Introduction This paper serves to present evidence that I’ve obtained the eight learning outcomes set fourth by the Library and Information Studies Department at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and details both tangible skills and theoretical conclusions gained by acquiring my Masters of Library and Information studies. The eight learning outcomes are:
The student assesses the philosophy, principles, and ethics of the library and information field.
The student identifies, evaluates, conducts, and applies current research and thought in library and information studies and in other fields. The student applies and values user education principles in the teaching of information literacy.
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The student designs services to meet the information needs of all users and communities. The student engages in professional development and service and identifies specializations and related professional organizations as relevant to individual interests. The student applies appropriate technology for effective information services. The student applies advocacy, marketing, and communication principles for entrepreneurial leadership. The student effectively collaborates for the achievement of individual, organizational, professional, and societal goals.
Philosophy, Ethics and Principles My introduction to the philosophy, ethics, and principles of the library field took place in LIS 600. It challenged my current thinking, made me address tough philosophical questions, and made me realize that there was more to the philosophy and value of the profession than I realized before I started the program. When I started, I viewed librarianship as a technical, hands-on field, and while I knew that I’d graduate with the skills to conduct reference, plan and implement programs, and catalog, I didn’t realize that the term “librarian” also includes things that aren’t seen, including principles and ethics. I wasn’t aware that these philosophical ideas would impact all of the “hands-on” things that I will be expected to execute as a part of my career. It challenged my fundamental ideas, and forced me to reconsider preconceptions of deceptively simple questions. To be honest, these philosophical questions weren’t something that I had even though to think about before. From discussing what a library actually is, to issues with obscenity and controversial collections, to issues surrounding diverse populations, it helped broaden my view of the value librarians provide to their community, as well as the breadth of issues I may be faced with during my career. In LIS 600, I was first introduced to the American Library Association’s Code of Ethics as well as the Intellectual Freedom Manual published by the ALA. Both of these things were used in class and referred to when discussing controversial and ethical topics. While librarians aren’t required to follow the code of ethics, it’s something that has stuck with me throughout my educational journey. These two documents were the base of the Current Issues paper I wrote for 600 about intellectual freedom. While the choice of topic turned out to be a little more than I could chew at the time (maybe a novice mistake), it gave me the chance to address the issues of ethics and principles within the profession head on. The paper included a synopsis of current legislation and news concerning intellectual freedom, an outline of the ALA code of ethics, and how it all relates to the library field in general. This assignment made me realize that libraries aren’t immune to outside influences, and that legislation and social movements can directly affect libraries and users. It was my first experience in keeping up with news and events that may impact libraries, and I plan on continuing to do so as I go out into the profession, both for professional development and personal interest. The concluding assignment in LIS 600, the Professional Values Statement forced me to look at all the philosophical and ethical principles presented in the class. The biggest thing I learned about my future profession is the opportunity I’ll have to have a profound impact on people and communities. Before starting the class, I knew that my career would include helping people, but I didn’t realize to what extent or that I have the potential to change lives. The rest of the paper was broken down into three sections, including open and equal access to information, censorship and intellectual freedom, and advocating for libraries, librarians, and paraprofessionals. I’ll carry these principles with me as I enter the profession, and be mindful of the influence and impact I have the opportunity to have in my community. I know that sometimes I’ll have to put personal beliefs behind professional values, and my education has prepared me
for that. In my studies I’ve come to value putting aside personal biases in order to answer reference questions without intellectual interference, protecting intellectual freedom and access to information, as well as protecting intellectual ownership and copyright laws. My place is not to assume I know what’s best for the user or assume their intentions involving information, but to strictly provide the best information possible to meet user needs and wants, and to actively bargain for them collectively to those who make budgetary and resource acquisition decisions. Research During my undergraduate education, I conducted a lot of secondary research to support my learning as an English major and was competent in the research skills needed to find the information I wanted. However, I had little knowledge of conducting primary research and lacked a holistic view of research and research methods. Much of my research took place within a specific discipline and only scratched the surface of the resources available. While completing the Library and Information Studies program at UNCG, I gained skills in interdisciplinary research, research methods, and about scholarly communication, peer review, copyright, and institutional culture as it affects research and publishing. My first semester in the program gave me my first taste of conducting my own research as a