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THE SOCIO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVE OF CHILD PROTECTION IN

CAMEROON

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Presses Universitaires d'Afrique Marque déposée de AES sa - Yaoundé 2008

ISBN : 978 - 9956 - 444 - 47 - 2

© L'Africaine d'Édition et de Services (AES sa) B.P. 8106 - Yaoundé - Cameroun Tél. (237) 22 20 26 95 / 22 01 80 93 - Fax. (237) 22 20 26 98 E-mail : aes@iccnet.cm - Site web : www.aes-pua.com

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Rabiatu Ibrahim D ANPULLO DANPULLO Docteur d’Etat en Droit Privé Senior Lecturer in Law University of Yaoundé II, SOA - Cameroon

The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Presses Universitaires d’Afrique B.P. 8106 Yaoundé - Cameroun -3-


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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Table of contents

Dedication ......................................................................... 15 Avant-propos ..................................................................... 17 Foreword ........................................................................... 17 Preface.............................................................................. 23 Acknowledgements ......................................................... 27 List of Statutes ................................................................. 29 List of Cases ..................................................................... 33 Abbreviations ................................................................... 35 Introduction ..................................................................... 39 I. The child population in Cameroon .................................... 44 II. Definitions............................................................................ 46 III. Child protection ................................................................. 46 Legal framework for child protection ........................................ 46 I. National laws ........................................................................ 47 II. International Conventions ................................................. 47 Social framework for child protection ....................................... 48 -5-


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Chapter one: Child trafficking and enslavement ............. 49 Definitions ...................................................................................... 49 Trafficking differentiated from other common practices ........ 50 I. ÂŤ confiage Âť ............................................................................ 50 II. Guardianship ........................................................................ 51 III. Apprenticeship ................................................................... 52 Child trafficking and child labour ............................................... 53 Situation analysis ........................................................................... 54 Victims ............................................................................................ 56 Beneficiaries ................................................................................... 57 Causes .............................................................................................. 58 I. Lack of information............................................................. 58 II. Degradation of the social fabric ....................................... 59 III. Poverty ................................................................................. 59 IV. Discrimination against the girl-child............................... 60 V. Globalisation ........................................................................ 61 Consequences of child trafficking .............................................. 62 Socio-legal mechanisms aimed at fighting trafficking ............. 63 Social mechanisms ........................................................................ 63 Legal mechanisms.......................................................................... 65 I. Ratified International Conventions and Instruments ..... 65 II. Internal legal provisions ..................................................... 66 Institutional framework ................................................................ 70 I. Missions assigned to ministries that deal with the problem of children ............................................................ 70 II. Partnership agreements for the implementation of programmes and projects aimed at fighting child trafficking and exploitation ..................................... 71 III. Institutional care of victims ............................................ 72 -6-


Prospects ......................................................................................... 72 Conclusion ...................................................................................... 73 Chapter two: Children victims of sexual exploitation and abuse ................................................... 75 Definitions ...................................................................................... 77 Forms of sexual abuse exploitation............................................ 78 I. Rape ........................................................................................ 78 II. Incest ..................................................................................... 80 III. Early and forced marriage ................................................ 82 IV. Prostitution ......................................................................... 84 V. Sex tourism ........................................................................... 84 VI. Pornography ........................................................................ 86 VII. Cyber marriage .................................................................. 87 VIII. Paedophilia ...................................................................... 87 Control of female sexuality ......................................................... 89 I. Female Genital Mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) ................. 90 II. Breast ironing ....................................................................... 92 Characteristics of victims of sexual exploitation/abuse ........ 94 Characteristics of abusers ............................................................ 95 Causes of sexual exploitation/abuse ......................................... 95 I. Poverty.................................................................................... 95 II. Lack of dialogue among family members ....................... 96 III. Negative media influence and globalisation ................. 97 IV. Incarceration ....................................................................... 97 Consequences of sexual exploitation/abuse ............................ 98 I. Physical Consequences ........................................................ 98 II. Psycho-Social Consequences ............................................ 99 III. Economic Consequences ............................................... 100 Socio-legal preventive mechanisms for the fight against sexual exploitation/abuse ..................................................... 100 -7-


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

I. Legal Mechanisms .............................................................. 100 II. Social Mechanisms ............................................................ 103 Protection ..................................................................................... 103 Sensitisation ................................................................................. 103 Sex education ............................................................................... 105 Responsible parenthood ............................................................. 105 Care of victims ............................................................................ 106 Rehabilitation and socio-economic reinsertion of victims... 106 Programme for the prevention of sexual exploitation/abuse of children ............................................................................... 107 Prospect......................................................................................... 108 Conclusion .................................................................................... 109 Chapter three: Orphans and other vulnerable children of HIV and AIDS ...................................... 111 Introduction .................................................................................. 111 Definitions .................................................................................... 113 The particularity of OVC vulnerability ................................... 115 Risks and vulnerability of OVC according to age ................. 115 I. 0-1 year ................................................................................. 115 II. 3-5 years.............................................................................. 115 III. 6-13 years .......................................................................... 116 IV. 14-18 years ........................................................................ 116 Factors leading to OVC vulnerability ...................................... 116 I. Death/illness of parents ................................................... 117 II. Poverty ................................................................................ 117 III. Stigmatisation and Discrimination ............................... 118 Framework for the protection and care of OVC ................... 119 Legal framework for the protection of OVC .......................... 119 Psycho-social support for OVC ................................................ 121 Caring for OVC ............................................................................ 122 -8-


I. Extended and Foster families ........................................... 122 II. Child headed households ................................................. 123 The fight against discrimination and stigmatisation .............. 125 Projects and programmes for the care and support of OVC .. 126 I. The national program for the support of OVC ............. 126 II. The Bi-Multi project ......................................................... 127 III. The Integrated project for the fight against HIV/AIDS and psycho-social support of OVC .......... 129 IV. The African Synergy/FAO Project ............................... 130 Prospects ....................................................................................... 130 Conclusion .................................................................................... 133 Chapter four: Street children and those involved in the informal sector ............................... 135 Definition ...................................................................................... 136 I. Street Children .................................................................... 136 II. Informal Sector .................................................................. 137 Characteristics of street children .............................................. 138 I. Neglected children ............................................................. 138 II. Rural migrants .................................................................... 138 III. School drop outs .............................................................. 139 IV. Abandoned children ........................................................ 139 V. Children born out of marriage ........................................ 139 Factors that push children to the street ................................... 139 I. Poverty.................................................................................. 140 II. Urban Attraction ............................................................... 142 III. Orphans ............................................................................. 143 IV. Dysfunctional family environment ............................... 143 V. The quest for freedom and better life ............................ 144 VI. Drug Pushing/addiction ................................................ 144 -9-


