhl udj;lg fhduq lrk ,o nj meyeos,sju olakg ,efnz’ óg wu;rj jir 2000 oS .%dóh wdrA:sl iyfhda.S;d jHmD;sh ^REAP) úúO osia;%slal j, l%shd;aul jQ w;r tu jHdmD;sfha l%shdldrluz w;rg

fuu ish( jHdhduka yuqfõ wo jkúg Y%S ,xldfõ m,;=re lrAudka;h ;=< wmkhk iy foaYsh fj<om, b,lal lrñka uy mrsudK f,i nyq cd;sl iud.ï we;=( foaYsh iud.ïo yd uOH mrsudK foaYSh jHdmdrslfhda fukau foaYSh f.dúyqo ksr; ù isgs;s’ f,dj mqrd olakg ,efnk b;d Wiia .=Kd;aufhka hq;a kejqï m<;=re mrsfNdack m%jK;djla furggo jHdma; ù ;sfnkq olakg ,efí’ ta ksidfjkau Wiia .=Kd;aufhka hq;a kejqï m<;=re i|yd jeä b,a,qula iys; fyd| fj<om,la f,dj mqrdu mj;S' fuh ;sridr ,dNodhs jHdmdrhla f,i mj;ajd .ekSu i|yd ksis f,i jdKsc Whkaj;= l<uKdlrkh lsrSu w;HdjYHhhs’ fï i|yd m,;=re Whka l<uKdlrKh;a m,;=re fnda. j, ldhsl úoHd;aul oekqu;a uqiq lr .;a os.= l,a mj;sk ;dCIKsl jev ms<sfj;a ;sìh hq;=h'

jdKsc m<;=re j.d lsrSugo Kh iyKdOdr iemhsks’

ol=Kq wm%sldfjka f.kajd isgqjk ,o m%:u noaO f,uka Ydlh ^fodvï f.dúm, - osh;,dj&

16


2' jdKsc m,;=re Whka msysgqùu

Whka j;= ixjrAOk jHdmdrfha m%Odk wfmaCIdjka úh hq;=h'

jdKsc m,;=re Whkaj, m%Odk wruqK os.= ld,hla mqrd Wiia .=Kd;aufha m,;=re ksmoùu;a”

jdKSc Whka j;= msysgqùu yd kv;a;= lsrSfuz ls%hdj,sfha ;SrKd;aul mshjr rdYshla we;s nj;a tajd ksis mrsos ksis wjia:dfjzos wkq.ukh l,hq;= nj;a wjOdrKh l, hq;=h' wdlrAYKsh

mrsirfha iu;=,s;;dj /l .ekSu;a” jeä ,dNhla Wmhd .ekSu;ah' jdKsc wruqKq i|yd msysgqjd kv;a;= lrkq ,nk m,;=re Whka idudkH

fmkqula iys; m,;=re Ydl Whka ixjrAOkh lr .ekSu t;ruz wmyiq fkdjQjo M,odhs;djfhka by, m,;=re Ydl Whkla w;am;a lr .ekSu;a

Whkaj;= ixjrAOk l%shdj,shg jvd fnfyúka fjkia fjhs' idudkH Whkaj;= ixjrAOkfha wruqKQ jkafka

tu M,odhs;djh ;sridr f,i mj;ajdf.k hdu;a myiq fyda ir, lghq;a;la f,i jrojd f;areuz fkd.;

wdrA:sl wiajekakla fkdj orAYKsh wdlD;shla msysgqjd .ekSuhs' ri úkaokh i|yd;a” ia:dk wdlrAYksh f,i yev.ekaùu i|yd;a msysgqjk

hq;=h' m,;=re Ydlj, mdrsirsl yd ldhsl ixlSrAK;djh ms,sn|j m%udKj;a wjfndaOhla” fCIa;%fhaoS we;súh yels wfmaCIs; yd wkfmaCIs;

Whkaj;= WoHdk úoHdjg wh;afjhs' mrsfNdackh yd wf,úh i|yd m,;=re ksIamdokh lsrSu Wfoid msysgqjkq ,nk jdKSc m,;=re Whkaj;=

wjodku iy .eg( iy.; ;;a;ajhka ms,sn|j;a wjfndaOhla ish(u jdKsc m,;=re Whka msysgqjk wdfhdaclhka i;=j ;sîu ld,sk wjYH;djhls'

i|yd úfYaI WoHdk úoHd;aul uQ,OrAu yd wdrA:sl wfmaCIdjka uqiq

kuq;a jdKsc m,;=re Whka mssysgqùug m%:u YLH;d wOHhkhla lsrSu fyd| wdrïNhls'

;dCIKhla wkq.ukh l, hq;=h' m,;=re úfYaI j, flá l,la ;=<os Wmrsu M,odhs;djhla ,nd .eksu;a” tu M,odhs;dj ;sridrj os.=l,la

2'1 bvula f;dard .ekSu

mj;ajd f.khdu;a” ksIamdok úhou wju lr ,dNh Wmrsu lr.ekSu;a Wiia .=Kd;aufha m,;=re fj<|m,g

bvula f;dard .ekSu jdKsc m,;=re j.djla msysgqùu i|yd jk ls%hdj,sfha mokuhs' fuu bvu TzkEu lDIs

iemhsu;a iuÛ iudc” wdrA:Sl” ixialD;sl yd mdrsirsl iu;=,s;;dj mj;ajdf.k hdu;a kùk m,;=re

foaY.=Ksl l,dmhl mej;sh yelsh' tfy;a wfmaCIs; m,;=re Whk# wju .eg( ;;a;j a hla hgf;a” wju úhoulska 17


msysgqjd .ekSug iy wvq úhoulska kv;a;= l, yels ia:dkhla f;dard

uQ, moaO;shla ìyslr .ekSu wiSrejk w;r mig tl;=jk wu;r c,h mfia

.ekSu jeo.;ah' fuysos iajNdúl Wj)re ^c, .e,Su‘ kdhhEu‘ wOsl iq,Û wdos& iy jk i;a;aj Wj)re ms,sn| úuid ne,Su wjYH fjhs' tu .eg(

r|d meje;au# Whka md,kfha oeä .eg( we;s lrhs' ta w;r Ydl fmdaIKh )rAj, ùu;a” b;d blaukska wd;;shg m;aùu;a# frda. m,sfndaO úiska uQ,

wju jkfia fyda tajd úiod.; yels Wml%u fhosh yelskuz fyda tu bvu f;dard .ekSu iq)iqh' wdfhdaclhdg md,kh l, fkdyels ndOl wju úh

uKav,h wdl%ukh lsrSu;a iq,N .eg( fjhs’ fuzjd úioSug iuzm;a m%udKhla yd úhoula oerSug is)jkq we;'

hq;=h'

mfia idrj;a nj m%udKj;a whqrk s a

2'1'1' mi

;sîu iq)iq kuq;a tu ;;a;ajh j.d lsrSu i|yd f;dard.kq ,nk m,;=re úfYaI wkqj fjkia jk nj fmfka' b;d idrj;anúka yd f;;ukh m%Yia: whqrska jir mqrdu mj;sk mil j.d l, úg jeä jYfhka YdLd fnoShdu;a# by, wiajekakla ,ndoSug wfmdfydi;a ùu;a# fCIa;%fhaoS ksr;=reju olakg ,efí' YdLd fnoS jefvk m,;=re úfYaI j, mqIam úfNaokh is)ùu i|yd fndfy`úg wd;;s ;;a;ajhla wjYH jk ksid idrj;a mil tajd j.d lsrSfuka tjeks ;;a;ajhla n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh fkdyelsh' fujeks m,;=re úfYaI iajNdúlju jrAOl jrAOkh

.eUqrg úysÿk uq,a moaO;shla

f;dard.;a

bvfï

j.d

lsrSug

m%uqL;ajfha mj;ajdf.k hduo Bg fya;=fjhs' Wod*- wU# rUqgka# ¥rshka# fodvï

wfmaCIs; m,;=re fnda.j,g .e,fmk mila ;sìh hq;=h' fndfyda m,;=re Ydl mq(,aj yd .eUqrg úysfok uQ, moaO;s j,ska hqla;h' tfyhska mfia .eUQr m%udKj;a fkdfõ kï osrsu;a

flfia jqjo t;ruz idrj;a fkdjq bvul ia:dmkh lrkq ,nk m,;=re 18


úfYaI i|yd m%udKj;a mrsos fmdaIl ;;a;ajhla mj;ajd .ksñka mfia

2'1'2' iajdNdúl c, iemhqula fuu f;dard.;a bvug wLKav c, iemhqula ;sìh hq;=h' jdKsc m,;=re

yeisrSu md,kh l, yelsùu ksid fndfyda m,;=re úfYaIj, M,odhs;dj j.dlreg wjYH mrsos yiqrejd .ekSug yelshdj ,efnz’ flfia jqjo idrj;a mila we;s bvul

j.djka i|yd iq)iq .=Kd;aufha c, iemhqula wvq úhoulska ,nd .ekSug yels úh hq;=h' tfukau m,;=re fnda. i|yd c,h iemhsu w;HdjYH

;ks l|lafia jefvk m,;=re úfYaI j,ska úmq, m%fhdack ,nd.; yelsh' Wod* mefmd,a” flfi,a” wkakdis ;ks l|la fia jefvk fnda. j, wiajekak

jk úh<s ld,j,os fuu c, iemhqu m%fhdackhg .ekSug yelsúh hq;=h' jrAId iufhaos jeis c,h tla/ialr úh<s ld,fhaos m%fhdackhg .ekSug

jeälr .ekSsug mfia idrj;a nj jeo.;a jk w;r ta i|yd c,h nei hk t;ruz .eUQre fkdjk mila jqjo

yelsfõ kï jdishls'

m%udKj;a fjz’ mfia wksl=;a fN!;sl” ridhksl yd ffcj úoHd;aul ,CIK j, Wmrsu iSudjka yd mej;sh yels .eg( y"kd .; hq;=h' túg tu .eg( iy.; ;;a;ajhka ksrdlrKh lr .ekSug lghq;= lr fnda.h ia:dmkh l, yelsh' fuu ,CIK j.d lsrSug wfmaCIs; m,;=re fnda.h wkqj muKla ii|d n,d ks.ukh l, hq;=h' mj;skakdjq iSudldrs idOl

j¾Id iufha c,h iajdNdúlj /ia ù we;s ia:dkhla

c, iuzmdok myiqluz rys; jdKsc m,;=re Whklska wfmalaIs; wdrA:sl m%;s,dN bgqlr .eksu w;sYh wiSre yd wjodkuz lghq;a;ls' úYd,

j,g .e,fmk f,i m,;=re úfYaI yd úfYaI j.d rgdjka y"kd .ekSfuka

wdfhdackhla iys; m,;=re Whkaj, M,odhs;dj yd M, j, .=Kd;auh iuzmqrAKfhkau r|d mj;skafka mj;sk ld,.=Ksl ;;a;ajh u; kï th wjdisodhl ;;a;ajhls' túg m,;=re

jqjo iuyr .egMZ idrA:lj úiod .; yelsh'

j.dfõ wiajekak# M, jdrh yd M, 19


j, .+Kd;auh ms,sn| i;==gqodhl f,i weia;fuzka;= l, fkdyelsh'

hq;= ksid;a” tajdfha M,odhs;dj ,nd .ekSug isgqjd jir .Kkdjla .;

túg wfmaCIs; wdrA:sl m%;s,dN fkd,efnk ksid jdKsc m,;=re Whka i|yd c, m%Njhla ;sîu b;d jeo.;a wjYH;djhls'

jk ksid;a fuu bvu wjg l,dmfha wkd.; bvuz mrsfNdack rgdj,g .e,mSï l, hq;=h' kq)re wkd.;fhaoS kd.rsl l,dmhloS iuyrúg bvuz

2'1'3' fmdÿ há;, myiqlï

Wmfhda.S;dj wkqj fjkia wdrA:sl jHdmD;s m%uqL úh yelsh' ke;skuz oekg mj;sk bvfuz Wmfhda.S;dj iuÛ m,;=re Whkla tys msysgqùu

jdKsc

m,;=re

Whka

msysgqùfuzoS

úYd, fCIa;% ixjrAOkhla is)lsrSug is)jk wjia:d olakg ,efí’ tfukau wjYH fhojquz myiqfjka

m,;=re j.djg fyda wjg l,dmhg .eg( we;s lsrSug bv ;sfnz’

imhd .ekSug yelsùu jeo.;ah' m%jdyk myiqluz” ikaksfjzok yd ú),sn, myiqluz” Y%u iemhqu” fj<|m, iuznkaO;dj fyda fj<|

2'2 m,;=re úfYaI yd m%fNao f;dard .ekSu ,dNodhs jHdmdrhla f,i m,;=re Whkla msysgqjd ixjrAOkh lssrSfï wfmaCIdj f;dard.;a bvug yd wod,

iuznkëlrk myiqluz iy ;dCIK fiajd ,nd .ekSfuz myiqluz ms,sn|j iEysulg m;aùug yels úh hq;=h' túg M,odhs;dj jeäoshqKq lssrSu;a”

lDIs foaY.=Ksl l,dmhg jvd;a Wps; iy wdrA:Sl wfmaCIdjkag jvd;a .e,fmk m,;=re fnda. f;dard.ekSu ;SrKd;aul wjia:djls'

ksIamdok úhou wvqlr .ekSu;a” kj;u ;dCIKhka wkqj ksIamdok rgdjka yd M, j, .=Kd;auh wjYH mrsos yiqrejd .ekSu;a myiq jkq we;' th ;sridr m,;=re Whklg uÛ mdokq we;s ksid bvula f;dard

wjYH kuz wdrA:sl m%;s,dN ms,sn| uq,sl wOHhkhlska iy f;dr;=re úYaf,aIKhlska miqj Wmrsu m%;s,dN ,ndoSug iu;a m,;=re úfYaI yd m%fNao f;dard.;af;a kuz tajd i|yd

.ekSfuzos fuu lreKQ i,ld ne,Su iq)iqh'

jvd;a WÑ; lDIs foaY.=Ksl l,dmhl msysá iq)iq bvula f;dard.; yelsh'

2'1'4' bvï mßfNdack ixl+,;d f;dard.kq

,nk

bvu

wjg

fnda. úfYaI yd m%fNao f;dard .eksfuzos Wmrsu wdrA:sl m%;s,dN flás ld,hla ;=<oS ,nd.; yels úfYaI$

mrsirfha bvuz mrsfNdack rgd j,g wkq.; úh yelsùu jeo.;ah' m,;=re fnda. b;d os.= ld,hla mqrd mj;ajd.; 20


m%fNao f;dard.ekSu l, hq;=h' fuu wdrA:Sl m%;s,dN os.= ld,hla mqrd

;sfnz’ hdka;S%lrkh wfmaCId lrkafka kuz Bg .e,fmk m,;=re úfYaI

,nd.; yelskuz jvd;a iq)iq fjhs' flfia jqjo fuu m%fNao ms,sn|j mQrAj w;aoelsuz ,nd we;s j.d lrejkaf.a w;aoelsuz úurAYKh

ms,sn|j hq;=h'

ukd

wjfndaOhla

;sìh

fndfyda wjia:dj,oS m,;=re Whk ls%hdldrS lDIsldrAñl l,dmhla ;=< msysgqjkafka kuz j.d lkakfhaos tu

lsrSu yd Tjqka iuÛ idlpzPd lsrSuo m%fhdackj;a jkq we;' tfukau fj<|m, w;S; yd jrA;udk b,a¨u;a” wkd.; m%lafIamKh;a ,ndf.k

l,dmfha wksl=;a fnda. i|yd ^Wod* ú” t<jMZ& jeä Y%u iemhqula fhdok úg m,;=re Whk kv;a;=j i|yd m%udKj;a Y%u iemhqula fkd,eî hd

úYaf,aIKh l, hq;=h' fj<|mf,a tu ksIamdok fhdod.kq ,nkafka l=uk wjYH;djhla i|yd o ^kejquz

yelsh' fj<|mf,a úfYaI jdis w;alr .ekSu i|yd iq)iq m,;=re úfYaI yd m%fNao ;sfnz’ m,;=re jdrhg

m,;=rla f,i fyda wdydr ieliquz lrAudka;hla f,i fyda w.h jeälrk ksmehquz i|yd& hkak úuid ne,Sfuka wkd.; úNjh ms,sn|

fmr fyda wjdrfhaos M,ork m%fNao ;sfnz’ iuyr úg YIH úoHd;aul fyda ridhksl l%u uÛska wjdrhg M, ksIamdokh fyda wiajekak fk,d

wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yelsh' fj<|mf,a iemhquz lrejka” wf,úlrejka” lrAudka;lrejka” wmkhklrejka iy wdkhklrejka iuÛ woyia yqjudre

fkdf.k .i ;=<u os.= ld,hla mj;ajdf.k hdu fyda l, yels m%fNao ms<sn|j úuid ne,su o j.dlrejdg jdis iy.; ;;a;ajhla we;s lrkq we;'

lsrSu ta i|yd odhljkq we;' m,;=re fnda. úfYaI f;dard .ekSfuzos fuu wdfhdack iSudj yd m%;s,dNo ii|d ne,sh hq;=h' tfukau f.dúm, fhojquz iq,N;dj yd iSudluz o ñg iuznkaO lrñka fnda. f;dard.ekSu

tfiau m%fNao f;dard .ekSfuzos wl%uj;aj M,orK m%fNao kuz jir .Kkdjlg jrla by, wiajekakla fokq we;' tu m%fNao fhdod .ekSu kqiq)iqh' yels;rï myiqfjka u,a yg.ekaùu

iq)iqh' iuyr m,;=re fnda. i|yd jeä Y%u iemhqu wjYH;djh .eg( iy.; ;;a;ajhla f,i ;sìh yelsh'

l, yels m%fNao f;dard .ekSu iq)iqh' l%udkql=,j jdrfhka jdrhg M, orK m%fjzKsl ,CIK iys;

túg m,;=re j.dj ldrAHCIuj kv;a;= lr .ekSfuz .eg( mek ke.Sfuka t,odhs;dj ì| jeàug bv 21


m%fNao j.d lsrSu i|yd f;dard.; hq;=h' wjodkuz iys; kj;u

udrAf.damfoaY” wfmaCIs; wjodku yd wjodku wju lsru S i|yd fhdacs;

m%fNao jdKsc m,;=re Whka i|yd fhdod .ekSu m%fjzYfuka l, hq;=h'

mshjr iuÛ m,;=re Whk mrsmd,kh yd kv;a;= lsrSfuz jHqyh we;=,;a úh hq;=h'

2'3 jHdmD;s ie,eiau

m,;=re Whka msysgqùfuz l%shdldrluz j,g we;=,;a jkafka bvu ixjrAOkh” hgs;, myiqluz yªkd .ekSu ^jeg” uxudj;a” .nvd” ldrAhd,” c,dY& yd ixjrAOk Wml%u” frdamK øjH iy fhojquz imhd .ekSu” fCIa;% ixjrAOk hkaf;%damlKk” flduzfmdaiagz ksIamdokh” wjYH fhojquz” .nvd lsrSu wdosh;a fï ie,iquz j,g we;=,;a flfrA' wjYH uq( fhojquz ms,sn| ,ehsia;=jla l,a we;=ju ilia lr W!K;d yd wjYH;d ms<sn| weia;fuzka;=jla o we;=,;a l, hq;=h' túg tajdg ms,shï

j.d lsrSug iq)iq m,;=re úfYaI yd m%fNao iuÛ bvuo f;dard.;a miq

lsrSsu myiqfjhs'

j.d rgdj iy ls%hdldrS ie,eiau we;=,;a jHdmD;s ie,eiau ilialr

frdamK øjH ms<sn| wjYH m%ñ;Ska ie,eiau ;=< i|yka úh hq;=h' fuz

.; hq;=h' fuu jHdmD;s ie,eiaug jdKSc m,;=re Whka msysgqùu”

ioyd m%fNaoh;a Bg wod, .%dyl úfYaIh;a meyeos,sj i|yka lsrSfuka

ixjrAOkh iy kv;a;=j ms,sn| ish( jeo.;a mshjrhka” jk ;dCIKsl ksrAfoaY” ls%hdldrluz” fN!;sl b,lal yd úhouz” weia;fuzka;=j” wfmaCIs; wiajekak yd th ,efnk

wkd.;fhaoS we;súh yels úúO wjodkuz ;;a;aj uÛyrjd .; yelsh' f;dard.;a bvug yd th msysá lDIs foaY.=K l,dmhg jvd;a WÑ; .%dyl iys; noaO lrk ,o m%fNao y"kd.;

ld,jljdkqj” wf,ú lsrSfuz ie,eiau yd l%ufjzo” fj,|mf,a wjYH iuzm;a” NdKav” øjH yd hka;% iq;% ;dCIKsl

hq;=h' ñás .ila ilialr .;aúg# os.= úh<s ld,hlg” wêl jrAIdjg fyda oeä iq<x yeóug j.dj Tfrd;a;= 22


fohs' frda. m,sfndaO j,g Tfrd;a;= fok .%dyl úfYaI iys; noaO me,

fjk fjku we;=,;a lsrSfuka m,;=re Whk ,dNodhs f,i mj;ajd f.k

f;dard .; hq;=h' yels;dla ksrAfoaYs; .%dyl u;g noaO lrk ,o yd .=Kd;auh iy;sl lrk ,o noaO me, ,nd.ekSug ie,iquz l, hq;=h' fuu

hdu i|yd iq)iq mshjr ksrAKh l< yelsh' úhouz wvq lsrSfuka yd wdodhu jeä lsrSu i|ydo fuu weia;fuzka;=j m%fhdackj;a fjk w;r th uq(

noaO me, ,nd.; yels ia:dk yd ,nd .ekSfuz ld, jljdkqjo yªkd .; hq;=h'

jHdmD;shu ls%hd;aul lsrSu i|yd wjYHjk uq,H iSsudjka fmkajd fohs'

2'6 há;, myiqlï ixj¾Okh

2'4 fnda. msysgùfï fCIa;% ie,eiau jHdmD;s ie,eiau ;=<g wka;rA .;l, hq;= b;du jeo.;a wx.hla kuz

m<uqj y"kd.;a há;, myiqluz wju úhoulska msysgq ùug ls%hd l, hq;=h' fuyso b;d ixlsrAK jHqyhka

fCIa;%fha fnda. msysgqùfuz ie,eiauhs' f;dard.;a m,;=re m%fNao fCIa;%fha isgqùfuz mr;rh iy rgdjka” fnda. lsysmhla iuld,Skj fCIa;%hlg

boslsrSug jvd ir, wjYH;djhg m%udKj;a jHqyhkaa muKla boslr .ekSu WÑ;h' tfukau tajd m,;=re Whfka ia:dk.; l, hq;af;a

we;=( lsrSfuz ie,eiau wdosh b;du m%fjzYfuka is)l, hq;=h'

wkd.;fha we;sjk wjYH;djhkag myiqfjka Ndú;hg .; yelsjk mrsos;a” m,;=re Whk iuznkaOj yd mrsmd,k lghq;= j,g myiqjk mrsos;a

fnda. rgdj# bvfuz msysàu” N=úIu;d yd hdka;%Slrk ie,iqï wdosh wkqj fnda. isgqùfuz fCIa;% ie,iqï l,

yd kv;a;= úhou wju jk wdldrhg m%dfoaYSh jYfhka ,nd.; yels

hq;=h' úfYaI kv;a;= iy m%;sldr wjYH kuz ta ms,sn|j m%ldYhlao we;=<;a l, yelsh'

wuq øjH yels;ruz )rg fhdod .ekSfuka tu jHqyhka kv;a;=j wvq úhoulska bgqlr .; yelsh'

2'5 wdodhï úhoï weia;fïka;=j

.nvd wdosh bosl, hq;af;a ksIamdok

iúia;rd;aul wdodhï yd úhouz weia;fïka;=jla” we;=,;a úh hq;=h' úhouz weia;fïka;=jg uq,sl úhou

øjH ^b;d myiqfjka krlajk m,;=re& iy fhojquz .nvd lsrSug m%udKj;a myiqluz fjk fjku ,efnk mrsosh'

fukau m,;=re WoHdkh kv;a;=jg hk jdrAIsl úhouzo we;=<;a úh hq;=h' wfmaCIs; wdodhu jdrAIslj

úfYaIfhka ridhksl øjH .nvd msysgqùfuzos ksis m%ñ;sh ms<sn|j ie,ls,su;a úh hq;=h' 23


úYd, jdKsc m,;=re Whkla i|yd m%udKj;a mrsmd,k myiqluz

l%uhla mssysgqjd .ekSug mshjr .ekSu iq)iqh' ta ms<sn|j ;SrK .ekSfuka

boslsrSuo m%fh`ckj;a fjhs' jdrA;d tla/ia lsrSu” mrs.Kl o;a; .nvdj” m,;=re Whfka YIH úoHd;aul kv;a;= ld, igyka yd ksrAfoaY mj;ajdf.k

miqj c, .nvd gexls wdos uq,sl myiqqluz boslr .ekSug mq(jk' m,;=re Whka kv;a;= lghq;= i|yd udrA. moaO;sh ixjrAOkh lr .ekSug wjYH fjz' hkaf;%damlrk

hdu jHdmdrsl lghq;= iïnkaOSlrKh yd iuzuka;%K meje;aùu wdoS lghq;= i|yd fuu myiqluz wjYH fjhs' fuz iuÛu wjYH ú),sh yd ikaksfjzok jkq

j,g .e,fmk mrsos;a m,;=re j.dfjz wjYH;dj wkqj;a fuu moaO;sh boslr.; hq;=h' wêsl úhouz hk udrA. ixjrAOkhka fkdl,hq;=

c, iuzmdok myiqluz boslr .ekSug fuz wjia:dfjzu mshjr .; hq;=h'

kuq;a wju kv;a;=jlska os.= ld,hla mqrd mj;ajdf.k hd yels mrsos tajd ilialr .; hq;=h' úfYaIfhka

fuysoS m,=;=re m%fNao” fnda. rgdj# mdxY= yd N+ úIu;d ;;a;ajh wdoS lreKq i,ld n,d jvd;a ldrACIuj yd kv;a;= úhou wju c, iuzmdok

m,;=re Whfka ndysr iSudj jgdu udrA.hla ;sîfuka j.dj mrsCId lsrsu” kv;a;= lsrSu yd wdrCId lsrSfuz myiqj ,efnz’

myiqluz we;'

ixjrAOkho

wjYH

24


N+ñfha wmjyk c,h flá udrA. moaO;shla uÛska N+ñfhka bj;a

2'7 N+ñh iqodkï lssrsu uQ,slj bvu msrsis) lsrSu;a iuÛu wdrCIs; jeg boslsrSug lghq;=

lsrSug ie,iquz lrk w;r;=frAoSu mi ;=<g c,h ldka)úug jeä wjia:djla ,nd osug mshjr .; hq;=h'

flfrAA# wdrCIs; jefgz ;;a;ajh yd m%ñ;sh j.djg fhduq ù we;s wjodku yd wjYH;dj wkqj ksrAKh l, yelsh' cSù jegla fuz i|yd jvd;a

;jo WÑs; mdxY= ixrCIK Wml%u m%udKj;a ;rñka boslsrSu jeo.;a jkafka fndfyda m,;=re fnda. mdxY+ ixrCIKh je,elaùu i|yd t;ruz

fhda.H fjhs' jeg boslsrSu yd N+ñh msrsis) lsrSu iuzmqrAK jq miqj N+ñfha udhsu# N+úIu;dj” ndOl iïnkaO .egMZ” c, iuzmdokh yd c, wmjyk

odhl;ajhla fkdolajk fyhsks' fuysoS bvfuz nejqu” ;Sj%;dj iuÛu m,;=re m%fNao isgqùug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk

wjYH;d wdosh ms,sn|j wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yelsh' fuu N=ñhg udhsug msg;ska .,dú;a N+ñhg we;=( jk

mr;rhka ms,sn|jo i,ld ne,sfuka WÑ; mdxY= ixrCIK jev ms,sfj,la iuÛu fnda. m%;sia:dmkhla is)lr .; yelsh'

oshmyr fyda wmOd c,h md,kh lsrSug ie,eiquz l,hq;=h' ta iuÛu

25


m%fhdackj;ah' t;ruz oeä fkdjq mila ;sfnz kuz j,l os. m<, yd

2'8 N+ñh ieliSu jDlaI ,;d rys; uqvqìula kuz N=ñh msrsis) lsrSula t;ruz wjYH fkdfjz’

.eUqr fi'uS' 60 olajd m%udKj;a jqjo” ;| fndr( iys; mila ;sfnz kuz tu m%udKh ógrh olajd jeäl, hq;=h' úYd, j,la ;=< isgqjkq ,nk

kuq;a le,Ejla kuz ish( wkjYH .ia bj;a lsrSsu wjYH fjhs' nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re fnda. i|yd wjYH ysre t,sh iy bvlv ,nd.ekSu

me< j, jrAOkh fjz.j;a jk w;r tajd mDIaGsu;a yd osrsu;a Ydl njg blaukskau m;afjz’ úYd, mrsudKfha m,;=re Whka msysgqùfuzos hka;%

i|yd N+ñfha wksl=;a ish( .ia je,a bj;a lsrSu wjYHhs' tu bj;a lrk fldgia flduzfmdaiagz ksmoùu i|yd fhdod .ekSug ie,iquz l, hq;=h' fuz

Wmfhda.s lrf.k j,j,a ilia lr .; yelsh'

wjia:dfjzos me, ie,iaula ^Planting

me< isgqùug fmr tu j,j,a ;=<g j, lemsfuzoS fjka lr.;a u;=msg

Board) tlla Ndú;d lr me, isgqjk ia:dkh ksjerosj ie,iquz lr .; hq;=h'

mia ish,a, iuÛ wvla muK msfrk fia flduzfmdaaiagz fhdod mqqrjd ish,a, ñY% lr mqrjd wjidk l, hq;=h'

me, isgqùu i|yd j,j,a lemsfuzoS u;=msg mia fjku tla/ialr .ekSu

ifudap wdldrhg ilia l, nEjqï iys; N+ñshla

26


2'8'1 me< ie,iqula ^Planting Board) Ndú;h me< ie,eiaula (Planting Board) Ndú;d lrñka m,;=re Whfka ish( me, isgqjk ia:dk ksjerosj i,l=kq lr.; yelsh' fuu ,E,af,a V yeve;s lemqu iys; ia:dkh me,h isgqjk ia:dkhg iumd; lr ,e,af,a fomi fl,jr fofla l=[a[ iúlr ,e,a, bj;a lrkak' fuz wdldrhg uq( N+ñfhau me, isgqjk ksjeros ia:dk ,l=Kq lr

kej;;a fuu ,E,a, tys ;nd me,h isgqúh hq;= ksjeros ia:dkh yªkdf.k me< isgqúh hq;=h ’ j, msrjQ miq mi u;= msgg jvd by,ska mia f.dvla fiaa osiaúh hq;=h' foi;shla muK fufia ;sîug bv yerSfuka j, ;=< ys;lr ridhksl” fN!;sl yd ffcj úoHd;aul idOl ukd f,i jeä oshqKq ù me,j, jrAOkhg ys;lr mrsirhla mi ;=, f.dv kef.hs' me, isgqúug osk 3-4lg

j,j,a lmd .ekSug lghq;= lrkak' j,j,a lemsfuzos ,E,af,a fol,jr ìug iúl, l=[a[ bj;a fkdlsrSug

fmr ksrAfoaYs; ridhksl fmdfydr ñY%Khla wjYHjk m%udKj,g fhdod mig ñY%lr ;nkak' bkamiq

j. n,d.; hq;= w;r me, isgqúfuzos

me, isgqúh yelsh'

Planting Board ieliSu

Planting Board tl uÕska i<l=Kq l< ia:dkj, me< isgqùu 27


2'9 fldïfmdaiaÜ ksIamdokh hq;=h' f;`rd.kakd ,o m%fNaoj, fyd|ska jevqkq ksfrda.S noaO me< b;d fhda.H fjz’ fnda. ie,eiaug wkqj

m,;=re j.dfjz ;sridr ixjrAOkhla yd t,odhs;djhla i|yd m%udKj;a ;ruzz fldïfmdaiaÜ fhosu ksrAfoaY flfrA' fïjd mrsndysrj ñ,os .ekSu wOsl úhouz iys; lghq;a;la fjhs' tfyhska j.dj ;=<osu

wod, lDIs foaY.=Ksl l,dmhg yd f;dard.;a bvug WÑ; m%fNao f;dard.;a miq tajdfha Wiia frdamK øjH úYajdijka; me< ;jdklska

flduzfmdaiagz ksmojd .ekSfuz wLKav jevms,sfj,la wdruzNfhaosu ilia lr.; yelsh' fuz i|yd wjYH jk Ydl øjH ,nd.ekSu i|yd

,nd.; hq;=h' .=Kd;auh iy;sl lrk ,o frdamK øjH jvd;a fhda.H nj wjOdrKh flfrA'

jeg udhsuz j, .a,srsisähd jeks fld, fmdfydr ,ndfok fn`. isgqúu m,;=re Whk wdruzNfhaosu

lDIsl¾u fomd¾;fïka;=fõ ks¾foaYs; m%fNao me, ;jdfkaoSu me<fha yevh mqyqKq lsrSu wrUk ,o noaO me< f;dard

is)l, hq;=h’ Whfka tla tla fldgig wjYH flduzfmdaiagz tu fldgi ;=<osu ksmojd .ekSug lghq;= l, yelsh' flduzfmdaiagz jeäoshqKq

.ekSu iq)iqh' iq)iq wjia:dj,oS ìc me<# f,ahrA me< iy uq,a weoaojq w;= me< ,nd.; yels kuq;a fndfyda ckms%h m%Odk m,;=re m%fNao j, noaO

lsrSu i|yd oyhshd w(# fyd|ska osrd .sh ,S l=vq wdosh ,ndf.k .nvd lr .ekSug lghq;= l, hq;=h'

me< isgqùu iq)iqh' .%dylfhka rsls,s ìysùug bv fkdosh hq;= w;r ksr;=reju Ma iuznkaOfhka wjOdkfhka isàu jeo.;ah' <mgs me< j,g je,fok frda.” m,sfndaO ksis wjia:dfjzoS urAOkh lsrSu uÛska

fuz uÛska M, ork m,;=re Ydl i|yd Wps; jk mrsos flduzfmdaiagz j, fmdaIK .+Kh fjkialr .; yelsh' m%dfoaYSh jYfhka ,nd.; yels wuqøjH wju úhoulska tla/ia lsrSug lghq;= l, hq;=h'

me,j, fyd| jrAOkhla ,nd.; yelsh' me< ;jdfkka m%jdykh lrk ,o noaO me< tlajru fCIa;%fha

2'10 frdamK øjH ,nd.eksu

isgqùu fkdl, hq;=h' tajd i;shla muK u| ysre t<shg ksrdjrKh lr mrsirhg yqre lsrSu fhda.H fjz’

m,;=re Whk mssysgqùu i|yd Wiia .=Kd;aufha noaO me< ,nd .ekSug yels ieu wjia:djloSu lghq;= l, 28


29


fmรœรก wU 30


31


2'10'1 iup;=rY%dldr l%uh

2'10 Ydl fCIa;%fha isgqùfï rgdj

(Square System)

m,;=re Whkl isgqjk ,o m%fNao

fma,s j,g me< isgqjk w;r fma,s folla w;ro” fma,s ;=<o” me, w;ro ;sìh hq;= )r iudkh'

blaukska jrAOkh ù os.= ld,hla mqrd Yla;su;aj wdrA:Sl wiajekakla ,ndoSug iu;a úh hq;=h' nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re m%fNao w;rska úfYaIfhka YdLd fnos jefvk úfYaI i|yd m%udKj;a bvlv imhdosh hq;= w;r tuÛska .fika .ig bvlv# ysret<sh” fmdaIl iy c,h i|yd we;sjk ;rÛldrS nj wvq lr.; yelsh’ tfukaau Ydl w;rg jd;dY%h yd ysret<sh m%udKj;a f,i ksr;=reju ,eîu ksid CIqø mrsirhla ksrAudKh ùfuz wjia:dj wju lr,Sfuka frda. m,sfndaO we;sùfuz

fuu l%uhg me< isgqùfuzoS N+ñ tallhl isgqúh yels me< ixLHdj

wjodku wvq lr.; yelsh' tu.ska jeä wiajekakla iy M,fha .=Kd;auh jeäùuo wfmaCId l, yelsh'

wvqh' nyqjdrAIsl m,;=re m%fNao j, miq ld,hloS tlsfkl .eàug bv ;sfnk ksid wiajekakg n,mEula

m,;=re m%fNao isgqùu i|yd ckms%h rgdjka lsysmhla ;sfnz' ksIamdok

we;súh yelsh' tfyhska ukd lmamd) l%uhla ksis wdldrhg wkq.ukh l,

ie,eiau wkqj yd fnda. ixl,khka wkqj bvug jvd;a fhda.H rgdjkag wkqj isgqùu i|yd i,l=Kq lr.ekSug wjYH fjz’

hq;=h'

2'10'2 iDcqfldaKdi%dldr l%uh (Rectangular System)

ksYaÑ; rgdjka wkqj me< isgqùfuzoS j.dj i|yd wjYH jk me< ixLHdj

iDcqqfldaKdi%dldr l%uhg me< isgqùfuzoS iup;=ri%dldr l%uhg

kSrAKh lr .ekSug yelsùu ksid ish( úhouz yd wdodhuz weia;fuzka;= lsrSu myiqfjhs' tfiau N+ñfha M,odhs;djo jeälr .ekSug bv

jvd fjkia jkafka fma,s fol w;r mr;rh fma,sh ;=< me, folla w;r mr;rhg jvd jeä ùfuks' fma,s w;r mr;rh jeä ksid hka;% iq;% Ndú;h myiqfjhs' fma,s yd me< w;r

ie,fihs' 32


iDcqfldaKdi%h ,nd.ekSug l%uh wkq.ukh l, yelsh'

3-4-5

wiajekakla ,nd.; yels fuu isgqùfuz rgdj i|yd blauka M,ork m%fNao

^iDcqfldaKS ;s%fldaKhl mdo 3-4-5 hk os.ska hqla; úu&

fhdod.kq ,efí' jeäl,la fkdmj;sk m%fNaohla Quincunx ys ueo fma,sh i|yd fhdod.; yelsh' miq lf,l .ia w;r ;rÛZldrS nj jeäjk úg ue| fma,sh bj;al, yelsh' fuu l%uhg iup;=rY%dldr l%uhg jvd fo.=Khla me, tlu N+ñ tallhl isgqúh yelsh'

2'10'4 ;s%fldaKdldr l%uh (Triangular Systam) N+ñ tallhl isgqúh yels me< .Kk wjYH;dj mrsos iSre udre lr .ekSug fuu mr;rhka fjkia lr.; yelsh'

fma,s folla w;r mr;rhg iudk )rla fma,s ;=< me< folla w;rg ,ndfoñka tla fma,shl me< folla w;r B,Û fma,sfha me<h ia:dk .;jk fia ;s%fldaKdldr rgdjlg

2.10.3 Quincunx System

i,l=Kq lrkq ,efnz’ fuu rgdfjzoS Quincunx l%uhg jvd ;rula wvq me< ixLHdjla N+ñ tallhg isgqúh yelsh'

fuu rgdj jvd iqCIu l%uhla jk w;r me< w;r mr;rh idfmaCIj wvq ksid N+ñ tallhlg isgqúh yels me, .Kk by,h' fma,s folla w;r mr;rh fma,s ;=< me< folla w;r mr;rfhka wvla f,i ksrAkh flfrAA'

fï fma,sfha me< folla w;rg B<Û fma,sfha me<hla neÛska ia:dk .;jk fia ie,iquz flfrA’ jeä 33


2'10'5 Hexagonal System

ta ksid fma,s folla w;r mr;rh

fuysos me, folla w;r mr;rh iEu osYdjlgu iudk jk w;r hdno fma,sfha me, folla w;rg B,Û fma,sfha me,h ia:dk.; flfrA'

fma,h ;=< we;s me, folla w;r mr;rhg jvd wvqfjhs' fuu l%ufhaos iup;=rY% l%ufhaosg jvd ishhg 15%]muK jeä me, m%udKhla N+ñ tallhl isgqúh yelsh' jvd;a fhda.H isgqúfuz rgdj f;dard .;a miq fylaghdrhlg wjYH me, ixLHdj kSrAKh l, hq;=h' fylaghdrhlg wjYH me, .kk ksrAKh lsrSu me,isgqúu i|yd Ndú; jk mr;rhka wkqj ;srKh fjhs'

tl me,hlg wjYH N+ñ m%udkh ^x&

=

fma,s folla w;r mr;rh x me, fol w;r mr;rh

fma,sh ;=< me, folla w;rh x kï fyla* 1g wjYH me, .Kk fylaghdr 1la

=

10#000 jrA. ógrA

wjYH me, .Kk

=

10#000$x

óg wu;rj me, isgqúu i|yd fuu uq( me, wjYH;djhg ;j 10% la tl;= l, hq;=h'

2'10'6 idudkHfhka Ndú;d lrkq ,nk mr;rhka

flfia

jqjo

me,

isgqjkq

,nk

mr;rhka wkqj kv;a;= l%ufjzohka ie,eiquz l, hq;=fjz’ ióm mr;rhka wkqj me, isgjQ úg b;d flgs ld,hloSs Ydl úhk ,xú wkjYH f,i fijk

m,;=re m%fNao fCI;%fha isgqúu i|yd mr;rhka ia:djr w.hka fkdúh hq;= w;r tajd mokuz lrf.k

we;súh yels ksid lmamd) l%u wkq. ukh lsrSu ms<sn|j ie,iqula ;sìh hq;=h'

wod, bvfuz fnda. rgdj yd m,;=re Whk kv;a;= lsrSfuz ie,eiaug .e,fmk wldrh ksrAKh lsrSu iq)iqh' 34


j.=j * m,;=re m%fNao isgqúu i|yd iq)iq idudkH mr;rhka

m,;=re fnda.

m%fNaoh

l

ú,dvz# TOM EJC wksl=;a m%fNao

l

u,ajdk jrKh#

l

ue,hka r;= ue,hka ly

l

wU

rUqgka

l

l

wkakdis

mefmd,a

)rshka meKsfodvuz cukdrx foys

fmar

ú,dâ 10 x 7 m wfkla m%fNao 8-10 x 8-10 m 8-10 x 8-10 m

l

yEia# >rAfgz# nQ;a 7

l

gjrA 2

l l

uqreis# lsú

l

r;ak

l

frvz f,aä

l

liqka

l

wU;ekak jrKh

l

ish(u m%fNao

l

uOq

l

foaYSh fldkav

l

fudrKrd., foaYSh

5 - 6 x 5-6 m

l

ldka;s mqnq) nexfldla chkagz

4-5 x 4-5 m

l

w,s.eg fmar

idudkH mr;rh

l

l l

6.5 - 8 x 8 m

;ks fma,s 1.5 x 0.30 -0.45 m fofma,s 1.5 x 0.6 x 0.30 - 60m

2-3 x 2.5 m

8x8m 5 - 6 x 5-6 m 5 - 6 x 5-6 m

35


WoHdkfha kv;a;=j myiq lrhs' Planting Board tl wod, l=[a[ w;r r|jd tys V yeve;s lemqu ;=<ska wjYH l=vd j,la ilid ta ;=, me<h

2'11 me< isgùu i|yd iqÿiq ld,h fndfydauhla m,;=re m%fNao j, me< jrAId iufhaoS isgqjk úg úúO .eg( j,g Ndckh fjhs' jrAId iufhaoS mfia f;;ukh úYd, f,i by, f.dia mfia wka;rA.; jd; wjldY c,fhka msrShdu is)fjhs‘

isgqjkq ,efnz’

2'13 w;=re fnda. j.dj (Intercropping)

jd;fha wdrAø;djho idfmaCIj by, hk w;r f;;a mrsirhla we;s fjhs' osjd ld,fhaoS jeis nrjq j,dl=( msrS we;s fyhska kjl me< j,g jeãug

m,;=re WoHdk msysg jq uq,a ld,fha myiqfjkau lkak fnda. ^t<j(# OdkH fnda. yd rks, fnda. wdosh& j.dl, yels úh' ta i|yd N+ñh iïmqrAKfhkau j,a me<egs j,ska f;dr l, hq;= w;r m,;=re me< isgqùug N+ñh ieliSfïoS

wjYH ysre t<sh iSud fjhs' f;;a iys; ;;a;ajh ksid frda. m,sfn`O we;sùug we;s yelshdj by, hk w;r

iS iEu lr uÜgï lr.; hq;=h'

úfYaIfhka uQ, uKav,h fr`. ldrl j, wdl%uKhg Ndckh fjhs' m;% ye,Shdfuz wjodku jeäùu;a” <mgs m;% yd w.%ia: wxl=r j,go frda.

w;=re fnda. i|yd fjk;a flgsld,sSk m,;=re fnda. jqjo isgqúh yels kuq;a ta i|yd m,;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lsrSfïoS isgqùug ie,iqï lrk ,o m%Odk m,;=re m%fNaohg .e,fmk w;=re fnda. m%fNao y"kd.; hq;=h' w;=re fnda. j.dj m,;=re WoHdkhl m<uq jir 2-3 ;=<os b;d m%fhdackj;a fjhs' tuÛska wu;r wdodhula Wmhd

m,sfndaO ydks jeä ùu iq,N fjhs' iuia:hla f,i .;a l, os.=l,la mj;sk fudaiuz jrAId iufhaoS mfia f;;ukh os.=l,la mqrd ,eîu yer wksl=;a mdrsirsl idOl fndfyda m,;=re m%fNaoj, <mgs noaO me< j,g

.ekSug wu;rj w;=re fnda.hg lrkq ,nk m%;slrAu ksid m%Odk m,;=re fnda.hg ys;lr mrsirhla

wys;lr f,i n,mdhs' f;;ukho wkjYH f,i jeä ù ;sîu .eg(jla fjhs'

ksrAudKh ùfuka tys jrAOkho fõ.j;a fjhs' flfia jqjo frda. m,sfndaO .eg( ms<sn|j;a fmdaIKh ms<sn|j;a m%udKj;a wjOdkhla fhduq lsrSu jeo.;ah'

2'12 me, isgqùu i,l=Kq lrk ia:dkhkaysu me< isgqùfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha fma,s yd me< w;r mr;rhka l%udkql+,j yd ksjerosj ,nd.; yelsh' th m,;=re 36


3' m%Yia: t,odjla ,eîu cSú;h csj;a lrùug m,;=re w;HdjYH ke;’ tfy;a tu cSú;h iqkaor# jrAKj;a fukau usysrs lsrSug;a” m,;=re j,g wm%udK yelshdjla ;sfnz’ tfukau m,;=re” wrA:j;a lrhs’ th uqo,a idrA:l jHdmdrhla o fjhs'

csú;h Wmhk

fyd| m,;=re wiajekakla ,nd .ekSug isgqùu muKla m%udKj;a fkdjk nj wjfndaO lr.; hq;=h' wfkl=;a fnda.j,g jvd fndfydauhla m,;=re fnda. fjkia jkafka tfyhsks’ ksfrda.S ireidr m,;=re .ila hkq wksjdrAfhkau Wmrsu M,odjla ,ndfok m,;=re .ila fkdjkafka ta ksidh’ ireidr t<j( fyda u,a me< wksjdrAfhkau ireidr M,odjla ,ndfohs’ kuq;a ireidr wU .ila fyda fodvuz .ila hkq Wmrsu M,odjla ,ndfok wU .ila fyda fodvuz .ila

fyd| m%;sm, ,ndosug ue,sjk nj fmfka’

úúO m,;=re fnda. j, m%Yia: wiajekakla ,nd.eksu i|yd ,ndosh hq;= mdrsirsl yd kv;a;= ;;a;ajhka

mefmd,a" wkakdis" flfi,a jeäukla wjYH jkafka fkd. eUqre idrj;a mils' ksr;=re mfia mj;sk f;;ukh yd fyd|ska ,efnk ysret<sh fkdlvjd ,nd fokafka kuz fuz fnda. b;d irejg jeã blaukska M, orkq we;’ túg tu M, j, fyd|ska hqI msfrkq we;s w;r” ysret<sh ksid ukd jrAKhlao we;s fjhs’ mfia c,h r|d mej;Su fuu fnda. j,g b;d wys;lr njo f;areuz .; hq;=h’ fuz ksid j.djg bvula f;dark úgoS f;dard.;a bvfuz we;s ;;a;ajhkag .e,fmk f,io fuu fnda. i|yd bvlv ,ndosh hq;=h’ bvfuz

ùu \q,N is\qùuls'

ksrka;rfhka idudkH f;;ukhla /fok idrj;au fldgi ;=< fuu

m,;=re Whfka ;;a;ajh m,;=re j.djlg b;du iq)iq jqjo fndfydaúg

fnda. j.d lsrSfuka jeã wiajekakla ,nd.; yelsh’

Wmrsu m,;=re wiajekaklg iq)iq fkdúh yel' fndfydaúg w;= fnfok .ia iys; m,;=re fnda. j,g fuz ;;a;ajh i;Hhls' w;= fkdfnfok m,;=rla f,i ie,flk mefmd,a” wkakdis” flfi,a jeks fnda. m%udKj;a wiajekakla ,ndfokq we;s kuq;a w;= fnfok .ia iys; m,;=re fnda. tfia

ksis f,i j.d lrk ,o j.djla

37


rUqgka" ¥rshka" uex.=iaáka" w,sfmar

idrj;a mil isgqjk ,o rUqgka j.djla

wU fï fnda. j,g b;d idrj;a .eUQre mila wjYH jk w;r” mfia fyd| ;;a;ajfhka f;;ukh /l .; hq;=h’ tfukau b;d oeä ysret<sh fuu fnda.j,g ys;lr fkdfjz’ tkuq) .eUQre uq, moaO;shla we;s ksid mfia f;;ukh ysÛ ld,j,oS jqjo t;ruz .egMZ we;s fkdfjk w;r” iq( isis,a úh<s ;;a;ajhlska fuz fnda. j, u,a M, yg.ekSug W;af;ackh fjhs’ ta ksid .eUQre mila we;s t;ruz úh<Sulg Ndckh fkdjk” c,hg hg fkdjk idrj;a bvuz fldgi fuz fnda. i|yd fhdojd .ekSu iq)iqh’ fuz fnda. wys;lr ;;a;aj j,g Tfrd;a;= fkdfok nj jgyd .; hq;=h’

38

b;d oeä mrsir ;;a;aj j,g Ndckh jq úg idrA:lj u,a yd f.ä yg.kS’ b;d úh<s ;;a;aj j,g fyd|ska Tfrd;a;= fok wU .fia Yla;su;a .eUQre uq, moaO;shla ;sfnz’ fuz ksid .eUQre mila iys; jqo úh<s ld,hlg Ndckh jqo t;ruz ire fkdjqo” bvuz fldgi wU i|yd fhdod .; yelsh’ wU fnda.h f;;a iys; idrj;a ìul j.d l,úg b;d Yla;su;a f,i .i jefvk w;r” u,a M, yg.ekSu mudùsu fyda b;d widrA:l f,i úáka úg u,a fmdl=re lsysmhla muKla yg .ekSu is)fjhs’ mfia f;;ukh jeä ;ekl wU j.d l,úg jir mqrdu o( ouñka jefvk w;r” u,a M, yg.ekSu idrA:lj is) fkdfjz’ ta ksid wU j.d


lsrSug jifrA udi lsysmhla úh<s njg m;afjk N+ñ Nd.hla fhdod.; hq;=h’

me`.srs fnda. idrj;a yd f;;ukh r|d mj;sk mila fodvuz” cukdrx” foys” jeks meÛZsrs fnda. isgqùug iq)iq ke;' tjeks ia:dk j, we;s .ia jir mqrdu irejg jefvk w;r” wU .iaj, is)jk wdldrfhkau u,a M, yg.ekSu mudfjhs’ ke;skuz wl%uj;a fjhs’

fmar fï i|yd ´kEu mila yd mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhla iq)iq jqjo fyd| ysre t<shla yd i;=gqodhl mfia f;;ukhla mj;ajd.; kuz fuu f.ä fyd|ska jrAOkh oeä ysret<sh yd idfmaCIj mi

f,i yels fjhs’ úh<S

hdu fmar j.djg fndfydaúg ys;lr fjhs’ fuz wdldrhg úúO fnda.j, jeä M,odjlg ;=vqfok úfYaI mdrsirsl

osh oyrd wdYs%;j f;;ukh /)kq mi iy idrj;a mila meÛsrs fnda. j.djlg kqiq)iqh’ fidaod md( ù .sh tfy;a wjYH úgl c,h iemhsh

;;a;aj ms<sn| ukd wjfndaOhla ,nd ;sfnz kuz tu fnda. isgqùfuzoS f.dúmf,a N+ úIu;djkag idrA:lj fnda. j.d l< yelsh’ ke;skuz miq

yels ìï fldgia meÛsrs fnda. j.djg jvd;a iq)iqh’

lf,l M, ork wjia:dj jk úsg tu fnda.j, M,odhs;dj jeäoshqKQ lsrSug we;s yelshdj iSud iys; úh yelsh’ ke;skï tu m,;=re .ia M,odhS;dj

fo¿ï j.djlg jvd iq)iq jkafka idrj;a tfy;a úh<Sug ks;ru Ndckh jk mils’ f.dúmf,a jvd;a úh<Sug Ndckh jk fkd.eUQre tfy;a idrj;a N+ñ fldgfia foMZuz isgqùfuka fyd| wiajekakla ksr;=reju n,dfmdfrd;a;=

w;ska iuzmqrAKfhkau widrA:l úh yelsh’

úh yelsh’ tfukau foMZuz j,g b;d oeä ysret<shla ,enqKQ úg ks;ru u,a M, yg .kakd w;r” f.äj, .=Kd;auho by, hhs’ kuq;a f.ä yg.kakd úg tfia f;;ukh fkdlvjd mj;ajd .ekSfuka f.ä fudark úg me,Su wvqlr .; yelsh’ 39


fmd)fjz i,ld n,k úg ish(u m,;=re fnda. j,g m<uq fojir ;=<oS

meÛsZrs fnda. me< j, uq,aj,g ydks is)fjhs’ tfyhska jrAId iufhaos jeäs

Wmrsu jrAOkhla ,ndfok mdrsirsl yd kv;a;= ;;a;ajhla ,ndoSu b;du jeo.;a fjhs’ me< isgqùfuz isg fuz ;;a;ajh ,ndosh hq;=h’ noaO me<

c,h uQ, uKav,h we;s m%foaYfhka bj;g .,d heug bvlv i,id osh hq;=h’ mfia f;;ukh wvqjq úg úfYaIfhka meÛZsrs fnda.j, fmdaIK

isgqùu yels iEu m%Yia: ;;a;aj ,ndosh idudkHfhka ,ndosh fnda.fhka fnda.hg

W!K;d ^m;% lyùsu” m;% j, kdrá w;r” lyùu” m;% l=vd yd mgq ùu” úlD;s ùu yd m;% ye,sSu yd w;= fl,jr isg ñh hdu& olakg ,efnz’

wjia:djloSu hq;=h’ isgqjd hq;= ;;a;aj fjkia úh

yelsh’ ish(u m,;=re me< j,g isgqjd m<uq udih ;=<oS 70-80% muK fijkla oSu b;d iq)iqhs’ fuz i|yd fhdod.;

ta ksid me< l=vd ld,fha m%udKZj;a f,i mfia f;;ukh mj;ajd .; hq;=h’

hq;af;a fld< w;=jeks øjHhs’ túg i;s 2-3la .;jk úg l%u l%ufhka tu w;=j, fld< ye,Shdu ksid isgjq noaO me<h l%ufhka ysret<shg ksrdjrKh jkq we;’ kuq;a ¥rshka” rUqgka yd uex.=iaàka me< isgqjd udi 3-6 la muK hk;=reu ukd f,i fijk ,ndoSu wjYHhs’ ta ksid tu ld,h ;=<oS tu fld< w;= kej; kej;;a isgqjd fijk ,ndoSu l, hq;h = ’ isgqjd

me<h

jgd

jiqkla

fhoSu

wjYHhs’ jiqk uÛska mfia f;;ukh r|d mj;ajd .kakd w;r” fmdaIl iemhSulao mi WKqiqï ùu wvq lsrSuo is) fjz’ flfia jqjo th me<fha fkd.Efjk mrsos fhosh hq;=h’ mfia f;;ukh wkjYH f,i jeä ;;a;ajhloS )rshka# rUqgka yd fndfyda 40

wdOdrlhla isgjQ wU me,hla

iq,ÛZska yd fjk;a hdka;s%l ydks wju lsrSu i|yd fuu me< j,g wdOdrl fldagqjla isgqúh hq;=h’ fuu wdOdrl fldagqj isg jq me<fha Wig jvd wvqùu jvd iq)iqhs’ tu fldagqjg ;nd ,sys,aj ne| ;eîfuka fuu me<hg ksoyfia iq<fÛa fi,ùug bvlv ie,iSulao iDcqj jeãug uÛ fmkaùula o is)fjhs’ kuq;a tu fldagqj me<hg


jvd flá ùfuka me<h fldagqj miqlr by<g jefvk úg ;ksj

muK ^.%Euz 10 muK& udihlg jrla fhoSuo m%fhdackj;a nj fmks f.dia

iDcqj ke.S isàfuz Yla;sh blaukska ,nd.kq we;’ iajdëkj iDcqj jefvk úg fuu fldagqj bj;a l< hq;=h’ fuz w;r ld,h ;=<oS .%dylfhka u;=jk

;sfnz’ fuysoS jeämqr Y%uh yd ld,h jehùu ms<sn| i,ld ne,sh hq;=h’ b;d iq( m%udK j,ska ksr;=re fmdfydr fhoSu m%fhdackj;a jqjo” me<fha o(

w;= rsls,s ksrka;rfhkau uq,skau lmd bj;al, hq;=h’

oeóug i;shlg muK fmr yd o( fuzre miq fuf,i fmdfydr fhoSu ldf,daÑ;h’

ksis fmdaIKh iemhSu fufia jefvk m,;=re me<hg ukd

meÛsZrs fnda.;a” rUqgka me<;a l=vd ld,fhaoS fmdaIK W!K;d fmkajk

fmdaIKhla iemhSu wkd.;fha jeä m,;=re wiajekakla ,nd .ekSug Yla;su;a mokula we;s lrhs’ fuysoS

nj fmfka’ fuzjd ;djld,sl ,CIK jqjo me<fha ukd jrAOkhg ndOd lrk fyhska ksis mrsos fmdaIKh yd

khsg%cka wvx.= fmdfydr jeämqr;a” fmdiamria wvx.= fmdfydr idfmaCIj wvq m%udKhlskao tl;= lr ilia lr.;a ñY%Kfhka iqMZ m%udKh neÛska

f;;ukh ,ndoSu b;du;a jeo.;ah’ ldnksl fmdfydr lsf,da.%Eï 4-5 neÛska udi 2-3lg jrla j;a me< j,g fhosh yelskuz b;d m%fhdackj;a

i;s 2-3lg jrla fhosh yels kuz o ta iuÛu mfia f;;ukh m%udKj;a ;ruz mj;ajd.; yels kuzo fuu me< j, iS.% jrAOkhla ,nd.; yelsh’

fjhs’ mfia wduz,sl;dj wdikakfha pH 5 g wdikakfha fyda Bg jvd wvqjk úg .ig ue.akSishuz Wrd.ekSfuz wjia:dj wysñ fjhs’ tfukau uq, wjg

ke;skuz fmdfydr ñY%Kh fhdok jdr 2la w;r” ld,h udi 2la olajd oslalr w;r ueooS hqrshd khsg%cka wvx.= fmdfydr iq( m%udKfhka me<hg fhoSu uÛskao jrAOkh

hlv idkaøKh jeäùfuz wjodkula we;sfjz’ fuz wkqj m,;=re isgqjd we;af;a wêl wduz,sl mil kuz m%udKj;a mrsos jirlg jrla j;a fvd,uhsgz l=vq fhoSu iq)iqh’ tuÛska fmdaIK

fjz.j;a lr.; yelsh’

W!K;d u.yersh yels w;r” me<hg le,aishuz o ue.akSishuzo ,efnz’ fhdok fvd,uhsÜ m%udKh wdï,sl;j wkqj

m<uq jir ;=<oS me<hlg jrlg hqrshd f;a ye|s 2la muK ^.%Euz10& udihlg jrla folla muK fhoSuo fmdfydr ñY%Kfhka f;a yeos 2la