future librarian. In LIS 600, I completed my Action Research Paper on the Use of Facebook as a Marketing Tool to Reach New and Existing Public Library Users. I surveyed public libraries throughout the United States that currently used Facebook to see how it was working and what the biggest issues were. The results of this research were later presented at a poster at the 2011 NCLA conference. This project was my first taste in primary research, and taught me that going directly to the source was a valuable way to gauge user needs and to explore and address a library-specific issue, or, in this case, a broader one that hasn’t been researched enough for there to be adequate secondary resources available for research. It also taught me that user needs and wants are paramount to a libraries success, and should remain the biggest focus while going forward. This project help shape the “give the people what they want” mentality that I’ve developed during my time in the program. During the same semester, I completed my Annotated Bibliography for LIS 620 on subliminal messages and advertising, forcing me to conduct secondary research in an interdisciplinary field. This assignment forced me to use the skills I learned in the class, including research methods in both print and electronic resources, evaluating resources, the use of bibliographic resources, and resource presentation. Choosing a topic outside of my areas of expertise forced me to stretch my boundaries and go out of my comfort zone in order to find the best information available on the topic, a valuable skill that I’ll need in going forward with my career. My career path will undoubtedly require some reference activities, and being able to conduct research outside of my area of expertise as well as in interdisciplinary fields will prove paramount to my success. Another assignment that helped shaped my research skills were completed in LIS 612, Science and Technology Information Sources. This class proved useful in making me better-rounded in subject matter, as I don’t have a background in either science or technology but need to be able to assist users in their pursuit of this type of information. The wiki that I wrote for the class on Medical Ecology was the culmination of the skills and research techniques that I learned in class. Medical Ecology, the study of ecological processes that affect human health, pulls information and sources from medical and ecological sources. One of the biggest issues I ran into while completing this project was evaluating resources. While there are legit resources on the topic, there are also many that aren’t scholarly or produced by someone with trusted credentials. This lesson was important for me to learn so that I can help others wade through information and test it for legitimacy. The bulk of information was web based, adding to the challenge of finding good information, and differentiating it from all the other sources. More and more people are turning to the web for information, so being able to decipher the good from the bad will help me aid users in my career. During my time in the program, primary research, such as needs assessments and action research, has been one of my favorite types of assignments. I think speaking directly to users and understanding their needs is the basis for a successful library. If I don’t know what my users want and need, than my work is mostly useless. While it’s easier to guess, assume what users want, or worse, assume that I know what’s best for them, it isn’t an effective marketing approach nor does it properly use library budgets or properly steer strategic planning. LIS 688: Social Marketing was one of the most beneficial classes that I’ve taken, because it went through the steps of identifying a problem, assessing user needs, and building a program to meet those needs. I worked with a partner to identify why (or why not) UNCG LIS students were professionally active. Although we didn’t complete the project during the semester (something that wasn’t expected of us) we gained valuable insight into the primary research and needs analysis processes. In our case, people valued professional activities, but the time and the means weren’t always there to participate. Also, much of the information that students wanted was available, but with different agencies, and sometimes buried under layers of other information. In conclusion, we recommended that the
information be placed in a central location that’s continually updated, with more emphasis placed upon such matters by LIS faculty. Aside from learning how to conduct primary and secondary research on an array of topics, I’ve also learned to research topics within the profession and have made keeping up with such information a part of my life as a professional. Conducting research within the profession allows me to continue my education, hear new ideas and experiences, and keep up with current trends. In LIS 688: Information literacy, I was required to subscribe to an ACRL listserv about information literacy, one of my first experiences doing research within the field. The research was incorporated into an assignment about a current practitioner issue. It made me realize that there are a lot of resources to get real-life advice from other practitioners, and that reaching out to other librarians is easy to do and can yield good advice. Listservs and being part of the greater librarian community are something that I plan on participating in long after I graduate. Conducting research within the realms of librarianship has often led to more research in other fields that may affect libraries and librarians. For instance, my LIS 600 current issues paper about intellectual freedom included sources found within librarianship literature, but also in areas of government and policy. In LIS 656: The Academic Library, I conducted research to find current issues within higher education that have an affect on academic libraries, and then chose one of those issues to focus on more specifically. While the research conducted was on higher education, it taught me that many seemingly outside factors have a direct influence on librarianship. For instance, I chose to look