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Edmonton General Municipal Plan

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Edmonton General Municipal Plan

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MESSAGE FROM THE MAYOR

City Hall 1, Sir Winston Churchill Square Edmonton, Alberta T5J 2R7

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OFFICE OF THE MAYOR et7

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iarli4121glipt MN 2 . 14 I am pleased to present to you the Edmonton General Municipal Plan which will guide the planning and development of our city over the next 10 15 years. -

The General Municipal Plan constitutes a big step towards achieving fundamental goals for our city. With Edmonton's rapid growth, it is imperative that we understand both the long and short term implications of decisions made today on our quality of life tomorrow. In preparing the General Municipal Plan, we have carefully considered what the impact of current trends will be on the future of Edmonton. The Plan's policies are designed to reverse those trends which threaten our quality of life, to reinforce those which are beneficial, and to set new direction where necessary. We believe the policies in this plan are realistic. Even more importantly, they can be implemented because the Plan includes tools for ensuring the broad city-wide goals are applied at the neighbourhood level. In this way, the Plan makes a direct and immediate contribution to solving our current urban problems.

The Plan is also realistic in being flexible. We recognize that change is inevitable; thus, the policies guiding our decisions must keep pace with the evolving values and concerns of Edmontonians. I consider one of the strongest features of the Plan to be its means for formally involving citizens in the planning process on an ongoing basis. The District Planning Program will give citizens a strong and effective voice in urban planning decisions. This is a safeguard, a guarantee that all interests arising from our increasingly complex society will be duly considered in the decision-making which affects us all. I urge you to give this plan your most careful attention. And I strongly encourage you to participate in the District Planning Program. Yours Sincerely,

C.J. (Cec) Purves Mayor


TABLE OF CONTENTS - VOL. I Page

• • •

PART I

PREAMBLE

PART II THE GROWTH STRATEGY

PART III GROWTH COMPONENTS

• •

PART IV IMPLEMENTATION

1

Component 1.

The Growth Strategy Underlying Philosophy

1.1

Component 2.

The Growth Strategy Key Components

2.1

Component 3.

District Planning

3.1

Component 4.

Citizen Participation

4.1

Component 5.

Residential

5.1

Component 6.

Commercial

6.1

Component 7.

Industrial

7.1

Component 8.

Transportation

8.1

Component 9.

Utilities

9.1

Component 10.

Parks and Recreation

10.1

Component 11.

River Valley

11.1

Component 12.

Natural Environment

12.1

Component 13.

Human Development and Social Services

13.1

Component

14.

The Region and Annexation

14.1

Component

15.

Urban Design

15.1

Component

16.

Historic Preservation

16.1

Component 17.

Implementation

17.1

Component 18.

Monitoring and Managing the Plan

18.1

PART V DISTRICT PLANS

1

PART VI DEFINITIONS

1


INDEX OF MAPS AND CHARTS - VOL. I NOB

PfE0

1.1

Population and Housing Growth - Sub-Region 1.5 and City of Edmonton - 1976-2001

2.1

The Growth Strategy

2.4

2.1

The General Municipal Plan Growth Strategy

2.5

2.2

Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas

2.7

3.1

District Plan Boundaries

3.4

3.2

Sub-District Boundaries

3.5

5.1

Residential Policy Areas

5.4

5.1

Inner City: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Development Within Inner City Neighbourhoods

5.9

5.2

Density Nodes: Density and Building Form Guidelines for Transitional Development Within Density Nodes

5.10

5.3

Suburban Planning Units

5.15

5.4

Suburban Areas: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Suburban Residential Development

5.16

5.2

Areas Affected By Recent Planning Programs

5.21

6.1

Office Distribution Strategy

6.4

6.2

Downtown Development Strategy

6.11

6.3

Town Centre Locations

6.16

6.4

Commercial Strip Policy Areas

6.25

6.5

Corridors In Which Highway Commercial Policies Will Apply

6.30

7.1

Major Industrial Areas

7.2

10.1

Parkland Distribution

10.4

11.1

Boundaries of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan

11.4

iv


INDEX OF MAPS AND CHARTS — VOL. I (Cont'd.) Map

Chart Pattern of Development Proposed by the Annexation Project to the Year 2020

14.3

Plan Implementation Programs

17.3

17.1

Areas Suitable for Area Redevelopment Plans

17.8

17.2

Completed District Outline and Area Structure Plans

17.11

17.3

Areas Suitable for Area Structure Plans

17.12

14.1

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Page

17.1

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BYLAW NO. 6000 Being a bylaw to adopt the General Municipal Plan and to rescind Bylaw No. 3279, the General Plan Bylaw, as amended. WHEREAS Section 96(1) of The Planning Act, being c. 276 of the Revised Statutes of Alberta, 1970, provided that a municipal council may, by bylaw, adopt a General Plan; and WHEREAS City Council adopted a General Plan on May 18th, 1971 by means of Bylaw No. 3279; and WHEREAS Section 97 of The Planning Act required a municipal council completely to review the General Plan once every five years; and WHEREAS City Council on May 14th, 1976 initiated a proposal for the review of the Edmonton General Plan; and WHEREAS The Planning Act, c. 276, R.S.A. 1970 was replaced by The Planning Act, 1977, being c. 89 of the Statutes of Alberta, 1977; and THE CITY OF EDMONTON "C.J. Purves" Mayor "C.J. McGonigle" City Clerk "D.F. Burrows" Chief Commissioner