.Kkh l, hq;=h' ish(u m<;=re me< j, jrAOkh fõ.j;a lsrSug Wiia .=K;ajfha oshr fmdfydr i;shlg 41


follg jrla neÛska m<uq jir 2-3 ;=<oS fhoSfuka b;d fõ.j;a jrAOkhla

fkdl, hq;=h’ tajd wkjYH f,i oslafjñka jefvkafka kuz muKla

yd Yla;su;a .ila ksrAudKh lr .ekSu myiqfjhs'

fl,jr lmd oeñh hq;=h’ fmar me< j, Wi ógrA 1-1 1$2 muK WiloS lmd oud ish(u w;=j, fl,jrj,a udi 1-2 lg jrla lmd oeñh hq;=h’

m,;=re Ydl mqyqKq lsrSu isgqjd m<uq jir 2-3 ;=<oS fuu m,;=re me< j, ukd jrAOkhla ,nd .ekSug ls%hd l, hq;= w;r” me< ksismrsos mshjfrka mshjr mqyqKQ lsrSuo l, hq;=h’ fuysoS fnda.fhka fnda.hg mqyqKq lsrSfuz wdldrh fjkia fjhs’ miq lf,l Wmrsu M,odjla we;slr.kq msKsi;a tu M,odj ord isàug yels Yla;su;a iels,a,la jrAOkh lsrSu i|yd;a me< ksis mrsos ie,eiaulg mqyqKQ l, hq;=h’ wU me< ueo újD; jk wdldrhg wkjYH w;= bj;a lrñka lmamd) lr mqyqKQ l, hq;= w;r” fndfyda meÛZsrs fnda.j, w;= m%Odk l| jgd me;srS hk f,i fi’ó’ 30l muK mr;rhla ;nñka wksl=;a w;= uq,skau lmd bj;a l, hq;=h’ .fia Wi ógrA 2 -2 1$2 jk úg ta uÜgñka m%Odk l| lmd oud Wi md,kh l, hq;=h’ w,sfmar yd rUqgka j, fmd<j

m%Odk l| lmd oud Wi md,kh lsrSu

fo(uz me, j, mduq,ska yg.kakd fudfrhshka ish,a, bj;a lr m%Odk l|g by<g jeãug bv ie,ish hq;=h’

ugzgug b;du wdikak w;= lmd oeóu muKla m%udKj;ah’ )rshka j, wjYH ógrA 2 - 2 1$2 muK WiloS l| lmd oeñh yels w;r” thska miq by<g wefok m%Odk l| jirlg jrla lmd oeñh hq;=h’ ¥rshka .fia w;= w;r )r md,kh 42

m%Odk l|g by<g jeãug bv ie,iSu


fuz wkqj fnda.fhka fnda.hg WÑ; jk lmamd) yd mqyqKQ l%u wjfndaO

l=vd .eg ye,Shdu” f.ä l=vdùu” hqI wvqùu yd miqj f.ä me,Shdu wdosh

lrf.k wkq.ukh l, hq;=h’ noaO me< isgqjd jir 3la ;=<oS fndfydauhla m,;=re j, m<uqjrg u,a msfmkq we;’

uÛ yrjd .; yelsh’ tu wjêfhaoS c,h iuzmdokh;aa iuÛu jiqkla fhoSu m%fhdackj;a fjhss’

w;= fnoS jefvk fnda. j,ska jeä

flfia jqjo uq,sl mdrsirsl idOl Ydl jrAOkhg wys;lr kuz fuz

M,odhs;djla ,eîug kuz tajdg M, oerSu W;af;ackh lrk mdrsirsl idOl ,efnk mrsirhl$ N+ñhl isgqjd m<uq jir lsysmh ;=<oS Wmrsu

wjêfhaoS jeä M,odhs;djla ,nd.; yelsh’ tkuz jrAOkh i|yd jeh fjk wdydr yd wksl=;a wNHka;r iuzm;a fhdodf.k u,a M,yg .ekaùu;a#

kv;a;= l, hq;=h’ jrAOl jrAOkh Wmrsuj w;a lr )ka tu kv;a;= rgdj .ia fuzrSu;a iuÛu fjkia l,

i|yd .fia úh<s øjH fnodyerSu kej; jrla Bg .e,fmk mrsos fjkia lr f.ä yg.ekSu yd f.ä

hq;=h’ khsg%cka wvx.= fmdfydr fyda wêl f,i ldnksl fmdfydr fhoSu keje;aúh hq;=h’ ke;skuz iSudl, hq;=h’ fuz wjêfhaoS c, iemhqu iSud

j, jrAOkh bgqlr .ekSug fhdojd .kakd neúks’

lsrSfuka wU” meÛZsrs fnda.” fmar” foMZuz” wdoS fnda. j.d j, mfia f;;ukh isudldrS ùu;a” ukdf,i ysre t<sh ,eîu;a# jefvk wjêfhaoS ukd f,i lmamd) lr mqyqKQ lr ;sîu;a ksid m%Yia: M,odhs;djla ,nd.; yelsh’ mfia f;;ukh iajNdúlju iSudjq bvul j.d lsrSu ksid c, iuzmdokh w;aysg jq ú.iu mi úh<Sug n"kajkq we;’ th fuu fnda.j, u,a yg .ekSug odhljkq we;’ flfia jqjo l=vd M, yg.kakd wjia:dfõ isg f.ä fuzrSu olajd h,s;a mfia f;;ukh mj;ajd .ekSfuka

fuz wkqj n,k l< m,;=re fnda. j.d lsrSfuzoS ta ta fnda.j, u,a M, yg .ekaùug úfYaIs; jq mdrsirsl yd kv;a;= wjYH;d l,a we;sj f;areuz f.k fnda. i|yd N+ush fjka l, hq;=h’ jrAAOk wjêfhaoS ishMZu fnda. j, wjYH;d fndfydaúg iudk fjhs’ tfukau fmd) kv;a;= lghq;= j,ska fuz wjYH;d fndfydaúg bgqlr.; yelsh’ u,a j, M, yg .ekSu i|yd wjYHjk ;;a;aj fndfyda m,;=re fnda. i|yd fjkia ùu ksid m,;=re fnda. j.d j,ska m%Yia: M,odhs;djla ,nd .ekSug me< isgqùfuz isgu l,amkdldrSj ie,iquz l, 43


hq;=h’ t<jMZ fyda úis;=re fnda. j.d Wml%u j,ska m,;=re fnda. fjkia

jrA;udkh jkúg m,;=re WoHdk md,kh jdKsc jHdmdrhla njg

nj wjOdrKh lsrsu jeo.;ah’

m;aùu;a iuÛu wêl M,odhs;djhla iy Wiia .=Kd;aufha M,odjla ;sridrj ,nd .ekSug m,;=re Ydl j,g m%Yia; fmdaIK jevigykl

m,;=re Whka md,kh ls%ia;= mqrAj 700 muK ld,fha isgu Whkam,a,d# mig tlajk Ydl yd i;aj fldgia osrdm;a ùfuka tys miq j.d lrk ,o fnda. j,ska jeä wiajekakla ,efnk nj oek isáhy’ iqm%isoaO .%Ss%l odrAYklhl= jq Theopharastus ^l%s’mq’ 372 - 287& úiska Ydl iy i;a;aj fldgia tl;= lsrSfuka Whka j;=j, wiajekak jeä jk nj fmkajd)kafkah’ ls%’j’ 1802-1882 ld,fhaoS csj;a jq J.B. Boussingault úiska mig Ydl fmdaIl iemhSfuka Ydl j, jrAOkh jeä lr.; yels nj fmkajdfok ,oS’ fmdgEishuz iy fmdiamria Ydlj,g jeo.;a nj mrsCIKd;aulj Tmamq l,y’ miq ld,Skj m,;=re j.dfjzoS úúO fmdaIl j, jeo.;alu ;j ;j;a mrSCIKd;aulj m%orAYkh lrk ,oS’ úYd, oekquz iuzNdrhla tla lrñka 1946 os muK jkúg m,;=re Ydlj, M,odhS;dj i|yd iunr fmdaIKh;a iuÛZu m%udKj;a f,i tla tla fmdaIlh iemhsh hq;= njg idOl m%ldYhg m;aúh' 1960 jkúg m,;=re j, .=Kd;auhg le,aishuz j, jeo.;alu fy,sorjz úh'

44

jeo.;alu ukdj wjfndaO lrf.k ;sfnz’ l%udkql+,j msysgqjk ,o m,;=re WoHdkh ;dCIKsl Wml%u ksis mrsos wkq.ukh lr md,kh lsrSfuka ;sridr ksIamdokhla os.= l,la mqrd ,nd.; yelsfjz’ wdlrAYkSh jrAOkhla iy úlikhla jeä wiajekakla i|yd iy;slhla fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;=h’ flfia jqjo m,;=re m%fNaoj, <má wjê ;=<os m%Yia: jrAOkhla iy mqyqKqjla wkd.;fhaoS fyd| M,odhs;djhlg mokula fjkq we;’ tfyhska m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fjzoS m<uqjrg u,a msmSfuz wjia:dj (ripenes to #ower) jk;=re ukd jrAOl jrAOkhla ,nd.ekSsu i|yd WoHdk md,k Wml%u yd ;dCIKhla wkq.ukh lsrSu w;HdjYHhs’ ;ks l|la fia jefvk m,;=re úfYaI yer wksl=;a m%fNaoj, bkamiq wjêfhaoS M,odhs;dj jeälr .ekSug jrAOl jrAOkh iy m%ckl jrAOkh w;r” iunr;djhla mj;ajd .ekSu;a w;HdjYHhs’ ta ksid tu wjêhg wod, WoHdk md,k Wml%u yd ;dCIKfha


meyeos,s fjkila olakg ,efnz’ fuu ;;a;ajh WoHdk md,kfha iEu wxYhla flfrysu n,mdk nj jgyd .; hq;=h’ m,;=re Whka md,kh i|yd os.= ld,Sk fukau fláld,Sk ;SrK .ekSfuz yelshdj b;du;a wjYHh fjhs’ ld,.=Kfha is)jk CIKsl fjkialuz j, wys;lr n,mEuz wju lr .ekSug uSg fmr .;a os.=ld,Sk ;SrK fjkia lsrSug is)ùu iq,N jqj;a ta i|yd fyd| ;dCIKsl wjfndaOhla ;sîu jeo.;a fjhs’ m,;=re WoHdkfha md,kfhaoS mqre) mrsos is) lrk ls%hdldrluz ksis l,g ksis mrsos is)lrkq ,enqjo jvd fyd| ;sridr wdrA:Sl m%;s,dN i|yd tajd wjia:dkql+,j fjkialr,Sug yelsùu WoHdk md,lhd i;=úh hq;= jeo.;a úfYaI yelshdjls’ fuz i|yd m%udKj;a ;dCIKsl Wmldrh ,nd .ekSug lghq;= lsrSu tla Wml%uhls’ wksl=;a jdrAIsl fnda. fuka m,;=re fnda. i|yd iodld,sl ia:djr ksrAfoaY

3'1 mi kv;a;= lrk wdldrh fl;ruz idrj;a mila jqjo WoHdk kv;a;= ;;a;ajhg fkd.e,fma kuz tu mi is.%fhka ksire njg m;aúh yelsh' mfia fmdaIl iq,N;djhg fuu kv;a;= ;;a;ajh iDcqju n,mdk ksid kv;a;= lsrSfï os.=ld,Sk jev igykla ;sìh hq;=h' <ore j.djl mj;sk m,;=re WoHdkhl úYd, m%udK j,a me<Eá yd m"re ;sîfuka m,;=re me< j,g fmdaIl ,nd.ekSug wmyiqfjhs’ túg me< j, jrAOkh iSudù )rAj, fjhs’ tfyhska fndfyda úg me< jgd j,ame<Eá j,ska f;drj mj;ajd f.k hd yelsh’ kuq;a jevqkq .ia we;s m,;=re WoHdkhloS ìuz jeiaula f,i md,kh lrk ,o j,ame,Eá yd ;DK kv;a;= lsrSfuka m,;=re .iaj,g ,nd .; yels fmdgEishï m%udKh jeäjk nj fmkajdoS ;sfnz’ túg wksl=;a

fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh

ld,igyklg wkqj WoHdk md,kfhaoS Ndú;d lsrSug W;aidy fkdl,

lsrSfuz yelshdjo jeäjk nj fmkajdoS ;sfnz’ tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha

hq;=h’ lDIs-mdrsirsl fjkiaùuz ksid m,;=re Ydlj, u,a yg .ekSu” u,a ye,Shdu” l=vd f.ä ye,Shdu frda. m<sfndaO .yKfha yosis fjkiaùuz yd t,j, .=Kd;aulNdjh wdos ,CIK

jiqk bj;a lsrSu uÛska mfia fmdaIl iq,N;djhg wys;lr f,i n,mdhs’

fjkiaùu is)úh yels w;r” WoHdk md,lhdg ta ms<sn| oekSula ;sìh hq;=h’

j,a me<EákdYl fhoSfuka wys;lr f,i fmdaIl ;;a;ajhg n,mdk nj fmfka’ je,a me<EákdYl ksid Ydlj,g fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSug wmyiqfjhs’ (Atkins etal 1977)? tfyhska m%Yia; ugzgfuka 45


ìuz jeiaula f,i ;DK fhdodf.k we;s j.djla

m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;= lsrSu m,;=re Ydl fmdaIKh wjYH;dj wkqj mj;ajdf.k hdug jeo.;a fjhs’ mig fyd| jd;dY%hla fkd,efnk )rAj, c,jykhla we;sùu fmdiamria# fmdgEishï yd le,aishï wjfYdaIKhg ndOd lrhs’ tfyhska WoHdkh ;=< ukd c,jykhla ksr;=reju mj;ajdf.k hdu uÛska mfia fN!;sl yd ffcj úoHd;aul ;;a;ajh jeäoshqKQ lsrSfuka mfia fmdaIl iq,N;dj jeä lr.; yelsh’ iSiEu” c,jykh” fhdokq ,nk ridhksl fmdfydr usY%Khka iy ix@gl” tajd fhdok wdldrh iy fhdok m%udKh iy fhdok ld,h kv;a;= lghq;= j,g úYd, n,mEula ;sfnz’

46

3'1'1' mfia ffcj fN!;sl ,CIK (Bio-physical) ukd jHqyhla we;s lsrSu uÛska mi ;=< jeä jd;dY%hla ,ndosh yelsh’ mi ;=< mj;sk Tlaiscka idkaøKh jeä lsrSfukao Ydlhg fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lsrSug we;s yelshdj jeäjk w;r” mdxY+ ødjKhg fmdaIl tl;= ùuo jeäfjhs’ mfia jHqyh tys fmdaIl r|jd .eksfuz yelshdjg n,mdk w;r” mfia we;s fmdaIl j, idfmaCI idkaøKhka mfia jHqyh mj;ajd .ekSugo n,mdhs’ tfukau ukd jHqyhla we;sùu jd;dY%h jeä ùfuka yd f;;ukh r|d meje;afuka mfia CIqø cSúkaf.a ls%hdldrS;ajh jeäfjhs’ túg wksl=;a fN!;sl yd ridhksl


.=Kdx.o Ydlj,g jeä oshqKQ fjhs’

ys;lr f,i fuu idOl

j, ls%hdldrS;ajhgo oeä n,mEula we;s lrhs’ wvq mdxY= WIaK;aj

ish,a,u mdfya tlsfklg iuznkaOjq wka;rA ls%hd j,ska md,kh jk ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia iunr;dj mj;ajdf.k hdu ms<sn|j ksr;=re

mj;sk úg ^YS; ld,j,oS& Ydlj,g ,nd.ekSu i|yd tl;=jk (NO3) khsfÜ%g idkaøKh wvqfjhs’ WKqiquz ld, j,oS mdxY=

wjOdkfhka isàu M,odhs;djg jeä yelsh’

WIaK;ajh by, hk úg khsfÜ%g

uÛska oshqKq

Ydlj, lr.;

3'1'2 mdxY= WIaK;ajh mdxY+ ødjKfha osh ù we;s fmdaIl whk Ydlfha uq, flaY ;=<g wjfYdaIKh lsrSu i|yd Yla;sh jehjk ls%hdj,shla fjhs’ uq, flaY j, ffi, ma,diauhla we;s mdxY= ødjKfha we;s whk idkaøKhg m%;súreoaOj fuu fmdaIl whk ffi, ns;a;sh iy m%dla ma,diaufhka ffi, ;=<g we;=MZ lr .ekSu i|yd Ydlh (ATP) weäfkdaia g%hs fmdiafmaÜ Yla;sh jeh lrhs’ Yla;sh jeh lsrSfuz ls%hdj,shla wdYs%;j is)jkafka ridhksl m%;sls%hdjka jk ksid ´kEu ridhksl m%;sls%hdjlg WIaK;ajh n,mdk nj i|yka l, hq;=h’ udOH WIaK;ajh 100C lska jeä jk úg TzkEu ridhksl m%;sls%hdjl ta fjz.h fo.=Khla jk nj fmkajd os ;sfnz’ mdxY+ W!IaK;ajh m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia fmdaIl iq,N;djh u; oeä n,mEula we;s lrhs’ tfukau fuu mdxY= WIaK;ajh Ydlfha ils%h uq,a

m%udKho jeäfjhs’ fuu ;;a;ajhg iDcqju n,mdk fia WIaK;ajh mfia khsà%lrK nelaàrshdj, ls%hdldrS;ajfha fjkia ùuhs’ mdxY=

WIaK;ajfha

úYd,

wvqùu;a iuÛu tu nelaàrshdj, ls%hdldrS;ajho wvq fjhs' flfia jqjo mfia WIaK;ajh 320C muK jeä jkúg fuu nelaàrshd j, ls%hdldrS;ajhg wys;lr f,i n,mEu ksid mdxY= WIaK;ajh jeäjk úg khsg%Slrk ldrAhdj,sh wvqùula is)fjhs’ tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia WIaK;ajh m%Yia; f,i mj;ajdf.k hdu jeo.;ah'

3'1'3 mdxY= jd;kh ys;lr jhkhla yd jHqyhla mj;sk mil wxY= ,sys,aj me;srS ;sfnz’ tu wxY= w;r jeä jdhq m%udKhla mj;sk ksid mi ;=< jeä ^O2& Tlaiscka m%udKhla msrS ;sfnz’ fujeks ;;a;ajhloS m,;=re Ydlj, uq,a ukd meje;ajug;a ls%hdldrS;ajhg;a b;d ys;lr ;;a;ajhls’ il%Sh uq,aj, Yajik ls%hdj,sh ldrACIuj is)jk 47


úg fmdaIl wjfYdaIKho m%Yia; ugzgug is)fjhs’ fuz ioyd mdxY= ^O2& Tlaiscka wka;rA.; m%udKh jeo.;a idOlhls’ m%udKj;a f,i jd;h fkdue;s úg yd wxY= tlsfklg ;où we;s mil ^O2& Tlaiscka iemhqu wvqúu ksid fmdaIl yd c,h wjfYdaIKh wvqfjhs’ ta ksid WoHdkfha we;s Ydlj, jrAOkh wvqfjhs’ Bg wu;rj mfia jHqyh )rAj, ùfuka mdxY+ wxY= f;rmS ;oùu ksid mdxY= wxY= w;r wjldY wvqùfuka c, jdykh ùsfuz )rAj,;do we;sfjz’ túg ;j)rg;a mdxY+ wjldYh ;=<g we;=( jk Tlaiscka m%udKh wvqfjhs’ tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkh ;=< hka;% iq;% Ndú;h iy ks;r weúoSu ksid mi ;oùu ksid m,;=re Ydl j,g

l

CIqøfmdaIl (micro nutrients)

b;d iq( m%udKhkaf.ka wjYHh jk fuu fmdaIl j,g wh;a jkafka hlv” ;=;a;kd.uz, uex.kSia” ;U, fndafrdaka fud,sìsäkuz iy laf,darSkah’ flfia jqjo fuda,aìäkuz fjkqjg jefkaähuz o laf,darSka fjkqjg fn%dañkao fhdod .; yels nj uE;loS oekf.k ;sfnz’ flfia jqjo fuu fmdaIl Ydlj, jrAOkhg” úlikhg yd wiajekak ksmoùug m%udKj;a whqrska mfia mj;ajdf.k hdu m,;=re WoHdkj, kv;a;=j jevms<sfjf,a jeo.;a wjYH;djhls'

tu ;;a;ajh wjfYdaIKh i|yd fmdiamria# fmdgEishï yd le,aishï iemhqu wvd, fjhs' fujeks milg ridhksl fmdfydr tl;= l,o Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels ;;a;ajhg m;aùu isudùfuka fnda. j, M,odhS;dj wvqfjhs’ tfyhska mdxY= ;;a;ajh jeä oshqKq lsrSu i|yd uq,sl wjYH;dj f,i mig m%udKj;a jd;%dY%hla ,ndoSfuz mshjr wkq.ukh lsrSu wjYH;djhls’ uq,a me;srS.sh l,dmh jrskajr nqre,a lsrSu” ldnksl fmdfydr tl;= lsrSu iy c, jykh oshqKQ lsrSu hk YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u Ndú; lsrSu iq\qiqh’ 48

CIqøfmdaIl mig Wrd .ekSu


fmdfydr j._h

úc,Sh wefudakShd

wefudakshuz i,af>agz

wefudakshuz khsfgz%gz

le,aishuz khsfgz%gz

ridhksl iQ;%h

wvx.=jk fmdaIl

N

NH3

(NH4)So4

NH4 No3

Ca(No3)2

N

N

N Ca

m%udKh %

jdis

82

jeä N

c,iuzmdokh iu.Z úIu me;srsu úiqreuz c,iuzmdoh kqiq)iqhs

21

kHIaál mig iq)iqhs’ lsod neiSu wvqhs

wduz,sl mig kqiq)iqhs

33

by, N m%udKh wmøjH ke;

15.5

khsg%cka iuÛ le,aishuzo ,efnz

myiqfjka fhosh yelsh

jeä idkaøKh úI iys;hs’

hQrshd

Co(NH2)2

N

46

jeä N m%udKh

fidavzhuz khsfgz%gz

Na No3

N

16

NdIañl nj jeä lrhs

24

NdIausl;dj jeälrhs

le,aishuz ihskuhsvz ;s%;aj iqmrA fmdiafmagz frdla fmdiafmagz

CaCN2

+ 4 3

Ca(Po )

Ca(Po4)2

N

wjdis

P

le,aishï# fmdgEishï wêlh

P

le,aishï# fmdgEishï wêlh

jeä idkaøKh úI iys;hs’

49


m,;=re fnda.j, M,odhs;dj ;sridrj

lsishuz fmdaIlhla Ydlhg wjYH 2' m%udKhg ugzgug jvd mfia ysÛZhla mj;S kuz fyda Ydlhg ,nd.; yels

mj;ajdf.k hdug kuz mfia fmdaIl ;;a;ajh m%Yia:j mj;ajdf.k hdug is)fjhs’ mi ;=< mj;sk úúO fmdaIl tlu wdldrhlg fkdmj;sk nj;a

wdldrhg mfia fkd;sfnz kuz fyda tu ysÛ nj úfYaI ,CIK f,iska Ydlfha úúO fldgia j,# úúO wjia:dj,oS m%orAYKh fjhs’

tajd ridhksl m%;sls%hdj,g fN!;sl yd icSú idOl j,g tajd ksr;=reju Ndckh jk nj;a wjfndaO lr.; hq;=h’ mig fmdaIl l%udkql=,j

nyqjdrAIsl ksjrA;k l,dmSh m,;=re úfYaI j, jir mqrd plS%hg is)jk jrAOk yd úlik wjia:d j,g fuu W!K;dj n,mdk ksid ta ta

iemhSfuka miqjo tajd m,;=re Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.kakd ;=re ta wdldrfhkau mi ;=< mj;S hehs

wjia:dj, olakg ,efnk W!K;d ,CIK fjkia fjhs’

3'1'4 mi ;=, fmdaIlj, meje;au 1

n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdúh hq;=h’ fmdaIl fhosu Ydlhg ksis mrsos fmdaIl ,eîug bjy,a jk tla idOlhla muKs’

m,;=re WoHdkfha fmdaIl iq,N;djhg n,mdk idOl we;s lr ksis

fufia mig tl;= lrk iy mi ;=<

wjia:dfjzoS ksis m%udKhka f.ka wjYH ish( fmdaIl Ydlj,g ,nd.ekSug bvlv iemhSu WoHdk md,kfha wNsfhda.hls’ mfia mj;sk

cks; jk Ydl fmdaIl j, brKu úúOdldrh’ ta brKug wkqj tajd mfika bj;a ùug fyda m,;=re Ydlfha uQ, uKav,h mj;sk l,dmfhka neyer ùug fyda we;s bvlv úYd,h’

fmdaIl ;;a;ajhg n,mdk idOl wjfndaO lr .ekSfuka jvd fyd| fmdaIKhla m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj,g ,ndoSug yelshdj ,efnk w;r” Ydl fmdaIKfha kdia;sh

3'2 1' mfia fmdaIl iq,Nùu m,;=re Ydlj, ksfrda.S jrAOkhg;a

wvqlr msrsjeh wju lr .ekSugo th WmldrS fjz’ fmdaIl Ydl j,g ,nd.eksug yels wdldrhg mi ;=<

;sridr meje;aug;a m%Yia; fmdaIK ugzgula mj;ajd f.k hdhq;=h’ fuysos WoHdk kv;a;= jevms,sfj, ;=< l%uj;a fmdaIK jev igykla y"kdf.k wLKavj ls%hd;aul lsrSu

mj;sk fmdaIl m%udKh wkqj mfia ire nj kSrAKh fjhs’ Bg n,mdk idOl rdYshls’ tajd Ydl idOl iy mrsir idOl f,i ldKav follg fnosh yelsh’

jeo.;a fjhs’ 50


3'2'1 Ydl idOl l

Ydlfha iajNdjh

mfia mj;sk fmdaIl m%udKh fldf;la jqjo tajd Wrd .ekSfuz yelshdj Ydlfhka Ydlhg fjkia fjhs’ tu yelshdj fndfyda úg ;SrKh jkafka tu Ydlj, uq,aj,g mdxY= mrsirhg yev .eiSfuz yelshdj wkqjhs’ m,;=re fnda.j, fuu ;;a;ajh .%dylfha iajNdjh iy frdamK øjHhka ksmojd.;a wdldrh ^f,ahrA” noaO lsrSu wdosh& wkqjo ie,lsh hq;= wdldrhg fjkia fjhs’ iuyr Ydl b;d ishquz wjfYdaIl uq,a iys; jk w;r” tajd mfia irenj jeä úg fyd|ska jefvhs Wod* flfi,a” mefmd,a” iuyr Ydlj, wjfYdaIl uq,a oeä njla fmkajk w;r” tajdg ksire miloS mjd fyd|ska jrAOkh úh yelsh’ Wod* wU” osjq,a” fn,s

fmdgEishï W!K;djh

iuyr .%dylj,g ksire mfia jqjo fmdaIl Wrd.; yelsh’ Wod* osjq,a .%dylh’ .%dylh wkqj wjfYdaIKh lr.kakd fmdaIl m%udKhka fjkia fjhs’

3'2'2 mdßißl idOl úúO mdrsirsl idOl mfia fmdaIl iq,N;djhg n,mdk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz’ l

fmdaIl w;r wka;¾ l%shdj,sh

tla fmdaIlhl iSudldrs nj ksid Ydlhg wksl=;a fmdaIl ,nd .ekSfuz yelshdjo wvq ù hk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz’ (Low of minimum) tfukau

fndafrdaka W!K;djh

fmdaIl tlsfkl w;r wka;rAls%hd mej;Su ksido wjfYdaIKh l, yels m%udKhla fjkia fjhs’ fuzksid iuyr fmdaIl iq,N;djh by, hk úg iuyr fmdaIl hgm;a fjhs‘ tuksid mj;sk Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh l, 51


yelsf,i mj;sk fmdaIl m%udKj, wkqmd;h fuz wkqj jeo.;a fjhs’

.;yels w;r” wkjYH f,i úI úuz fyda W!K;d we;sùu j,lajd .;

wêl

yelsh’ mdxY= úYaf,aIKh uÛska fuu ;;a;ajh uek .; yelsh’

f,i

khsg%cka

fmdfydr

fhoSfuka fmdiamria” fmdgEishuz” ue.akSishuz” hlv” ;U” ueka.kSia” iskala wdoS fndfyda fmdaIl# Ydlhg fkd,efnk wdldrhlg m;afjhs' fï wkqj wêl f,i ;U iy iskala mig tl;= l,fyd;aa mfia khsg%cka tl;=ùfuz wjodkula we;s ùfuka” fndfyda fmdaIl W!K;d uÜgulg m;aúug bv ;sfí' m%udKj;a ;ruz fud,sìäkuz mj;sk úg khsg%cka wjfYdaIKh ldrAhCIuj is)fjk nj i|yka fjhs’ mfia fmdiamria iq,N;dj jeä jQ úg Ydlj,g khsg%cka# ;U# le,aihï# fud,aìhkaâ (N, Cu, Ca, Mo) wjfYdaIKh my, hhs’ fuu fmdaIl j, mfia idfmaCI iq,N;dj ta ta fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSug n,mdk neúka fmdaIl w;r wka;rAls%hd ms<sn|j wjOdkh fhduq l, hq;=h’ m,;=re WoHdkfha ;sridr wiajekaklg iy ksIamdok ldrAhCIu;dj by, kexúug m%udKj;a f,i fmdaIl iemhSu muKla m%udKj;a fkdfjz’ tu fmdaIl ie,eiaulg wkqj fnda.j,g iemhqjo jrskajr mfia tu fmdaIlj, iq,N;dj úYaf,aIKh lr wjfndaOlr .ekSu m%fhdackj;a fjhs’ túg fmdaIl wka;rAls%hd ms<sn| wjfndaOhla ,nd 52

I.

mfia f;;ukh

TzkEu Ydlhl jrAOkhg yd úlikhg c,h w;HdjYH idOlhls’ m%Ndixiaf,aIKh fukau wdydr mrsixl%uKh iy ishMZ ffcj ridhksl m%;sls%hd j,g c,h w;HdjYH fjhs’ Ydl j,g mfika fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr .kafka c,fha ødjh ù ;sfnk whk jYfhks’ tfyhska mfia m%udKj;a f;;ukhla ;sîfuka woyia jkafka m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj, wjfYdaIK uQ, flaI wjg mdxY= ødjKfha tu fmdaIl Ydlhg wjfYdaIK lr.; yels wdldrhg mej;Sug wjYHh mrsirh mj;sk njhs’ m,;=re Ydlj, uQ, uKav,fha ls%hdldrS;ajho mfia we;s f;;ukh u; r|d mj;sk w;r ta wkqj fmdaIl wjfYdaIKhg th úYd, n,mEula we;s lrhs’ mfia wvx.=jk f;;uk m%udKh wvqjk úg m,;=re Ydlhg ,nd .ekSu i|yd mj;sk fmdaIK m%udKho my, niS’ ødjH fmdaIl m%udKh wvqùu iy úh<s ;;a;ajfha° uQ, moaO;sfha ls%hdldrS;ajh wvqùuo Bg fya;=fjhs’ mfia f;;ukh wkjYH ;ruz by,hdfuzoS mdxY=


ødjK .eUqrg ldka)ùula is)fjñka fmdaIl W!K;djhka we;s úh

mfia Ydl

yelsh’ fuz wkqj m%Yia; ugzgfuka mfia f;;ukh mj;ajdf.k hdfuka m,;=re Ydl i|yd m%udKj;a fmdaIl idkaøKhka uQ, uKv,h wdYs%;j

yels ;;a;ajhg m;aùug n,mdhs’ ta wkqj úúO mS'tÉ w.hka j,oS ødjH jk fmdaIl fjkiajk ksid iuyr wjia:dj,oS huz fmdaIlhla b;d

mj;ajdf.k hd yelsh’ c, iuzmdok ls%hdj,sfhao iemfhk c, m%udKh yd iemfhk l,dka;rh ukdj iSrudre lr.ekSfuka m%Yia; fmdaIl

wêl f,i ksoyiaj mej;sho yelsh’ túg ;j;a fmdaIlhka mfika bj;aj Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr .; fkdyels wdldrhg m;a úh yelsh’

;;a;ajhla mi ;=< hdug wdOdr fjhs’

wduz,sl

mj;ajdf.k

mS'tÉ j,g

w.h úúO wjfYdaIKh

fmdaIl lr.;

;;a;ajfhaos (Al, Fe,Zn,Cu)

lsishuz øjHhl fyda ødjKhl wduz,sl;dj tys wvx.=jk yhsv%cka

we¨ñkshï# f>ria# hlv# iskala iy ;U tu Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels wdldrhg mfia mj;s’ WodiSk mS'tÉ w.hos ^7& fuu ner f,day

whk (H+) idkaøKhg iudkqmd;sl fjhs’ idfmaCIlj tys wvx.= jk yhsfv%dlais,a (OH-) whk idkaøKhg iudkqmd;sl fjhs’ fuu ;;a;ajhka

wls%h Tlaihsv iy yhsfv%dlaihsv njg m;aù mdxY= ødjKfhka bj;a ùfuka Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels ;;a;ajhlg m;a fjhs’

folu uekSu i|yd mS'tÉ w.h ñkqula f,i Ndú; l, yelsh’ mS'tÉ w.h f,i i|yka lrkq ,nkafka tys wvx.=jk yhsv%cka+ whk idkaøKfha iDK ,@q.Kl w.hhs’ (negative) fuu w.h 0 isg 14 olajd fjkiafjk w;r”

NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS ^pH 7-14& fuu f,day fndfydauhla mdxY= ødjKfhka bj;a fjk ksid Ydlhg fuu LKsc W!K;djla we;súh yelsh’

II.

mfia mS'tÉ' w.h

7 iudkqmd;sl jkafka c,fha mS'tÉ w.h jk wduz,sl;a NdIañl;a fkdjk WodiSk ;;a;ajhls’ mS'tÉ w.h 0 isg 7 olajd wduz,sl njo 7 isg 14 olajd NdIañl njo mS'tÉ w.h 7 isg 0 foig wvqjk úg wduz,sl;dj jeäjk njo 7 isg 14 olajd jeäjkúg NdIaul;dj jeäjk njo ie,lsh hq;=h'

mdxY+ ødjKfha Ydl fmdaIl ;;a;ajh mS'tÉ w.h wkqj fjkiaúu

N - khsg%cka mfia m%n, wdï,sl fyda m%n, NdIañl ;;a;aj j,os TlaiSyrKh úfuka mfika bj;a fjhs’ mS'tÉ w.h uola wvq ^u| wduz,sl& fyda u|la jeä& ^u| NdIausl& ;;a;ajfhaoS khsgc % ka iq,N fjhs' 53


P - fmdiamria

Fe - f*ria

pH w.h uola wvq fyda jeä ^u|la wduz,sl fyda NdIausl& ;;a;ajfhaos

m%n, wduz,sl yd uo wduz,sl ;;a;ajfhaoS Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh

P iq,Nfjhs’ tfukau b;d jeä pH ^m%n, NdIañl& ;;a;ajfhaos kej; Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels ;;a;ajhg m;a fjhs’ wêl wduz,sl

lr.; yelsfia iq,N fjhs’ NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaos iq,N;dj wvqfjhs

;;a;ajfhaos mfika bj;a ùu ksid Ydlhg fkd,eî hhs’

wduz,sl

K iy S - fmdgEishï yd i,a*¾ u| isg

wduz,sl;djfha ;;a;ajfha m%n, NdIañl;djh hgf;a

Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr .;yels ;;a;ajhg m;aù mdxY= ødjKfha iq,N fjhs’ m%n, wduz,sl ;;a;ajfhaos mdxY+ ødjKfha oshùu wvqfjk ksid Ydlhg fkd,eî hhs’

Ca - le,aishï

Mn - uex.kSia ;;a;ajfhao

Ydlj,g

wjfYdaIKh lr.; yelsfia iq,N jqjo NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS fuu iq,N;dj b;d wvqfjhs’

B - fndafrdka m%n, wduz,sl isg uola wduz,sl ;;a;ajfhaoS Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels fia iq,Nfjhs’ uo NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels ugzgug m;afjk kuq;a m%n, NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS kej; iq,N

u|la wduz,sl yd uOHu NdIañl ;;a;ajh hgf;aoS Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels fia iq,N fjhs’ kuq;a m%n, wduz,sl fyda NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS b;d iqMZ jYfhka muKla iq,N fjhs'

;;a;ajhg m;afjhs’

Mg - ue.akSishï

Mo - fud,sìäkï

u|la wduz,sl yd uOHu NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS Ydlhg wjfYdaIK lr.; yels fia iq,Nfjhs’ m%n,

NdIausl ;;a;ajfhaoS Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels ;;a;ajhg m;afjhs’ m%n, wduz,sl ;;a;aj j,os

wduz,sl ;;a;ajfhaoS b;d iq( jYfhka muKla tu ;;a;ajhg m;a fjhs'

Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSug fkdyels ;;a;ajhg m;afjz’

54

Cu - fldm¾ uOHu isg u|la wduz,sl ;;a;ajfhaoS Ydl j,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels ;;a;ajhg iq,N fjhs


fndfyda m,;=re fnda.j,g m%Yia; mdxY= pH w.h 6-7’5 w;r ;sfnz’ fuu mrdih ;=<oSs fndfyda fmdaIl mi ;=< ødjH ;;a;ajhg m;aù Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels wdldrhg m;afjhs’ m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia pH w.h m%Yia; f,i mj;ajd f.k hdu jeo.;a jkafka tneúks’

3'2'3 ,jK;djh wdYs%; .eg!¿ ,jK;djh wdY%s;j m%Odk .eg( folla ;sfnz’

3'2'3'1' ,jK;d .eg¿ wêl ,jK idkaøKhla iys; c,h Ydlj,g úI iys;h’ ta ksid Ydlj,g ldhsl úoHd;aul kshÛZhla keue;s ;;a;ajh we;s fjz’ tkuz c,h wjYH m%udKhg mfia mej;sho tys wêl ,jK idkaøjK ksid Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels ùuhs’ ,jK;djh ukskq ,nkafka#

úoHq;a ikakdhl;dj (mmhos/ cm fyda umhos/cm fy` ds/m hk tall j,sks’ tfukau uq( ødjH idkaøKh m%udKh Total dissolved Solids=TDS (mg/L) f,io fidaähuz wjfYdaIK wkqmd;h (Sodium Adsorption Ratio = SAR) fyda yqjudre lr.; yels fi`ähuz m%;sY;h (Exchangeble Sodium Percentage = ESP) f,i ukskq ,efnz’

3'2'3'2' fidaähï .eg¿ wêl f,i c,fha fi`ähuz wvx.=ùu ksido c,fha .=Kd;auh wvqfjhs’ fuh Sodium Adsorption Ratio f,i y)kajhs’ fi`ähuz wêlùu ksid wksl=;a legdhk wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSfuz .eg( we;sfjhs’ Ydlfha wjYH m%udKhg mfia f;;ukh fkd,efnk úg fj<|m, i|yd iq)iqjk m%udKhg jvd l=vd

M, yg .kakd nj fmfka’ tajdfha .=Kd;auh ;shqKQ f,i my, niS’ úfYaIfhkau M,fha yevh úlD;s ùug bv m%ia:dj we;s w;r” meyeh yd riho fjkiaúh yelsh’ l=vd M, ye,Shdu” fudarKúg M,djrKh widudkH f,i @K ùu” bfok úg udxi,fha fudf,dla fkdjk ia:dk we;s ùu yd M,fha hqI wvqùu” hk ;;a;aj we;s ù wf,úlrKh .eg( iy.; lrkq we;' 55


j.=j* c,fha ,jK;djh m,;=re fn`. j,g n,mEu Wmrsu wiajkq

wiajkq úNjh

úNjh

fn`.h

w,s.egfmar fo(uz usos f.%amamDDgz f,uka meKs fodvuz

100%

90%

75%

50

1.3 2.7

1.8 3.8

3.7 5.5

3.7 8.4

6 14

1.5 1.8

2.5 2.4

4.1 3.4

6.7 4.9

12 8

1.7 1.7

2.3 2.3

3.3 3.2

4.8 4.8

8 8

fm`Il mi ;=,ska .eUqrg ls|d neiSu

56


3'3 Ydl fmdaIKh l<uKdlrKh (Nutrient Management) Ydl fmdaIl 16la y|qkdf.k ;sfnk w;r tajd m%Odk lKavdhuz folg fnod ;sfnz’ wksl=;a ish(u Ydl úfYaI j,g fukau m,;=re úfYaI j,go Ydl fmdaIl ksis m%udKhka f.ka ,eîu jrAOkhg yd M,odhs;djhg b;du jeo.;a fjhs’ m,;=re Ydl WoHdkh

jYfhka mfika bj;ajk fmdaIl kej; mig ,ndosfuka ;sridr wiajekakla ,nd.ekSug bvlv ie,fihs’ tfukau m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia fmdaIl mj;sk ;;a;ajh ms<sn|j m%udKj;a úYaf,aIKhla j.dj msysgqúug fmr ,nd .eksfuka isgqjkq ,nk Ydl j,g iq)iq fmdaIK jevigykla ms<sfh, lr.; yelsh’ m%Odk jYfhka

;=< isgjq miqj m<uqjrg u,a msmSu olajd jq ld, iSudj;a bkamiq wiajekak ,nd oSu werUq miq ld, iSudj;a fjkia

khg%cka” fmdiamria” fmdgEishuz“ le,aishuz” ue.akSishuz” hlv” m,;=re ueka.kSia” iskala” yd fndafrdaka Ydlj,

fmdaIK wjYH;djhka iys; wjê f,i fjkalr .; yelsh’ fuh jvd;a ;Sj% f,i jeo.;a jkafka YdLd fnoS jefvk m,;=re úfYaI j,g kuq;a

jrAOkhg iy úlikhg wjYH fjhs'

wksl=;a m,;=re j,go fuh i,ld ne,Sfuka M,odhs;j jeälr .; yelsh’ fuu uq,a wjêfhaoS Ydlj,g jvd;a wjYH jkafka jrAOkh;a” jHqyh

m%;sY;h fyda wkqmd;h wkqj tajdfha jeo.;alu ksrAKh l, fkdyelsh’ fuzjdfha fmdaIKSh jeo.;alu kSrAKh lsrsu i|yd Arnon (1954& ksrAKdhl

ilialr .ekSug;a Yla;su;a yd osrsu;a iels,a,la we;slr .ekSug;ah’ miq wjêfhaos jeä M,odjla .i ;=<

;=kla fhdackd tajdkuz

r|jd ord isàug wjYH Yla;sh fuu fkdfuzre wjêfhaoS Ydlhg w;alr osh yelafla osrsu;a jrAOl jrAOkhla we;slr,Sug wjYH fmdaIl iemhSu uÛsks' m%ckl wjêfhaoS u,a ksIamdokh i|yd úYd, f,i Yla;sh yd fmdaIl jehfjhs’ tu ksid m%ckl wjêhg we;=MZ jq miq m,;=re Ydlj, fmdaIKSh wjYH;djhka fjkia fjhs’ wiajekak

Ydl

fmdaIl

úúO

m%udK

j,ska

Ydlj, wvx.=jk w;r” tajd wvx.=jk

lf,ah’ (Arnon)

1’ tu fmdaIlh ke;sjq úg Ydlfha cSj pl%h iuzmr Q AK lr.; fkdyelsh’ 2’ tu fmdaIlh fjkqjg fjk;a fmdaIlhla wdfoaY l, fkdyelsh’ tkuz# thg kshus;j ;sfnz’

úfYaIs;

fufyhla

3’ tu fmdaIlh iDcqju Ydl mrsjD;a;Suh ls%hdjg iuznkaOfjhs’ th ke;sùfuka W!K;d ,CIK fmkajhs’ 57


fuu ;;a;ajhka ;=k iuzmQrAK lrk uQ, øjH fyda ix@gl Ydl fmdaIl jYfhka ie,lsh hq;= hehs ms,s.efka’ ta wkqj fCIa;%fha yd Ydl

is) lsrSfuka mfia fmdaIl iq,N;djfha m%jK;djhka y"kd.; yels w;r tuÛska we;súh yels .egMZ o y"kd.; yelsh’ fuz iuÛu fnda.fha m;%

j, ;;a;ajh uek ne,Sfuka fyd| mQrAj wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yelsh’ fnda. isgqùfuzoS tajdfha fmdaIl iq)iq m%udKhkaf.ka mig tla

iduzm, úYaf,aIKh lsrSfuka fnda.hg m%udKj;a ;ruz fmdaIl ,eìKs oehs ;SrKh l, yelsh’ mia úYaf,aIKh;a fnda.fha m;% úYaf,aIKh;a folu

lsrSug lghq;= lsrSfuka wkjYH úhouz wvq lsrSug;a mrsir ¥IKh wju lsFug;a wjia:dj ie,fihs’ th

tlg ii|d m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia fmdaIKSh ;;a;ajh kexùug wjYH ksrAfoaY ilia lr.; hq;=h’

úYaf,aIKh lsrSu jir 2-3lg jrla

wiajekak jeä ùug we;s iïNdú;dj 1'0

1'0 1'0 1'0 1'0 1'0 1'0 b;d wvq

wvq

uOHu

mfia irenj

58

by, b;d by,


mi ire nj wkqj fmdfydr fhoSug fnda. olajk m%;spdrh j.=j* wiajekak f,i fmdaIl mfika bj;aúu

fnda.h

wiajekak fylaghdrlg fgdka

N

P

K

S

Ca

Mg

wU

10

11

2

15

1

2

2

meIkamDgz

20

55

6

78

6

5

4

w,s.egfmar

10

41

8

61

4

7

8

Huett D.O. and J.F. Dirou 2008 m%Odk fmdaIl (macro nutrients ? iy CIqø

3'3'2 oaú;shsl fmdaIl

fmdaIl (micro nutrients) hkqfjka Ydl fmdaIl ldKav 2lg fnosh yel' m%Odk fmdaIl ;j)rg;a fldgia follg fnod oelaúu myiqjls’ tkuz

fuu fmdaIl uOHu m%udKhka f.ka

m%d:ñl fmdaIl (Primary nutrients) iy oaú;shsl fmdaIl (Secondary nutrients) f,igh’

3'3'1 m%d:ñl fmdaIl (Primary nutrients) fuu fmdaIl úYd, m%udKhkaf.ka wjYH fjhs’ ldnk#a yhsg%cka” Tlaiscka” khsg%cka” fmdiamria iy fmdgEishuz uSg wh;afjhs’ ldnka” yhsvs%cka iy Tlaiscka ,nd .kafka jdhqf.da,fhka iy c,fhk's wksl=;a ish(u fmdaIl mfika Wrd.;q ,efnz’

(Secondary nutrients)

Ydlhg wjYH jk w;r” mfika Wrd.kq ,efnz’ le,aishuz” ue.akSishuz iy f.kao.ï (Suphur?uSg we;=,;afjhs’

3'4 m,;=re Ydl iy fmdaIKh m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl j,g m%udKj;a fmdaIKhla ,ndoSu i|yd fmdaIK ls%hdj,shg Ydlfha iajNdjh iuznkaO lr .; hq;=h’ m,;=re fnda. fndfydauhla nyq jdrAIsl meje;aula oelaùu m%Odk ndOlh fukau idOlho nj jgyd.; hq;=h’ m,;=re fnda.j, we;s <má wjêh (Juvenile phase? iy m%ckl wjêh (Reproductive phase) meyeos,sj tlsfklg

fjkiafjhs’

fuu

wjê 59


fofla jrAOk yd úlik wjia:d fjkiajk w;r” ta i|yd jk wjYH;do

m,;=re úfYaI j, jrAOkh yd úlikh ^phenological cycle)

fjkia fjhs’ tfukau tu Ydl j, yg.kakd f.ä j, úYd,;ajho idfmaCIj jeä ksid fmdaIK wjYH;d ms,sn|j m%udKj;a weia;fuzka;=jla

úfYaIfhka úfYaIhg fjkiajk w;r” tlu úfYaIfhaoS th jrAIfha iD;= wkqjo fjkia fjhs’

,nd .ekSu )Ialrh’ jrAOl jrAOkh ieu wjêhlu m%uqL;djhlg m;aùu ksjrA;k m,;=re úfYaI j, ,CIKhla jk ksid fuu fmdaIK wjYH;d ksid ;;a;ajh ;j;a ixlSrAK njg m;afjhs' tfukau úYd, uQ, uKav,h” oejuh l|ka# úYd, m;% ixLHdj yd YdLdjka” w;súYd, u,a ixLHdj yd M, ixLHdj wdosh i|yd wjYHjk idfmaCIj ksjeros fmdaIK weia;fuzka;= mrsir idOl wkqjo fjkia fjhs’ uQ, uKav,fha úysoSfuz m%udKh fnda.h wkqj fjkiajk nj jgyd.; hq;=hs’

fuu m,;=re úfYaIfha lsishuz ld, iSudjlos jrAOkh fjñka kj YdLd m;% wdosh ìyslrk w;r” ;j;a ld, iSudjloS ksixi,j iqma;j úfjzlSj .; lrhs’ ksYaÑ; iD;=jloS u,a yg.ekaùu yd M,oerSu o pl%dldrj is) lrhs’ fndfydaúg fuu Ydlj, m;% os.=l,la mqrd cSj;a fjñka wjidk ld,fhaoS iuyr fmdaIl jrAOkh fjñka mj;sk ia:dk j,g ^m;%” o(” wdosh& kej; mrsixl%uKh lrjhs’ bkamiq cSjld,h wjika ùfuka fuu m;% ye,S hk w;r tajd mi ;=< m%;splS%lrKh fjhs’ fuz idOl ish,a,u mfia fmdaIl

fndfyda ksjrA;k l,dmSh m,;=re úfYaI j, úYd, uQ, uKav,hla mfia .eUqrg úysfohs’ uQ< uKav,fha

;;a;ajhla Ydlhg wjYHjk fmdaIl yd tajdfha m%udKhka u;g úYd, n,mEula lrhs’ m,;=re WoHdkfha

jrAOkh yd úlikh mfia mj;sk ;;a;ajh wkqjo tu m,;=re Ydlh nsyslr.;a m%pdrK l%ufjzoh ^nSc me<” noaO me<” .%dyl úfYaIh” f,ahrA me< wdosh& wkqjo ie,lsh hq;= wkaoñka fjkia fjhs’ tfukau tu

Ydl fmdaIK jevigykla ilid .ekSu i|yd fuu idOl ms<sn|j m%udKj;a wjfndaOhla ;sîsu yd ie,ls,su;a ùu jeo.;a fjhs’ fuz i|yd wdruzNhla f,i WoHdkfha j.dlr we;s ish(u m,;=re Ydlj, ;;a;ajh

Ydl j.dlrkq ,nk lDIs foaY.=Ksl ;;a;aj wkqjo fuu fmdaIK wjYH;d oeäf,i fjkia fjhs’

taldldrS ugzgulg m;alr .ekSu (synchronization) WoHdk md,kfha jeo.;a mokula fjhs’ lmamd)j”

60


c,iuzmdokh wdos Wml%u j,ska m,;=re Whfka ish( .ia j, jrAOkh

muK wvx.= jkafka fuu uQ, øjHhs’ tajd Ydlfha jrAOl fldgia ksmojd

yd úlikh jk wjê tljr is\ qlr .ekSug mshjr .ekSu wjYHhs' iuyrúg fuz i|yd jirla folla .;úh yelsh’ bkamiq <má wjêfha

.ekSug fm%daák iy fuzo ksmojd .ekSug odhlfjhs’ miqj Ydlfha wksl=;a ishMZ mrsjD;a;sh ls%hdj,g wjYH ix@gl ksmoùugo odhl

mj;sk j.djka i|yd iy m%ckl wjêfha mj;sk j.djka i|yd ieliqkq yd tu lDIs foaY.=Ksl l,dmhg .e,fmk fmdaIK l%ufjzohla ilia

fjhs’ l khsg%cka (N) fm%daák# ffi,j, kHIaál yd m%fjzksl øjH” tkaihsu wdos ffcj ridhksl

lr.; hq;=h’

ls%hdj,g b;d jeo.;ajk khsg%cka Ydlfha jrAOkh yd úlik ls%hdj,sfha ldhsl úoHd;aul fufyhla bgqlrhs’

fuz i|yd uq,sl jYfhka l%fudamdhka folla mj;s’ m<uqj mdxY= úYaf,aIKh lsrSu uÛska mfia we;s fmdaIK ;;a;ajh ms<sn| jdrA;djla ilia lr.; yels w;r” WoHdkfha we;s Ydl m;% iduzm, úYaf,aIKh lsrSfuka Ydlfha fmdaIK ;;a;aj ms<sn| jdrA;djla ilia lr.; yelsh’ fuu jdrA;d fol iei|Sfuka m%udKj;a fmdaIK jev ms,sfj,la ilia lr .ekSu jvd;a fhda.Hh’ .eg( iy.; ;;a;ajhla we;skuz tajd y"kdf.k l,a we;sj úi|d,Sug lghq;= l, yelsh’ th ksIamdok úhou wvq lr,Sug fukau M,odhs;dj yd M, j, .=Kd;auh jeä lr.ekSugo Wmldrs fjhs’ (Cutting. J.)

3'4'1 Ydlj, wjYH;djhka l

ldnka# yhsv%cka iy Tlaiscka

´kEu Ydlhl úh<s nfrka 94 %

úfYaIfhkau yrs;m%o ksmojd .ekSug w;HdjYH jk w;r” m;%fha we;s uq( khsg%cka m%udKfhka 70% la muKu we;af;a yrs;m%o j, ùu tys jeo.;a nj ukdj fmkajd fohs’ tfyhska Ydlfha m%Ndixiaf,aIK ldrACIu;dj ksrAKh lsrSug ;ruz jeo.;a ldrAhNdrhla khsg%cka uQ, øjHhg ndrù ;sfnz’ l

fmdiamria (P)

Ydlfha mrsjD;a;Sh ls%hdj,sh md,kh lrk ls%hdldrS ixfhda.j, fmdiamria wvx.= fjhs’ ffi, j, kHIaál wuz,’ Ydl ffcj ridhksl ixfhda. tkaihsu j, fmdiamria m%Odk ix@glhls’ tajd Ydlfha Yajijkh” Yla;sh .nvd lsrSu” Ydl mrsjD;a;Sh fukau m%Ndixiaf,aIK m%;sls%hd is)lsrSug o w;HdjYH fjhs’ Ydl ;=< Yla;h s mrsjrA;kfha udOHh fmdiamria f,i ie,fla’ fmdiamria wvqùfuka 61


M,fha fmd;a; oeä ùu# tfukau meKs fodvuzj, wuz, m%udKh jeäùu is)fjhs’

wdosh

j.=j - Ydlj,g fmdaIl Wrd.kakd wKql wdldrh fmdaIl

Ydlhg Wrd.kakd wKql wdldrh

ldnka ( C )

CO2 , HCO3 -

yhsv%cka (H)

H2O

Tlaiscka ^O)

H2O , O2

khsg%cka (N)

NH4+ , NO3-

fmdiamria (P)

H2PO4- , HPO4-2

fmdgEishuz (K)

K+

le,aishuz ^Ca)

Ca+2

ue.akSishuz (Mg)

Mg-2

f.kao.uz (S)

So4-2

hlv (Fe)

Fe+2, Fe+3

;=;a;kd.uz (Zn)

Zn+2, Zn(OH)2

ue.akSishuz ^Mn)

Mn+2

;U (Cu)

Cu+2

fndafrdaka (B)

B(OH)3

fud,snzäkuz ^Mo)

MoO 4-

laf,darska (Cl)

Cl-

úúO

fmdaIl

Wrd.kakd

whksl

wdldrh wkqj Ydl fmdaIKh i|yd fhosh hq;= fmdfydr wdosh wjfndaO lr.; yelsh’ fuu fmdaIl j,g ksYaps; jq úfYaI ldrAhNdrhla Ydlj, jrAOkh yd úlikh ls%hdj,sfha olakg ,efnz’ 62

tfyhska M,odhs m,;=re WoHdkhla ;sridrj mj;ajdf.k hdug fuu fmdaIl m%udKj;a whqrska Ydlj,g ksisl,g ,ndoSu WoHdk md,kfha jeo.;a wjYH;djhls’


l

fmdgEishuz (K)

Ydlh ;=< ksmofjk ldnksl ixfhda. j,g w;HdjYHfhkau fmdgEishuz wka;rA.; fkdjqjo úYd, ixLHdjla jk tkaihsu ils%h lrjk ldrlhla f,i mrsjD;s;Sh ls%hdj,g th b;d jeo.;a fjhs’

j, .nvd ld,h jeä fjhs’ tfukau .nvd lsrSfuzoS M,j, .=Kd;auh jeä oshqKqùu;a M,j, wNHka;r mgl ìojeàu wvqùu;a is)fjhs’ ue.akSishuz (Mg) yrs;m%o wKqfõ wvx.= f,dayuh uQ< øjHh ue.akSishuz fjhs’ th Ydl ;=< l

Wod* mhsreúla lhsfkaia Ydlh ;=< ldfndayhzfvz%g mrsixl%uKhg wjYHjk ksid jeä wiajekakla ,nd .ekSug jeo.;afjhs’ tfukau m;%h

fmdiafmagz mrsixl%uKhg;a fmdiafmagz mrsjD;a;shg;a wjYH nj mejfia’ fndfyda tkaihsu ilS%h lrùug ue.akSishuz wjYHfjhs’ Yajikfha

;=< ksmofjk wdydr m;%fhka msg;g mrsixl%uKh lsrSug fmdgEishuz odhl fjhs' tf,i wdydr m;%fhka bj;a

mj;ajdf.k hdug wjYHjk w;r” Ydlh ;=< f;,a ksmoùfuz m%;sl%shd j,g o odhl fjhs’

ùu w;HdjYHhs' túg m%Ndixiaf,aIK ls%hdj,sh ldrAhCIuj is) lsrSug WmldrSfjhs’ tfukau fmdgEishuz m%udKj;a ;ruz ,eîfuka m,;=re f.ä j, .=Kd;auh jeä fjhs’ l

le,aishï (Ca)

Ydl ffi,j, ì;a;sj, wvx.=jk m%Odk uQ,øjH jk le,aishuz u.ska uq,a jrAOkh” mgl úlikh iy ffi, ;=< tla/iajk úI ridhklhla WodiSk lsrSu i|yd le,aishuz jeo.;a fufyhla bgq lrhs’ ffi,j, m%d.ama,diaóh we;=( Wmdx.j, iSudjka mj;ajd f.k hdug;a ffi, yd mgl j,g hdka;s%l Yla;shla ,ndoSug;a iuyr tkaihsu j, ix@glhka f,i;a le,aishuz jeo.;a nj fmkajdoS ;sfnz’ tfukau le,aishuz ksid m,;=re

l

f.kao.ï (S)

isiaáka (Cystine), isiaáiska (Cysticine) iy fu;sfhdkska (Methonine) hk weuhsfkda wuz, j, wka;rA.; ù” fm%daáka iy tkaihsu ksmoùug wjYH fjhs’ iuyr fm%daáfhda,sál tkaihsu ils%h lsrSug ^Wod’ mefmaka yd fn%dau,ska& odhl ù iuyr tkaihsu ksmoùug wjYHfjhs’ Ydlfha khsg%cka mrsjD;a;s ls%hdj,shg o f.kao.ï wjYHjk nj fmkajdos ;sfnz’ l

hlv (Fe)

laf,dafrda

ma,diagfha

(chloroplasts)

wvx.=jk m%Odk ix@glhla ksid yrs;m%o ixiaf,aIKhg w;HdjYh fmdaIlhla jqjo yrs;m%o j, wvx.= fkdfjz’ yhsv%cfkaia” legf,aia” Tlaisfvzia iy ihsgfl%dauz 63


ls%hdldrS;ajhg ueosy;a jk w;r” iuyr tkaihsu ils%h lsrSug

l

fud,sìäkuz (Mo) fjkqjg iy tkaihsuhla f,igo wjYHfjhs’ laf,dafrda ma,diagfha wvx.=jk fm%daàka ixiaf,aIKhg hlv wjYHfjhs’

f,i ls%hd lrhs’ ghsfrdisfkaia (Tyrosinase), ,eflafÜia (Lactase&# weiafldansla weisvz Tlaisfvzia (Ascorbic acidoxidase) jeks tkaihsu

l

uex.kSia (Mn)

ldfndayhsfvz%gz

mrsjD;a;Sh”

fmdiamr,SlrKh m%;sls%hd iy isá%la wuz, pl%hg iuznkaO úYd, ixLHdjla jk tkaihsu ilS%h lsrSug uex.kSia iuznkaO fjhs’ ta ksidu Ydlj, M,odhs;dj jeä lsrSug” jrAOkh fjz.j;a lsrSug iy .=Kd;aul M, ksmoùug uex.kSia m%udKj;a f,i Ydlj,g ,nd .ekSug yelsúh hq;=h’ uex.kSia úiska wdrAcsfkaia (Arginase) isiaáiska I,a>hsfvz%ia” (Cysticine desulphydrase), äTlaisrhsfndaiakshqla,s fhaia (Deoxyribose nuclease) iy hSiagz fmdiamfgzia (Yeast phosphatase?hk tkaihsu (Prolidase) ilS%hlh

i|ydo fm%d,sfvzia tkaihsufha ksYaÑ;

;U (Cu) ;U tkaihsu

lsysmhl

ilS%hlh

j, ilS%hldrlhhs’ m%Ndixiaf,aK ls%hdj,shgo iuznkaO ksid Ydlj, wdydr ksIamdok ldrAhCIu;djg n,mdhs’ ldfndayhsfvz%g mrsjD;a;shg iy fm%daàka ixiaf,aIKhgo odhl ùu ksid M,j, .=Kd;auhg n,mdk nj fmfka’ l

;=;a;kd.ïz (Zn)

;=;a;kd.uz

j,

m%Odk

ldrAhh

kuz úfYaIs;jq tkaihsu rdYshla ilS%h lsrSug odhlùuhs’ tajd w;r tfkdf,aia (Enolase& hSiagz we,afvdaf,aia (Yeast aldolase&, Tlaif,da weisála äldfndalaisf,ai(a Oxalacetic decarboxylase& jeks tkaihsu jeo.;a jkafka Yajik ls%hdj,sfha oS Yla;sh ksoyia lsrSu ldrAhCIu lrjk fyhsks’ Ydl jrAOl hdul ^Wod’ bkafvda,a weisála wuz,h& ksmoùfuz

f,io

fuh

wjYHfjhs’

m%Ndixiaf,aIkfha

ys,a

m%;sls%hdj

ls%hdj,sh ilS%hj mj;ajdf.k hdug ;=;a;kd.u bjy,a ùu Ydlj,

(Hill reaction& i|yd uex.kSia m%uqL wjYH;djhla ksid Ydlj, m%Ndixiaf,aIK ldrAhCIu;djg iDcqju n,mdhs’

jrAOkh iy úlikhg tys we;s n,mEu olajhs’ fm%daàka ixiaf,aIKhgo ;=;a;kdh.uz ueosy;a jk nj fmkajdoS ;sfnz’

64


l

fndafrdaka (B)

Ydl ;=< mrsixl%uKfhaoS

ldfndayhsvzfvz%g fndafrdaka jeo.;a

fufyhla bgqlrhs’ ldfndayhsfvz%g uÛska úúO ixfhda. ixiaf,aIKh lsrSug yd ffi,j, mg,h iuÛ fndfrdaka iuznkaO ùfuka fyda ldfndayhsfvz%g ffi, ;=<ska mrsixl%uKhg fndafrdaka odhlfjhs’ Yajik ls%hdj,sfha hï hï mshjrhka md,khgo fndafrdaka ueosy;a jk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz’ ldfndayhsfvz%g j,ska fjk;a ixfhda. ixiaf,aIKhgo tuÛska kj ffi, ksIamdokhgo fndafrdaka odhl ùfuka m,;=re Ydlj, M,odhs;djhg fndafrdaka oeä n,meula is)lrhs’ W;aiafjzokhg n,mEuz lsrSfuka Ydlj, c, iuznkaO;d md,khgo fndafrdaka iuznkaOfjhs’ m,;=re WoHdk md,kfhaoS fndafrdaka jeo.;a fmdaIlhla nj fmfka’ l

fud,snsäkï (Mo)

weiafldìla wuz,h ixiaf,aIKfhaoS iy idOlhla f,igo ls%hdlrk ksid M, j, .=Kd;auh jrAOkhg th jeo.;a fjhs’ l

laf,darSka (Cl)

uE;la jk ;=reu laf,darSka Ydl fmdaIlhla f,i i,lkq fkd,eìK’ tfy;a m%Ndixiaf,aIK ls%hdj,sfhaosS Tlaiscka ksoyia lsrSfuz mshjr i|yd laf,darSka ueosy;ajk nj olajd ;sfnz’ W;aiafjzokh l%uj;aj md,kh lsrSfuzoS laf,darSkao Bg odhl fjhs’ tfyhska Ydlj, c, iuznkaO;d M,odhS uÜgulska mj;ajdf.k hdug m%udKj;a laf,darSka iemhqula m,;=re WoHdkfha ;sìh hq;=h’ Ydlj,g ,jK;djhg idrA:lj yev .eiSug laf,darSka WmldrS fjhs’ fuu fmdaIl ;ks ;ksju fkdj iuQyhla f,i m,;=re WoHdkfha by, .=Kd;aufha jeä wiajekakla ,nd .ekSug odhl fjhs’ WoHdk md,kfhaoS

khsá%cka mrsjD;a;sfhaoS fud,sìäkuz m%uqL fufyjrla lrhs’ úfYaIfhkau

fuu fmdaIl j, jeo.;alu fukau tajd wjYHjk m%udKhka iy iemhSfuz

uQ, .eá;s wdYs%;j khsá%cka ;sr lsrSfuz ls%hdj,sfhaoS tkaihsu ls%hdldrS;ajhgo n,mdk nj mejfia’ khsfgz%gz rsvlafgzia (Nitrate reductase) iy ieka;ska Tlaisfvzia (Xanthene

l%u fjzoh ms,sn|j ukd wjfndaOhla ;snSu w;HdjYH fjhs’ fuz i|yd fmdaIl ms<sn|j fukau m,;=re fnda.j, jrAOkh” úlikh” ldhsl úoHdj” iy mdrsirsl idOl iunrj iudfhdackh

oxidase) jeks tkaihsu ilS%h lrk w;r” fm%daàka ixiaf,aIKhgo fud,sìäkuz ls%hdldrSj odhl fjhs’

lsrSu WoHdkfha l,uKdlrKfha jeo.;a ldrAhNdrhls’

3'5 Ydl fmdaIK W"K;d 65


wiajekak f,i mfika fmdaIl bj;ajk m%udKhg wu;rj nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re .ia j, jrAOkhg iy Ydlh ;=< mgl mrsK;ùfuzosS

m%udKh fjkia jqjo m%udKj;a ;ruz mig tajd kej; tlalsrSu m,;=re WoHdkh md,kh lsrSfuz jeo.;a ls%hdldrluls’ wiajekak fCIa;%fhka

úúO fmdaIl úYd, m%udKhla mfika bj;aù Ydlh ;=< ;ekam;a fjhs’ tajd mig kej; ,eîug wjldYhla Ydlh ñh hk;=reu fkdue;sjqj;a m;%

bj;a ùu os.=l,la mqrd is)jk úg th m,;=re .ia j, M,odhs;djg wys;lr f,i n,mdhs’ wiajekak jdrh wjikajq miq fnfyda m,;=re .ia kej;

lsishuz ld,hlg miq ì| jeàfuka mig huz m%udKhla fuu fmdaIl wdmiq ,efnz’ tfy;a fndfyda m,;=re

kj m;% yd YdLd we;slr wiajekak ksid we;sjq wd;;sh wvq lrf.k h:d ;;a;ajhg m;aùug ls%hdlrk

