Page 1







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4403.1a .E3 :5H4 1968






J. J. BAKKER, P.Eng.


J. J. BAKKER, P.Eng. B.Sc., D.I.C., M.S.C.E. Transportation Engineer 25 Grosvenor Boulevard, ST. ALBEPT, Alberta Januaky 10, 1968

Mt. S. J. Hampton, P.Eng. City Commizzionet, City Hall, EDMONTON, Albetta

Dean. Sit, As tequezted I have pAepaked a AepoAt on the tole (34 Pubtic TAanspottation in Edmonton. Pubtic TAanzpoAtation cannot be expected to give a 4inanciat AetuAn it L6 atzo to pitovide a zeAvice to the public and compete with 4ub4idized pAivate tAanzpoktation. Howevet Pubtic TtanspoAtation developed with a tapid tkamit tine - can make pozzibte the pnojected high employment concentkation4 downtown, in the goveAnment centet and at the UniveAzity. Imptementation o,6 the Aecarmendationz would enable Pubtic TkanzpoAtation to zeAve the automobile, and allow it's patton4 to b '1 -pa44 ttaggc congeztion in a at and comyttable way. The Aapid tkanzit tine would atzo pAovide Aelie4 to the toad zyztem, zince theke wowed be tezz buzez and Owen_ dives uzing .thee 'toads. I hope thiz kepokt will azzizt City Council in 40/mutating poticy as tegaAds Pubtic TAanzpoAtation.

Reispectilutey 'submitted,

J. J. Bakken., P.Eng.







PAGE THE GROWTH OF EDMONTON 1 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AS IT IS TODAY 3 CURRENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN EDMONTON 7 New areas, Older areas, Central Business District, Government Center, University, Exhibition Grounds, Clarke Stadium, A domed stadium,convention center or trade center. REVIEW OF PLANE 11 M.E.T.S.,.Bechtel Plan for rapid transit,Downtown Plan, General Plan. TRANSPORTATION IMPLICATIONS OF EDMONTON'S GROWTH TRENDS 16 Downtown, Government, University, Edmonton's opportunity, the effect on downtown parking. USEFUL EXAMPLES OF OTHER CITIES


Cleveland, Shaker Heights, Chicago, Skokie Swift, Toronto, GO Transit, Montreal, Expo, Fort borth. SEVEN


POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES FOR TEE E.T.S. 32 Do nothing approach, Automobile only, Transit only, A practical and balanced Transportation plan, Transportation organization. THE BALANCED TRANSPORTATION PLAN 36 Roadway plan, Transit plan, The downtown tunnel, Other modifications, Schematic track plan, Equipment, Stage construction, Costs, Implications of balanced


transportation plan. RECOMMENDATIONS






Patronage predictions Cost estimates for rapid transit by Bechtel in 1963






ETS Revenue and Expenditures 1940 - 1967 Recommendations of September 1965


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Since the start of this century the growth of Metropolitan Edmonton has been rapid and often greater than expected. The table shown below and Figure One reflect this growth and also give the present predictions up to the end of the century, only 32 years from now. Edmonton's growth is a reflection of Edmonton's economic base, it is rich in food, water, fuel and mineral resources; it has excellent inter-regional transportation, and has a growing market. On a world wide basis Edmonton still lives in a relative population vacuum. Edmonton's internal transportation has beriefited greatly from the wide right-of-ways provided by our forefathers. For the size of town that Edmonton was at the time Jasper Avenue was laid out, it might be questioned whether these wide right-of-ways were then justified. Now Edmonton again finds itself at a moment of decision in that it has to provide additional transportation facilities that will benefit the city for the next few years or for the next few generations. YEAR

1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1964 1971 1980

CITY POPULATION (includes Beverly and Jasper Place) 4,176 31,064 59,860 80,170 96,306 170,210 314,824 357,696 435,000 570,000 840,000

METRO-POPULATION (includes St.Albert, Sherwood Park and Griesbach)

330,129 382,279 479,600 643,000 1,000,000

2000 More information on this subject is given in Edmonton's General Plan.


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The Edmonton Transit System commenced in 1908 as an electric street railway operation. Expanding with a booming Edmonton it suffered from an excessive plant and capital burden. The system incurred heavy losses until much of its debt was retired about 1930. The street railway system functioned on a comparitively low fare structure, but it did meet all its bond interest and redemption obligations: however overall it was not considered a successful financial venture for the city. During World War II the system was able to handle unprecedented volumes of passenger traffic, the system operated at that time at a substantial profit in spite of a low fare schedule. After the war the conversion from streetcars to trolley buses was completed. Up to 1960 the transit system has been profitable and sound. However a number of weaknesses also showed up, namely: 1. A multiplicity of transfer points 2. An incomplete network, hindering other than downtown movements 3. Poor and slow service in outlying areas 4. Severe crush loading in the peak hours. In the period 1961 to 1968 there have been numerous changes made to improve the )5eAvice provided. Express routes were introduced, routings changed to provide a better network, and new outlying areas were incorporated in the service network. Transit is faced with a number of problems which make its financial future look grim indeed. The main causes are: 1. In order to retain its downtown pratonage it will have to operate more miles, since the population has moved to the outskirts MOM in Volume I required that transit should increase its share of the market which would necessitate even more miles of operation and therefor greater cost). 2. Vehicular interference, particularly downtown, slows down the transit buses. The resulting lower average speed requires more vehicles to maintain even the same frequency (at present 24 extra vehicles are required because of traffic congestion alone).


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3. Transit riding has increased in the peak hours but has remained steady midday; it has declined/ in the late evenings, on Sundays and Holidays. More vehicles and men are required even though the total revenue will not increase proportionally. 4. Transit is required to move special rider catagories at far less than cost (school children and old age pensioners). This market is however increasing. The schools are setting their hours in such a way that they require vehicles at the same time as these vehicles are nccded for adults downtown, the consequences are disastrous for the E.T.S. There is a need to charge maximum fares only in the peak hours to all patrons.Only by using a proper pricing policy will the most economic use be obtained from the equiwment the city has available (in other words similar to the red, white and blue fares on the CN). Also a better financial reconciliation is required for the service provided to old age pensioners. 5. New and unproductive areas have to be served by transit as a matter of policy. However the patronage does not satisfy the present criteria that the transit riders should be paying for their service through fares (or that "the transit system should not have a large deficit"). 6. There is a constant inflation of labour and equipment costs. This increase in costs has not been offset by an increase in efficiency, nor will this be possible using a bus operation. In view of the above listed problems it should be expected that the E.T.S. revenues from fares will continue to be less than its expenses. In fact deficits will continue. Any review of the price structure should keep in mind that the adults already contribute the major part of the revenue now and in fact subsidize the uneconomic features of the E.T.S. The occasional rider (the person who wants transit service as a standby to his car) should be made to pay, while the regular rider should get the benefit of using the system regularly. The price structure should encourage the use of tickets and monthly passes, benefiting the regular user. At the same time a standby charge should be made to those residents served by transit (say within half a mile).

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The standby charge is similar to the initial charge made by other utilities like telephones, electric power or water. Such a charge could be levied in a variety of ways. So far this charge has been paid on the basis of meeting a deficit out of property taxes. A special frontage tax is probably difficult to implement. The recommendation of the Transportation Committee of November 21, 1967 of assigning 2,5% rate of return on owner equity from Utility profits as revenue to the transit system should be implemented. It may be of interest to note that the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA), which serves the Boston area, is partially financed by a special cigaret tax. The need to give high school students children's rates is questioned. These students take up the same space as adults and sometimes do more damage to the buses. They should pay adult fares on the regular ETS routes. The school bus problem has not been fully resolved. Presently the Provincial Government through the Foundation Program pays for distances over 11/2 miles. Amore economic operation would result if the government paid a grant (say based on all students over 11/2 miles) regardless of what type of bus the student uses (regular service or special school buses). Special school buses (also painted in the regular ETS colours and allowing same standees) can then be provided to the school board as part of the cost of education to solve their transportation problem. Passes should be sold to those students within 11/2 miles from the schools. The rates charged for these special buses should be based on whether these buses are required in the peak hour or outside the peak hours (in the latter case no additional vehicles have to be purchased and the ETS could charge incremental costs only). Such a system would encourage the school boards to time their movements in a more economic manner. Simply raising adult fares again and again will not solve the basic problem, since the adults would start using cars instead aggrevating the traffic problem further. Detailed financial recommendations are given in Chapter Nine.