more specifically at a lack of economic diversity within four year universities. Although the research wasn’t about libraries specifically, the issue had the potential to greatly affect academic libraries. Keeping up with the news and current events within a community or specific area of librarianship is essential, but so is keeping up with outside news in other areas in order to gauge the impact it may have on a library. This required research has instilled within me a desire to understand what is going on within the profession at large and keep up with outside issues that may affect my career and place of employment. Information Literacy I had no real concept of information literacy before staring the program. While knew that librarians often taught classes in research, the idea of information literacy as a professional genre was new to me. I took LIS 688:Information Literacy during my second semester of the program, and it’s been a focus of mine ever since. I was afraid that the class might focus on children and young adults, but was pleased to find that it’s an emphasis in libraries serving every sort of community. Even if I don’t start my career as an information or instruction librarian specifically, the class gave me skills and knowledge that will be transferable to most positions that I have or will apply for. In LIS 688: Information Literacy, I discovered and used the ACRL Information Literacy Standards to produce work and write a personal teaching philosophy. I was charged with creating a lesson plan, presenting the lesson, and then using an evaluation tool to gauge student learning outcomes. I used Prezi, an online presentation tool, and Hot-Potato, a free, online quiz maker. My presentation was on validifying web resources, something that can be hard for students to master because of the vast array of information on the web, and the varying degrees of trustworthiness. This assignment allowed me the opportunity to use new technological resources to better reach students, and gave me experience in creating lesson plans that addressed specific ACRL standards. My biggest and most monumental work for LIS 688: Information Literacy was a paper about my personal teaching philosophy. Within it, I address teaching theories and how I’ll apply them, as well as my personal strengths and weaknesses. In the paper, I reach conclusions such as teaching toward student goals, that learning isn’t a linear process but more of web, aiding students in building bridges between their current knowledge base and new information, and teaching in varied ways to reach students with different learning styles. I also made a Prezi in Science and Technology Resources and Services as an aid to teach students about the CARDs database . This project gave me experience producing a teaching aid about a specific library resource in a topic that was outside of my educational background. My experience in my education studying teaching and learning theory and producing information literacy tools will aide me in better serving users. Because people, essentially, use libraries to learn, having a basic understanding of how people learn and different learning processes will make me more effective in my profession. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on information literacy in academic libraries, and even those who aren’t instruction librarians have a hand in the process. Weather it’s creating pathfinders ( like the one I completed in reference, to be talked about more in depth in the research section) or producing guides and instructional tools for a certain subject, most librarians will be charged with developing or implementing some sort of literacy information or literacy initiative. I believe that my education and my successful completion of course assignments has given me a good understanding of
learning theory, ACRL standards, and the design and implementation of learning tools and evaluation techniques. Support of the Information Needs of Users Diverse client groups and variations of information needs is one of the hallmark challenges of libraries, but also one of the characteristics that make libraries so vital. A collection should reflect the diversity of the community of users of a given library, including diversity of subject matter and mode of access. In order to understand the information needs of all users, I’ll strive to not only to get to know but to be a part of the community in which I serve. My experience and skills in action research and social marketing mentioned earlier in the paper have given me foundations in going directly to the source for information about what users want and need. In LIS 636:Web Production and Usability, I constructed a website on which I conducted usability testing and sought user feedback throughout the process, an experience that taught me that usability and access to electronic information go hand in hand. Information that can’t be easily used can’t be useful or serve needs. Before starting the program, I assumed that my job was to simply provide access, but I now know that the quality of access also matters. I also took into consideration the ADA usability standards for those with vision or hearing impairments. I realized that by adjusting certain aspects of a website during the planning and design phase can greatly increase access to those with disabilities. The basic usability and design theories, as well as a familiarity with the ADA usability standards will allow me to present and choose information and resources in the most accessible way possible. In LIS 656: The Academic Library, I studied the effects of a lack of economic diversity among students in four year universities and the affect that it has on academic libraries. While my major academic conclusions were that wealthy students tend to go to wealthier schools that have more prestige and resources, the process made me realize the impact that libraries of all sorts can have on academic success. School and public libraries can provide internet access, help with accessing admissions tests practice materials, information on the financial aid process, and access to college applications. For those students with a less wealthy