WHEREAS Section 59(1) of The Planning Act, 1977, requires that a municipal council adopt a general municipal plan; and WHEREAS the Edmonton General Plan has been reviewed and a new general municipal plan prepared; and WHEREAS Section 60 of The Planning Act, 1977 which requires that during the preparation of a general municipal plan, opportunities be provided for persons

affected by the plan to make suggestions and representations, has been complied with; and WHEREAS the public participation requirements of Section 135 and 136 of The Planning Act, 1977 have been complied with; and WHEREAS the Municipal Planning Commission at its meeting of April 24th, 1980 supported the General Municipal Plan. NOW THEREFORE, the Municipal Council of the City of Edmonton, after due compliance with the provisions of The Planning Act, 1977 and duly assembled enacts as follows: 1. This bylaw shall be known as the Edmonton General Municipal Plan Bylaw. 2. Volume I, containing the Plan, and Volume II, containing the Policy Reports on which the Plan is based, which are attached hereto as Appendices "A" and "B" respectively, are hereby adopted as the Edmonton General Municipal Plan. 3. Bylaw No. 3279, the General Plan Bylaw, and all amendments thereto, is hereby rescinded. READ a first time this 26th day of May A.D. 1980. READ a second time this 4th day of July A.D. 1980 (As amended) READ a third time and duly passed this 4th day of July A.D. 1980. (As amended)

vi


LIST OF AMENDMENTS

Ill

Date Amendment Bylaw Number Adopted Number

Component/ Policy Report

Amendments

1

6160

1980 09 09

Component 6 — Commercial

Map 6.1; 6.G; 6.G.3

2

6202

1980 10 07

Policy Report 5 — Residential Component 6 — Commercial Policy Report 6 — Commercial

5.A.1. (Discussion) Map 6.2; 6.D.2; 6.D.3; 6.D.4; 6.D.5 6.D.1 (Discussion); 6.D.2; 6.D.3; 6.D.4; 6.D.5

• •

The Office Consolidation dated October, 1980 includes the above amendments.

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0 0 ) 0 Q

PART I - PREAMBLE


PREAMBLE

• • • •

The Edmonton General Municipal Plan

Structure of the Plan

The Edmonton General Municipal Plan is structured to clearly set out the objectives of the strategy, and the policies and program commitments required to achieve these objectives. The Edmonton General Municipal Plan consists of two volumes. Volume I sets out the objectives and policies of City Council and establishes implementation directives. Volume II contains a series of Policy Reports which provide a more complete discussion of the data, issues, objectives, principles, and alternatives on which the policies of the Plan are based.

Within Volume I, this "Preamble" is Part I. Part II presents an overview of the intent and characteristics of the growth strategy for Edmonton pursued in the Plan. Part III deals with the specific policy components of the Plan. Part IV summarizes the implementataion directives, and Part V contains a glossary of the key terms used in the Plan.

The General Municipal Plan as a reflection of community objectives

The Edmonton General Municipal Plan is a statement of the major objectives and policies of City Council which are designed to manage the growth and form of Edmonton as it develops. As a comprehensive plan for land use, the General Municipal Plan affects the quality of life of the citizens of Edmonton, and can influence whether or not the City's social objectives are achieved. Thus, the General Municipal Plan must reflect the

community's objectives for managing growth. To this end, the Plan has been struck with specific requirements for community involvement and action. Such community participation will determine whether or not the Plan is successfully implemented, and provide for ongoing flexibility and responsiveness to changing community objectives and values, as well as changing economic conditions.

Timing of the Plan

The General Municipal Plan is a 15 year document, and in many instances, projections are provided to the year 2001. The strategies are intended to be achieved during this 15 year period. Consequently,

shifts in policy will often be implemented slowly and incrementally, at the speed which the market will bear, the City can afford, and the inherent dynamics of a growing City will allow.

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1 PART I


PREAMBLE

The 1971 General Plan Assessment of the 1971 Plan

The 1971 Edmonton General Plan was largely a policy-oriented plan, which placed limited emphasis on the specifics of implementation. The lack of an implementation program, however, was not a serious failing in the Plan because the Plan did not envision the future development of the city departing significantly from the established

development trends. It appeared that the "good life" which it advocated could presumably be found within the context of the principles and policies it enunciated and within the prevailing trends of the City's growth, without having to resort to a specific strategy or major policy shifts for realizing those goals.

Emphasis of 1971 Plan on suburban growth

Edmonton grew rapidly during the decade of the 1970's. The most pressing problem facing the City during that period was to plan and service land for development at a rate and on a scale which would accommodate the demand, would not place an undue economic burden on the City, nor produce an excessive escalation in the price of land. Other development issues were regarded as of secondary importance. In those circumstances, the General Plan of 1971, based as it was on

the acceptance of the prevailing development trends, with no disposition to modify those trends, appears to have been appropriate. Certainly, the City was able to respond quite successfully to the unprecedented demand for land. Since 1971 the annual absorption of residential land has been almost twice what was projected in the Plan, but the City has been able to satisfy this demand without serious disruption of the development process.

Problems associated with 1971 Plan policies

However, depite the City's past success in planning and servicing land for development, certain aspects of that development are now being criticized. The suburbs are being criticized for contributing to sprawl, for being monotonous and lacking innovation, for inappropriate mixing of apartments, town houses, and single family dwellings, for contributing to high housing prices, and

for being unable to provide various educational and recreational services at the appropriate time. Redevelopment in the inner city is also being criticized for the destruction of two of the oldest neighbourhoods in Edmonton, for failing to integrate new development successfully into existing neighbourhoods, and for exerting pressure on local services.