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Edmonton's plans call for residential expansion generally towards the North-East and South-West. Development towards the South-East is blocked by the Industrial belt and to the North-West by Industry and the Greenbelt between the City and St.Albert. The new residential areas are generally planned on the neighbourhood principle, which means a fairly low density. The neighbourhoods are surrounded by good, wide arterial roads which form a supergrid. The new areas lend themselves to private car transportation and are not attractively served by transit. Older areas

The older areas of Edmonton are going through a period of transformation. The redevelopment generally means a higher density of development, creating different transportation problems tan existed up till now. Some of this redevelopment is occurring on private initiative (South Garneau, Jasper Avenue West of the CPR line, etc.) and some is occurring due to public investment (Civic Center, Urban renewal). The redevelopment of older areas and the provision of new transportation facilities are closely related. Central Business District

The Downtown plan (Part IV, Chapter X, of the General Plan published in 1963) predicted that employment in the central area would double between 1961 and 1980. In recent years a number of office towers have been completed and more are under construction. In fact the rate of construction is much faster than was originally predicted in 1961.


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The increased employment downtown will however be confined to the Civic Center and the Commercial core. In other words the plan calls for a high density development downtown. While there is still some surface parking space available, the increased development will also mean an increased demand for parking spaces. The net result will be that more parking structures will have to be built and that far more potential all-day parkers should be encouraged to use public transportation. The aim of the Downtown Plan was to divert traffic not destined to the Central area around it. However if this diversion occurs too close to downtown, than the radial freeways will be jammed by downtown oriented drivers, together with the traffic that is supposed to be diverted. If a freeway by-pass is located further away from the center, several advantages are realized. First the spacing of interchanges can be further apart which improves the efficiency of the by-pass. Secondly the downtown oriented traffic will not interfere with the by-pass traffic. There is no reason why the Groat Road (upgraded to an expressway) cannot serve as the Western by-pass and Kingsway as the Northern by-pass (rather than a freeway at 110 Street on the West and a freeway between 106 and 107 Avenue on the North) around downtown. In any case the by-pass ring as proposed in the Downtown plan cannot be complete because there is no interchange possible between the McKinnon Freeway and the South Freeway. By upgrading the Groat Road (which can be done in stages) such an interchange becomes possible. Government Center

Government employment is expected to increase from 6,000 in 1961 to 15,000 in 1980, according to the Downtown Plan. Again this expansion in employment will mean a more intensive land use and a need for additional transportation facilities. The new McKinnon Freeway will serve the Govaullnent Center, but like all freeway solutions additional parking spaces would be required. A rapid transit line over the High Level bridge would enable Goverlutient employees to park in the South-West (also accessible to Jasper Place via the Quesnell Bridge) and the North-East. Such a line would greatly reduce the amount of parking spaces required at the GoveLument Center. At present the Government lots are intensively used during office hours. With a rapid transit line shoppers could also use these lots on Saturdays and shopping nights when these lots are empty.


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The University is expected to grow from its present enrollment of approximately 14,000 to 22,500 by 1975. While at present about 3,000 students use the E.T.S. bus system, it is expected that if parking was available and present conditions would be maintained 5,000 students would use the bus in 1975. Another 6,000 would drive their car and then park on or near the campus. The University is already very short of parking space however the space now available is earmarked for buildings. With the shortage of capital funds for teaching and research buildings, it is unlikely that the University will be able tc build any parking structures. NI.E.T.S. did not present any proposal to solve the University Transportation problem. A recent study done for the University recommends $ 15 million worth of parking structures. Another study recommends $ 7 million worth of parking structures for the Health Science Complex. There is some doubt whether the street system around the University can take very much more traffic than it does today. The alternative to providing parking spaces on the campus would be for the University to rely more on public transportation. If the University were to make land available on the University Farm for a large parking lot, then it might be possible for the University to solve its transportation problems. However it would require fast and reliable, high capacity transportation between the farm and the University. A bus system would not be able to supply such a transportation system. What is needed is a form of rapid transit, either as done in Fort Worth by a Department store (described later) or by having a city rapid transit system that serves the farm and the University. The Transportation implications of developing the University to 22,500 students size (or larger) have not yet been faced. In any case there is some doubt that it would be a wise expenditure of money to build $ 15 million of parking structures, if the entire South-West rapid transit line could be built for this amount of money. There is a valid case for Provincial GoveLiment support for a rapid transit line, since both the Government Center and the University would so greatly benefit from such a line.



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Economics requires that the Exhibition Board uses its facilities to the maximum extent. More and more therefor the Exhibition Grounds will be used as an entertainment center. During Klondike days and other events traffic congestion occurs around the Exhibition Grounds. It makes sense that the Transportation facilities between the Exhibition Grounds and Downtown should be excellent. A rapid transit line along the C.N. right-of-way would be the most direct path from the Exhibition Grounds to Downtown. Such a line would make the parking facilities needed for the home-to-work movement in the South-West and North-West available for the events that occur at the Exhibition Grounds and the Edmonton Gardens. During the daytime the parking at and near the grounds could be available to the downtown oriented employees. CLARKE STADIUM

The parking at the stadium has been used during Klondike Days for Park-and-Ride. However for downtown oriented trips nark-and-ride trips using buses Clarke Stadium would not be suitable. A rapid transit line serving other parking areas as well, would make use of this parking lot during the entire week all year round. Again it would reduce the downtown parking requirements. The rapid transit line would also serve the stadium better during the football season. In the case of the Exhibition Grounds and of the Clarke Stadium the net result would be a better and more continuous use of all parking facilities. A DOMED STADIUM, CONVENTION CENTER or TRADE CENTER

A stadium or Convention Center draws large crowds and should be able to handle large volumes of people. From the point of view of Transportation it is essential that such a facility be built along a rapid transit line. In that way parking facilities along other portions of the line can complement the parking facilities provided at the stadium or convention center. To rely only on car transportation for a stadium or convention center can lead to traffic congestion, particularly if such a stadium or center is located between closely spaced interchanges on a freeway. The exact location of such a facility should be given a considereable amount of study.


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M.E.T.S. (Metropolitan Edmonton Transportation Study)

The M.E.T.S. proposals call for a system of roadways, with primary emphasis upon a fieeway ring around downtown with a number of radial freeways to the outlying areas. The radial freeways would go to the South-East via the Mill Creek Ravine, to the South at approximately 110th Street, to the West along McKinnon Ravine, to the North-West via Kingsway and the Western edge of the airport, and to the North-East near the C.N.R. tracks. M.E.T.S. assumed in its calculations that the percentage of people using public transportation to downtown would increase from 27% to 35% in 1980 (or an absolute increase of 2.6 times the 1961 volumes). However since the increased riding would be confined to the peak hours, the peak hour increase in transit riding would have to be more than three times than what it was in 1961. The number of freeway lanes needed and in particular the exits required were determined assuming this increased transit use. M.E.T.S. practically ignored the Bechtel plan for rapid transit and suggested that the increased patronage for transit should be achieved using express buses on freeways. The M.E.T.S. report, however, forecasted a problem of traffic congestion downtown and suggested an elevated set of roads for the downtown area to be used exclusively by buses. No cost figures were given for this proposal. NO suggestions were made in the M.E.T.S. report to solve the traffic problem around the University area, although this area was mentioned as a problem area in Volume I of M.E.T.S. There is no evpdence either from other cities or fium the changes made in the E.T.S. routes since 1961 that a patronage increase of the magnitude demanded by M.E.T.S. is economically possible u6ing bcou on exating noad6 and ptopozed 4nemay4. While new outlying areas could be served via freeways, there are few existing bus lines that could benefit from the proposed freeways.



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The Transit System frequently protested the validity of many of the Public Transportation aspects to the authors of M.E.T.S., without receiving satisfactory answers. Now without discussion on transit, the M.E.T.S. freeways are apparently accepted as a firm policy. M.E.T.S. states in Volume 2 that there is reserve capacity on the freeways to handle an increase in traffic if transit riding does not increase as required. However no mention is made whether the ramps on and off the freeways and the roads to and from these ramps would be able to handle any additional volumes of cars. Nor has M.E.T.S. dealt with the associated problems of parking these volumes of cars Downtown, in the Government Center, at the University - Health Science Complex and other large-volume traffic generators. M.E.T.S. has also ignored the fact that express buses in Edmonton as well as other cities have not proven to be profitable and have not attracted paAk-and- Aide patrons. M.E.T.S. was however useful in the data that the study gathered. The study made effective use of the Civic census, a process that was repeated in 1964 and 1967, to obtain travel information. Further the study gave one set of answers that may solve the automobile congestion problem. The Bechtel Plan for rapid transit

The Bechtel Plan is a conceptual plan showing what is possible technically as regards rapid transit in Edmonton. It proposed a downtown tunnel - in otheA waiLds it was adding tAanApoAtation capacity whete it was needed. At each end the tunnel would be connected to three feeder lines, namely the South-East, the North-East using the C.N.R. right-of-way serving the Exhibition and Clarke Stadium, the North along approximately 97th Street, the South-West serving the Govelnment Center and the University using the High Level Bridge, the West particularly Jasper Place, and the North-West using the C.N.R. right-of-way. The Bechtel Plan also gave specifications for equipment and construction which are of the highest standard possible. The experience of the By Area Transportation Study was available for this work. In its patronage predictions (done by Traffic Research Corporation) it was assumed that the travel time for cars could be maintained the same as it was in 1961.