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

The main occupation of street children .................................. 145 I. Street children and the informal sector .......................... 145 II. Drug addiction................................................................... 146 III. Banditry ............................................................................. 147 IV. Sexual activities ................................................................ 148 Problems faced by street children ............................................. 149 I. Violence ............................................................................... 149 II. Community Disapproval .................................................. 150 III. Health problem ................................................................ 150 IV. Psychological problem .................................................... 152 V. Involvement in crime and police arrest ......................... 153 Legal and institutional response to the problem of street children .................................................................... 154 I. Legal response ..................................................................... 154 II. Institutional response ....................................................... 155 i. Prevention ...................................................................... 155 ii. Extraction and reinsertion .......................................... 156 iii. Re-education ................................................................ 158 a. Street education ....................................................... 158 b. In institutions ........................................................... 159 iv. Reinsertion .................................................................... 160 a. Family reinsertion .................................................... 161 b. Educational reinsertion .......................................... 161 c. Economic reinsertion ............................................. 162 Prospects ....................................................................................... 162 Conclusion .................................................................................... 165 Chapter five: Children in conflict with the law ................ 167 Definition ...................................................................................... 167 Situation analysis ......................................................................... 168 - 10 -


Profile of children in conflict with the law (CICL) ............... 171 Crimes frequently committed by children ............................... 172 Legal protection of children in conflict with the law............ 173 Social protection of children in conflict with the law .......... 176 i. Prevention ............................................................................ 176 ii. Education............................................................................ 178 iii. Rehabilitation .................................................................... 179 iv. Vocational training ............................................................ 179 Prospects ....................................................................................... 180 Conclusion .................................................................................... 181 Recommendations ....................................................................... 182 I. Independent National Commission for the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child ................... 182 II. Other recommendations .................................................. 184 Appendices ..................................................................... 189 Appendix A ............................................................................. 189 Appendix B.............................................................................. 218 Appendix C.............................................................................. 220 Appendix D ............................................................................. 246 Appendix E ............................................................................. 258 Appendix F .............................................................................. 264 Bibliography ................................................................... 269 Index .............................................................................. 279

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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We the children of the world...despite our different backgrounds we share a common reality...we are not the sources of problems; we are the resources that are needed to solve them. We are not expenses ; we are investments....... Untill others accept their responsibility to us; we will fight for our rights. We have the will, the knowledge, the sensitivity and the dedication. We promise that as adults we will defend children’s rights with the same passion that we have now as children....we are united by our struggle to make the world a better place for all. You call us the future, but we are also the present. Ms. Gabriela Azurduy Arietta and Ms. Audrey Cheynut Representatives of the world children at the UN General Assembly’s Special Session on Children, May 8, 2002.

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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Dedication

To the Children of the world especially those Living under difficult circumstances

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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Avant-propos

Foreword

Dans toutes les civilisations, l’enfant, symbole de l’avenir de l’humanité, est considéré comme un trésor précieux. Aussi des mesures sont elles prises au plan social, juridique, économique et politique et à tous les échelons pour assurer sa sécurité. S’agissant particulièrement de l’enfant camerounais, il subit, aujourd’hui plus que jamais, l’assaut des phénomènes tel que : la crise économique avec son lot de misères, le modernisme avec ses multiples sollicitations, l’urbanisme, la crise du mariage et de la famille, l’effritement des valeurs africaines aux

In the history of civilisations, the child symbolises the future of humanity and as such considered a precious treasure. Consequently, adequate measures in the social, legal, economic, political and other related areas are implemented to ensure child protection. In Cameroon, the child is more than before subjected to phenomenal assaults: the economic recession with its miseries, the trend of modernity with its wanton exigencies, urbanization, marriage and family crisis, and the breaking – up of African values that grapple with values of globalization.

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

prises avec celles que véhicule la mondialisation. Ces phénomènes contribuent largement à sa précarisation. Ceci justifie la décision prise par les pouvoirs publics de mettre l’accent sur le volet protection de l’enfant et de le placer au cœur de la politique social du gouvernement. En effet des mécanismes chargés de la protection de l’enfant fonctionnent dans au moins trois départements ministériels : Sante Publique, Affaires Sociale, Justice. Il existe même tout un ministère chargé de l’éducation de base c’est- à -dire de l’encadrement de l’enfant pendant les premières années de son développement mental et intellectuel. Le gouvernement est fortement appuyé dans ce domaine par les organismes du système des Nations Unies et les organisations internationales partenaires au développement. Il est relayé au plan local par les Associations et les Organisations de la société civile. Mais l’action menée sur le chantier de la protection de l’enfant est mal connue. Il en est de même des acteurs qui s’y investis-

These phenomenon have enormously contributed to the precarious situation of children. Public authorities are however committed to improve the situation by placing child protection at the centre of government’s social policy. There are at least three ministries that cater for children: Public Health, Social Affairs, and Justice. Moreover, the Ministry of Basic Education is devoted to the training of children at their early mental and intellectual developmental stages. In this regard, the government works in collaboration with organisations of the United Nations system and international development partners. At the local level, Non Governmental Organisations, associations and the civil society are also committed to the protection of children’s rights. It should however be pointed out that despite all the efforts being made, the protection of children remains a major challenge in Cameroon. It is heart-lifting to say that the book entitled: «The

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Avant-propos / Foreword

sent. Le livre intitulé « The Sociolegal Perspective of Child Protection in Cameroon » arrive donc à point nomme. Son titre en indique par avance l’inspiration, le caractère et le but. Ce n’est pas une œuvre d’imagination, encore moins un essai philosophique. Il s’agit d’une monographie qui prend sa source dans la double expérience professionnelle de son auteur. En effet Dr. Rabiatou Danpullo est enseignante de droit en faculté de Sciences Juridique et Politiques de l’Université de Yaoundé II. Elle a par ailleurs assumé la fonction de Directeur de la protection de l’enfant au Ministère des Affaires Sociales. Pendant son séjour à ce poste elle a sans doute saisir les opportunités qui lui étaient données pour s’imprégner des réalités concrètes du terrain et pour se documenter. Nanti d’un bagage aussi lourd, elle est bien placée pour parler de la protection de l’enfant avec maîtrise et autorité. Son livre est composé de cinq chapitres consacrés aux enfants en situation difficile : les enfants victimes du trafic, les enfants victi-