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2 PART I


PREAMBLE

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Future problems associated with suburban growth

Since the late 1970's, the city has continued to develop outward, into suburban areas, at relatively low densities. Because of the extraordinarily rapid suburban growth, an evaluation of suburban planning policies and initiation of change has not been possible until recently. Moreover, new issues are now emerging which urgently require attention and which were not dealt with in the General Plan of 1971. Among these is the prospect that Edmonton will soon run out of residential land. If the present high rate of new household formation (and therefore of housing demand) continues, the City will continue to absorb large amounts of suburban land for residential

purposes. Forecasts indicate that all available residential land will be serviced by the mid-1980's, and will be completely developed by 1991. There is also a serious shortage of industrial land. Forecasts indicate that due, in part, to insufficient industrial land, the City will accommodate less of the Edmonton Region's industrial land demand than it will of the housing demand. Consequently, it is expected there will be a gradual shift in the City's tax base towards residential assessment, with proportionately less industrial land to bear the cost of providing municipal services.

Future problems related to costs of municipal services

The prospect of increasing costs of municipal services has a further aspect. If Edmonton's suburbs continue developing at a relatively low density, the provision of services such as schools, parks, and public transit will become increasingly costly on a per capita basis. Clearly, if such issues are to be dealt with properly, a departure from the present trends and new initiatives on the part of City Council are required.

the costly extension of the street system and reduce the traffic congestion which is clearly in prospect. Forecasts indicate the number of automobiles on Edmonton roads will increase dramatically between now and 1991, even with an increase in transit ridership. This will increase the average time spent on the "journey-towork" for the average Edmonton resident, as well as for residents of suburban towns who work in the central area of the city.

Policies will have to be adopted and carried out which will be far-reaching in their implications. For instance, older neighbourhoods will be affected if the expansion of new suburban growth areas is de-emphasized. The transit system must play a role in any attempt to control

Furthermore, rapid suburban growth and minimal amounts of land available for development within the present municipal boundary have resulted in significant concentrations of urban and industrial development evolving

3

PART 1


PREAMBLE

The changing energy situation

4i

immediately beyond the corporate limits of the City of Edmonton. Although the City has no jurisdictional control over this burgeoning suburban development, it is nonetheless expected to assume a larger share of the responsibility to sustain the surrounding development through the provision of certain utility services, cultural and recreation facilities, transportation services and facilities, and certain social and protective functions. As the need for and provision of these basic

urban services does not respect the multi-jurisdictional character of the Edmonton area, the City is faced with the problem of increased costs for provision of these metropolitan scale services, while constrained by limited sources of revenue from which to generate the required funds. As this problem is becoming acute, it represents part of the City's rationale for the municipal boundary adjustment request.

Present growth trends are also of concern in light of the emerging energy future, one of diminishing fossil fuel resources and rising energy costs. The current pattern of land use and density of development is based on the existence of relatively cheap and abundant energy resources. The concentration of employment in the Downtown, the under-utilization of land in the older inner city industrial areas, and the accommodation of most of the city's population growth in relatively low

density outlying areas, requires a great deal of energy for transportation between places of residence, work and shopping, for construction and maintenance of roads and utilities, and the provision of municipal services. Another energy concern about present development is the failure of subdivision plans, in their building and lot orientations, to maximize present and future opportunities for solar heating.

The General Municipal Plan Strategy for Managing Edmonton's Growth

Requirement for a growth strategy di

All of the above concerns have reaffirmed the need to review and update the 1971 Edmonton General Plan, and to reconsider and re-establish the basis for guiding the development of the City. What is required in the current situation is a General Municipal Plan which sets out a development or growth strategy and a clear commitment to programs which will

carry out that strategy. Otherwise, the present trends will continue, along with impacts which would decrease the quality of the city's living environment. The concept of a growth strategy, as put forward in the new General Municipal Plan, is basically the grouping and linking of fundamental policies which must be

4 PART I

• • • • •

• •


PREAMBLE

• • • • •

implemented to respond to the issues of growth management in the Edmonton area. All other policies of the Plan are critically linked to these key policies or the growth strategy, as the necessary support mechanisms or as incentives to create an environment conducive to the realization of the strategy. As a result of the analyses and evaluation of growth issues and management alternatives undertaken during the preparation of the Plan, an 18 point growth strategy has been developed. The points of the strategy are grouped into five areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Accommodation of Growth; Pattern of Development; Transportation System; Environmental Quality; and, Detailed Planning.

A. Accommodation of Growth The 18 point growth strategy

1. Accommodating whatever growth is attracted to the City. 2. Annexation of land to ensure an adequate supply of residential and industrial land over the long term.

The organization of the strategy is intended to reflect that the elements of the growth strategy are closely linked and interdependent. Amending any one component will likely have impacts on many of the components. The strategy starts with policies on the accommodation of growth which constitutes the fundamental premise of the Plan. Next, it deals with the desired pattern of development and transportation system aspects which that pattern supports. Finally, the strategy outlines policies pertaining to the quality of the environment and the detailed planning processes which condition or modify the implementation of the foregoing policies.

3. Reorganization of local government at the metropolitan scale to improve financial, political and administrative responsiveness and efficiency.

4. Promotion of growth in industries contributing to stability anad diversity of the economic base. B. Pattern of Development 5. Increasing compactness of residential development. 6. Priority upon existing developed areas for:

5 PART I


PREAMBLE

(a) accommodating growth in order to better utilize existing services and infrastructure; and, (b) improving services where necessary. 7. A viable, strong downtown to be retained and developed. 8. Office decentralization to Town Centres, L.R.T. stations and other selected locations along major transportation routes. 9. Staging considerations at a broad level in new growth areas, to bring about servicing efficiencies for the municipality and school boards.

10. Promotion of energy efficient design and opportunities for energy conservation in land use and transportation planning, municipal servicing and building design.

compactness of development, through an emphasis on urban design, historic preservation, parks development and a social development strategy.

14. Natural environment sensitivity to be given increased emphasis in planning for new growth areas. E. Detailed Planning

15. A District Planning System to link the General Municipal Plan with the Land Use Bylaw. 16. Formal citizen participation structure to advise on the preparation of District Plans and to monitor development trends. 17. A Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the City in implementing the General Municipal Plan strategy.