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It is obvious after studying M.E.T.S. and the Bechtel Plan that there would be considereable duplication of facilities, if both plans were implemented. In the rapid transit plan the lines to the South-East, the West and the North are relatively expensive to build. On the other hand the lines using railway right-of-way and the existing High Level bridge are relatively cheap to construct. Of the freeways the routes to the North-East and to the South as well as the complete downtown ring are very expensive to build. The proposed Bechtel Rapid Transit Tunnel (or some modification thereof) through downtown would appear to be a practical and relatively inexpensive structure; the feasibility of the M.E.T.S. proposed elevated busways would appear to be open to serious question. The City Engineer's Department has a wealth of experience available on tunnelling, experience that should be utilized in the planning, design and construction of any subway tunnel. Using parts of both reports, eliminating some of the rapid transit lines and some of the freeways PROVIDES ALTERNATIVES THAT APE SUPERIOR TO THE PRESENT ASSUMED ADOPTED POLICY; such alternatives have

however so far not been considered. In the preparation of a BALANCED TRANSPORTATION PROPOSAL it should also be realized that the rate of implementation of the freeway proposals in M.E.T.S. is lagging. It appears that notwithstanding Provincial aid, the finances are not available to implement the freeway proposals as proposed in M.E.T.S. by the year 2000, even though M.E.T.S. suggested 1980. Since there will be further growth between 1980 and 2000 consideration should be given now, to provide for a BALANCED TRANSPORTATION PLAN that will have adequate capacity. The Downtown Plan (Part IV, Chapter X, General Plan Edmonton 1963)

The Downtown Plan attempted to integrate the M.E.T.S. proposals and the high density development proposed for downtown. It called for exclusive transit lanes on Jasper Avenue, 101 Street and 102 Avenue; the implementation of one-way streets and the establishment of a bus pedestrianmall on 102 Street between Jasper Avenue and 102 Avenue. It further suggested exclusive pedestrian ways.




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Of the traffic proposals only some of the one-way streets have been implemented. With the implementation of the one-way streets (102 and 103 Avenues) the transit system reorganized its route system downtown. In this reorganisation several left turn movements were eliminated and some of the routes were transfered from Jasper Avenue to 102 Avenue. A further dispersion of routes is not desireable, since the bus routes would in that case be located too far away from the destinations of its patrons. While the one-way system introduced on July 2, 1967 brought some relief; it should be realized that high density development is continuing faster than expected. The traffic congestion will therefor continue to increase and in turn will increase the frustation of the motorist and also of the transit system in providing a reasonable and regular service. THE GENERAL PLAN, CITY OF EDMONTON, August 1967

In Chapter XII Transportation is discussed in the General Plan of the City of Edmonton, as published in August 1967. The General Plan indicates that within the next six years the City will reach the requirements for rapid transit, as stated by the American Transit Association, namely: the desire to create a strong regional center the metropolitan area will reach 500,000 and the core area will reach an accumulation of 80,000 or more - the travel time fLum home to work will be 30 minutes or more The General Plan recognizes the difficulties of financing public and private transportation simultaneously. It suggests that existing rail facilities be used for mass transit including the Calder Yards and the C.P. South-East branch. It should be realized however that employment centers that have adequate free parking facilities like in the South-East are not attractive for rapid transit. Rapid transit can only compete to areas of high density employment surrounded with an area of traffic congestion and with a parking shortage. The C.P. South-East branch line could possibly be made successful if high density residential areas were developed in that area. The General Plan like M.E.T.S. places emphasis on the all-day traffic distribution to the Central area (73% by car, 27% by transit). It should however be remembered that in the peak hour this distribution is nearer 50 per cent by transit.



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CHAPTER FIVE TRANSPORTATION IMPLICATIONS OF EDMONTON'S GROWTH TRENDS The High Density Downtown, in the Government Center and at the University

High density means a high value of development for a given area of land. Since costs are high, storage or static uses of land have to be minimized - hence high density also produces a terminal problem. The advantage of high density is the close proximity of related activities, however it also means that everybody arrives and leaves at about the same time - hence the peak hour problem. Because of the high value of development, parking costs also become high (in Montreal $ 35.00 per month at the Place Ville Marie), The high cost of land will also mean a high cost for freeway construction if undertaken in the high value areas. Generally therefor freeways are not proposed in the downtown area but skirt around downtown disgorging their traffic onto the existing street system. The building of freeways also means a loss in tax income of the land taken up by the freeways and its interchanges. The land requirements and the construction costs are high in order to secure the necessary peak hour capacity tying in the freeway and the existing road system. Within and around a high density - high value development there is characteristically a zone of traffic congestion. The need to move people all at the same time within and through this zone of traffic congestion is the basic obstacle to the effective use of a bus transit system. A bus transit system has characteristically very high manpower costs in providing short duration peak capacities. The manpower cost component (now about 70%) has increased rapidly in the past and shows every indication of continuing to do so. The sole reliance on a road system by both public and private transportation in the winters that Edmonton experiences creates transportation breakdowns and expensive operating costs.

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planned high density area in which the transportation and terminal problems are not solved, will and probably should only develop A

to a certain stage up to which the resulting inconvenience in transportation can be tolerated. It is of course easier to build roads, particularly since small sections can be built at a time, gradually extending a system offering alternative paths. Further the Provincial Government is willing to assist financially in freeway and arterial road construction. The senior Government has so far not shown an interest in assisting financially in Public Transportation, even though Provincial institutions such as the Government Center and the University would greatly benefit from a rapid transit line. Since it is easier to construct roads only, DECENTRALIZATION is encouraged and the spreading out of lower density developments would follow because the problems caused by high density developments are thereby avoided. It is interesting to note that the Provincial Government encourages high density development (Govelment Center, AGT building, University) by some departments and encourages low density developments by another. The spread-out road system decreases the attractiveness of transit and tends to erode its usefulness. The development of decentralized low density areas - if it is to be served by transit at all - requires a spread out, low frequency and a more complicated transit system of interconnected services. This type of service greatly increases the cost of a bus transit system. A radial rapid transit is attractive enough to encourage people to park at outlying stations and use the train to go through the zone of congestion to the high density area such as downtown, government center and the University. The car would be used to advantage in the low density outlying area, where transit is at a disadvantage. As shown in Chapter Six describing examples of other cities, adequate parking at rapid transit stations is essential in a balanced transportation solution. The mode split at such stations is often the same as Edmonton experiences downtown (one third by bus, two-thirds by car on an all-day basis).



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EDMONTON'S OPPOPTUNITY It should be noted that the high density deyelowents in Edmonton are in one line from the SOUTH-WEST to the NORTH-EAST (University, Government Center, Downtown, Civic Center and at different times Clarke Stadium and the Exhibition Grounds); in other words it shows a corridor development. The same line-up has some inexpensive existing facilities for RAIL transportation in the High Level Bridge, the C.P.R. right-of-way as far as Jasper Avenue and to the North-East the C.N.R. right-of-way. Extensive rail right-of-way is therefor available at a relatively low cost. A rail rapid transit system has the admitted attractiveness of an exclusive route unhindered by traffic congestion, it has higher speeds (a prime determinant in whether people will use transit), higher capacities and much lower manpower requirements. The witty establishment of a rapid transit line would provide the opportunity at this stage of Edmonton's development of encouraging concentrations of development along this SOUTHWEST-NORTHEAST corridor line. This line would also give the opportunity to provide an interconnected system with feeder busses and private cars. The provision of large parking lots along this SouthwestNortheast corridor line means that tAamit witt {)inatty be abte to catelL to the automobile age and privide faster transportation from these parking lots than using the car all the way. Since the North-East and South freeways as proposed in M.E.T.S. would duplicate this rapid' transit line, their construction in a batanced tAampotation zyztem would not be necessary. The diversion to transit in the major corridor has another major advantage to the car user. It will provide relief to those persons who will still have to use their car, either because their employment requires a car or because their area is not served by rapid transit. The road system would also be relieved of many bus movements that now impede traffic. An example of this relief occurred in Montreal where before the Metro subway one lane each way on St.Catherine Street was taken up by buses. After Metro there is only an occasional bus (and it became possible to make the street one-way).

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Traffic Research Corporation predicted that 55 to 65 percent of the work trips to downtown would use the rapid transit if it was built. Present experience shows that the patronage using a bus transit system is more like 30% to downtown and declining. For the North-West, South-West and North-East lines the patronage predicted for employees is between 23,570 and 27,900 by 1980. Without a rapid transit system it would require 23,400 parking stalls as predicted in the downtown plan. This estimate could well be low since it assumed a 35% mode split. Without rapid transit a 30% mode split (percentage using transit) would be an achievement. With a rapid transit system the needed number of stalls would be reduced by 5,500 employee stalls and 1,800 shopping and other visitor stalls. Parking Spaces required in Central Area* WITHOUT WITH RAPID TRANSIT RAPID TRANSIT Employee Shoppers, etc.