Socio-Legal Perspective of Child Protection in Cameroon», is coming at the right time. From the title, there are indications that it’s an inspirational, natural, and purposeful research work. It is not mere imagination or to say the least, a philosophical attempt, but a monograph inspired by the author’s dual professional experience. It should be noted that, Dr. Rabiatu Danpullo is a Senior lecturer in law in the University of Yaounde II. In addition to that, she was formerly, the director of child protection in the Ministry of Social Affairs where she came in contact with the concrete realities of the field and acquired relevant information as regards child protection. The author is held in high esteem thanks to her rich credentials which rightly puts her in a privileged position to deal with matters related to child protection with a lot of mastering and expertise. This book consists of five chapters devoted to children living under difficult situations: Children victims of trafficking and ensla-

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

mes des abus et de l’exploitation sexuelle, les orphelins et autres enfants vulnérables dans le contexte du VIH/SIDA, les enfants de la rue et du secteur informel, et ceux en conflit avec la loi. Il donne toutes les informations utiles sur chaque catégorie d’enfants, notamment les causes, les manifestations, les conséquences de la situation dans laquelle ils se trouvent sans oublier les réponses juridiques et institutionnelle déjà envisagées pour y remédier. Il traite aussi de la condition de la petite fille en mettant en évidence le problème préoccupant de la clitoridectomie et celui non moins important du repassage des seins. Il s’attache à relever tous les efforts déployés par le gouvernement en partenariat avec les organisations nationales et internationales pour assurer la protection de l’enfant. Tout s’achève par une série de recommandations qui plaide en faveur de la création d’un mécanisme national indépendant dont le rôle serait de fédérer toutes les structures qui traitent de la protection de l’enfant et de proposer des solutions idoines au gouvernement. Abstraction faite du thème abordé dont l’importance n’échap-

vement, children victims of sexual abuse and exploitation, orphans and other vulnerable children within the context of HIV/AIDS, street children and those involved in the informal sector, and children in conflict with the law. All relevant information related to each category of children is streamlined in the causes, the manifestations, the consequences including the legal and institutional solutions that have been undertaken to remedy the situation. This book also treats the condition of the girl-child by raising the problem of Female Genital Mutilation and Breast Ironing. It equally presents efforts made by the government in partnership with national and international organizations to eradicate these obnoxious practices. At the end, a set of recommendations are advocated especially the creation of a National Autonomous Structure to coordinate all the other structures involved in child protection as well as propose suitable solutions to the government. Apart from the treated subject matter which attracts general

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Avant-propos / Foreword

pe à personne, ce livre a beaucoup d’autres atouts. Il est agréable et facile à lire parce qu’écrit dans un style simple et limpide. Il est le résultat d’un travail rigoureux réalisé par un chercheur professionnel. C’est aussi un document très instructif. Le mérite de son auteur est d’avoir osé lever un pan de voile sur les drames que vivent en silence les enfants du Cameroun et avec eux les familles. J’apprécie l’analyse circonstanciée judicieuse et sans complaisance qu’elle fait de chaque situation dans le dessein d’éclairer le public et de susciter plus d’engagement pour le changement de la situation. Tout Camerounais gagnerait à lire attentivement ce livre inédit. Je le recommande spécialement à tous ceux qui militent et travaillent pour la promotion des droits de l’enfant.

interest, this book has other advantages. It is pleasant and easy to read because it is written in a clear and simple language. It is the result of high valued and meticulous research by a seasoned scholar. The author is credited for her courage in unveiling the silent sufferings of children. I personally value her high sense of judgment and her degree of objectivity assessing and analysing each situation in order to enlighten and stir up public commitment to ameliorate the condition of children. I hereby invite every Cameroonian to carefully read this important book and strongly recommend it to all those who are actively involved in the promotion of children’s rights.

Mrs. Rose Zang Nguelle Minister of Social Affairs, 1984 -1988. Member of Parliament, 1992 -1997 Currently, 1st Deputy to the Government Delegate of the Yaounde City Council.

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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Preface

The protection and promotion of Children’s rights has naturally been a fascinating subject to me because it falls within the ambit of family law, my main area of interest. This interest was rekindled in the year 2000, when l had the opportunity of attending an international conference in Oxford, England.1 The conference which was placed under the theme, «Children’s Rights: moving forward», saw the participation of experts and other stakeholders in the area of children’s rights from over 100 countries. This platform brought me face to face with some prominent children’s rights lawyers and scholars in the persons of Professor Geraldine Van Bueren2 ; John Eekelaar, Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford and Reader in Family Law at the Oxford I was sponsored by the British Council - Yaounde. Prof. Geraldine Van Bueren, who was the event director, actively took part in the drafting of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted in 1989.

1 2

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

University and Professor Mark Henaghen, Dean, Law Faculty, University of Otago, New Zealand whose academic guidance l enjoyed as a young lecturer. The efforts being made by these great minds to ameliorate the situation of children, on which humanity depend for continuity, greatly inspired me and formed the basis of my determination to contribute in whatever small way l could to the noble mission of protecting children. The practical phase of my humble contribution began with a TV talk on the right of children to education in 2001. This was followed by the publication of an article titled, «The Muslim Girl-Child’s Right to Education: Bringing the Right to life»3 Then in 2005, l was brought face to face with the practical aspect of child protection especially those living in difficult situations4, when l was appointed to the post of Director of child protection in the Ministry of Social Affairs. As head of the project for vulnerable children under the Cameroon-UNICEF Co-operation Program, l had the opportunity to work for the amelioration of the situation of the above category of children. Despite the fact that the challenges were enormous and resources limited, we (the special protection team of the department of child protection MINAS, the protection team of UNICEF, representatives of partner ministries, and other national and international partners involved in child protection), managed to realise a lot between 2005 and 2007. Among other things, the child Protection Code was finalised and validated; a code of Université de Dschang, Annales de la Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques, Edition Spécial Droit de l’Homme, Tome 4, 2000, pp. 153-160. 4 This include victims of trafficking, sexual exploitation, those working and living or the street, orphans and children rendered vulnerable by the HIV and AIDS, and children in conflict with the law. 3