C. Transportation System 11. A strong emphasis on the public transit component of the Transportation System. 12. A downtown parking policy to encourage and support a viable Downtown.

18. Increased flexibility for the development industry and opportunities for competition in the land development process through flexible land use control and consideration given to non-contiguous development.

D. Environmental Quality

The remainder of this preamble reviews the underlying objectives and rationale for each of the components of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy listed above.

13. Priority upon improving the quality of the environment, especially necessary given the increased

• •

6 PART 1

• • • •


PREAMBLE

• •

• • •

1. Accommodating growth which is attracted to the City

Responsibility of City to accommodate growth

The Edmonton region is a city-centred region, and the regional growth strategies proposed in the Edmonton Regional Plan confirm this as a long-term planning policy. As the central city in the Region,

Edmonton should plan for the accommodation of all types of growth, and be prepared to respond to demand for growth.

2. Annexation of land to ensure an adequate supply of residential and industrial land over the long-term.

Shortage of land

Forecasts indicate the city will run out of residential land beginning in the 1980's, and should annexation not occur, land and housing prices will increase sharply. The industrial land shortage is already

contributing to escalating industrial land prices and resulting in reduced ability by the City to accommodate the same proportion of the Sub-region's industrial growth.

3. Reorganization of local government at the metropolitan scale to improve financial, political and administrative responsiveness and efficiency.

Reorganization of Local Government at Metropolitan Scale

In addition to ensuring the City has an available supply of residential and industrial land for future expansion, the annexation proposal is intended to resolve a number of additional metropolitan scale problems through the unification of separate municipal authorities within the Edmonton Sub-region. Specifically, these problems include: (a) the fiscal inequities resulting from tax imbalances generated by a disproportionate sharing of taxation burdens;

(b) the ineffective planning and management of growth in the Edmonton area resulting in the emerging poor settlement pattern; (c) the inability of the existing fragmented form of jurisdictional control to ensure efficient long-range financial, transportation, utility system and social planning; (d) the inadequate provision of basic urban services in intensely developed areas on the city's periphery; and,

• 7 PART I


PREAMBLE

(e) the complexity of the existing governmental structure which inhibits political accountability and citizen accessibility. Moreover, general principles respecting the establishment of a unified government structure, prepared in conjunction with the City's boundary submission to the Provincial Government, will be the

subject of further study by the Task Force on Local Government. These general principles include support for the General Municipal Plan objectives relating to the establishment of a formal, on-going citizen participation process and, also, support for the decentralization of Civic Administration functions.

4. Promotion of growth in industries contributing to stability and diversity of the economic base.

Need for balanced industry

Although significant growth is expected in the Edmonton Region, it may not be sufficiently balanced or the industries sufficiently stable for a balanced economic base. Therefore, the City should

promote, and provide for growth in industries which contribute to stability and diversity, and which will provide long-term employment opportunities for its citizens.

5. Increasing compactness of residential development.

Benefits of increased redevelopment in the inner city

Increased compactness of residential development is considered to be desirable for a number of reasons. In the existing developed area of the city, sensitively planned redevelopment will have benefits in the following areas. (a) Efficiency in the utilization of services: • an increase in family housing will contribute to the long term viability of inner city schools; and, • more efficent use of existing services and facilities means that lower service investment dollars are required compared to placing a similar amount and type of development in the suburbs. (b) Potential for improvement of inner city environments:

• redevelopment will be spread throughout the inner city and will recognize the character and scale of existing development. No one or two areas are expected to receive all the redevelopment or the impact associated with it; and, • increased opportunities to improve parks and other support facilities through comprehensive redevelopment projects with their own facilities, through recreational land acquired by redevelopment levies, and through higher priority being given to the development of these facilities in the inner city.

8 PART I


PREAMBLE

• • • • • • •

Benefits of increased density of suburban single family development

In the suburban areas, the following benefits are derived from a policy to increase the density of single family development: (a) Efficiency in utilization of services: • more efficent use of land resources and support services; and, • more single family development will increase the population of an area, allowing the provision of services such as schools, parks, and transit, all of which require a certain threshold population to be economical. These services could, therefore, be brought onstream more in line with the timing of development.

and through increasing densities in the suburbs, will add greater competition to the housing market and thereby assist in reducing the rate of increase in the cost of housing; and, • increased choice in housing and living environment available in the city will result from increasing the amount of family housing in the inner city. (d) Energy conservation:

• accommodating growth in a more compact form is also desirable from the point of view of energy conservation. Developing new residential areas at higher densities and introducing more housing into the inner city will potentially reduce the amount of energy (b) Ability to meet demand for housing: consumed in daily urban travel by generally reducing the distances • increasing the density of single family between places of residence, work and development will enable the provision shopping. Higher residential densities of more housing on a given piece of will mean more energy-efficient land, increasing the ability of the city to attached forms of housing will be built. meet demand. Higher densities will also improve the (c) Competition and choice in the viability of providing public transit housing market: service - a more energy-efficient form of mass transportation. Finally, energy • this benefit will be derived from the savings will be realized through policies for both inner city and compact development because less suburban land; extensive utility systems will have to be • increased availability of housing, built and operated. through redevelopment in the inner city

9 PART I


PREAMBLE

6. Priority upon existing developed areas for accommodating growth and improving services. Implications of focussing on the inner city

The growth strategy provides for a shift towards increased emphasis on redevelopment in the inner city, and consequent improvements in inner city services and facilities. As indicated earlier, emphasis on the inner city for accommodating more residential development is desirable for a number of reasons, including service utilization, resource efficiency and conservation, and environmental improvement. At the same time, the additional

redevelopment will place pressure on some services such as parks, which are often below City standards in the inner city. Therefore, the strategy requires an increased emphasis on parks development in the existing developed areas of the city. Finally, the strategy requires adoption of policies to reduce through traffic in the inner city. By reducing the deteriorating effect of problems affecting the inner city, such as through traffic, the overall quality of the living environment will be improved.