background, the academic library serves as a way to level the academic playing field, allowing all students, regardless of wealth, the means to be intellectually successful in college. It also made me realize that minorities within the community a library serves are sometimes the ones who need the services the library provides the most. During my graduate studies, I’ve worked part time at UNCG’s Jackson Library in the Special Collections and University Archives department. While my main job duty was to research, process, and preserve the historic photograph collection, I had the opportunity to see how the department serves the varying information needs of users. During my there, I’ve seen freshman 101 students conducting research alongside family members of those who are featured in the collections, alongside post-PhD researchers finding material for their next book. The diversity of the collection naturally attracts a diverse user population, and I had the opportunity to see and learn the techniques the archivists use to meet their varying needs. My last project for the department was numbering one of our photograph collections, which is basically cataloging and assigning specific numbers to each folder and photograph. The process made me realize that an urgency to meet user needs has to has to permeate all departments and all people working within the department. In order to make sure that the collection was useful, I had to collaborate with the digital projects department to make sure that the digitized images and their online catalog information matched up with the information cataloged on the physical photo. If the same photo has differing information depending on its medium, it doesn’t lend well to ease of use. I also had to collaborate with others in the department when it came to providing reference help, citations, crossreferencing in and between collections, and in the creation of series lists and finding aids. Meeting the needs of our users required meeting user needs to be a strategic goal of not only the department, but the entire library. Before this experience, I thought that the division of a library into departments meant that those departments acted relatively autonomously, but I know now that in order to meet user needs, they need to have the same visions and goals, as well as collaborate in order to provide the best user experience. Professional Development Professional development has been both a personal goal and a research topic of mine during my tenure in the program, however, my first taste of professional development came during while interning at Kimbel Library at Coastal Carolina University during my undergraduate education. This experience first exposed me to the library profession and concreted my goal to pursue it as a career. The internship had two parts: hands-on professional experience and academic and professional exploration. I worked in the reference department as a student assistant, where I was exposed to reference, circulation, instruction, and technology services. I was also expected to keep up with current and classic literature within the
profession and to provide written reflections on the readings. This experience led to my first paid job within the library. When my required internship hours and assignments were completed, I was hired on part-time to continue my work. Once I started in the program, I joined the Library and Information Studies student Association , participating in events such as guest speakers and networking activities. I’m also a member of the North Carolina Library Association, and subscribe to their email list to keep abreast of upcoming events, job opportunities, and current issues facing those within the field. I also subscribe to many ALA list-servs as a way to continue my education and to stay knowledgeable about current issues and trends in the field. I’ll continue to be a member of NCLA (or the association of whatever state I reside in) and continue to subscribe to listservs in order to stay in touch with the greater librarian community. I also plan on becoming a member of ALA in the near future. I received my first taste of presenting and attending at a conference at the 2011 NCLA conference in Hickory, North Carolina. I presented a poster, “Library as a Marketing Tool for Public Libraries” that stemmed from my LIS 600 action research project. While I was nervous, I was excited that my poster proposal was approved and that it was well received by other conference goers. It encouraged me to continue conducting research and presenting it conferences. I also made valuable networking connections while attending the conference. I met a vendor that asked for my resume so that he could pass it along in his travels, and another that sought me out after speaking briefly to give me a business card and asked me to use his name if I ever decide to apply with his company in order to accelerate my application to those who make hiring decisions. These two experiences gave me confidence in my networking skills. Attending vendor booths also enabled me to learn about new and current products and services, something that was more interesting than anticipated. I now look forward to the next opportunity to participate in and attend a professional conference. I’ve also had the chance to talk to professionals in the field during the course of my studies. I conducted an administrator interview for LIS 650: Library Administration and Management, where I was able to speak with the Assistant Director of Special Collections and University Archives at Jackson Library. I valued the chance to speak about things such as employee morale, budgetary concerns, and interdepartmental relations. I also had the opportunity to speak with James Roth, Deputy Director of the Kennedy Presidential Library, about his background, current position, and advice for LIS students who will soon be entering the job market. I intend to write up the interview to be featured on the UNCG LIS website. My position in Jackson Library’s Special Collections and University Archives was extremely valuable to me during my education, supplementing class work and research with hands-on experience in a pain library