úfYaI j, m;% udi 6-8la muK os.=l,la cSj;afjk w;r” Ydlhl oi oyia .Kkska m;% msysghs’ fuz wkqj úYd, fmdaIl m%udKhla Ydlh ;=<

w;r tuÛska B,. wiajekak jdrh i|yd Ydlh iqodkuz lsrSu werfUz’ fuz ksid jrAOkh i|yd úYd, fmdaIl m%udKhla kej;;a Ydlhg wjYH

ksr;=reju .nvd ù isr.; ù ;sfnk ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia fmdaIl wvqùu wLkavj is)fjz’

fjhs’ wiajekafkka miqj wjYH jk fmdaIl m%udKh mfika ,nd oSug lghq;= lsrSu jeo.;ah

Ydlhla ;=< fmdaIl r|jd ;eîu Ydlfha jrAOk ;;a;ajh wkqj

fmdaIl W!K;d

fjkiafjz’ iS.% jrAOkhla iys; úYd, Ydl j,g wjfYdaIKh flfrk fmdaIl m%udKh jeä ksid tjeks j.djl mfika idfmaCIj jeä fmdaIl m%udKhla bj;afjhs’ ksfrda.S j.djla kuz fuz ;;a;aj fjz.fhka is) fjhs’ m,;=re úfYaIh wkqj bj;a fjk fmdaIl iy tajdfha

m,;=re Ydlfha m%Yia; jrAOkhg úlikhg iy M, oerSug m%udKj;a ;ruz ish( fmdaIl Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSu i|yd m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia wjfYdaIKh lr .;yels wdldrhg mj;ajd

j,ska

.ekSu WoHdk md,kfha w;HdjYH kv;a;= lghq;a;ls’ wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSu i|yd ta ta fmdaIl ta ta m,;=re úfYaI j,g m%Yia: jk wkqmd;hg mj;ajd .;aúg tajd Ydlh

wiajekak fk,d .ekSfuka jirlg fylaghdrhlska bj;ajk fmdaIl

;=<g wjfYdaIKh ùu myiq fjhs’ fmdaIlj, idfmaCI iq,N;dj jeo.;a

idfmaCI m%udKhka fjkia fjhs’ úúO

66

m,;=re

úfYaI


jkafka tfyhsks’ tu ksid wjYHjk ish( fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSu r|d mj;sk lreKq w;r” mdxY+ ødjKfha úúO fmdaIl j, idfmaCI

fyda tajd Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels wdldrhg fkdmj;sk nj fyda m%udKj;a ;ruz f;;ukhla mfia fkdue;s nj fyda fjk;a widudkH

iq,N;dj /l .; hq;=h’ mfia wju m%udKhkaf.ka mj;sk fmdaIlfha wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels m%udKh uÛska wksl=;a fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh

mrsir idOl n,mj;akd njh' tfukau Ydlfha ldhsl úoHd;aul .egMZjla fyda Ydlfha m%fjzKsl .egMZjla o óg fya;= úh yelsh'

lr .ekSu iSudfjhs’ tfyhska ishMZu fmdaIl j, idfmaCI iq,N;djh wkqjo tajdfha wjfYdaIKh ;SrKh fjhs’ Bg

Ydl

wu;rj mdxY= idOl yd Ydl idOl rdYshlao tajdg n,mEuz lrk WoHdk kv;a;= lghq;=o óg m%n, n,mEuz we;s lrhs’ W!K;d y"kd .ekSu i|yd mdxY+ úYaf,aIKh jeo.;a jkafka lkak fnda. iy jdrAIsl Ydl j,ghs’ nyqjdrAIsl Ydl úfYaI j,g uSg wu;rj mgl úfYaIK lsrSfuka W!K;d .egMZ y"kd.; yelsh’ mig fl;ruz fmdfydr tla l,o mdxY+ yd Ydl idOl ksid iuyr úg Ydlhg m%udKj;a ;ruz fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh fkdflfrA’ jrAOkhg yd úlikhg wjYH fmdaIl fkd,eî

fmdaIl

W!K;djh

ksid

idudkHfhka Ydlfha jrAOkh wvd, ùu fyda kej;Su” l=reùu” m;%j, úfYaI )rAj,;d we;sùu” Ydlh fuzrSug l,a.; ùu” u,a M, yg.ekSfuz )rAj,;d# u,a M, ye,Shdu” M,fha wNHka;r mgl ì|jeàu” M,fha .=Kd;aul” )rAj,;d iy Ydlfha uQ, uKv,h )rAj, ùu wdos ,CIK fmd)fjz i|yka l, yelsh’ fjk;a lDñ ydkshla fyda frda.hla ksid fkdfjz kuz fuu ,CIK fmdaIK W!K;djla ksid we;sfjz hehs ie,lsh yelsh’ kuq;a tla tla fmdaIlfha W!K;dj ksid we;sjk ,CIK fjkia jk w;r” tajd Ydl úfYaI wkqjo ;rula )rg fjkia úh yelsh’ m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fjzoS

hk úg Ydlfhka ta nj m%ldY flfrkafka úúO ,CIK we;s lsrSfuks’ tkuz Ydlhl fmdaIl W!K;dj fmkakquz lrk úúO ,CIK wkqj wjfndaOlr .; hq;af;a Ydlhg fuu

fuz ,CIK ms<sn|j ukd wjfndaOhla ;sîu wjYHhs’ l khsg%cka W!K;dj

fmdaIl m%udKj;a ;ruz wjfYdaIKh fkdfjk njh’ Bg fya;=j mfia tu fmdaIl m%udKj;a f,i fkdue;s nj

w;r” uq( Ydlfhau jrAOkh wvd, ù

fuzrE m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajhs’ ,d fld, meyehg <má m;% ìys fjk

67


,d fld, meyehg yefrhs’ fuzrE m;% lymdg ù blaukska yE,s hhs’ u,a msmSu blauka jqjo fndfyda u,a l=vd ù )rAj, ù ye,S hhs’ M, l=vd fjhs’ fndfydauhla M, fuzrSug fmr ye,S hhs’ M,j, wuz, m%udKh wvqùfuka m%KS; nj jeä jqjo wiajekak wvqfjhs’ ;jo fuu W!K;dj iuyrúg wksl=;a fmdaIl ksid ie.ù ;sìh yelsfjz’ túg frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks jeä ù úYd, ydks is)úh yelsh’ m,;=re Whfka mfia fmdaIl yd ldnksl øjH ysÛ ùu cSrAKh fkdjq

wvqùu” m;% u,a yd l=vd m, ye,Shdu wdoS ,CIK we;s fjz’ l

fmdgEishï W!K;dj

fuzre m;% j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajhs’ Ydlfha jrAOkh wvqfjhs’ mrAj fláh’ Ydl flá jk w;r” fl<jr isg úh<S hhs’ m;% l=vd fjk w;r” ks,a meye;s fld, meyehg yefrhs’ kdrá w;r” m;% odrhg wdikakj ly meyehg yefrhs’ m;% odrh ly mdg ù miqj )Uqremdg ù úh<S hhs’ W!K;djfha uq,a wjêfhaoS Ydlfha úYd, f,i u,a yg .kakd kuq;a tajd b;d blaukska

Ydl fldgia iy wêl ldnka wvx.= Ydl fldgia nyq,j mig tlalsrSu mfia jd;%dY%h wvqùu” wdoS idOl óg fya;=fjhs’ fyd|ska osrd.sh ldnksl

ye,S hhs’ l=vd M, ye,Su;a” M, l=vd ùu;a” M,j, wduz,sl nj jeäùu ta .=Kd;auh wvqùu úfYaI W!K;d

øjH ^flduzfmdaiagz& ksr;=reju fhoSu” mia nqre,a lr jiqkla fhoSu iy jd;kh lsrSu# khsg%cka wvx.= fmdfydr fhoSu wdosh uÛska fuu

fkd.eUqre milao mfia c,jykh

;;a;ajh uÛZyrjd .; yelsh’ l

fmdiamria W!K;dj

fuzre m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajhs’ m;% l=vd ùu;a uq( Ydlhu ;o fld,mdg ùu;a m;% u; me;sreKq ouzmdg ,m we;s ùu;a is)fjhs’ ta yer wksl=;a ,CIK yd W!K;d ,CIK j,ska fjkalr y"kd .ekSug wmyiqh’ isyska YdLd we;sùu” uq,a yd lf|a jrAOkh iSud ùu” fld,odj wvqùu” m;% l=vdùu” yg.kakd u,a ixLHdj 68

,CIK fjhs’

)rAj, jq we;sfjz’ l

úgo

W!K;djh

le,aishï W!K;dj

<má m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajk w;r” w.%ia: wxl=r ushhhs’ m;% fmdl=rla f,i túg msysghs’ t;ruz iq,N W!K;djhla fkdjqKo wduz,sl mil fmdgEishï# ue.akSishï# ^K, Mg) iy khsg%cka ^N) W!K;dj iuÛ tu iy (AI) we(uskshï úIodhS ugzgug jeä jq mil ^Ca) le,aishï W!K;dj olakg ,efnz’ túg tu mfia jefvk Ydlj, le,aishï W!K;dj olakg


,efnz’ kj YdLd iy m;% we;sùu mudfjk w;r we;sjk ixLHdjo iSud fjhs’ we;sjk YdLd j, w.%ia:fha isg miq uerSu is)fjhs’ mgqodrh by,g

m;%j, w.% leãu” kdrá w;r ly meyeùu” miqj fuu ly mdg l,dm úYd,ùu ksid uqMZ m;%hu we;ao< meye;s lymdg ùu is)fjz’ <má m;%j,

wels,s úh<S hhs’ uQ, moaO;sh )rAj, fjhs’ flá uy; uq,a we;sjk w;r” ilS%h uQ, flaI ixLHdj meyeos,s f,i wvqfjhs’

fuu ,CIK olakg ,efnz’ m<uqj m;% odrh iy w.%h miqj jHdma; ù odrh úh<S hd yelsh’ <má M, ,d lyjka fld, meyehg yefrhs’

l

ue.akSishï W!K;dj

l

uex.kSia W!K;dj

fuzre m;% j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajk

fuzre

w;r ye,Shdu blauka fjhs’ YdLdj, jrAOkh wvqfjhs’ m;% kdrá w;r” lyùu yd m;% úh<Shdu úfYaI W!K;d

mfia NdIañl ;;a;ajh jeäùfuka uex.kSia W!K;djla we;sfjhs’ m;% kdrá w;r lymdgg yefrk w;r

,CIK fjhs’ kuq;a fuu ,CIK m,;=re Ydl úfYaI wkqj ;rula )rg fjkiafjhs’ m;%j, odrfha

fuzjd m;% m%Odk kdráh foig jHdma; fjhs’ uOHu kdráh iy mdrAYaúl kdrá fld, meyefhka

isg wNHka;rhg jHdma; fjk r;=” ouz meyehla jrAOkh ùu fmd\q ,CIKhls'

mj;s’ W.% W!K;djfhaoS uq( m;%hu ly meyehg yefrA’

l

i,a>rA W!K;dj (S)

<má m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkakqjo w.%ia: wxl=r icSùj mj;S’ khsg%cka W!K;d ,CIKj,g iudk njla fmkajhs’ <má m;% m<uqj ,d fld, meyehg yefrhs’ l

hlv W!K;dj

fuzre m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkakqjo w.%ia: wxl=r icSùj mj;S’ mfia NdIañl;dj jeä ùfuka iy mi ;=, wksl=;a fmdaIl m%udKh wêl f,i by, hdfuka hlv W!K úh yelsh’

l

m;%j,

W!K;d

fmkajhs'

fldmrA ^;U& W!K;dj

<má m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkakqjo w.%ia: wxl=r icSùj mj;S’ ;U W!K;d ,CIK m,;=re úfYaIfhka úfYaIhg fjkia fjhs’ tu W!K;d ,CIK meyeos,sju fjkalr y"kd .ekSug wmyiq jqjo W.% W!K;djhloS <má m;% uola by, osYdjg yels,S )Uqremdg ,CIK we;s fjhs’ Ydlj, by,u m;% yelsf,hs' fuzre Ydlj, lf|a fmd;a; oeäfjhs’ l

iskala W!K;dj

fuzre

m;%j,g

fmkajhs’

<má

W!K;d m;%

l=vd

,CIK fjhs’ 69


wiu;=,s; ù tl mfilg jl%fjhs’ m;% yevho ,uzndldr yevhg ieliSfuka m;%o mrAj flá fjhs’ kj YdLdj, yg.kakd kj m;% ixLHdj wvq fjhs’ yg.kakd m;% YdLdfjz fl,jr fmdl=rla wdldrhg mj;s’ kdrá w;r lymdg fjk w;r# tu lymdg ,m jgd mgq ;o fld, meye;s odrhla msysghs’ iuyrúg Ydlfha YdLd lsysmhl muKla fuu W!K;d ,CIK we;sfjk w;r” wksl=;a YdLd ksfrda.S nj fmkakquz lrhs’ l

fndafrdaka W!K;dj (B)

<má m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajk w;r” w.%ia: wxl=r úh<S hhs’ kj YdLd j, m;% ixLHdj wvqfjhs’ m;% l=vd ù ,xidldr yeve;s fjhs’ tajd fld,mdg ù fmdl=rla wdldrhg YdLdj, w.%fha yg.kS’ YdLdj, lf|a iy f.ä j, wiudldrjq .eá;s iajNdjhla we;sfjz’ wNHka;r mgl )Uqre meye;s ù ì| jefgz’ M, j, me,Suz iy brs;e,Suzo .eá;s jrAOkho olakg ,efnz’ M, úlD;s fjhs’ M,h ;=< )Uqre meye;s jq mgl ì| jegqkq ia:dk we;s fjhs’ l

fud,síäkka W!K;dj

<má m;%j, W!K;d ,CIK fmkajk w;r” w.%ia: wxl=r icSùj mj;s’ m;% ;,h u; lymdg ,m we;sùu iy úlD;s ùu olakg ,efnz’ <má m;% ue,ùfuz ,CIK fmkajhs’ 70

,jK;djh iy NdIañl;dj ,jK;djh yd NdIañl;djhg n,mdk m%Odk ls%hdldrS whk kuz Na+ ^fidaähï& yd Ca+^fle,aishï& iy tajdfha ,jK jk laf,darhsvz” i,af>agz” khsfgz%g iy nhsldnfkag whk idkaøKhhs' thska mfia úoHq;a ikakdhl;dj (Electric conductivity) 4 d Sm -1 muK jk w;r pH w.h idudkHfhka 8-5g wh;afjhs’ NdIañl mil yqjudre lr.; yels fidaähï Ok whk Na+ whk m%udKh’ (Exchangeable Sodium) 15% lg jeäjk w;r úoHq;a ikakdhl;dj 4 d Sm -1g jvd wvqfjhs’ mdxY= fN!;sl ,CIK ^jhkh” jHqyh& ì|jeàug fya;=fjhs’ túg mi ;=< jd;h” c,h” /|Su wdoS ,CIK )rAj, ;;a;ajhg m;aù fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh wvqfjhs’ mfia c, jykh wvqjk úg fï ;;a;ajh we;s fõ' tuÛska wys;lr ;;;ajhla we;sù fmdaIK wjfYdaIKh wvqfjhs' fuz wkqj m,;=re WoHdkfha fmdaIl ksis f,i wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSug wmyiq ùfuzka m,;=re me< j, jrAOkh fukau M,odhS;djo wvqfjhs’ kuq;a iuyr m,;=re úfYaI fuu ;;a;aj j,g ;rula )rg Tfrd;a;= fok kuq;a ,jK;djhg m<;=re fnda. Tfrd;a;= fok wdldrh fjkia fjhs' ,jK;djh iuyr m,;=re fnda.j,g n,mEu flfia jqjo mfia wduz,sl;dj#


NdIañl;dj yd ,jK;dj mdxY= ødjKfha fmdaIl iq,Nùug n,mdhs’ fuu ;;a;ajhka hgf;a mfia fmdaIl j, yeisrSu my; i|yka wdldrhg

mi;=, jd;h” c,h” /|su wdos ,CIK )rAj, ;;ajhg m;ajs fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh wvqfjhs’ l mfia

idrdxYhlau f,i fmkajdosh yelsh’

m%udK wvqjk w;r” mfia we;s wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels ;;a;ajhg m;afjhs’ wjYHh

fuz

fuz wkqj m,;=re WoHdkfha fmdaIl ksis f,i wjfYdaIKh lr.eksug wmyiqjsfuzka m,;=re me, j, jrAOkh

jk

nelaàrshd ls%hdldrS;ajh wvqfjhs’ wvqùfuka

fukau m,odhs;djo wvqfjhs’ kuq;a iuyr m,;=re jsfYaI fuu ;;aj j,g ;rula )rg Tfrd;a;= fok kuq;a

fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh ù uo wvq fõ'

,jK;djhg m,;=re fnda. Tfrd;a;= fok m%udKh fjkia fjhs’

l c,h

l

wvqjkjsg

;;a;ajh we;sfjz’ tuÛska wys;lr ;;a;ajhla we;sjs fmdaIK wjfYdaIKh lr.eksu wvqfjhs’

l hlv wjfYdaIKh lr .;yels

l khsg%ckSlrKhg

c,jykh

wjfYdaIKh

mdxY= fN!;sl ,CIK ^jhkh” jHqyh& ns|jegSug fya;=fjhs’ tjsg

ixfjzos jeähs

uOHu ugzgug

m%;sfrdaêhs

oeäf,i m%;sfrdaOShs

0-4 dSm-1

ixfjzos 0-4 dSm-1

6-8 dSm-1

8-16 dSm-1

*

meKs fodvuz

*

mefmd,a

*

f,uka

*

flfi,a

*

foys

*

usos

*

f.%amamDgz

*

wU

*

w,s.egfmar

*

wfkdaod

*

iemos,a,d

*

foMZuz

*

fmar

*

fn,s

*

uika

*

udoka

*

rgb|s

,jK;djh m,;=re WoHdkfha M,odhS;djhg .egMZjla kuz mi jeäoshqKq lsrSug lghq;= lsrSu wjYH;djhls’ fuz ioyd WodiSk c,h úYd, f,i fhoSfuka mi fidaod yerSug lghq;= l, yelsh’ tu w;sfrAl whk mfika .eUqrg ls|d neiSu is)fjz’ csmaiuz (CaSO4) fhoSu” fld, fmdfydr iy flduzfmdaiagz nyq, f,i fhoSuo uÛska fuu ;;a;ajh l%ufhka fjkialr .;yelsh’ 71


3'6 mfika fmdaIl bj;aùu

3'6'1 mfika fmdaIl bj;ajk l%u

fmdaIl ksis m%udKhkaf.ka yd ksis wkqmd;hkaf.ka Ydlhg ,nd .ekSug wjia:dj i,id osh hq;=h’

3'6'6'1fnda.j,ska wiajekak f,i

Ydlfhka fmdaIl bj;aùfuz m%udKh

m,;=re fnda. j,ska wiajekak f,i úYd, icSù fldgia m%udKhla m,;=re WoHdkfhka msg;g bj;a

m,;=re úfYaIh wkqj fjkia fjhs’ ta ta m,;=re úfYaIj, wiajekak m%udKh# jirlg wiajekak ,efnk ld, iSudj hkdos idOl wkqj fuz wdldrhg

lrf.k hkq ,efnz’ jdrAIsl fyda wrAO nyqjdrAIsl m,;=re fnda. j,ska kuz fufia bj;aj hk m%udKh idfmaCIj wvqjkafka tu Ydlj, cSú; ld,h

bj;ajk fmdaIl yd tajdfha m%udKh fjkiafjhs’

wjika ùu;a iuÛ Ydl fldgia kej; mig tl;= ùu;a tajdfha iels,a, ;=< jrAOl fldgia j, fmdaIl .nvdlr ;eîu idfmaCIj wvq ksid;ah’ tfy;a nyqjdrAIsl m,;=re fnda. j,ska jirla mdid wiajekak f,i úYd, fmdaIl m%udKhla mfika bj;a fjhs’ ta iuÛZu tu Ydl b;d os.= ld,hla mqrd jrAOl jrAOkfha fhfok w;r wLKavj kj mgl ^YdLd” l|ka uq,a wdos& ksmoùu i|yd úYd, fmdaIl m%udKh Ydlh ;=< r|jd .kS’ ta ksid ksr;=reju nyqjdrAIsl m,;=re fnda. WoHdkhl mfika úYd, f,i fmdaIl bj;a fjhs’ flfia jqjo m,;=re úfYaIh wkqj tajdg wjYHjk fmdaIl m%udKhka yd wkqmd; fjkiafjhs’ ta ksid iuyr m,;=re úfYaI j,g ksirejk mila ;j;a m,;=re úfYaIhlg ire mila úh yelsh’ flfia jqjo ish( 72

wiajkq fk,Su

úúO m,;=re úfYaI j,ska wiajekak fk,d .ekSfuka jirlg fylaghdrhlska bj;ajk fmdaIl m%udKh fjkia jqjo m%udKj;a ;ruz mig tajd kej; tlalsrSu m,;=re WoHdkh md,kh lsrSfuz jeo.;a ls%hdldrluls’ wiajekak fCIa;%fhka bj;a ùu os.=l,la mqrd is)jk úsg m,;=re Ydlj, M,odhs;djg wys;lr f,i n,mdhs’ wiajekak jdrh wjikajq miq fnfyda m,;=re Ydl B,. jrAOk wjia:djg t<fò' tkï kj m;% yd YdLd we;slr wiajekak ksid

we;sjq

wd;;sh

wvqlrf.k


h:d;;a;ajhg m;aùsuhs' túg kej; jrAOkh i|yd úsYd, fm`Il

;sridr f,i fmdaIl iemfhk kuq;a u;=msg mifiaoS hdfuka tu l,s, iy

m%udKhla kej;;a Ydlhg wjYH fjhs’

LKsc fmdaIlo mfika bj;afjhs’

3'6'1'2' fidaod md(j Erosion m,;=re WoHdkfha mfika fmdaIl ydksjk m%Odk;u ls%hdj,sh fidaod md(jhs’ ukd mdxY= ixrCIK Wml%u wkq.ukh fkdflfrA kuz m<uqj u;=msg mi myiqfjka ydksù fiaoS bj;a fjhs’ ta iu.u ldnksl fmdfydr yshquia iy fmdaIlo bj;a ùs hhs’ mdxY= LdokfhaoS mi;a iuÛZ bj;ajk fmdaIl w;r” m%uqL jkafka fmdiamria bj;a ùsuhs’ fidaod md( jq mil wvx.= fmdiamria m%udKh idfmaCIj wvqh’ fuu fidaod md(j wl%uj;a c,jykh ksid is)fjhs’ m,;=re WoHdkh mi ksire ùug os.= l,la mqrd is)jk fidaod md(j uq,sl jk nj fmfka’

3'6'1'3 ldka) ùu (Leaching& mfia wvx.= fmdaIl c,fha ødjKh ùsfuka tajd whk f,i Ydl j,g wjfYdaIKh flfrA’ c,hg tl;= fkdjq fmdaIl Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyelsh’ kuq;a wjYH m%udKhg jvd WoHdkfha mig c,h ,efnk wjia:dfjzoS tu c,h mi ;=<ska .eUqrg ldka)fjhs’ fuu c,fha osh ù we;s fmdaIlo ta iuÛu Ydlfha uQ, uKav,fha msg; .eUqrg ldka) ù Ydlj,g wysñ fjhs’ jI_dj wêl ùu yd m%udKhg jvd c,iuzmdokh lsrSfuzoS ldka)ùu ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha fmdaIl úYd, f,i ydksùu is)fjhs’ tfyhska fmdaIl r|jd .ekSug jevsmqr ldnksl fmdfydr fhoSu;a m%Yia; whqrska c, iuzmdokh lsrSu;a mfia f;;ukh m%udKj;a f,i mj;ajd .ekSu;a ;=<ska mi ;=<ska fmdaIl ldka)ùu wju lr.; yelsjkq we;’

3'6'1'4 jdIamSlrKh (Volatilation& fidaod md¿jg ,la jQ bvula

u;=msg mfia wvx.=jk yshquia yd mfia we;sjk l,s, wxY= j, úYd, f,i LKsc whk ne|S ;sfnz’ tajd mdxY= ødjKh iuÛZ yqjudre ùfuka Ydlhg

jdIam ùfuka mfika fmdaIl bj;aùu bv ;snqko fndfyduhla Ydl fmdaIl iDcqju jdIamSlrKhg Ndckh fkdfjz’ mfia wêl WIaK;ajh iy iq,ÛZ ksid jdIamSlrKh jeä fjhs' 73


;;a;aj j,oS ;sr lrkq ,nk fmdaIl j, fjkiaùu wjfndaOlr .;hq;=h’ fndfydaúg fmdiamria ^P) fuf,i ;sr jk w;r” th wduz,sl fukau NdIañl ;;a;aj j,oS o is)fjz’ tfukau fmdgEishï ^K) iy

wefudakshd

^NH4+ )whk

ueá

LKsc w;r ;sr ùfuka Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSug we;s wjia:dj u. yerS hhs’ tuÛska bj;ajk m%Odk fmdaIlhla jkafka wefudakshdh' f,i khsg%cka mfika msgùhdu c,jykh )rAj, miloS ie,lsh hq;= ugzgulska is)fjhs’ YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u j,ska fuu ;;a;ajh fndfyda )rg uÛ yrjd .;yelsh’ kuq;a m,;=re WoHdkhl fuu ;;a;ajh t;ruz olakg ke;sùu jdikdjls'

3'6'1'5 ;sr lsrSu ^Fixation) iuyr fmdaIl mi ;=<oS Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels ixfhda. njg mrsjrA:kh fjhs’ mfia oS is)jk fuu ridhksl m%;sls%hd ksr;=reju Ydlj,g fmdaIl iq,N;djhg n,mdk w;r” mfia we;s mS'tÉ w.h# Tlaiscka ^O2& iemhqu# f;;ukh ;;a;ajh iy WIaK;ajh jeks idOl wkqj fjkiafjz’ fuu idOlj, úúO wjia:d j,oS is)jk ridhksl m%;sls%hd fjkia fjhs’ ta wkqj ta ta mdxY= 74

3'7 fmdaIl úIùu wkjYH f,i mfia fmdaIl iq,N;dj jevsùfuka tajd Ydlj,g wys;lr f,i n,mdhs’ túg Ydlfha jrAOkh yd úlikhg wod, ffcj ridhksl ls%hdj,shg ndOdlrK w;r” Ydlhg úIfjhs' fmdaIl úIùu fmdaIl W!K;dj fukau m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fjzoS is) fkdùug j. n,d.; hq;=h’ wêl f,i mdxY= ødjKhg tlajk fmdaIl Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh ù fuh Ydlh ;=< fmdaIl wiu;=,s; njla we;sùfuka Ydlj, jrAOkh )rAj, ùuo mrsK; ùu m%udoùuo is)ùfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha M,odhs;dj wvqfjhs’ m,;=re Ydl m%udKfhka l=vdùsu )rAj, jrAOkhla Ydl ly meyehg m;aùu iy fklafrdaiSh ì|jeàuz ksid m,;=re Ydlj, M,odhs;dj wvqfjhs’ mfia wêl f,i khsg%cka mej;Su ksid m,;=re

Ydlj, jrAOl jrAOkh


;Sj% ùfuka mrsK;ùu mudùu” u,a yg.ekSu wvqùu fyda u,a yg

jq Ydl fmdaIK rgdjla mj;ajd f.k hdu w;HdjYH lreKls’ fuysoSs

fkd.ekSu iy frda. m,sfndaOj,g md;%ùu jeäùu is)fjz’ m;% ;o fld< meye ùu# M,j, .=Kd;auh wvqùu iy .nvd ld,h wvqùu” iuÛu

<má wjêfha jrAOkh fjñka mj;sk m,;=re Ydlj,ska Wmrsu jrAOkhla w;m;a lr .ekSug;a m%ckk wjêfha mj;sk m,;=re Ydl j,ska Wiia

M,j, wNHka;r mgl ì|jeàu is)fjhs’ wksl=;a fmdaIl wjfYdaIKhg ndOd we;sùfuka tajdfha W!K;d we;sfjhs’ fmdiamria iq,N;dj jeäùu

.=Kd;aufha M,odjla Wmrsu ugzgñka os.=l,la mqrd ,nd .ekSug;a m,;=re Ydlj, kSfrda.S yd osrsu;a meje;aula Wfoid fuu iu;=,s; fmdaIK rgdjka

ksid ue.akSishï ^Mg) W!K;dj we;sfjhs’ wêl le,aishuz iq,N;djfhaoS mfia NdIañl;dj jeäù hlv (Fe) iy

ie,iquz lr ls%hd;aul lsrSu m%Odk ldrAhdj,shhs’

fmdfydr

m%udKj;a ;ruz fmdaIl Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSug yels wdldrhg mj;ajd.; hq;=h’ fuz

Ndú;fhka m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia wduz,sl;dj jeäfjhs’ túg wduz,sl ;;a;ajfhka we;sjk .egMZ j,ska m,;=re Ydlj,g ydks meñfKhs’

Wfoid n,mdk Ydluh idOl iy mdrsirsl idOl mokuz jq fmdaIK jevigyklg ridhksl yd ldnksl fmdfydr we;=,;a l, hq;=h’ iunrjq

wêl f,i le,aishï ^Ca) iy iskala (Zn) iemhSu ksid wduz,sl mila we;s ù j.d lrk ,o m,;=re Ydlj, hlv (Fe) W!K;djhla we;s fjhs’ kj YdLd l=reùu iy lyùu is)fjz’

fmdfydr Ndú;hla ;=<ska fuu wruqK bgqlr.; yels jk w;r” mdrsirsl .eg(o wjulrf.k wdrA:sl M,odhs;djo w;am;alr .; yelsh’

w.%ia:fha isg miq uerSu olakg ,efnz’ Ydlj,g wêl f,i fndafrdaka (B) iemhSfuka fuzre m;%j, odr ms,siaiSu

3'8'1 iunr fmdfydr Ndú;fha§ ie,lsh hq;= lreKq

uex.kSia ^Mn) W!K;dj we;sfjhs’ wêl

f,i

ldnksl

olakg ,efnz’

3'8 fmdfydr Ndú;h m,;=re WoHdkfha ;sridr wdrA:sl m%;s,dN Wfoid ukdf,i iu;=,s;

l

m,;=re Ydl úfYaIfhka úfYaIhg fjkiajk fmdaIK wjYH;dj mig ord.; yels fmdaIl m%udKhla iy fmdaIl ydksùfuz m%udKh

75


i,ld ne,Su’ l

m,;=re fnda.h# tys úfYaI wjYH;d yd iSudjka# tys jrAOk ú,dYh iy wiajekafka úNjh wjfndaOlr .ekSu’

l

m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia úfYaI úNjhla” iSudjka wjfndaOlr .ekSu

l

iy

.egMZ

iajNdúl ldnksl fmdfydr mokuz lr .ekSug lghq;= lsrSu’

iunr fmdfydr Ndú;fhka Ydl i|yd wjYH ish( fmdaIl yd m%udKhka ksis

kv;a;= .eg( wju fjhs’ wkjYH f,i mig fmdaIl tla lsrSu ksid we;sjk os.=ld,Sk mdrsirsl ydks ksid m,;=re WoHdkh ;j)rg;a M,odhS;dj mfia mj;ajdf.k hdu wiSre úh yelsh’ tfyhska jirlg follg jrla mdxY= yd mgl úYaf,aIK uÛska mfia

by; m%ia:drfhka os.=ld,Skj mfia is)jk fjkialuz ms<sn|j woyila ,efnk ksid l%udkql+,j WoHdkfha M,odhs;dj mj;ajdf.k hd yelsh' wefudakshuz fmdfydr b;d blaukska úfhdackh jk ksid wêl WIK;ajhla mj;sk fCIa;%j,oS wefudakshd jdhqj f,i msgù hdfuka wfmaCId lrk m%udKhg m%;sM, fkd,eî hd yelsh’ mig fhdokq ,nk hqrshd khsfgz%g whk njg m;aùu is)fjhs’ CO(NH2)2 ž (NH2)2 CO3 žNH4 +

ž

wjia:dj,oS Ydlj,g ,efnk w;r iuzm;a kdia;sh wju fjhs’ m,;=re WoHdkhl kv;a;=fjzoS os.=ld,Sk m%;s,dN jevsù mdrsirsl yd fnda.

fmdaIl ;;a;ajh ms<sn|j wjfndaOhla ,nd .; hq;=h’

NH3 fuu ls%hdj,sfhaoS ksmofjk w;rueos ixfhda.hla jk wefudakshuz ldnfkagz NdIañl ;;a;ajfhaoS (pH w.h 7g jevs& úsfhdackh ù N2 jdhqj f,i msg ùfuka fmdaIl ydkshla is)fjz’ tfyhska hqrshd fhoSfuzoS th mi ;=<g we;=( lsru S jvd iq)iqhs’ ldnksl fmdfydr j,skao fnda.j,g khsg%cka iemhsh yelsh’ i;a;aj fldgia yd Ydl fldgia osrdm;a ùfuka ksmofjk flduzfmdaiagz j, ldnka yd khsg%cka nyq,h' wvx.= fjhs’ fhdod .;a uQ,l s m%Njh wkqj fuu m%udKhka fjkia fjhs ” l=l=,kaf.a yd t(jka f.a wmøjH m%Odk jYfhka khsg%cka j,ska

76


fmdfydi;ah’ fuzjd f.dúm, wmøjH yd Ydl fldgia iu. ñY%lr osrdm;a ùug bv yerSfuka khsg%cka j,ska fmdfydi;a ldnksl fmdfydr ksmojd yelsh’ j.=j* ldnksl fmdfydr ksmoùug iq)iq ix@gl øjHh

wvx.=jk fmdaIl m%udKh % úh<s nrg

i;aj

N

P

K

1’ f.du

1.8

05.

1.6

2’ .j uq;%

2.5

0.1

2.1

3’ t( wmøjH

1.3

0.3

1.4

4’ l=l=( wmøjH

3.3

1.4

1.8

2.3

0.2

2.6

19

2’ fldfydU (Azadirachta indica)

2.4

0.2

1.3

20

3’ trn) (Erythrina lithosperma)

4.0

0.3

3.9

14

4’ .a,srsiSähd (Gliricidia maculata)

4.1

0.3

3.0

12

5’ lemafmáhd (Croton lacciferus)

3.5

0.3

2.1

14

6’ iQrsh (Thespesia populnea)

3.4

0.2

3.3

14

7’ j,a iQrshldka; (Tithonia diversifolia)

3.8

0.3

5.9

14

8’ ù ms)re

1.1

0.2

1.4

9’ nvbrs.= fldgia

0.7

0.06

1.2

10’ Wla.ia wmøjH

0.3

0.04

0.5

11’ ,S l=vq

0.1

0.02

0.06

Ydl 1’ f;,a lel=K

Aleurites triloba

fjk;a (N)

(uq,dY%h * Nagrajab & Amarasiri;1977) 77


3'8'2 fhÈh hq;= fmdfydr j¾.h yd m%udKh

Ydlfha fmdaIK ;;a;ajh mgl jrA. wkqj ta ta mgl j,g ,eî

l

we;s idfmaCI fmdaIl m%udKhla ùu yd ne,Sfuks'

fmdfydr j._h yd m%udKh uq,sl jYfhka fnda.h yd mrsir idOl ^mi yd ld,.=Kh$foaY.=Kh wkqj fjkiafjhs’ úh<s mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhloS ødjH;dj wvq ridhksl fmdfydr fhoSu iSsud lsrSu;a f;;ukh jeä mrsir j,oS ødjH;dj wvq fmdfydr fhoSu;a óg WodyrK fjhs’ fuz wkqj ksYaÑ; jYfhkau j._ iy m%udKhka ia:Sr l, fkdyels jqjo tajd ksrAKhlr .ekSu i|yd uÛZ fmkaùula is)l, yelsh’ ta i|yd

mdxY= yd ld,.=Ksl idOl l

mfia wvx.=jk uq( fmdaIl jrA. yd m%udKhka#

l

Ydl j,g wjfYdaIKh lr.;

yels wdldrhg mj;sk fmdaIl jrA. yd tajdfha m%udKhka# l mfia mj;sk f;;uk m%udKhka# l mfia mj;sk jd;k m%udKhka#

my; i|yka idOl i,ld ne,sh yelsh’

fuu idOl ms<sn|j mQrAj mrSCIdjla lsrSfuka miq m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl

fnda.fha idOl

i|yd fh†h hq;= fmdfydr jrA. yd wkqmd;hka ksrAKh l, yelsh' tfy;a tu ksrAfoaY ieu úglu kej;;a idudf,dapkh lsrSfuka miq muKla

l

.fika bj;ajk fmdaIl m%udKhka ms<sn| wjfndaOh'

iy

l

Ydlfha fmdaIl wjYH;dj iy wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSfuz yelshdj’ fuysos úúO Ydl úfYaI i|yd úfYaIs; jq Ydl wdydr wkqmd; (Plant Food Ratio) fjkiajk w;r Bg wod, ta ta fmdaIl j, idfmaCI wkqmd;h wkqj fmdaIl iemhsug WÑ; jk fmdfydr jrA. yd m%udKhka kSrAKh l, hq;=h’ iuyr fnda. úfYaI j,g fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSfuz yelshdj jeä nj;a iuyr úfYaI j,g Yla;h wvq nj;a ie,lsh hq;=h’

78

kej; kej; fhdod.; hq;= w;r ksrAfoaY ia:sr ksrAfoaYhla f,i m,;=re WoHdkhg fhdod.ekSu fkdl, hq;=h’ m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj,g lkakfhka lkakhg fmdfydr fhoSfuzoS fuu úurAYkhka lsrSfuka fyd| m%;sM, ,nd.; yelsh’

3'8'3 fmdfydr fhoSu m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl j,g fmdfydr fhoSu mfia fmdaIl iq,N;dj yd m,;=re Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSfuz ldrAhCIu;djg n,mdk


ksid fhdokq ,nk fmdfydr j._ yd tys ridhksl ixhq;shg wu;rj

fkdfjz’ uQ, moaO;sfha me;srSu fuz ksid wiu;=,s; ùfuka Ydlfha jrAOkh;a

tajd fhdokq ,nk ia:dkho ^Ydlfha mdoia:fha isg \qr& fhdokq ,nk ld,h ^úh<s jI_ iys;& iy fhdokq ,nk wdldrh ^Ydlh jgd mig” Ydl

iu.Z wia:djr ùug wjodkula we;s w;r Yla;su;a uQ, moaO;shla ìysùsug th ndOdjls’ tfyhska Ydlh jgd j,hla f,ig fmdfydr fhoSfuka uQ,

fma,s w;r ;Srejla f,i fyda m;%j,g oshr f,i& wdoS idOl i,ld ne,sh hq;=h’ tfukau mdxY= ;;a;ajh yd fmdfydr fhoSfuz idOl wkqj muKla

uKav,fha iunr;dj mj;ajd .ekSu jeo.;ah’ ìx) c, iuzmdok l%uh ;=<ska fmdaIl iemhSfuzoS nyqjdrAIsl m,;=re fnda.j,g wiu;=,s; uQ,

fkdj Ydlfha jrAOl yd ldhsl úoHd;aul ;;a;ajh wkqj úYd, f,i fjkia fjhs’ uQ, flaI ilS%h ùu;a

moaO;s we;sùfuz wjodku by, hd yels ksid ksis Wml%u l,a we;súg fhosh hq;=h'

Ydlfha jrAOl jrAOk ls%hdldrs;ajh fjz.j;a ùu;a wkqj ys;lr mdxY+ ;;a;aj hgf;a fmdfydr fhoSu uÛska Ydl j,g ldrACIuj wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels jk wdldrhg fmdaIl iq,N;dj jeälr.; yelsh’ b;d myiqfjka c,fha ødjH ridhksl fmdfydr mig fh†fuz° mi;=< .eUqrg we;=( lsrSfuka tu fmdaIl myiqfjkau ils%h uq,a mj;sk l,dmfha msg;g ldka)ùS hhs’ fuu ;;a;ajh ødjH fmdiamria fmdfydr i|yd úsfYaIfhka is)fjhs’

fuz wkqj i,ld ne,sfuzoS WoHdkfha Ydlj,g

m,;=re fmdaIl

wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSfuz wjia:djg n,mdk fndfyduhla idOl ;sfnz’ tajd wkqj mi ;=<ska Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSug yelsjk fia m%udKj;a fmdfydr fhoSu úêu;a lr.; hq;=h'

3'8'4 fmdfydr fhdok wdldrh m,;=re WoHdkfha fnda. isgqjk ,o fnda. rgdj iy mr;rhkao mig fmdfydr fhoSfuz wdldrh iq)iq f,i ksrAudKh lr .ekSug bjy,a fjhs’

m,;=re Ydlfha tl milska muKla ;Srejla f,i fmdfydr fhosfuzoS Ydlfha ils%h uq,a iSñ; ixLHdjlg

wê @K;aj l%uhg me< frdamKh lr w;akuz ta njo ie,ls,a,g .; hq;=h’ tfyhska fhdokq ,nk fmdfydr

muKla fmdaIl ,nd.ekSfuz wjia:dj ysñùu m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fjz i;=gqodhl ;;a;ajhla

j,ska Wmrsu m%fhdackhla .ekSug kuz fmdfydr fhdok wdldrh ms<sn|j ;SrKh .; hq;=h’ fh) fmdfydr 79


Wmrsu f,i Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSug yelsjk f,i tajd fhoSug

Ydlj,g Ydl mduq, isg ógrA 11 1$2muK )rskao Ydl úhk me;srs

lghq;= l, hq;=h’

.sh isudfjka fi’us’ 30 muK Tnzng olajd fmdfydr úisrejd yer mig uola usY% l, hq;=h’

l

fma,s w;r fhoSu

Ydl jgd fmdfydr fh§u l fma,s w;r fmdfydr fh§u

fm,g isgqjk ,o fnda. mrsK;jq úg ^isgqjd jir 10muK .;jq miq& fma,s w;r ;Srejla f,i mig fmdfydr tlal, yelsh’ fuysoSs ilS%h uq,a Ydl úhk udhsu wjg úisrS we;ehs n,dfmdfrd;a;= fjhs’ l

Ydlh jgd fhoSu

Ydlfha mduq, isg Ydl úhk me;srekq udhsu olajd jq )rg Ydlh jgd fmdfydr úiqrejd yrskq ,efnz’ fuysos Ydlfha jhi wkqj mduq, isg u|la )rska fmdfydr fhoSu wrUd Ydl úhk me;sreKQ isudfjka uola Tnzng fmdfydr úisrejd yersh yelsh’ jir 2-3 g jvd wvq Ydlj, mduq, isg fi’us’ 30 muK )rskao M,orK 80

is)re ;=< ;ekam;a lsrSu

Ydlh jgd Ydl úhk me;srekq iSudj ;=< o úúO osYdj,g msysgkfia fi’us’10-15 muK úIaluzNh yd .eUqre jq is)re 4-6 muK ilia lr ta ;=<g fmdfydr we;=( lrkq ,efnz’ mfia f;;ukh mj;ajd .ekSu w;HdjYHhs’ mi úh<s ;sfnz kuz m<uqj c,iuzmdokh lr mfia f;;ukh mj;sk úgu kshñs; fmdfydr ñsY%Kh fhoSu jvd;a WÑ;h’ fmdfydr fh) miq u|la mig Y%lr jiqklska jid oeóu m%fhdackj;a fjhs’ kshñ; ridhksl fmdfydr m%udKh jdr 2-3lg fnod ksYaÑ; ld, iSudj ;=<oS Ydlhg fhoSfuka tjd Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSug jeä wjia:djla i,id osh yelsh’ fuu jdr


.Kk flfia jqjo Ydlfha jrAOk iy úlik ld, igyk wjia:djg

yelsh’ fmdfydr fh°fuz ld,h ;SrKh lr.; hq;af;a ld,.=Ksl

.e,fmk ld, iSudjka ;=<oS muKla bgq lsrSug j.n,d.; hq;=h’ wxl=r jrAOkh werUSug jrAOk ld, iSudjka ;=<os fmdfydr m%udKh fldgiaj,g

;;a;ajhka Ydlh ta wjia:dfõ mj;sk l%shdldrs;ajh u;h' fndfydaúg fuz folu m%udKj;a f,i iuld,skj we;sjk kuq;a c, iuzmdokh we;sùu

fnod fhosh yelsh’

Ydlhg wjYHjk wdldrhg fmdfydr fhosu ie,iquzl, yelsh’ jrAOkh werUSug i;s 2lg muK fmro u,a yg.ekSfuz ld,hg udihlg muK

ldnksl fmdfydr fhoSfuzoS o ridhksl fmdfydr fhdok l%u wkq.ukh l, yels jqjo jvd;a myiq l%uh kuz Ydlh jgd by; i|yka lr we;s iSudjka ;=< mi u;=msgg ldnksl fmdfydr úiqrejd yerSuhs’ fuz wjia:dfjzoS mfia ukd f;;ukhla mj;ajdf.k hdu w;HdjYHhs’ ridhksl fmdfydr fuka

fmr wod, fmdfydr ñY%K mig tla lsrSu iq)iqh'

fkdj ldnksl fmdfydr mi ;=<g fmdaIl ksoyia lrkafka b;d fiñka ksid úYd, jYfhka Ydlfha jrAOk iy úlikhg n,mEuz we;sùu iSud iys;h’ jdKsc m,;=re WhkloS th wjdisodhl ;;a;ajhls' ldnksl fmdfydr yd ridhksl fmdfydr tljru fh°u fyda ridhksl fmdfydr fh°ug i;s lsysmhlg fmr ldnksl fmdfydr fhoSu m,;=re Ydlj,g tu fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr.ekSug jeä wjia:djla ,ndfohs’ tfukau ridhksl fmdfydrj, fmdaIl ydksùu wvq lsrSugo th bjy,a fjhs’ fmdfydr fhosfuka miq jiqk fh°fuka fuu ;;a;ajh ;j;a jeä oshqKq lr.;

ldnksl fmdfydr fh§u

b;d oevs jI_d iuh ;=< fyda oevs úh<s iuh ;=< mig fmdfydr fh°u kqiq)iq jkafka Ydlhg fmdaIl ,nd .eksug we;s wjia:d iSudùu;a fmdfydr kdia;sù hdu;a ksidh’ mfia f;;ukh b;d wvq úglos fmdfydr fhosfuka ,jK;djh we;sjk ksid Ydlj,g úIodhs mrsirhla we;sùs uQ, uKav,hg ydks is)úh yelsh’ Ydl lmamd)jg i;s 2-3 lg fmr fmdfydr fhoSsu u.ska lmamd)fõ' Wmrsu m%;sM, w;alr.; yelsh’ 81


3'8'5 fmdiamria fmdfydr j¾. j._h

ridhksl ku

,efnk P2o5%

Ydlj,g ,efnk P

iqmrA fmdiafmagz

Ca(H2PO4)2 ; CaHPO4

16-50

% 7-22

wefudakshuz iqmrA fmdiafmagz

NH4 H2PO4 ; CaHPO4

16-18

7-8

wefudakshuz fmdiafmagz

NH4 H2 PO4

48

21

vhs wefudakshuz fmdiafmagz

(NH4)2 HPO4

46-53

20-23

;euznq wia:sl=vq

Ca3 (PO4)2

23-30

10-13

fmdiamrsla wuz,h

H3PO4

54

24

iqmrA fmdiamrsla wuz,h

H3Po4 ; H4P2O7

76

33

frdlafmdiafmagz

Flour and chlorapatites

25-30

11-13

iqm¾ fmdiafmaÜ ckms%hu fmdiafmagz fmdfydr j._ hhs’ idudkH fmdiafmagz .,a l=vqlr i,amshqrsla wuz,h iu. m%;sls%hd lsrSug i,iajd fuu fmdfydr ksmojkq ,efnz’ idudkH iqmrA fmdiafmagz j, 31% muK fmdiafmagzo 50% muK cSmaiï ^le,aishuz i,af>agz& wvx.=h’

wefudakshï fmdiafmaÜia fuu lKavdhug wh;a fmdiafmaÜ weursld tlai;a ckmoh ;=< ckms%h fmdiafmagz fmdfydr jrA.hls’ fuu fmdiafmaÜ j, jdisodhl nj jevsjkafka tys lsishuz m%;sY;hlska 82

khsg%cka o fmdiamriaj,g wu;rj wvx.=ùuhs’ fndfydaúg 11-22% olajd khsg%cka m%udKhla úúO wefudakshuz fmdiafmagzj, wvx.= fjhs’ tys wvx.= jk fmdiamria m%udKh 53% olajd jevsúh yelsh’

frdlafmdiafmaÜ frdlafmdiafmagz fmd,j iDcqju ,nd.kakd

leKSfuka LKschls’

th c,fha wødjH ksid Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh l, yels wdldrfha fmdiamria mig tl;=ùug os.= l,la .;fjz’ tys wvx.=jk fmdiamria ^P) m%udKho idfmaCIj wvqh’ (11-13%)


tfyhska mig fhoSug fmr fuzjd b;d ishquz l=vq f,i wUrd .kq ,efnz’ mfia osrdm;a fjñka mj;sk ldnksl øjH hyñka ;sfnz kuz fuu ishquz l=vq cSrAKh ù YdLj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels wdldrhg m;afjhs’ wduz,sl milg fyd|ska l=vql, frdlafmdiafmagz fhoSfuka uy.= m%;sm, w;alr.; yelsh’ tfukau osrdm;ajk ldnksl øjH iuÛ ñY%lr frdlafmdaiafmagz fhoSfuka# th myiqfjkaa cSrAKh fjhs’ nyqjdrAIsl fnda.j,g os. l,la mqrd fmdiamria ,ndoSug frdlafmdiafmagz iq)iqh’ ldnksl øjHj,ska fmdfydi;a milg th jvd;a iq)iqh’

3'8'6 fmdgEishï fmdfydr fmdgEishuz fmdfydr wvx.= ridhksl fmdfydr j._ lsym s hlau nyq,j Ndú;d fjhs’ fuzjd w;r fmdgEishuz laf,darhsvz (KCl) fmdgEishuz i,af>agz (K2SO4) fmdgEishuz khsfgz%gz (KNO3) m%Odk ia:dkhla .kS’ c,fha b;d myiqfjka oshfjk fmdgEishuz fmdfydr mi ;=<ska ldka)ùuo myiqfjka is)fjhs’ tfyhska mfia fmdgEishuz m%udKh mj;ajd .ekSug ukd kv;a;= ;;a;ajhla .ekSu wjYHfjhs’ ^j.=j&

mj;ajd

fmdfydr j._

ridhksl ku

,efnk K2O %

Ydl j,g ,efnk K

fmdgEishï laf,darhsâ

KCL

48-60

40-50

fmdgEishï i,af>aÜ

K2SO4

48-50

40-42

fmdgEishï khsfg%Ü

KNO3

44

37

3'8'7 laIqø fmdaIl fmdfydr m%Odk fmdaIl iemfhk fmdfydr j,g jvd m%fjzYfuka CIqø fmdaIl iemfhk fmdfydr Ndú;d l, hq;= jkafka tajd wjYH m%udKhg jvd jevsmqr Ydlj,g fhoSfuka .egMZ mek k.sk fyhsks’ tfyhska CIqø fmdaIl

wjYH;dj ksYaÑ;ju wjfndaO lr.;a miq muKla tajd fhoSu kqjKg yqreh' W!K;djhla mj;sk njg y"kd.;a CIqø fmdaIlh iys; fmdfydr mig fh°u fyda m;%jg oshr fmdfydr f,i fh°u idudkH l%uhls’

83


j.=j* iq,Nj Ndú;d jk CIqø fmdaIl wvx.= fmdfydr ixfhda.

ridhksl iq;%

fmdaIlh wvx.= m%;sY;h

wefudakshuz fud,snzfvzgz

N(H4)2 MoO4

49

fldmrA i,af>agz

CuSO4, H2O

35

f>rsla I,af>agz

Fe2(SO4) 9H20

20

f>ria i,af>agz

Fe SO4,H20

20

ueka.kia I,af>agz

MìO4,H2O

24

ueka.kia Tlaihsvz

Mn3O4

69

fidavshuz fndafrAgz (borax)

Na2B4O7;10H2O

11

fidavshuz fud,sìfvzgz

Na2M0O4

46

iskala Tlaihsvz

Zn O

80

iskala i,af>agz

ZìO4 H2O

36

-

ueka.ksla

idudkHfhka ;U# ueka.kSia” hlv yd ;=;a;kd.uz i,af>ag f,i Ydl j,g imhkqq ,efnz’ tfy;a fndafrdka uQ,øjHh Ydlj,g iemhSu fnd/laia ixfhda.h f,i is) flfrk w;r fud,sìäkuz imhkq ,nkafka fidavshuz fud,sìfvzgz f,ih’ hlv” ueka.kSia iy ;=;a;kd.uz iuyr wjia:dj,oS m;%j,g oshr f,i úisrejd yrshs’ kuq;a fndfydaúg fuu fmdaIl wvx.= ixfhda. mig tlal, úg is)jk m%;sls%hd ksid tajd Ydlj,g wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels 84

ridhksl ixfhda. njg m;aùu iq,N .eg(jls’ tu ;;a;ajh uÛ yerSu i|yd tajd Ñf,ag (Chelates) f,i ixhqla; ixfhda. njg mrsjrA;kh lr mig fhoSu jvd ldrAhCIuh’ Ñf,ag f,i CIqø fmdaIl fhoSu jvd;a fhda.H jkafka mfia pH w.h jeä wjia:dj,oSh’

3'8'8 m;% j,g oshr fmdfydr fmdaIl m;% ;=<ska Ydl j,g ,ndoSu ioyd oshr fmdfydr Ydl m;% j,g biskq ,efí' mfia f;;ukh m%udKj;a fkdjk úh<s ld,hloS Ydlhg wjYH


fmdaIl ksismrsos ,ndoSug fuu l%ug b;d m%fhdackj;ah' CIqø fmdaIl

fndfyda úg foi;shlg jrla oshr fmdfydr m,;=re Ydlj,

,ndoSug iq)iqu l%uh fuh jkafka tajd mig fhoSfuzoS Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels ixfhda. njg myiqfjka m;ùug we;s wjia:dj jeä

ls%hdldrs;ajh wkqj i,ld n,d m;%j,g bish yelsh’ mig fhdokq ,nk iuzm%odhsl fmdfydr j,g wu;rj oshr fmdfydr m;%j,g biSu

ksidh’ tfukau W!K;d blaukska uÛ yrjd .ekSug Ydlj, m;% j,g oshr f,i CIqø fmdaIl ødjK bish yelsh’

;=<ska uyÛZ+ m%;sM, ,nd.; yelsh’ oshr fmdfydr fhoSfuka M,j, úYd,;ajh fukau .=Kd;auho by, kxjd .; yelsh’ wiajekafkka miq

mia

iduzm,

yd

Ydlfha

mgl

úYaf,aIKh lr ,nd.;a o;a; wkqj W!K;dj we;s fmdaIl b;d blaukska Ydlhg ,ndoSug fuu l%uh fhdod .kq ,efí' jvd;a WÑ; wkqmd;fhka

we;sjk wd;;sh u. yrjd .ekSug khsg%cka jeä oshr fmdfydr biSu wjYHhhs'

3'8'9 ldnksl fmdfydr

hq;a oshr fmdfydr ñY%Khla# fnda.h wkqj;a .egMZj yd wjYH;djh wkqj;a f;dard.; hq;=h’ jrAOk wjêfhaoS jvd;a iunr oshr fmdfydr ñY%Khla fhdod .;a;o m%ckl wjêfhaoS wjYH jkafka idfmaCIj fmdgEishuzo wêlj wvx.= oshr fmdfydr ñY%Khls’ m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj, jrAOkh fjz.j;a lr.ekSug;a” u,a M, yg .ekaùu blauka lsrSug;a” u,a yd l=vd M, fuzrSug fmr ye,shdu wvqlr .ekSug;a” u,a yg.ekSu jevslr .ekSug;a oshr fmdfydr m%Yia; f,i fhdod.; yelsh’ flfia jqjo m,;=re fnda.hg yd wjYH;djhg .e,fmk oshr fmdfydr ñY%Kh f;dard .ekSug m%fjzYuz úh hq;=h’

m%Odk fmdaIl fukau CIqø fmdaIlo iemhSu i|yd iajNdúl ldnksl fmdfydr l†u m%Njhls’ Ydl iy i;a;aj fldgia cSrKhg ,la ùfuka miq tu mglj, wka;rA.;j ;snq ixlSrAk ixfhda. ir, ixfhda. njg m;afjhs’ tajdfha wjidk m%;sM,h f,i ksmofjk yshquia l,S, j, mj;sk fN!;sl yd ridhksl 85


.=Kdx. ksid mfia ffcj” fN!;sl yd ridhksl .=Kdx. Ydlj,g jvd;a

fuu osrdm;aùu TlaislrK ls%hdj,shka jk w;r” wjidk m%;sm,h

WÑ; ;;a;ajhg m;afjk ksid mig tl;= lrkq ,nk ridhksl fmdfydr Ndú;fha ldrAhCIu;djo by, kexfjhs’

f,i ldnkavfhdlaihsâ ^CO2& c,h iy Yla;sh ksoyia fjhs’ mfia b;srs jkafka yshquia iy LKsc ,jK ixfhda.hhs’ fuh b;du ixlSrAK

fuu ldnksl fmdfydr fhoSfuka muKla Ydl fmdaIKh lr ksmojkq ,nk wiajekak fi!LHhg jvd;a ys;lr njg f,dj mqrd m%p,s; fjñka mj;s’ tajdfha úI iys; ridhksl øjH wvx.= fkdjk njg úYajdi flfrk w;r” ldnksl f.dú;efka moku f,i th Ndú;d flfrA’ jdKsc ldnksl fmdfydr f,i l=l=( f.dúm,j, wmøjH” .j wmøjH” Ydl fldgia” fjk;a i;a;aj fldgia yd wmøjH nyq,j fhdod .efka’ fuu øjH ksis mrsos osrdm;ajq úg tys wvx.= fmdaIl b;d fiñka ksoyiaùu ksid tajd mfika ydksùu wju ùu jdishls’ flfia jqjo tajd ridhksl j,ska ¥IKh fkdù ;sìh hq;=h' mig tl;= lrkq ,nk ldnksl øjH osrdm;a ùfuz fjz.h tajdfha ixhq;sh wkqj fjkia fjhs’ iSks” ldfndayhsfvz%g wvx.= fldgia myiqgjka osrdm;ajk

ls%hdj,shla jk w;r ta i|yd m%Yia; CIqø cSù .yKhla iy mdrsirsl ;;a;aj mej;sh hq;=h’ ldnksl ixfhda. ^CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,CH4) ldnkavfhdlaihsâ#

nhsldnfkag#

khsfÜ%k iy ldnka ^C) f,i mig tl;=fjhss’ khsg%ckSh ixfhda. wefudakshd# khsg%cka vfhdlaihsâ# khsfÜ%g ^NH4+, NO2- , NO3- ) iy khsg%cka

^N)

f,i

ksoyia

fjhs‘

f.kao.ï ixfhda. i,a>rA# yhsv%cka i,a>hsâ# i,a>rA vfhdlaihsâ# ^S, H2S, SO3-2, SO42- ) iy CS2 f,io fmdiamria ixfhda. H2PO4- , HPO4-2 f,io tl;=fjhs’ jk;a ldnksl ixfhda. j,ska c,h” O2, H2, H+, OH-, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 jeks whk mig tl;= fjhs’ yshquia fuu ls%hdj,sfha ksmofjk jeo.;au ixfhda.h f,i ie,lsh

w;r fi,shqf,daia fldgia ;rula m%udo fjhs’ ,s.akska” iy f;,a wvx.= Ydl fyda i;a;aj fldgia fyd|ska

yelsh’ b;du ixlSrAk ffcj ridhksl ls%hdj,shl m%;sm,hla f,i ksmofjk yshquia m,;=re WoHdkfha ;sridr wiajekaklg losu mokula imhhs’ w;rueos ixfhda. úYd, ixLHdjla miq

osrdm;a ùug os.= l,la .;fjhs’

lrñka wjidkfhaoS ia:djrjq ixfhda.

86


folla ksmofjhs’ thska m<uqjekak jkqfha Wiia Ydl j, fldgia fuf,i

leghk wêfmdaIK (adsorption) fjhs’ fuu l=vd l,s, wxY+j, u;=msg

cSrAKh ùfuka iEfok ixfhda. jk w;r tajd ;j)rg;a CIqø cSùka f.a ls%hdj,shg ,la fkdfjz’ ,s.akSka” f;,a” fuzo iy bá wvx.= ixfhda. ñg

fCI;%j, b;d úYd, ksid wê fmdaIKh jk legdhk m%udKho úYd,h’ by, pH ;;a;ajhloSs fuu l,s, j,ska legdhk yqjudrel, yels

wh;afjhs’ fojekak kuz fmd,sielrhsv iy fmd,shqfrdisvzia ixfhda.hhs’ fuzjd mig tlajq ldnksl øjH wkqidrfhka CIqø cSùka úiska ixiaf,aIKh

Odrs;dj b;d by,h’ ^150-300 cm01/ kg) yshquia l,s, wxY=jl c,h r|jd .ekSfuz yelshdjo by,h’ wxY=jl nr fuka 5 .=Khl c,h Bg r|jd

lr.kakd ,o ixfhda. jk w;r tajd tu CIqø cSúkaf.a mglj, fldgia f,i r|jd .kq ,efnz’ fuu ixfhda.