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I 16,100 23,400 Total * Does not include coliseum or residential parking. A reduction of 7,300 parking stalls needed downtown means that the following will not be required downtown: 50.5 acres if surface parking is used OR 8 Underground parking structures like the one under the library at a cost of approximately $ 22 million nlus land costs, OR 12 above ground parking structures like the Bay Parkade at a cost of approximately $ 11 million plus land costs. It should also be realized that in recent reports it was recommended that $ 15 million worth of parking structures be built at the University and $ 7 million worth at the Health Science Complex. The advantage of rapid transit is that the parking can be located where land costs are lower and where less space will be needed due to the passenger drop-off (often called "kiss and ride") at the stations. It should be realized that since not all areas will be served by rapid transit there will still be a need for a considerable amount of additional parking facilities downtown.


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It is only natural to look at the successes and failures of other cities. It would indeed be folly to apply solutions to Edmonton's Transportation that have proven to be out of date in other cities. The examples chosen are of the conventional railway .exception of the Montreal Metro. The Bechtel report type, with reviewed the various types of rapid transit and concluded that the bottom-supported, steel wheel and steel rail, electrically selfpropelled car with two four wheel trucks would be the best type to use in Edmonton. The Montreal Metro uses rubber tired trucks, which is possible in Montreal because the entire system is in subway. As has already been stated a concentrated downtown requires a good rapid public transportation system. Cities that have no concentrated downtown are therefor poor examples, unless decentralization is the objective. The following examples have been chosen. Cleveland and Shaker Heights (a suburb of Cleveland) are an example of post war rapid transit in the U.S.A. Chicago pioneered the multiple use of right-of-way and recently had a demonstration project called the SKOKIE SWIFT. The demonstration project has now been concluded and was to nearly everybody's surprise a success. Toronto is an example of post-war subway construction in Canada. In addition the GO TRANSIT is a project undertaken by the Government of Ontario. This project is an example in Canada of a Provincial Government taking an interest in Public Transportation. Montreal is the second example of rapid transit in Canada. The system was started in the fall of 1966. Another small example is Fort Worth, where a department store found it advantageous to construct its own rapid transit line.


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The Cleveland Transit System operates a rapid transit line using railway right-of-way and the downtown Union Railway Terminal. The Cleveland system provides a number of useful and valuable lessons that show what to avoid and how to adapt to the particular circumstances in a city. The objection to the Cleveland System is that its Easterly leg follows an indirect path to downtown. The second objection is that its downtown terminal is at the edge of the business district about one half mile from its center of town. (It would be equivalent to running rapid transit trains to the CN and CP stations in Edmonton). As a result the Cleveland Transit System has to operate a bus service to distribute its downtown patrons, involving another transfer. Studies have shown that the system could double its patronage if it had a downtown distribution subway. The Cleveland System is building an extension to Hopkins Airport. This four mile extension will probably open in the fall of 1968. The estimated cost of this extension is $ 18 million. Further a study was made recently of building a downtown distributor subway. The 2.6 mile subway was estimated to cost $ 75 million. Subway construction in well established cities become extremely expensive because of the many utilities that have to be relocated. The Cleveland System became possible because it could use rail right-of-way. The valuable assets of the Cleveland System are: 1.The available free parking at its outlying stations. 2.It has many connecting bus routes 3.It has well designed "passenger drop off zones" (kiss-and-ride) at many stations. 4.The Cleveland System has been able to modify its operation according to demand. For example in the off-hours fares are collected on the one-car trains operating almost like a rail-bus: yet in the peak hours 6 to 8 car trains are operated and fares are collected at the stations. 5.the system has shown that it is quite possible to operate express trains in the peak hours over the same tracks as the regular trains. 6.The trains are designed with plenty of seats. Their new cars seat 80 passengers.



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The selling points of the Cleveland System are that it provides fast, comfortable, clean, dependable service and it provides a seat. The Cleveland System is quite a contrast with the "people sewers" (as Lewis MUmford described them) found in some of the very large cities in the U.S.A. The daily weekday patronage at the 13 non-downtown stations varies from 500 to 8000, with an average of 2850. At the Union Terminal the average patronage is 23,000 per day. The outlying stations with high patronage figures have large free parking facilities.





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Shaker Heights is one of the richest suburbs in the United States. The city was originally planned by the Van Swerigens with rapid transit in mind. The line has two branches with its other terminus the Union Terminal in Cleveland. The subdivision design of Shaker Heights is oriented towards its rapid transit stations (see map). The system carries about 10,000 passengers per day in each direction. The system runs 250 trains per day with a peak hour frequency of a train every 3 to 4 minutes. Part of the line is shared with the Cleveland System. The advantages of the system are the parking facilities at many of its stations. On one of its lines (van Aken) the 10 parking lots fill daily to capacity, indicating that more parking space is required. Overall more than 1500 stalls are provided at 12 of the 22 stations. The system has also some disadvantages such as frequent stops (3 per mile) and requiring an operator for each car. The system uses streetcar type of equipment. It is interesting serves an area with a density density of development is not line, provided there is ample

to note that one branch (Shaker Boulevard) of one lot per acre, showing clearly that required at both ends of a rapid transit parking at the stations.

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CHICAGO - EISENHOWER EXPRESSWAY (Congress Street Expressway)

In the literature the Eisenhower Expressway is mentioned as an example of cooraination, since a rapid transit line operates in the median of the expressway. It is of course true that locating a rapid transit line in the median, means that the cost of right-of-way can be shared. On analysis it is found that this particular rapid transit line replaced another elevated line. Also there are no parking facilities along the line, nor are express trains operated along this line. Furthermore there is duplication in providing transportation facilities with the expressway. The transfer movement bewteen rapid transit and bus transit or cars also interferes with the exit ramps of the expressway. The patronage on this line is about 58,000 with about 5,000 in the peak direction during the peak hour. The high capacity figures often quoted for transit such as 40,000 per hour imp31i crush loads. A seat-for-all policy would mean lower capacities, but a far more attractive system. CHICAGO - SKOKIE SWIFT

The Skokie Swift is a federany assisted mass transportation project that was started in April 1964. The Skokie Swift is a shuttle rapid transit service, feeding into the regular Chicago rapid transit lines at Howard Station. The station spacing is 5 miles, the scheduled speed is 46 mph. Instead of intermediate stations, a park-and-ride lot was built at the outer terminal with an initial capacity of 385 cars. It was later expanded to 555 car capacity. The line has seven level crossings at grade which are protected with automatic crossing gates. The line capacity with these level crossings was found to be a 5 minute service, which is provided in the peak hour (3 car trains .The midday service is a train every 15 minutes. The line carries five times the level thought probable when the line was planned. Considering that the line had been a railroad for forty years and had proved twice to be a failure. The average weekday load is about 8000 riders (after 3 years). The peak hour load is about 1500 riders. One of the conclusions of the demonstration project was that while buses could have moved this load, buses were not able to generate the traffic in the first place!



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The Skokie Swift was accompanied by numerous studies. Some of the findings were as follows: - About 20% of Skokie Swift riders switched from the car - About 30% of the riders were new riders that were not made before. - More than 40% of the trips were new to public transit. Further: 23% of the riders walked to the service 30% drove cars to the station and parked - 28% were driven to the station (car pool or drop off passengers) - 17% arrived by bus. 77% of the trips were work trips. - 86% of the trips were from households with one or more cars, - 30% of the trips were from households with two or more cars - The service area of the station is about'2 miles radius, however some riders came by car from 25 miles away. The success of the SKOKIE SWIFT is due to the frequency of service, speed, relatively new equipittent, and the convenience of park-and-ride facilities. Further an effective promotional campaign was carried out, not only was the service provided but the customers knew it was being provided. The line was well able to meet its operating expenses. The objective of the demonstration was "To see if a way can be found to serve fast-growing, medium density communities with rapid transit". On that basis the demonstration was considered a success. The other conclusions that were reached were: 1. The mode of transportation used by urban dwellers presently does not reflect the usuage of a modern integrated system if it existed. 2. Park-and-Ride is essential to success, at Skokie a third of the patrons drove their car and another third were passengers in a car. 3. Station spacing should not be close, so that higher speeds will be possible. The SKOKIE SWIFT may be provide the answer to the usual qustion: "What comes first - a good transit service or the market for it"


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Toronto has both freeways and subways. The spacing of freeways in the East-West direction is approximately 6 miles apart between the Gardiner Expresssway at the Lake Front and the famous Highway 401 (now called the "Macdonald-Cartier Freeway"). The latter freeway is now being reconstructed and the number of lanes is being increased front 4 to 12. The 401 was originally intended as a by-pass, but the freeway is now being surrounded by development and is an urban freeway. If the spacing in Toronto is compared with Edmonton and the Gardiner Expressway with McKinnon Ravine-River Road Freeway then the next East-West Freeway in Edmonton would be at 147 Avenue. Originally another East-,West freeway was proposed at approximately Bloor Street; however this freeway is not being proceeded with. In fact now that a subway has been built along Bloor Street, the land costs would make a freeway financially impossible. The Toronto Transit CoMAisSion(TTC) built the YOnge Street Subway from the surpluses earned during World War II. Further extensions however are being financed fLom general taxation. The present policy in Toronto is to spend dollar for dollar. FOIL evety dot-edit oent on spent on tapid tAanzit. The Toronto subway has 4teewayz a *Leak about three stations per mile (Cleveland one per mile), and there are practically no parking facilities adjacent to the stations. The subway is mainly fed by other surface transit routes and by walkers. Toronto has designed its stations so that bus or streetcar passengers can transfer to the subway without passing through any turnstiles, this is the so called "body-transfer". This method greatly simplifies policing, 'checking and administration costs. The Toronto subway is particularly famous for the land use it has attracted. There are many apartment and office buildings close to its stations. The subway system has also had a healthy influence on downtown Toronto. The construction costs in Toronto are high, namely about $ 16 million per mile (exclusive of equipment). These high costs are due to the fact that the lines are subways, that many existing utility lines have to be relocated and that the system has a frequent station spacing. (The subways replaced existing streetcar lines).