7. Retaining and developing a viable, strong Downtown. Potential difficulties in planning for Downtown

Benefits of increa$' housing in the Downtown

The thrust of the development strategy has been to give special emphasis to the role of the Downtown. Downtown Edmonton appears, in may ways, to be at a cross-roads in its development, and the approach taken by the General Municipal Plan strategy to its development could be a major influence on its future health and liveliness. The dilemma has been that while recognizing the problems inherent in continued growth of the Downtown (traffic congestion, over-specialization and potential loss of vitality, increased land prices), any strategy to curtail the growth

of Downtown runs the risk of endangering the life of the Downtown, as well as conflicting with the City's public transit strategy. Therefore, the strategy towards the central area has been developed with care, and must be implemented very sensitively. The two main components of the strategy influencing the Downtown are: (a) increasing housing in the Downtown; and, (b) encouraging some decentralization of office employment.

Increasing housing in the Downtown will: (a) create a population base in the Downtown which will contribute to its long term stability, support other

functions, assist in crime prevention, and add variety to the Downtown area; 10 PART 1


PREAMBLE

• • • •

• • •

(b) diminish the demand for high rise residential development elsewhere in the city; (c) utilize existing infrastructure such as utilities and transit more efficiently, with little increase in investment on the City's part; (d) increase the choice of housing available in the city; Benefits of office decentralization upon Downtown

Office decentralization is being proposed for two reasons: (a) reduction of traffic congestion; and, (b) viability of the Downtown. Traffic Congestion: Office development represents the primary single generator of employment in the city. The continued concentration of office space in the Downtown will result in significant reductions in the level of service available on major roadways entering and within Downtown. To continue to meet the travel demands associated with this development, increased investment for the widening of existing roadways or the development of new roadways will be required. This will also result in signficant impacts on the inner city communities through which these roadways must run.

(e) assist in reducing transportation congestion in the Downtown by creating less demand on the roadway network, resulting in greater use of transit; and, (f) potentially reduce the amount of energy consumed for transportation by providing more opportunities for people to live closer to their place of work. Viability of Downtown: The present concentration of office development in the Downtown and the expectations for future office development are promoting increases in the cost of land, thereby reducing opportunities for, and the feasibility of, other uses such as housing in the Downtown. Notwithstanding a policy to encourage a portion of office space growth to locate outside of the Downtown, it will still remain the single dominant employment and activity centre in the city. Thus, substantial office decentralization is not expected to detract from the viability of Downtown. This is particularly true if the office space provided for and encouraged to locate in decentralized areas is treated selectively.

11 PART I


PREAMBLE

8. Office decentralization to Town Centres, L.R.T. stations and selected locations along major transportation routes.

Benefits of office decentralization upon transportation

The strategy encourages the decentralization of office space to locations which reinforce the roadway and transit networks. For example, office space can be located at LRT stations, existing and proposed shopping centres, large consolidations of under-utilized land in the inner city, along and at the intersection of major arterials in the city's industrial areas, and the intersection of major arterials located elsewhere in the city, where considered appropriate. By encouraging office space decentralization in locations possessing excess roadway and transit capacities, transportation facilities will be used more efficiently, resulting in reduced investment required to meet the travel demands generated by the city's future growth. The development of office space in the vicinity of existing and future LRT stations will help reinforce the transit network, helping to stabilize or

potentially reduce the operating costs associated with the provision of public transit, and maintain easy linkages between the decentralized space and the Downtown. Similar to the Downtown housing component of the land use strategy, office decentralization will also potentially result in transportation energy savings by providing more opportunities for people to work closer to where they live. Density location and design guidelines or requirements for varying locations for decentralized office space will help to ensure this development is compatible with existing development. The office decentralization component of the land use strategy will be and must be monitored, as will all components, to identify any adverse impacts resulting from the decentralization policy, in particular upon the viability of the Downtown.

9. Exploring staging at a broad level in new growth areas, to bring about servicing efficiencies for the municipality and school boards.

Benefits to municipal administration of staging

A second aspect of policies affecting the process of land development lies in the area of the staging development. This thrust of the strategy has been developed in response to concerns expressed by the municipality and the school boards about

the difficulties of planning for service provision (including planning of transportation routes) when the city is growing in a number of different directions at once.

12 PART I

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PREAMBLE

• • • • •

The resolution of this problem is a difficult one. On the one hand, if the City implements staging of development, the provision of services could be undertaken with considerably less delay, since planning could be more accurate and threshold populations reached more quickly. On the other hand, though, is the restriction to the market entailed by staging, and the reduction in competition.

The growth strategy has taken the view that staging is necessary at the broad level of the Area Structure Plan, in order to prevent the development of an area which could result in severe fiscal implications ot the City. However, as noted above, considerable flexibility should be allowed within the Area Structure Plan to allow for competition.

10. Promotion of energy-efficient design and opportunities for energy conservation in land use and transportation planning, municipal servicing and building design.

Necessity for energy efficiency

Accommodating growth in such a way as to reduce the City's future energy requirements has been one of the guiding principles behind the development of the strategies and policies in this Plan. Although Edmonton is the capital of a Province which is relatively well endowed with fossil fuel resources, these resources are finite. As conventional oil and gas reserves are depleted, we will have to turn to other sources of energy which are more expensive, both financially and environmentally, such as extraction of oil from the tar sands and the generation of thermal energy from coal.