position. It helped me make connections between the material and the profession, and each helped me be successful at the other. Having the support of the archivists and librarians in the department was also vital to my success, and reinforced the fact that I’ve chosen the right career path. I’ve also completed a professional development plan, which outlines my plans regarding professional development as well as my professional goals. Technology Technology has always been an interest of mine, but I didn’t realize how imperative technological skills would be to my career before I started the program. I’ve tried to tailor my education to gain as many technology skills as possible, because, no matter where I end up, they’ll be of value. My experience with technology within the program can be broken down into two major schools: Library-specific technology, and universal technological skills that will contribute to being successful. LIS 631, Emerging Technological Trends, which I took in my first semester of the program, really set the tone for the rest of my studies. If it were up to me, this would be a required or core class, or at least the subject matter would be covered in more of them. It gave me an overview of technology within libraries, and then brought up current technological issues libraries face. It was valuable for me to take the class with Tim Bucknall, the assistant dean for electronic resources and information technology at Jackson Library, to get a first-hand glimpse of the things that he sees everyday. The class gave me an introduction to things such as open source software, open access sources, integrated library systems (which I haven’t encountered anywhere else in my studies, but have been a big talking point in job descriptions and interviews), consortia, and Journal Finder. I wrote three papers for the class, including one about Journal Finder, an open link resolver. Aside from giving me experience and knowledge about the product and open link resolvers, the assignment gave me the experience of exploring and evaluating an electronic resource first hand, as well as providing constructive criticism, as the creator was also my professor. This is an experience I’ll take with me into the profession: as library budgets shrink but technological demands become greater, it’s imperative to be
able to evaluate resources and to conduct research in order to pick and choose among resources that will best fit user needs, and present those findings to peers and supervisors. In LIS 631, I wrote a paper about web 2.0 technology and other reference technology and ways of disseminating library information. It provided a good overview of new ways to connect and serve users, as well as the logistics of using technology to reach users. Many of these technologies are free and easy for libraries to implement, but also have the potential to greatly improve services and can aid in meeting user needs. In my final paper, I explored the disruptive effects of the dropping price of e readers on libraries and the publishing business. A booming technology, the information I gathered about technology, user tendencies, and the publishing industry further reinforced the idea that all of these ideas are interconnected and have a profound effect on libraries and the profession. I’ve also taken classes that gave me more specific, tangible, universal technical skills, such as LIS 636: Web Design and Usability and 688: Database design. Web Design and Usability gave me tangible skills in using Adobe Dreamweaver and Photoshop, File Transfer Protocol, and experience using open source software such as Seamonkey and CoreFTP. Using these skills, I created various versions of a website about professional activities for LIS students. Not only did I gain tangible skills in web design technology, I also gained skills in usability testing and gaining feedback from users. Having the basic skills to create websites and graphics and knowing how to test a website against usability criteria will prove useful in my job search and future career. Over the course of the class, I was able to see how a good website can enhance services and ease of use for patrons, but a bad one can distract users and frustrate them to the point of disuse. LIS 688: Database Design was one of the most challenging classes I’ve taken, but one that proved to be useful and rewarding. I studied design theory, business rules, modeling and planning, and implementing the creation of databases in Access and creating structured queries in SQL. The final assignment was to collaborate with a group to create a fully functioning database in Access. My contribution was to write SQL and to create forms. This project taught me invaluable skills, but also gave me a better understanding of databases and information organization. Many of the core functions within the library profession revolve around databases, weather it’s research or organization of materials and patron information. Knowing how databases are designed and how they work will be imperative to being able to fully use the databases in place in the library as well as to creating better ways to manage and access information. Knowing how information is organized will ultimately make me a better librarian, and will make me more knowledgeable about how to meet user needs within the confines and limits of technology, and to use technology to make my job easier, streamline library services, and better serve user needs. Before starting the program I didn’t realize how interconnected and advanced library technology is, and how much librarians are expected to produce and utilize technological resources. While I don’t have an absolutely comprehensive set of technological skills, I’ve gained valuable specific skills that will enable me to learn new ones quickly. I’ve also gained a breadth of knowledge about the theoretical end of technology and technological planning, and being able to see and plan for the bigger picture will prove useful. I’ve also come to the conclusion that libraries need to stay current to stay vital, and keeping abreast of new and emerging technological trends, both within libraries and the communities they serve, will be crucial