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It is useful to make a comparison between the Toronto Subway and the proposed Edmonton Rapid Transit. The North-East line in Edmonton was estimated by Bechtel to cost about $ 20 million including equipment and the downtown portion of the subway as far as 101 Street, or an average of $ 4 million per mile. The reason for the lower estimated cost in Edmonton is the large portion of the line that operates at grade along the CN right-of-way. Of course it is also expected to operate at3„ volumes that are less than Toronto. It could be said that Edmonton can think of rapid transit even though a quarter the size of Toronto when it sarted its subway, because Edmonton still has the opportunity to build a rapid transit line at a quarter of Toronto's costs. In fact the size of City is unimportant because what matters is: 1.The corridor that the Rapid Transit line serves (is it direct, does it have high employment concentrations, does it intercept major roads, do the stations have adequate parking facilities?) 2.Whether the city wants to have a concentrated downtown. The SKOKIE SWIFT had a patronage of about 8000 both ways. The present route 5 on its Eastern portion has a patronage of about 6000 both ways. The North-East line would generate between 7,300 and 8,700 one-way (Traffic Research Corporation - Estimated usage of proposed Edmonton Rapid Transit System, 1963). The present one-way patronage front the North-East area served by transit is between 4,500 and 6,000 (taking low and high counts). The present A.M. peak (up to 9.30 AM) is between 1,800 and 2,300 patrons. The forecasted patronage is for the downtown area and the Government Center only and does not include the additional patronage that can be expected for the University.


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The financing of the Toronto Subways and Frcoways caused the Metro Government to ask for assistance from the Provincial Government of Ontario. The Provincial Government appointed a committee to look into the role that the Provincial Government should play regarding private and public transportation. The Committee made the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Transportation Study. On May 19th, 1965 a program of Provincially sponsored commuter train operations in the Toronto area was announced by the Provincial Goveinntent. The first of these commuter lines went into operation in May 1967 and goes from Pickering in the East to Hamilton in the West along the Lakeshore. The commuter service is being operated by the C.N. under contract with the Provincial Government. The Province pays a subsidy for the operations of $ 2,000,000 per year and it paid for the equipment and station improvements. The capital cost of 40 coaches, 8 locomotives, 5 self-propelled cars and station improvements was about $ 17 million. Crime Magazine, January 5, 1968). The reasons for this move were: 1. It will cost one third of the interest charges alone on additional freeway lanes to carry the same number of commuters by road. The interest cost in 1965 was taken at 4.8% for a 52 mile freeway which would mean an annual cost of $ 6 million. This calculation takes no account of the annual cost of maintenance, lighting etc. of a 52 mile freeway. 2. It could be put into operation quickly - it took 2 years only. 3. It avoids or at least delays the staggering costs of building more super-highways to handle a lake-shore corridor population surge. Features of the system are: .1. Feeder bus service to the 14 stations 2. Parking at the stations, except for Toronto Union. 3. Light-weight trains with speeds over 60 mph, modern cars with 116 seats. 4. By increasing the size of trains up to 12,000 passengers per hour could be carried. minute service is operated in the peak hours Monday through 5. A twen t y-, Friday, and an hourly service at other hours. 6. The cost of riding was made attractive compared to driving downtown all the way and having to park downtown at a $1 per day.


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At the Union Terminal in Toronto, the GO TRANSIT has easy access to Toronto's Subway system. The results since the start of operations show that GO TRANSIT is fulfilling its expectations. The following daily rider figures tell a story in itself: July 1967 10,365 September October November

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The system was designed for 15,000 per day and it was hoped that this figure would be reached by 1969. During a cold snap in December the loads were up to 16,000, but as a result packed conditions occurred in the trains (200 rather than 116 per car). GO TRANSIT has now ordered an additional 14 cars and it is adding another 400 additional parking spaces to the 2000 free spaces originally provided. The decision by the Government of Ontario to start the GO TRANSIT should be an example to other Provincial Governments. It gives full recognition that commuter transportation is a Public Utility and a Public Service. GO TRANSIT again shows the value of good service, new equipment, parking at the outlying stations and a policy of seats for all. The success of the line has meant that additional equipment has had to be ordered and that additional parking has to be provided.


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MONTREAL Montreal started its rapid transit system in October 1966. The METRO as it is called uses rubber tired trains, and can do so since the entire system is in subway. Also it uses a narrower train, so that two trains can fit side by side into one tunnel. The METRO system of three lines was built in a relatively short time. The most noticeable feature of the system is the design of its stations. For each station architects were appointed and a distinctive design was achieved. The METRO has only one line that serves a large parking lot. This parking lot is located on the South side of the St.Lawrence. This parking lot was also very useful during Expo. The other lines rely on patrons walking to the stations or coming by feeder bus. The Montreal Transit Commission has been able to remove many buses from the downtown area of Montreal, which provided considereable traffic relief. It found it necessary however to add bus service in the outlying areas to feed the METRO system. The advantage of buses in outlying areas is that the buses are able to maintain a reasonable speed. The system proved to be highly successful and carried more patrons than predicted. The METRO also played a major part in the transportation to and from Expo during 1967. The only difficulty the system has run into is that the heat generated by the rubber tires is not being dissipated fast enough.As a result extra ventilation equipment will have to be installed in the tunnels. Unfortunately to make the trains bearable, windows had to be removed during the summer months, making the trains noisier inside than was hoped. The rubber tires permit a faster acceleration and also permit grades up to 6%, while a steel wheel system is limited to 3 per cent grades. EXPO During Expo in 1967 a special rapid transit system was operated on the Expo site. The system operated 48 cars (8 trains of 6 cars each). The Expo Express as it was called was a fully automated train. The operator only had to push a green starting button, and from then on the train worked under automatic control. The cost of the system was $ 12.5 million which includes the 48 cars, the signal and communications system, track, switches, yards and maintenance facilities. The line was 3.5 mile long. Expo Express will be sold during 1968 to the highest bidder.


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Leonards Department store operates its own subway in Fort Tribrth, Texas. The store used to operate a shuttle bus service between a parking lot and its downtown store, but found this service unsatisfactory. It decided to build its own subway line flow the parking lot to the basement of its store. The objective was to provide a fast, convenient method of transportation to the Downtown shopping area, free of traffic congestion and parking problems. The line is 4000 feet long and serves a 24 acre (5,000 car) free parking lot on the edge of the Central Business District. At the other end is the subway terminal within Leonard's underground shopping center. With 4 stops on the parking lot, passengers can board the rapid transit cars with a minimum of walking distance. The system operates five cars, operated as single units. The trip takes about 3 minutes. The downtown terminal has an exit to the streets by means of stairs, so that passengers can reach the streets also during the hours that the store is closed. The subway operates continually from 7.00 a.m. to 6.30 p.m., except during late shopping nights when it operates until 9.30 p.m.(monday, Friday and Saturday). There is no service on Sundays. The 5 cars can deliver 500 customers to the store and back every 8 minutes. On peak Saturdays as many as 50,000 rode the system in one direction. Since the store opens at 9.00 a.m. the parking lot can be used by commuters as well. Abput 750 commuters use the system prior to 9.00 a.m. The line has been in operation now for four years and the Leonards Department store consider it primarily responsible for the 21% increase in sales since the line opened. The large parking lot provides the C.B.D. of Fort Wbrth. . almost 20 per cent of the total parking spaces




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This approach would mean a continuation of reluctantly adding service to outlying areas and trying to provide an overall service as good as possible. The buses would continue to struggle through traffic congestion to downtown requiring an increasing number of buses even to provide the same service (at present 24 buses have to be added in the evening peak hour to compensate for traffic congestion - this at an annual cost of same $ 125,000 per year at todays cost levels). Since there will not be traffic relief downtown for many years - if ever - the vehicle and manpower requirements would increase without a corresponding increase in service. Together with the high cost of labour, the aging bus fleet and traffic congestion it should be expected that the annual deficit would increase. An ever increasing deficit would produce an annual budget crisis. Fare increases will diminish passenger riding, but not in the peak hour which means the peak requirement of buses and men will still be required. 2. CATER TO THE AUTOMOBILE ONLY

Road proposals like M.E.T.S. have little difficulty in gaining popular and official (or semi-official) approval or acceptance. On the other hand, transit plans have not been considered with any thought of implementation. The net result is that road facilities are being built regardless of whether the actual costs agree with the original estimates and knowing that there will be no direct revenue obtained by the city from these road facilities. If the city is determined to plan an automobile system only the net result for transit must be a declining transit system,providing a minimum of service to those who cannot operate a car. Such a minimum service could be made deliberately unattractive by means of high fares, crush loading and no service in unprofitable areas. Denver appears to have adopted this approach. Only in this way can deficits of the transit system be held down. It should be realized of course that an accelerated program of road construction would be necessary, if the role of transit is to be reduced.