Actions to develop a more energy-efficient city in concert with energy conservation measures would help to minimize the impact of diminishing fossil fuel resources and rising energy costs on the quality of life in Edmonton. Actions on energy must be initiated now because it takes time to reshape a city's land use and density pattern into an energy-efficient form, and because the way we build today will affect the efficiency with which the City functions for years to come.

11. A strong emphasis on the public transit component of the transportation system.

Links between public transit system and land use

The growth strategy being recommended is dependent upon the transportation system. Components of the strategy - such as maintenance of a strong and viable Downtown, decentralization of office

space to major transit corridors, and increasing the compactness of residential development - are all dependent on, and supportive of, a transportation strategy emphasizing public transit. 13 PART I


PREAMBLE

A public transit system focusing on the Downtown will be a critical feature in retaining the viability of Downtown, for such a system will continue to bring workers into the central area without resulting in traffic congestion and demand for parking. A well-developed transit system will assist in attracting office space to decentralization locations. Once there, these uses will help to reinforce the transit system. By locating trip-generating

uses in the vicinity of the City's transit system, there will be even further justification for the timely expansion of the City's LRT system. Increasing compactness of residential development is closely tied to a public transit emphasis in the transportation system. Increased densities raise the threshold population for ridership of the system, and increase the efficiency with which improved levels of service can be provided.

12. A Downtown parking policy to encourage and support a viable Downtown.

Links between parking and transportation

Parking policies for the Downtown, in particular pricing and parking management policies, are significantly related to the maintenance of a strong and viable Downtown. Such policies affect travel behaviour, particularly in favour of transit, thereby reducing the adverse impacts of high traffic volumes. A parking policy to promote transit usage implies Downtown parking will be priced relatively high, and the majority of parking spaces will be allocated to short

term shopping trips, rather than long term parking for Downtown workers. The intent of the parking strategy will, therefore, be to discourage the occupancy of parking spaces by workers in the centre area, in order to encourage the use of transit by these workers. However, in the outlying areas, provision for "park-and-ride" should be carefully considered to provide for suburban commuters and residents of areas which are not fully served by transit.

13. Priority on the quality of the environment through an emphasis on urban design, historic preservation, parks development, and a social development strategy

Necessity of focus on quality of environment

The strategy emphasizes increasing the priority to be placed upon improving the quality of the urban environment (as opposed to placing priority on efficiency of design, orderliness, or development for the sake of economic growth).

This priority will be especially important given the increased compactness of residential development, and the increased pressure on the urban environment. Components to be emphasized in improving quality include:

14 PART 1

• •

• •


• • • • • • •

PREAMBLE

Urban Design: Through thoughtful design, a more comfortable, enjoyable, efficient and attractive city environment can be created. Thus a number of urban design policies are to be found throughout the General Municipal Plan, several of which are directed towards ensuring a greater consideration of urban design in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals. Historic Preservation: Increasing compactness must not be pursued at the expense of depleting Edmonton's historical resources, since these add humaneness, character and value to the environment. Parks Development: Typically, a high quality environment has been associated with parks and open space. Increasing compactness of development will place even greater importance on the provision of parks. In both new and old areas, the emphasis will be on quality, not quantity of park space. And, in view of the City policy on the provision of park space by the development industry in newly developed areas, the City's parks development priorities must be focused on the inner city.

Social Development: One critical aspect of the urban environment which will be influenced by the land use strategy is the social one. During the preparation of the land use strategy, considerable concern was expressed about the number of social factors related to physical development: (a) the impact of physical development upon people's lives and the social structure; (b) the implications of this strategy for equitable distribution of social services; and, (c) the structuring of a system for citizens to be informed of, and have input to, decisions relating to physical development. Although these factors were not fully explored in the preparation of the land use strategy, it is proposed that the Social Services Department submit to City Council a proposal on "A Human Development Strategy for Edmonton" which is complementary to the General Municipal Plan.

14. Increased emphasis on sensitivity to the natural environment in planning for new growth areas.

Necessity for emphasii upon natural environment

The strategy requires that increased emphasis be placed upon recognizing and planning for the sensitivity of the natural environment when managing urban growth.

Increased compactness of development will place greater strain on the carrying capacity of the natural environment. Therefore, the retention of natural areas will increase in importance. In developing 15 PART I


PREAMBLE

the outlying areas, unique natural features should be preserved where possible, and natural features and topography must be

addressed in the design of area and neighbourhood structure plans.

15. A District Planning System to link the General Municipal Plan with the Land Use Bylaw.

Necessity for District Planning

A District Planning System is an integral

part of the development strategy. The success of the General Municipal Plan growth allocation between inner city and suburban areas depends upon the District Planning process to pursue the detailed implementation of the growth strategy in concert with District residents, and to ensure that no one or two areas receive

the majority of the proposed redevelopment and its associated impacts. The District Planning Program is, therefore, an essential means of implementing, in an effective and equitable manner, the policy shift towards substantive, selective inner city redevelopment.

16. Formal citizen participation structure to advise on the preparation of District Plans and monitor development trends.

Necessity and role of citizen participation

If the General Municipal Plan is to be implemented, support by the citizens of Edmonton is essential to its success. In particular, policy shifts relating to the inner city and density of suburban single family development, as well as identification of sub-centres for office decentralization, must be pursued with active citizen participation.

participation for each new neighbourhood plan the City embarks upon, and, will be linked to the ward system. The District Planning System is also perceived as a more economic means of delivering land use planning to neighbourhoods in a short period of time, compared to the current process of preparing small area neighbourhood plans.

A formal citizen participation structure will obviate the necessity for ad hoc

• • • •

• 16 PART I


PREAMBLE

• • • • •

• •

17. A Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the City in implementing the General Municipal Plan strategy. Necessity of development industry involvement

The establishment of a liaison committee with the City, made up of representatives from the development industry, is essential if the General Municipal Plan growth strategy is to be implemented. Although the policy shifts have been identified as feasible, based on early and preliminary discussions with the development industry, a number of additional actions by the City may be

necessary to create a climate where the development industry can actually produce development consistent with the policy shifts. Moreover, a liaison committee will provide for ongoing revision and adjustment to the General Municipal Plan, and will ensure the objectives of both the City and the industry are clearly and mutually understood.