;nd .;yelsh’ tajd m%idrKhl fyda ixfldapkh jkafka ke;s ksid mfia ukd jHqyhla ieliSug m%fhdackj;a

ldKav fol yshquia f,i ye|skafjz’

fjhs’ l( meye;s ùu ksid mfia fuu wxY= we;s nj myiqfjka y"kd.; yelsh’

fuu ffcj ridhksl ldrAhdj,sfhaosS ldnksl khsg%cka ixfhda. yshquia ixlSrAKhg nef|k ksid ldnksl øjHj, wvx.= jq khsg%ckaj,g myiqfjka msgù hdug wjia:dj fkd,efnz’ CIqø cSùkaf.a ls%hdj,shgo fuzjd Ndckh fkdjk ksid tu khg%cka wdrCId ù mj;S’ yshquia j, >,aúla wuz,h (Fulvic acid) yshqñla wuz,h (Humic asid) iy yshqñka (Humin) wvx.=fjhs’ tfyhska ldnksl øjH cSrAKh ùfuz m%:sm,hla f,i ,efnk yshquia ia:djr jq ixlSrAk ixfhda.hls’ yshquia j, wvx.=jk b;d l=vd l,s, (Colloids) u;=msg l=vd ueá wxY+j, fukau iDK wdfrdamKh (Negative charge) mj;sk ksid Bg myiqfjkau

legdhk yqjudre Odrs;dj *Cation Exchange Capacity) jeäsúu ksid Ca+2, H+, Mg+2, K+, NO3+ jeks fmdaIl mi ;=< r|jd mdxY= ødjKh iu. yqjudre l, yels ksid ukd Ydl fmdaIKhgo yshquia b;d m%fhdackj;a fjhs’ yshquia iy ueá tlaùfuka f.dvkef.k ixlSrAkh mfia fmdaIl r|jd ;nd .ekSug jeo.;a fjhs’ fuz wkqj mig ldnksl øjH tlalsrSfuka m,;=re WoHdkhg jdis /ila ,nd.; yel’

mfia fN!;sl jHqyh oshqKqùu l

l=vd mia legs;s we;sùu ksid ukd jHqyhla we;sùu’ tuÛska mfia jd;kh yd c,jykh oshqKqùu

87


l

mfia m%idrKh iy ixfldapkh wvqùu

hd yelsh’ mig fhdokq ,nk ridhksl fmdfydr Wmrsu ldrAhCIu;djfhka

l

mfia c,h r|jd ;nd .ekSfuz yelshdj jeäsùu

l

mfia CIqø cSùkaf.a ls%hdldrs;ajh

Ydlj,g wjfYdaIK lr.ekSfuz wjia:dj WodlsrSugo tajd wjYHfjhs’ mfia mj;sk ldnksl øjH j, ldnka iy khsg%cka wkqmd;h 8*1

jeäùu

mdxY= fmdaIl iq,N;dj jeäùu l

l

legdhk yqjudre jeäsùu yd mig tla/ia ùu

Odrs;dj fmdaIl

mfika fmdaIl bj;aùhdu wvq lsrsu

isg 15*1 olajd fjkiajk kuq;a Ydl m%Njh wkqj th fjkia fjhs' rks, fnda.j, 20*1 isg 30*1 olajdo ms)re j, 100*1 olajd o ,S l=vqj, 400*1 olajdo fjkiafjhs’ ldnksl øjH cSrAkh lrk CIqø cSúkaf.a th 4*1 isg 9*1 olajd fjkiajk w;r

ldnksl wuqøjHj, fmdaIl wvx.= jkafka úúO m%udKj,sks' tfyhska mig ksr;=reju ldnksl fmdfydr tl;=

CIqø cSúka f.a ls%hdldrs;ajh jeä lsrSfuka mfia khsg%cka wka;rA.;h jeä-l, yelsh’ m,;=re Ydlj, ukd fmdaIKhg ldnksl fmdfydr j,

lsrSu uÛska m,;=re WoHdkfha jeäs M,odhs;djhla ;sridrj mj;ajdf.k

jeo.;alu fjhs’

fuhska

j.=j* úúO ldnksl øjHj, wvx.=jk fmdaIl

wvx.=jk fmdaIl m%;sY;h

ldnksl øjH N

P

K

.a,sßrsiSärshd

4'2

0'3

2'1

trn\q

4'0

0'3

2'4

j,a iQrshldka;

4'7

0'4

3'2

.xiQrsh

3'4

0'3

2'2

ika fyïma

2'9

0'3

0'7

bms,a bms,a

1'5

0'3

1'2

ms\qre

0'6

0'2

2'2

Ydluh

88

ukdj

meyeos,s


wvx.=jk fmdaIl m%;sY;h ldnksl øjH N

P

K

i;ajuh

1'7

0'7

0'8

f.du

2'3

1'2

2'2

f,ahrA l=l=,a fmdfydr

2'2

0'8

1'9

fn%dhs,rA l=l=,a fmdfydr

2'2

0'7

1'2

t( fmdfydr

1'5

0'

0'7

W!re fmdfydr

3'8'1 taldnoaO Ydl fmdaIl l%uh Intergrated Plant Nutrition System (IPÌ)

wjfYdaIKh jeäslr fmdfydrj, ldrAHCIu;dj jeäs lr,Sugo mfia fN!;sl” ridhksl yd ffcj

taldnoaO Ydl fmdaIl l%uh hkq mQrAK Ydl fmdaIl l%ufjzohls’ tysos Ydlhg wjYH fmdaIl ish,a, wldnksl iy ldnksl m%Nj foflkau

úoHd;aul ,CIK ;sridrj jeäs oshqKQlr Ydlj,g m%Yia; mdxY= mrsirhla os.=ld,skj we;slr oSu o wfmaCId flfrA’ túg Ydlj,g fhosh

,ndoSug lghq;= flfrA' mfia fmdaIl ;sridrj mj;ajdf.k hdug lghq;= lr fnda. j, M,odhs;dj jeälr mdrsirsl iu;=,s; njo /lf.k ;sridr m%;s,dN w;alr oSug thg mq(jk'

hq;= iDcq fmdaIl m%udKhka wju lr jeäss wdrA:sl m%;s,dN lrd m,;=re WoHdkh fufyhúh yelsh’

m%Yia: wdrA:sl m%;s,dN ;sridrj Wmhd fok m,;=re WoHdkhl fmdaIK l<uKdlrKfhaos taldnoaO Ydl fmdaIl l%uh jvd ldrAhCIu fjhs’ fuysoS Ydlj,g wjYHjk fmdaIl jrA. yd m%udKhka ,ndoSfuzoSs ridhksl fukau ldnksl fmdfydr m%Yia; f,i iunrj Ndú;d flfrA’ ridhksl fmdfydrj, wvx.= fmdaIl

ldnksl fmdfydr fhoSfuzoS ta ta fnda. i|yd fhosh hq;= m%udKhka fjkia jqjo idudkHfhka jirlg fylaghdrhlg fgdka 10 muK ^jrska jr& fhoSu m%udKj;a fjhs’ jirloS fuu m%udKhka fojrlg fnod fhoSfuka mia ;;a;ajh oshqKq jk ksid ridhksl fmdfydr j, wjYH;dj l%ufhka wju lr.; yelsh’ tfy;a w;HdjYH wjia:dj,oS m%udKj;a wdldrhg ridhksl fmdfydro fhoSug ksrAfoaY flfrA' 89


4' c, l<uKdlrkh m,;=re WoHdkhl c, l<uKdlrKh o fmdaIK l<uKdlrKh iu.Z iudka;rj bgql, hq;=h’ c,h yd fmdaIKh tlu ldrAhdj,shl wx. folls’ <ore m,;=re Ydl iys; WoHdkhloS Ydlj, jrAOkh Wmrsu wdldrhg mj;ajdf.k hdug mfia f;;ukh m%Yia; ugzgulska f.khdu w;HdjYHhs’ Odrs;dj (Field Capacity)

mj;ajd fCIa;% ugzgfï

f;;ukhla fuz wjêfhaoS mj;ajd.; yelskuz Ydlj, jrAOkh ukdf,i mj;ajdf.k hd yelsh’ túg Ydlj,g wjYH fmdaIl wjfY`IKh lr.; yels wdldrhg mi ;=< mj;sk w;r mfia CIqø cSùkaf.a ls%hdldrs;ajh mj;ajdf.k hdug yelsùfuka ,efnk m%;sM, buy;ah’ flfia jqjo mfika c,h ksr;=reju bj;ajk ksid mi úh<s njg m;aùu ksr;=reju is)ùug bv ;sfnz’ Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh lsrSug ,eî ;sfnk c, m%udKh# wjfYdaIKh lr.; yels iSudjg;a jvd wvq ù .sh úg Ydlh ue,ùug Ndckh fjz’ (NC. Brady: msgqj 102’) tla;rd wjia:djlg miqj Ydlhg c,h wjfYdaIKh lr.; fkdyels jk f,i Ydlh ue,ù f.dia ffi, j,g ydks is)ù kuz tu 90

wjia:dfjz mfia mj;sk c,h m%udKh ia:Sr ue,ùfuz ix.=Klh (Permaneat Wilting Point) f,i ye|skafjhs’ fuu ia:Sr ue,ùfuz ix.=Khlg m;ajq miqj c,h iemhqjo Ydlhg h:d ;;a;ajhg m;aùug fkdyelsh’ Ydlhg c,h wvq wdhdihlska wjfYdaIkh lr .; yelafla fCIa;% Odrs;dj iy ia:Sr ue,ùfuz ix.=Klh w;r mj;sk mdxY= c, mrsudj muKs’ tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj, jrAOkh yd M,odhS;dj ukd f,i mj;ajd .ekSug mfia f;;ukh fï wdldrhg mj;ajdf.k hd hq;=h’

4'1 c, wjYH;dj m,;=re WoHdkfha we;s Ydl j, c,h wjYH;dj ms,sn| wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu m,;=re WoHdk l,uKdlrKfha;a kv;a;=fõ;a uq,sl wjYH;djhla jqjo th ixlSrAK ls%hdj,shls’ Ydlj, c, wjYH;dj tu fnda.h” fnda.fha jrAOk wjia:dj” ld,.=Kh’ c, iq,N;dj iy mdxY+ idOl w;r wka;rA l%shd u; ksrAKh jk w;r” fndfyda ffcj úoHd;aul” ldhsl úoHd;aul” fN!;sl iy ridhksl ls%hdj,Ska óg iuznkaO ù ;sîu uÛska fuys ixlSrAK;ajh fmkakquz lrhs’ flfia jqjo m%dfhda.sl myiqj i|yd fuzjdhska jvd;a n,mEuz we;s lrk idOl muKla i,ld n,d j.dfjz c, wjYH;dj ms<sn|j .Kkh l, hq;=h’


tfy;a ta i|yd ixlSrAKjq úIhhka mj;sk w;r jeo.;ajk idOl

M,h jrAOkh jk Wmrsu úYd,;ajh fuz wkqj ksYaÑ; fjhs’ ffi, .Kk

we;=(lr m,;=re WoHdkfha c,iuzmdokh i|yd jk c, wjYH;dj .Kkh l, yelsh’ fuz i|yd c,iuzmdok úfYaI{ iyh

jeäjk úg M,h úYd,ùu jeäfjhs’ fuz ld,fhaoS ^u,a msmS wjika jkúg& M, msysgqùu is)jk ksid ta wjêfhaoS mfia c,h ysÛZ jqjfyd;a M, msysgqùu

,nd .ekSu jvd;a m%dfh`.sl fjhs’ (Doorenbos J;) flfia jqjo m,;=re WoHdkfha c, wjYH;dj wjidkfhaoS c, iuzmdokh i|yd Ndú;d lsrSug

wmyiq ù ixfiaÑ; äuznfldaI ye,S hhs’ kuq;a fuz wjia:djzoS Ydlhg wjYHjk c, m%udKh wvq jqjo mfia mj;sk f;;ukh m%udKj;a fkdfõ’

n,dfmdfrd;a;=jk ;dCIKh wkqjo iSreudre lsrSug is)jk nj fmfka’

M,fha jrAOkfha wjidk ld,fhaoS

ta wkqj c, iuzmdokfha m,;=re WoHdkhg iemhSh hq;= uq( c, mrsudj# jkafka Ydlj,g wjYHjk c, m%udKh iy ydksjk c, m%udKfha tl;=jhs’ Ydlj,g wjYHjk c, m%udKh m<uqj imhd )kaúg ydksjk c, m%udKh ksr;=reju ia:dhs ;;a;ajhg m;a lsrSu WoHdkfha kv;a;= wjYH;djhla jk w;r” ta ms<sn|j m%udKd;aul wjfndaOhla ,nd .; hq;=h’ u,a yg.ekSu olajd mfia ;sìh hq;= c, m%udKh wvq jqjo u,a yg.;a miq Wodfjk bosrs i;s 4laj;a mig ukd

ffi, úYd,ùu yd hqI msrSu is)fjk ksid WmrSu úYd,;ajhg m;afjhs’ fuz wjêfhaoS o m%udKj;a ;ruz mdxY+ f;;ukhla mej;sh hq;=h’ ke;skuz M,h l=vd ùuo .=Kd;auh wvqùuo is)fjhs’ fuu wjêh fnda.h wkqj fjkia jqjo th fndfydaúg wiajekak fk,Sug fyda M, boSug i;s 3-4lg fmr ld,hhs’

4'1'1 mfika c,h ydksùu mig iemfhk c,h mfika ydksjk wdldr rdYshls’ WoHdk kv;a;=fjzoS c,h ldrAhCIu f,i mrsyrKh

f,i c, iemhqula wjYHfjhs’ fuz ld,fhaoS idrA:l mrd.khlg miq M, msysgqùsu iy tu M,j, Wmrsu

lsrSug kuz c,h ydksùu yels;ruz wju lr.; hq;=h’ Ydlfha c, wjYH;dj m%udKj;a mrsos imqrd,ñka fuu c, ydksh wju lsrSfuka WoHdk kv;a;=j ldrACIuj yd wvq úhoulska

ffi, úNdckh fuu ld,fhaoS is)fjz’ túg M,hl we;sjk uq( ffi, .Kk ;SrKh fjk ksid miq lf,l fuu

bgqlr.; yels w;r” Ydlj, by, M,odhs;djla ;sridrj ,nd.; yelsh’ 91


c, wmodjh c,h iuzmdokfhaoS u;=msáka .,df.dia fCIa;%fhka bj;aùu c,h ydksùuhs’ fuysoS mig wjfYdaIKh jk iS@%;dj mfia

jdIamSlrKh (Evaporation) c,h ksid c,h c,h

mi u;=msgska c,h jdIam ù hdu jdIamSlrKh kï fjhs' ta ksid úYd, f,i mdxY= c,h ydksùu is)fjhs’ iújr milska c,h fufia

r|d mj;sk iajNdjh wkqj c, iuzmdok iS.%;dj ^L/hr) kSrAkh lr c,h .,df.k hdug bvfkdoSu jvd iq)iqh’ tfukau Ydlhg m%udKj;a

jdIamSlrKh ùug jd;fha WIaK;ajh” úlsrKh” jd;fha wdrAø;dj iy iq<ÛZ m%Odk f,i n,mdhs’ wêl úh<s ;;a;aj j,oS jeä WIaK;ajhla

;ruz c,h m%udKhla iemhSu u.skao fuu ydksùu wvqlr .; yelsh’

mj;sk ld,hg iq<fÛa fjz.ho jeä ùu mfika c,h jdIamSlrKh myiq lrhs' ksrdjrKh ù we;s milska

W;aiafõokh Ydlj, m;% ;=<ska c, jdIam msgù hdu W;aiafjzokhhs’ úYd, Ydl úhkla we;sùu mrsirfha wdrAø;dj wvqùu yd úh<s ;;a;ajhla we;sùu W;aiafjzokh ;=<ska c,h ydksùu b;d wêlh’ ksjrA;k l,dmSh m,;=re fnda. j, m;%j, iajNdjh wkqj W;aiafjzokh md,kh lsrSfuz hdka;%Kh t;ruz Wml%uYS,s f,i úlrkh ù ke;s ksid W;aiafjzokfhka c,h bj;a ù hdu úYd, f,i is)fjhs’ tfukau nyqjdrAIsl m,;=re fnda.j, úYd, Ydl úhk ksid WKQiquz yd iq<x iys; ld,.=KhloS W;aif a jzok iS.%;dj jeäfjhs’ tjeks ld,.=KhloS Ydlhg ffokslj wjYHjk c,h m%udKh jeäjkafka ta ksidh’ tfukau mi wdjrKh lrñka jefvk icSù jiqka ^Wod* ;DK jeiau& ksido W;aiafjzokh jeä fjhs’ 92

c,h jdIamSlrKh ùu fjz.j;a fjhs’ jdIamSlrKh iy W;aiafjzokh hk idOl fol m%Odk jYfhka mfika c,h ydks ùug odhljk ksid c, iuzmdok wjYH;d ie,iquz lsrSfuzoS uq,sl jYfhka tajd .kKh lsrSu m,;=re WoHdkhg m%udKj;a c,iuzmdok l%uhla ieliSug wjYH fjhs’

ldka)ùu (Leaching) iy ls|d neiSu (Percolation) m,;=re Ydlj, uQ, uKav,hfha msysá l,dmfhka msg;g c,h neihdu fuz ixisoaê foflkau is)fjz’ túg Ydlhg ,nd.; yels )rlska tu c,h fkdue;s ksid WoHdkfha Ydlj,g m%fhdackhla fkfjz’ ls|d neiSu fndfyda úg is)jkafka jI_dfjka fyda c,iuzmdokfhka

wjYh

m%udKhg


jvd c,h iemhq úghs’ fCIa;% Odrs;djhg jvd jeämqr ,enqKq c,h

kshqfg%dak mi ;=<g .uka lrk úg yhsv%cka mrudKq .efgk ieuúgu

mi ;=<ska .eUqrg ls|d neiSu fyda c, uq,dY%j,g ldka)ùu is)fjhs’

tys fjz.h wvd, fjhs’ ta nj WmlrKfha igyka ùu ksid mfia wvx.= jk yhsv%cka mrudKQ ^c,fha wvx.= fjhs& wkqj igyka jk mdGdxl

m,;=re WoHdkfha mdxY= c,h ydksjk wdldrfhka yd Bg n,mdk idOl y"kd .ekSfuka c,h jvd;a ldrAhCIuj Ndú;d lsrSfuka jeä M,odhs;djhla ,nd.; yelsh’

4'2 mdxY= f;;uk ks¾Kdhl mfia f;;ukh ms<sn| ksis weia;fuzka;=jla ,nd .ekSfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj, ta wjia:dfjz mj;sk c, wjYH;d imqrd,sSug ;SrKh lsrSug tu o;a; mdol lr.; yelsh’ mfia wvx.=jk f;;ukh iDcqju úúO WmlrK uÛska ksjerosj kSrAkh lr.; yelsh’

mdxY+ wd;;sudkh - (Soil Teìiometers) wjYH ia:dkj, mi ;=<g we;=( lsrSfuka mdGdxl ,ndf.k th mdxY= f;;uk w.hg mrsjrA:kh flfrA’ fuysoS WmlrKhla ksjerosj ia:dk.; lsrSu;a tu WmlrK j,g wLKav kv;a;=jla iy fyd| mqyqKQjla wjYH fjhs’

kshqfg%dak fm%dnh - (Neutron Probe) úirK m%njhlska ls%hdlrk fuu WmlrKfhka ksoyia flfrk

j,ska mfia we;s f;;ukh kSrAkh flfrA” fuz i|yd o úfYaI oekqula iy mqyqKQjla wjYH fjhs’

mdxY= f;;uk udml (Soil moisture monitors) fuu lKavhg wh;a WmlrK kuz Capacitance Wod’ (Enviroscan) fyda ;dm fm%danh ( Heat Probe) hhs’ fuzjd fCIa;%fha iú l, úg wLKavj ksYaÑ; ld,dka;rhlska mdxY= f;;ukh ms<sn| o;a; ,ndfohs’

Wÿka Ndú;h (Oven) fuysoS iDcqju mfia wvx.= f;;ukh mrsCId flfrA’ ,nd.; mia iduzm, W)kl úh<d tys wvx.= jq uqMZ c, m%udKh ms<sn| o;a; ,nd.; yels jqjo Ydlhg wjfY`IKh i|yd mfia mj;sk c, m%udKh ms<sn|j ksYaÑ; mdGdxl ,nd .; fkdyelsh’ flfia jqjo ksjeros mdxY= f;;uk o;a; fkdue;s jqjo m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia mj;sk f;;ukh ms<sn| ;rul wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSug yelskuz m,;=re Ydl j,g wjysr;djhla fkdjk ugzgug WoHdkfha f;;ukg 93


kv;a;= l, yelsh’ túg c, iuzmdokh ms<sn| wjYH ;srK .ekSu

mrsCId lsrsu ;=<skao WoHdkfha mia j, f;;uk ;;a;ajhka ms<sn| m%udKj;a

myiqfjhs’ tfy;a fuz i|yd ishquz yd wêl úhouz iys; WmlrK Ndú;d lsrsug fkdyels jqjo m%dfhda.slj mia

woyila ,nd.; yelsh’ mrsK;jq m,;=re j.djlg fuu m%dfhda.sl o< mrsCIdjo m%udKj;a fjhs’

j.=j* mdxY+ f;;ukh ms<sn|m%dfhda.sl wjfndaOhla ,eîu mdxY= f;;uk ugzgu fCIa;% Odrs;djh blaujd we;

je,s f,dau mi

f,dau” uegsf,dau iy uegs mi

mia usgla f.k w;a, u; ;nd .=,s lr usrsl= úg c,h ksoyia fjhs’

mia usgla f.k w;a, u; ;nd .=,slr usrsl= úg b;d wef,k iq(h’ yd c,h ksoyia fjhs’

fCI;% Odrs;djfha we;’ Ydlj,g ,nd.; yels c,h 100%

mia usgla f.k w;a,u; ;nd .=,s lr usrsl= úg c,h ksoyia fkdfjz’ kuq;a c, mg,hla mia .=,sh jgd olakg ,efnz

mia usgla f.k w;a, u; ;nd .=,slr usrsl= úg c,h ksoyia fkdfjz’ kuq;a kuq;a w;a, u; ;=kS c, mg,hla nefohs’ ;=kS lr us'us 2l úYaluzNhla we;sjk wdldrhg w;eÛs,s w;r frda,a l, yelsh’

Ydlj,g ,nd.; yels c,h 75%

mia usgla f.k w;a,u; ;nd .=,s lr usrsld we;eÛs,s os. yersh úg )rAj, .=,shla iefoa’ kuq;a myiqfjka ìoS hhs’

mia usgla f.k w;a, u; ;nd .=,slr usrsl= úg wef,k iqM .=,shla iefoa’ ;=kS l+re wdldrh weÛs,s 2la w;r fkrmd frda,a l, fkdyelsh’

Ydlj,g ,nd.; yels c,h 50%

by; wdldrhg mia .=,shla usrsl= úg .=,shla iefoa’ kuq;a myiqfjka úisrs ì|s hhs’

by; wdldrhg mia .=,shla usrsl= úg .=,shla iefoa’ ;rula úYd, mgshla wdldrhg frda,a l, yelsh’

Ydlj,g ,nd.; yels c,h 25%

mia úh<sh’ by; wdldrhg .=,shla f,i ilia l, fkdyelsh’

by; wdldrhg mia .=,shla usrsl= úg .=,shla fkdiefoa’ len,s fjhs mgshla wdldrhg frda,a l, fkdyelsh’

ue, ùfuz ix.=klh (PWP)

mia úh<sh’ .=,sl, úg .=,shla fkdiefoa’

by; wdldrhg usrsl= úg len,s yd l=vq iefok kuq;a .=,shla fkdiefoa’

94


4'3 c, iïmdok l%u m,;=re WoHdkhlg c, iuzmdokh i|yd m%Yia; l%uhla f;dard.; hq;=h’ jirska jir m,;=re j.dj mrsK; jk úg c, wjYH;djho iSñ; fjhs’ tfukau jifrA c,h iemhsh hq;= ld, iSsudjo flá ld,hlg isud fjhs’ kuq;a os.= úh<s ld,hla iys; foaY.=Khla mj;sk l,dmhl msysgqjd we;s m,;=re WoHdkhlg c, iuzmdok l%uhla ia:dmkh lsrSfuka wiajekak ,nd.;

;;a;ajh ^úh<s” Y=Ial” f;;a wdoS jYfhka jI_dj mj;sk ld,iSudj” úh<s ld,isudj” jd;fha wdrAø;dj iy iq<x yeóu ms<sn|& j.dlrK ,o m,;=re Ydl úfYaIho i,ld ne,sh hq;=h’ uSg wu;rj wdfhdackh l, yels isudj yd ,efnk wdodhug .e,fmk l%uhla y"kd.; hq;= we;’ mia j._h wkqj c,h mi ;=<g .uka lsrSfuz fjz.h” mi;=< c,h r|jd .ekSfuz yelshdj yd mi ;=<ska c,h

yels jdrh fjkia lsrSug fndfyda )rg yelshdj ,efnz’ tuÛska úfYaI wdrA:sl m%;s,dN i|yd m,;=re wiajekak

ldka)ùu iy ls|d neisu hk idOl i,ld nef,a’ óg wu;rj N+ úIu;djo i,ld ne,sh hq;=h’

idudkH jdrfhka msg;oS fj<|m,g iemhsh yelsfjhs’ wiajekak fk,Su mud lsrSug jqjo c, iuzmdokh fhdod.; yels jkafka úh<s ld,.=Khla os.=

ìxÿ c, iïmdok l%uh (Drip Irrigation System)

ld,hla mqrd mj;sk foaY.=Ksl l,dmhlosh’ mfia f;;ukh md,kh lsrSug yelsùfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha meje;au;a wiajekak;a# wiajekafka .=Kd;auh;a md,kh l, yelsjkq we;’ ta i|yd jvd;a .e,fmk c, iuzmdok l%uhla f;dard.; hq;=h’ c,iuzmdokh l,hq;= wjia:dj kSrAkfhaoS m%Odk idOl 3la flfrys wjOdkh fhduq úh hq;=h’ tkuz Ydlfha iemhsu i|yd iq)iq c, iuzmdok l%uhla f;dard .ekSfuzoS ie,lsh hq;= idOl lsysmhls’ WoHdkfha mj;sk mia j._h” m%foaYfha mj;sk foaY.=Ksl

Ydlfhka Ydlhg fjk fjku c,h iemfhk l=vd k, moaO;shla fyda emitter iúlrk ,o oaú;shsl yd m%Odk k, moaO;shlao” c,h fmfrkhlao” m%;sldrl tallhlao iu. wê n,e;s c, fmduzmhlskao fuu ìx) c, iuzmdok l%uh iukaú; 95


fjhs’ fuysoS Ydl úfYaIh jrAOk wjêh# ld,.=Kh# mi wdoS ish¨

lsysmhla we;s nj jgyd.; hq;=h’ úYd, .ia iys; m,;=re

idOl i,ld n,d wdikak jYfhka Ydlhg ffokslj wjYH jk c,h m%udKh muKla ,ndoSu fuu l%ufha úfYaI;ajhls’ wjYH jk i;H c,h

WoHdkhg c,h iemhsfuzoS t;ruz ksje/os f,i c,h m%udKh iSre udre lsrSug ;rï tu Ydl ixfjzoS ke;’ nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re .ia j, uQ,

m%udKh ksjerosj .Kkh lr iemhsh yelsùu jeo.;ah’ tfukau TzkEu wjia:djloS Ydlj,g iemfhk c, m%udKh fjkialr .ekSug yels

uKav,h wiuñ;lj jefvñka c,h msgjk kd, osYdjg jeãu .eg(jls' tfukau fuu moaO;sh ls%hdldrS ùug kuz c, fmduzmh iy wksl=;a Wmdx.

iSreudre lsrsSfuz Wml%u iys;h’

wLKavj ls%hd;aul l,hq;= ksid th kv;a;= úhouz wêl lrhs’ c, fmduzm” f.dvke.s,s” c, k,” fmryka yd

Ydlfha m%Yia; jrAOkhg th jdishls’ tuÛska mi ;=< c,h jeä ùfuka we;sjk frda. yd ldhsl úoHd;aul .eg( uÛZyer ;sfnz’ Ydlh wjg iSñ; m%foaYhlg muKla c,h iemfhk ksid fCI;%fha j,a me<Eá fn`ùu yd jrAOkh iSudfjhs’ wksl=;a c, iuzmdok l%u j,oS j,ame<Eá we;sùu fCIa;%h mqrdu is)fjhs’ fuz l%uh ;=<ska iemfhk c,h msrsis) flfrk ksid Ydlhg ,jK;djfhka fyda fjk;a wmøjH ksid we;sùh yels .egMZ uÛ yer ;sfnz’ c,h ysÛ jq ld,hloS yd c,h isñ; jq m%foaYj,g ìx) c, iuzmdok l%uh losu úi)uls’ fuz ;=<ska ridhksl fmdfydr (fertilization& lDIs ridhk yd fjk;a TzkEu c,fha ødjH ridhkslhla Ydlj,g ldrAhCIuj b;d fjz.fhka fhoSug yelsùu úfYaI jdishls’ ìx) c, iuzmdok l%ufha wjdiso 96

;j;a úfYaI Wmdx. rdYshla i|yd oersh hq;= uq,sl úhou wêlh’ kv;a;= yd m%udKd;aul .Kkh lsrSuz i|yd úfYaI oekqula yd mqyqKqjla ,eìh hq;=h’ mi ;=<ska jHdma; jk os,Sr frda. ;=rka lsrSu ìx) c,iuzmdok l%uh meje;afjk ksid wmyiqh' ks;ru m%Yia; ugzgfuka mfia f;;ukh mj;ajdf.k hdu fya;= fjks’ úYd, f,i me;sreKQ kd,d cd,djla fCI;%h mqrdu mj;sk ksid fCIa;% kv;a;= lghq;= j,g wjysr;djhls’ hka;% iq;% Ndú;h wmyiqjk w;r fCIa;%fha csj;ajk i;=kaf.ka ^óhka& c, k, moaO;shg ydks is)ùu iq,Nh’ túg moaO;sfha ldrAhCIu;dj wvqù kdia;sh jeäfjhs’ tfukau c,h msglrk emitter j, ,jK ;ekam;a ùfuka is)re jeiShdu iq,N .eg(jls’ kùk;u Wmdx. j,ska


fuz ;;a;ajh ;rula )rg uÛyrjd .; yel’

u;=msg c, iïmdokh (Surface irrigation)

md,kh l, yelsh’ N+usfha u| nejqula ;sîu wjYHh' c,h jeä ùfuka frda. fndaùfï wjodkula fuys ;sfí'

msgdr c,iïmdokh ^Flood Irrigation)

c, iuzmdokh i|yd myiqfjka yd wjYH;ruz c,h ,nd.; yelskuz wvq úhouz iys; u;=msg c,iuzmdok l%uhla fhdod.; yelsh’ fuysoS

uq( fCIa;%h mqrd c,h ksoyfia .,dhdug yelsjk mrsos m%Odk we,

m,;=re Ydl fma,s w;rska ilik ,o fkd.eUqre we,la (furrow) osf.a c,h fnodyrskq ,efnz’ m%Odk ldkq j,g iuznkaO oaú;shsl we,la jeks ldkq

udrA.fhka fCIa;%hg c,h fhduq flfrA’ fuysoS fCIa;%h fldgia j,g fnod tla tla fldgia c,fhka ix;Dma; lr wu;r c,h B<.

moaO;shla b;d wvq nEjqulg ilia lrkq ,efnz’ Ydlj, uq,a moaO;sh

fldgig fhduq lsrSu fyda tla tla fldgig m%Odk we, udrA.fhka fjk

mj;sk l,dmh fyd|ska f;fuk fia c,h iemhSug j.n,d .kakd w;r

fjku c,h fhduq lsrSug mq(jk’

w;sfrAl c,h kej;;a m%Odk we, udrA.hg tla flfrA’ N+ñfha u| nejqula ;sìu wjYHhs’

fuu ish( l%u wvq msrsjehla iys; ùsu;a# kv;a;= úhou wvqùu;a# Y%u b,a,qu wjYH ;dCIKh yd wjYH

Ydl jgd mi m%udKj;a f,i fnziula wdldrhg ilialr th

WmlrK hka;% iQ;% wvqùu;a ksid myiqfjka m,;=re WoHdk i|yd fhdod.; yelsh’ tfy;a iemfhk

l=vd ldkqjlska m%Odk we, udrA. hg iuznkaOlr c,h imhkq ,efnz’ m%Odk we, udrA.fhka c,h iemhqu

c, m%udKh ksYaÑ; m%udKhg md,kh lsrSu wmyiqùu;a fCI;%fha mqrdu taldldrS f,i Ydlj,g c,h 97


fkd,eîu;a fCI;%fha uq,a fldgfia Ydlj,g wkjYH mrsos jeämqr c,h ,eîu ksid frda. je,oSfuz wjodku iy fmdaIl ydksù hdfuz wjodku ksid;a c, iuzmdokfhka miq fCIa;%h kv;a;= ls%hdldrluz j, fhoSu wmyiqùu;a fuu l%uj, wjdis fjhs’ fCIa;%fhka fCIa;%hg frda. m,sfndaO jHdma; ùfuz wjodkuo by, jk w;r c,h wmf;ahduo by,h’ j,a me< nyq,j fnda ùuo fuu l%u wkq.ukh lsrSu b;du m%fjzYfuka l, hq;=h’ úfYaIfhka flfi, mefmd,a” wkakdis jeks fnda.;a” )rshka” rUqgka jeks fnda.;a c,jyk )rAj,;d we;sùu ksid uq,aj,g je<fok frda. j,ska úkdY ù hd yelsh’ ke;skuz )rAj, úh yelsh’

úisreï c, iïmdokh ^Sprinkler Irrigation)

yefrk isria k, iuÛ tys fl,jfrA iú lrk ,o c, úiqreuz tallhla óg wh;a fjhs' c, fmduzmhlska iuzmSä; c,h fkdlvjd iemfhk w;r c, úiqreuz tallh jD;a;dldr m%foaYhlg jI_djla wdldrhg c,h úiqrejd yrshs’ fuu úiqreuz tallhlska wdjrKh jk l,dmfha )r m%udKh tu c,iuzmdok moaO;sh wkqj kSrAkh flfrk w;r th .Kkh flfrkafka Ydl w;r )r# Ydlfha c, wjYH;dj yd mdrsirsl idOl hkdoS idOl mokuz lrf.kh’ fuz i|yd m%udKj;a n,hla we;s c, fmduzmhla iuznkaO lsrSuo wksjdrAh wjYH;djhls' iEu Ydlhlgu fjk fjku iúlrkq ,nk l=vd úiqreuz tall lsysmhla iys; moaO;s CIqø úiqreuz l%uh (Micro – sprinkler) fjk w;r úYd, m%foaYhlg tl úiqreuz tallhlska c,h iemhSu idudkH úiqreï l%uh fjhs’ mi fyd|ska f;fukfia mq(,a m%foaYhlg tljr c,h iemhSh yelsùu jdishls’ túg mi ;=<g c,h we;=( ùsu fndfyda

m%Odk k, ud._h yd Bg iuznkaO oaú;shsl k, udrA.fha wjidkfha oS Ydl j,g by,ska c,h úiqrejd

98

)rg taldldrSj uq, moaO;s iys; m%foaYj, is\q fõ' kuq;a u;=msg c, iuzmdok l%u j,g jvd wvqfjka c,h kdia;s jqjo fuu l%ufhka iq<Û ksid c,h kdia;sh jeäh’ tfukau uq,sl úhou yd kv;a;= úhouo ie,lsh hq;= ;ruz úYd,h’ c,k, cd,djla mej;S


ksid fCIa;% lghq;= j,g ndOdfjhs’

úisreï c, iïmdok l%ufha jdis c,

iuzmdokfhaoS

we;sjk

c,

kdia;sh ie,lsh hq;= ;ruz wvq fjhs’ w;HdjYHfhka jeämqr c,h iemhSfuz wjodku wvqfjk w;r c,h Ydlh jgd taldldrSj úisrS hhs’ idfmaCIj c, iuzmdokhg wjYHjk c,h mrsudj wvqh’ N+=ñh iu;,d ùu wjYH ke;s w;r N+ñh ldrAhCIuj fjk;a lghq;= j,g fhdod .ekSug we;sjk ndOl wjuh’ wjYHkuz c,fha oshjk fmdfydro c, iuzmdokh;a iu. ,ndosh yelsh’ j,a me<Eá jrAOkh md,khg úYd, .eg( we;s fkdlrhs’

wjdis wkjYH f,i c,iuzmdokh lsrSfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl j,g fkdfhl=;a .eg( we;s fjhss’ úfYaIfhkau mfia f;;ukh wkjYH f,i ksr;=reju jeä ugzgul mej;Sfuka fndfy` os,sr wdidok we;s fjhs’ tu.ska uQ, moaO;s frda.S ù Ydl )rAj, ùu iy iuzmQrAKfhkau ñh hdu is\qfjhs' mfia f;;ukh jeäùu ksid mfia jd;kh wvqfjhs’ túg uq,aj, Yajikh yd jrAOkh wvqùu;a ksid Ydl )rAj, fjhs’ uq, uKav,h wjg mi ,sys,aj mej;su ksid úYd, Ydl iq<ÛZg jqjo myiqfjka .e,ù hd yelsh’ c, jykh )rAj, mila we;súg c, iuzmdokh

lsrSfuzoS b;du m%fjziuz úh hq;=h’ Ydlfha uq, moaO;sh wjg wys;lr ugzgul c,h r|d mej;Sug bv we;s ksid tuÛska fkdfhl=;a wys;lr m%;sM, Wodfjhs’ wêl f,i mig c,h iemhSu ksid fndfyda fmdaIl fiaoS f.dia mi ;=<g ls|d neisfuka Ydlj,g m%udKj;a ;rï fmdaIl fkd,efnz’ tu ksid wiu;=,s; fmdaIl idkaøKhka we;s fjhs’ mig fhdok ,o fmdfydr j,ska Wmrsu m%fhdackhla fkd,eîu ksid jrAOkh wvq ùu;a wiajekak wvqùu;a ksid ksIamdok úhou wêl fjhs’ m,;=re .iaj, u,a yg.ekSuo wvqfjhs’ yg.kakd M, j,g wvx.= iSks m%udKh wvq ù .=Kd;auh my, niS’ l=vd M, ye,Shduo is)fjhs’ fmdgEishuz wjfYdaIKh jeäùfuka M, j, wuz, m%udKh jeä úh yelsh’ tfukau khsg%cka” i,a>rA” iy fn`fr`ka miqfjkau mi;=<ska .eUqrg fiaoS hkq we;’ kuq;a Ydl fha jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh lrkq we;’ iuia:hla f,i m,;=re WoHdkfha M,odhs;dj wvqù f.dia wiajekak wvqùuo túg uQ, frda. j,g Ydlh md;%ùu ksid ydks is)ùuo jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh ksid u,aa yd M, yg.ekSu wvqùuo is)fjhs’

99


4'4 c,fha .=Kd;auh c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod .kq ,nk c,fha .=Kd;auh kSrAKh flfrk mrdñ;slhka rdYshls’ tajd w;r” c,fha ødjH uq( ,jK idkaøKh# wksl=;a Ok whkj,g idfmaCIj fidaähï wvx.= m%udKh le,aishuz iy ue.akSishuz whk idkaøKhg idfmaCIj nhsldnfkagz idkaøKh hk mrdus;slhka m%Odk fjhs’ mrsirfhaoS

,efnk

ishMZ

c,h

m,;=re WoHdkfha c,iuzmdokh i|yd c, m%Njhla f,i fhdod

.ekSug iq)iq fkdúh yelsh’ tu c,fha jeo.;a .=Kd;aul ,CIK ms<sn|j wOHhkhlska miqj th c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod .ekSug we;s yelshdj wjfndaO lr.; hq;=h’ c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod .ekSug c, m%Njhla iq)iq oehs ks.ukh lsrSu i|yd iy tu c,h iq)iq ;;a;ajhg m;alr .ekSu i|yd is)l, hq;= m%;slrAu ksrAKh lr .ekSu i|yd uq,sl jYfhka c,fha ,jK;dj iy fidaähuz whk wvx.=jk idkaøKh ksrAkh l,hq;=h’

c,fha ,jK;djh

,jK;djh ‘C’ wlaIrfhka olajkafka kuz tys ;sj%;djh wkqj c,h ldKav lsysmhlg fnosh yelsh’ j.=j* c,fha ,jK;djh wkqj ldKav j,g fnoSu úoHq;a c, iuzmdokh i|yd c,fha .=Kd;auh úYaIaGhs

ikakdhl;dj dS/m (mmhos/cm at 25o) < 0.25

fyd|hs

0.25 - 0.75

fhdod .ekSug iq)iqhs’ kuq;a mi fidaod yerSug ;ruz m%udKj;a f,i c,h fhosh hq;=h’

0.76 - 2.00

wjodkuz iys;hs’ ,jK;djhg Tfrd;a;= fok m%fNao $ úfYaI f;dard.kak

2.07 - 3.00

kqiq)iqhs

100

> 3.00


+Co2 205 - 7.5 uo ,jK;djhla iys; c,hhs’ ,jK;djhg Tfrd;a;= fok fnda. i|yd c, iuzmdokhg

iuzmdokh i|yd ,jK;djh rys; fyda C1 ldkavhg wh;a c,h muKla fhdod.; yelsh’ kuq;a m%udKj;a jrAIdm;khla taldldrSj jir mqrd

fhdod.; yelsh’ kuq;a ,jK mi ;=<ska fiaoShkfia fhoSug ;ruz m%udKj;a c, iemhqula yd fyd| c,jykhla ;sìh

jrAIdj mj;S kuz fyda oeä jrAId iuhla jifrA tla ld, mrspzfcAohloS fyda Wodjkafka kuz C1 iy C1 ldKavhg wh;a c,h jqjo c,iuzmdokhg

hq;=h’

fhdod.; yelsh’ túg ,jK;djhla os.= ld,Skj f.dvkexùug wjia:dj fkd,efnkafka wêl jI_d iufhaoS mfia

C3 7.5 - 22.5 jeä ,jK;djhla iys; c,hhs’ )rAj, c, jykhla iys; milg c, iuzmdokhg fhdod.; fkdyel’ mfia f;;ukh oshqKQ l, yels kuzo mfia wvx.= ,jK;djh wvq kuz yd mfia c, jykh ukd f,i jeä oshqKq l, yels kuz muKla ,jK;djhg Tfrd;a;=fok fnda.j,g c, fhdod.; yelsh’

iuzmdokhg

C4 > 22.5 b;d jeä ,jK;djhla iys; c,h ksid fnda.j,g c, iuzmdokh fkdyelsh’

i|yd

fhdod.;

fuz wkqj m,;=re WoHdkh msysgqjd we;s m%foaYfha m%Odk jYfhka úh<s foaY.=Khla mj;skafka kuz os.= ld,sk c,iuzmdokfhka ,jK;djh f.dv kexùug bv ;sfnk ksid c,

we;s ,jK fiaoS mi ;=<ska .eUqrg fyda fidaodhdu ksid bj;aùug we;s wjia:dj jeä ksidh’ flfia jqjo mj;sk m%uqL foaY.=K ;;a;ajh” c, m%Njfha c, mrsudj” iy fnda.h ,jK;djhg Tfrd;a;= fok wdldrh wkqj wjYH;d ks.ukhkag t,Usu kqjKg yqreh’

c,fha fidaähï whk idkaøKh c,fha wvx.=jk fidaähuz whk idkaøKh c, iuzmdokh i|yd tu c,h iq)iqfjzoehs kSrAKh lsrSug fhdod .kq ,efnz’ fi`ähuz whk jeäùu ksid mfia ridhksl .=Kdx. j,g iDcqju n,mdk w;r wksl=;a LKsc whk j, yd mfia pH w.fha yeisrSug th oeä f,i n,mdk fyhsks’ c,fha fi`ähuz whk wvx.=jk idkaøKh S wCIrfhka ixfla;j;a lrkafka kuz my; i|yka ldKavj,g tu c,h ta wkqj fnod fjkalr .; yelsh’ 101


j.=j* c,fha fi`ähuz whk idkaøKh wkqj ldKav j,g fnoSu ldKavh

fi`ähuz whk

úfYaI ,CK

idkaøKh

wvx.= fi`ähuz whk idkaøKh wju ugzgul mj;s’ fuu c,h lsis) m%;sldrhlg S1

Ndckh fkdlr fndfyda fnda.j,g c, iuzmdokh i|yd iDcqju fhdod.; yelsh’ uOHu

S2

S3

ugzgfï

idkaøKhlska

fidaähuz

whk mj;s’ ishquz jhkhla iys; Wia we;s N+ñhlg c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod .ekSfuzoS .eg( we;súh yel’ wêsl f,i fi`ähuz wvx.=h’ fndfyda wjia:dj,oS fnda.j,g .eg( we;slrhs’ csmaiuz (CaSO4) iys; fyda ,jK;dj wvq mi we;sùu iuyr úg c, iuzmdokhg fhdod.; yel’

S4

b;d wêl idkaøKhlska fi`ähuz whk wvx.=h’ fuu c,h c,iuzmdokh i|yd kqiq)iqh’

uSg wu;rj c,fha pH w.h” CIdrSh;djh (Alkalinity) iy úfYaI whk idkaøKh (Cl-, SO4 -2, B+ iy khsfgz%g khsg%cka& wdoS whk wvx.= ùfuzoS .=Kd;auh fjkiafjhs’

fi`ähuz (Na+ ) whk jeä idkaøKhlska

fidaähï whk idkaøKh

j.=j*

102

wvx.= c,h fhdod .ekSfuka mfia fmdaIl iq,N;djfha .eg( we;sfjz’ fi`ähuz úIúu ms<sn| o;a; SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) fi`ähuz wêfYdaIK wkqmd;h uÛska olajkq ,efnz’ fi`ähuz

jeä

c,h


c,iuzmdokhg fhosfuka úIùu fidavshï whk idkao%K w.hka ^SAR)

fidaähuz úI ùu

1-9

uOHu* ;;a;j a h oshqKQ lsru S g csmi a uz (CaSO4) fhoSu iq)iqh’ jeä c,h m%udKhla fhdod mia fiaoS ls|d neiSug wjia:dj osh hq;=h’

10-17

by,h* wLKavj c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod fkd.; hq;=h’

18-25

b;d by,h* c, iuzmdokhg fhdod fkd.; hq;=h’

> 26

wvqhs* fidaähuz j,g ixfjzoS fn`. j,g fhoSu fkdl, hq;=h

pH

w.h iy NdIañl;dj

c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod .kakd c,fha .=Kd;auh uek ne,Sug pH w.h yd NdIañl;dj fhdod.; yelsh’ idudkHfhka c,iuzmdokhg iq)iq c,fha pH w.h 6’5-8’4 w;r fjhs’ óg jvd pH w.h jeä jq c,fha nhsldnfkag (HCO3-) iy ldnfkag ^CO3-2) idkaøKh jeä ù ;sfnz’ túg tys NdIañl;dj jeäfjhs’ túg tu c,fha le,aishua Ok whk ^Ca+2& iy ue.akSishï Ok whk ^Mg+2& whk wødjH ixfhda. njg m;aù c,fhka bj;aùfuka fidaähï Ok whk (Na+&whk idkaøKh jeäfjhs’ túg

^SAR) jeäjk ksid tu c,h c, iuzmdokhg kqiq)iq njg m;a ùug bvlv we;s fjhs’ ìx) c, iuzmdok l%uj,g fhdod.;aúg tu is)re isrùu iy moaO;sh wlS%h ùu hk .eg( we;s fjhs’

laf,darhsv idkaøKh (Cl ) -

iuyr wjia:dj,oS laf,darhsv idkaøKh c,fha jeäùh yelsh’ túg fndfyda Ydlj,g tu c,h úI iys; fjhs’ fuzjd úiqreuz c, iuzmdok l%u j,g fhdod .;aúg Ydl m;% j, úIu;d we;sfjhs’ m;% odr ms,siaiShdu 103


Na ^fidaähï&fukau Cl (laf,darhsâ& ksid is)fjhs’ j.=j* laf,darhsv whk wkqj c,fha .=Kd;auh laf,darhsv idkaøKh (ppm)

.+Kd;auh c, iuzmdokh i|yd iq)iqh

< 70 71-140

,jK;djhg ixfjzos# Ydlj,g ydks is)fjz

141-350

uOHu ugzguska ,jK;djhg m%;sfrdaOs Ydl i|yd fhdod .; yel

>350

Ydlj,g oeä .eg( we;s lrhs

,jK;djh iy fi`ähuz whk idkaøKhg wu;rj c, iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod.kq ,nk c,fha .=Kd;auh kSrAKh lsrSug tu c,fha wvx.= jk laf,darhsv” i,af>ag” khsfgz%gz” khsgs%cka iy fndafrdaka idkaøKho bjy,a lr.; yelsh’ fuzjdfha wjodkuz iys; idkaøKh ms,sn|j úúO úYaf,aIK o;a; bosrsm;a

c,fha .=Kd;auh iei|Su c,iuzmdokh i|yd fhdod .; yels c,fha .=Kd;auh ii|d n,d .eg( uÛ yefrk ;;a;ajfha .=Kd;auh we;s c, m%Njhla fhdod .ekSu orA@ld,Skj m,;=re WoHdkfha M,odhs;djhg ys;lrh

lr ;sfnz’ j.=j* c,fha .=Kd;aul ;;a;aj .=Kd;auh

Ec x10-3 (milimhos)

Total soluble salts(ppm)

Na content % salt as Na

SAR

pH

úYsIaGhs fyd|hs idudkHhs

0.25 0.25-0.75

175 175-525

20 175-525

3 3-5

6.5 6.5-6.8

0.75-2.0 2.0-3.0 >3.0

525-1400 1400-2100 2100<

40-60 60-80 80<

5-10 10-15 15<

6.8-7.0 7.0-8.0 8<

.eg( iys;hs kqiq)iqhs

fuz wkqj c,iuzmdokh i|yd c,h ,nd.ekSfuz m%Njh m%udKj;a f,i wOHhkh lsrSsu uq,sl wjYH;djhls’ 104


4'5 c,iïmdokh m%udKj;a fkdùu m,;=re

Ydl

j,ska

Wmrsu

M,odhs;djhla ;sridrj ,nd .ekSug;a M,j, .=Kd;auh by, kexùug;a M,jdrh md,kh lsrSug;a m%udKj;a f,i WoHdkfha m,;=re Ydlj,g wjYH;djh wkqj c,h iemhsh hq;=h’ c,iuzmdok wjYH;dj ish( idOl úYaf,aIkh lsrSfuka miqj ksrAKh l, hq;=h’ YIH úoHd;aul” mdrsirsl”

me, isgqùu M,odhs;djhg ydkshla fkdjk mrsos fijk ùug ñY% fnda. rgd wkq.ukh lsrSu iy iq<x ndOl we;slsrSu uÛska iq<fÛa fjz.h md,kh lsrSu” hk YIH úoHd;aul ls%hdldrluz uÛska W;aiafjzokh ;=<ska ydksjk c, m%udKh wvqlsrSug lghq;= l, yelsh’

jiqka fhoSu

fn`. ldhsl úoHd;aul fukau wdrA:sl idOlo ie,ls,, a g Ndckh lsrSsu wjYHfjhs’

4'6 c, ixrCIKh mi ;=<ska c,h we;=( ùug bvlv ,ndosfuka .,dhk c,fha fjz.h wvqlr mig jeämqr c,h we;=( l, yelsh’ m,;=re WoHdkfha mdxY+ c,h wvq jk l%uj;a lsrSfuka fyda tajdg ndOd meñK ùfuka fCIa;%fha mi ;=<g c,h jeä jYfhka we;=( lsrSu i|yd m%udKj;a ldKq moaO;s yd jeá f.dv kexùu” c,h .,dhk fjz.h wju lrñka mi ;=<g c,h we;=( ùug jeä fõ,djla ,ndosu”

jiqka fhÿ j.djla

m,;=re WoHdkfha icsù jiqka uÛska jdIamSlrKh wvql, yels w;r” c,iuzmdokfhka iemfhk c,h mi ;=<g we;=( ùu jeälsrSugo tajd mi ;=< jeä l,la r|jd .ekSugo icSù jiqka jeo.;a fjhs’ icSù jiqka f,i m,;=re Ydl w;r flá ;DK j.d lsrSu” j,a me<eá jeäug bv

yd jI_d c,h fCIa;%h ;=< r|jd .ekSug wjYH mshjr .ekSu ;=<ska mfia wvx.=jk c,h m%udKh jeäl,

lv ie,iSu” fjk;a rks, fnda.j,g wh;a jiqka Ydl j.d lsrSu wdosh ie,lsh yelsh’ flfia jqjo fuysoS

yelsh’

m,;=re Ydlfha mdoia:fha isg uSgrA 2la muK úIaluzNh jq l,dmhla ishM icSù jiqka j,ska f;drj kv;a;=

W;aiafjzokh wvqlr,ssu i|yd fnda. rgdjka wkqj j.d lsrSu wê @K;ajhg

105


l, hq;=h’ m,;=re Ydl w;r j.d flfrk fuu icsù jiqka Ydl ish,a,

,S l=vq” ms)re” fmd,a w;= f;a l=vq fmd,a f,,s iy fldyqn;a wdoS iq,N øjH

ks;ru lmd tajdfha jrAOkh fi’ó’ lsysmhl Wilg muKla mj;ajd f.k hdhq;= w;r” lemSfuka ,efnk Ydl fldgia m,;=re Ydl jgd mdoia:

jiqkla f,i fhoSu jvd iq)iqh’ kuq;a ,S l=vq iy oyhshd wdoS øjH fyd|ska osrdm;a ùfuka miq jiqkla f,i fhdod .ekSu ys;lrh’ tajdfha wvx.=

l,dmfha jiqkla f,i fhdod.; yelsh’ tuÛska f;;ukh wdrCId ùu;a mfia WIaK;ajh by, hdu;a wvq ùfuka CIqø csùkag jvd;a WÑ;

jk wêl ldnka m%udKh iy Ydl ridhksl ^we,alf,dhsv” .a,qfldihsv” >sfkd,sl ixfhda. wdosh& CIqø cSùkaf.a ls%hdldrs;ajhg yd ZYdlj,

mdxY= mrsirhla we;s fjhs’ Ydlh mdoia:fha icsù Ydl j.d fkdlrk ksid fmdaIl i|yd ;rÛZhla we;s

uq,aj, ls%hdldrs;ajhg ndOd muqKQùug bvlv we;s fyhsks’

fkdfjk w;r icsù jiqk ksr;=re lmd kv;a;= lsrSu ksid frda. m,sfndaO Odrl ;;a;ajhla we;sùuo je,fla’ wcSù øjH jiqkla f,i fhdod .ekSfuka W;aiafjzokh iy jdIamslrKh wvqlr .; yelsh’ úh<s Ydl fldgia yd flduzfmdaiagz fuz i|yd jvd;a fhda.H jiqka øjH fjhs’ tajd mrsir ys;ldó fjkjd muKla fkdj mig fmdaIl tlalr Ydlj,g jvd;a ys;lr mdxY= mrsirhla ìyslsrSug bjy,a fjhs’ flfia jqjo m,;=re Ydlj, lmamd)fjka bj;a lrk ,o fldgia jiqkla i|yd fhdod .ekSfuzoS m%fjzYuz úh hq;af;a tuÛska frda. yd m,sfndaO jHdma; ùfuz bvlv mj;sk ksidh’ fjk;a Ydl mjq,lg wh;a fnda. fldgia jiqka f,i Ndú;d lsrSu t;ruz wk;=reodhl fkdfjz’ flfi,a l|ka” osrdm;ajq oyhshd iy 106

osrdm;a ùu wvq fyda osrdm;a fkdjk fmd,s;Ska jeks jiqkao fhdod.; yels jqjo tajd m,;=re WoHdkj,g fhdod .ekSu m%dfhda.sl fkdjkq we;’ tfukau wêl úhou ksid;a mdrsirsl .eg( ksid;a lD;su jiqkla fhdod .ekSu ckm%sh fkdfõ'

iq<x ndOl iq<f.a fjz.h wvd, lr,Sug iq<x ndOl we;s lsrSu iuyr m,;=re WoHdkj, msysàu wkqj w;HdjYH idOlhla fjhs’ fuysoS iq<ÛZ yeófuz osYdjka m,uqj y"kd.ekSu wjYHhs’ iq<fÛa ;sj%;dj yd wêl iq<x yuk ld, jljdkq ms,sn|j wfndaOlr .ekSuo myiqjls’ bkamiq ;sridr iq<x ndOl we;sl, hq;=h’ fuysoS Wml%ñlj iq<Û m,;=re j.djg by,ska yud hdug uÛ ie,iSu i|yd iq<x ndOlh ie,iquz l, hq;=h’


jiqka iq<x ndOl i|yd iq<Ûg wys;lr ;;a;aj j,g Tfrd;a;= fok Ydl úfYaI f;dard .; hq;=h’ tajdfha Wmrsu jrAOkh Wi wkqj usgrA 2# uSgrA 2-4la yd usgrA 4-6la muK wdoS Wi jk jYfhka Ydl úfYaI fjkalr .; hq;=h’ m<uqj wod, fCIa;%fha udhsuz iq<x yuk osYdjg m%;súreoaO osYdjg Wiska wvqfjkau jefvk iq<x ndOl Ydl úfYaI ióm mr;rhlska fma,s 2-3 muK isgqjkak’ fndfydaúg Ydl úfYaI wkqj usgrA 3-4l mr;rhlg ;s%fldaKdldr l%uhg fma,s 2-3 fuzjd msysgqúh hq;=h’ tu wjidk fma,sh isg tu mr;rh ;nd uOHu Wig jefvk iq<x ndOl Ydl úfYaIh ;s%fldaK l%uhg iuSm mr;rj,ska fma,s 3la muK isgqjkak’

fndfydaúg usgrA 3-4 mr;rhg isgqùu m%udKj;a fjkq we;’ tu wjidk fma,sfha isg tu mr;rhu ;nd wNHka;rj fma,s 3la isgqùu i|yd Wiska jeä f,i jefvk iq<x ndOl Ydl úfYaI ;s%fldaK l%uhg isgqjkak’ osh hq;= mr;rh Ydl úfYaIh wkqj fjkia jqjo uSgrA 4-5 muK ,ndosSu m%udKj;a fjhs’ Wi ugzguz 3lska fuu iq<x ndOl Ydl úfYaI fma,s 9 ;sridrj kv;a;= l, hq;=h’ túg Ydl úhk ugzguz 3la iq<x ndOl f,i mj;sk ksid m,;=re Whk foig yuk iq<x l%ufhka by,g tifjk w;r” wjidk iq<x ndOlh Ydl fma,sfha Ydl úhfkka by<g tifjhs' túg m,;=re Ydlj, úhkg jvd by,ska iq<Û yudhdug bvlv ie,iSfuka m,;=re j.dj iq<fÛka wdrCIdfjhs’

107


fuz ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl j,g iq<fÛka fyd| wdrCIdjla ,efnhs’ iq<x ydks j,ska M, /l .ekSug yelsùu;a jdIamSlrK yd W;aiafjzokh ;=<ska c,h ydksùu;a wvqfjhs' ñá

iq<x

ndOl

Ydl

f,i

j,a

iQrshldka;” .a,srsiSähd jeks úfYaIo uOHu Wiska hq;a Ydl f,i fmar” wfk`od” bms,a bms,a” ldurx.d” fk,a,s jeks Ydlo Wiajq iq<x ndOl f,i trn)” wU” iemos,a,d” lcq” osjq,a” fn,s” jeks m,;=re Ydlo fhdod.; yelsh’ fuzjd m%udKj;a Wilg mj;ajd f.k hdu i|yd lmamd) lsrSu ksis l,g bgq l, hq;=h’

yd fjz.h mfia fN!;sl ,CIK wkqj fndfydaúg ;SrKh fjhs’ c,iuzmdokfha ldrAhCIu;dj Wmrsuj ,nd.ekSu i|yd m,;=re WoHdkfha mfia ,CIK;a ta ;=<ska c,h úisrs hk rgdj iy fjz.h;a ms<sn| mQj_ wjfndaOhla ,nd.ekSu m%fhdackj;a fjhs’ mfia jhkh yd jHqyh fuysoS oeä n,mEula lrk w;r” mfia iújr nj wkqj c,h r|jd .ekSu fjkia fjhs’ mig c,h iuzmdokh lrkúg je,s iys; mila ;=<ska .eUqrg c,h úisrs hk nj fmfka’ fuz wkqj m,;=re Whfka miaj, iajNdjh wjOdkhg fhduqlr .ekSu

m%;s W;aiafõokh

wjYH fjhs’

(Anti – traipirant)

4'7 jeis c,h Wmfhdackh

W;aif a jzokh wvqlr .ekSfï wruqfKka m;%j, WpzprAuh wdjrKh lsrSu i|yd m%;s W;aiafjzol biSu l,yels jqjo th t;ruz ckms%h Wml%uhla fkdfjz’ fuz øjH fndfydaúg bá j,ska

ck cSú;fha wjYH;d i|yd jeis c,h tla/ia lr Ndú;d lsrsu ls%ia;= mQrAj 10 Y; jrAI olajdu wdishdfjz mej;ss nj fmfka’ lDIslrAuh i|yd jejz wuqKq

iukaú; jk w;r tajd biSfuz msrsjeho by,h’ tajd biSfuka uhsgdjkaf.a iy fldrfmd;= lDñkaf.a ydksh jeäjk nj ol=Kq wms%ldfjz oS “iegziqudia” kdrx j,g lrk ,o mrAfhaIK j,ska fmkS f.dia ;sfnz’

mi ;=<ska c,h úisrshdu mi 108

;=<

c,h

.ukalrk

rgdj

boslsrSu Bg losu WodyrKhs’ m,;=re WoHdk i|yd wu;r c, iuzmdokh lsrSu ks;ru is) lsrSu wjYH fkdjk kuq;a oeä úh<s ld,hloS iy WoHdkfha Ydlj, wjYH;d wkqj c, iuzmdok jev ms,sfj,la mj;ajdf.k hdug is)fjhs’ tfyhska c,h jvd;a wjYHjk úh<s ld,fhaoS c,h ys.Zùu .eg(jla úh yelsh’ úYd, m,;=re Ydl j, jrAOkh fkdjk iy M, fuzre wjê


j,oS c,h wjYH;dj wvqjqjo úYd, .ia j,g jrlg fhosh hq;= c,h m%udKh idfmaCIj úYd,h’ th osklg ,SgrA 15 isg 100 olajd jqjo jeäúh yelsh’

.nvd lsÍu jrAId ld,fhaoS .,dhk c,h WoHdkfha u;= m%fhdackh i|yd tla /ialr .ekSug lghq;= lsrSu m%fhdackj;a fjhs’ ksjrA;k l,dmfhaoS oeä fu`iuz jeis yg.kakd fyhska úYd, c,h m%udKhla .nvdlr.; yelsh’ fuz i|yd m%udKj;a .nvd bvla iq)iq ia:dkhl ilia lr .ekSug ie,iquz l, hq;=h’ WoHdkfha yels Wmrsu Wia ;ekl l=vd c,dYhla f,i fyda ;ekska ;ek c,h /ialr .; yels gexls boslsrSu iq)iqh’ fuz i|yd ma,diaála fyda isfuka;s gexls”

udrA.h

msrsis)

lrd

.,d

hdug

bvosh hq;=h’ gexlshg c,h we;=MZjk ia:dkfha myiqfjka .,jd msrsis) l, yels wdldrhg oe,a fmrykhla fyda folla iúl, hq;=h’ u)rejka iy fjk;a lDñka yd i;=ka tu gexls ;=< fndaùfuz bvlv wyqrd,sh hq;=h’ gexlsh fyda c,dYh iuzmQrAKfhkau msrS.sh miq W;=rd hk wu;r c,h WoHdkfha m%fhdackhg fhdod.; yelsh’ fCIa;%hg fhduqlrk fuu wu;r c,h N+.; c,hg tl;=ùug bvlv ie,iSu iq)iqh’ tu gexls ukd f,i jid ;eîug yelsúh hq;=h’ tuÛska lDóka yd we,a.S fndaùu je,flk w;r” jdIamSlrKfhka c,h ydkSùsuo j,lS’ fuu c, gexls j,ska c,h i|yd fnodyerSug fmr iq)iq f,i fmrd.ekSu l, hq;=h’

úYd, Ndck fhdod.; yelsh’

mi ;=<g we;="¿ùu

l=vd c,dY boslr .ekSfuzoS mi ;=<ska c,h ldka)ùu” c,dYh ;=<g mi fidaodú;a tla/iaùu je,lSu wdosh i,ldne,sh hq;=h’ tfukau c,h /ialr.;a ia:dkfha isg WoHdkfha wjYH;dj wkqj myiqfjka yd wju

jI_d ld,fha oS m,;=re WoHdkfha

msrsjehlska c, iuzmdokh lsrSug yelsúh hq;=h’ jy,fhka tl;= flfrk c,h .nvd flfrkafka kuz jI_dj werö m,uq ,SgrA 100-200 muK gexlshg fhduq fkdfldg jy,h yd c,h iemfhk

c,jykh jeä oshqKq l,hq;= fukau mi ;=<g c,h Wrd.ekSug jeä wjia:djla ,ndosh hq;=h’ l=gzgs ldkq’ neus” ndOl jeks Wml%u uÛska jI_d c,h .,dhdfuz fjz.h wvq lsrSu” jeä fjz,djla ;=< mig c,h we;=( ùug bvosu” jI_d c,h mi yd .efgk fjz. h wju lsrSu yd u;=msg fhdok jiqka uÛska c,h wjfYdaIKh jeä lsrSu wdoS Wml%u uÛska jI_d c,h mi ;=<g we;==( úh yels wjia:dj jeä l, hq;=h' 109


110


5' m,sfndaO l<ukdlrKh m,sfndaOlfhl= hkq ljfrlaoehs ia:srju ksYaÑ; ksrAjpkhla oSu idOdrK fkdjk nj fmfkkafka m,sfndaOlfhl= f,i y"kd .ekSu u; úYd, idOl ixLHdjla n,mdk neúks' lsishï i;a;ajfhl= fyda Ydlhla fyda lsishï cSúfhl= ñksidg fyda Tyqf.a f.dúmf,a we;s lrkq ,nk i;a;ajhkag fyda fnda. j,g fyda Tyqf.a fudkhï foam,lg fyda ydkslrk yd lror lrkafka kï tu cSúhd m<sfndaOlfhl= f,i y"kajd osh yelsh'

ir,j

5'1 m,sfndaOl njg m;aùu wdrA:sl uÜgu olajd ydkshla fkdjk;dlal,a fuu i;=ka Ydl fyda CIqø cSùka m,sfndaOlhska f,i i,ld urAOkh lsrSu wdrA:sl m,;=re

jYfhka jeo.;a fkdfõ‘ WoHdkfhaa ;sridr

meje;aug;a m,;=re m%;s,dN w;am;a lr .ekSug;a# iu;=,s;;dj mj;ajd .ekSug;a m,sfndaO urAOkhg jvd m%dfhda.slj jeo.;a jkafka m,sfndaOlhskaf.a l<ukdlrKh lsrSuhs' fuu ls%hdj,sfha wfmaCIdj jkafka mj;sk m,sfndaO ydksh wdrA:sl uÜgu fkdblauk f,i m,;=re WoHdkh md,kh lsrSsuhs' fï i|yd jvd;a jeo.;ajkafka wod, m,sfndaOlhdf.a