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A transit only plan would only develop transit facilities and in this way attempt to force people back to transit. To suggest in the automotive age a transit only plan is not very realistic. Such a plan ignores the fact that a number of people need their car in this age of mobility (for example doctors, salesmen, etc.). There is also the group whose positions entitle them to special parking privileges. Commercial traffic is also on the increase and has to be provided for in a thriving city. Transit is concerned with people only. The road system also caters better to trips around, but not necessarily through the downtown. The commercial or shopping trip usually has many points of call, the car in these cases is often more convenient. Downtown shopping of course should be at least as convenient as the outlying shopping centers which means the available parking should not be cluttered up with all day parkers. Downtown must be competitive if it is to survive. Transit plans have only been successful if transit catered to cars by providing PARK-AND-RIDE service, and even then it only works if the ride from the parking lot by transit is faster than by car. To concentrate all transportation improvements into transit only is therefor not realistic. 4. A PRACTICAL AND BALANCED TRANSPORTATION PLAN

A balanced transportation plan would use the best and most economic portions of all the plans the City now has (M.E.T.S., Downtown, Bechtel, General Plan and others) and also reject the very expensive and unattractive proposals. In Chapter Eight such a BALANCED TRANSPORTATION PLAN is outlined in more detail. However the civic service would have to be geared for implementing such a Transportation Plan. With the present lack of coordination between the various departments and the lack of an established policy as regards transportation (as opposed to road and bridge construction), it will be difficult to implement a balanced transportation plan. A reorganisation as outlined under section 5 is therefor recommended. The Engineers Department, which is presently responsible for roads and traffic, does not have to concern itself with revenues, but with its budget allowance. In contrast the Transit System is expected to produce revenue fruit fares to meet most of its costs.


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Either all transportation services (roads and transit) should be self sustaining, or all incidental revenue should be part of the General Revenue of the City. Expenditures should then be allocated on the basis of need, service to be provided and established priorities. With no revenue hum the road users a balanced transportation system is more difficult. The car driver in the city is getting something for nothing (maintenance of roads, traffic control etc. costs more than $ 3 million per year alone, all this money is obtained from property taxes, or in other words non-car drivers also pay). The operating deficit of the transit system is about 9% of the total operating transportation budget. There is a gross inbalance in the allocation of transportation funds, and no appreciation of the task that each form of transportation has to perform. The Mission of transit

The primary task of transit, under a balanced transportation concept, is to cater to the HOME-TO-WORK movement particularly to areas of concentrated employment. In this way transit will provide relief in the peak hours and reduce the requirements for roads. The road system should supplement the rapid transit system and be developed more extensively in the areas where rapid transit is too costly or not feasible. The secondary task of transit is to provide service to those persons who do not or cannot operate a car. A basic transit service is one that operates to within one-third of a mile of any developed property, and in any case not more than one-half of a mile from such a nroperty. The basic service to consist of half hour service or less between 7 AM and 7 PM daily, except Sundays and Holidays. ( Transportation Committee Report #2, November 21, 1967). 5. TRANSPORTATION ORGANISATION

The City is in need of a TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT. This department would be responsible for Transportation Planning (roads and transit), Transportation design (roads and transit), traffic and transit operations, transit equipment and the like. Without this type of a department the city would have to rely on coordinating committees and goodwill between various departments. The following organisation is recommended for such a department:



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The situation now is that roadway proposals have been approved although the method of financing is not yet known. In principle, the freeways and freeway ring have been approved; without fully considering the financial implications to the city, without determining the effects that these freeways will have on transit and without fully analysing alternative less ambitious schemes. Several secondary proposals of M.E.T.S. have now been completed (grade separations on the Groat Road) or have been started (East and West end bridges with approaches). Detailed design work is about complete on the McKinnon or Jasper Freeway, 105th Street Bridge with approaches, the MacDonald Bridge and the Downtown Freeway Ring. At the same time downtown development continues more rapidly than predicted. Edmonton now is at the point of decision whether to make it possible to have concentrated development downtown or to start a gradual pluyram of decentralisation because of a lack of transportation facilities in its center. The rate of implementation of freeway construction as recommended in the M.E.T.S. report does not seem possible financially or even politically -- while on the other hand the rate of downtown and university development is greater than previously thought possible. The necessarily partial implementation of M.E.T.S. makes it more urgent now to develop a rapid transit line to serve the high density employment areas. THE RECOMMENDED PLAN The Balanced Transportation Plan recommended here is a system of freeways and expressways which forms a supergrid. The freeways (limited access roads with all intersections grade separated) would link the major Provincial Highways with each other and are located close to downtown, while the expressways (limited access roads with some intersections at grade) would cater to the by-pass traffic and the industrial-commercial traffic. The areas of concentrated employment would be served by rapid transit. The rapid transit line would be served by the expressways at the outlying areas and have plenty of parking facilities at the outlying stations.

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The Roadway Plan

The most expensive parts of the Freeway proposals are the South Freeway, the Downtown ring and the North-East Freeway. Since rapid transit can serve the South-West, North-East and North-West more economically, it is recommended that the South Freeway, part of the Downtown ring and the North-East Freeway not be proceeded with and be eliminated from the General Plan. The Freeways that are maintained in the plan are the Jasper (or McKinnon) Freeway, the Mill Crock Freeway and an extension of the Mill Creek Freeway North to link with Kingsway. A separate study should be made to determine whether the freeway can be located on the East side of the Industrial airport. The Freeways that are eliminated under this plan had as one of its primary functions to cater to by-pass traffic. It is therefor necessary to upgrade other roads to provide this by-pass function, but these roads can be further away from downtown. The road classification of Expressway should be established by the City. An Expressway is a road with limited access like a freeway but which has some intersections at grade and somewhat lower design standards. The roads that should be made into expressways are: 125th Avenue from the East Bridge to 170th Street. 170th Street from 125 Avenue to Ouesnell Bridge Groat Road - St.Albert Trail with an extension South. Capilano Bridge - 75th Street from 125 Avenue to Mill Creek Freeway 45 th Avenue from Mill Creek Freeway to Ouesnell Bridge 98th Avenue from Mill Creek Freeway to City Limits. Together with the Jasper or McKinnon Freeway, the Mill Crock Freeway and a North Freeway a supergrid of high standard roads is formed. The Groat Road already has three intersections gradeseparated. This road can be upgraded to an expressway, although it would be difficult to convert the Groat Road to a freeway. The Groat Road would have to be extended South however to provide the by-pass function. A more detailed location study should be made regarding this extension to the South. It is possible to link the Groat Road with 113th Street and then with 11th Street (Which is the outlying location of the South Freeway), or it could be linked with 122nd Street.


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Alink with 113th Street would have to be coordinated with the design of the rapid transit line on 114th Street. A link with 122 Street would effect many view lots along the River bank. The East end bridge at Capilanc will provide a link from 118th Avenue (East of the Exhibition Grounds) South to 75th Street. This link should be extended North to link UD with the East-West Expressway at 125th Avenue. The downtown ring would in effect be replaced by a larger ring which would include the Groat Road on the Vest and Kingsway on the North. The interim proposal to pair 106 and 107 Avenues as a pair of one-way streets is still valid however. The pairing of 104 and 105 Streets as a pair of one-way streets (extended to Kingsway) should also be carried out. The Rapid Transit Plan

The most expensive rapid transit lines as proposed by Bechtel were the Jasper Place branch, the North branch along 97 Street and the line to the South-East. As it happens these lines also had the lowest patronage predictions. BRANCH PEAK HOUR TOTAL COST* PATRONAGE S.W. N.W. N.E. Jasper P. S.E. Tunnel

5,900 6,900 5,500 4,500 3,600 4,900 17,300

14,113,000 7,727,000 10,810,000 15,148,000 14,625,000 11,030,000 14,110,000

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* As estimated by Bechtel in i963. These estimates are used for comparison only.