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Preface

conduct for children, parents and educators for the prevention of sexual exploitation/abuse of children, was elaborated, validated and vulgarised; a guide for the psycho-social support of OVC5 and a vulnerability scale for OVC were also elaborated and validated; Six inter-ministerial circulars were finalised and technically validated. These circulars were aimed at facilitating the access of OVC to basic services of health, education, nutrition, legal assistance and professional training. Furthermore, Cameroon’s first Periodic Report on the implementation of the Children’s Convention was produced and technically validated so too was Cameroon’s «Plus 5» Review of the 2002 Special Session on Children and the World fit for Children Action Plan. A situation analysis was carried out for the implantation of a triangular project to fight child trafficking in the border areas of Cameroon (Ambam), Equatorial Guinea (Ebibinyen) and Gabon (Bitam); the implantation of an integrated project for the fight against HIV/AIDS in the Yaounde II District, Koutaba, Njinikom and Maiganga.... As an academic, this book stands as my modest contribution in the domain of child protection in Cameroon. It offers an opportunity to make an analysis of the situation of vulnerable children in Cameroon, identifies the different socio-legal dispositions for child protection and put forth proposals for the reinforcement of actions already started with the hope that the condition of children in general and those in need of special protection in particular will be ameliorated. One recommendation stands out clearly: the need to put in place an autonomous commission that will be in charge solely, 5

Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

with the protection and promotion of children’s rights in Cameroon. This is because experience has shown that the problems of children when dealt with alongside other preoccupations, get diluted because children are voiceless and invisible. Dr. Rabiatu Ibrahim Danpullo

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Acknowledgements

I would like to register by gratitude to those who in one way or the other helped in the realisation of this book. I readily think of the 2005-2007 special protection team MINAS/UNICEF as well as all the other partners with whom we worked to realise the «special protection project» and for the excellent collaboration l enjoyed as head of the project. To all those who helped to make me what l am today, l say thank you. In this regard, l readily think of my mentor, Professor E. N Ngwafor, Professor Jean Tabi Manga - Rector of the University of Yaounde ll, Professor Bokali Emmanuel - Dean of the faculty of law and political sciences, as well as Professor Pougoue, Professor Minkoa, the late Professors P. Y. Ntarmack and Ngwasiri, Professor Martha Njikam, Professor Anoukaha and Dr. Azu’u Fonkam. My special thanks also go to my colleagues for their support notably, Dr. Mrs Jean Claire Mebu Tsimi, Dr. Dashaco John, Prof. - 27 -


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Ntuda Ebode, and all the others that cannot be listed here because the list is really long. I would like to register my appreciation and gratitude to Mrs. Rose Zang Nguelle for accepting to forward the book despite her tight schedule. She patiently went through the entire work despite the fact that she is French speaking. Her inspiring comments were very helpful indeed. Dr. Nkwate David proof read the entire work. May god reward him abundantly. Finally, my children - Adamu, Ibrahim, Maryam and Faisal have been very supportive. I hereby register my profound gratitude and appreciation for their love and concern. Rabiatu Ibrahim Danpullo Docteur d’Etat en Droit PrivÊ Senior Lecturer in Law, University of Yaounde II, Soa. Formerly Director of Child Protection, Ministry of Social Affairs.

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List of Statutes

Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women - 2004. African Charter on the Rights and welfare of the Child - 1990 Charter and Code of Tourism - 1985 Convention for the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women - 1979 Criminal procedure Ordinance (Law No. 2005/007 of 27th July 2005) Civil Code 1804 Convention on the Rights of the Child -1989 Decision No. 000785/DGSN/CAB of 2nd December 2005 Decision No. 01/MINTSS/SG/DINCIT/CCT/CEA of 26 January 2006 Decree No. 68/DF/253 of 10 July 1968 Decree No. 72/461 of September 2nd 1972. Decrees No. and 73/333 of June 1973 - 29 -


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Decree No. 90/524 of 23 March 1990 Decree No. 92/052 of 27 March 1992 Decree No. 2000/286 of 12 October 2000 Decree No. 2001/109/PM of 20 March 2001 Decree No. 2005/088 of 25 March 2005 Draft Child Protection code Draft Person and Family Code ILO Convention 29 against Forced Labour - 1960 ILO Convention 105 on the Abolition of Forced Labour-1962 ILO Convention 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment - 1973 ILO Convention 182 on the Worst forms of Child Labour - 1999 Joint Order N0. 99/0012/MINEFI/MINFOPRA/MINAS of 8 June -1999 Labour Code (Law n° 92/7 of 14 August 1992) Law No. 97/12 of 10 January 1997 Law No. 2005/007 of 27th July 2005 Law No. 2005/015 of 29 December 2005 Optional Protocol to the Children’s Convention on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography - 2002 Order No. 17/MTLS/DECREE of 27 may 1969 Order No. 068/MINTSS of 28 November 2005 Ordinance No. 81/02 of 29 June 1981 Penal code (Law No. 67/LF/1 of 12 June 1967) Protocol on the Illicit Trafficking of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, as an addition to the United Nation Convention against Organised Trans-national Criminality -2004 Revised Constitution -1996 Southern Cameroon’s High Court Law -1955 Tananarive Convention on Legal Assistance and Co- operation in the Area of Extradition - 1961 - 30 -


List of Statutes

United Nation Convention against Organised Trans-national Criminality in 2004 and its additional protocol aimed at preventing, suppressing and punishing trade in persons, particularly women and children - 2004. United Nation Convention on the Suppression of Trade in Humans and the Exploitation of other’s Prostitution -1949.

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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List of Cases

Bennet v. Minister of community welfare (1992) [176] CLR 408, 426-427. Crim., September 3, 1985, Bull. No. 283. C.S arrête No. 443 of March 1967, Bull. No.6, p. 233. Judgment No. 62 of December 16, 1976 of the «TPI», Douala. Judgment N0. 422/74 of April 14, 1974 Plowright v. Lambert (1885), 52 Lt, 646, 652. The People v. Bono A N0. 160 of 18 April, 1967 The People v.Che Paul Forben (Unreported) HCB/73C/03-04 The People v. Cletus Che (Unreported) BM/181C/73. The People v.Samuel Bissong (Unreported), BM/117C/74.