.yKfha

yd jrAOkh ms<sn| m%udKd;aul úYaf,aIKhla is)lr wjfndaOlr .ekSuhs' lDñfhl=f.a .yKfha jeãu uÛska tu lDñhd m,sfndaOlfhl= njg m;a ùu iq,N is)ùuls' m,;=re WoHdkhla úfYaIs; mrsir moaO;shla jk w;r th ;=< úYd, ffcj idOl ixLHdjla ksrka;rfhkau ilS%hj mj;s' wksl=;a lDIsldrAñl moaO;sj,g jvd jeämqr ia:djr jq mdrsirsl moaO;shla f,i m,;=re WoHdk y"kd.; yelsh' kuq;a m,=;=re WoHdk kv;a;= lghq;= j,oSs fuu mrsir moaO;sfha iajNdúlj mj;sk lDñ yd wksl=;a CIqø cSù .yK j, md,kh iy iu;=,s;Ndjhg wys;lr f,i n,mEug bv ;sfí' túg m,;=re WoHdkfha cSùka w;r kj iu;=,s;;djhla we;sùug uÛ ie,fik w;r fuf;la l=vd .yKhlaj mej;s lDñ úfYaIj, .ykfha jeä ùula is)ùh yelsh' WoHdkfha md,k Wml%u j,oS iajNdúl i;=rka yd mrfmdaIs;hka úkdY ùSS hdu ksid fuh is)fjhs' tfukau iajNdúl md,k l%u CIKslj yd fõ.j;aj ls%hd;aul fkdùu fujeks lDIsldrAñl moaO;sj, olakg ,efí' fï ksid m,;=re WoHdk j, m,sfndaO ydks jrskajr biau;= ùsu olakg ,efí'

yeisrSu 111


5'2 lDñ m<sfndaOlhdf.a ydks lDIsldrAñl m<sfndaO l<ukdrKh hkq wmf.a lDIsldrAñl lghq;= j,oS wdrA:sl# iudcsl iy mdrsirsl idOl i,lkq ,nk m,sfndaOlhdf.a cSjk pl%h ms,sn| ukd wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSfuka miqj tu m,sfndaOlhd f.a

Ydl iuÛ fnda. jrAOk idOl i|yd ;rÛ lrk yd WoHdkfha j.djka f,i fkdi,lk wksl=;a ishÆu Ydl úfYaI j,a me<eá f,i ie,flk w;r tajd o me<eá m,sfndaOl f,i ie,lsh yelsh'

5'3 m,sfndaO ydks

.yKh yd ydksh wvq lr.ekSug ie,iqï flfrA' m,;=re WoHdkfha j.d lr we;s m,;=re fnda. j,o fuu ;;a;ajh iDcqju wdfrdamkh

lDóka jeks i;=kaf.ka iy fjk;a

lsrSfuka m,;=re Ydl j,g ydks lrk m,sfndaOlhska y"kd .ekSu yd md,kh ms,sn|j wOHhkh l, yelsh'

fjkia fjhs' flfia jqjo ydksfha wdrA:sl jeo.;alu ;SrKh jkafka ydksfha ;Sj%;djh wkqjhs' fuu ydks iDcq yd jl% ydks f,i ir,j fjka

m,;=re Ydlj, iDcqju fyda jl%ju ydks lrk m<sfndaOlhska m,;=re WoHdkfha olakg ,enqko wdrA:sl ydksodhS uÜgula olajd tu ydksh

CIqø cSùkaf.ka m,;=re Ydlj,g is)jk ydks yd frda. wdidokfhka is)jk ydks fndfydaúg tlsfklg

l, yelsh' l

iDcq ydks

olakg fkd,efí kï tu m,sfndaOlhska md,kh lsrSu i|yd mshjr .ekSu jdisodhl fkdjkq we;' fuu ;;a;ajh ms<sn|j ukd wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSug kï ydks lrk m,sfndaOlhdf.a .ykfha yeisrSu yd ;;a;ajh ms<sn|j m%udKd;aul o;a; ksr;=reju tla/ialr .; hq;=h' lDóka# uhsgjka iy welrsvdjka iq,Nj m,;=re Ydl j,g ydks lrk m,sfndaOl i;=ka jqjo l=re,a,ka# j,a W!rka# b;a;Ejka# rs,jqka jeks i;=kao m<sfndaOlhska njg m;ajk wjia:d tughs' ffjria# os,Sr yd nelaàrshd frda. we;slrk iq,N CIqø csùka fj;s' m,;=re WoHdkfha 112

wU lSvEjdf.a ydksh

iDcqju m,;=re Ydlhg ydks is)ùuhs' ksoiqka f,i m;%j, fldgia bj;aùu u,a úkdY ù hdu fuu iDcq ydks ksid Ydlfha m%Ndixiaf,aIK Odrs;dj úYd, f,i wvqúh yelsh' Wod*- meÛsrs i,nhd Ydlfha <má m;% wdydrhg .ekSu# msámqia frda.h ksid rUQgka yd


mefmd,a <má m;% yels,S ye,S hdu' wU lSvEjd hqI Wrdîu ksid wU .fia u,a

Ydlh úh<s hhs' Wod*- je,a fodvï l| lmkakd ^Passion fruit gridler)

yd o( úh<Su'

m,;=re

ueiaid úiska m,;=re j,g

is)lrk ydksho iDcq n,mEuls'

m,;=re ueiaid mefmd,a j.dfõ msá mqia frda.h

m%Odk YdLdj, l| Wux f,i lekSfuka mgl wdydrhg .ekSu ksid YdLd úh<S hd yelsh' Wod *- meÛsrs fnda. l| úoskakd# wU Ydlj, w.%ia: wxl=r úoskakd# w,s.egfmar j, l| úoskakd# rla;mg, frda.h ksid meKsfodvï‘ Ydlfha YdLd úh<S hdu m<;=re ueiaidf.a ydksh

Wod*- wU# fmar# wU îc .=,a,d úiska wdydrhg .ekSu ksid wU îc msh<s yd wksl=;a mgl úkdY fjhs' fndfyda úg fuu iDcq ydks ksid m,;=re Ydl j, ixÑ; wdydr m%udKh wvq fjhs' tys m%;sm,hla f,i B,Û m,;=re jdrh i|yd m%udKj;a jrAOkhla l| úoskakdf.a ydksh

iuyr wjia:dj,oS lf|a mgl j,hla wdldrhg lmd wdydrhg .ekSu ksid

iy ixÑ; wdydr m%udKhla Ydlfha fkdmj;s' 113


túg B,Û m,;=re jdrh i|yd u,a yg fkd.ekSu iy u,a yg.;a;;a

je,a fodvï je,a yd m%Odk lf|a j,¨ wdldrhhg lmd oeóu

M, yg.ekSu wvqúh yelsh' yg.;a M,j, .=Kd;auh wvqúh yelsh'

jeks úYd, ydks o we;slrhs' w.%ia: wxl=r wdydrhg .ekSu ^wU& ksid úYd, wdrA:Sl ydks is)ùu ksr;=reju olakg ,efí' m,;=re

l

iemSfuka isÿjk ydks

iemSfï fu!L Wmdx. iys; lDñ m,sfndaOlhska ksid m,;=re Ydlj,g is)jk ydks iq,Nj olakg ,efí‘ fuu ydks iq,Nj is)jkafka m;% j,gh' ta

ueiaidf.a lSghd f.äfha udxi,h wdydrhg .ekSu ksid wU jeks m,;=re fndfydauhlau úYd, f,i úkdY ù hhs' wU weg .=,a,d f.a ydksh ksid

ksid m%Ndixiaf,aIK i|yd il%Shj odhl lr.; yels m;% fCIa;% m%udKh wvq fjhs' <má m,;=re Ydl j,g fuu

wU îc j, cSù;djh iïmqrAKfhkau ke;sù hd yelsh' ta ksid wU M,h mrsfndackhg yd wf,úhg kqiq)iq

ydksh oeä jq úg jrAOkh wvq ùu;a Yla;su;a iels,a,la ksrAudKh lr .ekSug wmyiq ùu;a .eg( iy.; njla we;s lrhs'

ùuo is)fjhs'

Wod*- meÛsrs iuk,hd

wU weg .=,a,df.a ydksh l

hqI Wrdîu ksid isÿjk ydksh

fyïmafgrd ^ul=Kka& <má m;% mqIam me.srs iuk,hdf.a ydksh

iuyr lDñ m,sfndaOlhska m;%fha wmsprAu ;=<g we;=( ù Wux f,i mgl lekSfuka wdydrhg .ks' fïksid <má m;% úlD;s ùu yd úkdY ù hdu is)fjhs' Wod*- meÛsrs m;% lkskakd 114

wdoS fldgia j,ska hqI Wrdîu ksid is)jk wdrA:sl ydks w;s úYd,h' wU lSvEjd wU Ydl j, <má m;% j, hqI Wrdîu ksid m;% yels,S úkdY ù hk w;r mqIam yd <má M, iïmqrAKfhkau ye,Shdu is)fjhs' tu hqI Wrd îfï ;=jd,


;=<ska oaù;sl os,Sr wdidok j,skao úYd, úkdYhla is)fõ'

hhs' yg.kakd M, l=vd ùu yd wksl=;a .=Kd;aul ,CIK )rAj, úh yelsh'

fyïmafgrd ul=Kd

Wod* wU weka;%elafkdaia frda.h wU lSvEjkaf.a ydkshg miqj myiqfjka jHdma; fjhs'

wkakdis msá ul=Kdf.a ydksh

hqI Wrdîu ksid o( ue,ù hdu u,a ye,S hdu is)fjhs' )rAj, ùu# m;% jdrfhaoS u,a yg

wU weka;%elafkdaia frda.h

meÛsrs

á%iafgid

ffjrih

jHdma;

jkafka l( meÛsrs l+ä;a;d jdylfhla f,i ls%hdlr hqI Wrdfndk úg ffjrih kj meÛsrs Ydlhlg we;=( ùfuks' wkakdis msá ul=Kd Ydlfha hqI Wrdî jdylfhla f,i ls%hdlrñka wkakdis ffjria ue,ùfï frda. jHdma; lrhs' tu frda. ksid wkakdis j.dj uq(ukskau b;d myiqfjka úkdY ùs

m,;=re Ydlj, ye,Shdu yd m;% ta ksid jrAOkh ñhhdu B,Û fkd.ekSu wdosh

is)fjhs' l=vd ld,fha .eg ye,Shdu ^Wod*- wU# w,s.egfmar# )rshka& is)úh yelsh' fuu hqI Wrdîfï ;=jd, iy iemsfï ;==jd, ;=<ska frda. ldrl myiqfjka we;=¨ ù oaú;shsl fydaa jl% ydks we;sùu m,;=re WoHdk j, iq,N .eg(ls'

115


l

jl% n,meu

m,sfndaOlhskaf.a jl% n,meï os.= ld,Skj m,;=re Ydlj, úúOdldrhg olakg ,efí‘ m%Odk jYfhka m,;=re Ydlj, jrAOl wjêh yd mj;sk ld,.+Ksl yd foaY.+Ksl ;;a;aj u; m,sfndaO ydksfha ;sj%;dj fjkia jk w;r tys jl% n,mEu fya;=fjka iuyr úg tu m,;=re fnda.h j.d lsrSu wmyiq úh yelsh' Wod*- uq) ,m

mqia (Sooty mould) jHdma; ùs M,j, fmkqu )rAj, ùu# msá ul=kd me;sreK rUqgka j,;a fldrfmd;= lDñhd we,S isák meKS fodvï j,;a ukd f,i jeã ;snqKo wvq .=Kd;auhla olakg ,efnk ksid wf,ú lsrSu wmyiq fjhs'

ffjria frda.h ksid mefmd,a j.dj úkdY ù hdu' wkakdis ue,ùfï ffjria frda.h ksid jrAOkh wekysàfuka tu N+ñfha kej; wkakdis j.dj is\q lsrSu wmyiq ùu# mefmd,a uq\q ffjria frda.ho tfiauhs'

msá ul=Kdf.a ydks jQ rUqgka

óg wu;rj m,sfndaOlhska f.a ydksodhl jl% n,meula jkafka úúO oaù;shsl wdidok we;s lsrSuhs' Wod* lDñ ydks ksid we;s jq ;=jd, j,ka wU M,j,g weka;%elafkdaia os,Sr frda.h we;+(ùu'

mefmd,a uqÿ ,m ffjria frda.h

tfukau iuyr m,sfndaO ydks ksid m,;=rej, .=Kd;auhg oeä n,mEula we;sfjhs' Wod *- wU lfnd¨ frda.ho M, u; oS,sr cd, jrAOkh ksid wm%ikak fmkqula ,eîu' wU lSvejkaf.a .yKh jeä ùfuka we;sjk uOq ødjKh ksid l( meye;s 116

cSj úoHd;aul wdidokfhaoS is)jkafka lDñ m,sfndaOlhska w;rueoS Odrlhskaf.a ls%hdldrlï ffjria frda. m,;=re Ydl j,g we;=( fjhs' tu lDñ m,sfndaOlhskf.a Yrsrfha cSj;ajk tjeks ffjria yd nelaàrshd m,;=re Ydlh ;=<g we;=(ùu m,;=re Ydlhg lDñhdf.ka ydksh;a iuÛu is)fjhs' Wod* msá ul=Kdf.ka fndafjk wkakdis ue,ùfï ffjri frda.h l(


l=vs;a;df.ka fndajk meÛsrs fnda. á%%iafgid ffjrih'

fjhs' tajdfha M,j, .=Kd;auho úYd,;ajho jeäjk ksid tajdg

fuu wdldr folgu m,;=re WoHdkfha

m,sfndaOlhskaf.a wdlrAYKho jeäh' fuu m,;=rej, iqj| meyeh rih hqI msrS .sh nj ksid m,sfndaOlhska myiqfjka taajdg wdlrAYKh fjhs'

Ydl j,g m,sfndaO ydks is)fõ' fïjdhska fndfyduhla ffjria iy CIqø csù frda. kssid iïmqrAK m,;=re WoHdkhu úkdY ù hd yelsh' ke;skï l%ufhka tu Ydlj, jrAOkh wvq ù )rAj, ù wiajekak wvqfjhs' fndfyda úg wdidos; m,;=re Ydl úh<S ñhhk nj olakg ,efí'

5'4 m,sfndaO ydksj,g n,mdk idOl

tlu m%fNaohla fyda úfYaIhla tlu N+ñhl jeä ld,hla j.d lsrSu ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaOl ydks ld,h;a iuÛ jeä ùu iq,n oiqkls'

5'5 m,sfndaO ydks wju lr.ekSu

fjkiaùu

m,sfndaOlhska fl;rï ydksodhl jqjo Tjqka mss<sn| fydoska wOHhkh lr

yd iD;=j, fjkialï ksido úúO wjia:dj,oS úúO m,sfndaOlhska f.a ydks m%uqL ù m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj,g ydkslrk nj fmfka' fuu

tys .yKh iy ydks l<ukdrKh lsrSu m,;=re Whka md,kfha jeo.;a ldrAhdj,shls' lsishï m,sfndaOlfhla m,;=re Ydlj,g ydkslr oehs m<uqj

mdrsirsl fjkialï yd m,;=re Ydl w;r f.dvkef.k CIqø mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhkao fndfyda úg fuu wjia:dj,g fya;= mdol fjhs' wêl jrAIdj mj;sk ld,hloS ydkslrk m<sfndaaOlhka wêl kshx ld,hloS

mrsCIdlr wjfndaO lr.; hq;=h' fuu m,sfndaOlhdf.a mj;sk .yKh jeäùfï m%jK;djh ydksh yd ydksfha jákdlu ms,sn| m%udKd;aul wjfndaOhla m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO l<ukdrKfha moku úh

ydkslrk m,sfndaOlhska hkdoS jYfhka m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO

hq;=h' fuysos m,;=re WoHdkh msysá l,dmh iuia: mdrsirsl moaO;sh;a

ydks y"kd.; yelsh'

iudc wdrA:sl idOl;a ie,ls,a,g .; hq;=h'

ld,.=Ksl

;;a;ajfha

iajNdúl mrsir moaO;sfha cSj;ajk m,;=re Ydlj,g jvd m,;=re WoHdkfha j.dlr we;s m,;=re Ydl jeä oshqKq l, m%fNao j,g wh;a

m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj,# jrAOk yd úlik l%shdldrs;j a fha ^phonological cycles) j, wjia:d wkqj úúOdldrjq 117


m,sfndaO ydks jrska jr olakg ,efí' iuyr m,sfndaO ydks l=vd lCISh wxl=r

jeo.;a fjhs' tfukau tu jrAOk yd úlik wjêhg ^phonological event)

iqma; wjêfhka ksoyia ù jrAOkh kej; wdrïN lrk wjêfha muKla olakg ,efí' tu wxl=r fudard o( ouk úg fjk;a m,sfndaO m%uqL ù m<uq

osk lsysmhlg fmr isgu ydkshla is)lrkq we;ehs wfmaCId lrkq ,nk m,sfndaOlhskaf.a .ykfha jeäùu ms,sn| ixLHd;aulj ksis

m,sfndaOlhdf.a ydksh wju fjhs' kj m;% fudark úg yd kj YdLdj, l|ka fudark úg tu m,sfndaO ydks wju jk w;r fjk;a m,sfndaOlhska

ld,dka;rhslska ,nd .ekSu fï i|yd m%Yia: ;SrK .ekSug WmldrS fjhs' wdrA:sl ydksodl uÜgulg meñKSug wdikakfõ kï tu m,sfndaOlhska

bkamiq m%uqLjk wjia:d nyq,h' m,;=re Ydlj, mqIam yg.kakd úg ;u .yKh jeäjk wU lSvEjka f.a

md,kh lsrSug lghq;= l, yels jqjo m,;=re WoHdkh ukd f,i kv;a;= lrkafka kï flá ld,hloS m,sfndaO

ls%hdldrS;ajh mqIam yd wU.eg wjêh miqjk úg wju ù hhs' fï wkqj fmkS hkafka m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO ydkshla )gq jydu th

ydks jeäùu wfmaCId l, fkdyelsh'

urAOkh lsrSug mshjr .ekSu wkjYH úh yels njhs' kuq;a tu flá ld,h ;=<oSs úYd, ydkshla is)ùfï wjOdkula ;sfíoehs úuis,af,ka isàu b;du

m%udKfhka

úYd,

m;% ixLHdjla iys; m,;=re Ydlj, m;%j,g ydkslrk m,sfndaOlhskaf.a ydksh urAOkh lsrSug wjYH njg ;SrKh lsrSug fmr fuu lreKQ ms<sn|j m%udKd;aul úYaf,aIKhla l, hq;=h'

wd¾Ól ydksodhS uÜgu fmkajk m%ia:drh 118

idfmaCI


tu m,sfndaOlhdf.a n,mEu ksid wiajekakg jk ydksh;a tu m,sfndaOlhd urAOkh lsrSug jehfjk msrsjeh;a w;r iei£ula lsrSu wjYHhs' m;%j,g is)jk ydksh t;rï úYd, wdrA:sl w,dNhla is) fkdl,o m,;=re Ydlfha mqIam yg .ekSug kshñ; ia:dkh Wod*w.%ia: wxl=rh j,g ydks is)ùu ksid B,. m,;=re jdrfhaoS mqIam yg.ekSu iïmqrAKfhkau u.yerS hd yelsh' Wod*wU w.%ia:h úosk .=,a,d f.aa ydksh ksid u,a yg .ekSug wjia:djka fkd,efí' fï ksid Ydlfha ydksh is)jk ia:dkh ms<sn|jo úuid ne,sh hq;=h'

5'6 m<sfndaO ydks mqfrdal:kh (Forecast ) l%uj;a m,;=re WoHdkhloS ls%hdldrS ie,eiau ;=< m,sfndaO ydks l<ukdrK jevigyka wka;rA.; fjhs' ta ;=< WoHdkfha m,;=re fnda.j,g je,£ug jvd;a wjia:djka we;s lDñ yd frda. m,sfndaO ms,sn| o;a; yd bosrs ld,iSudj i|yd wkdjels we;=,;aúh hq;=h' túg Ydl j, jrAOl yd úlik rgdj yd iu.dój we;sùug yels lDñ yd frda. wjodkï j,g m%udKj;a wdldrhg iqodkï úh yelsh' tu

wkq.ukh lsrSug myiq jkq we;' fuu mqfrdal:k i|yd mrAfhaIK lghq;= bgql, hq;= w;r tuÛska wod, m,sfndaO .yKfha yeisrSu yd jrAOkh ms,sn| m%udKd;aul o;a; tla/ia flfrA' tfukau lDñ yd frda. m,sfndaOlhskaf.a csjk pl%h yd ydksh ms,sn| ukd wjfndaOhla wjYHhs' jir .kKdjla wLKavj o;a; tla/ia lsrSu ksid tu m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO ydks ksjerosj mqfrdal:kh lsrSug yelsjkq we;' mqfrdal:kh i|yd m,sfndaOlhdf.a idïm,hla ,ndf.k .yKh ms<sn|j wjfndaOhla ,nd .; yelsh' mj;sk m,sfndaO wjia:d ^ì;a;r lSg jeks yd m<uq m;% ,m we;sùu& yªkd.; yelsh' ta wkqj jvd;a ydksodhl wjia:d Wodjk ld, jljdkq ms,sn|j mqfrdal:kh l, yelsh' m,;=re WoHdkfha mdrsirsl WIaK;ajfha m%udKd;aul yeisrsSu jd;fha wdrAø;djh iy iQrAhd f,dalfha ;Sj%;djh wdoSs mdrsirsl idOl iuÛ tu o;a; iumd; lsrSfuka fuu mqfrdal:kh jvd;a ksjerosj is)l, yelsh'

m,sfndaO ydks we;sjk wjia:dfõoS tajd md,kh lsrSu i|yd ldrAhCIu yd wvq msrsjeh iys; m%;slrAu 119


5'7 lDñ m,sfndaO l<uKdlrkh' m,;=re WoHdkhg lDñ m,sfndaOlhska we;=(fjk wdldr rdYshla ;sfí‘ tu wdldrhka y"kd.ekSu yd wjfndaO lr .ekSfuka WoHdkh ;=<g lDóka we;=,aùu j,lajd,Sug yels ieu wxYhlskau mshjr .; hq;=h' fuu úuis,su;a nj jir mqrdu wLKavj mej;sh hq;= jqjo w;s úfYaI wjOdkhlska isáh hq;= ld, iSudjka kï WoHdkfha m,;=re .ia j, iD;=uh jrAOkh weröfï wjia:dfõ isg o( fïrSu w;r ld,h ;=< yd mqIam yg.ekSu yd l=vd M, yg.ekSfï wjêh M, fïrSfï isg bfok wjêh hk ld, iSudj ;=<oSh' fuu jljdkq j,oS tu ydks jix.; ;;a;ajhg jrAOkh ùug bv ;sfí' tu wjê j,oSs mdrsirsl yd ld,.=Ksl ;;a;ajhkao fndfydaúg lDñ ydksh jrAOkh ùug ys;lr jk nj fmfka' tfyhska tu m,;=re Ydl j, úlikfha iD;=uh wjê weröu;a iuÛu lDñ m,sfndaO .yKh hgm;a lsrSug iq)iq mshjr .ekSug wjYH fjhs' jir mqrdu m,;=re WoHdkfha msrsis) nj# j,a me<Eá l<ukdlrKh yd m,;=re Ydl lmamd)j lsrSu wdoS kv;a;= lghq;= uekúka mj;ajdf.k hdfuka fuu lDñ .yKh jrAOkh ùug we;s wjia:d wvqfjhs'

5'8 m,sfndaO l<ukdlrK l%u m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO l<uKdlrkh os.= ld,Sk ie,eiaulg wkqj is)lrkafka kï ;sridrjq yd fi!LH iïmkak mrsirhla ìyslr.; yelsh' fï i|yd ukd l<ukdrKjeigykla wkq.ukh lsrSu wjYHhs'

5'8'1' hdka;s%l l%u ÿï.eiaiùu m,sfndaO ydks jeäfõoehs wfmaCIs; ld,iSudjg i;shlg muK fmr m,;=re WoHdkh mqrdu me;srShk wdldrhg )ï.eiaiùu lDñka m,jd yerSug iy úkdY lsrSug WmldrsS fjhs' .sKSoe,a, fkdk.sk wdldrhg we;slrkq ,nk .sksue, j,ska osk .Kkdjlu tl os.g )ï we;slr m,;=re .ia ;=<ska .,d hdug bvlv imhkq ,efí‘ fï i|yd uola f;; iys; oej# fmd,af,,s yd jevuk;a )u we;slrk Ydl fldgia fhdod.; hq;=h' mrsirhg wys;lr øjH fhdod fkd.; hq;=h' m,;=re WoHdkfha udhsïj fuu .sks ue, rdYshla mj;ajdf.k hdfuka m,;=re WoHdk ;=<g msg;ska lDóka we;=,aùu wffOrAhh l, yelsh' )ï .eiaiùu i;shla folla fyda ;=kla mqrdu tl os.g is)l, hq;=h' fuh

120


lDó .yKh jeäfj;ehs wfmaCIs; iEu wjêhlu foi;shlg muK

tla/ialr i;shlg fojrla j;a mq(iaid oeñh hq;=h' Wod*- wU m;%

fmr isg weröu iq)iqh' jirlg isõ j;djla muK )ï.eiaiùu m%udKj;a fjhs' flfia jqjo M, fudarK wjêfhaoS;a u,a msmS mrd.kh is)jk

lmkakd fndfyda úg fuu ye,Shk fldgia j, fyda mi ;=< tu lDñkaf.a ms,jd wjia:dj .; lsrsSu ksid th je,elaùug tu fldgia

wjêfhaoS;a )ï .eiaiùu fkdl, hq;=h' mrd.ldrlhka m,jd yerSu is)ùu;a M, fïrSug fmr boSug bvlv jeäùfï wjodkula Bg fya;= fjhs'

tl;=lr úkdY lsrSsu b;d jeo.;a fjhs'

lDóka tl;=lr úkdY lsrSu yd <má

wU weg .=,a,d iy m,;=re ueiaid wdidos; M, i;shlg jrlaj;a tla/ia lr ógrhla muK .eUqrska

me< iys; m,;=re WoHdkhloS jefvk me< j, jdhj fldgia j,g ydks lrñka fndafjk m,sfndaOhska w;ska wyq,d

mi ;=< j<,d oeñh hq;=h'

tla/ialr úkdY lsrSu;a l, yelsh' fuu ;;a;ajh we;sjk wjêh jkafka o( oeófï wjia:djhs' b;d l=vd wxl=r mqmqrd u;=fjk wjia:dfõ isg o(

úúO lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a cSjk pl%fha yd yeisrsSfï mj;sk úfYaI ,CIK Wmfhda.S lrf.k Tjqka W.=,a j,g yiqlr tla/ia lr

m;% jeã fudark wjia:dj olajd osk fol ;=klg jrla Ydlfhka Ydlh mrSCId lr ydkslr lDóka tla /ialr úkdY l, yelsh' o( fïrE

úkdY lsrSsu fuuÛska is) flfrA' m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl úYd, ùu;a iuÛ lDñ m,sfndaOlhska l<ukdlrKfha b;d myiq

úg lDñydks wju fjhs'

m%dfhda.sl Wml%uhla f,i W.=,a Ndú;d l, yel' fuu W.=,a ks;sm;d l%udKql+,j kv;a;= lrf.k mj;ajd.; hq;= w;r idrA:l m%;sM, ,nd.ekSug kï

úYd, Ydl j, kï iEu lkakhla wjidkfhaoSu lrkq ,nk lmamd)fõosS lDñ ydks we;s iy lDóka fndaù we;s YdLd lmamd) lr tla/ ia lr mq(iaid úkdY l, hq;=h' Wod*- rUqgka l|.=,a,d# meÛsrs fnda. l| mKqjd yd fldrfmd;= lDóka m,;=re Ydlj, lDó ydks jq fldgia iajNdúlju ye,S hk úg tajd

lDóka w,a,d .kakd W.=,a

wLKavj os.= l,la mqrd tajd mj;ajd.; hq;=h' CIKsl m%;sM, olakg fkd,enqk o os.= ld,sSkj ;sridr idrA:l lDñ md,khla i|yd lDñ W.=,a m%fhdackj;a fjhs' m,;=re WoHdkfha lDñ 121


m,sfndaOlhska wvq úhoulska l<ukdrKh lsrSsug jvd;a fhda.H

W.=,la ;=<g tu lDñka wdlrAYKh lsrsfuka miq úkdY lsrSu fuysoS

Wml%uh lDñ W.=,a Ndú;hhs'

is)flfrA Wod* úksúo fmfkk ma,diaála fnda;,hla f.k tys mshk yd m;=, is\qre lr fi'ó' 2-3 os.e;s k, lE,s

wdf,dal W.=,a

2la iúlr W.=, yod .kak' m,;=re ueiaidf.a msrsñ i;d wdlrAYKh lsrSug ó;hs,a bhqcsfkda,a ìx)jla folla fh) mq(ka lene,a,la we;=( lr tu ma,diaála fnda;,h t,a,d ;enQ úg ta ;=<g msrsñ m,;=re ueiaika wdlrAIKh fjhs'

rd;%S ld,fha m,;=re Ydl w;r my,ska msysgk w;= j, t,a,d ;eîug fyda N+ñh u; ;nd Ndú; l,yels fuu W.=,a myiqfjka ms,sfh, lr.; yelsh'

fuu W.=, i;shlg jrla w¨;a lr

mykla fyda ú),s n,anhla fyda uÛska wdf,dalh ,ndfok w;r Bg háka

hq;=h' tla/iajk msrsñ ueiaika tl;=lr mq(iaid oeñfuka l%ufhka

c,h msrjq n)kla ^fíiula& ;eîfuka myka t,shg weos tk lDñka c,hg jeàfuka úkdY ùu fyda tl;=lr úkdY lsrSsu fyda l, yelsh'

m,;=re WoHdkfha issák msrsñ m,;=re ueiaikaf.a .yKh wvqfjhs' udi folla muK ld,hloS msrsñ ueiaika úYd, f,i wvqùfï m%;sM,hla f,i ire ns;a;r ksmoùu

fmrfudka W.=, msrsñ fyda .eyeKq lDñkaf.a fmrfudak j, ,CIK iys; ridhklhla wvx.= 122

fmrfudka W.=,

wvqùfuka m,;=re ueiaid fndaùu l%ufhka wvqfjhs' wjidkfhaoS m,;=re ueiaidf.a ydksh wdrA:sl isudjg jvd


wvqfjka mj;ajdf.k hdug yelsfjhs' úYd, m,;=re Ydl iys; WoHdkhl fujeks W.=,a 10la muK wlalrhlg m%udKj;a fjhs' th óg jvd jeä jq úg fyd| m%;sM, blaukska ,nd.; yelsh' miqj fuu ixLHdj wvq l, yelsh' WoHdkfha úúO udhsïj, isgqùfuka m,;=re Ydlj,g wdlrAYKh fkdù fuu W.=,a fnda. j,g ydks lsrSug fm,fUhs' lDñka m,jd yrsk Ydl úfYaI ^ly meye;s fyda lymeye;s mqIam yg.kakd& o fï wdldrhg j.d lsrsSu m%fhdackj;a úh yelsh'

fm%daàka W.=, fuu fm%daàk W.=, ødjKhla f,i ilid m,;=re Ydlfha my, m;% lsysmhlg biSfuka ia;%sS m,;=re ueiaid wdlrAYKh ù tu fm%daàkhg ñY%lr we;s lDñkdYl ksid ñhhhs' m,;=re ueiaidf.a ydksh b;d idrA:l wkaoñka md,h lr.ekSug fmrfudaka W.=,a b;d m%fhdackj;a fjhs'

5'8'2 YIH úoHd;aul l%u m,;=re WoHdk msysgqùu i|yd N=ñh ilia lrk wjia:dfõ isgu lDñ m,sfndaOlhska l<ukdrKh i|yd wkq.ukh l, yels YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u rdYshls' fnda.h wkqj m,;=re Whk msysgqjkq ,nk mi yd lDIs foaY.=Ksl idOl wkqj;a idfmaCIj ie,eiqï lrkq ,nk fuu YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u lDñ m<sfndaO l<ukdrKfha jvd;a ldrACIuj yd ;sridr l%uh fjhs' fï Wml%u lDñ m,sfndaO l<ukdrKh i|yd fhdod.kq ,nk wksl=;a Wml%u j, ldrACIu;dj by, kexùug wjYH miqìulaa imhhs'

wju mi ilia lsÍfï l%uh (Minimum tillage) jrska jr mi ilia lsrSsu yd mi nqre,a lsrSsu wdoSs ls%hdldrlï ksid mi ;=< fndafjk lDñ m,sfndaOlhska jrAOkh flfrA' m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl mdoia:fha mfia ;u csSjk pl%fha fldgia ^fndfydaúg ms,jd& .; lrk ksid mi nqre,a lsrsSu yd ysret,shg ksrdjrKh lsrSu wdoSs Wml%u uÛska Tjqka úkdY l, yelsh' Wod *- m,;=re ueiaid f.a ms,jd# wU m;% lmd ouk lDñhd f.a ms,jd# fmd;= jeh lmkakd

fm%daàka W.=,

tfukau taldka;r ldrl f,i ls%hdlrk j,ame<Eá l%udKql+,j 123


md,kh lsrSsu# CIqø mrsir ;;a;aj bj;a lsrsSu i|yd mshjr .ekSu ^ wêl

wfkdaod jeks m,;=re úfYaI j,go fndaùu ksid tl fnda.hla wksla

fijk bj;a lsrSsu& wdosh m,;=re WoHdk wdrïN lsrsSfï isgu is)l, yelsh'

fnda.hg taldka;r Odrlhla f,i ls%hdlrhs'

m,;=re úfYaI yd fnda. rgd m,;=re WoHdk ie,iqï lsrSsfïoSs f;dard.kq ,nk m,;=re úfYaI m%fNao yd tajdfha ñY%K ^fnda. rgd& ms,sn| ie,ls,su;a ùfuka wfmaCIs; lDñ m,sfndaOhskag Tfrd;a;=

tlu m,;=re fnda.h m,;=re WoHdkfha oYl .Kkdjla mqrd mj;ajdf.k hdug is)ùu ksid ydkslrk lDñ m,sfndaOlhska l%ufhka ia:djr ùu olakg ,efí'

lmamdÿ lsrsSu

fok fnda. yd m%fNao ixl,k f;dard .ekSu jeo.;ah' fnda. rgd ksrAKh lsrSfïoSs tla m,;=re fnda.hla wksla m,;=re fnda.hg ydks lrk lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a Odrlhska fkdùu jdisodhlh' tfukau tlu mjqf,a m,;=re fnda. isgqùfuka wjodkï lDIs

w;= lmamdÿ lsrSu

mrsir moaO;shla ksrAudKh jk w;r iuyr lDñka ydkslr m,sfndaOlhska njg m;aùsug we;s wjia:dj jeäfjhs'

os.= ld,hla mqrdu m,;=re Ydl

Wod* mefmd,a iy wkakdis hk fnda. folu >hsfgdmaf;dard os,Ssr frda. j,g

kej;;a we;s fjhs' m,;=re fnda. kv;a;=fõoSs jdrAIslj Ydl lmamd)j

n)kafjhs' fmar iy flfi,a hk fnda. folu >shqfiarshï os,sSr frda. j,g md;% fjhs' fodvï# cukdrx# foys hk fnda. ;=ku WoHdkfha j.dlr ùfukaa tu frda. m,sfndaO we;sfjhs'

fuu pl%h ì| oud lDñ m,sfndaO .ykh l<ukdrKhg w;sYhskau jeo.;ah' jefvñka mj;sk m,;=re Ydl mqyqKqj i|yd lmamd) lsrsSfuka tu me< j,g m%udKj;a ysret<sh

)rshka j,g je,f|k >shqfiarshï os,sr wdidokh (Patch canker) iy isgquersSu (wilt) w,s.egfmar# meKS jrld iy

m%udKhla ,eîu ksid lDñ m,sfndaO .yKh jeäùu md,kh fjhs' jevqKq m,;=re Ydl j, wiajekak fk,d.;a

WoHdkfha mj;ajdf.k hdu ksid fuu lDñ m,sfndaO wjodku pls%Shj kej;


miq .ia msrsis) lsrSsfï lmamd)fõoSs lDñ m,sfndaOlhska wdidokh jq

m,;=re WoHdkhl Ydlj, yg.kakd ish¨ M, fuf,i wdjrKh lsrsSu

Ydl yd )rAj, YdLd bj;a ùu ksido lDñm,sfndaO ydksh wvqfjhs' fuu bj;a lrk fldgia mq(iaid oeóu uÛska tu m,sfndaOlhska

m%dfhda.sl fkdùh yelsh' M, wdjrKh lsrsSu ksid lDñ ydks wju lr.; yels jqjo# m,;=re ueiaid wU nsc .=,a,d wdoskaf.a ydksh wju

fndaùu wvqlr .; yelsh' lmamd) lsrSsfï ld,ho WÑ; f,i ie,iqï lr.; hq;=h'

lr .ekSug fuf,i M, wdjrKh lsrsSu b;d l=vd wjêfhau l, hq;=h' fmd,s;ska wdjrKh fhdod .eksSfïoSs th M,h u; ;ekam;a jq úg wêl

wiajekak fk,Sfu‘ ld,h M,j,g ydkslrk lDñ m,sfndaOlfhda rdYshla M,j,g ld,fhaoSs M, j,

isá;s' fndfyda úg Tjqka ydks lsrsSu M, fudark is)fjhs' iqyqUq,ka tu l=vd is)re lr ì;a;r ;ekam;a

ysret,sh ksid M,fha wdjrKhg ydks ùu fukau .=Kd;auh my, hd yelsh'

lrhs' M, fk,Ssu mudjk úg fuu lDókaf.a ydksh jeäùu olakg ,efí' M, fk,Ssu blaukska is) lsrsSu uÛska lDñ m,sfndaOl ydks isudlr .; yelsfjhs‘ jrska jr M, fk,sSfïoSs os.= ld,hla mqrdu m,;=re YdLj, M, /£ mej;Sfuka lDñ .ykh jeäùug WmldrS fjhs' ta ksid ish(u fïre M, tljr fk,d .ekSu lDñ m,sfndaO ydks wjodku wvqlrhs'

WoHdkfha kv;a;=j

M, wdjrKh lsÍu

lsrsSfuka tajd u; úúO lDñ m,sfndaOlhska /oSs isàu wju lr

iEu M,hlau b;d l=vd wjêfha isgu lvodis u,a,lska fyda M,h u; ;ekam;a fkdjk fia úksúo fmfkk wdjrKhlska jid ;eîu lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.ka wdrCIdlr .ekSug iq)iq l%uhls' tfy;a úYd,

M, wdjrKh lr we;s Ydlhla

m,;=re WoHdkfha j,a me<eá m%Yia: wdldrhg lmd oud l<uKdlrKh

.; yelsh' m,;=re Ydl j, jrAOk pl%h wdrïN ùug fmr yd u,a M, yg .ekSug fmr fuu j,a me<eá lmd oud fCIa;%h msrsis)j ;nd .ekSu b;d jeo.;ah' túg lDñ m,sfndaOlhska 125


f.a .yKh jeäùfï m%jK;djh wvqlr.; yelsh'

(coccinellidae) b;d jeo.;a fjhs' fï l=vd i;=ka fndfydaúg l=ä;a;ka

5'8'3 ffcj úoHd;aul l%u

msá ul=Kka fukau l=vd lSghkaj wdydrhg .ks

Ydl j,g ydks lrk m,sfndaOlhska .yKh wvq lsrsSu i|yd fjk;a csùka fhdod .ekSu m,sfndaO md,kfha ffcj úoHd;aul l%uhg wh;a fjhs' fï i|yd lDñ m,sfndaOlhdg ydks lrk mrfmdaIs;hska (parasites) m,ssfndaOlhd wdydrhg .kakd i;=ka$ lDóka (predators) iy os,sr jeks frda. ldrl

m,;=re WoHdkfha .ejfik l=re,a,ka úiska lSgfhda wdydrhg .efk;s' m,;=re Whk lDIs jk j.d moaO;shla f,i ie,lSsfïoSs úYd, úúO;ajhlska fujeks i;=ka .ejfik ksid lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a .yKh wju lr .ekSug fyd|ska wjia:dj ;sfí'

CIqø csùka fhdod.kq ,efí‘

mrfmdaIs;hska

fmrfudak iy ,sx.sl wdlrAIKh we;s lrk ridhksl øjH Ndú;fhka lDñ m,sfndaOlhka tl;=lr úkdY lsrSsfukao ffcj úoHd;auk l%uhla

mrfmdaIs;hskf.a ydks ksido m,;=re WoHdkh ;=< lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a .yKh wvqlr .; yels wjia:d ;sfí' yhsufkdmafgrd

f,i ie,lsh yelsh' fï ridhkslhka tla jrla fhdod.;a úgu ia:Sr m,sfndaO md,khla we;sùu weröu úfYaI jdishls' fuf,i m,sfndaOlhska

(Hymenoptera) mjq,g wh;a iuyr lDó iuyr m,sfndaOlhskaf.a ìs;a;r lSghka ms,jqka yd iuyr úg iqyqUq,ka u; mjd mrfmdaIs; fj;s' flfia

md,kh ùu fifuka is)ùu wjdishla jqjo m,;=re WoHdkhl lghq;= os.=

jqjo fï iïnkaOj bosrsm;a lr we;s ksrAfoaY jdKsc m,;=re WoHdkhla

ld,Sskj is\qjk ksid th t;rï .eg(jla fkdfõ'

ksfrda.Ssj mj;ajdf.k hdu i|yd ;ju;a m%udKj;a fkdfõ'

lDñ m,sfndaOlhska wdydr njg m;a lr .kakd i;=ka (predators) ;ukaf.a wdydrhla f,i úúO lDóka nqosk i;=ka fuu ldKavhg wh;a fõ' l=re,a,ka# jjq,ka jeks Wiia i;=ka fukau f.ïnka# lgqiaik#a ul=(jka f,aä nrAâ jeks fldlaisfk,afâ lDóka 126

frda.ldrl lDñ

m,sfndaOlhskag

frda.

we;s

lrk frda. ldrl lsysmhla y"kdf.k ;sfí' os,Ssr fï w;r t;rï m%n, frda. ldrl fkdjk kuq;a nelaàrshd fhdod .ekSsfuka lSghka iy l=reñsKshka úkdY l, yels


nj fmkajd os ;sfí' ^Bacillñ) úfYaI lsysmhlau jdKsc uÜgfï oekgu;a

mrsirhg ydksodhk jk w;r fndfydaúg m,;=re WoHdkfha fjfik

fhdod.kq ,efí' ffjrio lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a lSghka úkdY lsrSsu i|yd fhdod.; yelsh' flfia jqjo m,;=re WoHdk j, we;sjk

ys;lr wys;lr fndfyda lDóka fuuÛska úkdY ù hhs' fï ksid fuf;la m,sfndaaOlfhl= fkdjq iq( ixLHdjla mej;=k lDñfhla miqj ydkslr

lDñ m,sfndaOlhska úkdY lsrSug fïjd fhdod .ekSu wmyiq jkafka m%dfhda.slj fuu m,;=re .ia m%udKfhka úYd, ùu yd

m,sfndaOlfhl= úh yelsh' tfukau iuyr m,sfndaOl lDóska lsysmfofkl= m,sfndaOkdYlhg Tfrd;a;= osh yels w;r tu lDóka miqj tu m,sfndaO

lDñ m,sfndaOlhska /¢ isásk ia:dk by,ska msysàuhs' tfyhska tajd ldrAHCIuj lDñ

kdYl j,g m%;sfrdaë úfYaI fyda orAY f,i jHdma; ù m,;=re fnda. j,g úYd, f,i ydks is)l, yelsh'

m,sfndaOlhskag t,a, lsrsSfï m%dfhda.sl wmyiq;d we;sfjhs'

ridhksl l%u lDñ m,sfndaOlhskaf.a .yKh CIKslj my, fy,Su i|yd;a blauka fnda. wdrCIKh i|yd;a iy fhoSsfï myiqj;a ie,ls,a,g f.k wod, lDñ m,sfndaOlhka b,lal lrf.k ridhksl øjH ^m,sfndaO kdYl& fhoSu m,;=re WoHdkj, lDñ m,sfndaO md,kh lrk iq,Nu myiqu yd blaukau l%uhhs' m,sfndaO kdYl fhosSu myiq yd blauka m%;sm, iys; jqjo os.= ld,sSkj úYd, wjdisodhl ;;a;ajhlao wfmaCId l, hq;=h’ fuu m,sfndaOl j, ls%hdldrs;ajh lDñ m,sfndaOlhdf.ka cSjk pl%hg iy fN!;sl ,CIK j,g iómj ii|d ksmojd ;sfí' fïjd fndfydauhla

lDñ m,sfndaOlhska úkdY lsrSu i|yd osfkka osk kj;u ridhksl øjH m,;=re j.djkag y"kajd foñka ;sfí' fïjd nyq,j fhdojd .eksfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha iu;=,s; nj ì|jeà hdug we;s bvlv úYd,h' fuu ridhksl øjH mrsirh# mi# c,h yd Ydl j, wiajekako )IKh lrhs' lDñ m,sfndaO kdYl j, ls%hdldrs;ajh wkqj ldKav lsysmhlg fnosh yelsh' l

lDñka m,jd yßk ridhklhka

(Repellants) fïjd m,;=re Ydlj,g bisSfuka úúO lDóka m,sfndaOlhska m,;=re Ydl j,ska wE;a lr ;snsh yelsh' l

OQuldrl

m,;=re WoHdkfha ;=<ska úksúo hk 127


fia úfYaI l%u# ldrl yd jdhq úisrS hdug ie,eiaùfuka lDñ m,sfndaOlhska urAOkh lr.; yelsh' l

wdudY úIldrl

wdydrhg .;a miq úI ùfuka úkdY fjhs' m;% ;=<ska Wrdf.k bkamiq lDókaf.a wdydr udrA. moaO;shg ydks lsrsSu fuuÛska is)fõ' l

wjfYaI úI

wju lsrSu m,;=re WoHdkfha os.=ld,sk mdrsirsl iunr;djhlg buy;a rel=,lajkq we;' tfukau iuyr lDñ m,sfndaOlhska lDIs ridhkj,g m%;sfrdaë ùu je,elaùugo m,sfndaOlhska fkdjk lDóka m,sfndaOlhska njg m;aùu je,elaùugo ys;lr lDóka úkdY ù hdu je,elaùugo th b;d jeo.;a fya;=jla jkq we;'

os.= ld,hla fkdìosS mj;sk lDñkdYl óg wh;a fjhs' m,;=re Ydl j, m;%

lDñ m,sfndaOkdY Ndú;fhaoSs m,;=re Ydl j, jrAOkh yd úlik

j,g fyda mig fhoSsfuka os.=ld,hla mqrd lDókaf.a .yKh wju fjhs'

rgdj ms,sn|j ie,els,su;a úh hq;=h' úfYaIfhkau mqIam yg.kakd wjêfha isgu M, ìysjk wjêh olajd ld,fhaoS mrd.ldrl lDóka

l

ixia:dksl

mig fh) miq fyda Ydlhg biskq ,enq miq fuu m,sfndaOkdYl Ydlhg wjfYdaIKh flfrA' tu Ydlfha úfYaIfhkau hqI Wrdfndk lDñ m,sfndaOlhska tuÛska úkdY fjhs' lDIs ridhksl Ydlh ;=< i;s lsysmhlau ilS%hj mej;sh yelsh'

f.a meñKSu wfmaCId flfrA' fï wjêfhaosS lDIs ridhk fhoSsfuka tu mrd. ldrlhska úkdY fjkjd muKla fkdj tu iSñ; ld,isudj ;=<oSs

ksjeros yd ldrAhCIuj Ndú;hg ta ta m,sfndaO kdYl j, ojgk j, i|yka

Tjqkaf.a meñKSu iïmqrAKfhkau kej;sSugo we;s yelshdj by,h' tfyhska úNj lDñ m,sfndaOlhska f.a .yKh mqIam úlis; jk wjêfhaoSs wvqlr .ekSu i|yd WoHdkfha m,;=ere

mshjr wkq.ukh lsrSsu b;d jeo.;ah' ksrAfoaYs; idkaøK mrsudjka yd fhosh hq;= ld,h ksjerosj wkq.ukh

Ydlj,ska mqIam uxcrS 25] la muK fyd|ska jefvk úg lDIs ridhk fhoSsu l, yelsh' kuq;a bkamiq wjêh m,;=re

lsrsSu uÛska ldrAhCIu;dj jeälr wys;lr n,meï wvqlr.; yelsh'

Ydlfha Wmrsu mqIamslrKhla yd mrd.khl is)jk ksid lDIs ridhk fhosSu fkdl, hq;=h' l=vd M, msysgjq miq kej;;a wjYH kï kshñ; lDIs ridhk fhosSu l, yelsh'

wkjYH f,i wêl ls%hdldrs;ajfhka hq;a m,sfndaOkdYl fhosu S yels ;rï 128


iajNdúl ldnksl øjH jk ksfldáka ^)ïfld, Ydlfha idrh&# mhsfr;sSka (Deriis spp Ydlfhka& iy fmfg%da,shï f;,a o lDñydks urAOkh lsrSsug idrA:l f,i fhdod.; yelsh' óg wu;rj ffcj úoHd;aul ffjria nelaàrshd yd oss,Ssr úfYaI rdYshla lDñ m,sfndaOkdYl f,i fhdod.; yelsh' fuhska jvd;a ckms%h ù we;af;a neis,ia ;=frkacSkaia# í,hskrA ^Bacillñ thuringienis, Beiliner) kï l, yelsh' kuq;a úúO ffjria wdidokh lrùfuka f,msfvdmafgrd ^Lepidoptera) lSghka urAOkh lsrSsu myiq nj fmkajdoSs ;sfí' (Dennis S. Hill 1979, AgriculturAl Insect Pests of the tropical and their control. Cambridge university Pre. 23)

5'8 frda. m,sfndaOlhskaf.a ydksh m,;=re WoHdkhl lDñ m,sfndaOlhska fukau frda.ldrl m,sfndaOlhska f.kao Ydlj,g ´kEu wjêhloSs oreKQ ydks úh yel' fuu ydks m,;=re me, isgqùug fmr isgu olakg ,efnk w;r WoHdkfha isgqjq miq mj;sk mdrsirsl ;;a;aj wkqj úúO jrAOk yd m%ckk wjê j,osS;a Ydlfha úúO fldgia u;g;a je<fohs' thska we;s lrkq ,nk ydksh wkqj WoHdkfha wdrA:sl M,odhs;jhg n,mEula we;s úh yelsh' tkï Ydlj, jrAOkh )rAj, ùu fyda iïmqrAKfhkau kej;s

Ydlh ñh hdu jqjo is)ùug fndfyda )rg bv ;sfí' Wod*- ysgq uerSfï frda.h# (Fñarium wilt) tfukau u,a M, yg .ekSu mud ùu# yg.;a u,a yd M, iumqrAKfhkau úkdY ù hdu fyda )rAj, .=Kd;aufhka hq;a M, yg .ekSu' frda. ksid Ydl mgl j,g iDcqju ydks is)fjhs' Wod*- m;%j,g# mqIam j,g# uq,a wdoshg jl% ydks f,i Ydlj, jrAOkh iy m%ckkh wdYs%; ldhsl úoHd;aul ls%hdj,Skag ndOd muqKqùu oelsh yelsh' m,;=re WoHdkfha frda. l<ukdrKh tys ;sridr meje;aug# wiajekafka .=Kd;auhg yd wjidk m%;sM,h f,i wdrA:sl M,odhs;djhg iDcqju yd jl%jo oeä n,mEula we;s lrhs' tfukau tu frda. l<ukdrKh Wfoid wkq.ukh flfrk l%ufõohka yd ms<shï m,;=re j,g ,efnk ñ, wf,úlrKh yd fj<|m, flfrys oeä f,i n,mdkq we;' úfYaIfhka cd;Hka;r m,;=re fj<odfïoS fï ksidu ìysjk kS;s rS;s yd mQrAj wjYH;d osfkka osku jeäjk nj fmfka' fuu ;;a;ajhkag uqyqK osSfïoSs m,;=re WoHdkfha frda. ksisf,i úksYaph lsrsSu;a l,a we;sj mqrAj l:khka oSug yels ùu;a# mdrsirsl# fi!LH yd wdrA:sluh ys;ldñ mshjr wkq.ukh 129


lsrsSu;a wksjdrAh nj fmfka' frda. úksYaph lsrsSu i|yd mshjr folla wkq.ukh l,hq;=h' tkï m<uqj frda.h fCIa;%fhaoSs y"kd .ekSuh'

yd )rAj, ùu is)fõ' os,Sr frda. ksid we;sjk ydksho fndfydaúg iïnkaO jkafka mfia wêl f,i f;;ukh mej;Su iuÛh'

fï i|yd frda. ,CIK fhdod.; yelsh' fojkqj tu frda.S idïm, jHdê úoHd.drhlosS úYaf,aIKh lr frda. ldrl y"kd .ekSuhs'

Wod*- meÛsrs fnda. îc me<# rUqgka

fuu mshjr j,ska i;H jYfhkau frda.ldrlhska ia:Srju y"qkd .ekSu is)jk ksid frda. ,CIK we;s lrk

fuu ;;a;ajh by; lS idOl ksido is)úh yels w;r fndfydaúg mfia wkjYH m%udKhg c,h r|d mej;Su wkjYH mrsos by,

fjk;a fya;=ka fjkalr Bg ksis ms,shï fhoSug lghq;= l, yels fjhs'

fmdÿ frda. ,CK frda. ,CIK frda.h wdidokh jq Ydl fldgia# frda.fha iajNdjh# frda. ldrlh iy frda.fha ;Sj%;djh wkqj fjkiajk nj fmfka' mrsirfha mj;sk ;;a;ajh wkqj frda. ,CIK j, ;Sj%;djh fjkia fjhs' flfia jqjo m,;=re Ydlj,g je,fok fmd) frda. ,CIK ms<sn|j uQ,sl wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu m,;=re WoHdkfha kv;a;=jg buy;a f,i m%fhdackj;a fjhs'

<má me, ue,ù hdu fndfyda wjia:dj,os uq( Ydlhu )rAj, ù m;% ly meye .ekaù jrAOkh wvqùu olakg ,efí' uQ, uKav,hg we;sjk n,mEula ksid fuh is)ùug bv we;s w;r mfia c,h r|d mej;Su fukaau uQ, uKav,hg we;sjk lDñ yd jgmKq ydks ksido fuf,i lyùu 130

îc me<# l=vd ld,fhaoSs ue,ù hdu# uQ, uKav,h l=Kq ùu ksid is) fjhs'

hdu;a iuÛ os,Sr wdidok j,g f.d)re ùu óg m%Odk;u fya;=j nj fmfka' fï ;;a;ajh uÛ yerSug kï ukd c, jykhla mi ;=< we;s lsrSsu uq,sl wjYH;djhls'

lymeyeùu <má m,;=re Ydl j, iq,Nu frda. ,CIKh m;% yd o( ly meyehg yerSuhs' óg fya;=jk idOl w;r# uQ, uKav,hg yd ikd, l,dm j,g we;sjk wdidok uQ,sl fjhs' tfy;a m;% lyùu fmdaIK W!K;d ksido we;sfjhs' mfia khsg%cka W!K;dj ksid fïre m;% ;sj%f,i ly meyehg yefrhs' ffjria frda. ksido m;% lymeyeùug yefrhs'

ue,ùu Ydlfha meje;aug wjYHjk c, m%udKh fkd,eî hdfuka uq( Ydlhu fyda fldgila jqjo ue,ùfï ,CIK


flfi,a ue,ùfï frda.h

fmkakqï lrhs' c,h mrsixl%uKh

we;sfjhs' Wod*- meKsjrld# )rshka#

lrk ffi,u mglfha c, mrsixl%uKh fjk kd, wjysr ùu óg moku‘ fjhs' Wod*- fmar j, ysgq uerSu (Fñarium

meÛsrs fnda.# me< j, uq,a l=Kqùu'

wilt)

uq,a l=Kqùu l=vd me< ue,ùug fya;=jk idOlu ógo fya;= fjhs' iuyr úsg uq,a j,g is)jk hdka;s%l ydks ^Wo( .eu fyda hka;% Ndú;fhka& ;=<ska frda. ldrl we;=( ùu ksid uq,a l=Kqùu is)úh

fuu ;;a;ajh md,kh lsrSsu i|yd mfia ;;a;ajh jeä oshqKQ lsrsSu w;HdjYHhs' m,;=re me< j, uQ, uKv,hg ydks fkdlsrSsug j. n,d.; hq;=h' mfia fmdiamria yd fmdgEishï ysÛ ùu;a yd NdIañl;dj jeäùu;a ksid m,;=re Ydlj, uQ, moaO;sh fuu frda.j,g myiqfjka Ndckh fjhs'

yelsh' mhsfgdmafgrd ^Phytopthora) os,Sr úfYaI mrsK; uq,a j,g we;=( leïnshu ;=<ska jHdma; ù hd yelsh' tu ksid lekalrA ,CIK iys; frALd ìysfjhs' óg wu;rj fujeks os,Sr úfYaI rdYshla ksid uq,a l=Kqùu

uq,a l=Kq ùfï frda.h

131


lf|a lekal¾ ,CIK

fndfydaúg fuu frda.ldrl mi ;=<ska fndajk w;r# fnda. j,ska bj; ,o fldgia ksid frda.h ;j )rg;a jHma; úh yelsúh' mi ;=< jqjo b;d os.= l,la úkdY fkdù mej;Sug yelsùugo tu frda.ldrlj, úfYaI ,CIKhls' tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkh ;=< msrsis) nj fi!LHdrCIl nj mj;ajd

ms,sld frda. ,CIK iys; fodvï Ydlhla

uQ, moaO;shg ydkslrk iuyr frda.ldrl m,;=re Ydlj, lf|a úúO ia:dkj, ;=jd, we;s lrhs' fmd;a;la ^ndyslh wjg& wNHka;r mgl;a iuyr ia:dkSh ì|jeàï yd )Uqre meye ùu ksid ;=jd,hla f,i tu ia:dkh osrdm;afjhs' mhsfgdmaf;rd úfYaI ^phytopthora spp.& iy mshqidrshï úfYaI (Fñariam spp& fmd) frda.ldrl os,Sr nj fmkajd oS ;sfí' iuyrúg we.afrda nelaàrshï úfYaI ^Agrobacterium) uÛska l| u; lfnd( ksrAudKh lr,Sug bjy,a jk os,Sr kï fmdfudishia ^phomopsis) iy fld,á%ishï os,Sr ^colletotricham) f,i y"kdf.k ;sfí' fïjd m,;=re Ydlj, m;%# u,a# iy M,hgo wdidokh úh yelsh' Bg wu;rj nelaàrshd úfYaI lsysmhlau m,;=re Ydl lsysmhl lekalrA frda.h wdidokh lrhs' Wod*- meÛsrs fnda. j, lekalrA frda. 132

.kakd w;ru YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u wkq.ukh lsrSsfuka frda.h jHdma; ùu md,kh lr.; yelsh' mdxY= OQulrK jqjo jix.; ;;a;ajhloS f;dard .; yelsh' m,;=re Ydl fyd|ska jevqkq miq mi u;=msg isg m%Odk lf|a ógrhla muK by,g yqKQ oshr wdf,am lsrSsuo iq)iqh' oreKQ wdidOk jix.; ;;a;ajhloS msrsis) lrk ,o ;=jd, j,g os,SrkdYl wdf,amkh lsrSsfuka fuu ;;a;ajh iqj lr.; yelsh' iuyr rgj,a j,g n,mEï lrk fj<|m, n,fõ. ksid m,;=re j, .=Kd;aul nj by, kexùu i|yd lghq;= lsrsSug is)ùu olakg ,efí' weursld tlai;a ckmoh úiska mkjd we;s ;;a;aj md,khg wkq.; ùug is)ù ;sîu ksid weursld tlai;a ckmohg m,;=re wmkhkfhaoSs m,;=rej, .=Kd;auh ms<sn|j úfYaI ;;a;ajhla ,.dlr .ekSug is)ù ;sfí' fuu ksid lDIs ridhk Ndú;h


w;sYh iSud lsrSu is)ù we;s ksid m<sfndaO l<uKdlrKh ms<sn| kj m%fõYhla we;slr .ekSu ;j)rg;a uÛ yer isàug ners ;;a;ajhg m;aù

muKla fkdj mrsir ys;ldñ yd ;sridr m,;=re WoHdkhla mj;ajdf. k hdugo th WmldrSs fjhs' lDIs ridhk Ndú;h tuÛska wju l,

;sfí'

yelsh' tfukau ffcj urAOk Wml%u o fï i|yd Wmfhdackh lr .ekSug tu.ska bv m%ia:dj ie,fia'

5'9 frda. l<ukdlrK Wml%u wkd.; mdrsirsl# iudcsl yd wdrA:sl fjkialï iuÛu f.da,ShlrKfha;a iïm%hqla; m%;sM,hla f,i m,;=re fnda. j,go je<f|k frda. yd m,sfndaO fjkia úh yels w;r kj;u frda. yd m<sfndaO ìysùuo olakg ,efí' fï wkqj fuu frda. yd m<sfndaO y"kdf.k uev je,elaùu fyda tajd l<ukdlrKh i|yd wjYH oekqu ,nd .ekSug ie,iqï ilia lr.; hq;=j we;' frda. l<ukdlrK Wml%u iïmdokfha,d iïm%odhsl iy iïm%odhsl fkdjk l%ufõohka WÑ; wdldrhg ixl,kh lr fhdod .ekSu jrA;udk wNsfhda.hhs'

1' cdk ma,diau jeä oshqKq lsrsu Wiia WoHdk úoHd;aul ,CIK iys; ùu fukau m,sfndaOlhskag m%;sfrdaë ùfï ,CIK we;slr .ekSu m,;=re fnda. jeäoshqKQ lsrSfï m%Odk wfmaCIdjka w;r m%uqL fjhs' kj;u m,;=re m%fNao fuu ,CIK j,ska iukaú; ùfuka Wiia .=Kd;aufha jeä M,odjla wvq úhoulska ksmojd .ekSu

fuu ;;a;ajh wkqc i|yd muKla fkdj .%dyl i|ydo fhdojd .; yelsh' ta wkqj .%dyl úfYaI jeä oshqKQ lsrsSuo M,odhs jHdhdula fjhs' m,;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lsrSsfïoSs m,;=re m%fNao yd .%dyl m%fõYfuka f;dard .ekSfuka wkd.; m,;=re WoHdkfha frda. l<ukdlrK lghq;= myiqfjkq we;' jeä oshqKQ l< m%fNao yd Bg .e,fmk .%dyl i,ld ne,Su fuysoSs is)úh hq;=h' flfia jqjo m,;=re WoHdkfha úúO frda. j,g m%;sfrdaë m%fNao ksmojd .ekSu jdKsc jYfhka wêl úhoï iys; lghqla;ls' th os.= ld,Sk mrAfhaIK j, m%;sM,hla jk ksid CIKsl m%;sM, ,nd.ekSug n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdúh hq;=h'

2' m,;=re WoHdkfha fnda. ie,eiau yd kv;a;=j m,;=re WoHdk ie,iqï lsrSfïoSs ta ta fnda. w;r frda. me;srS hdug wod,j wka;rA ls%hd ms<sn|j ukd wjfndaOhla we;sj fnda. úfYaI m%fNao yd tajd msysgqùfï rgdj;a i,ld ne,Su iq)iqh'

tlu mjqf,a fnda. tlg 133


j.d lsrSsu fuysoSs yels ;rï u. yerSu iq)iqh' tfukau wkd.;fhaoSs wfmaCId l, yels frda. ms<sn| wjfndaOhla ,ndf.k m%;sfrdaê m%fNao

ukd wjfndaOhla we;slr .ekSfuka lDIs ridhk Ndú;h wju lr .; yelsjdla muKla fkdj tajdfha Wmrsu ldrAHCIu;djho ,n.; yelsh'

iuÛ iajdNdúl udhsï i,l=Kq lrñka fnda. msysgqúh yelsh' kv;a;= lsrsSfïos ta ta fnda. j, mdrsirsl wjYH;d ms<sn|j ie,ls,a, fhduq