18. Increased flexibility for the development industry and opportunities for competition in the land development process. Benefits to development industry of increased flexibility

In addition to land use policies, the strategy contains policies affecting the process of development. These are in response to concerns expressed by the development industry about inflexibility, which has restricted opportunities for innovation, variety, and imaginative development, as well as restricting opportunities for competition. Such features will become increasingly important in an environment of increasing compactness. Therefore, the following types of changes to the development process are essential to the strategy:

(b) the possibility of allowing non-contiguous development at the neighbourhood structure plan or subdivision level, if the developer can demonstrate that early development would not have significant fiscal implications for the City; and, (c) increased flexibility in the requirements of detailed zoning and development control.

(a) increased flexibility in the process of preparing Area Structure Plans for new suburban growth areas, including flexibility in design guidelines and population standards;

17 PART I


PREAMBLE

A Note on the Format

Format differences

The format of the General Municipal Plan departs from that of the 1971 Plan in three major ways:

-

2. a cross-referencing system; and, 3. a key word system.

1. emphasis on linkages among 1. Objective

objectives, programs, and policies;

Policy Program Linkage System -

The Plan is structured to show the linkages between broad statements of objectives, the more specific policy statements, and the programs which will be responsible for implementation of the policy. Every objective in the Plan has at

least one policy and program link put forward to implement it. In many cases, one objective leads to a number of policies. The numbering system utilized is as follows:

refers to the component of the Plan - residential, commercial, etc.

I

1.A.1

refers to the objective under a given component. All 2-digit statements are objectives. refers to the policy statement under a given objective. All 3-digit statements are policies.

Through this system, every objective and policy statement in the Plan can be identified with a unique number, utilized in the cross-referencing system. Because of the number of times the same program

is used to implement different policies, programs are not identified with a unique number. However, a summary of programs and the policies to which they are linked is provided in Chart 17.1.

18 PART 1

• • • • • • •


PREAMBLE

• • • • • • •

2. Cross-Referencing System

The interrelatedness of the urban system must be recognized in a plan such as the General Municipal Plan. Amendments to one policy may require amendments to a number of other policies. The cross-referencing system among policies is, therefore, essential to managing and

monitoring the Plan, as well as understanding its structure. Cross-references, therefore, refer either to other related policies in the Plan, or to the policy report to which reference should be made if further detail or justification is required.

3. Key Word System

The amount of text in a General Municipal Plan makes it difficult to glance through quickly and gain a general

understanding of content. The use of the key word system is intended to ease this problem for the user.

The format is reflected in the tabular presentation style of the Plan: Column 1. Subject:

The key word identifier is printed in italics.

Column 2. Reference No.:

A 2 or 3 digit reference number comprising a unique identifier for an objective or policy statement.

Column 3. Objectives and Policies:

Objective statements are printed in bold letters, to aid in distinguishing them from policy statements.

Column 4. Program:

Each policy statement is linked to at least one program.

Column 5. Cross-Reference: The identifier of any related objective or policy, as well as relevant policy reports.

19 PART I


II - THE GROWTH STRATEGY

Component 1.

The Growth Strategy — Underlying Philosophy

Component 2.

The Growth Strategy — Key Components

Component 3.

District Planning

Component 4.

Citizen Participation


1191111Fivt fl

P • tr

>4


1. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY INTRODUCTION

• •

In developing a strategy to manage growth in the City, the first question which arises relates to the attitude of the City towards growth. It is recognized that the purpose of the strategy is to manage growth, but an issue raised frequently during the preparation of the growth strategy—by all members of the community—relates to the degree to which the Municipal Corporation can influence the actual amount and types of growth which come to it, and then must be managed. This first section of the growth strategy in the Plan sets out policies governing the tools of the City to influence the amount and type of growth. The primary tools are programs influencing availability of land for development, such as zoning and servicing, and programs influencing the degree to which growth is facilitated, such as business promotion programs, location assistance programs, and housing for disadvantaged people. The position of the City, as reflected in these policies, is that: 1. Growth is inevitable in the region, and a co-ordinated regional strategy requires that the majority of regional growth be accommodated in a city-centered region. However, the central city must not be placed in financial or administrative difficulties because of its role. (Objective 1.A) 2. The City has a responsibility to provide for growth of all types. (Objective 1.B) 3. Although growth is inevitable, it may not be sufficiently balanced or the industries sufficiently stable to be beneficial to the economic base. Therefore, the City should promote growth in

industries which contribute to stability and diversity. (Objective 1.C) The concept of a city-centered region is not new, and has been embodied in past and current City Council policy as well as the Regional Plan, with which the General Municipal Plan must be consistent. A city centred region is consistent with recent market trends in the location of commercial development and multiple family residential development. Continuing concentration of these land uses, as well as industrial and some single family development, is desirable from the point of maintaining a regional identity and maintaining cost efficiencies in the provision of services. Managing regional growth through concentration in the central city must go hand-in-hand with co-ordinated land use development outside the city boundaries. If urbanization is allowed to occur in a fragmented fashion in the rural parts of the region, the central city is placed in an increasingly difficult position in providing services. Given the City's required role in the region, which has been identified by both City Council and the Edmonton Regional Planning Commission, it is essential the City undertake whatever actions are necessary to respond to growth pressures. This position is reflected in the set of policies relating to land availability and the City's role with respect to housing the disadvantaged. The City has a responsibility to provide serviced land to respond to demand. It is not feasible to prevent growth. Curtailing of land supply would push prices up and lead to pressure to significantly increase densities across the city. As the largest centre in the region, Edmonton is the most attractive location for those people for whom the least choice exists in the housing market.