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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Abbreviations

AIDS BBC CAED CAM CAO CASER

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CEDAWCNLS CNRH Crim. C.S DFID DHS

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome British Broad casting Corporation Centre D’Accueil des enfants en Détresse Centre d’Accueil des Mineurs Centres d’Accueil et d’Observation Centre d’Accueil et de Réinsertion Sociale des Enfants de la Rue Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women - 1994 National AIDS Control Committee Centre National de Réhabilitation des Handicapés Criminelle Cour Suprême Department for International Development Demography and Health Survey - 35 -


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

DPSE EESI EMO FGM/C GTZ HIV ICE IPEC -

Direction de la Protection Sociale de L’Enfance Employment and Informal Sector Survey Education en Milieu Overt Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting The German Development Agency Human Immune Deficiency Virus Institution Camerounaise de l’Enfance International Program for the Elimination of Child Labour JEVAIS - Jeunesse et Vie Associative pour l’insertion Sociale LUTRENA - Sub-Regional Project for the fight against Child Trafficking MINADT - Ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralisation MICS - Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey MDG - Millennium Development Goals MINAS - Ministry of Social Affairs MINEFOP - Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training MINJEUN - Ministry of Youth Affairs MINJUSTICE - Ministry of Justice MINUH - Ministry of Town Planning and Housing MINRESI - Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation MINSANTE - Ministry of Public Health MINTSS - Ministry of Labour and Social Security MINPROF - Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and the Family MOJAS - Program for the Mobilisation of Youths through Sports OIT (ILO) - International Labour Organisation OVC - Orphans and other Vulnerable Children PAIRPEV - Programme d’Appui à la réinsertion et à la réinsertion Professionnelle des Personnes Vulnérable - 36 -


Abbreviations

PAIRPER - Programme d’Appui à l’insertion et à la réinsertion Professionnelle des Enfants de la Rue PNUD - Programme de Nations Unies pour le Développent SARS - Centres for vocational training STDS - Sexually Transmitted Diseases TPI - Tribunal de première Instance UN - United Nations UNICEF - United Nations International Children Emergency Fund UNPF - United Nation Population Fund Vol. - Volume WHO - World Health Organisation

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

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Introduction

The future of humanity depends on the state of the wellbeing of children that is their survival, development and protection. The destiny of a state is also directly tied to the healthy growth and development of its children. In an ideal society therefore, children are protected against all forms of violence, maltreatment and exploitation.6 Furthermore, it is only through the progressive realisation of the rights of all children that nations get closer to their objectives, development and peace.7 Child protection should therefore be the core mission of every state for «If a child is free from exploitation, chances are greater that he/she will be in school, that he/she will be healthy and that he/she will be better able to contribute to society and its own development.»8 UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children: Excluded and invisible, 2006. Kofi A. Annan, Secretary General of the United Nation. See The State of the World’s Children, UNICEF, 2007. 8 Ann M. Veneman, Conference on Child Sexual Trafficking, Twin Cities Campus, University of Minnesota, U.S.A. April 26, 2006. 6 7

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

The improvement of child protection especially of those in difficult circumstances has however remained a great challenge with regard to violence and exploitation, and due to the secretive, illegal or pervasive nature of such exploitative activities. Tens of millions of children across the globe are therefore, victims of exploitation, abuse and violence each year. Children are abducted from their homes or schools and recruited into armed conflicts. Millions of others are trafficked and forced to work in abominable conditions in homes, plantation or factories. Children can only be freed from such exploitation and abuse when they live in a «protective environment» that shields them against such exploitation.9 Children no matter where they are found face nearly the same challenges though these may differ in the degree of intensity and frequency of occurrence from one continent to another, or from one region to another. Child trafficking for example does not respect national or international boundaries. This is a heinous crime that affects mostly the vulnerable children of all communities. Those who have limited access to social services and protection are targeted by traffickers for exploitation. It is the concern of the international and national community to implement the rights of the child through protection and the prosecution of all offenders wherever found. As one report10 puts it, no country is immune from human trafficking. Victims are forced into prostitution or to work in quarries and sweatshops, on farms, as domestics, as child soldiers, and in many forms of involuntary servitude. Traffickers 9 10

UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children: Excluded and invisible, 2006. Report on Trafficking in Persons, U.S State Department, Washington, D.C, 2004. - 40 -


Introduction

often target children and young women. They routinely trick their victims with promises of employment, educational opportunities, marriage or a better life. The report adds that human trafficking is the third most profitable criminal activity after drug and arms trafficking. An estimated 9.5 billion U.S Dollar is generated in annual revenue from all trafficking activities, with at least $4 billion attributed to the worldwide brothel industry. 11 Worse still, statistics on the magnitude of the problem is said to be complex and difficult due to the «hidden» nature of trafficking activities. However, 600,000 to 800,000 men, women, and children are estimated to be trafficked across international borders each year, 50 percent of whom are children.12 The risk of being sexually abused and/ exploited is also shared by children the world over. An estimated 300 million children worldwide are subjected to violence, exploitation and abuse, including harmful practices aimed at controlling female sexuality such as Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and early/forced marriage.13 As UNICEF’s executive director puts it14, «.Child sexual abuse is one of the silent tragedies facing children because it happens largely in the shadows away from public attention and beyond the reach of reliable statistics. But it is a problem that affects all areas of the world, developing countries and wealthier countries alike ».

Ibid. Ibid. 13 UNICEF, Child Protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Building a Protective Environment for Children. 14 Speaking at a conference on Child Sexual Trafficking at the Twin Cities campus, University of Minnesota, U.S.A, April 26, 2006. 11 12

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

The statistics on child sexual abuse are shocking. For instance in the United States alone,1 in 4 girls is sexually abused before the age of 18; 1 in 6 boys is sexually abused before the age of 18 and 1 in 5 children are solicited sexually while on the internet. Furthermore, nearly 70% of all reported sexual assaults occur to children aged 17 and under. An estimated 39 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse exist in America today. Even within the walls of their own homes, children are at risk of sexual abuse and 30-40% of victims are abused by a family member. Another 50% are abused by someone outside the family whom they know and trust.15 The above assertion has been confirmed by other studies stating that in many countries, children are sexually abused by family members and neighbours and, to varying degrees child prostitution, child pornography, early marriage, child sex tourism and trafficking (for sexual purposes) occur.16 The HIV/AIDS has devastating negative effects on the economic and social development of countries. It unravels years of improvement in health, economic and social progress. Such reversals of gains robe millions of their health and lives. Since the major modes of HIV transmissions (sexual transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and intravenous drug use) varies from one region to the other, and affects various groups differently, multiple strategies are therefore required to combat it.17

Conference on Child Sexual Trafficking, Twin Cities Campus, University of Minnesota, U.S.A, April 26, 2006. 16 UNICEF Australia, Report on Sexual Violence against Children in Five Pacific Countries, December 14, 2006. 17 UNICEF Statistics on HIV/AIDS: Global and Regional trends, March 2006. 15

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

iii.