The West, North and South-East areas will be served by freeways with this Balanced Transportation Plan. The least expensive lines (SW,NW and NE) are in areas where frccways would be the most expensive to construct,

and yet would serve the areas of greatest

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The downtown tunnel

One expensive part of the rapid transit proposal is the downtown tunnel. It is essential that the heart of the business district be served. However the elimination of three branches of the original Bechtel Rapid Transit Plan, makes a modification of the tunnel plan possible. With three branches at each end, as originally proposed, a 5 minute frequency would be possible. With modern train control a 14 minute sequence of trains can be attained. With three of the six branches eliminated, the tunnel would not be used to a desireable capacity. Also there is considereable office development at the North end of the Civic Center. It is recommended therefor that a downtown loop be established, requiring a single bore tunnel under 102 Avenue. All trains would use this tunnel from West to East.The East to West movements would then be made along the C.N.R. right-of-way, with a station at the C.N. Tower. A 5 minute frequency on each of the three branches would again allow the maximum possible use of the tunnel (three trains every 5 minutes in the peak hour) but at a lesser construction cost. There are several advantages to this loop design. It lends itself to stage construction so that the possibility of ultimately implementing the Bechtel proposals is not destroyed. Also the grade separated crossings proposed in the Bechtel Plan would, because of the one-way movement, not be necessary. Again it would reduce initial construction costs. There is also a disadvantage which is an increase in travel time fLuuthe North-East to 102 Avenue and flow 102 Avenue to the South-West. (see the Track Layout Plan). With a downtown loop all trains would terminate in the loop and have as their other terminus the outer end of each branch. Other modifications

Several other modifications are recommended. First of all the High Level Bridge operation can be modified so as to use a single track only on the bridge. It may be possible to use the C.P.R. track in the peak hours only. Although that would make operations easier, it is possible to operate a 5 minute service using a single track only on the bridge itself. Such an arrangement would eliminate the need


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for the grade separated cross-over with the C.P.R. at the south end of the High Level Bridge. It is also recommended that the North-Fast line be terminated at the Exhibition (118th Avenue). The line can be extended later when the 118th Avenue underpass has been built. Further a station should be added at 107 Avenue on the North-West line. There are several bus routes along 107 Avenue that should feed into the rapid transit line. Kitchener Station may not be necessary. In fact a station between the junctions on the west end of the loop would be better. A detailed design of this portion of the line would show whether such a station is feasible. The rapid transit plan as proposed would have level crossings at the following locations: North-West line at 125 Avenue, Kingsway, 111 Avenue, 107 Avenue and 116 Street North-East line at 95 Street, 112 Avenue, 82 Street and 115 Avenue. It would of course be preferable to have grade separations at these locations, however the SKOKIE SWIFT line has shown that a 5 minute frequency with relatively short trains is possible and still have level crossings protected by automatic gates. The roads already have traffic interruptions at signalized intersections near to these level crossings. Nevertheless it should remain the aim to have these level crossings eliminated at a later stage. Equipment

With some modification the equipment used by the FXPOEXPRESS is suitable. The modifications necessary would be the installation of overhead collection equipment, since overhead electric nick-up would be necessary with level crossings on the line. Electric nick-up would be by means of third rail in the tunnels. The SKOKIE SWIFT uses both overhead and third rail electric pick-up. The Expo Express trains would also have to be split into two-rar units, which means installing additional driver cabs. Detailed technical study of other modifications should however be made before a bid is made.


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Stage Construction

The implementation of the rapid transit plan can be done in three stages: 1. North-East - CN Tower - North-West 2. Construction of tunnel and implementing the downtown loop. 3. South-West branch via the University. Costs

It is outside the scope of this report to put cost figures on this Balanced Transportation Plan. The cost of freeways seem to have increaded since the original M.E.T.S. estimates were published in 1963. The rapid transit costs should however be considereable lower with the modifications proposed. The City Engineer's Department has however the experience in tunnelling to be able to provide revised cost estimates. If the City is successful in obtaining the Expo-Express Equipment, then further savings would be made. Implications of a Balanced Transportation Plan.

If the Balanced Transportation Plan with its rapid transit lines is approved, there are several implications that should be recognised. First of all rapid transit has a very definite effect on land use. The construction of apartments near stations should be encouraged. Modifications to the General Plan may therefor be necessary. Also if a Convention Center, Doomed Stadium or similar facility is going to be built, it should be located next to a rapid transit station. The rapid transit lines would also require a complete reorganisation of the bus line system. The results would be that the bus movements across the High Level and 105 Street Bridges would be greatly reduced or possibly even be eliminated (48 two-way bus movements per peak hour). Similar changes would have to be made in the North-East and North-West parts of the City.


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CHPPTEP NINE PECOMMENDATIONS 1. That the Balanced Transportation Plan outlined in Chapter Eight be approved in principle. 2. That detailed design be started on the rapid transit proposals, namely the North-East, North-West, Downtown loop and South-West lines. 3. That TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT negotiations be started with the head offices of the two railway companies about the use of their right-of-ways for rapid transit. 4. That the City takes the necessary stens to bid on the Expo Express equipment; and use this equipment to implement the first stage of a rapid transit line. 5. That TOP LEVEL negotiations be started with the Provincial Government regarding the capital financing of TPANSPOPTATION facilities. These negotiations should include: a. an agreed set of rules of financing the continuation of Provincial Highways as freeways through the City, and b. the financing of Public Transportation facilities on the same bases as freeways when such a public transportation facility replaces the need for a freeway or serves Provincial institutions such as the Government offices and the University. 6. That the South Freeway and the North-East Freeway not be proceeded with and that these proposals be removed from the General Plan. 7. That the South-East, West and North rapid transit lines not be proceeded with as they are more expensive to build and as they duplicate the proposed freeways in the Mill Creek avine, the Jasper or McKinnon Freeway and the North Freeway. 8. That a study be made of the alignment of the North-West freeway with a view of locating this freeway East of the Industrial Airport, so as to avoid duplication with the North-West rapid transit line and the Groat Poad, 9. That the Downtown Freeway Ping be modified by eliminating the West leg and the North leg. 10. That a Transportation Department be established to coordinate road and transit transportation.


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11. That detailed up-to-date cost estimates be prepared for Council of the proposed rapid transit system and the proposed freeway-expressway system 12. That major facilities such as a colliseum, domed stadium or convention center be located next to a rapid transit line. 13. That a study be made of the type of bus route system that should exist when a rapid transit system is put into operation. 14. That TOP LEVEL negotiations be started with the University to obtain right-of-way for rapid transit through the University area, and for park-and-ride lots and the raPid transit line on the University Farm. 15. That a location study he made of the extension South of the Groat Road to link with either 113th or 122nd Street. H. That adult fares only (or paid for passes) be charged on all regular service buses until 8.30 a.m. and between p.m. and 5.30 p.m. londay through Friday (in other words no children's fares or free passes during these hours). These times are related to the highest peaks in ETS travel and this step would reduce the peak vehicle requirements, because it would encourage the staggering of hours by the school boards. 17. That a study be made of changing the "transfer" regulations. Py issuing transfers on a "valid for one hour basis on any route including on the route it was issued" the system would encourage short return trips that can be completed within one hour for a single fare. Although this rule may appear as a fare concession, it would give about the same mileage per fare, and it may also simplify the enforcement of transfer regulations. 18. That the E.T.S. be paid the revenue from Utility profits based on 21/2 per cent rate of return on owner equity on a monthly basis. This revenue should appear in the monthly statements by the E.T.S. This revenue should be to compensate for the stand-by service that the E.T.S. provides. 19. That an operating grant he paid to the E.T.S. to cover the full costs of new routes in new areas for two years or until 80 per cent of the lots are fully developed. 20. That the allowance paid to the E.T.S. for the "free" Old Age Pensioner' passes" be raised to $ 322,400 per year (based on observations of 5,200 rides per day).


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BIBLIOGRAPHY Technical Report for the City of Edmonton Rapid Transit Study by Canadian Bechtel Ltd.