5'10 frda. m,sfndaO md,k l%u

lrñka frda. we;sùu yd me;srSsug ys;lr jk mdrsirsl idOl ìysùu yd mej;Su yels;dla wju jk f,i m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;= lsrsSfï ls%hd j,sh mj;ajd .ekSfuka wkd.;fha frda. me;srSsu fndfyda )rg j,lajd .; yelsh' fuysosS msrsis) lsrsSu yd fi!LHdrCIl Wml%u frda. m,sfndaO j,ska f;dr m,;=re WoHdkhl moku fjhs'

3' lDIs ridhk Ndú;h lDIs ridhk Ndú;h wju jk fia m,;=re WoHdk md,kh lsrsSu iEu wxYhlskau jdis odhlh' fu‘ i|yd wjYH mshjr ks;sm;d l%udkql+,j wkq.ukh l, hq;=h' lDIsridhk Ndú;h i|yd fhduqúh hq;af;a wdrA:Sl uÜgu olajd frda.fhka is)jk ydksh m,;=re WoHdkfha we;sù ;sfí kï muKs' fuysoSs ir,u yd WÑ;u lDIs ridhk biSfuka fuu ls%hdj,sh werôh yelsh' tfukau tajd fhoSfï WÑ;u wjia:dj ^fnda. fha fukau frda. ldrlfha& ms<sn| 134

m,sfndaO md,kh i|yd iïm%odhslj fhdod .kakd lDIsridhk Ndú;fhka os.= ld,Skj is)jk wjdisodhl n,mEï mss,sn|j fndfydauhla idOl yd oekqu tla/ia fjñka ;sfí' f,dj m,;=re ksIamdokfha ie,lsh hq;= m%udKhla fCIa;%fhaoSs;a wiajekak fk¨ miq;a .nvdj,osS;a fnod yersfï ls%hdj,sfhaoSs;a fj,|mf,aoSs;a iy mdrsfnda.slhska ñ,oSs .;a miqj;a m,sfndaO ydks ksid úkdY ù hhs' iïm%odhsl m,sfndaO md,kfhaoSs is)jk isudj blaujd .sh lDIsridhk Ndú;h ksid m,;=re WoHdk j, ksIamdok úhou by, hdu# ñksidf.a fukau i;a;ajhskaf.ao fi!LHhg wys;lr f,i n,mEu# mdrsirsl .=Kd;auh ìo jeàu iy cd;Hka;r fj<|m,g we;slrk wys;lr n,meu fyd|ska y"kdf.k ;sfnz’ (World Bank1994) fuu wys;lr ;;a;ajhka wju lr,Ssug;a ;sridr f,i m,sfndaO md,kh lrñka m,;=re WoHdk j, m%;s,dN by, kexùug;a taldnoaO m,sfndaO urAOkh fhdod.; yelsh' fuysos mrsirhg ys;lr jk f,ig


m,sfndaOydks md,kh lsrsSu i|yd YIH úoHd;aul# mdrsirsl yd ffcj úoHd;aul Wml%u ixl,kh jq moaO;shla f,i wkq.ukh lr

fhdod.kq ,nk oekqu iy f;dr;=re iqCIu fjhs' WoHdkfha fnda. idOl mdrsirsl idOl iuÛ ffcj úoHd;aul# udkj# fi!LH# iy

m,sfndaO md,kh lrñka wLKavju m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO .yKfha yeisrSsu ms<sn|j wOHhkhl kshe,suhs' tu f;dr;=re mokï lrf.k tu

fhdod.kq ,nk m,sfndaO md,k m%fõYhkaf.a ;sridr ls%hdldrSs;ajh hk wxY flfrA ksYaÑ; ie,eiaula wkq.ukh flfrA'

Wml%u moaO;sh ie,iqï lrñka fjkia lrñka wkq.ukh flfrA'

yd

f.da,ShlrKh;a iuÛ mq(,a jq cd;sl

taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfha uq,OrAu jk ie,iqï lsrSsu# Ndú;h iy

iy cd;Hka;r m,;=re lrAudka;hg m,sfndaO Wj\qre osfkka osk W.% jk fyhska wju lDIs ridhk Ndú;fhka

wLKav úurAIKh m,;=re WoHdkfha we;sjk ish( m,sfndaO ydks md,kh Wfoido ukdf,i Wmfhda.Ss lr.; yelsh' fuu ixlSrAK ls%hdj,sfhaoSs

m,;=re WoHdk md,kh lsrSsfï l%ufõohka i|yd keUqre ùu fõ.j;a l, hq;=j we;' taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh fï i|yd ms,s.; yels

m,sfndaOlhskaf.a yeisrsSu urAOkh# ffcj urAOkh# m,sfndaOkdYl Ydluh m,sfndaO kdYl# ridhksl m,sfndaOkdYl# YIH úoHd;aul

idOdrK ;dCIKhla bosrsm;a lr ;sfí'

md,kh# m,sfndaO m%;sfrdaOl fnda.# hdka;s%l m,sfndaO urAOkh# cdk ;dCIKfhka fnda. fjkia lsrSsu yd me<eá ksfrdaOdhk kS;s rS;s hk l%u iuqyhla f,i wjYHjk mrsos wkq.ukh l, yelsh' m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO md,kh i|yd taldnoaO md,k Wml%u ls%hd;aul lrkqfha úúO wxYj,ska m%fõYï ùfuks' fuysoSs fhdod.kq ,nk nyqúO Wml%u uÛska m,sfndaO yd mdrsirsl wjodku wju flfrk w;r

m,;=re WoHdk md,kfhaaoSs fhdod.; yels taaldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh lDñ uhsgd# jeks i;a;aj m,sfndaOlhskag fukau nelaàrshd iy ffjria jeks CIqø csùkaf.a md,kh lsrSsu i|yd o fhduq flfrA'

1' mdxY= md,kh# Ydl fmdaIKh yd c, iïmdokh m,;=re Ydl j,g nyq,j je,fok uq,a yd mdoia: frda. wjodku wju lsrSsu i|yd ukd mdxY= yd c, md,khla wjYHfjhs' tu ;;a;ajhka CIKslj we;s l, fkdyels ksid m,;=re WoHdkh msysgqùu yd ixjrAOkh lsrsSfï 135


wjia:dfõ isgu fï i|yd mshjr wkq.ukh lsrsSu jeo.;ah' mdxY= jhkh yd jHqyh ukdf,i we;slr mj;ajdf.k hdu i|yd jk YIH úoHd;aul j;a ms,sfj;a wkq.ukh lsrsSu wjYHhs' fï wjia:dfõoSsu mfia we;s fmdaIl ;;a;ajh iy ridhksl ,CIK ^khsá%cka# fmdiamria# fmdgEishï& jeks yd ^mS tÉ w.h legd whk yqjudre Odrs;dj& ksrAKh lsrsSfuka tys mj;sk yd we;sùug wjodkula iys; fmdaIK yd m,sfndaO .eg( ms,sn|j wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yelsh' tajd l%udkql=,j uÛyerSsug bv ie,fik os.= ld,sSk WoHdk kv;a;= ie,iqula ilialr .ekSug th bjy,a fjhs' tuÛska wkjYH f,i iïm%odhsl lDIs ridhk Ndú;h wju lr .ekSug uÛ ie,fihs' th taldnoaO m,sfndaO urAOk ms<sfj;l mokuhs' c, iïmdokh ie,iqïlr .ekSu uÛska m,;=re WoHdkfha fndfyda .eg( l,a we;sju uÛyrjd .;yels ùu jdishls'

2' Ydl mqyqKqj lmamdÿqj yd kv;a;=j m,;=re Ydl ;dCIKsl f,i <má úfha isgu mqyqKQ lr lmamd) lr mj;ajdf.k hk úg m,sfndaO ydks wju lr .; yelsh' fuu Wml%uh taldnoaO m,sfndaO urAOkfha idrA:l mshjrls' túg m,sfndaOlhskag ys;lr CIqø mdrsirsl 136

;;a;aj mej;su wvq ùfuka m,sfndaO ydks jeäùu uÛ yefrA'

3' m,sfndaO ;;a;aj we.hSu yd wkdjels m,sfndaO .ykfha yeisrSu wOHhkh lsrSu taldnoaO m,sfndaO urAOkhg w;HdjYh wx.hls' m,;=re fnda. wkqj ydkslr m,sfndaO úfYaI fjkia fjhs' ta m,sfndaO úfYaI m,;=re fnda.h yer fjk;a Odrl ^taldka;r Odrl& u;o cSj;aùu iq,N ixisoaêhls' fndfydaúg m,;=re WoHdkfha fuu taldka;r Odrl jkqfha j,a me<Eá fyda jk orAY Ydlh# tfyhska ksr;=reju j,ame<Eá md,kh lsrSsu m,;=re WoHdkfha fi!LH iïmkak meje;aug fyd| mokula imhhs' j,a me<Eá urAOkh kqiq)iq jqjo m%Yia: uÜgulska tajdfha meje;au md,kh lsrSsu m,;=re WoHdkfha ìu kv;a;= jev ms,sfj,la ;sfí' ;rAckhla úh yels m%Odk m,sfndaO j, wyUq idïm, ,nd .ekSu;a o;a; úYaf,aIKhka jeo.;a mshjrls' fuysoSs m,sfndaO .yKfha ld,h;a iuÛ yeisrsSu m%fCIamKh l, yels w;r tuÛska kq)frAoSsu we;sùug wjodkula iys; m,sfndaO ydks ms,sn| mQrAj wjfndaOhla ,nd.; yelsh' túg tu ydksh we;sùu je,elaùfï mshjr WoHdk kv;a;= jev igykg ksisl,g we;=,;a lr yelsh' fuu idïm,


,nd.ekSu i|yd lDñ W.=,a .yKh .kka lsrsSu yd idïm, ix.kkh wdoSs l%u wkq.ukh l, yelsh' j,a me<Eá# lDñ uhsgd# os,Sr# nelaàrshd yd ffjria

frda. jHdma; ùu md,kh l, yelsh' g%hsfldvud ^Trichodearma) os,sSrh m%pdrKh lr fldïfmdaiaÜ j,g tlalsrSsfuka tu fldïfmdaiaÜ jeämqr

wdos m,sfndaO ldKav j,g ksrka;r wjOdkh fhduqlr ;sîu taldnoaO m,sfndaO urAOkh myiq lrhs'

mig fhoSsfuka fuu ;;a;ajh md,kh lr.; yelsh'

fuu idïm, yd .yKhka ms,sn| ish( o;a; tla/ialr jdrA;d lr

l=l=( fmdfydr fyda fvd,uhsÜ$wMyqKq$ fhosSu uÛskao mfia pH w.h jeä lsrSsfuka Fasarium os,Ssr .yKh

ld,h;a iuÛ tu o;a;j, yeisrSsu wLKavj wOHhkh lr wjYH ;SrK .ekSu taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfha

wvqlr.; yelsh' m,;=re WoHdkfha fujeks Wml%u fhdod .eksSfuka taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kh idrA:lj

úfYaI ,CIKhls' Bg wu;rj lDIs ridhk fhoSug is)jq wjia:dj,osS tajd ms<sn| ish( jdrA;d ;nd.; hq;=h'

fhdod .; yelsh'

úfYaIfhka frda. md,kfhaoSs frda. ldrlfha ^os,Sr$nelaàrshd îcdKq j,

taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfhaoSs m,sfndaO ydks lrk iajNdúsl i;=rka fhdod .ekSug lghq;= flfrA# idudkHfha iajNdjOrAufha ixisoaê jk mdrsirsl

idkaøK wvql, yels mshjr .ekSu jeo.;ah' fu‘ i|yd mdrsirsl idOl fjkia lsrsSu Wod*- ysret<sh ,eîug ie,eiaùu# CIqø mrsir újD; lsrSsu yd frda.s fldgia lmd mq(iaid oeóu wdosh WÑ; wdldrhg fhdod .;

iu;=,s;;dj mj;ajd .ekSu fuys uq,sl moku fjhs' fuu iajNdúl iu;=,s;;djh we;sjk ndOd wju lsrsSfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha m,sfndaO md,kh l, yelsh' taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfhaosS w;HdjYH

yelsh' m,;=re WoHdkfha jdrAIsl lmamd)j fï i|yd losu Wml%uhls'

wjia:dj,oSs w;HdjYH lDIs ridhk fhdokq ,nk w;r wksl; = a iEu

mdxY+ mrsirfha mj;sk os,Sr .yKh wvqlr .ekSu i|yd g%hsfldvrAud

wdldrhlgu ixl,kh jQ Wml%u fhdod m,sfndaO md,k lghq;= flfrA' ta ksid lDIs ridhkhka fhdod .ekSu wju uÜgul mj;S'

(Trichodearma spp) jeks ys;lr os,sSr .yKh jeä lr,Ssfuka fmar .ia ue,ùu (Gujava wilt) jeks frda. wdidok lrk mshqiSrShï Fasarium os,sr .yKh wvqlr

m,sfndaOlhska f.a iajNdúl i;=rka ms<sn| ukd wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu wjYHhs' f,aia úka.a l=reñKshka# 137


m,.eáhka# fonreka iy Pirate buá ys;lr lDñka f,i ie,fla' osñhka lDñkaf.a ì;a;r yd lSghka wdydrhg .ekSu ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha osñhka

oaú;shs; frda. ldrl wdidokh úYd, f,i wvq fjhs' Wod*- rla; mg, frda.h# .ï jEiaiSu lfnd,q frda.h

fndaùu ys;lr jqjo fjk;a wdldrhg .eg(jla ùugo bv ;sfí'

7 N=ñh u;=msg yd j,a me,eá kv;a;=j m,;=re WoHdkfha N=ñh u;=msg kv;a;= lsrSsu m,;=re Ydlj, m,sfndaO ydksh iuÛ iïnkaO l, yelsh' taldnoaO m,sfndaO urAOkh i|yd th wjYH;djhls' mdxY+ Ldokh wêl jk úg Ydl )rAj, ùu;a fmdaIK W!K ùu;a ksid Ydl úúO m,sfndaO ydks j,g md;% fjhs' tfukau mfia c,h tla/iaùu ksid;a c,jykh )rAj, ùu ksid;a úúO m,sfndaO ydksodhl uÜgu jrAOkh fjhs' ukd f,i c,h nei hk mrssos mi u;=msg ilia lr mi fidaod md(ùu j,lajd mi idrj;a lsrsfï Wml%u fhdod.; hq;=h'

m,;=re Ydlj,g je<fok fndfyda frda. urAOkh i|yd ;U wvx.= os,Sr kdYl yqKq oshr# wdoSs os,Sr kdYl m<uqj fhdod .; hq;=h' tajdhska urAOkh wmyiqfõ kï ls%hdldrSs;ajfhka jeä os,sr kdYl fhdod .; yelsh' m,;=re Ydlj, lmamd) mDIaGh u; yd ;=jd, wf,amkhla f,i idkaø l, yqKQ oshr fhdod .ekSu wvq úhoï iys; fyd| m%;sldrhls' tuÛska 138

j,a me<Eá fndfyda m,sfndaOlhskag losu ksjykla imhhs' tajd taldka;r Odrl f,i ls%hdlr m,sfndaOlhska f.a cSjk pl% iïmQrAK lsrSsug odhl ùu ksid m,;=re Ydlj,g m,sfndaOl ydksh jeä fjhs' tfukau jir mQrdu m,sfndaOlhska m,;=re WoHdk ;=< /oS isàug th myiqlrjhs' ta ksid j,a me<eá jrAOkh md,kh lsrsSu taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,kfha jeo.;a wx.hla f,i ie,lsh yelsh'


6' lmamdÿj iy mqyqKqj m,;=re Ydl iajNdúl wdldrhg jeãug bv yerSfuka tajdfhka m%Yia; wiajekakla fyda Wmrsu M,odhs;djhla ,nd .ekSug fkdyels jk nj Y; jrAI .Kkdjlg fmr isgu wjfndaO lrf.k ;sìK’ fuifmdf;añhdkq WoHdk lsishuz yev;,jg yd m%udKhkag úúO m,;=re Ydl lmamd) lr mqyqKq lr ;sfnkq olakg ,eìK’ Wmrsu M,odhs;djla ,nd.ekSu Wfoid ishMZu m,;=re Ydl i|yd lmamd)jla l,hq;= njg úoHd;aulj fmkajd oSs ;sfnz’ jdKsc m,;=re WoHdk md,kfhaoSs Ydl fmdaIKh” fi!LH wdrCIdj fukau lmamd)j iy mqyqKQjo w;HdjYH kv;a;= ls%hdldrluls' ños” fmar jeks m,;=re fnda. lmamd)fjka muKla wiajekak ,nd .ekSug yelsùu fyd|

lghq;= lsrSu mqyqKQj f,i ye|skafjz’ lmamd)j uÛska Ydl mqyqKq lsrsSug wu;rj ;j;a wruqKQ rdYshla bgq lr .; yelsh' fuu wjêfhaosS lrkq ,nk lmamd)fjz wruqKq rdYshls’ mqyqKQ lsrSsfuz wjêfhaoSs w;am;a lr.;a yevh yd iels,a, wLKavj ta wdldrfhkau kv;a;= lsrSsu uq,sl wruqKq ksis l,g wLKavj bgqlr.; yelsjkq we;’ Bg wu;rj by, .=Kd;aufhka jeä wiajekakla wLKavj ,nd.; yelsjkq we;’ taldka;r fyda wl%uj;a M,odj we;s Ydlj, tu .egMZ wju lsrsSugo lmamd)j fhdod.; yelsh’ wkjYH f,i jefvk YdLd bj;alr wNHka;r mrsirh újD; lr jeä wiajekaklg Ydlh fhduq lsrSsu bka is\qfjhs

WodyrKhls’ lmamd)j hkq uq,sl jYfhka úoHd;aul ie,eiaulska hq;=j Ydlfha wkjYH fyda w;sfrAl fldgia lmd bj;a lsrSsuhs’ lmamd\qfõ ksYaÑ; m%udKhla ld, iSudjla iy l%ufjzohla ;sìh hq;= w;r” tu lmamd)j uÛska Ydlfha jrAOk ú,dYh iy m%udKh uq,sl jYfhka md,kh lsrsSu wdrCId flfrA' Ydlhla l=vd wjêfhaosS lmamd) lrñka Bg ksYaÑ; yevhla yd iels,a,la ,nd .ekSug

fydoska mqyqKq l, ños j.djla

139


fndfydauhla nyq jdrAIsl ksjrA;k

pd;=rAhs; Ydld fnoSs .sh ia:dkfha isg bosrshg we;s mrAj ixLHdj .Kka lr

l,dmSh m,;=re YdLd lmamd)fjka jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh fjhs' tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha we;s mrsK; m,;=re Ydl lmamd) lsrSsu iSñ; úh

ñoss Ydlj, lmamd)j l,hq;= ia:dkh iy mqIam yg.ekSu i|yd lmamd) l,hq;= ia:dkh ;SrKh lsrSsug m%fNao wkqj is)úh hq;=h' fndfydaúg mrAj

hq;=h' u,a yg.ekaùu i|yd tu Ydl lmamd) lsrSsfï m%fhdackhla ke;'

y;rlg jvd wvq ia:dkhl lmamd)j l, úg jrAOl YdLd ìysfõ'

mqyqKqj i|yd lmamÿj

Ydl lmamd)j uÛska jrAOl jrAOkh fukau m%ckl jrAOkhgo n,mEï t,a, l, yelsh' lmamd)j lrkq ,nk ia:dkh yd ld,h fukau túg mj;sk ld,.=Ksl ;;a;ajh# lmamd)fjka bj;a lrkq ,nk icSù fldgia j, idfmaCI m%udKh ^nr wkqj& hk idOl uQ,sl jYfhka jrAOl jrAOkh fyda m%ckl jrAOkh is)fõ oehs ksrAKh lrhs' m%ckl jrAOkh i|yd mrsK; m,;=re Ydlj, lmamd)j m%fõYfuka yd l,amkdldrSsj is)l, hq;=h' wkjYH f,i úYd, jYfhka YdLd yd jrAOl fldgia bj;a lsrSsfuka jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh ù mqIamlrKh m%udo fjhs' ksis wjia:dfõoSs lmamd)j lsrsSfuka miq ìysjk kj YdLd j, m%udKj;a ;rï jrAOkla ,nd .ekSug ld,h ,eîu ksid B,. jdrfhaoSs mqIam yg.ekSu is)fjhs' ños yd fmar jeks m,;=r Ydlj, úYd, f,i u,a yg .ekaùu i|yd lmamd) lsrsSfï wjYH;djhla ;sfí' jirla muK jhia.;jq ;D;Shsl iy 140

filáh wdOdrfhka ñÈ je,a lmamdÿj

fmar Ydlj, m;% 6-10 w;roSs mqIam ygfkd.;af;a kï tu YdLd mrAj 4-6 la muK )rloS lmamd) lsrSsfuka miq yg.kakd kj YdLdj, mqIam yg .ekSSu is)fjk w;r fuu ;;a;ajh ;rula )rg m%fNaoh wkqj fjkia úh yelsh' tfy;a

fndfyduhla

nyq

jdrAIsl

ksjrA:k l,dmSh m,;=re YdLd lmamd)fjka jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh fõ' tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha we;s mrsk; m,;=re Ydl lmamd) lsrSu iSñ; úh hq;=h' u,a yg .ekaúu i|yd tu Ydl lmamd) lsrSfï m%fhdckhla ke;'


lmamdÿ lsrsfï wruqKq l

Ydlfha

jrAOkh

md,kh

lsrsSug iy m%udKd;aul iSudjlg fhduq lsrsSug l

kj YdLd jrAOkhg

l

uQ< uKav,h iy mi u;=msáka by, fldgia w;r iunr jrAOkhla mj;ajdf.k hdug

l

wkd.;fha M,oerSu jeälsrSsu

flfrk w;r tu lmamd)fjz wjidk m%;sM,h f,i ukd f,i mqyqKq lrk ,o iels,a,la iys; Ydlhla ìysfjhs’

i|yd wjia:djla Wodlr .ekSug ^jeä rsls,s ixLHdjla jeks& l

jrAOl

jrAOkh

iy

M,

yg.ekSu ^m%ckl jrAOkh& w;r iunr;djhla mj;ajd f.k hdu l

l

M,j, wiajekak

.=Kd;auh yd jeä lsrSsug

mqyqKq l, wU Ydlhla

m,;=re Ydl mqyqKq lsrsfï wruqKq

^úYd,;ajh”jrAKh”rih jeä&

Ydlhg

frda. m,sfndaO urAOkh i|yd wkjYH ;=jd, is)jq iy frda.S YdLd fldgia bj;a lsrSsu

mqyqKQ lrk ,o Yla;su;a iels,a,la ìyslr,Su

6'1 lmamdÿ lsÍu yd mqyqKq

l

iunrjq Ydlhla we;slsrSsu

l

wkjYH oejuh fldgia we;sùu j,lajd,Su

l

fld,odfjz

lsrsu’ jrAOk ú,dYh md,kh lrñka wjYH jk wdldrfha iels,a,la we;slr ksYaÑ; m%udKhlg yevlr .ekSu mqyqKqj f,i fláfhka yeoskafjz’ mqyqKq lsrSsu i|yd mshjfrka mshjr wkjYH YdLd lmamd) lr bj;a

ukd f,i jrAOkh iy

m%Ndixiaf,aIKh

Wmrsu ldrAhCIu;djhlska is) lsrSsug yelshdj ,nd oSu l

Ydlfha úYd,;ajh m%Yia; ugzgug md,kh lsrSsug myiq lsrSsu 141


l

jeã wiajekakla ,nd .ekSug yelshdj Wodlr .ekSu

l

wkd.;fhaoS jeã wiajekakla oerSug Yla;su;a we;slr,Su

iels,a,la

l

frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks wju lsrsSug miqìu ieliSu

l

kv;a;=jg myiq m%udKfha Ydlhla ìyslr .ekSu

l

wiajekak fk,Sug myiq

l

Ydlj, iajNdúl jrAOk m%jk;dj, jdish ,nd .ksñka Ydl kv;a;=$ lmamd)j i|yd hk msrsjeh wvq lrñka wju lmamd)jla wkq.ukh lr tu Ydlj, yevh yd wiajekak kv;a;= lsrSsug

mqyqKQ l, hq;= ld,h

lr,Su m,;=re kv;a;= mqyqKQ

WoHdk msysgqùfuz yd lsrSsfuz jHdmdrfhaoSs Ydl lsrSsfuz ish( wruqKq

flakaø .;jk ;sfnz’ tkï# l

l

l

wfmaCId

lsysmhla

b;d flá ld,iSudjl osS wêl wiajekakla ,nd .ekSug;a blaukska m,;=re WoHdkh mrsK; wjia:djg m;a lsrSsug;a m%Yia; f,i wdf,dal Yla;sh wjfYdaIKh lr .ksñka m%Ndixiaf,aIKh by< ugzgul mj;ajdf.k hñka N+ñ tallhlska m%Yia; wiajekakla ,nd.ekSug;a m;% u; m;s; jk wdf,dalh tu Ydlj,” M,j, .=Kd;aufha iy Ydl úhfka jrAOkfha wiudk;d wju ùu i|yd idOdrK f,i Ydl úhk mqrd kej; fnoS hdug;a

142

Ydl mqyqKQ lsrSsu werôh hq;af;a me< ;jdfka mj;sk wjia:dfjzoSuh’ fyd| noaO me<hl m%Odk l| fyd|ska fjkaù ;sìh hq;= w;r” w;= fnoShdu noaO ikaêfha isg fi’ñ’ 20la muK ;ruz by,ska weröu iq)iqh’ iDcqj by,g jefvk m%Odk l|la ,efnkfia mqyqKQ lsrSsu weröh hq;=h’ noaO me< fCIa;%fha isgqjk úg m%Odk l|la f,i mqyqKQj werUqkq me< f;dard.ekSu iq)iqh’ tajd fCIa;%fha isgqjd udi lsysmhlg miqj mqyqKQ


lsrSsu kej;;a wdruzN l, hq;=h’ fuz wjia:dfjz isg mqyqKQj jir ;=k

uOHu wCI l%uh ^Central Leader System )

y;rla olajd wLKavj mj;ajdf.k hkq ,nk ls%hdj,shla fjhs’ Ydlhg jir ;=k y;rlaa jkúg tys yevh;a iels,a,la iuzmQrAKfhkau ksYaÑ; lr wjika úh hq;=h’ Ydl mqyqKQ lsrSu i|yd lrkq ,nk lmamd)j b;du m%fjzYfuka yd mshjfrka mshjr is)l, hq;= ksid iEu lkakhlgu jrla muKla mqyqKq lsrSsfuz mshjfrka mshjr l, hq;=h’ c, iuzmdokhla ;sfnz kuz úh<s iD;=j wjidk ùug fmr mqyqKq lsrSsfuz lmamd)j l, yelsh’ úh<s ld,h ;=<oSs lmamd) lsrsSfuka ìysjk kj YdLd j, jrAOkh )rAj, úug bv we;s ksid Ydlh mqyqKQ lsrSsu

fuu l%uhg mqyqKQ lsrSsfuzoSs m,;=re Ydlfha m%Odk l| ;ks wCIhla f,i by,g jeãug bv i,ikq ,nk ksid Ydlh mrsK;jq úg m%Odk l|la u; mokuz jq iels,a,la ksrAudKh fjhs’ mi ugzgfuz isg wjYH;dj mrsos fi’ó’

ksis mrsos is) lsrsSug wmyiq úug bv ;sfnz’

45 isg 100 olajd )rla m%Odk lf|a lsis) YdLdjlg jrAOkh ùug bv fkdfoa’ m%Odk lf|a m%d:ñl YdLd l%udKql+,j tlska tl jrskajr lmd bj;a

mqyqKq lsrSsfï l%u

lrñka fuu l,dmh YdLdj,ska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hkq ,efnz’ fuz

m,;=re Ydl mqyqQK lsrSsfuz l%u lsysmhla ;sfnz’ taajd kshñ; f,i ta ta Ydl úfYaI j,g fjk fjku iajdëkj wkq.ukh lsrSsu wmyiqùug bv we;s w;r m%udKj;a f,i tajd iSreudre lsrSsfuka ta ta Ydlhg jvd;a WÑ; ie,ls,a,la we;slr.; yelsjkq we;’

w;r tu l,dmfha udhsfuzoSs m<uq idrA:l yd m%d:ñl YdLdjg jrAOkh ùug bv yrskq ,efnz’ bkamiq úúO osYd j,g fhduq lrñka YdLd w;r mr;r fi’ó’1520 muK jkq msKsi osrsu;a m%d:ñl YdLd f;dard jrAOkh ùug bv yrskak' jrskajr b;srs m%d:ñl YdLd mdoia:fhkau lmd bj;a lrkak' fuz wdldrhg m,;=re Ydl

úfYaIh

yd

m%fNaoh

wkqj 143


fjkia lrñka Wmrsu Wi ñgrA y;rla myla jk úgo m%Odk wCIfha w.%ia:h lmd bj;alr Ydlfha Wi md,kh flfrA’ fuu mqyqKQ l%ufhaoSs ukd f,i iu;=,s;j iEu osYdjlgu úys)kq osrsu;a m%d:ñl YdLd m%udKdj;a mr;rhlska m%Odk l| osf.a jrAOkh lr.kq ,efnz’

l

wjdis

M,yg .ekSu m%udo fjhs’ jeä luzlre l%uhla wiajekak fk,Sug yd Ydl kv;a;=jg jehfõ’

úlrKh l, uOHu wCI l%uh ^Modi"ed Central Leader System)

osrsu;a m%d:ñl YdLd f;dard .eksfuzoSs tu YdLdjka m%Odk l|ka w;r fldaKh ^Crotch angle& mq(,a úh hq;=h’ mgq fldaKhla we;sùu wkd.;fhaoSs jeä wiajekakla ord isàug fkdyelsh’ tjeks mgq fldaKhla iys; m%d:ñl YdLd bj;a l, hq;=h’ fuu fldaKh idudkHfhka 60o la j;a mej;Su iq)iqh’ uOH wCI l%uhg mqyqKq l, m,;=re Ydl osrsu;a fjhs’ úYd, wiajekakla ,ndfok w;r Ydlh ;=< wdf,dalh fnoShdu m%Yia; ;;a;ajhl mj;ajdf.k hd yelsh’ iajNdúlju m%Odk wCIhla iys;j jefvk )rshka” w,s.egfmar” rUqgka” uex.=iaàka” foys” cukdrx” wfkdaod jeks m,;=re úfYaI i|yd fuu l%uh b;d WÑ;h’ jdis fuu l%ufhka mqyqQK l, m,;=re Ydlj,ska jeä wiajekakla ,efnz’ tu l

wiajekafka .=Kd;auho by,h’

144

úlrKh l, uOHu wCI l%uh

fndfyda )rg uOHu wCI l%uhg iudk jqjo iS.% jrAOkhla we;s iDcqju by,g jefvk m,;=re Ydl úfYaI mqyqKQ lsrSsu i|yd fuu l%uh iq)iq fjhs’ uOHu wCI l%ufhaoSs fuka m%Odk l| ógrhla muK by,g jefvk w;r fmd,j u;=msg isg fi’ó’ 45la muK by<g hk;=re tu lf|ka m%d:ñl YdLd j,g ìysùug bv fkdfoa’ bkamiq uOHu wCI l%uhg m%d:ñl YdLd y;rla muK úúO osYdj,g jeãug bvfokq ,efnz’ fuz YdLd w;r mr;rh fi’ó’ 20la muK ùu m%udKj;ah’ m%Odk l| ñgrA 2la muK ,ÛZska jevqkq


miq f;dard.;a m%d:ñl YdLd j, y;rska by,skau msyá s YdLdjg u|la by<ska m%Odk l| lmd oukq ,efnz’ miqj kej;;a m%Odk l|la ksrAudKh lrñka by,g kj YdLdjla jefvkq we;' tysos kej;;a úúO osYdj,g fhduq lrkq ,nk jvd;a osrsu;a kj m%d:ñl YdLd ;=k y;rla tu kj m%Odk wCIfhka jeãug bvfoñka fiiq m%d:ñl YdLd uq,skau lmd bj;a flfrA’ jeãug bvfokq ,nk kj m%d:ñl YdLd w;r mr;rh fi’ó’ 20-30la muK ùu iq)iqh’ fuz wdldrhg uOHu wCIh

uOHu újD; l%uh

^Open center System) me;srS jeãsug m%jK;djhla olajk wU” meKsfodvuz” fmar” rUqgka” wem,a yd fmhdrAia jeks m,;=re fnda. fuu l%uhg mqyqKQ lsrSsu iq)iqh’ ysret<sh ms%hlrK yd úYd, f,i M, yg.kakd Ydl úfYaIo w.%ia:j, M,yg.kakd fndfyda Ydl úfYaI o uOHu újD; l%uhg mqyqKQ lsrSsfuka úYd, wiajekakla jeä ld,hla mqrd ,nd.; yelsh’

jir .Kkdjlg jrla lmd ouñka m%Odk lf|a jrAOkh wvd, lrkq ,efnz’ tfy;a ksr;=reju fufia úlrKh lrkq ,nk uOHu wCIhla mej;Su fuu mqyqKQ l%ufha úfYaI ;;a;ajhls’ fufia jrska jr uOHu wCIh lmd oeóu ksid Ydlfha Wihdu iSudùu;a m%udo ùsu;a is)fjhs’ tfy;a wkd.;fhaoSs fuu M, oerE YdLd ta wdldrfhkau kv;a;= l, yelsh’ uOHu wCIh fjkia lsrSsu ksid m%d:ñl YdLd j,ska mek kÛsk oaú;Sshsl YdLd m%Odk wCI f,i by,g jeãfuz m%jK;djhla olakg ,efnz’ tajd lmd ouñka md,kh l, hq;=h' )rshka” wem,a“ jeks Ydl úfYaI j,g fuh iq)iqh’

uOHu újD; l%uhg ieliSu

<má Ydl fCIa;%fha isgqùug fmr isgu fuz i|yd mqyqKQ lsrSu weröh yelsh’ wkd.;fhaoSs mrsK; jq m,;=re Ydlfha úhk mq(,a f,i újD;j mej;Su;a m%Odk YdLd ;=kla myla w;r ixLHdjla úúO osYdj,g mqyqKQ lr ;sîu;a thska by,g jefvk m%Odk l|la fkdmej;Su;a fuu l%ufha úfYaI ,CIK fjhs’ wksl=;a mqyqKQ l%uj,oS fukau fuu l%ufhaoSo me< ;jdfkaosSu mqyqKQ lsrSsu werUq noaO me< fCIa;%fha 145


isgqjd udi lsysmhloSs mqyqKQ lsrSsu kej;;a wrUkq ,efnz’

.; yelsh’ Ydlfha uOHh wdf,dalhg fyd|ska újD; ùu ksid CIqø mrsirhla

uOHu wCIh mi ugzgfuz isg ógrhla

we;sùu iSudùfuka frda. yd m,sfndaaO ydks wju ;;a;ajhg m;alr .; yelsh’ tfukau Ydlfha úYd,;ajh md,kh ùu ksid kv;a;= msrsjeh

fyda folla olajd muKla Wig jeãsug bv ie,ish yels kuq;a jvd;a iq)iqjkafka ógrhla muK WiloSs m%Odk l| lmd oud iDcqju by,gu jeãu wjika lsrSsuhs’ ta w;roS mi u;=msg isg fi'ó' 50-100la w;roSs m%Odk lf|ka yg.kakd osrsu;a yd fjz.j;aj jefvk YdLd ;=kla myla

wvqúuo wiajekak fk,Ssu myiqùuo wiajekafka .=Kd;auh by< hduo wiajkq ydksh wju ùsuo bgq lr.; yelsh’ ysret<sh

ms%hlrk

yd

wêl

muK Ydlfha úúO osYdj,g fhduqlr jeãu i,iajkq ,efnz’ tu YdLd folla w;r mr;rh fi’ó’ 15-20 la muK

M,odhs;djla iys; m,;=re úfYaI j,g fuu mqyqKQ l%uh jvd;a WÑ;h’ m,;=re Ydl ksYaÑ;j mqyqKQlr

mej;Su m%udKj;a fjhs’ mi u;=msg isg ógrA Nd.h;a tl;a w;r m%foaYh YdLd j,ska f;drj mj;ajd.; hq;=hs’ tysos tu l,dmfhka u;=jk ish( rsls,s

.;a miq tajdfha csú; ld,h mqrdu tu iels,a, kv;a;= lr .ekSu wjYHfjhs’ fuz i|yd l%udkql+,j lmamd)jla ks;sm;d wkq.ukh lsrSu

m%Odk l|g yels ;ruz iómfhkau lmd bj;a l, hq;=h'

m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fjz w;HdjYH ls%hdldrlula fjhs’

w.%ia:h bj;al, miq mekkÛsk by,g jefvk YdLd ish,a, jrskajr bj;alr uq,sl iels,a, mj;ajdf.k hdhq;=h’ fuz ksid Ydlfha uOHh újD; jk w;r úúO osYd j,g fhduqlr

6'2 YdLd me;srùu ukdf,i

iels,a,

Branch spreading ksrAudKh

l,

Ydlhl jqjo ;j)rg;a m%Odk YdLd tlsfklska wE;alr jeãug ie,eiaùu

,efnk ksid Ydlfha iunr jrAOkhla we;sl, yelsh’

fuysos is) flfrA’ taksid m%Odk l|;a YdLdjla w;r fldaKh (Crotch angle) mq(,a lr.; yelsùfuka tu YdLdj jvd;a Yla;su;a fjhs’ tuÛska jeä wiajekakla ord isàug we;s yelshdjo

m%Odk YdLd .Kkla Ydlfha m%Odk lf|a wjidk Wi;a ksYaÑ; jk ksid jvd;a M,odhs Ydl úhkla we;slr

jeäfjhs’ YdLd me;srùu i|yd m%Odk YdLd j, l| u;g je,s msrjq u( ^fldgzg jeks& ;ekam;a l, yelsh’

mqyqKQ lrkq ,nk YdLd Yla;su;aj jefvhs’ tajdg Wmrsu wdf,dalhlao

146


ke;skuz YdLd wE;aúu i|yd ,S lre fhosh yelsh’ túg YdLd j, jrAOl jrAOkh iSudù m%ckl jrAOkhg o u. ie,fia’

6'3 lmamdÿ#lsrSu m,;=re Ydl lmamd) lsrSsu jifrA ´kEu ld,hl lsrSsu iq)iq fkdfõ’ fuz i|yd m,;=re Ydl úfYaIj, jrAOk yd úlik rgdj ms<sn|j;a” tajdfha jrAOl iy m%ckl rgdjka ms,sn|j;a u,a yg.kakd ia:dk” ld,h” iy ;Sj%;djh ms<sn|j;a u,a yg.ekSu i|yd wjYHjk ldhsl úoHd;aul iy mdrsirsl idOl ;;a;aj ms<sn|j;a ukd wjfndaOhla ;sîu m,;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fjz jeo.;a wjYH;djhls’ fuyssos mrsK; m,;=re Ydlfha wfmaCIs; meje;au bgq lr .ekSu i|yd mj;ajd .;hq;= YdLd j,g Wmrsu wjia:dj ,nd oSsug;a wkjYH jq YdLd bj;a lsrsSu;a is) flfrA’

lmamdÿ l, hq;= ld,h lmamd)jla uÛska Ydlfha jrAOk yd úlik rgdj fjkia l, yelsh’ fuu fjkia lsrSsu ksid jdrhg M, oerSu fyda fkdoerSu” iy jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh ùu jeks fjkialï fndfyda)rg is\qlr .; yelsh' fnda.h wkqj fjkia jqj;a M, oerSu i|yd rsls,s j, mrsir ixfõoS;dj tu mdrsirsl idOl mj;sk ld,hg Wodlr .ekSu i|yd

m%udKj;a ld, iSudjla kj rsls,s j,g ,ndoSsu wjYH fjhs’ fndfydaúg fuz i|yd udi 6-10l muK ld,hla mqrd fuu rsls,s jrAOkh ús fudard ;sìh hq;=fjz’ lmamd)fjka miq kj YdLd we;sùug fyd| W;af;ackhla iemfha’ w.%ia: m%uqL;dj bj;a ùu fuys m%Odk fya;=jhs’ mrsK; fyda M,orK wjêfhaoS lmamd)j i|yd jvd;a fhda.H ld,h” wiajekak fk,df.k wjika ùu;a iuÛZ Wodfjz’ ta jkúg Ydlh iqma;ù mj;sk w;r bosrs i;s lsysmfhaoSs kej;;a jrAOl wjêh weröug kshñ;h’ fuz wjia:dfõosS wiajekak fk,SfuzoSs ydks is)jq YdLd l%udKql+,j lmamd)lr bj;a lsrSsu jeo.;ah’ ta iuÛu iq)iq lmamd) l%uhla fhdod .ekSu wjYHhs’ m,;=re Ydlj, u,a yg.kakd jdrh fndfydaúg úh<s iufha ueo Nd.fha fyda wjidkh;a iuÛ Wodfjhs’ Ys% ,xldfjz m,;=re u,a yg.kakd jdr folla mj;s’ m%Odk jdrh ckjdrs udrA;= - wfma%,a iuh jk w;r th f;;a l,dmh wdYs%;j m%uqLh’ wf.daia;=” Tlaf;danrA ld,fhaoSs úh<s l,dmh wdYs%;j fndafyda m,;=re Ydlj, mqIam yg.ks’ ld,.=K ;;a;aj wkqj fuu ;;a;ajh fjkiaùu iq,N jqjo m%Odk lDIs foaY.=K l,dm folu wdYs%;j m,;=re jdr folu Wodfjk 147


nj fmfka’ fuu m,;=re jdrj, wjidkh;a iuÛZu fndfyda m,;=re

lsrSsu iefya’ úYd, Ydl lmamd) lsrSsu i|yd iq)iq lsh;la jeks WmlrKhla

Ydl lmamd)j l, hq;=h’ wiajekak fk,Su;a iuÛu lmamd) lsrSsu myiqh’ fuz wkqj jirlg fojrla b;d ir, lmamd)jla iq( jYfhka lsrSsu M,ork

fhdod.; hq;=h’ ksjerÈ lsÍfï kejerÈ ;dCIKh

fndfyda ksjrA;k l,dmSh m,;=re úfYaIj,g m%udKj;a nj fmfka’ u,a yg.ekSu m%udo lsrSsug fyda u,a yg.ekSu je,elaùu wdmiaig (Heading back) lmamd)j ;rula jeä ;Sj%r;djhlska is) lsrSsu uÛska bgqlr.; yelsh’ fuysos M,oerSug kshñ; w.%ia: fyda YdLd jeä m%udKhla lmd bj;a lsrSu wjYH fjhs’ u,a yg.kakd jdrhg udi tllg fyda follg fmr fuf,i

Ï P

jeros l%uh

ksjeros l%uh

lmamd) lsrSsfuka B<. u,a yg.ekSu l,a oeñh yelsh’ fuu lmamd)fjka jrAOl jrAOkh Wodlr.; yelsh’

lmamdÿ lemqu lmamd) lsrSsfuzosS bj;a l,hq;= YdLd ksismrsos y"kd fjkalr .ekSu jeo.;ah’ ta yd iudkju jeo.;a jkafka tu YdLdj bj;a lsrSsu i|yd iq)iq jk lemqula fhoSuhs’ úYd, m%udKfha ;=jd,hla iqjùug .;jk ld,ho os.=fjhs’ th oaú;Sshsl wdidok j,g ,laùfuz wjodkuo ta iuÛu by, hhs’ fi’ó’ 2 lg jvd úIaluzNhla iys; l|la lemSu i|yd idudkH lmamd) l;=rla (Secateur) Ndú;d 148

filgßhla wdOdrfhka lmamdÿ lsÍu

fuysoSs lemquz ;=kla fhoSu ksrAfoaY flfrA’ m<uq lemqu fhosh hq;af;a YdLd bj;a l, hq;= YdLdfjz lf|a bj;a l, hq;= ia:dkfha isg fi’ó’ lsysmhla


bj;g ^tu YdLdfjz w.%h foig& we;s ia:dkhl lf|a há me;af;ah’

hq;=h’ YdLdj lemS bj;ajk;=reu fuu lemqu fhdokq ,efnz’ bkamiq

YdLdj lemsh hq;= .eUQr Ydlfha lf|a

YdLdj bj;a flfrA’ ;=kajk fyj;a wjidk lemqu fhdokq ,nkafka b;srs ù tu lmd bj;al, YdLdfjz m%Odk l|g iuznkaOj b;srs ùs we;s fldgi

úIaluzNh wkqj ks.ukh l, hq;=h’ úYd, YdLd j,g kuz ;rula .eUqrg ^úIaluzNfhka 1$3& lemSug wjYH fjhs’ fojk

lemqu

m<uq

lemqfuz

isg

YdLdfjz w.%h foig fi’ó’ 4-5la )rska YdLdõ lf|a by< me;af;ka lemsh

lmamd) l%u

m%Odk l|g yels ;ruz wdikakfhka lmd oeóu i|ydh' fuh tu fldgfia by, me;af;ka lmd oeñh yelsh’ fuu lemqu iqug úh hq;= w;r lf|a fmd;a;g ydks is)fkdúh hq;=h’

mrsK; Ydl lmamd) l,hq;= ksYaÑ;

kqiq)iq jkafka tajd Ydl úfYaIhg Ydlfhka Ydlhg yd lmamd) lrk

l%ufjzohla fyda bj;a l, hq;= jrAOl fldgia m%udKh fyda ms<sn|j ksYaÑ;ju yd ia:Srju oelaùu

wjia:dj wkqj fjkiajk fyhsks’ m<mqre) m,;=re Whka md,lfhl=g ta ta m,;=re Ydlh mrsCId lsrSsfuka 149


m%Yia; lmamd)j ksrAKh l, yelsh’ Ydlfhka Ydlhg ksYaÑ; l, hq;=

tu ;;a;ajh w;r fmd)fõ

ish(u Ydlj,g l%u fjzohla fyda m%udKhla wkq.ukh fkdl, hq;=h’ ta wkqj m,;=re Ydl lmamd)j i|yd ;u wjfndaOh iy w;aoelSuz jeälr

.ekSsfuka jvd;a ldrAhCIu yd M,odhs lmamd)jla is)l, yelsfjkq we;’ flfia jqjo mrsK; m,;=re Ydl lmamd)fõos m%Odk lemquz folla wkq.ukh l, yelsh’ tkuz flá lsrSsfuz lemqu (Heading back? iy bj;a lsrSsfuz (Thinning out? lemqu hkqfjks’

flá lsÍfï lemqu (Heading back cut)

fhosh hq;= ia:dkh m,;=re úfYaIh Ydlfha úYd,;ajh iy YdLdfõ úYd,;ajh u; ksrAkh l, hq;=h’ fyd|ska wiajekak ,ndfok ilS%h wjêfha miqjk Ydlhl kï fuu

YdLd j, oslaùu md,kh lr Ydlfha úysosSu wjYHjk iSudj ;=< mj;ajd.k hdu i|yd YdLdfõ' fldgila lmd bj;a lsrSsuhs’ lemqu 150

lemqfuka bj;afjk m%udKh wju úh hq;=h’ )rAj, yd jhia.; Ydlj, ;rula jeämqr lmd ouk w;r fyd|ska jevqkq osrsu;a Ydl wvqfjka M,ork úg iunr jk wdldrhg muKla lmd bj;a flfrA’

wvq

m%udKhla


M, oerSu Ydl fl,jr is)jk fyd|ska M,ork Ydlj, wiajekak

Ydlfha uq,sl iels,a, yd yevhg ndOdjk YdLdo Ydlfha iels,a,

fk,d wjika ùu;a iuÛu wiajekak ,nd)ka fyda fkd)ka YdLd ish,a,u w.%ia:fha isg fi’ó’ 10-15 muK wdmiaig lmd oeóu jrAOl jrAOkh

úlD;s lrñka u;=jk osh rsls,s” frda.S yd m,sfndaO wdidokh jq YdLdo# )rAj, yd fl,jr isg úhf<ñka mj;sk YdLdo fjk;a wkjYH hehs

ilS%h lr m;a lsrSsug yg.kakd úYd, f,i

Ydlh h:d ;;a;ajhg WmldrSs fjhs’ ta iuÛu kj YdLd ixLHdfjzo jeäùula is)ùfuka B<.

yefÛZk YdLdo# bj;a lsrSu fuu lemqfuka wfmaCId flfrA' fuu lemqu ksid w.%ia: yd mdrAYaúl wxl=r w;r wkqmd;h fjkia fkdfõ’ fuh jeo.;a

u,a jdrfhaoSs u,a yg.ekSu i|yd iq)iq w.%ia: ixLHdj jeäùfuka wiajekak jeäùu fyda m%Yia:j

jkafka tu Ydlfha M, yg.kafka w.%ia: wxl=r j,o ke;skuz mdrAYaúl wxl=r j,o hkak wkqjhs’ ta ksid fnda.

mj;ajdf.k hdu fyda is)fõ’ rUqgka” w,s.egfmar” fodvuz” foys” cukdrx” fmar” wdosh ñg WodyrK fjhs’ iqma;j ;snQ fyda )rAj,ù ;snQ YdLdj, wlSs%h

úfYaI wkqjo fuu lemqu ;SrKh l, hq;=h’

wxl=r ils%Sh ù kj osrsu;a jrAOkhla we;s lsrSug fuu lmamd\qj ksid úYd, f,i kj rsls,s jrAOkhla olakg ,efnz’

bj;a lsrSsfï lemqu - Thinning out

bj;a lsrSsfuzz lemqu ksid rsls,s jrAOkh jeä lsrSsula is) fkdfjk nj jgyd .; hq;=h’ tu ksid M, yg.kakd ia:dk j, fjkila fnda.h wkqj is)ùu fyda is)fkdùu ksrAKh fjhs’

M,orK Ydl lmamdÿj idrA:lj M,orK Ydl lmamd)j b;du m%fjzYfuka yd wju m%udKhlska is)l, hq;=h’ fuh fndfyda úg wiajekak wjidk ùu;a iuÛu is)l, hq;=h’ bj;a lsrSsfuz lemqu iy flá lsrSsfuz lemquz m%Yia: f,i wju ugzgulska fhdojd.; hq;= jqjo th Ydlfhka Ydlhg wjYHjk m%udKhka

wkjYH YdLd tajdfha mdoia:fhkau lmd bj;alsrSsu fuysosS is) flfrA’

tajd mrSsCId lrn,d ksrAKh l,hq;=h’ rUqgka” wU” w,s.egfmar” fodvuz” cukdrx yd foys wdosS m,;=re 151


úfYaIj, M,oerE” fkdoerE ish(u w.%ia:hka lmd oeóu iq)iqh’ túg

fkdl, ksoe,af,a jevqkq m,;=re Ydl óg wh;afjhs’ fuzjdfha M,odhs;dj

o( oeóu” mqIam yg.ekSu iy M, fïrSu wdoSs is)ùuz taldldrSsj tlu ld, mrdihka ;=< is)fjhs’

jeälr .eksSug lmamd)j t;ruz m%udKj;a odhl;ajhla fkdfmkajhs’ tfyhska wkjYH f,i YdLd lmd oeófuka ;j)r;a jrAOl jrAOkh

th WoHdk md,kfha;a jdKsc m,;=re ksIamdokfha;a wjYH;djhls’ WoHdkfha Ydl lKavdhuz j,g fnod tla tla lKavdhug taldldrSsj;a tlu wjia:dfõoSs;a lKavdhuz w;r fjkila fjk wdldrhg fjk;a wjia:djloS;a

W;af;ackh ùu is) ù M, oerSu m%udo fjhs' yels ;ruz m;%j,g Wmrsu wdf,dal ;sj%;djhla iy jeä ld,hla wdf,dalh ,eîug wjYH ir, lmamd)jla

lmamd)j lsrSsfuka m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydlj, u,a yg.ekSu yd M,oerSfuz jdrh ;rula )rg fjkialr .;

wkq.ukh lsrSu iq\qiqh’ Ydlfha jrAOkh yd úlik rgdj j, Wmrsu ls%hdldrs;ajh ksid jdrAIslj úYd,

yelsh’ ta ta lKavdhuz j, M, jdrh túg iq( jYfhka fjkiafjk fyhsks’ fuu lmamd)j jdrAIslj is)l,hq;=h’ ñg wu;rj oshrsls,s frda.S iy

f,i jrAOl jrAOkh is)ùfuka úYd, Ydl úhk ;=< wkjYH f,i fijk ùu ksid m%Ndixiaf,aK ldrAhCIu;dj úYd, f,i wvqfjhs’ YdLd w;r

m,sfndaO wdidos; YdLd tlsfkl yryd hñka jefvk YdLd udi 3-4 lg jrlaj;a lmd bj;a l, hq;=h’ fmd<j u;=msgg wdikak jkfia keó

we;sjk ;r.Zh ksid fuu ;;a;ajh ;j)rg;a W.% ù Ydlfha Yajik yd jrAOk Yla;s msrsjeh by, hdfuz m%;sM,hla f,i mqIam yg.ekSu yd

t,a,d jefvk YdLd m%udKj;a whqrska lmamd) lsrSsu wjYHhs’ fuho wiajekak fk,Sfuka miqj is)l, yelsh’ óg wu;rj hdka;%sl ydks is)jq YdLdo lmd oeóu iq)iqh’

wiajekak úYd, f,i wvqùu” mqIam yg fkd.ekSu” wl%uj;a f,i M, yg.ekSu” M,j, .=Kd;auh wvqùu yd frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks jeãùu olakg ,efnz’ M, yg.ekSu Ydl úhfka ndysr

M,odhs;dj wvq Ydl lmamdÿj iYS%lj osrsu;aj jeã ;snqKo iuyr wjia:dj,oSs iuyr m,;=re Ydlj, m%udKj;a M,odhS;djhla olakg ke;’ fndfyda úg ;dCIKslj kv;a;= 152

l,dmhg muKla isSudfjhs’ fuzjd h:d ;;a;ajhg m;alsrSug wjYHjk tla mshjrla jkafka lmamd)j yd mqyqKq lsrSsuhs’ fuz i|yd l%u lsysmhla wkq.ukh l, yelsh’ fuz iEu l%uhlau wkq.ukh lsrSsug


fmr fuu Ydlh jgd lsysmjrla .uka lr mrSsCId lr tys me;srSsu”

bj;a lsrSsu uÛska Ydl úhk ;=<g fyd|ska ysre t<sh we;=MZ ùug bvlv

Wi ;;a;ajh” iy meje;au ms<sn|j m%udKj;a wjfndaOhla ,nd.; hq;=h’ bkamiq tu Ydl lmamd)lr kej; ilia lsrSsfuka miqj we;sjk ;;a;ajh

ie,ish yelsh’ túg m%Odk l|g ysre t<sh ,eîu ksid frda. yd m,sfndaO md,khlao we;slr.; yelsh’

yd fmkqu ms<sn|j ie,eiaula ilia lsrSsfuka miq Bg jvd;a WÑ; l%uh ñY%Khla fhdod .; yelssh' 1’ Ydlfha Wi ta wdldrfhkau mj;ajdf.k hñka Ydlfha m%Odk iels,a,g wjYH fkdjk YdLd mdoia:fhkau lmd bj;a lrkak' 2’ Ydlfha Wi md,kh i|yd wjYH Wilska m%Odk l| lmd oukak' fuh jir 2- 3loS mshjr lsysmhlska lmd flá lsrsu S iq)iqh’ 3’ tl m%Odk YdLdjla b;srs lr wksl=;a ish(u m%Odk YdLd m%Odk l|g wdikakfhka lmd oukak'

m%Odk l`og ysre t<sh ,efnk f,i lmamdÿj

m%Odk l|g wu;rj by,g jefvk ishMZu m%uqL YdLd uq,skau lmd bj;a lsrSsu tljr is) lsrSsu meÛsrs fnda.

by; l%u ;=ku fndfyda m,;=r úfYaI

i|yd t;ruz iq)iq fkdfjz’ jrlg tlla fyda folla neÛska jirlska fyda follska fuzjd iuzmQrAKfhkau bj;a lsrSug mshjr .ekSu uÛska Ydlh

j,g fhdod.; yelsh’ tla tla l%ufha )rAj,;d yd jdis ;snqKo wjYH;djh wkqj iq)iq l%uh f;dard.; hq;=h’ m<uq yd fojk l%uh wkq.ukh l, úg Ydl úhk ;=<ska ysret<sh úksúo

)rAj,úsu wvqlr mqKre;a;dmkh l, yelsh’ úYd, f,i m%Odk YdLd bj;a lsrSsfuka Ydlfha jrAOl jrAOkhg kj W;af;ackhla ,efnz’ tfyhska mshjfrka mshjr wkjYHh YdLd

hdu yd me;srSshdu myiqlr,Ssu msKsi iuyr YdLd mdoia:fhkau lmd bj;a lsrSsu wjYH fjhs’

bj;a lsrSu jvd fhda.Hhs’

iuyr úg by,g ke.=k m%Odk YdLdjla fyda folla uq,skau lmd

Bg wu;rj Ydl úhfka .eUqfrA jefvk YdLd lsysmhla uq,skau lmd bj;al, hq;=h’ frda.Ss” )rAj, úh<s .sh” tlsfkl .eá úúO osYdj,g weoS 153


.sh yd my,g t,a,d jefgk YdLd uq,skau lmd bj;alr m%Odk iels,a, fjkalr y"kd.; hq;=h’ thska mek k.sk osh rsls,s jrska jr lmd bj;a l, hq;=h’ Ydlh wiu;=,s;j tla osYdjlg muKla YdLd we;slr jeã we;skuz th iunr lr .ekSu i|yd m%;súreoaO osYdjg jefvk osh rsls,a,la kj YdLdjla f,i mqyqKqlr .; yelsh’ ta iuÛZu oekgu;a jhia .; jq YdLdfjz fldgia lmd bj;a lrñka iuia: Ydlhu kj iunr;djhlg fhduql, yelsh’ fuu kj iunr;djh jir 3-4loSs we;slr.kq msKsi os.= ld,Sk ie,eiaula wkqj mshjfrka mshjr lmamd) l, hq;=h’ m%Odk lf|ka bj;g úysosS jefvk m%Odk YdLd lmamd) fkdlr mj;ajd.; hq;=h’ úfYaIfhkau m%Odk l|;a tu YdLd;a w;r 60o lg jeä mq(,a fldaKhla iys; kuz tajd r|jd ;ndf.k 60o wvq fldaKhla iys; YdLd lmd bj;a lr mj;ajd f.k hdug YdLd f;dard .ekSsfuzoSs tajd m%Odk lf|ka úúO osYdj,g úys)kq tajd úh hq;= w;r” tla YdLdjlg iDcqju my,ska fyda by,ska tjeks

YdLd bj;a fkdl, hq;=h’ Ydlfha me;Srs we;s )r wvq lsrsSugo wjYH úh yelsh’ fuz i|yd my, ugzgfuz isg wkjYH f,i wE;g úysoSs .sh YdLdj, fijk ;=< jefvk oaú;sl iy ;D;Shsl YdLd flá lsrSsfuz lmamd)j l, hq;=h’ Ydlh jgd .uka lrñka Ydlhg WÑ;jk yevhlg iy m%udKhg ie,iqula ujd.ksñka Bg wod, jk YdLd muKla b;srslr wksl=;a YdLd flá lsrSsug lmd ouñka Ydlfha me;srS we;s m%udKh mshjfrka mshjr wvql, yelsh’ jhia.;jq m,;=re Ydl lmamd)j bjiSulska hq;=j jir lsysmhla mqrd mshjfrka mshjr bgq lrñka iuzmQrAK l, hq;= ls%hdj,shls’ jir lsysmhla ;=<oS i;=gqodhl ugzgulg lmamd) lr ilS%h lr.;a miq M,odhs idudkH m,;=re Ydlhla kv;a;= lsrSug fhdod.kq ,nk lmamd)jla jirla mdid is)lrñka M,odhs;dj kej;;a mj;ajdf.k hd yelsh’

6'4 lmamdÿfjka miq kv;a;=j Ydlfha fldgila lmamd) l, úg lemqu wdikakfhka kj jrAOl wxl=r

YdLdjla mej;Sug bvoSu iq)iq fkdfjz’ tlsfkl iómj yg.;a m%Odk YdLd w;r” bvlv we;sjk fia tlla fyda

ìysj úYd, f,i kj rsls,s ìysfjhs’ fuzjd wkjYH rsls,s ksid kv;a;= lghq;= ixlSrAKfjhs’ tfyhska

folla uq,skau lmd bj;a lsrSsug is)úh yelsh’ flfia jqjo Ydl úhfka úYd, ysia wjldYhla ìysjk fia

lmamd)fjka YdLd jla bj;a lrk úg yels;ruz m%Odk l|g wdikakfhkau th lmd bj;a l, hq;=h' m%Odk l|g

154


wdikakju fkdlemSfuka b;srsjk YdLdfjz fldgia j,ska wkjYH f,i

15la muK ñY%lr th nqreiqjlska iDcqju ;=jd,fha wdf,am l, yelsh’

rsls,s u;=ùfuz .eg(j;a yd Bg jvd ydksodhl jk tu fldgia lemquz ;=jd,h úh<S oaú;shsl wdidokj,g f.d)re ùfuka osrdm;a ùuhs’ fuu

tlajrla muKla wdf,am lsrSsu iefya’ tu.sska ;=jd,h ;=<g c,h iy os,Sr we;=(ùu je,flk w;r kj mgl jrAOkh W;af;ackh ù miqj

;=jd,h m%Odk l| olajdu me;srSsfuka miq ld,hl Ydlh miq uerSug ,laùug úYd, wjodkula ;sfnz’ m%Odk l|g ióm;u lemqula fhoSfuka fuu

uq( ;=jd,hu WpzprAuhlska wmsprAuhlska jeiS hhs’

iy

wjodku wju lr .; yelsh’

lemqï mDIaGfha ixia:dksl È,Sr kdYlhla .e,aùu

lmd bj;alrkq ,nk Ydl fldgia

m%Odk l`og wdikakfhka lmamdÿ lsÍu

tu lemquz ;=jd,h lsh;lska Tm ugzguz lr iqug ;,hla njg m;al, hq;=h’ fi’ó’ 5 lg jvd úIaluzNh iys; ;=jd, j,g ;=jd, wdrCIl wdf,amhla .e,aúh hq;=h’ ;=jd, wdrCIl wdf,am rdYshla fj<|mf,a ;sfnz’ ;=jd, wdrCIlhla ilialr .ekSugo myiqh’ c,fha osh fkdjk iq)meye;s ;Ska; ,Sgrhlg ixia:dksl oS,Sr kdYlhlska .%Euz 10-

j, frda. yd m,sfndaO wvx.= úh yels ksid tajd m,;=re WoHdkhla ;=< r|jd ;nd .ekSu fl;ruz fhda.H oehs úuid ne,sh hq;=h’ frda. yd m,sfndaOl ms<sn| wjodkula ke;skuz muKla fuu fldgia jiqkla f,i tu j.djgu fhdod.; yelsh’ frda. yd m,sfndaO ms,sn| wjodkula ;sfnz kuz fuzjd l%udkql+,j flduzmdaiagz ksIamdokh i|yd wuq øjH f,i fhdod.; yelsh’ flduzfmdaiagz ksmofjk ls%hdj,sfhaosS fuu frda. yd m,sfndaO úkdY ù hk fyhsks’ wêl f,i frda. yd m<sfndaO wdidos; 155


fldgia m,;=re WoHdkfha fldgiloSs fyda bvlv we;s ;ekl fydjd mq(iaid oeóu lmamd)j;a iuÛu l, hq;=h’ lmamd) lrk ,o m,;=re Ydl j, kj jrAOkh W;af;ackh ùu idudkH ;;a;ajhls’ lmamd)fjka n,dfmdfrd;a;=jkafkao osrsu;a kj YdLd ìyslsrSsuhs’ ta i|yd wksl=;a wjYH;d imqrd,Su wjYHhs’ lmamd)jg i;shlg muK fmr flduzfmdaiagz iy wiajekafkka miq fhdokq ,nk fmdfydr ñY%K wod, m%udK j,ska fhdod jiqkla fhoSu iq)iqh’ lmamd)j;a iuÛZu mfia wvx.= fmdaIl Ydlhg hyñka ,eîu ksid kj YdLd osrsu;aj

rsls,s u;= ùug bv ;sfnz’ fuzjd udi lsysmhlg jrla mdoia:fhkau lmd bj;al, hq;=h’ frda. m,sfndaO ydks úYd, f,i yg.kafka kj rsls,s j, jrAOkh weröu;a iuÛZh’ kj rsls,s j, <má m;% os. yerSug fmr WÑ; lDñkdYlhla iy Bg osk lsysmhlg miq os,Sr kdYlhla biSfuka miq fudark f;lau frda. m,sfndaOydks j,ska wdrCId lr .; yelsh’