Re-education

a.

Street education

Street education takes place when educators take food and services to the children in the street and this is best for children who shun shelter. The main advantage of this approach is that talented and dedicated street educators can «turn around» the lives of «unreachable» children. This approach is used as an adjunct to other interventions including institutional placements. But this approach has a big disadvantage in that it hardly ever reduces the number of children on the street.271 In Cameroon, the Ministry of Social Affairs has adopted a social intervention approach known as «Education en Milieu Overt- E.M.O)» to ensure the protection and safeguard of children living and/working on the street. This approach facilitates the identification, treatment and social re-insertion of street children. The «EMO» was recognised as an integrated activity of social centres by decree no.98/069 of May 4 1998, organising the Ministry of Social Affairs. Identification consists of discovering environmental factors that lead children to become socially in adapted and this is done by working with dysfunctional families. Listening and dialogue are the main techniques utilised for this purpose. This enables the families to open up and discuss their problems in an atmosphere of confidence and trust. The second stage consists of acting on the child, its family and environment through psychosocial support and addressing their most basic and immediate material needs. The next phase is the social reinsertion stage Ricardo Moran; Claudio de Moura Castro, Street Children and the Inter-American Development Bank: Lessons from Brazil, Discussion Paper, March 13, 1997, p. 8.

271

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Street children and those involved in the informal sector

which helps the family become psychologically and financially stable. Financial stability is ensured through the putting in place of income-generating activities (IGA) for the families. It should be noted that to be effective, this approach demands huge financial and human resources reason why the approach has virtually been abandoned partly accounting for the large number of street children in Yaounde, Douala and the other main towns especially in the « Grand North ». b.

In institutions

As already mentioned, a number of institutions and centres exist for the re-education of children in difficult situations, namely : Les institutions Camerounaises de l’enfance (ICE) Maroua et de Bétamba;272 Les Centres d’Accueil et d’Observation(CAO) de Bepanda273 et de Bafoussam; Les Centre d’Accueil des Mineurs (CAM) de Bertoua ; The Borstal Institute in Buea ; Le Home Atelier de Douala for girls in moral danger or handicap ; Le Centre National de Réhabilitation des Handicapés (CNRH) ; Le Centre D’Accueil des enfants en Détresse de Yaoundé and Le Centre d’Accueil et de Réinsertion Sociale des Enfants de la Rue (CARSER) d’Etougébé274, Yaoundé and it’s Centre d’Ecoute at Messa in Yaounde. These centers and institutes are meant to re-educate the children in view of their socio-professional reintegration into the society. The general objective of all the centers and institutes mentioned above is to fight against social-maladjustment and delinquency among children through re-education and durable socio-economic re-insertion. Children are able to use their human qualities to become autonomous and responsible on the social, moral, affective and professional domains. 272 273 274

Created by decrees No. and 73/333 of June 1973. Created by decree No. 72/461 of September 2nd 1972. Created December 21, 2000. - 159 -


The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

iv.

Reinsertion

Reinsertion of street children is necessary because it is a means of helping them develop their abilities and potentials in order to protect them from human deterioration, and to promote their character and social role. Reinsertion also enables them to participate in the construction of a new society. Family and socioprofessional re-insertion of children in difficult situation in general and that of street children in particular, should therefore be the ultimate objective of all actions carried out in their favour. In Cameroon, though government action275 is carried out through the Ministry in charge of child protection, it has been realised that to address issues relating to this category of children, a multi-sectoral approach has to be adopted. A host of other actors both public and private are therefore involved. These include other ministries concern with the problem of children such as the ministries of Basic and Secondary Education276, Youth Affairs277, Women’s Empowerment and the Family278, Vocational Training279, Public Health280, Labour and Social Security281, Justice282 and other law enforcement structures, national283 and international partners284 and the civil society. See the PAIRPEV, PAIRPER, MOJAS and JEVAIS programmes/Projects. Concerning educational reinsertion. 277 In youth centers, the program for the mobilisation of youths through sports animation (MOJAS), Le Projet JEVAIS (Jeunesse et Vie Associative pour l’insertion Sociale) literacy centers and through income-generating projects for youths. See generally, MINUH ; MINADT; Diagnostic de la Délinquance Urbaine á Douala ONU-HABITAT, 200, p. 102. 278 Particularly for girls, in women’s centers all over the country. 279 In centers for vocational training, known as SARS. 280 Through special provisions for vulnerable children. 281 Through the National Unemployment Fund. 282 Through their valuable contributions in the drafting of child protection legislations. 283 NGOs and Associations. 284 Notably; UNICEF; ILO and PLAN International. 275

276

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Street children and those involved in the informal sector

a.

Family reinsertion

The family being the natural milieu that guarantees the early development and wellbeing of the child, has to be prepared to accept the street child that has been absent for some time and had undergone the difficult realities of the street. To be effective and durable, the reinsertion of a street child must therefore start with capacity building both for the child and the parents with the hope of establishing dialogue, understanding, reconciliation and confidence in order to ensure peaceful co-existence. Street children can be integrated either with their biological families or with foster families.285 Whichever is chosen, the family and the child have to be prepared to accept each other. In any case, the supreme interest of the child should prevail. b.

Educational reinsertion

This can only be possible for those who are still of school going age and have been convinced to restart school. The best option would be to send them to mainstream schools instead of keeping them in poorly equipped, specialised educational establishments that will further marginalise them. The educational reinsertion of street children can only be smooth when a lot of ground work is done to prepare the children and the school environment that is the school administrators, teachers and the other children. This can only be done through sensitisation to create awareness to the particular problems faced by this category of children.

Marie Thérèse Mengue, Les Enfants de la Rue : de l’étonnement á l’action, étude menée á Maroua, Garoua, Douala et Yaoundé, aout 2003, p. 127.

285

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Certaines pages ne font pas partie de la section consultable du livre. Pour toute information sur notre fonds et les nouveautĂŠs de notre catalogue, consultez notre site web : www.aes-pua.com .