June 1963

Construction Cost Estimate for the City of Edmonton Rapid Transit Study by Canadian Bechtel Ltd. July 1963 Estimate of usuage of the proposed Edmonton Rapid Transit System by Traffic Research Corporation January 1963 General Plan of the City of Edmonton Part IV Chapter II Special Planning Studies City Planning Dept. July 1963 Chapter X Downtown Edmonton City Planning Dept. July 1963 General Plan, City of Edmonton, Alberta

August 1967

Metropolitan Edmonton Transportation Study Volume I Requirements June 1963 Volume 2 Plan and Program December 1963 Metropolitan Toronto and Region Transportation Study Prospectus October 1963 Skokie Swift Progress Reports

May 1964 to May 1965

"Role of Mass Transit in Community Development" by D.0 Hyde, General Manager Cleveland Transit System - June 1961 "Design and operation of parking and bus transfer facilities along rail and transit line" by R.L.Wood, Chief Engineer, Cleveland Transit System E.T.S. - Immediate past, present, future

by J.J.Bakker P.Eng. March 1965

Marketing Urban Mass Transit by L.H.Schneider - Harvard University 1965 Design and Construction of Mass Transit System for Canadian Corporation for the 1967 World Exhibition - by Hawker Siddeley Canada Ltd. Report on the present operations of the E.T.S. with a view to determining a policy for the future operation of the system - August 1961 by D.L. MacDonald, Superintendent of the E.T.S. Transportation Peport No.2 - November 21,1967 by Ald. P. C. Easton, Chairman. "Todays need for balanced urban transit systems" by E.L.Michaels, IEEE Spectrum, December 1967


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1963. Traffic Research Cbiporation made a prediction of the worktriPs to downtown that would use the pronosed rapid transit system. BRANCH WORETRIPS (one-way) PATRONAGE PPEDICTIONS for 1980 by Traffic Research Corporation January


10,570 - 12,300 5,700 - 6,950 7,300 - 8,710 7,310 - 8,440 5,020 - 5,930 5,850 - 6,960 SE These volumes are the work trips for the central areas only and do not include social and commercial trips, or work trips that are not oriented to the central area (Packing Plants, University etc.) or the student trips to the University. The above figures cannot be used to predict revenue, for that purpose a total daily patronage prediction has to be made. The work trip prediction was made to determine the peak hour seating capacity required which is needed to design the system. APPENDIX TY() Cost estimates for rapid transit (Canadian Bechtel Ltd. July 1963) BRANCH

Estimated costs (1963 prices)

=Subway NW NE SW Subtotal SE

$ 14,110,000 (two tracks in subway) $ 7,727,000 $ 10,810,000 $ 14,113,000 $ 46,760,000 (excludes eguipment,engincering etc) $ 11,030,000 $ 15,148,000 $ 14,625,000 Total $ 87,563,000 $ 21,446,000 Eguinment Contingengies $ 8,756,000 Engineering $ 8,450,000 TOTAL $ 126,215,000 Note: The elimination of branches and a subway with only one track would reduce the above estimates. Bechtel Corporation determined the largest total figure that such a Project would cost. (1963 prices). APPENDIX THREE FARE HISTORY since 1933 ADULTS cash

Starting date December 1933 September 1947 September 1949 October 1951 February 1953 April 1958 April 1962 November 1967


10 cents 5 10 cents 4 17 10 cents 3 14 10 cents 12 10 cents 11 15 cents 8 20 cents 7 25 cents 5


for 25c 5 cents for 25c 5 cents for $1 for 25c 5 cents for $1 5 cents for $1 for $1 5 cents for $1 10 cents for $1 10 cents for $1 15 cents

PASS 10 for 25cADULTS 10 for 25cADULTS 10 for 25c 8 for 25c 8 for 25c 6 for 25c 4 for 25c $10 2 for 25c $10


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APPENDIX FOUR Travel time to downtown in minutes BY BUS FROM: BY RAPID TRANSIT from to 9 6 23 EXHIBITION PARK 10 6 3 CLARYT: STADIUM 12 20 10 CALDER 11 13 8 KINGSWAY 10 16 6 UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 14 22 10 SOUTHGATE


BY CAR (midday traffic) 13 8 14 10 9 12

APPENDIX FIVE E.T.S. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURES 1940 - 1967 TOTAL REVENUE OPERATING EXPENDITURE * EXPENDITURE* 801,918 596,539 782,113 864,643 603,854 841,880 1,009,814 1,044,474 682,155 1,423,257 884,734 1,529,639 1,447,306 1,034,596 1,574,197 1,574,040 1,080,455 1,664,138 1,710,116 1,240,004 1,794,178 1,973,503 1,648,523 1,915,533 2,311,177 1,882,201 2,230,997 2,423,959 1,915,922 2,545,407 2,543,820 1,996,315 2,653,794 2,804,753 2,157,166 2,691,677 2,921,021 2,203,994 2,922,037 2,893,387 2,218,024 3,193,466 2,958,326 2,287,872 3,276,815 3,071,258 2,394,271 3,188,859 3,205,551 2,510,458 3,185,756 3,321,517 2,651,448 3,254,977 3,513,192 2,846,005 3,657,077 3,616,562 2,967,817 3,700,941 3,546,355 2,953,070 3,486,969 3,905,395 3,397,038 3,396,370 4,146,348 3,714,307 3,825,661 4,377,538 3,841,620 3,841,089 4,773,495 4,086,739 3,984,965 5,378,097 4,532,553 4,421,907 5,870,859 4,951,867 4,777,931 6,600,000 5,500,000 5,100,000 (est.)

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 t 1948 1949 t 1950 1951 t 1952 1953 t 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 t 1959 1960 1961 1962 t 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 t * Excludes revenue tax, which was charged up to 1962. t Year of fate increase

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APPENDIX SIX RECOM1ENDATIONS MADE IN DRAFT REPOR2 IN SEPTEmRER 1965 This report is an updated version of a draft that was prepared in September 1965, The recommendations at that time are listed below: 1.That an inmediate start be made with the detailed design of the North-East ranid transit line, with the aim that operation will be possible late in 1969 to the North-East: followed with design and implementation of the South-West line with a target year of 1972. (it is assumed that at least one year of planning and three years of construction will be necessary). 2.That from the the City's TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT (ie. City Commissioners) negotiations be started with the head offices of the various Railway companies as to the use of their right-of-ways for rapid transit (using as a basis the Bechtel Plan - ie. no interference with railway operations) 3.That TOP LEVEL negotiations be started with Expo officials regarding the transit rolling stock and signalization equipment of which Expo has to dispose when the World Fair is over (This equipment is available therefor in 1968). This equipment satisfies the Bechtel specifications and its purchase after a few months of use would save Edmonton substantial sums of money and also provide it with valuable publicity at the World Fair. 4.That TOP LEVEL negotiations be started with the Provincial Government regarding the capital financing of transportation facilities. These negotiations should include an agreed set of rules of financing the continuation of Provincial Highways as freeways through the city, as well as the financing of alternate transportation facilities that reduce the need for additional freeways or that serve provincial institutions such as the Government Center and the Universities. 5.That the South Freeway and North-East Freeway not be proceeded with as they duplicate the rapid transit facilities. 6.That a study be made of the alignment of the North-West freeway to see whether it can be relocated east of the Industrial Airport, so as to avoid duplication with the North-West Rapid Transit line and the Groat Pd. 7.That the South-East, West and North rapid transit lines not be proceeded with as they are more expensive to build and they also duplicate the proposed freeways in the Mill Creek Ravine, the McKinnon Ravine and a realigned North Freeway as mentioned under 6. These freeways are vital links in the Provincial Highway network. 8.That the downtown -freeway ring be modified by eliminating the West leg (the Groat Road if improved with grade separations at 107 and 111 Avenues can fulfill the intended bypass function for a long time) and the Northleg 9.That a Transportation Department be established to coordinate road and transit transportation 10.That the need for the McKinnon Ravine and Mill Creek Freeways be reaffirmed. Financial recommendations The financial condition of the ETS can be given some reprieve if the following steps are taken: 1.Charge adult fares only Oar paid-for passes) on all regular service buses until 8.30 a.m. and between 4.30 p.m. and 5.30 p.m. Monday through Friday (ie. NO children's fares, high school student tickets or free passes). These times are related to the highest peaks in ETS travel and this step will reduce the peak vehicle requirements. 2.Eliminate fare concessions on regular services to high school students and charge adult fares to this group 3.Raise children's fares from 10 cents cash to 15 cents cash and from 4 tickets for 25 cents to 10 tickets for $ 1.00

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4.Raise adult fares from 20 cents cash to 25 cents cash and from 7 tickets for $ 1.00 to 6 tickets for $ 1.00 5.Maintain the monthly pass at $ 10.00 6.Maintain the student pass at $ 20.00 up to Christmas and $ 25.00 for January to end of April, but make the passes invalid on Saturdays (the University went to a 5 day week). 7.Pay an operating grant out of general revenue to cover the full costs of new routes in new areas for two years or until 80% of the lots are fully developed whichever is the longer period. 8.Pay an operating grant out of general revenue to cover the extra costs to maintain uneconomic services that are reported by the ETS to Council at budget time and that Council wishes to maintain. 9.Raise the allowance paid to the ETS for the free Old Age Pensioners passes from $ 75,000 to $260,000 per year (based on observations of 5,200 rides per day). 10.Set up a capital development fund for transit and pay into it an amount equal to one-half the capital outlay on roads (this would establish a one-third, two-thirds relationship of the total transportation capital budget in as much as transit moves more than one third the people in the peak hours) and inthis way finance the capital improvements required for the ETS. Of the above items steps 1,2,3,7,8,9 and 10 are essential and important. The city in the past has done plenty of manipulation similar to steps 4 and 5 to know that these steps provide no solution in itself.



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Prepared for Edmonton (Alta.) - 1968 - Public transportation in Edmonton (1968-01-10)  

A.K.A. "Bakker Report"

Prepared for Edmonton (Alta.) - 1968 - Public transportation in Edmonton (1968-01-10)  

A.K.A. "Bakker Report"