6'5 mqIam iy M, lmamdÿj Ydlfha jrAOl fldgia lmd bj;a lsrSu idudkH lmamd)jlska wfmaCId flfrk

jefvkq we;’ flfia jqjo fmfydr fhdok úg mfia f;;ukh m%udKj;a ;ruz mej;Su wjYH;djhls’ ta wiajekak fuzrSu;a boSu;a is)jk

kuq;a iuyr fnda. i|yd w;HdjYH mqIam iy M, lmd bj;a lsrSsuo WoHdk kv;a;=fjz wjYH;djhls’ wêl f,i mqIam yg.kakd úg tajd )rAj,

wjidk i;s 2-3 ;=<osS fmdfydr fhoSu iq)iq jqjo mfia f;;ukh jeälsrSsu iq)iq fkdjk ksid ta ld, iSudfõ oS wiajekak fk,d wjikajk ;=re

ùu;a ye,Shdu;a .eg(jla úh yelsh’ tfukau wêl f,i M, yg.kakd úgo tu M, w;r ;rÛZh W.%ùu ksid l=vd M, úYd, f,i ye,Shdu

fmdfydr fhoSu iuyr úg wmyiqúh yelsh’

is)fjz’ ke;skuz b;srsjk M, l=vdùu iy .=Kd;aufhka wvq ùuo .eg(jla fjhs’ fuz ksid l=vd ld,fhaoSsu )rAj, yd úlD;s M, f;dard bj;a lsrSsfuka miq b;srs jk M, .=Kd;aufhka by<

iuzmQrAK m,;=re WoHdkfhau Ydl tl ld, iSudjloS lmamd) lsrSsu iq)iq jqjo os.= l,la mqrd wiajekak ,nd .ekSug wfmaCId lrkafka kuz j.dj fldgia lsysmhlg fnod ld, wka;rhla wkqj lmamd) l, yelsh’ lmamd)fjka i;s lsysmhlg miqj m%Odk YdLd j,ska mqIaáu;a osh 156

yd úYd, M, f,i jrAOkh fjz’ Wod*wU” ños” flfi,a mqIam ygf.k mrd.kh ù l=vd M, msysgk úgu úYd, m%udKhla tajd ye,S hhs’ M, fmdl=rl yg.kakd )rAj,


M, jkafka# fndfydaúg mqIamSlrKh iufha wjidk Nd.fhaoSs mrd.kh jq mqIamj,hs’ fuzjd l;=rlska lmd bj;a lsrSsu M, ygf.k udi 1 - 1 1$2 ;=<oSs is) lsrSsu iq)iqh’ fuz ld,fhaoSs M,j, ffi, fnoS iy wkd.;fha M,fha úYd,;ajh ksrAKh jk ksid blaukskau wkjYH iy )rAj, M, bj;a lsrSfuka b;srsjk M, úYd, lr.; yelsh’

6'6 lmamdÿ WmlrK

wjYH;d bgqlr .ekSsu kqiq)iq jkafka thska ksjeros lmamd)jla is)lsrSsug fkdyels ksidh’

lmamdÿ l;=re - Secateurs l=vd m%udKfha YdLd ^fi’ó’2’5g jvd úIaluzNh wvq l|ka iys;& lmd bj;a lsrSsug lmamd) l;=r fhdod.kq ,efnz’ fuz l;=re tajdfha we;s ld,h wkqj m%Odk jYfhka ldKav 2lg fnosh yelsh’ tkuz nhsmdia

lmamd) lsrSug fmr lmamd) lsrsSfuz uQ,OrAu yd ;dCIKh ms<sn| ukd

^Bypass) yevh iy wekaú,a (Anvil) yevh hkqfjks’ nhsmdia l;=rg ^Bypass Secateurs) j, ;shqKq ;, folla

wjfndaOhla ,nd isàu jeo.;a jqjo lmamd)j i|yd iq)iqu WmlrK Ndú;d lsrSsu Bg jvd jeo.;a wjYH;djhls’

wvx.= w;r foflau uqjy; ;sfnz’ fuz uÛska lemSfuz|S m%Odk l|g iñm;u ia:dkhlska YdLdj lmd bj;al, yelsùu úfYaI jdishls’ (Anvil

lmamd) lsrSsfuz ksjeros ;dCIKh iy

Secateurs) j, by, ;,fha ;shqKQ uqjy;la we;s w;r” my,ska we;af;a lsKsysrhla jeks l=vd fõosldjls’ YdLdjla lemSfïoS my< ;,h u; YdLdfjz l| ;ekam;a jk w;r by< ;,h tu l| u;g ;o lsrSsfuka

lmamd)fjka bj;a flfrk m%Yia; Ydl fldgia m%udKhfiau lmamd)j iy mqyqKqj i|yd fhdod .kakd WmlrK jeo.;ah’ ksjeros WmlrK ksis lemquz i|yd fhdod .ekSsfuka lmamd)fjka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk hym;a m%;sm, ,nd.ekSug myiq fjhs’ tlu WmlrKfha úúO udos,s yd m%fNao fj<|mf,a mej;=ko tajd w;r iuyr úg .=Kd;aufha úYd, fjkilaluz ;sfnz’ ta ta ksIaÑ; lmamd) wjYH;d ta i|yd Bg .e,fmk lmamd) WmlrK muKla f;dard .ekSu jeo.;ah’ tlu WmlrKhlska muKla ish( lmamd)

lemShhs’ fuu lemqfuzoS l| my< fjzosldj u;g f;rmSu ksid iquq) lemqula fhoSu wmyiqfjk w;r m%Odk l|g iñmj lemSugo wmyiq fjhs’ fuu l;=re juz fyda ol=Kq f,i j._ folla ;sfnz’ ;udf.a wjYH;dj wkqj yqrejq w;g .e,fmk l;=r f;dard.ekSu iq)iqh’ nhsmdia l;=r ^Bypass Secuteurs) uÛska jlajq yd 157


iómj jeã .sh YdLd myiqfjka bj;al, yelsh’

jdfka j,ska ksuù we;s ksid myiqfjka fudgzg ùu is) fkdfjz’

lmamdÿ lsh; - Pruning Saw

;,h kud yels,sh yels udod,sfha lmamd) lsh;a ckms%h úSs ;sfnz’ lsh; Ndú;d fkdlrk wjia:dj,oSs th

lmamd) l, hq;= YdLdfjz lf|a úIaluzNh fi’ó’ 2’5 jvd jeäjq úg tajd lmamd) lsrSu i|yd lmamd) lsh; fhdod .ekSsu iq)iqh’ lmamd) lsh; fhdod .ksñka fi’ó’ 10 muK olajd úIaluzNhla iys; YdLd l|ka lmd bj;a l, yelsh’ fuu lsh;a úúO yevfhka” m%udKfhka yd .=Kd;aufhka hq;= udos,s olakg ,efnz’ fuzjdfha we;s ;,h Wiia .=Kd;aufha

yl=,d ñg ;=<g we;=MZ lr ;eìh yels ùu mrsyrKh i|yd myiqjla fukau lmamd)lrejdg ydksùfuz wjodku wvqùulao is)fjhs’ lmamd) lsh; kud fomig wosk úg muKla lemSu is)jkfia oe;s ilialr ;sfnk ksid th mdúÉÑ lrkakdg myiqjls’

lmamdÿ WmlrK

158


7' j,a me<Eá l<uKdlrKh j,a me<Eá hkq i,lkq ,nk j.djl wdrA:sl m%;s,dN i|yd j.d lrk fnda. fyda fnda. j,g wh;a fkdjk tfy;a tu fnda. w;r jrAOkh jk

Ydl fldgiao fhdod.; yels w;r úh<Sfuka miq iDcqju tajd m,;=re Ydl wjg jiqkla f,io fhdod .; yelsh’ tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha j,a me<Eá

Ydl fjhs’ tajdhska tu j.dfõoSs wdrA:sl m%;s,dN wfmaCId fkdlrk ksid m%Odk fnda. iuÛ iuzm;a ^fmdaIl# c,h# ysret<sh yd wjldYh

urAOkhg jvd tajd m%Yia: wdldrhg md,kh lsrSsu fhda.Hh nj fmfka’ m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl w;r úYd, bv m%udKhla me;srSs ;sfí’ úfYaIfhka

jeks& ;rÛZ lrk ksid j.d lrk ,o fnda. j, jrAOkh# wiajekak yd wfmaCIs; wdodhu o ta ksid wvq fjhs’

nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re Ydl w;r mq(,a mr;rhla ,ndoSsfuka fnda.fhka by, M,odhs;djla wfmaCId l,o tu Ydl

tfukau j,a me<Eá bj;a lsrsSug Y%uh yd wksl=;a iuzm;a Ndú;d lsrSu ksid fnda. ksIamdok msrsjeh by, hhs’

w;r N=ñh j,a me<Eá j,ska jeiShdu .eg(jls’ ta fjkqjg khsg%cka ;sr lrk rks, Ydl N+ñh wdjrKh ùu i|yd j.d l, yelsh' icSù Ydl

j,a me<Eá taldka;r Odrl f,i ls%hdlrk wjia:d iq,Nh’ túg fnda. j,g frda. yd m<sfndaO we;s ùfuz wjodku jeä ùfuka lDIsridhk yd wksl=;a frda. m<sfndaO urAOk ms<shuz i|yd wu;r msrsjehla oerSug is)fjhs’ fuz wkqj fndfydaúg j,a me<Eá m,;=re WoHdkfha os .eg( rdYshla we;s lrk fyhska tajd m%Yia: ugzgulg md,kh lsrSsug is)fjhs’ flfia jqjo fuu j,ame<Eá md,kh lsrSsfuzosS jirlg lsysmj;djla lmd oeófuka tl;=jk Ydl fldgia flduzfmdaiagz ksIamdokh i|yd fhdod .ekSug yelsùu jdishls’ WoHdkfha flduzfmdaiagz wjYH;dj huz

;rulg

imqrd

.ekSu

fuu

jeiaula ;ssîfuz m%fhdackh yd wjdis o y"kdf.k ;sfí’ Ydl w;r mr;rh wju lr wê @K;ajhg m,;=re Ydl j.dl,o Ydl w;r N+ñh kv;a;= lsrSsfuz ldrAhh WoHdk md,lhdg u.Z yer isáh fkdyelsh' j,a me<Eá m,;=re Ydl iuÛ fmdaIl yd c,hg ;rÛZ lrk w;r frda. yd m<sfndaO i|yd Odrl f,i o ls%hd lrhs’ m,;=re Ydl <ore wjêfhaoS kuz ysret<shg yd bvlv i|ydo j,a me<Eá iuÛZ ;rÛZ lsrSsug is)fjz’ fndfyda úg fuu ;;a;ajh m,;=re Ydl j, jrAOkhg yd úlikhg wys;lr f,i n,mdhs’ taksid jdKsc m,;=re Whkl j,a me<Eá l<ukdlrKh l, hq;=h’ 159


m,;=re WoHdk msysgqùug lghq;= lrk wjia:dfjz isgu j,a me<Eá

yelsh’ tkuz m<,a m;% iy ;DK jYfhks’ tajd lkakhl# jdrAIsl#

l,ukdlrkh ms<sn|j ie,iquz lr ls%hd l, hq;= fjhs’ m,;=re WoHdkhl j,a me<Eá urAOkh lsrSsug lghq;= lsrSsug fmr tys m%fhdack jdis yd

oaú jdrAIsl fyda nyq jdrAIsl f,i kej;;a csSú; ld,h osk wkqj fnod oelaúh yelsh’ lkak yd jdrAIsl j,a me<Eá îc m%frdayKh ù jeä mqIam

wjdis ms<sn|j ukd jegySula ,nd.; hq;=h’ mQrAK j,a me<Eá urAOkhla ksjrAA;k l,dmSsh m,;=re WoHdk j,g t;ruz iq)iq fkdjkafka fudaiuz jeis

yd îc ksmojd csú; ld,h jirla ;=<oSs iuzmqrAK lr wNdjhg hhs’ fuzjd mqIam yg.kakd ;=re fmdaIl yd c,h i|yd m,;=re fnda.hka iuÛ

iuh;a iuÛ we| yef,k oeä jrAIdj ksid wêl mdxY+ Ldokhla is)jk fyhsks’ tfy;a mQrAK j,a me<Eá

;rÛZ lrhs’

urAOkhg jvd tajd l<ukdlrKh lsrSsu m%fhdackj;a nj fmfka’

nyq jdrAIsl j,a me<Eá m%frdayKh jq miq jrAOkh ù jir .Kkdjla csj;a fjhs’ tajd jirla mdid îc ksmojd jHdma; lrk w;r Yla;su;a uQ, moaO;shla we;s ksid osrsu;a meje;aula fmkajhs’ uQ, moaO;sh mq(,aj úysoSs .eUqrg jrAOkh fjhs’ m,;=re Ydl j,g iemfhk fmdaIl yd c,h fndfydauhlau fuu nyqjdrAIsl j,a me<Eá wjfYdaIKh lrhs’ tfukau tajd wdl%uKYS,s ksid m,;=re j.dfõ

j,a me,Eá md,kh l, j.djla

tfyhska j,a me<Eá l<ukdlrKhg m,;=re WoHdkh msysgqùu i|yd fCIa;%h ixjrAOkh lrk wjia:dfjz isgu lghq;= flfrA’ ;sridr j,ame<Eá md,khl wdrïNfhaoSu nyq jdrAIsl j,a me<Eá ish,a, .,jd bj;aa l, hq;=h’ m,;=re WoHdkfha we;s j,a me<Eá mq(,a f,i ldKav follg fnosh 160

úYd, l,dm f,i me;srSshdu olakg ,efnz’ nyq jdrAIsl j,a me<Eá rdYshla m,;=re Whkaj, kv;a;=jg .eg(jla ù ;sfnz’


j.=j * m,;=re Whkaj, iq,N j,a me,eá j,a me,eá úfYaI jdrAIsl

oaú jdrAIsl

nyq jdrAIsl

Pig weed Chick weed Smart Weed

Buttercup Yellow Rocket

Quick grass

Brome grass CrAb grass

Wild Carrot Pepper grass

Thistle ys.=re (Lartanra)

Barnyard Grass

7'1 j,a me<Eá md,kfha wruqKq m,;=re WoHdkfha jevs wiajekakla ;sridrj mj;ajdf.k hdu i|yd ndOl jk wkjYH j,a me<Eá j,ska we;s lrk ;rÛldrS ;;a;ajh m,;=re j.dfõ ;srKd;aul wjia:dj,os hgm;a lr mj;ajd .ekSu m,;=re WoHdkfha j,a me<Eá md,k jevigykl m%Odk wruqK úh hq;=h' flfia jqjo m,;=re j.djg wdlrAYKsh fmkqula ,ndoSu# wiajekak fk,d .ekSsu is) lsrSsu yd j,a me<eá îc iq,N;djh wvq lrSsu wdos wruqKq i|ydo j,a me<Eá l,uKdlrkh l, yelsh' m,;=re j.dj iEu l,aysu iïmqrAKfhkau j,a me,Eá j,ska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hdu lsis) wdldrhlg n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdfõ'

mrsK; m,;=re Ydl iys; m,;=re WoHdkfha j,a me,Eá lmd oeóu ldrAHCIuj lsrSsug mshjr .;hq;= ;SsrKd;aul wjê lsysmhla ;sfí' m,;=re Ydl j, mqIam we;sjk wjêh# l=vd M, msysgk wjia:dj iy M, jefvk wjêh Bg we;=,;a fjhs' m,;=re Ydl j, u,a W;af;ackh jk wjia:dfõ os j,a me,Eá ;rÛ lrkafka kï B,Û lkakfha m,;=re wiajekakg n,mdkq we;' tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl j, u,a yg .ekSsu werÑug flá ld,hlg fmr isg M, fïrSu olajd jq udi 5- 6l ld,hla ;=<oS ukd f,i j,a lmd flá lsrSu fhda.Hhs' flfia jqjo m,;=re me< fCIa;%fha isgjq ld,fhaos j,ame<Eá j,ska oeä 161


n,meula we;súh yelsh' túg Ydl wjg j,ame<Eá urAOkhla wjYH fjhs' wê@K;aj m,;=re j.djloS m,;=re Ydlj, jrAOk fõ.j;a lsrsug;a me< w;r j,a me<Eá jrAOkh iajNdúlju iSudfjhs'

7'2 j,a me<Eá l<ukdlrK Wml%u mQrAK j,a me<Eá urAOkhla wfmaCId fkdlrk úg j,a me<eá j, jrAOkh hï md,khlg hgm;a lr m,;=re Ydl j,g ;rAckhla fkdù wju ;rÛldrS;ajhla mj;ajd f.khdu i|yd m,;=re WoHdkfha úúO j,a me<Eá l<uKdlrk Wml%u wkq.ukh l, yelsh' tl Wml%uhlg

Ydluh fldgia jiqkla f,i fhÿ me,hla

j,a me,Eá lmd oeóu

jvd Wml%u rdYshla tlu wjia:dfõoSs fhdod .ekSu jvd;a ldrAhCIuh'

jiqka fhoSu m,;=re me< w;r;a# fma,s w;r;a fukau Ydlfha mdoia:h jgd ógrA 2 muK )rlg jiqka fhdod j,a me<Eá jrAOkh hgm;a l, yelsh' jiqka i|yd Ydluh fldgia jvd;a iq)iqh' jiqka fhoSu fCIa;%fha wksl=;a kv;a;= lghq;= j, ie,iqï wdrA:sl ;;a;ajh wkqj iy WoHdkfha we;s myiqlï wkqj ;SrKh l, yel' icSù jiqka ^mi wdjrK fnda.& j.d lsrSsu fyda Ydl fldgia fhdod mi wdjrKh lsrSsu fyda tu l%u folu jqjo fhdod .; yelsh' 162

j,a me<Eá j,g ndOdjlska f;drj jrAOkh ùug bv )kaúg tajd fyd|ska jeã mqIam ygf.k îc ksmojd jHdma; lsrSsu pl%dkql=,j is) flfrA' tu pl%h iïmqrAK ùug bv oSfuka m,;=re Ydlh jgd mi j,ame<Eá j,ska f;drj mj;ajd .ekSsu wmyiq jkafka úisfrk j,a me<Eá îc tu l,dmh ;=<g myiqqfjka m%frdayKh ù j,a me<Eá jHdma; lsrSsu ksidh' tfyhska j,a me<Eá j, mqIam yg .ekSsug fmr tajd lmd jiqkla f,i fyda fldïfmdaiaÜ ksmoùu i|yd


fyda fhdod.; yelsh' j,a me<Eá lmd oeóug fmd<j u;=msg isg fi'ó' 3-

n,d tu Ydl jgd ógrA 2l muK ljdldr l,dmfha mQrAK j,a me<Eá

5 w;r Wilska kï ys;lrh' túg tu j,a me<Eá j,g kej;;a jeãug wjia:dj ,efnk w;r úYd, fldgia m%udKhla lmd bj;a lsrSsu ksid

urAOkhg iq\qiq j,a me<Eá kdYlhla iSud iys;j fhdod.; yelsh'

fldïfmdaiaÜ ksmoùug Ydl øjH ,efí' fufia j,a me<Eá lmd oeóu i|yd úis le;s# oEle;s jeks Wmlrk iq,Nj Ndú;d flfrA' hka;% Ndú;h myiq iy ldrAhCIu jqjo uQ,sl m%d.aOkh yd uq,sl msrsjeh i,ld ne,sh hq;=h' j,a me<Eá lmd oeóu i|yd hka;% Ndú;d lsrSsug wfmaCId lrkafka kï‘ m,;=re WoHdk msysgqùug ie,iqï lsrSsfï isgu iq\qiq mrsos ìsï ielish hq;=h' hka;% i|yd mi u;=msg iu;,dùu;a .,a len,s úYd, Ydl uq,a len,s wdosh bj;alr ;sîu;a wjYHhs' N+ñfha nEjqu wêl kï iy kemaiela wdldrfha j,a lmk hka;%o# N+ñh

fuu wjia:dfõoSs j,a me<Eá kdYl fhosSu b;du m%fõYfuka l, hq;=h' m,;=re Ydlhg iamrAY fkdjk fia tu ridhkslhka bish hq;=h' j,a me<Eá ñhhdu;a iuÛ tu l,dmh jeiS hk fia jiqkla fhosh hq;=h' fuu wruqKQ bgqlr .ekSsu i|yd iq\qiq jk j,ame<Eá kdYlh m,;=re Ydlh jgd we;s j,a me<Eá j, iajNdjh wkqj f;daard.; hq;=h' jirlg fojrla muK fï wdldrhg j,a me<Eá urAOkh lsrSu m%udKj;a fjhs'

m,;=re me, isgqùug fmr m,;=re WoHdkh msysgq ùu i|yd lghq;= lrk wjia:dfõoSu j,a me<Eá md,kh ms<sn|j ie,iqï lr ls%hd;aul

iu;,d kï iy m,;=re Ydl w;r mr;rh m%udKj;a kï g%elagrAj,g

l, hq;=hs' fuysoS bvu t<sfmfy,s lr N+=ñh ilia lsrSsfïoSs lgql yd

wuqKk ,o úYd, m%udKfha j,a lmk hka;% fhdod.; yelsh'

;rÛldrSs j,a me<Eá .,jd bj;a l, hq;=h' tajd fldïfmdaiaÜ ksmoùug

j,a me<Eá kdYl fhdod .ekSsu

fhdod .; yels w;r' ta jk úg j,a me<Eá j, îc ygf.k fkd;sîu iq\qiqh' ta iuÛu fld, fmdfydr i|yd iq\qiq rks, fnda.hla uq( N+ñhu jeiSs hk fia isgqúh yelsh'

m,;=re

WoHdkfha

j,a

me<Eá

l,ukdlrKh is\q lrk ksid j,a kdYl fhdod.ekSu b;du iSud iys;j muKla is\qfjhs' jefvñka mj;sk m,;=re Ydl jgd j,a me<Eá urAOkhla wjYHjk ksid wksl=;a msrsjeh i,ld

nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re fnda.h isgjq miq w;=re fnda. m<uq jir 3-4 ;=<oSs is\ql, yelsh' mefmd,a# flfi,a 163


yd wkakdis jeks fnda.j,oSs flá ld,sSk fnda. w;=re j.d we;s lsrSu

j,a me<Eá kdYl Ndú;h wju lsrSu os.= ld,Sk wys;lr m%;sm, iSud lrhs'

l, yelsh' túg wkjYH f,i j,a me<Eá jHdma; ù m,;=re fnda. j,g wys;lr f,i n,mEug we;s bvlv wju fjhs' flfia jqjo fï

m,;=re WoHdkfha lsishï uÜgulska j,a me<Eá urAOkh lsrSu i|yd j,a me<Eá kdYl fhdod .kafka kï tu ridhkslhka mi ;=< yd mrsirfha

wjia:dfõos <má m,;=re Ydl j,g we;s lrk ;rÛh wju fjk f,i w;=re fnda. kv;a;= l,hq;=h' ke;skï j,a me<Eá urAOkh jqjo m,;=re

b;srs ùug we;s wjia:djka ms<sn|j wjfndaO lr .; hq;=h' fCIa;%fhaoSs j,a me<Eá kdYl os.= ld,hla mqrd mej;Sug n,mdk fya;= lsysmhls'

fnda. j,g wys;lr f,i n,mdkq we;' wdjrK fnda. j.d flfrkafka kï ksis l,g tajd lmd oud mig tla

7'3 mrsirfha j,ame<Eá kdYl j, meje;au

lsrSu jeo.;ah' flfia jqjo jefvk m,;=re me< jgd ógrhla muK ljdldr l,dmhla j,a me<Eá j,ska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hd hq;=h'

tajdfha ridhksl jHqyh wkqj mrsirfhaoSs fl;rï l,la tu j,a kdYl fkdìoSs mj;S oehs ksYaÑ;ju mejish fkdyels jqjo idOl lsysmhla uÛska tajd u; oeä n,mEula t,a,jk nj fmkajdoSs ;sfí' l

CIqø cSùka uÛska úfhdackh

mdxY= we,a.S os,sr welaáfkduhisia iy nelaàrshd iq,nju j,ame<Eá kdYl u; ls%hdlrhs’ úfYaIfhka ldnksl j,a me<Eá kdYl ^Organo herbicides) fuu CIq\% cSùkaf.a ls%hdj,shg yiqfõ' kuq;a ldnksl fkdjk j,a me<Eá kdYl CIqø csùkaf.a m%;sls%hdj,shg Ndckh fkdfõ' l

j,a me<Eá md,kh l, N+ñhl isgjQ me,hla

164

ridhksl úfhdackh

mfia wvx.=jk úúO ridhksl øjH c,h# yhsv%cka iy Tlaiscka j,a me<Eá kdYlfha wvx.= ridhkslhka


iuÛ m%;sl%shdlr tys ridhksl ixhq;sh fjkia lr fjk;a ixfhda.

j.d lr we;s m,;=re Ydl j,g wjfYdaIKh fjhs' túg tajd m,;=re

njg m;a fjhs' túg j,a me<Eá kdYlfha ls%hdldrs;ajh wfydais fjhs

j, wka;rA.; ùug bv ;sfí‘ mfika j,a me<Eá kdYl bj;a ù tys idkaøKh wvq ùug tho fya;=jls'

l

mdxY+ fldgia j, wêfmdaIKh

mfia wvx.= l,S, øjH ueá wxY= wdoSs øjH

Ydl fmaa<s w;r l,dmh ia:Sr ;DK jeiaula mj;ajdf.k hdu jvd;a

j,g wêfmdaIKh ùfukao j,ame<Eá kdYl j, ls%hdldrs;ajh wvqfjhs' tuÛska mi ;=< tajdfha meje;au iSud fõ‘ flfia jqjo fufia wêfmdaIKh

fhda.H nj fmfka' tu ;DK jeiau m,;=re Ydl lafIa;%fha isgqùu;a iuÛu wdrïN l, yelsh' fuu ;DK jeiau msÜgkshla wdldrhg

jQ j,a me<Eá kdYlh ridhksl øjH ta wdldrfhkau mi ;=< jeä ld,hla mj;sk nj fmkajd oS ;sfí‘

l%udkql=,j lmd kv;a;= lsrSfuka m,;=re WoHdkhg wdlrAYKSh fmkqula ,efnk w;r icSù jiqklska

l

mi ;=<ska ls|d neiSu

mi ;=<ska .eUqrg fyda fomig c,h;a iuÛ j,a me<Eá kdYl .uka lsrSfuka tys ls%hdldrs;ajh wvqfjhs' fufia .uka lsrSu i|yd tu j,a me<Eá kdYl j, c,fha ødjH;djh mi ;=<ska .,d hk c,fha m%udKh yd mfia wvx.= l,S, wxY+ m%udKh o jeo.;a fjhs' l

jdIamSNjkh

iuyr j,ame<Eá kdYl oeä WIaK;ajhg iy ysret<shg Ndckh ùug jdIamSNjkh fjhs' fufia jdIamS Njkh jkafka tu j,a me<Eá kdYl j, we;s jdIamYS,s jdhq jk w;r tajd úI ùug bvlv ;sfí' l

YdL j,g wjfYdaIKh

iuyr j,a me<Eá kdYl WoHdkfha

,efnk ish( jdis ,nd.; yelsh'

7'4 taldnoaO j,a me<Eá md,kh j,a

me<Eá

l<ukdlrKhg

iïm%odhsl l%u j,ska wE;aj taldnoaO Wml%u jvd;a WÑ; hehs ms<s.efkñka ;sfí' idïm%odhsl j,a me<Eá l<ukdlrKh m,;=re WoHdkfha wdrA:sl M,odhs;djhg n,mEula l,o ta i|yd wkq.ukh flfrk Wml%u j,ska úúO mdrsirsl yd iudc wdrA:sl .eg( mek k.sk nj fmkajd oS ;sîu Bg m%Odk fya;=j fjhs' taldnoaO j,a me<Eá l<ukdlrK Wml%u fï i|yd fyd| úi"ula f,i y"kdf.k ;sfí' fuysoS fnda. j.dfõ YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u fnda. f;dard 165


.ekSu# j.d lrkq ,nk rgdjka# WoHdk kv;a;= Wml%u# j,ame<Eá j, mdrsirsl

iSiEu uÛska j,a me<Eá j, jrAOkh yd jHdma;sh l<ukdlrKh l,

yd ldhsl úoHd;aul ls%hdj,sh iy j,ame<Eá urAOk l%ufõohka ish,a, WÑ; wdldrhg kej; ilid .,md ixl,kh lr ksis l,g wkq.ukh

yelsh' iS iEu ksid ;DK yd ndOl iys; j,ame,Eá .=Kkh ùulaa is\qúu os.= ld,Sk wjdishls' tfy;a iSiEu iDcqju m,;=re Ydl j, uq,

lsrSu fuys wfmaCIdjhs'

uKav, j,g hdka;s%l ydks we;s lsrSug we;s wjodku by,h' thska we;súh yels whym;a m%;sm, rdYshls' iSiEu ksid WoHdkfha kv;a;=

flfia jqjo ixlSrAKjq j,a me<Eá l<uKdlrk ls%hdj,shla m,;=re WoHdk j,g wjYHh fkdjkafka m,;=re Ydl jgd iSñ; jD;a;dldr l,dmhla yer b;srs N+ñfha j.d jeiaula f,i j,a me<Eá kv;a;= lsrsSfï l%uh ckms%h neúks' fuysos j,ame<Eá j, jrAOkh md,kh lsrSu i|yd fnda. rgdjka yd YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u fhdojd .ekSu m,;=re fnda. isgqùfïoS ;SrKh fjhs' wêl @k;ajhlska

úhou wêl ù wdrA:sl M,odhs;dj wvqfõ' fï wdYs%; úúO mdrsirsl yd wdrA:sl .eg( we;s ùug bv ;sfnk ksid iSiEu m,;=re WoHdkfha iq,N YIH úoHd;aul ls%hdjla fkdfõ' kuq;a iSiEu yd w;=re fnda. j.dj lsrSfuka m,;=r WoHdkfha j,ame<Eá jrAOkh iSud l, yelsh'

me< isgqùu yd ixlSrAK fnda. rgd wkq.ukh flfrA kï m,;=re Ydl w;r j,a me<Eá ìysùu yd tajdfha jrAOkho iSud iys; fjhs' m,;=re Ydl w;r mi u;=msg kv;a;=j o óg we;=( l, yelsh' udi lsysmhlg jrla hka;% j,ska fyda w;ska j,a me<Eá lmd flá lr .ekSu myiq l%uhls' bkamiq me< jgd jiqka fhoSu uÛska tu l,dmfha j,a me<Eá jrAOkh md,kh l, yelsh' túg m,;=re me< j,g is\qùug bv we;s hdka;s%l ydks wju ùu jeo.;ah' WoHdkfha fma,s w;r lkakhg jrla 166

uq( WoHdkh mqrdu jiqka fhoSu uÛskao j,ame<Eá jrAOkh wvq iSud l, yels jqjo úYd, m,;=re Whkaj,oS th t;rï m%dfhda.sl fkdfõ' tfyhska m,;=re WoHdkfha ;sridr j,ame<Eá l<uKdlrkhla i|yd jvd;a WÑ; jev ms<sfj,la ilia lr.; hq;=h'


8' ìï kv;a;=j m,;=re WoHdkfha ixjrAOkh yd kv;a;=j l%shdj,sfhaoS w;HdjYH ;dCIKsl wx.hka jk fmdaIKh# lmamd\qj# mqyqKQj# c,iïmdokh yd c, l,ukdlrKh j,ame<Eá l,ukdlrKh iy frda. m,sfndaO l<ukdlrKh ksis wjia:dfõoS fhdod.ekSu iïm%odhsl WoHdk md,khhs' fï i|yd ksjerosj hdj;a l, ;dCIKsl oekqula tla/ia lr.; hq;=h' fuu ;dCIKhka jeämqr fhduqù ;sfnkafka WoHdkfha j.dlrk m,;=re Ydl i|yd nj wjfndaO lr.; hq;=h'

yelsh' Ydlj, úhk kv;a;= lsrSu jeo.;a jk fiau m,;=re WoHdkfha ìu kv;a;= lsrSuo jeo.;a fjhs' th wdrA:sl m%;s,dN j,g;a mdrsirsl iu;=,s;;djhg;a whym;a f,i n,mdkq we;s ksid m,;=re WoHdkfha ìu kv;a;= lsrSug ie,iqula wjYH fjhs' mfia jHqyh ukd f,i mj;ajd .ekSfuka mdxY= Ldokh wju lsrsSu tla wfmaCIdjls' m,;=re Ydl iuÛ fmdaIl j,g# c,hg# ysret<shg iy wjldYhg ;rÛ fkdlrk f,i wjg ìu kv;a;= l, hq;=h' túg m,;=re Ydlj,g ydks yd m<sfndaOl i|yd ls%hd fkdlrk ìula ish( jdis w;am;a lr

lrk frda. Odrl f,i ielfia' fï .ekSu i|yd

m,;=re WoHdkfha ìu kv;a;= lsrsSfï l%ufõohla ilia lr.; hq;=h' fuysoS mdxY= Ldokh# mfia ;;a;ajh# fCIa;%fha nEjqu m,;=re Ydlj, jhi

flfia jqjo WoHdkfha j.d fCIa;%j, ìu by;lS ;dCIKsl ls%hdj,shkag iDcqju Ndckh fkdfõ' mi;a tys u;=msg;a fuu ìug wh;ajk w;r ukd f,i kv;a;= l, ìula we;súg muKla Ydlj,g wkq.; flfrk Wiia ;dCIKfha m%;sM, fk,d.;

c, iïmdokh l%uh Ydl fmdaIK wjYH;d# fnda. rgdj# hkaf;%damlrK Ndú;h iy wiajekak fk,Su hk idOl w;r iunr;djhla we;slr .ekSug lghq;= l, hq;=h' m,;=re WoHdkhl ìu l,dm follg fnod oelaúh yelsh' Ydl fma,s w;r l,dmh iy Ydlfha mdoia:h wjg l,dmh jYfhks' fuu l,dm folu kv;a;= lsrSu WoHdkfha ìu kv;a;= 167


lsrSug wh;a fjhs' m,;=re Ydlfha mdoia: l,dmh fndfydaúg icSù j,a me<Eá fyda wdjrK fnda. ;=<ska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hdu iq\qiq nj fmfka' tuÛska úfYaIfhkau Ydlhg frda. yd m,sfndaO je<|Sug we;s yelshdhj wvqlr.; yels w;r# Ydlfha wfkl=;a kv;a;= lghq;= myiqfjka bgqlr .ekSug wjldY ie,fia' tfyhska fuu l,dmfha oS hka;% iq;% Ndú;h

4' Ydl fma,s w;r lsishï jiqkla w;=rd mj;ajdf.k hdu 5' Ydl jgd lsishï \qrlg jD;a;dldr l,dmhla muKla j,ame<Eá j,ska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hdu fyda wdjrK fnda. j.d lsrSu 6' iïmqrAK m,;=re j.dju Ydl jeiaulska f;drj mj;ajd .ekSu;a iïmqrAK fCIa;%hu lsishï jiqklska ksr;=reju wdjrKh lr ;eîu'

kqiq\qiq jkafka Ydlhg ydks we; ùfï wjodku jev fyhsks' fï iuÛu jiqkla fhoSu uÛska ys;lr mrsirhla

fuu Wml%u tlg jvd tlajr fhdod .ekSu jvd ldrAHCIu fjhs'

fuu l,dmfha ìyslr .; yelsh'

Ydl j.djka ^icSj Ydl jeiaula& fhdod.; yelsh' rks, fnda. m,;=re j.djl jiqkla f,i fhoSu t;rï ys;lr fkdjkafka mfia ksr;=reju

m,;=re WoHdkfha ìu kv;a;=j i|yd tla l%u fõohla ìyslr.; fkdyelsh' kuq;a fmd\qfõ fhdod.; yels Wml%u lsysmhls' 1' Ydl fma,s w;r Ydl jeiaula ^j,a me<Eá fyda ;DK& jeiau ;Srejla f,i mj;ajdf.k hdu iy fma,s ;=< me< w;r Ydl jeiaulska ^ j,a me<Eá fyda ;DK j,ska& fyda f;dr újD; mi u;=msgla mj;ajdf.k hdu 2' iïmqrAK m,;=re j.dj ;=<g mi u;=msg Ydl jeiaula mj;ajdf.k hdu 3' iïmQrAK m,;=re j.dj ;=<u mi u;=msg msrsis\q lr Ydl jeiaulska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hdu 168

jiqkla i|yd úh<s \%jH yd icSù

jeäjk khsg%cka m%udKh ksid m,;=re Ydlj, jrAOl jrAOkh W;af;ackh ùug we;s bvlv ksidh' tu ksid ;DK jeiaula jvd iq\qiqh'

8'1 fma,s w;r Ydl jeiau iy fma,s ;=< me< w;r j,a me<Eá j,ska f;drj mj;ajd .ekSu fuu l%uhg WoHdkfha mi u;=msg kv;a;= lsrSu ckms%h l%uhla jkafka jeä jdis .Kkla ,ndfok fyhsks' fuysoS Ydl jeiaula mj;ajdf.k hkafka m,;=re Ydl fma,sfha isg ógrhla fyda folla fomig Ydl jeiaulska f;drj


;ndf.k b;srs m%foaYj, ;Srejla f,isks' Ydl jeiaulska f;dr l,dmh

4' frda. yd m,sfndaO i|yd taldka;r Odrlhla fkdúh hq;=h

;=< m,;=re Ydlj, uq, jrAOkh fõ.j;a jk w;r fmdaIl yd c,h i|yd m,;=re Ydl iuÛ ;rÛ lsrSug j,a me<Eá ke;s ksid m,;=re

5' tajd kv;a;= lsrSfï msrsjeh wju

Ydl fyd|ska jefâ' ;Srejla f,i Ydl jeiaula kv;a;= lrk ksid mi ;=< fmdaIl m%;splS%lrKh úSu mfia jHqyh jeäoshqKq lsrSu# mdxY= Ldokh wju lsrSu wdos jdis /ila ysñfõ' tu ;Srej kv;a;= lrk fyhska frda. m,sfndaOjdyl f,i ls%hdlsrSuo iSudiys; fõ'

mig wdjrK j.djka f;dard .ekSu m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl w;r mi wdjrKh lr ;nd .ekSug iq\qiq j.djka f;dard.ekSfïoS ie,lsh hq;= lreKq lsysmhla ;sfí'

úh hq;=h 6' tajdfha jrAOkh myiqfjka md,kh l, yelsúh hq;=h 7' m,;=re Ydlj,g ys;lr cSùka wdlrAIKh lsrSug yelsúh hq;=h 8' os.=ld,Skj m,;=re WoHdkfha m%;s,dN jeä lsrSug odhl úh hq;=h iïmqrAK j.dj ;=<u Ydl jeiaula fyda wdjrK fnda. iïmqrAK WoHdkhu wdjrKh jk mrsos jiqkla f,i ;DK fyda j,a me<Eá jeiaula we;slr kv;a;= lsrSu fuysoS is\q flfrA' fuu Wml%uh nejqï iys; m,;=re j.djl fhdod .ekSfuka mdxY= Ldokh wju lr.; yelsh' mdxY+ jiqkla iy

2' m,;=re WoHdkfha úúO wjYH;d i|yd fhdod .kakd hka;% iQ;% mrsyrKhg tajd Tfrd;a;= osh

fmdaIl m%;spls%SlrKh i|yd ;DK jeiau ys;lr jqjo fmdaIl iy c,h i|yd m,;=re Ydlh;a iuÛu ;rÛ lsrSu is\qùug bv ;sfí' m,;=re Ydlfha M, l=vd ùu# kj YdLdj, jrAOkh wvq ùu yd m,;=re YdLfha osrsh wvq

hq;= w;r hka;% iq;% .uka lsrSug fkd,siaik fyd| mDIaGhla iemhsh

ùu wdosS ,CIK j,ska ta nj oelsh yelsh' kuq;a fmdaIl m%;spls%SlrKh

hq;=h'

i|yd ;DK jeiau lmd mig tla lsrSu ksid os.= ld,Skj fuu wys;lr n,meï wvqúh yelsh' fldïfmdaiaÜ yd fmdaIl m,;=re Ydlj,g fhoSfuka fï ;;a;ajh wju lr.; yelsh'

1' tajd m,;=re Ydl iuÛ ;rÛ lsrSu wju úh hq;=hs

3'

tu

Ydlj,

uQ,

moaO;sh

fkd.eUqre úh hq;= w;r isyska fl|s iys; uq,a j,ska iukaú; ùu iq\qiqh'

169


;DK jeiau m,;=re Ydlj, mdoia:h olajdu mj;ajdf.k .sh úg fmdfydr

mrsfndackh lsrSu ksid c, iïmdokfha ldrACIu;dj wvq fjhs'

fhosu wdoSs kv;a;= lghq;= j,g ndOd meñKSuo is\q fjhs' tfukau frda. m,sfndaO yd óhkaf.a ydks jeäùugo fya;=úh yelsh'

tajd j,a me<Eá fuka wdl%uKYS,Sj me;srs hhs' iuyr wjia:d j,oS kj frda. yd m,sfndaO i|yd ldrl úh yels w;r tajd úirAKh ùug

wdjrK j.d j, jdis

Wmldrs fjhs' wdjrAK j.d msysgqùu yd kv;a;=jgo msrsjehla oersh hq;= w;r th fnda. ksIamdok úhoug tl;= fjhs' wdjrK j.djka jirlg

fndfyda wdjrK j.d j,ska mig khsg%cka tl;= ùfuka mfia idrj;a nj jeä fjhs' tu Ydl fldgia mig ksr;=reju tl;= ùu ksid mig ldnksl øjH tl;= fõ' fuu øjHh yd l,s, øjH mig ksr;=reju tl;= ùfuka mfia jHqyh jeä oshqKqùu ksid mi ;=<g c,h we;=( ùug jeä wjia:djla ,efnk w;r we;=( jq c,h mi ;=< jeä ld,hla r|d mj;S' j.djg yd mig ys;lr idOl we;s flfrk ksid mfia CIqø csùkaf.a ls%hdldrSs;ajh jeä ùfuka fuu ys;lr ;;a;ajhka ;j;a jrAOkh fjhs' tfiau wdjrK j.d ksid wys;lr j,a me<Eáj, fndaùu yd jrAOkh iSud fjhs' mfia ys;lr WIaK;ajhla mj;ajdf.k hdug WmldrSs fjhs' ukd mrsir ixrCIKhla we;sùu ksid wdlrAYKSh mrsirhla WoHdkh ;=< ìysfjhs'

wdjrK j.d j, wjdis wdjrK j.dj ksid .eg(o we;sfjk nj jgyd.; hq;=h' wdjrK j.djka m,;=re Ydl j, f;;ukh 170

fojrla muK lmd oud mig tlal, hq;=h' ke;skï tajd mig hgjk fia iS iEu l, yelsh' mqIam yg .ekSu;a iuÛu fufia mig tla lsrSu iq\qiqh' ke;skï tajd lmd oud tu fldgia fldïfmdiaÜ ksIamdokh i|yd fhdod.; yelsh'

8'2 iïmq¾K j.dju jeiaulska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hdu fuysos mi u;=msg l=vd fldgia j,g l=vqlr fkd.eUqre mia ;Ügqjla kv;a;= flfrA' t;rï iq\qiq l%uhla fkdjqjo úh<s foaY.=Ksl l,dm j, mj;ajdf.k hk m,;=re WoHdk j, fuh olakg ,efí' úh<s ld,fhaoS jiqkla f,i ;DK jeiaula mjd kv;a;= l, fkdyels ksid fï l%uh fhdod .kq ,efí' iq( jrAIdjla jqjo c,hg mia ;=<g we;=,a úSug myiq fjhs' mi WKqiqï jqjo myiqfjkau isis,a úSuo is\qfjhs' mdrsirsl wiu;=,s;;djhkag jqjo fuhska udrA. mEoSug bv ;sfí'


mdxY= ffcùh idOl j,g wys;lr f,i n,mEuo wjdishls' tfy;a ks;ru mi nqre,a lr l=vq lsrSu wjodkï iys; jkafka m,;=re Ydl j, fmdaIK uq,a j,g o hdka;s%l ydks is\qúug bv we;s neúks' tfukau oeä jrAIdjloS mdxY= Ldokhg Ndckh fjhs' nEjqï iys; WoHdkhlg kqiq\qiq l%uhls'

jiqkla w;=rd,Su jiqkla f,i úh<s Ydl fldgia wvla ms<siaiq oyhshd# fyd|ska osrdm;a jQ ,Sl=vq# fldyqn;a# fmd,af,,s# lïy,a j,ska bj;,k f;a l=vq jeks øjH Ydl øjH f,i jiqka i|yd fhdod.; yelsh' fïjd m,;=re WoHdkh iïmqrAK N+ñh wdjrKhg fyda Ydl jgd fyda Ydl fma,s w;rg fyda fhdod .; yelsh' jiqkla uÛska mfia ys;lr CIq\% mdrsirsl ;;a;aj we;slrhs' mfia WIaK;ajh by, hdu wvqlr f;;ukh wdrCId lrhs' jrAIdm;kfha mi

jdishls' tfy;a fïjd m%udKj;a ;rï imhd .ekSu wmyiq úh yels w;r ta i|yd wu;r osrdm;a lsrSsfïoS y"kajd

msrsjehla oerSugo is\qfõ' fkdjq Ydl fldgia Ndú;d frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks oSfï wjodkula we;s w;r

oekgu;a Ydl j,g je,|S ;snqKq frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks jeä ùugo bvlv ;sfí' jI_d iufha mfia f;;ukh jeä ùug ;=vq fok jiqka ksid uQ, frda. yg.; yelsh' jiqka i|yd lD;Su øjHo fhdod .; yelsh' ma,diaála yd fmd,s;sSka fhdod .ekSu myiqh' tfy;a fïjdfha wêl ñ,# mdrsirl .eg( we;s lsrSu# iq,Nj ,nd.; fkdyels ùu yd kej; kej;;a ñ,oS .ekSug is)ùu ksid t;rï ckms%h fkdfõ' jiqkla fhoSu Ydl fma,s w;r Ydlh jgd muKla fyda iïmQrAK fCIa;%hu wdjrKh jk fia iss)l, yelsh'

iuÛ .efgk fõ.h wvqlr mdxY= Ldokh wju lrhs' mig ldnksl øjH yd fmdaIl ys;lr wdldrhg l%ufhka tl;= lrhs' mdxY= ffcj mrsirh jeäoshqKq lr CIqø cSùkaf.a ls%hdlrs;ajh jeälr Ydlj, osrsu;a jrAOkhla yd Wiia .=Kd;aufha jeä M,odjla ,nd .ekSug u. i,ihs' jdrAIsl yd fláld,Sk j,a me<Eá

,S l=vq jiqkla f,i fhÿ .ila

jeãu hgm;a lsrSuo jiqkla fhoSfï 171


9' u,a W;af;ackh$ m%ckl ldhsl úoHdj 9'1 u,a W;af;ackfha wjêh fndfyda Ydl j, u,a W;af;ackh iïmqrAK ksrAudK ms,sfj;ska wjê 4la fyda 5la iïmQrAK lr wjidk mshjrg ,.d ùu wjYH fjhs' Induction Evocation u,a W;af;ackh i|yd odhl jk mdrsirsl idOl i|yd m,;=re Ydlh fuu W;af;acl .%yKh lr.kakd mgl j,g ,eîu Induction kï fõ' fuu mgl kï wmrsK; iy <má m;% yd w.%ia: wxl=r nj fmkajd os ;sfí' tu idOl m%udKj;a ;rñka m;% ;,hg ,eîfuka miqj is\ qjk ridhksl m%;sls%hd ud,djla ix{d f,i jrAOl w.% fj; ,eîfuka miq tajd il%Sh fjhs' ta jk úg;a mgl u,a W;af;ack mdrsirsl idOl j,g ixfõoSs ;;a;ajhg m;a ù ;sfí kï tu mgl j, ridhk fjkialï is\qùu werfò' tys m%;sM,hla f,i jrAOl mgl m%ckl mgl njg m;aùfï ls%hdj,sh werfò' fuu ridhksl l%shdoduh ^jrAOl mgl m%ckl mgl njg m;aùfï ls%hdj,sh& Evocation kï fjhs' fuu ^jrAOl mgl m%ckl mgl njg m;aùfï ls%hdj,sh& Evocation ls%hdoduh b;d ixlSrAk ls%hdj,shla jk w;r kj;u wdrA'tka'ta' (RNA) yd ä'tka'ta' ^DNA) ksIamdokhla iu. kj fm%daàk ìsysùfuka tu jrAOl w.%fha 172

jrAOk ú,dYh kej; wdmiq wdrïNl ;;a;ajhg meñKSug fkdyels m%ckl mglhla njg mrsjrA;kh fjhs' ^jrAOl mgl m%ckl mgl njg m;aùfï ls%hdj,sh&Evocation ls%hdj,sh iïmQrAK lsrSsu i|yd m%udKj;a ;rï mdrsirsl W;af;ackhla wLKavj lsishï ld,iSudjla olajd ,eîu w;HdjYHfjhs'^jrAOl mgl m%ckl mgl njg m;aùfï ls%hdj,sh& Evocation ls%hdodufha tla;rd fldgila olajd iïmQrAK jq miqj tu mgl kej; jrla wdmiq l,ska ;snq jrAOl mgl njg m;aùug fkdyels fõ' tfy;a tu mdrsirsl W;af;acl m%udKj;a ;rï fkd,eîu fyda ,efnk w;r;=roSs Bg ndOl we;s ùu wdoSs lreKQ ksid iuyr wjia:dj,ossS fuu mrsjrA;k ls%hdodufha u, msmSug wjYH wju iSudj olajd is\qfkdùu ksid tu mglh kej;;a jrAOk mglhla f,i wdmiq hdu wdrïN l, yelsh' Wod* u,a W;af;ackh i|yd wjYH jq úh<s ld,.=Kfha wjYH wju ld, iSudj wjika ùug fmr jrAIdjla ,eîu# wvq WIaK;ajhla mej;sh hq;=h' ld,isudj ;rKh lsrSsug fmr rd;Ss% WIaK;ajh by, hdu' tfy;a mdrsirsl idOl ,eîu wju iSudj blaujd .sh úg ^jrAOl mgl m%ckl mgl njg m;aùfï ls%hdj,sh&


Evocation iïmQrAK ù m,;=re Ydlfha u,a W;af;ack ls%hdj,sh

tys n,mEu fmkakqï lrhs’ kuq;a# uex.=iaàka iy iuyr meÛsrs fnda. j,

werfò' m%udKj;a ;rï mdrsirsl W;af;ack fkd,efí kï yg.kakd u,a ixLHdj wvq fjhs' tfy;a m,;=re WoHdkfha Ydl j, by, wiajekakla

M, j, msysàug mrd.kfha n,mEula ke;s nj i|yka l< hq;=h’

,nd.ekSug kï iïmQrAK u,a W;af;ackhla ,efnk fia WoHdkh fndfyda ksjrA;k l,dmSh m,;=re fnda. j, u,a W;af;ackh ùug wjYH idOl tajdfha m%udKd;aul yd .=Kd;aul nj ms<sn| wjfndaOhla m,;=re WoHdk md,lhdg ;sìh

mrd.kh hkq* Ydl ,sx.sl m%pdrKfhaoS mqIam j, mQudx.S fldgia jk mrd. cdhdx.S fldgia jk l,xlh u; ;eïm;a ùuhs’ MuÛska mqIam j, ixfiapkhla is\qfjñka# ,sx.sl m%pdrKh is\qlsrSu i|yd îc ksmoùug uÛ i,iis’ mrd. lKsld

hq;=h'

j, wvx.= jk uq,a ckaudkq mqIamfha ia;%S äïn fldaIfha wvx.= ldm, j, we;s äïn j, we;s ia;%S ckaudkq iuÛ

9'2 mrd.kh iy t, msysáu

ñY% ùu ixfiapkfhaoS is\qfõ’

ksjrA;k l,dmSh m<;=re j, u,a W;af;ackh ùu iy mqIamdxl=r we;sù mqIam yg.ekSu w;r we;af;a b;d flá ld,iSudjla jk w;r# iqma; wjêhla

mrd.kfhaoS mrsK; mrd. mqIamfha ia;%S fldgig wh;a l,xlfha ;eïm;a ùfuka miq tu mrd. lKsld m%frdayKh ù we;sjk mrd. kd,h

fkdfmkajhs’ fndfydauhla úfYaI w;r iajmrd.kh wju lsrSu i|yd jk hdka;%K rdYshla l%shd;aul fjhs’ tkï* rgbos” rUqgka’ wU” w,s.egfmar

lS,h osf.a jrAOkh ù äïnfldaIh ;=<g we;=,a ù äïn iu.Z kHIaá ñY% lsrSfuka ixfiapkh is\qfõ’ fuu ixfiapkfha m%;sM,hla f,i yg.kakd hqla;dkqj îch njg jrAOkh ùu idrA:l mrd.khl n,dfmdfrd;a;j = hs'

mrd.kh ldrAhlaIu lsrSu i|yd mrd.ldrlhka y"kajdoSu m<;=re WoHdkfha t,odhS;djh jeä lsrSug WmldrS fjhs’ mrd.kh idrA:l ùug;a# mrd. l,xlh u; m%frdayKh ùug;a# mdrirsl WIaK;ajh oeä n,mEï t,a,lrhs’ tuÛska M, msysàu flfrys

fndfydauhla m<;=re Ydl j, M, yg.ekSug kï idrA:l mrd.khla is\qúh hq;=h’ tuksid m<;=re WoHdkfhka jeä wiajekakla ,nd .ekSu ioyd mrd.kh idrA:l lr.ekSfï Wml%u Ndú;d lsrSu m%fhdackj;a fõ’ 173


mrd.kh i|yd mqIam j, ilS%h mqreI yd ia;%S fldgia msysáh hq;=h'

mrd.khhs’ ^Biotic& óueiaid (Apis mellitera& b;du iq,N mrd.ldrlhd fjhs’ Bg wu;rj úúOdldr jQ lDóyq óg odhl fj;s’ f.ueiaid wU .fia fyd|u mrd. ldrlhdfõ’ ¥rshka mrd.khg jjq,kaf.a fufyh jeo.;ah'

m;%fha ia;%S yd mqreI fldgia

mqIamfha mqreI fldgia w;rg mrd.OdkS yd iQ;%sld we;=<;a fjhs’ tys ia;%S fldgia j,g l,xlh# lS,h# äïnfldaIh yd äïn wh;afjhs’ Bg wu;rj ia;%S fldgia f,i mqIamfha

ó ueiaid u`.ska mrd.kh

o<# uKsm;%# Wm uKs m;% yd äïnfldaI yd jDka;h msysghs’ Mu fldgia úÑ;%j;aj# jrAKj;aj yd iqj|j;aj mej;Su uÛska mrd.kh lsrSfï ldrl·

Pollinizer hkq mrd.kh i|yd mrd. imhk Ydlhhs’ m<;=re WoHdkfha Ydl w;r Pollinizer o mj;ajd.; hq;=h’ fuu Ydl úiska tu m%fNao j,

^mrd. m%jdylfhda úfYaIfhkau lDóka yd i;=ka wdlrAIKh flfrA’ mrd.ldrl uÛska ^Pollinators& mrd.kh i|yd is\qlrk ldrAhNdrh úYd,h’ tfyhska mrd.ldrlhka

idrA:l mrd.khla i|yd mrd. imhkq ,efí’ jeä mrd. m%udKhla iemhSu uÛska idrA:l mrd.khla i|yd jeä wjia:djla iemfha’ iq<x uÛska mrd.kh ùu

wdlrAIKh lsrSu yd Tjqkaf.a meje;au i|yd wjYH mrsirh ilialr oSu m<;=re WoHdk md,kfha jeo.;a

(Anemo Pollination) fjhs’

wjYH;djhls’ cSùka 174

uÛska

is\qlrkafka

ffcj

fndfyda m,;=re fnda.j, iajmrd.kh is\qfkdùug iajNdúlju úúO ndOl we;slr ;sfnz’ ia;s% yd mqreI f,i tlu úfYaIfha Ydl


fjkaù ;sîu” m,;=re úfYaIj,g u,a j, msysgk ia;s% yd mqreI Wmdx.

mrd.kh fkdùfuka we;sjk w,dNh Whka m,a,df.ka whlr .ekssug kS;s

úúO wjia:dj, fuzrSsu hkdos idOl uÛska fuu ndOl we;slr ;sfnz’ tfyhska fndfyda m,;=re fnda. j, mrmrd.kh jeä wiajekaklg wjYH

iuzmdokh ù ;sìK’ ls%’mq’ 3 jk ishji jk úg;a mrd. ìyslr.;a .ia msrsñ .ia f,i;a f.ä yg.kakd .ia ia;Ss% .ia f,i;a Theophrast igyka

fjhs’

lr ;sfnz’

ls%’mq’ 1750 os mjd udkjhka fuz nj wjfndaO lr f.k isá nj;a wkska mrd.kh lsrSsfuka rgb|s .iaj, wiajekak jeäjk nj wjfndaO

mrd.kfha úp,H;dj

lrf.k isá njla fuifmf;añhdj weisrshkajrekaf.a kS;s ix.%y ms<sn| igyka j, igyka fjhs’ ^ Roth 2000): (64 : a man give his orchard to a gradern to pollinate the date palms, as long as) lD;suj mrd.kh lsrSsfuka rgb|s j, wiajekak jeäjk njg mqrdK iqfuzrshkajre (Sumerian) ls%’mq’ 2300 brdKfha ne.avEvz m%foaYfhka ,enqKq f,aLk j,ska fmfka’ rgb|s .ia j.d lsrsSfuka jeä wiajekakla ,nd.ekSsug msrsñ .ia j,ska ,nd.kakd mrd. ia;s% u,a j,g w;ska mrd.kh lsrsSfuka wiajekak jeälr.; yels nj iqfuzrshka jre oek isáhy’ mrd.kh lsrSsug wd.ñl uqyqKqjrla wdfoaY ùfuka tl, rgb|s .ia ire nfjz ixfla;hla f,io Ndú;d ù ;sfnz’ Whkam,a,d;a bvuz ysñlrejd;a w;r” jq kSs;suh .súiqu wkqj rgb|s .ia

ffcj mrd.kh iïmQrAK ùu w;sYh wúksYaÑ; ;;a;ajhls’ ffcj úoHd;aulj mqIamSlrKh jk Ydl úfYaI j, meje;au ;SrKh ùug mrd.kfha idrA:l;ajh jeo.;a fjhs’ mrd.kh i|yd odhl jk m%Odk fldgialrejka fofokd jkafka mrd.Odksh yd mrd.ldrlhdh’ m<;=re Ydlfha wfmalaIdj jkafka wvqu msrsjehlska yd kdia;shlska ;u mqIam idrA:lj mrd.kh lr .ekSu jqjo# mrd.ldrlhdf.a wfmalaIdj jkafka yels ;rï ;ukag m%fhdackj;a jk mrd. tla/ia lrf.k hEuhs’ tfyhska fï fldgialrejka fofokdf.a wfmalI a djka mriamr úfrdaë ùu ksid m<;=re WoHdkfha mrd.kh idrA:l lr.ekSfï wjodku yd wúksYaÑ;Ndjh we;sfjhs’ tuksid fndfydauhla m<;=re Ydl j, úfYaIs; jQ Wml%u olakg ,efnhs’ fuysoS Ydlfha mrsKdñl jYfhka wkqjrA;kh ùula iy Bg wdlrAIkh lr.kakd iSñ; mrd.ldrlhska 175


ixLHdjla we;slr .kS’ ffcùh mrd.kfhaoS jrAKh# yevh yd iqj|

WodJ- wU# fldia# w,s.egfmar# wfkdaod# ¥rshka

úfYaISlrKh ùfuka ksYaÑ; lDñ úfYaI muKla wdlrAIKh lr.ekSu fuhska is\qfõ’ WodJ- wU mrd.kh i|yd f.ueiaid

fndfydauhla

meñKSu’

m<;=re

úfYaI

tal.DyS fjhs’ iuyr m<;=re úfYaI j, mQudx.S mqIam yd Pdhdx.S mqIam fyda oaú,sx.sl mqIam fjk fjku Ydl j, yg.ekSu olakg ,efí’ tajd oaú.DyS Ydl kï fõ’ WodJ- rUqgka# W.=/iai oaú.DyS m<;=re Ydl t;rï iq,N fkdfõ’ m<;=re WoHdkh ;=< mrd.kh l<ukdlrKfhaoS m<;=re

wU mrd.khg f.ueiaidf.a meñKSu

fï idOl yd tajd w;r wka;rA l%shd ms<sn| wjfndaOhla ,nd ta wkqj mrd.kh idrA:l lr.ekSug m<;=re WoHdkfha l<ukdlrKh ie,iqï lr.; yelsh’ tuksid mrd.kh l<ukdlrKh o m<;=re WoHdk l<ukdlrKfha jeo.;a wjYH;djhla nj jgyd .; hq;=h’

tal .DyS yd oaú .DyS mQudx.S yd Pdhdx.S fldgia Mlu u,l msysàu ^oaú,sx.sl mqIam& fyda mQudx.S yd Pdhdx.S fldgia fjk fjku u,a j, msysgd ^mQudx.S yd Pdhdx.S mqIam& tajd tlu Ydlhl yg.ekSu tal.DyS fjhs’

176

úfYaI j, fuu ;;a;ajh m<;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lsrSfïoSu wjOdkhg .ekSu jdisodhlh’

iaj mrd.kh mrd.kh is\qlrkafka Mlu uf,a mQudx.h yd cdhdx.h w;r kï ^oaú ,sx.sl mqIam j,& fyda Mlu Ydlfha we;s mQudx.S mqIamhl mrd. j,ska tu Ydlfhau we;s cdhdx.S fyda oaú,sx.sl mqIam w;r kï th iaj mrd.kh fjhs’ Mfy;a iajmrd.khg yelshdj we;s úg tu Ydl iaj Compatible) fjhs’

ix.; (Self fndfydauhla

ksjrA;k m<;=re Ydl j, iaj mrd. kh is)ùu je<elaùfï wkqjrA;k olakg ,efí' iajix.; Ydl j, iajmrd.kh is\q jqjo# fuu wkqjrA;k iys; m<;=re Ydl mrmrd.khg


wkqjrA;kh ù ;sfí’ Majd iaj wix.; fjh' (Self Incompatible) iaj mrd. kh ksid m<;=re m%fNao j, wvq jk w;r# wNsckk ^Inbreeding Depletion& m%fNaofha meje;aug yd

úúO;ajh \qrAj,;d is\qùfuka mrsirhg

wkqjrA;kh ùfï \qrAj,;d we;súh yelsh’ th tu m%fNaofha meje;aug ;rAckhla fjhs’ fndfydauhla m<;=re Ydl j, iajmrd.kh t;rï idrA:l fkdjk nj fmfka’ tajdfha iaj mrd.khg we;s wjia:dj wju lsrSu ioyd úúO wkqjrA;k is\qù ;sfí’ tajd ‘iaj mrd.k wix.;’ fkdjqk;a# iaj mrd.kh b;du iSudù ;sfí’