Index

A a better life 41, 138, 144 A child in conflict 168 A comprehensive approach 112 a special category of vulnerable children 181 a very young population 45 A vulnerable child 114 abandoned 159, 181 abandoned and street children 44 Abandoned children 139, 182 abscesses 93 Abuse 25, 75, 78, 95, 108 abusers 94, 95, 98, 99 access to basic services 40, 119, 131 access to social services 40

accompanying measure 107 accused of 167, 168 adopted parents 115 Adopting new laws 165 Adoption 52, 59, 62, 72, 181, 184 adult offenders 97 advocacy role 183 alternative family-based care 177 alternative opportunities 186 ameliorate 24, 109, 126, 182 amelioration 24, 128, 156 an agreement 52, 130 an integrated and multi-sectorial approach 107 An orphan 113 anti-social behaviour 172

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

appellant 79 Apprenticeship 52 apprenticeship agreement 52 appropriate protective environment 103 Armed Conflicts 40, 65 a source, transit and destination country 55 autonomous 25, 159, 162, 182 autonomous body 183 B banditry operations 147 Beneficiaries 57, 58, 132 betrayal 80 body modification 92 breast cancer 93 Breast Ironing 90, 92, 93, 103, 104, 108 breastfeeding 93 breasts 92 C Cameroon 92 capacity 132 Capacity building 109, 130, 133, 161, 164, 181 Care 60, 92, 103, 105, 106, 109, 112, 116 - 119 Care includes counselling 106 category of children in need of 56 cause of sexual vulnerability 97 Centres 35, 37, 63, 159, 176, 177, 185

characteristic 136 Child Labour 49, 50, 53, 54, 72, 95, 116, 118, 140, 185 Child pornography 42, 86, 88 Child prostitution 42, 84,118 Child Protection 39, 104, 119, 182 - 184 child sex tourism 42 Child trafficking 40, 54, 55, 58, 59, 184 child-headed households 124, 171 children affected or infected 112 children in difficult situations 72, 94, 155, 159, 165 Children in prison 97, 98 children living on the street 149 Civil protection 47 commercial sexual exploitation 46, 55, 95 Communication 62, 86, 97 communication technologies 87 Community disapproval 150 compensation 83, 95, 148 Complications 90 comprehensive definition 86 Confiage 50, 51, 52 Conflict with the law 44, 47, 115, 147, 186 consent 49, 78, 82, 101 Consequences 64, 71, 78, 83, 100, 123 consequences of HIV and AIDS 124

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Index

contribute 24, 39, 51, 67, 123, 128, 179 contributing effectively 84 Conviction 83, 102 cooperation agreement 126 corruption of youths 89 create awareness 103, 161 creation 64, 69, 73, 130, 182, 185 criminal activities 57, 62 criminal activity 41, 54 criminal matters 66 criminal protection 47 custody 68, 83, 101 customary placement 52 customary practice 51 customs 60 Cyber marriage 71, 76, 77, 87, 97 D dangerous 67, 93, 137, 144, 147 decisions 47, 65, 83 degrading economic situation 55 degree of intensity 40 detention 44, 97, 153, 169, 171, 174 detention centers 44 devastating 73 devastating effects 99, 109, 118, 146 devastating impact 77 development-oriented 131, 185 dialogue in the family 96

difficult circumstances 40 difficult conditions 46 difficult situation 160 difficult to identify 54 difficulties 164, 172 direct economic consequences 100 Discrimination 121, 123 - 124, 126, 154, 185 diversion programmes 180 domestic labour 59 drop out of school 100, 116, 139, 181 Drug addiction 146, 145 drugs 144, 146 dysfunctional families 143, 158, 164 E Early and forced marriage 83, 96, 103, 104 early development 161 economic activities 51, 57 economic conditions 87, 141 Economic exploitation 53, 120 Economic hardship 59, 60, 95, 124, 140 economically modest backgrounds 95 Education en Milieu Overt 158 educational establishments and universities 94 educational opportunities 41 effective implementation 103, 109, 126, 131

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

effects 42, 53, 62, 79, 81, 90, 98 elaboration 128, 131 emergence of child-headed families 125 emerging phenomenon 55, 58, 73, 87, 89 emotional effects 91 essential services 180 excision 90 Exploitation 84-87, 91, 97, 118, 120, 140, 171 exploitative activities 40 extended families 122, 124, 132, 142, 171, 177 Extraction 156, 157 F Family 51, 52, 54, 56, 58-59, 76, 160, 164, 180, 181, 184 Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting 41, 90 financial and material support 131 financial assistance 106, 113, 119 financial compensation 83 financial or material 49 Financial stability 159 Focus 51, 64, 91, 133, 177 forced into prostitution 40, 59, 62 forced to work 40, 59 foster family 115 fundamental rights 63, 91

G Girls are especially vulnerable 168 girls working as domestic workers 56 global efforts 169 Global Studies on violence against Children 44 Globalisation 61, 97 government action 160 great challenge 40, 45 gross violation 91 guaranteeing and promoting the rights of children 53 guides for the prevention 104 H hardened criminals 97, 145, 146 Harmonisation of intervention 132, 185 hazardous conditions 59, 118 health effects 93 health problems 121, 150, 151, 152 HIV infection 62, 78, 124 HIV/AIDS 42, 63, 78, 84, 90, 99, 105, 109, 111, 112, 113, 122, 123, 126, 129, 130, 148, 171 HIV/AIDS and other STDS 60 Homosexuality 98, 102, 148, 170, 173 human trafficking 40, 41

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Index

I ignorance 82, 105, 138 illegal adoption 59 illiterate 140 Implementation 25, 157, 183, implementation of programmes and projects 70 imprisonment 79, 81, 82, 101, 175 income generating activities 92, 107, 123, 127, 128, 132, 152, 159 income generating schemes 177 infected 43, 79, 111, 112, 113 Informal Sector 57, 135, 147, 162 injury 78, 90, 172, 199 institutional placements 158 Institutions 48, 153, 155, 159, 163, 182, 192 Interests 83 intermediaries 55, 57, 58 internal laws and regulations 47 International Conventions 46, 65, 109, 119, 154, 173 International trafficking 62 interventions 132, 158, 162, 176 investing in children 45 Involvement in sexual activity 148 Irresponsible parenthood 59 J judgement in default 175, 176

judicial process 169 juvenile delinquency 157, 164, 174, 176 juvenile detention facilities 97 Juvenile Justice 176, 184, 186 juvenile justice system 171 L Lack of access to education 61 lack of prior psycho-social preparation 153 Lack of sensitisation 125 large families 60 legal instruments 100 Legal protection 46, 62, 65, 126, 173 legislative measures 85 Leisure 53, 108 life on the street 143, 144 live and work in the street 135 local customs and traditions 60 lucrative industry 62 M mainstream concept 164 mainstreaming approach 163 maintenance obligation 67 major problem street children face 150 malnutrition 151, 172 maltreatment 39, 56, 75, 84 Marriage 59, 80, 87, 99, 144 medical complications 90 mental health 99