to libraries survival. Marketing and Advocacy When I first started my graduate studies, I didn’t realize that marketing and advocacy would play a central role in my professional life. While I knew that libraries advertised programs and services, I had always assumed that it was a passive or reactive part of the profession. I, like many, equated the term “marketing” with “sales”, something that made me nervous, because I am not a naturally talented sales person. The topic was first brought up in LIS 600, in a discussion about expressing a library’s value and marketing worth. The discussion had such an impact on me that I included the topic in my Professional Values Statement, where I discussed that I have a duty to market the value of libraries to the community and that as a professional, the responsibility is mine to advocate for libraries when it comes to budgets and resources, and that it’s up to me to stand up for all the people who rely on the library as a source of information. With this strong conviction, I’ll be better equipped to argue on behalf of the library to the board of directors, county commissioners, or whoever else makes major decisions regarding library funds and resources. My LIS 600 action research project, and the poster that displayed the results shows that the way users choose to view information is rapidly changing, and that marketing and advocating for libraries in different mediums is becoming essential. In order to reach the most amount of users, different marketing strategies are needed in order to reach users where they are. The results of my research showed that social media was an effective marketing tool for libraries and that people are more likely to hear about library events, news, services and resources on Facebook, which many users have incorporated into their
everyday life. Reaching users in the right way and meeting them where they already are can proved to be a successful way of marketing to new and existing users. I’ve also come to know the value of marketing the library to users. In LIS 688:Social Marketing, I gained the skills necessary to research user needs and launch a successful program and marketing campaign to meet those needs. I realized that if programs and resources are planned with user wants and needs as a constant driver, there should be very little “selling”, which I equate with convincing people to “buy” something they don’t need or want, or trying to convince them that they do. If a program or collection is built from the ground up by speaking directly to user communities about their needs, than proper marketing will be sufficient in gaining use or participation. I’ll carry these lessons with me into my career because consistently meeting user needs and expressing the value of and advocating for libraries have become two major cornerstones of my professional values, and my overall success depends on them. Collaboration Much of my best work throughout my studies has come from collaboration with my peers. Collaboration has allowed me to work with very different people whose perspectives and talents greatly improved the overall product. While collaboration wasn’t always easy, it always resulted in a more well-rounded, wellplanned product. The most memorable instance of collaboration took place in LIS 688: Social Marketing, where I collaborated with my peer on a needs assessment and marketing plan about professional activities among LIS students at UNCG. While my partner and I had the option to work individually on separate projects, a common interest and goal brought us together. By pooling our knowledge, talents, and perspectives, we were able to better reach students and were able to develop a dynamic campaign that may have fell flat had one of us tackled it my ourselves. Because we both had diverse experiences and backgrounds, we were better able to connect and relate to our subjects than if we had acted alone. In LIS 615: Collection Management, I worked with a group of students to create a budget proposal for a local community college. Again, the group was successful because of a common interest and a common goal. Because we all had expertise in differing areas, having multiple people to brainstorm and solve problems enhanced the quality of the project. I never realized how greatly collaboration could improve an end product, and will continue to collaborate as a professional going forward with these lessons. Not only is it important to collaborate with peers and other professionals, but it will also be vital for me to collaborate with users to make the library an ideal service to the community. By collaborating with users, I’ll be better able to assess user needs and interests, and therefore be able to better serve my community. By collaborating with users, I’ll be better able to provide access, resources and services that my community needs the most. Interacting and collaborating with the community I serve will be vital to my success. As a professional, collaborating with my coworkers will enable us to take advantage of each others talents, experience, and expertise to provide the best services possible to users. While disagreements may be an unavoidable part of collaboration, we’ll be united by a common goal or purpose, and, if we all compile our best work, it’s sure to be better than any one person could produce on their own. One person may have strength in the place of another’s weakness, therefore making the quality of work altogether higher. Conclusion As I prepare to graduate, I look forward to finding a position in technical services, reference, or information literacy to start my career. I have confidence that my professors and classes, as well as the work that I’ve done, have prepared me to be successful in my first professional library position. Over the past two years, I’ve grown personally, intellectually, and professionally, and will carry fourth with me the lessons I’ve learned from professors, peers, and professionals I’ve met in the field. By combining the hands on skills I’ve acquired with the philosophical and theoretical conclusions I’ve reached, I’m prepared to serve users and strive to continually improve resources and user experiences.