9'3 mrd. ldrlhska m<;=re WoHdkfha msysá fndfyda m<;=re Ydl j, u,a yg.ekSu lsishï rgdjlg wkqj jifrA ksYaÑ; iD;= j, is\qfjhs’ jeä wiajekakla” Wiia .=Kd;aufha M,odjla ,nd .ekSug kï# tajdfha mrd.kh ms<sn|j m%udKj;a wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu m%fhdackj;a fjhs’ mrd.kh is\qlrk ldrlhska ldKav follg fnosh yelsh’ tkï# A biotic ^wffcùh& Biotic ^ffcùh& ldrl f,ihs'

wffcùh mrd. ldrl - A biotic

tajd mrd.kh ùu mr mrd.khhs’ fuh tlu m%fNaofha Ydl folla w;r fyda fjkia m%fNao j, Ydl

cSúfhl=f.a udrA.fhka ^lDñ# iuk<# i<U# jjq,a jeks& f;drj mrd.kh is\q lrk ldrl óg wh;a fjhs# wffcùh

foll yg.;a u,a folla w;r mrd.kh ùuo is\qúh yelsh’ iaj mrd.kfhaoS tlu Ydlfha yg.kakd mqIam w;r mrd.kh jqjo# mr

mrd.kh (Abiotic Pollination& m<;=re Ydl j, b;du iSñ;j is\qúh yelsh’ iq<. uÛska mrd.kh (Anemophily Pollination& m<;=re Ydl j, is\qùug

mrd.kfhaoS iEuúgu fjk;a Ydl foll yg.kkakd mqIam w;r mrd.kh is\qfjhs’ m<;=re úfYaI jeä m%udKhl m%Odk f,i is\qjkafka mr mrd.khhs’ ta i|yd we;sjk wjodku

we;s bvlv iSñ; w;r# c,h uÛska mrd.kh ^Hydrophilic Pollination& tf,iu iSud fjhs’

jeä ksid mr mrd.kh jk Ydl j, jrlg yg.kakd mqIam ixLHdj w;s úYd,h’

m<;=re Ydl j, 80 - 90% muKu mrd.kh is\q ùug cSúfhl= f.a Wmldrh wjYH jk ksid th

ffcùh mrd. ldrl - Biotic

Biotic Pollination fjhs’ fuu idOlfha mrd. ldrl cSùka fjka fjkaj y"kd.; yelsh’ 177


m<;=re Wmrsu

WoHdkfha Ydl mrd.kh i|yd#

j, fyd|

mrd.kldrlhska ^Pollination Agent& jeä .yKhla mj;ajdf.k hdu iq\qiqh’ úúO mrd.ldrl cSùka wdlrAIKh lr.ekSug ta ta m<;=re Ydl j, úúO Wml%u ìysù ;sfí’ mrd.ldrlhska 200000la muK oekgu;a y"kdf.k ;sfí’ ta w;r lDókaf.ka mrd.kh ùu ^Entomophilie& b;d iq,Nh’ l=reñKshka# i<Uhska# iuk<hka# ueiaika wdoS l=vd i;=ka u,a j,g wdlrAIKh lr.ekSu i|yd jrAKh#

iq,N mrd. ldrl ó ueiaika úúO ó ueis úfYaI m<;=re Ydl j, iq<Û mrd.ldrlfhda fj;s’ Tjqkaf.a Yrsrfha we;s jk ia:s;s úoHq;a wdfrdamK u;g mrd. wef,k ksid;a# mrd. tyd fuyd f.k hEug yels ‘meila’ orK ksid;a# m<;=re Whfka iersirk ó ueiaika u,ska u,g .uka lrk úg idrA:lj mrd.kh is\qfjhs’ m<;=re WoHdkfha jeä wiajekakla i|yd losu mrd.ldrlhd ó ueiaidh’ ó ueiaidf.a l%shdldrlï úfYaIfhkau

lsrSu wdoS ,laIK úfYaI j, olakg yd jjq,ka jeks m<;=re Ydl j,

mdrirsl idOl u; rodmj;S’ tfyhska Tjqka i|yd jvd;a iqj myiq mrsirhla f,i m<;=re WoHdkh mj;ajdf.k hd hq;=h’ fudjqka ksid

losu mrd.ldrlfhda fj;s’ ksYdpr i;=ka wdlrAIKh i|yd tu Ydl j, mqIam wksjdrAfhkau iq\q meye;s jk w;r# b;d wdlrAIKSh iqj|lska hqla;

wiajekak fukau M, j, .=Kd;auho jeä fjhs’

iqj|# uOq tla/ia ta ta m<;=re Ydl ,efí’ l=re,a,ka ksYdpr i;a;= o

ùu;a# uOq msrS ;sîu;a oelsh yelsh’ mrmrd.kh fndfydauhla

uÛska t, msysàu m<;=re Ydl j,

jvd;a idrA:l l%uh ksid jeäuk;a mrd.ldrlhska meñKSu Bg WmldrS fjhs’ ó ueiaid u`.ska isÿ jk mrd.kh

iuk,hska yd i<Uhsk’a m<;=re Ydl j, iuk,hskaf.ka mrd.kh is\qùu iSud iys;h’ fï 178


i|yd Ydl j, mqIam úYd, úh hq;= ksid;a# fndfyda m<;=re Ydl j, mqIam

9'4 mrd.kh l<uKdlrKh

l=vd ùu;a# óg m%Odk fya;=j fõ’

fndfyda m<;=re WoHdk j, wiajkq úp,;d yd t,odhS;dj wvq ùug fya;=

iuk,hskaf.ka mrd.kh ùug kï tu mqIam úÑ;%j;a úh hq;= w;r# iqjoska yd uOq j,ska msrS ;sìh hq;=h’ i<Uhska fndfyda úg il%Sh jkafka

f,i WoHdk md,lhska idïm%odhslj olskafka mdxY=# foaY.=Ksl fyda frda. m<sfndaOhs’ tfyhska WoHdk l<ukdlrKfhaoS ukd f,i mdxY=

rd;%shg ksid rd;%shg msfmk u,a iq\q meye ùu;a# iqjoska yd uOq j,ska msrS ;sîu;a wjYHhs’

l<ukdlrKh# c, iïmdokh lsrSu;a# ukd fmdaIKhla ,ndoSu;a# tosfkod WoHdk kv;a;= lghq;= l<ukdlrKh;a# iudka;rj

ueiaika’ iuyr

m<;=re

Ydl

j,

m%Odk

mrd.ldrlhd idudkHh f.ueiaid fjhs’ Bg wu;rj úYd, m%udKfha mqIam j, mrd.khg fjk;a úYd, m%udKfha ueiaikao odhl fjhs’ iuyr ueiaika mqIam j,g weoS tkafka tys we;s uOq Wrd .ekSug jqjo# fndfyda ueiaika mqIam j,g wdlrAIKh lr .ekSug tu u,a j, iqj|g øjH j,g iudk \q.| yuk øjH ksmojhs’ tajdg ueiaika wdlrAIKh jqjo# ueiaika i|yd wdydrhla fkdue;s ùfuka Tjqka msgù .sho# Tjqkaf.ka fkdoekqj;aju mrd.kh is\qfjhs’ fuh ;rula wjodkï yd wúksYaÑ; ;;a;ajhla ksid fujeks Ydl j, w;s úYd, mqIam ixLHdjla jrlg yg.kS’ WodJ-wU .ia j, m%Odk mrd. ldrlhd f.ueiaid ksid wU u,a jdrhg úYd, f,i f.ueiaika iersirk wdldrh oel.; yelsh’

bgq l, hq;=h' jeä .=Kd;aufhka hq;= Wiia wiajekakla ;sridrj ,nd .ekSug kï mrd.kh yd l<ukdlrKh hq;=h'

tl

iudk

l,

mrd.kh l%uj;a fkdùug;a# mrd.kh wdY%s; .egMZ;a ksid m<;=re Ydl j, wiajekak úYd, f,i wysñjk nj;a# wjidkfhaoS ,efnk wiajekafka .=Kd;auhg th n,mdk nj;a# WoHdk md,lfhda wjodkhg fkd.ks;s’ m<;=re Ydl j, úNj wiajekafka wvla fyda iïmQrAK jYfhkau jqjo wysñ ùu t;rï \q,n fkdfõ’ m<;=re Ydl mqIam j,ska msrS .sho# wiajekak f,i ,efnkafka iqMZ m%udKhla nj ks;r w;aoelsh yelsh’ u,a jdrfha wjidkfhaoS m<;=re Ydlfha ;ekska ;ek úh<S .sh u,a fmdl=re ikd: lrkafka fuu ;;a;ajhhs’ tfukau iuyr m<;=re M, l=vdùu# tla milg 179


weoù úlD;s ùu# hqI wvq ùu# iuyr úg t,fha jrAOk fõ.h wvqùu wdosh

tu mrd. imhk Ydl m%Odk fnda.h iuÛ isgqjk úg iEu fma,shla ;=<gu

mrd.kh \qrAj, ùfuka we;sjk iq,n ;;a;ajhkah’

we;=,a lsrSu wjYHhs’

WodJ-lgq wfkdaod yd ¥rshka wdoS M, we|ùu’ je,a fodvï j, hqI ke;sùu fyda wvqùu’

miq lf,l lD;su mrd.kh lsrSug yelsjk mrsos m<;=re Ydl j, Wi md,kh lsrSug ukd lmamd\q yd mqyqKq jevigyka wkq.ukh lr mj;ajd

ta ksid jeä wiajekakla ,nd.ekSfï iïNdú;dj jeälr .ekSug kï# mrd.kh l<ukdlrKh o wjYH nj jgyd .; hq;=h’

f.k hEu wjYH wx.hlah’

m<;=re WoHdkhl taldldrS m%fNao j.d lsrSu;a iuÛu mrd.kfha \qrAj,;d oelsh yelsh’ tfyhska jvd il%Sh yd idrA:l mrd.khla we;slr,Su i|yd

iq<Ûg n"ka jk lafIa;%hla kï iq<x ndOl l,a we;sju ie,iqï lr bosl< hq;=h’

wkq.ukh l< hq;= ishMZ j;ams<sfj;a m<;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lsrSfï isg wiajekak fk,k wjia:d ish,a, wdjrKh jk mrsos bgqlrkq ,nk l<ukdlrK jevigyk mrd.kh l<ukdlrKhg wh;afjhs’ m<;=re

WoHdkh

ie,iqï

lssrSfïoS

mrd. imhk Ydl jrA. o m%Odk fnda.hg m%udKj;a ;rï ñY%lr isgqúh hq;=h’ Wod - w,s.egfmar A yd B ldKav j,g wh;a m%fNao tlu lafIa;%fha isgqùu$ mefmd,a j.dj ;=< oaú,sx.sl fyda mQudx.S me< 10] la muK isgqùu$lgq wfkdaod” ¥rshka” ldurx.d i|yd m%fNao ñY%lr isgqùu’ 180

Ydl j, mrd.kh myiq lrùug wjYH lafIa;% kv;a;= mshjr l%udkql+,j wkq.ukh l< hq;=h’

mrd. mdrlhska ^Pollination Agents& wdlrAIKh lr.ekSug;a# Tjqka f.a l%shdldrÍ;ajh jeä jk wldrhg m<;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lsrSu;a# kv;a;=j;a# l< hq;=h' lDIs ridhk Ndú;h wju lsrSu b;d jeo.;ah' m%udKj;a ixLHdjla ó ueis ckmo m<;=re WoHdkh mqrdu msysgq úh hq;= w;r” tajd ksis wdldrhg” Wiia uÜgfuka kv;a;= l< hq;=h’ tfukau mrd.khg WmldrS jk lDóka yd i;=kag m<;=re WoHdkh ys;lr N+ñhla lsrSug lghq;= lsrSuo jeo.;ah’ lD;su mrd.kh is\qlsrSu i|yd wjYH mshjr .ekSuo wjYH úh yelsh’ fï i|yd jk wjYH;d u,a


yg.kakd jdrhg fmr iQodkï lsrSu;a# lD;su mrd.kh i|yd M,odhS

wjia:dfõoS isgu wjodkh fhduq l< hq;= jqjo# Ydl j, mqIam yg.kakd úg

jevigykla u,a jdrh weröug fmr isgu ie,iqï lr ;eîu;a# mrd.kh l<ukdlrKfha wjYH;d fjhs’ m<;=re Ydl j, mrd.kh

tys yg.kakd mrd. fi!LHdrlaIs; f,i tla/ia lr tajd mrd.kh l< hq;=h’ mqIam j, l,xl j, ;ejrSu ‘lD;sSu mrd.kh’ f,i ir,j wrA:

ùfï ;;a;ajh ms<sn|j u,a jdrfhaoS wjOdkfhka isg tys ;;a;ajh weia;fïka;= lr w.h lsrSula yd jrA. lsrSula wjYHhs’ túg .egMZ ;;a;ajhka

oelaúh yelsh’ fuh ‘Wmldrsl mrd. khg wu;r ‘md,s; mrd.kh’ f,io ye|skaúh yelsh’

y|qkdf.k Bg mrd.kh wjYH;djhls’

ms<shï fhoSu l<ukdlrKfha

lD;su mrd.kh i|yd wjYH fõ kï u,a W;af;ack l%shdj,shlao Ma iuÛu ie,iqï lsrSu iuyr úg wjYH úh yel’ ^Ref. Williams R. R. 1965.

lD;su mrd.kh iajdNdúl mrd.kh ùfïoS úúO mdrirsl ;;a;ajhkag yd ndOdjkag md;%ùu ksid idrA:l mrd.khla is\qùug we;s wjOdku yd wúksYaÑ; Ndjh iEu m<;=re Ydlhlgu uqyqK oSug is\qjk .egMZjls’ ksis wjia:dfõoS is\qúh hq;=h’ fuu wjodkï ;;a;ajh wju lr.ekSu i|yd m<;=re Ydl j, mrd.kh lD;suj md,kh lsrSug WoHdk md,lhdg wjia:dj ;sfí’ fï i|yd m<;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lrk

lD;su mrd.kh mrd.khg wu;rj

iajdNdúl is\qjk ksid

mrd.kfha jeä idrA:l;ajhla we;s ùfuka wiajekak jeäfjhs’ je,afodvï# ¥rshka# wfkdaod úfYaI wdoS m<;=re Ydl j,ska lD;su mrd.kfhka b;d by, wiajekakla ,nd.; yelsh’^Ohman 1997& lD;su mrd.kh iuyr m<;=re Ydl j, m%ckl l%shdj,sfha ndOl uÛyerSug b;d m%fhdackj;ah’ mqIam fïrSfïoS cdhdx.h yd mQudx.h wjia:d folloS fïrSu ksid;a# tal.DyS yd oaú.DyS ;;a;aj wkqj;a# idrA:l mrd.khla i|yd Pdhd iy mQudx.S bkaøSh j, l%shdldrÍ;ajh iumd; fkdùfuka idrA:l mrd.khla is\qùfï wjia:dj uÛyerSug bv we;’ WodJ-wfkdaod# ¥rshka tfukau ¥rshka jeks Ydlj, mrd. fïrSu b;d flá ld,iSudjloS is\q jqjo# Pdhdx. .%dyS;dj jeä meh 181


.Kkla mej;Su ksid mrd.khg we;s wjia:dj iSudfjhs’ tfyhska lD;su

;ejrSu ^nqreiqjla fyda w;e.s,s uÛZska& fndfydaúg is\qflfrA’ fuu ;ejrÍfï

mrd.kh fuu \qrAj,;d yd ndOl uÛyerSug odhl fjhs’

wjia:dj mrd. .%dyS wjia:dj úh hq;= w;r# th m<;=re fnda.fhka fnda. hg fjkiafjhs’ Mfyhska Ma iïnkaOj mQrAK oekqula yd wjfndaOhla ,nd

lD;su mrd.kh i|yd fïrE mrd. ksis wjia:dfõoS Mla/ia lr# YS;lrKhl .nvd lr ;nd mrd.kh i|yd yels blaukska fhdod.; hq;=h’ fuysoS l,ska tla/ia l< mrd. kj mqIam j, l,xl j, M, yg.ekSu i|yd ld,h = mrd.kh is\qùug bv = fok osk .Kk

.; hq;=h’ flfia jqjo William úiska 1965 oS bosrsm;a l< iólrKhg wkqj·

äïN j, cSù

mrd.kfha isg

ld,h osk .kK } ixiafpkh olajd .;jk osk .kK

kuq;a úYd, m<;=re Whka j,oS fuf,i tla/ia lr.;a mrd. c,fha oshlr

WÑ; ld,.=Ksl ;;a;ajhla mej;Suo wjYHhs’ jrAIdfjka f;dr ld,.=Ksl

ødjKhla f,i ilid mrd.kh l< hq;= mqIam u;g ksjeros wjia:dfõoS oshr biakdjlska biskq ,efí’ fuu l%uh t;rï idrA:l fkdjk w;r Y%uh i|yd úYd, úhoula oerSug is\qfjhs’ mrd. osh lsrSu i|yd c,h

;;a;ajhla kssYaÑ; ld,iSudjla ;=<oS mej;Su wjYH fõ’ fï i|yd meh lsysmhla mej;Su jqjo m<;=re úfYaIh wkqj m%udKj;a úh yels jqjo# mqIam yg.kakd wjêfha i;s lsysmhla mqrdu jrAIdfjka f;dr ld,.=Khla

fjkqjg jvd;a fmdaIl ñY% l< ødjK fhdod .kq ,efí’

mej;Su fmd\qfõ' ishMZ m<;=re fnda. j, mrd.kh idrA:l lsrSug bjy,a

^Williams. C. J. Hurt Sa 40*1965? 31&

fjhs’ tu mdrsirsl ;;a;aj j,oS mrd. ldrlhskaf.a m%Yia: l%shdldrS;ajhla olakg ,eîu ksid mrd.kh

9'5 mrd.khg n,mdk mdrsirsl idOl mrd.kh idrA:l ùug kï, mqIamfha mrd. .%dyS;dj iy mrd. iq,N;dj iumd; úh hq;=fiau, Ma i|yd 182

idrA:l ùug we;s bvlv jeä ùfuka mqIam yd l=vd M, ye,S hdu wvq fjhs’ fuu ;;a;aj fkdue;s ùu ksid úYd,


f,i mqIam yd l=vd M, ye,S hk nj olakg ,efí’

jeks& iumd; lsrSu (Synchronize& wjYH;djhls’

tfukau t, msysgqùfuka miqj t,

mdrsirsl idOl

jrAOkh ùu i|yd m%udKj;a f,i mdxY= f;;ukh ke;sùu ksid úYd, f,i M, ye,S hhs’ wêl úh<s ;;a;ajh ksid we;sjk c, ysÛZh fya;=fjka l=vd

u,a yd M, ye,S hdug fndfyda mdrsirsl

M, ye,Su iq,Nh’ wêl fú.fhka yuk iq<.Z;,a b;d úh<s ld,.=Kh;a fï ;;a;ajh ;j;a W.% lrhs’ frda. yd m<sfndaO ydksh ksido úYd, f,i u,a yd M, ye,S hhs’ úfYaIfhkau lSvEjka jeks lDókaf.a ydksh, msámqia yd weka;%elaafkdaia frda. ksid u,a yd M, ye,S hdu is\qfjhs’ fï fya;=fjka 100%lau jqjo u,a yd M, úkdY ùu is\qúh yelsh’ ixisoaê l%uj;aj Ydlh ;=< úúO YdLd j,, úúO wjia:dj,o we;s fjhs’ wdydr ixÑ; j,g jvd;a b,a¨ula we;sjkafka jefvñka mj;sk wxl=r, rsls,,s mqIamdxl=r yd M, j,g ksid tu Ydl j, ixÑ; wdydr i|yd mqMZ,a ;rÛhla mj;S’ m%uqL;dj wkqj wjYH Yla;sh fnod yerSfïoS \qrAj, yd wvq m%uqL;djg m;ajk, miq ld,Skj we;s jk mqIam yd l=vd M, ;rÛfhka bj;a flfrk ksid tajd ye,S hhs’ m<;=re WoHdk md,kfha oS fuu ;;a;ajh uÛyerSu i|yd jrAOk yd úlik l%shd ^otZ oeóu u,a ye,Su

idOl fya;= fjhs’ m<;=re WoHdkfha mdrsirsl idOl fndfydauhla md,kh l< yels jqjo, u,a yd M, ye,Sug fya;= jk iuyr idOl md,kh l< fkdyelsh’

mdxY= f;;ukh u,a yd M, yg.ekSug fmr fndfydaúg úh<s ;;a;ajhla mej;Su ys;lr jqjo, u,a yg.;a miq M, fudark ;=reu m%udKj;a ;rug mfia mj;ajd .; hq;=h’

f;;ukh

9'6 u,a ye,Su l<ukdlrKh nyq jdrAIsl m,;=re .il jrlg yg.kakd uqMZ u,a ixLHdfjka 0.001% muK u,a njg m;a jk w;r tu u,a j,ska 30-40% l m%udKhla u,a jrska jr ye,Shdu iajdNdúl rgdjls' wdrA:sl M,odhS;dj wvq ùug n,mdk m%Odk .egMZjla f,i u,a yd M, ye,Shdu y"kdf.k ;sfí’ m<;=re WoHdk kv;a;=fõoS fuu .egMZjg m%udKj;a ;rï úi\qï wkq.ukh lsrSu jeo.;a wjYH;djhls’ m<;=re Ydl j, u,a yd M, ye,Shdu iïmQrAKfhkau je<elaúh fkdyels jk w;r, tfia lsrSfï wjYH;djhlao ke;’ w;s úYd, ixLHdjla u,a yd M, 183


yg.kakd ksid tfia lsrSug W;aidy lsrSfï jeo.;alula o ke;’ flfia jqjo, wdrA:sl m%;s,dN iSudj Wfoid hï m%udKhlg u,a yd M, ye,S hdu l<ukdlrKh lsrSfï wjYH;djhla ;sfí’ úúO idOl ksid u,a ye,S hdu wdrA:sl wiajekako wNsnjd is\qùug ´kE ;rï wjldY ;sfnk ksid m<;=re WoHdkhla msysgqùu yd l<ukdlrKfhaoS Ma iïnkaOj m%udKj;a wjfndaOhla yd wjOdkhla ;sîu jeo.;ah’ m<;=re Ydl j, u,a yd M, ye,S hkafka kï, Bg fya;= idOl l,a we;sj y"kd .ekSu m<;=re WoHdk md,kfhaoS jeo.;a fjhs’ túg tu idOl uÛyerùu iy WÑ; m%;sldr ksis l,g wkq.ukh lsrSug yels ùfuka is\qùug bv ;snQ wiajkq ydksh yels;dla wvqlr .; yelsjkq we;’ u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wvqlr .ekSu i|yd wkq.ukh l< yels mshjr ldKav ;=klg fnod oelaúh yelsh’ tkï WÑ; m<;=re m%fNao j.dj i|yd fhdod.ekSu, m<;=re Ydl kv;a;=j i|yd WÑ; jk YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u wkq.ukh lsrSu yd ridhksl l%u uÛska u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wvqlr .ekSu hkdoshhs’

9'6'1 u,a ye,Shdu md,kh lsrSu u,a yd M, ye,Shdu m<;=re

Ydl

j,

yg.kakd

u,a

ixLHdj iy wjidkfhaoS wiajekak f,i fk,d .kakd M, ixLHdj fyda w;r w;s úYd, fjkila olakg ,efí’ nyq jdrAIsl m<;=re Ydlhl tl lkakhloS yg.kakd u,a ixLHdj .Kkh l< fkdyels ;rï w;s úYd,h’ tl wU u,a lsks;a;l muKla yg.kakd u,a ixLHdj 800 isg 4000 olajd wU m%fNaoh wkqj fjkia fjhs’ w,s.egfmar u,a lsks;a;l u,a 400 isg 2000 olajd fjkia jk w;r# tl .il jrlg yg.kakd ixLHdj ms<sn|j woyila thska ,nd.; yelsh’ ksjrA;k l,dmSh m<;=re Ydl fndfydauhlu ;;a;ajh fuh jk w;r# mqIam wdlD;sh ìysùfï isg M,h fïrSu olajdu w;r ld, iSudj ;=<oS w;s úYd, mqIam yd l=vd M, m%udKhla ye,S hk nj fmfka’ yg.kakd mqIam ish,a,u M, njg m;alr,Sug yelshdjla YdLd fnfok m<;=re úfYaI (Sympodials& j,g ke;s kuq;a ;;a;ajh b;d i;=gqodhl uÜgul w;= fkdfnfok m<;=re ^Monopodials& Ydl j, ;sfí’ fï jk úg mqIam ye,Shdug fya;= jk idOl úYd, ixLHdjla y"kdf.k ;sfí’ uE;loS mdrsirsl yd WoHdk

184


úoHd{fhda mqIam yg.ekSu;a# M, yg.ekSu;a w;r we;sjk l%shdj,shka

lr ;sfí’ u,a yd M, ye,Shdfï ;;a;ajh b;d iómj wOHkh lrk

yd mrsir idOkhka ms<sn|j úYd, f,i wjOdkh fhduq lr;s’

úg fmkS hk lreKla kï iuyr m<;=re fnda. j, u,a ye,S hdu 99’999%] lg;a jvd jeä nj fmfka’

(Stephenson. A. G. 1981. yg.kakd mqIam ixLHdj# tajd yg.kakd ld,h# tu mqIam tlsfkl w;r we;s bvlv iy mj;sk mdrirsl ;;a;ajhka tu msysàug n,mdk m%Odk idOl nj fmkajd oS ;sfí’ Bg wu;rj mqIam yd M, i|yd Ydlh úiska fjkalr fokq ,nk iïm;a m%udKh# ^wdydr# c,h# Lksc& frda. yd m<sfndaO# mqIam yd M, u; hefmk i;=ka iy îc jHdma;shg we;s hdka;%Kh hk idOl o jeo.;a fjk nj fmkajd oS we;' ^Ref.Roets )(N. J. R. , S. de Meillon, C. Kaiser. P. J. Robbertes, u,a yd M, ye,Shdu md,kh ùug Ydlfha mqIam yd M, j, we;s fydafudak jk TlaiSk yd t;s,Ska w;r wkqmd;fha fjkiaùï uQ,sl jk njo fmkajd oS ;sfí’ Bg wu;rj iDcqj yd jl%j óg n,mdk Ydluh yd mdrirsl idOl fndfydauhla y"kdf.k ;sfí’ u,a yd M, ye,Shdu l,dmhlg fyda tla tla tla fnda.hlg jQ .egMZjla fkdfõ’

tla foaY.=Ksl lkakhlg fyda fyda f,i fjka ta ksidu fuu

.egMZj ms<sn|j úúO rgj, úYd, f,i wOHkh lr ;sfnk w;r# ta i|yd m%;sldro# j;a ms<sfj;ao ixjrAOkh

WodJ-wU, w,s.egfmar, rUqgka, ¥rshka, W.=/iai, f,dú jdKsc

m<;=re

WoHdk

j,

we;s

m%Odk fnda. jk wU, w,s.egfmar, meÛsrs fnda., rUqgka wdosfha u,a yd M,ye,S hdu úYd, .egMZjls’ Ma ksidu jeä wOHkhla lr we;af;a o fuu fnda. i|yd fjhs’ fuu fnda. jdKsc uÜgfuka j.d lsrSfïoS n,mdk wêl wjodkug fya;=jo u,a yd M, ye,Shduhs’ fuu ;;a;ajh M, j, jdrh yd wjdrh hk folgu fjkia jk rgdjka wdldrhg we;sjk nj fmfka’ ukd WoHdk md,k jevigykl u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wju lsrSfï jevigykla l,a we;sju y"kd.; hq;= w;r, ksis wjia:dfõoS wkq.ukh lsrSug iQodkï úh hq;=h’ u,a yd M,ye,S hdug n,mdk fya;= idOl rdYshla y|qkdf.k ;sfí’ tajd wjfndaO lr .ekSu tajd md,kh i|yd jev ms<sfj;la ilialr .ekSug rel=,la jkq we;’ fuu idOl m%Odk jYfhka ldKav follg fnod oelaúh' yelsh’ tkï Ydlhg iïnkaO idOl yd mdrsirsl idOl hkqfjks’

185


l=vd M, ye,Shdfuz rgdjka

wiajekak ydks fjhs’

m<;=re Ydl úfYaI fndfydauhl l=vd M, ye,Shdu lsishï rgdjlg wkqj is\qjk nj fmfka’ tajd ;rx. wdldrhg is\qùu uÛska jrska jr

úúO fmdaIK W!K;d fya;=fjkao u,a yd l=vd M, ye,Shdu is\qfjhs’ le,aishï# fmdiamria iy fmdgEishï

jvd;a il%Sh ù idrA:l M,j, jeãu blauka lsrSug;a# \qrAj, M, w;ruÛoS Ydlfhka bj;a lsrSu;a is\qflfrA’ wU Ydlfha M, ye,Shdfï WÉp;u wjia:d 4la ;sfí hehs fmkajd oS ;sfí’ kuq;a M, ye,Shdu jeämqru is\qjkafka b;d l=vd .eg wjêfhaoShs’ M, ygf.k i;s 3la .;jk úg fuu ;;a;ajh oelsh yels kuq;,a m%fNaoh wkqj fjkia úh yelsh’

wU

M, ye,Shk fojk wjia:dj kï jefvk wU .egfha úYalïNh ñ’ó’4la muK jk wjia:djhs’ fuu wjêh m<uq wjêh iuÛ iumd;j is\qúh yelsh’ fuu wjia:d foflkau wU wiajekakg t;rï n,mEula ke;s jkafka ta jk úg;a w;s úYd, ixLHdjla idrA:lj mrd.kh ù M, msysgd ;sfnk fyhsks’ wU .eg ye,Sfï ;=kajk wjêhjkafka l=vd wU t,fha úYalïNh ñ’ó’16-35la muK jk úgh’ fuu jkafka th iDcqju yd l=vd M, ixLHd;aul

wjia:dj b;d jeo.;a wjidk wU wiajekakg oeäju n,mdk fyhsks’ ye,Sfï fojk wjêfha w.h jeä jqjo ;=kajk

wjêfhaoS M, ye,Shdu ksid jeämqr 186

hk W!K;d fuysoS b;d jeo.;a fjhs’ (Sng, U. R. 1960. Studien the Fruit Drop Mango. wU j, ye,Sfï wjidk wjia:dj wU M, fïrSu is\qjk wjêhhs’ ixLHd;aulj wvq m%udKhla jeà .sho tuÛska wiajekakg úYd, n,mEula is\qfjhs’ ( Chadha and sing 1964 ) (Chadha, K. L. and Sing K. K. 1963.)

u,a yd M, ye,Shdu we;slrk idOl l

m%fNao j, ,CIK

u,a yd M, yg.ekSu, mrd.kh, M, msysàu, M, jrAOkh yd u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wdoS is\qùï m%fNao wkqj fjkia jk nj fmkajd oS ;sfí’ ^Chadha and Sing 1963& mrd.kh idrA:lj bgqlr .ekSug m%fõKsl .egMZ rys; m%fNao j.dj i|yd fhdod .ekSu, u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wvq m%fNao f;dard.ekSu uQ,sl wjYH;djhls’ úYd, wkqmd;hlg il%Sh oaú ,sx.sl fyda ia;%S ,sx.sl mqIam yg.kakd m%fNao, mrd.kh iSudjka we;s fkdjQ m%fNao, mQudx.fha fyda ia;%S ,sx.sl wx. j, úlD;s yd \qrAj,;d we;s fkdjQ m%fNao yd osrsu;a mqIam úYd, f,i yg.kakd


m%fNao j.dj i|yd f;dard.ekSu iq\qiqh’ m%fúKsl \qrAj,;d we;s m%fNao

mrd.OdkS msmsrSu yd l,xlfha mrd. .%dyS;dj iumd; fkdjqko fjk;a

y"kdf.k m<;=re WoHdkh msysgqùu i|yd fhdod.; hq;=h’ WodJ- iuyr ú,dâ wU Ydl j, mQudx.S f,i yeisfrk oaú,sx.sl

m%fNaohl tu wjia:djka iuÛ iumd; ùfï wjia:dj jeä ùfuka mrd.kh idrA:l ù u,a, M, ye,Shdfï wjodku wvq ùug fya;= fjhs’ fuu

mqIam úYd, f,i yg.ekSu ksid t, msysàu wvqfjhs’

ñY% lsrSu 90%la yd 10%la jeks wkqmd;hlg is\qlsrSu m%udKj;a fjhs’ mefmd,a j.dfõ kï cdhdx.S Ydl 90%la i|yd oaú,sx.sl Ydl 10%la

l

YIH úoHd;aul Wml%u

u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wvqlr .ekSu i|yd wjYH jk miqìu m<;=re WoHdkh ie,iqï lsrSfïoSu ilia l< hq;=h’ tuÛska u;= lf,loS tjeks .egMZ mek ke.Sug we;s wjia:d wju lr.ekSug bv ie,fihs’ flfia jqjo, tfia ie,iqï fkdl< m<;=re WoHdkhl jqjo miq lf,loS Mjeks M, ye,Shdfï .egMZ mj;sk úg iuyr Wml%u wkq.ukh lr .egMZj wju lr.ekSug lghq;= l< yelsh’ l

mrd.khg ys;lr m%fNao Ndú;h’

mrd.kh idrA:l lr M, msysàu jeä lr.ekSu uÛskao u,a yd M, ye,Shdu wvq lr.; yels ksid ta i|yd WÑ; m%fNao iïñY%Kh lr isgqùu ys;lrh’ w,s.egfmar, wU, rUqgka, je,a fodvï, ¥rshka, lgq wfkdaod, weU/,a,d, ldurx.d iy iemos,a,d Bg losu WodyrKhs’ w,s.egfmar ldKavh A yd B ldKavh ñY%j isgqùu iq\qiqh’ fuysoS

mej;Su m%udKj;a fjhs’ oaú,sx.sl Ydl muKla we;s j.djloS kï tajd muKla ;sîuo m%udKj;a fjhs’ lgq wfkdaod, je,a fodvï, ldurx.d jeks Ydl j, u,a yd M, ye,Shdu úYd, .egMZjls’ Bg m%Odk fya;=j mrmrd.kh m%udKj;a f,i is\qfkdùuhs’ tfyhska îc me< 2 laj;a isgqùu uÛska mr mrd.khg myiqlï ie,ish yelsh’ l

mdrsirsl idOl fjkia lsrSu

m<;=re WoHdkh ;=< t, yg.kakd iuh ;=<oS jvd ys;lr mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhla ìys lsrSu yd mj;ajdf.k hdu uÛska M, ye,Shdu ie,lsh hq;= ;rug wvq lr.; yelsh’ fuysoS u,a W;af;ackh i|yd idfmalaIj wys;lr mdrsirsl ;;a;aj m%fhdackj;a jqjo, u,a yg.;a miq thska jeä M, ixLHdjla ìys lr.ekSug kï tu ld,h ;=<oS ys;lr mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhla mj;ajdf.k hd hq;=h’ 187


ys;lr mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhla hkq ukd mdxY= f;;ukh, m%udKj;a ;rï ysre

YdLd j, fmd;= len,s bj;a lsrSu, ^wrAO j,hdldr& b;d isyska fmd;=

t<shla, by< WIaK;ajhla yd wvq rd;%S WIaaK;ajhla, wêl iq<x yeóulska f;dr ùu yd frda. m,sfndaO wdl%uK wju ùu ie,lsh yelsh’ fndfyda úg

;Sre bj;a lsrSu iy fmd;= wjysr jk fia lïì fmdgj,a j,ska ;oska fj,Su, YdLd wE;a jk fia ‘nrla’ t,a,Su wdoS m%;sldr uÛska Ydlhg

WoHdkfha mj;sk wkjYH fijk bj;a lsrSu;a, c, iïmdok lghq;= m%Yia: wdldrhg mj;ajdf.k hEu;a, u,a yg.ekSfuka miq m<;=re Ydl

jeämqr ysre t<sh m%fhdackhg .;yels jk w;r, maf,dahu mgl wjysr ùu ksid jeämqr M, yg.ekSu wfmalaId l< yelsh’ tfukau wdydr

ukdf,i ysre t<shg újD;j ;sîu;a, iq<.ska wdrlaId lr.ekSug lghq;= is\qlr ;sîu;a m%udKj;ah’ tfukau

yd fydafudak kj iu;=,s;;djhlg meñKSu fya;=fjka M, i|yd jeämqr ixiaf,aIs; øjH ,eîhdu ksid M,

wjOdkula iys; frda. m,sfndaO .yKh jeä ùu je<elaùu i|yd u,a yg.kakd iuh weröu;a iuÛu ta i|yd iq\qiq l%fudamdhka wkq.ukh

ye,Shdu wvqfjhs’ tfukau M, j, úYd,;ajho wvqfjhs’

lr ;sîu b;d jeo.;a wjYH;djhls’

wfkl=;a idOl j,oS fukau fuu Wml%u j,oSo is\qjkafka wod, YdLdfõ jeämqr wdydr tla/ia ùu ^ldnka jeäùu&

tfukau m<;=re WoHdkfha idudkH ;dlaIKsl kv;a;=j ;=<oS, fuu wjêfhaoS mfia f;;ukh yd fmdaIl ;;a;ajh md,kh lr ;nd.ekSu

ksid ldnka, khsg%cka wkqmd;h jeäùu fukau Ydl fydafudak j, kj iu;=,s;;djlg m;aùu hehs wfmalaId l< yelsh’ fuys m%;sM,hla f,i tu

jeo.;a jkafka Ma ksidh’ fï i|yd jHqy fhoSuo m%fhdackj;a l%shdudrA.

YdLdjg jeä M, m%udKhla ord isàug yelshdj ,efnkq we;’ m<;=re WoHdkfha tosfkod kv;a;= lghq;= j,g fuu Wml%u we;=MZ lsrSfuka jeä jdishla ,nd.; yelsjkq we;’

hls’ u,a W;af;ackh i|yd w;a ysgqjk ,o c, iïmdok yd c, l<ukdlrK l%shdldrlï kej; wdrïN lsrSu;a, mi u;=msg kej; ilia lr.ekSu;a fuysoS wjYH úh yelsh’ l

fmd;= wjysr lsrSu

u,a yg.ekaùu i|yd lrkq ,nk ms<shula f,i; f;dard .;a mrsK; 188

l

Ydl j, kSfrda.S nj

m<;=re WoHdkfha fi!LHdrlaIs; nj tys t,odhS;djhg iDcqju odhl fjhs’ u,a yg.ekSfï wjia:dfõ muKla fkdj, wLKavju WoHdkfha Ydl


m%udKj;a f,i frda., m<sfndaO j,ska f;drj mj;ajdf.k hEu iq\qiqh’ th

w,s.egfmar j, Fruit Piercing Moth f.a ydksh ksid;a, lfndMZ

t;rï myiq lreKla fkdjk fyhska wju jYfjka u,a jdrh wdrïN ùug i;s lsysmhlg fmr isg frda. yd m,sfndaO m%udKj;a f,i urAOkh

frda.h (Scab& ksid;a, l=vd .eg úYd, f,i ye,Shk nj fmfka’ tu lDóka urAOkh werôh hq;af;a u,a yg.kakd wjêfha isguh’

lr.; hq;=h’ frda. m<sfndaO urAOkh i|yd YIH úoHd;aul yd ridhksl Wml%u j, iïñY%Khla ^Integrated Approch& l%uj;aj fhdod.; yelsh’

w;ska mrd.kh lsrSu

fuysoS ksis lmamd\qj, mqyqKqj, wiajekak fk,Sfuka miq l< hq;= kv;a;= lghq;,= Ydl fmdaIKh fukau mdxY= f;;ukho ksis mrsos mj;ajd .ekSu wjYH fjhs’ bkamiq wjYHfõ kï u,a jdrh weröu;a iuÛu wfmalaIs; frda. yd m<sfndaO urAOkh i|yd mshjr .; hq;=h’ WodJ-m<;=re ueiaid urAOkh’ rUqgka msámqia frda.h urAOkh’ l=vd M, ye,Shdug tla m%n, fya;=jla jkafka lDñ yd frda. wdidokhhs' msá ul=Kd# l+ä;a;d# uhsgd jeks m<sfndaOlhka fukau# msámqia# weka;%elafkdaia yd nelaàrshd wdidok ksido l=vd M, úYd, f,i ye,Shdu wU# w,s.egfmar# rUqgka yd ¥rshka j, olakg ,efí' W.=/iai yd fldia Ydl j, <má M, j, iq,n os,Sr frda. ksid úYd, f,i M, ye,Shk fyhska u,a yg.kakd wjêfha isgu ;;a;ajh md,kh lr.; hq;=h'

fndfydauhla m<;=re Ydl j, M, ye,Shdu wvq lsrSug w;ska mrd.kh lsrSu WmldrS jk nj fmkajd oS ;sfí’ fndfydauhla m<;=re Ydl j, m%udKj;a f,i iajmrd.kh is\qùu je<elaùfï Wml%u l%shd;aul ùu ksid Majd iuyr wjia:d j,oS mrmrd.khgo ndOdjla ù ;sfí’ WodJw,s.egfmar j, u,a l,ska mrsK; ùu# ¥rshka j, mrd. ksoyia ùu uOHu rd;%sh wdikak ld,fhaoS is)ùu# wfkdaod j, l,xlfha mrd. .%dyS;dj iji 7g muK is\qùu’ fï ksid ksis wjia:d j,oS mrd. fkd,eî hdugo bv ;sfí’ fuu 189


\qrAj,;d ksid m%udKj;a ;rï mrd.khla is\q fkdùu uÛyerSug

iq\qiq ;;a;ajhla rys; m<;=re Ydl j, mdrsirsl idOl fl;rï m%Yia:

yelskï l=vd M, ye,Shdu wvq lr.; yelsh’

jqjo u,a yd M, ye,S hkq we;’ Ydlfha wNHka;r# ldhsl fukau m%fõKsl idOlo óg n,mdk nj fmfka’

w;ska mrd.kh lsrSu fï i|yd losu úi\qula imhhs’ mrd. tla/ia lr .nvdjla ;ndf.k, mrmrd.kh i|yd ksis wjia:dfõoS fhdod.; yelsh’ tu tla/ia lr.;a mrd. l,xlh u; ;ejrSu muKla m%udKj;ah’ WodJ-¥rshka, lgqwfkdaod, je,a fodvï fuysoS l,xlfha mrd. @k;ajh jeä lsrSu uÛska idrA:l mrmrd.khla is\ql< yelsh’ m<;=re WoHdkfha u,a jdrhg w;ska mr mrd.kh lsrSu i|yd jevms<sfj,la wkq.ukh lsrSfuka M,odj jeä lr.; yelsh’ tfukau M, ye,Shduo úYd, f,i wvq lr.; yelsh’ flfia jqjo, w;ska mrd.kh lsrSu i|yd ta ta m<;=re fnda.fha m%ckl ldhsl úoHdj ms<sn|j wjfndaOhla uQ,sl jYfhka wjYH fjhs’ tu ldrAhdj,sh ie,iqï lr.ekSu iy mQrAj iQodkï ùu u; fuys idrA:l;ajh rodmj;S’

9'7 M, msysáu flfrys n,mdk idOl M, msysàu flfrA n,mdk idOl iDcqju yd jl%juo u,a yd M, ye,S hdu flfrA' oeä n,mEula t,a, lrhs’ ksis mrsos M, msysàu i|yd 190

l

mqIam j, ,sx.sl wkqmd;h

fndfyda úg fuu ;;a;ajh m%fõKsh wkqj ;SrKh ù ;sfí’ iuyr m<;=re fnda. j, M, yg fkd.kakd msrsñ yd mQudx.S oaú,sx.sl ^oaú,sx.sl mqIm a jqjo mQudx.S f,i l%shd lrhs’& mqIm a m%;sY;h jeä nj olakg ,efí’ WodJ- wU m%fNaoh wkqj fuu ;;a;ajh fjkia fjhs’ fj,af,hsfldf,dïnka wU mqIam uxcrsfha oaú,sx.sl mqIam wêlj mj;sk w;r, mQudx.S mqIam b;d wvq ixLHdjla ;sfí’ iuyrúg oaú .DyS ùu ksid mQudx.S mqIam muKla yg.kakd m<;=re Ydlo olakg ,efí’ WodJ-W.=/iai, iemos,a,d, f,dú, rUqgka fuu idOl fjkia l< fkdyels ksid u,a j, ye,S hdu md,kh lr.; fkdyelsh’ l mqIamfha ,sx.sl fldgia j, l%shdldrS;ajh’ iuyr m<;=re Ydl j, mQudx.S fldgia j, fyda Pdhdx.S fldgia j, úúO wiudk yd iumd; fkdjk l%shdldrS;ajh ksid


mrd.khg wjia:dj .s,sySfuka mqIam ye,Shdu is\qfjhs’ tfukau cdhdx.

l

Ydlh ;=< m%Nj(Source& yd ixÑ; w;r ;r.Zh’^Sink&

fha lS,h flá ùu, mrd. wl%Sh ùu jeks idOlo iuyr wU m%fNao j,g n,mdk nj fmkajdoS ;sfí’

Ydl jrAOkh yd úlikh iumd;

fï ishMZ ;;a;ajhka ksid idrA:l mrd.khla fkdùfuka mqIm a

9'8 m,;=re f.ä me,Shdu wNsfhda.hla

ye,Shdu b;du iq,N ixisoaêhls’ idrA:lj mrd.kh is\qùfï úYd, wjodkula ;snqKo idrA:lj is\qjk mrd.khloS jqjo ksis mrsos äïnh ixfiapkh fkdùug we;s bvlv jeä ksid tysoS o mqIam ye,S hdu olakg ,efí’ idrA:l mrd.khla fkdùug fya;= idOl fndfydauhla m<;=re WoHdkfha mj;sk nj fmfka’ l

Ydlfha jhi yd fïre wjia:dj’

fkdjQ Ydl j, úúO wjia:dj,oS oMZ oeóu, u,ayg .ekSu'

fyd|ska meiS M, nrjq f.ä j,ska msreKQ m,;=re .ila fl;ruz iqkaoroR tfukau me,ula” ,mhla” ke;s fmd;a; ;=jd, fkdjq m,;=re f.ähla iEu fk;lau wdlrAIKh lrhs’ ta ksidu fj<|mf,a Wmrsu ñ,la tjeks f.äj,g ,eîu idOdrKh’ tjeks f.ä ksmojk f.dúhdg;a tjeks m,;=re wf,úlrK fjf<kaodg;a Wmrsu ,dNhla Wmhd.; yels

fndfydauhla m<;=re Ydl j, m%:u jrg mqIam yg.;a miqj;a, B<Û u,a jdr fol ;=kloS;a úYd,

fjk w;r” tajd ñ,os .kakd mdrsfNda.slhdf.a n,dfmdfrd;a;=j iemsfrA’ ta ksid .=Kd;aul m,;=re ksIamdokfha ldrAhdj,sfha wjidk

f,i mqIam ye,Shdu is\qfjhs’ fuh Ydlfha wmrsK; nj ksid;a, ldhsl

woshr jYfhka ;=jd, fkdjq f.ä mdrsfNda.slhdf.a w;g m;alsrSsu b;d

úoHd;aulj iunr;djhlg m;a ù ke;s ksid;a, ixÑ; wdydr m%udKhka

jeo.;afjhs’

f.a úIu;d ksid;a, fndfyda úg is\qúh yelsh’ Ydlh fïrsfïoS fï ;;a;ajh ia:djr;ajhlg m;aù, idudkH mrsos mqIam yd M, ye,S hdfï rgdjg wkq.; jkq we;’

fo(uz” fmar” f,uka” wfkdaod” ños” rUqgka” iy w,s.egfmar jeks m,;=re f.ä jrAOkfha úúO wjia:dj,osS me,Ssf.dia f.dúhdg úYd, f,i w,dN is\qfjk nj olakg ,efnhs’ kgqjg wdikakfha fyda f.äfha kgqjg úreoaO fl,jfrA ljdldrj fyda osla w;g fuu f.ä me,shdu fndfydaúg .egMZjls’ iuyr wjia:dj,oSs .fia f.ä ish,a,u 191


fuf,i me,Ss úkdY ù hhs’ fuu .eg( ksid tajdfha lsis\q wdrA:Sl jákdlula

wêl WKQiquz ld,hla wêl isis,a $ iS;, ld,hla’

ke;sfjk w;r” tu ;=jd, j,ska úúO frda. îc we;=MZ ùu ksid l=Kqù hdug bv ;sfnz’ fuu me,Su fmd;a; muKla úh yels w;r” iuyr úg iuzmQrAK

fndfydaúg wU” foys” fodvuz” foMZuz

udxi,ho olakg ,efnz’

jeks fnda. j, u,a yg.kafka úh<s ld, isudjlg miqjh’ ta iuÛu l=vd f.ä yg.kakd w;r” tajd fuzrSug idudkHfhka udi 3-4 .;fjz’ u,a

m,;=re f.ä fuf,i me,Su úYd, mdvqjla fjk w;r” th wju lr .ekSu i|yd mshjr .ekSsu j.dlrejka úiska bgql, hq;a;ls’ ta

yg.eksu úh<s ld,fha is\q jqjo f.ä ygf.k tajd ukdf,i jrAOkh ù meiSug mfia m%udKj;a f;;ukhla .ig ,ndosh hq;=h’ os.= úh<s ld,hloSs

i|yd wjYHjk ms<shuz y"kd .eksug kuz m<uqj fuz me,sShdug fya;=jk idOl y"kd.eksSsu b;d jeo.;ah’

fufia yg .kakd f.äj,g jrAOk ld,fhaoSs fyd|ska f;;ukh fkd,eî miqj yosisfhau jrAIdjla ,eîu fyda

m,;=re me,sShdug fya;=jk idOl úYd, ixLHdjla ;sfnz’ tajd w;r” mfia f;;ukh iuznkaO fukau mfia fmdaIK ;;a;ajho frda. yd m,sfndaO

c, iuzmdokh ksid f.ä me,Shhs’ úh<s ld,fhaoSs f.äfha fmd;a; rMZù ;o ù jefvk w;r” mfia f;;ukh CIKslj jeäs jq úg .ig jeämqr

ydkso f.ä me,sSug fya;=fjhs’ f.äh fuzrSsfuz rgdj;a m,;=re m%fNaofha ,CIK;a hdka;s%l me, yemamSuz jeks lreKq;a fuhg fya;=fjhs’ fuzjd

c,h Wrdf.k f.ä j,g hefjz’ túg f.äfha udxi,h bosfuhs’ f.äfha fmd;a; oekgu;a ;o ù we;s ksid we|Sug m%;sfrdaOs ùfuka f.äsh me,sSs

ms<sn|j iúia;rd;aulj wjfndaO lr .ekSsu jvd m%fhdackj;a fjhs’

hhs’

l

mfia f;;ukh

fuu ;;a;ajh fndfyda m,;=re f.ä me,Sug fya;= fjz’ fndfydaúg w;= fnoSs jefvk m,;=re fnda. j, ^ wU” fo(uz” foys” odvuz jeks& u,a yg.kafka lsishuz wys;lr mdrsirsl ;;a;ajhlaj .i lsishuz ld, isSudjlg n\qkajq miqjhs’ Wod*- úh<s ld,hla” mi úh<S hdu” 192

l

mrsirfha WIaK;ajh

fndfyda m,;=re f.ä me,Shdug B<g jeo.;au fya;=j jkafka fuhhs’ f.ä fudark ld,fhaoSs mrsirfha wêl WIaK;ajhla we;s jqjfyd;a f.ä me,Shdu is\qfjhs’ wêl úh<s $Y=Ial m%foaYj, mfia f;;ukh wvq ugzgul mj;s’ tfukau tu m%foaYj, mrsirfha wêl WIaK;ajhla mj;s’ fuz iuÛu


mrsirfha wdrA\%;djho my, ugzgul mj;s fuz ish( idOl ksid tu Y=Ial mrsirfhaoSs m,;=re f.äs me,Shdu is\qfjhs' tfukau mrsirfha WIaK;ajh wêl f,i by, hdu foMZuz f.äs me,S hdug fya;=fjk nj fmfka’ l

mrsirfha iq<x ;;a;ajh

WKqiquz úh<s iq,x uÛska jefvk mj;sk m,;=re f.ä me,Shdug fya;=jla fjhs’ fuu iq<x ksid f.ä j,ska wêl f,i f;;ukh bj;aùuo fuzjd me,Sug fya;=fjz’ tfukau wêl iq<x yeóu ksid jefvk f.ä j,ska c,h bj;aùu ksid f.äfha fmd;a; oeäfjhs’ túg tys wef|k iq( iajNdjh wvqfjhs’ mfia f;;ukh miqj jeäjqjfyd;a ^jrAIdj fyda c, iuzmdokh ksid& f.äfha udxi,hg jeämqr Wrd .ekSfuka th bosó mrsudj jeäfjhs’ tfy;a f.äfha fmd;a; m%udKj;a ;ruz fkd wefok ksid me,ssS hhs’ l

mfia fmdaIl ;;a;ajh

f.ä me,Ssug Ndckhjk m,;=re fnda.j, .iaj,g m%udKj;a ;ruz fmdaIl fkd,eîhduo f.ä me,Sshdug ;j;a fya;=jls’ le,aishuz yd fndfrdaka W!K;dj fndfyda m,;=re f.ä me,Shdug fya;=fjk nj jdrA;d ù ;sfnz’ fo(ïZ f.ä me,Shdu óg losu ksoiqkls’ mfia fuu fmdaIl ke;sùu fyda ;snqK;a Wrd.ekSsu i|yd m%udKj;a f;;ukhla ke;sùu óg

fya;= jYfhka oelaúh yelsh’ frda. yd m,sfndaO ydks iuyr wjia:dj,oSs lDñ ydks fyda$yd l

frda. wdidok fya;=fjka m,;=re f.ä me,Shk nj fmfkhs’ m<uqj lDñydks is\q fjhs’ úfYaIfhka hqI Wrdfndk lDñkaf.a ydksh is\qfjk ;=jd, ;=<g os,sr yd wksl=;a frda. îc we;=( fjhs’ túg mfia f;;ukfha yosis jeäùula ^c, iuzmdokh fyda jrAIdj& iuÛu f.ähg jeämqr c,h Wrd.eksfuka udxi,fha mrsudj jeäjk úg kef.k mSvkh ksid lDñydksh is\qjq ;=jd,h yrd f.äh me,Su is\qfjhs’ Wod*w,s.egfmar yd wU f.äj, nelaárshdkq wdidok ksid f;;a iys;jqo ;o fld, mdgjq o mq,a,s we;sfjhs’ tu mq,a,s u; l=vd me,quz we;sfjhs’ tu me,au ;=<ska ue,shuz jEiaiSu is\qfjhs’ fuz ;;a;ajh jeämqru wU j, olakg we;af;a f.ä fudark ld,hg jrAIdj we;sjq úghs’ f.äh fuzrSfuz rgdj m,;=re f.ähl uq,a wjêfhaosS iS.% jrAOkhla fmkajd l%ufhka f.äh fudark úg fuz jrAOkh wvqfjñka hhs’ l

jrAOkh Wmrsu jqjdg miqj f.äh boSu fyj;a f.äfha mgl ì| jeàu werfUhs’ fuz rgdfjka neyerj hñka os.gu f.äh fuzrsu is\qúh yelsh’ mfia fmdaIKh yd f;;ukh wêlj mej;su ksido fuz wkjYHf,i f.äh fuzrsug n\qkaúh yel’ túg bosSu 193


mudúSu ksid;a wkjYHf,i f.äh ;j\qrg;a fuzrSsu ksid;a iuyr úg me,Sshdu is\qfjhs’ ;=ks fmd;a;la iys; f.ä yg.kakd m,;=re fnda.j, fuh

jeãug is\qùu ksid we;sjk hd;a;s%l fya;= ksido iuyr úg m,;=re f.ä mef,hs’ oeä ysret<shg n\qka ùfuzoSs we;sjk mgl ì|jeàuz f.äs me,sshug

iq,Nj is\qúh yelsh’ Wod*- ños” rUqgka” fuz f.ä fudrk úg we;sjk iq( jrAIdjla ksid jqjo f.ä me,Shdug

rel=,a fohs’ fuf,i m,;=re f.ä me,Shdu tys iajNdjh wkqj lKavdhuz j,g fnod oelaúh yelsh’

fya;=fjhs’

1’ jD;a;dldr me,Suz

l

m,;=re m%fNaoh

f.ä me,Shdug Ndckhjk m,;=re m%fNao ;sfnz’ tajd fha m%fjzKsl ,CIK ^Wm;ska ,nk ,CIK& f,i

f.äh mqrdu fyda lsishuz me;a;l fyda jD;a;dldr fyda rjquz yeve;s l=vd me,quz olakg ,efnz’ Wod*- ;lald,s” ños

f.ä me,Shdfuz \qrAj,;dj oelaúh yelsh’ fuu m,;=re .iaj,g c,h Wrd.ekSsfuz yelshdj c,h Wrd.eksSfuz fjz.h fukau f.äfha

2’ j,hdldr me,Suz*fuysos tla ia:dkhla jgd j,¨ wdldrhg me;srs hkfia f.äfha fmd;a; mqmqrd hhs’

msg; fmd;a; msg;g weoShdug we;s yelshdj wdosh m%fNaoh wkqj fjkiafjhs’ iuyr m%fNaoh j, fuu weoSshdfuz yelshdj wvqksid f.ähg c,h Wrd.ekSfuzoS;a f.äfha uoh úYd, úfuzoSs;a we;sjk f;rmqu ksid

Wod*- ;lald,s

fmd;a; mqmqrdhhs’ m,;=re jdrfha l,skau f.ä yg.kakd m%fNao j, f.ä me,Shdfuz wjodku jeä nj fmks f.dia ;sfnz’ l

hd;a;s%l fya;=

fmdl=frA f.ä tlsfkl we;s,a,Su” w;= m;r tlsfklg .eàu iy wkjYH f,i fmdl=frA f.ä tlsfklg ;où 194

3’ wl%uj;a me,Su*fndfyda m,;=re j, fuh olakg ,efnz’ f.äh iuzmQrAKfhkau me,Shdu fndfydaúg olakg ,efnk w;r” f.äfha me;a;lska fyda fl,jrska by,g me,Shdu is\qfjz’ Wod* foys” f,uka” foMuz” wU

9'8 f.ä me,Shdu md,kh lsrsu m,;=re f.ä me,Shdfuz uq,sl ldhsl úoHd;aul moku jk c,h Wrd.ekSsfuz fjz.h iy f.äfha


fmd;a; msg;g weoShdug we;s keñhdj md,kh lsrsSfuka f.ä me,sShdu uq,sl jYfhka md,kh l, yelsh’ frda. m,sfndaO yd hdka;%sl ydks wju lr.;aúg .ig c,h Wrd.ekSsfuz fjz.h wvqlsrSsfuka yd f.äsfha fmd;a; ukdf,i weosSug we;s yelshdj jeälsrSsfuzka f.ä me,Shdu fndfyda\qrg urAOkh lr.; yelsh’ fuz i|yd my; i|yka mshjr m%udKj;a ;ruz wkq.ukh l,

ridhk \%jH Ndú;h fndfyda úg Ydl fydafudak fyda fydafudak .=K we;s ridhk \%jH ^ jrAOlhdul& \%djK jrAOkh fjñka mj;sk m,;=re f.ä j,g biskq ,efnz’ .snr,sla wuz,h” kemak,Ska weisála wuz,h” 3”4” ä’mS’tia’ wdos jrAOl hdul fuz i|yd fhdod .efka’ tu.ska fo(uz “rUqgka jeks f.ä me,Ssu j,lajd .;

hq;=h’

yelsh’ Bg wu;rj le,aishuz laf,darhsgz” iskala i,af>agz” fndafrdaka jeks ridhk

c, iuzmdokh m,;=re .iaj, u,a msmsSfuka miq f.ä fuzrsu olajd ld,h ;=<oSs ukdf,i mfia f;;ukh mj;ajd .ekSsu wkjYH

\%jH \%djK jefvñka mj;sk f.ä j,g biSfuka f.ä me,Shdu wvqlr .ekSsug fya;=jk nj bkaoshdfjz lrk ,o mrAfhaIK fmkajd fohs’

f,i jeä f;;ukhla fyda tu ld, isudfjzoSs mfia mj;ajd fkd.; hq;=h’ fuz i|yd c, iuzmdokh iu. jiqka fhoSu m%fhdackj;a mshjr fjhs’

W;aiafjzokh wvq lsrsu’

me,Suz j,g m%;sfrdaOS m%fNao isgqùu’ fuu

mshjr

uq,slju

l,

hq;=

m%;slrAuls' myiqfjkau f.ä mef,k m%fNao j.dj i|yd f;dardfkd.; hq;=h’ ujz .ia f,i m,;=re f;dard .ekSsfuzoSs fuz lreK jeo.;a nj jgyd .; hq;=h’ myiqfjka mef,k f.ä yg.kakd m,;=re .ia y|qkdf. k j.dfjka bj;a l, hq;=h’

jefvk

f.ä

j,ska

c,h

msgùu

^W;aiafjzokh u.ska& wvqlr .ekSsfuka fo(uz f.ä me,Shdu wvqlr .;yelsh’ fuz i|yd wdf,dalh úksúo hk ;=kS fmd,s;ska mg,hla oejàu” W;aiafjzokh wvqlrk ridhk \%jH biSu wdosS ms,shuz fhosh yelsh’ úúO f;,a jrA. f.äj,g biSsfukao W;aiafjzokh wvqlr.; yels w;r” tuÛska f.ä me,Ssu wvqlr.; yelsh’ tfy;a fuh t;ruz m%dfhda.sl fkdjk nj fmkajd oSs ;sfnz’

195


f.ä wdjrKh lsrSsu lvodis u,a,lska fyda ;=kSs fmd,s;sSka u,a,lska f.ä wdjrKh lr ;eîfuka fo(uz f.ä me,Sshdu wvqlr .; yelsh’ iDcqju ysret<sh f.ä u; fkdjeàu ksid W;aiafjzokh wvqùu uÛska f;;ukh /l .eksSfuk's fuz wkqj iuyr lDIs foaY.=Ksl l,dm j, j.dlrk ,o m,;=re .iaj, f.ä me,Shdu iq,N .eg(jls’ th urAOk lr .eksSu f.dúhdg wNsfhda.hls’ ukd f,i ie,iquz lrf.k kv;a;= lrkq ,nk m,;=re .iaj, f.ä me,Shdu i;=gqodhl m%udKhlg wvqlr .eksSu t;ruz wmyiq ldrAhhla fkdfjz’ f.ä me,Shdug fya;= jk lrekq y"kd .eksSfuka yd tajd hgm;a lsrSsug mshjr .ekSsfuka fuz ;;a;ajh jvd;a hym;a ugzgulg wvqlr .; yelsh’ tu.ska úYd, f,i kdia;s fjk foMZuz” f,uka” wU” w,s.egfmar” wdoSs m,;=re fnda. j, wiajekak Wiia ;;a;ajfhka fk,d .; yelsfjkq we;’ flfia jqjo fuz ;;a;ajh mj;S kuz fhdackd lrk ,o mshjr jeä ixLHdjla wkq.ukh lsrSsu jvd;a ys;lr fjkq we;s w;r” lDIslrAu mrAfhaIK uOHia:dkhlska Wmfoia ,ndf.k iq\qiq mshjrhka wkq.ukh flfrA kuz jvd;a hym;a m%;sM, blaukska ,nd.; yelsfjkq we;’ 196

ridhksl l%u’ M, ye,Shdu wvq lr.ekSu i|yd úúO ridhksl øjH fhdod .ekSfï yelshdjlao mj;sk nj fmkajd oS ;sfí’ fï ridhk øjH w;rg Ydl jrAOl hdul iy fmdaIl jrA. we;=<;a fjhs’ TlaiSk l%shdldrS;ajh mj;sk ridhksl ixfhda. fuhska jvd;a l%shdldrS jk nj fmfka’ WodJ-bkafvda,a ìhqá%la wï,h (IBA) kema;,Ska weisála wï,h (NAA) c,h fldgia oY,laIhlg kema;,Ska weisála wï,h fldgia 25la jeks b;d ;kql ødjKhla l=vd wU .eg j,g ^fi ó 2’5la muK úYd,& biSfuka wU f.ä ye,Shdu wvq ù, 25la muK jeä wiajekakla ,nd .; yelsh’ (Gokhale and Kanitkar 1951) wU .eg j,g bisug jvd;a fhda.H jkafka t, yg .ekSfï isg i;s 6la muK olajd nj fmfka’


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Commercial Fruit Garden