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

minors 67, 69, 76, 89, 102, 155, 170, 173, 175, 176, 181 mitigating circumstances 82 modern day slavery 50 Modern technology 86, 97 modes of HIV transmissions 42 moral danger 67, 69, 71, 101, 155, 159, 182 moral development of the child 53 mortality rates 123 mother 92 multi-sectorial approach 46, 107 multiple and interrelated factors 165 N nation-wide consultation 184 national committee 92 national or international boundaries 40 negative consequence 99 negative impact of the media 97 new legislation 184 non-violent resolution 177 O offence 66, 76, 79, 101, 167, 173, 174 offer financial compensation or gifts 95 organised crimes 145 Orphaned 43, 111, 114 Orphans 36, 45, 56, 58, 94, 96, 103, 111, 143, 172

orphans of HIV and AIDS 112 P Paedophilia 87, 88, 89, 96, 97, 98 parental authority 67, 68, 101, 102 parental neglect 172 parental power 83 parenting skills 177 partial transfer of parental responsibility 52 participate in decisions 97 Participation 23, 83, 96, 108, 179 payment 77, 127 penal dispositions 47 personal and social problems 172 pestles 93 petty crimes 167 phenomenon of street children 43, 139, 141, 164 Physical 84, 91, 98, 120, 122, 139, 149, 150, 169, 179, 181 physical exploitation 50 plagued with 179 plan of Actions 73 police arrest 153 police custody 168 pornographic material 76, 86 Poverty 94, 96, 118, 139 Practices 41, 46, 50, 60, 89, 90, 104 pre-trial period 168 precarious situation 133

- 284 -


Index

prejudice 167, 251 premature 98, 163 pressing pre-occupations of the government 55 Prevention 63, 103, 104, 129, 132, 156, 182 prevention of delinquency 156 preventive approaches 155 Preventive measures 46, 64, 103, 108, 132, 168, 174, 186 preventive programmes 162, 186 principal government institution 183 principle of special protection 47 prison administration 178 procedures 90 process of globalisation 97 production 76, 86, 138, 152 prohibited 82 Projects and programmes 132, 183 promulgation 131, 181, 184 prosecuting all offenders 40 prosecution 66, 174 Protecting children 24, 45, 46, 100, 119 Protection 112, 117, 158, 170, 182, 183, 184 Protection against discrimination 121, 126 psycho-social aspect of child protection 48 psycho-social effect 99 psycho-social impact 121

Psycho-social support 118, 121, 127-129, 158 psycho-social treatment 64 psychological effects 79, 84 psychological harm 78 psychological problems 50, 78, 152 psychological support 126 Public Institutions 48, 69 punishable offence 79 punishment 66, 79, 82, 92 R Raising awareness 163 rape 93 ratified conventions 66, 103, 173, 176 re-adaptation 64 Re-education 72, 153, 155, 158, 159, 174, 176, 178, 179 reception centres 64, 73, 109, 155 Rehabilitation 106, 107, 109, 178 Reinforcing collaboration 164 reinsertion 157, 158, 160, 161 reintegration programmes 186 relevant national laws 65 relevant provisions 102 remuneration 84 report cases of abuse 96 Repression 73, 92 Reproductive sex education 93 Responsibilities 52, 168, 180, 186

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Responsible parenthood 105 Right to Education 24, 53 role 91, 104, 125, 131, 132, 183, 185 rural area 50, 59, 112, 124, 138, 142, 172 S Sanctions 67 school curricula 177 Self-protection mechanisms 178 Sensitisation 91, 103, 104, 125, 161, 185, 186 sentenced if 174 setting aside of 176 Sex education 93, 105, 109 sex for power 149 sex for punishment 149 sexual abuse in the prison 98 Sexual activities 84, 86, 95, 148 sexual assaults 42, 78 Sexual Exploitation 50, 56, 63, 75, 77, 86, 87, 91, 94, 96, 99, 170, 185 sexual relationship 85 Sexual tourism 84, 85, 104 sexually abused 41, 42, 76, 80, 116 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 37, 63, 78, 99, 116, 148 sexually transmitted infections 144 social centres 64, 71, 72, 158, 176

Social Consequences 99 social disapproval 84 Social protection 48, 176 social reintegration 67 social space 177 socialisation process 115 socio-cultural activities 179 socio-economic re-insertion 157, 159 socio-professional re-insertion 63, 64, 160 source of free or cheap labour 52 Special 66, 68, 98, 102, 107, 109, 133, 163 special measures 174, 175 Special protection 47, 56, 119, 120, 168 specialised centres 106, 109, 177, 178 specialised courts 176 specialised educational establishments 161 specialised institutions 181 specific offences 67 specific provisions 92 Sponsorship Scheme 131 Statistics 41, 93, 170 status of women 56 Stigmatisation 115, 116, 121, 126, 128, 131 Street children 118, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 145, 147, 148, 150-153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161

- 286 -


Index

unpleasant situations 87 unwanted pregnancies 99 urban banditry 145, 146, 147

Street education 158 subordinate status 61 support 112 support for OVC 128, 185 supportive environment for children 125, 163 survival strategy 60 susceptible to diseases 151 systematic and appropriate responses 154

V

T targeted assistance 177 technical approaches 155 texts and decrees 170 the fight against 55 The internet 42, 87, 97 the receiving family 51, 52 Therapy 81 tissue 93 trafficked 40, 41, 50, 59, 60, 61, 62, 171 traffickers 40, 55, 59, 60, 87 trafficking in women and girls 60 traumatising experience 79, 122 U

victims 57, 94, 98 Violence 98, 105, 137, 143, 149, 150, 168, 172 Violence on the street 149 visible cause of 59 Vocational Training 37, 71, 162, 179 void 59 vulgarization 73 Vulnerability 49, 56, 59, 63, 84, 95, 96, 114, 118, 124, 125, 131, 185 Vulnerable children 40, 43, 45, 113, 114, 154 W wellbeing 64, 114, 161 willingness of parents 105 without their consent 82 working documents 128 worst form of 54

Unequal gender relations 60 unpleasant dimension 85

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The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon

Achevé d’imprimer chez IMA juin 2008 Dépôt légal juin 2008

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Extrait : The socio-legal perspective of child protection in Cameroon