1.1 PART 11


1. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY The section on the underlying philosophy influencing the City's attitude towards growth deals with promotion of growth. Objective 1.0 is centred on the necessity of economic development. In today's economy, stability of the economic base seems to require continued growth in the number of jobs, as well as encouraging industry

which is less sensitive to market cycles. Edmonton's economy is not adequately diversified to make it sufficiently resistant to the impact of market cycles. Thus, although considerable growth is forecast for the City, active promotion of certain types of industry is essential to diversity in the economic base.

• • • • 1.2 PART II


1. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Role of the City in the Region

1.A

To pursue a co-ordinated regional land use strategy which provides that the majority of regional growth be accommodated in the City of Edmonton.

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

III III

Growth Accommodation

1.A.1

The City of Edmonton will provide for the accommodation of 50% - 60% of the Region's population growth, which implies that the City is prepared to accommodate 70% - 80% of housing starts. (Map 1.1)

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

Opposition to Peripheral Development

1.A.2

The City will oppose the development of new urban communities in the Sub-region, and further expansion of country residential and other instances of isolated development in proximity to the City's boundary.

Input through Edmonton Regional Planning Commission Representatives

14.A.4

Development Outside Annexed Lands

1.A.3

The City will support the continued growth of four principal centres of residential and industrial development in the Edmonton Region, namely:

E.R.P.C. Input

14.A, 14.A.4

C.P.P.O. Co-ordination; Annexation Application

14.A.4

• •

(a) a unified Edmonton Metropolitan area; (b) Leduc; (c) Fort Saskatchewan; and, (d) Stony Plain/Spruce Grove

Service Extensions Beyond Annexed Lands

1.A.4

The City will limit future service system extensions beyond the annexation boundary only to:

1.3

PART II


1. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(a) support the development of communities with balanced industrial and residential tax bases in Fort Saskatchewan, Leduc and Stony Plain/Spruce Grove; and, (b) support the much more limited development of smaller communities more than 5 miles from the expanded city boundary. Boundary Rationalization

1.A.5

The City will work towards an equitable distribution of the costs and benefits of urban growth within the Edmonton Region.

Annexation Application

It is the objective of Council: Obligation to Accommodate Growth

1.B

14.A.4

14.A

To accommodate the housing and land needs of the population and industry which is attracted to the City. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Maintaining Adequate Land Supply

1.B.1

The City will undertake such actions as are necessary to maintain an adequate land supply to accommodate the long range growth requirements of residential, commercial and industrial land uses, including, specifically, the current application for annexation before the Local Authorities Board.

Annexation Application

5.E.4, 7.D.2, 14.A.2, 14.A.4

Land Planning and Servicing Programs

1.B.2

The City will facilitate the provision of a sufficient supply of appropriately designated and serviced land by the private sector and, where approved by City Council, the public sector for residential, industrial and commercial needs.

Land Planning Area Structure and Area Redevelopment Plans; C.P.P.O. Coordination of Servicing Program

7.A.1

1.4 PART II

• • • • • • •


POPULATION I HOUSING 56.5%

251,200

75.2%

157,500

43.5%

193,300 1 24.8%

51.800

10 0 %

Bon Accord •

444,500 1 10 0 %

209,300

•Gibbons

Mori nville•

SUB-REGION Fort Saskatchewan St. Albert

°Spr u ce Grove • Stony Plain

CT

I Sherwood Park

EDMONTON

• Devon

SUB- REGION

■-•■•

° Beaumont

r-Q Leduc

MAP 1.1 POPULATION AND HOUSING GROWTH-SUBREGION AND CITY OF EDMONTON 1976 - 2001

T

KM.

OM

10

10

20

30

20

40

30


1. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY

Subject

Municipal Involvement in Housing

• • • • •

Reference No. 1.B.3

Objectives and Policies The City will pursue increased municipal involvement in, and active support of, Provincial Government efforts in housing those groups often excluded from the marketplace, such as low income, elderly and young households.

Program

Housing Strategy; Non Profit Housing Corporation

Cross Reference 5.1-1

It is the objective of Council:

Necessity of Economic Development

1 .0

To actively pursue those specific types of development which will provide citizens with improved income and employment opportunities, expand the business and industrial tax base, and ensure long term stability and prosperity in the economic base.

7.G.1

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Priority Industries to Encourage

1.C.1

The City will specifically attempt to attract the following types of industries: • corporate head offices • high technology industry • financial industry • hospitality industry • retail industry • manufacturing industry • distribution industry.

Business Development Program

Joint Economic Development Committee

1.C.2

The City will pursue the co-ordination of the economic development objectives and programs of each government.

Business Development Program

1.6 PART 11


i

4

a 1

CV

n 0 0


2. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — KEY COMPONENTS

• • • •

• •

INTRODUCTION Component 1 dealt with the City's underlying philosophy and attitude towards growth; Component 2 summarizes the key points of the strategy, setting out how the City intends to accommodate projected population, household and employment growth. The strategy presented in this Bylaw for managing the future growth of Edmonton has been developed recognizing the linkages among components of the urban system. Although the components of the General Municipal Plan are presented as separate functional areas, they are, in fact, integral to other features of the strategy. Consequently, the policies recommended in the Plan are mutually supportive and linked. Failure to successfully pursue particular elements of the strategy may jeopardize the entire strategy. Therefore, constant monitoring of the strategy is required once implementation has been initiated. In developing a strategy for managing growth, it is necessary to identify the goals which are to be emphasized in the process of accommodating growth.

Objective 2.A identifies the goal priorities for the development strategy, centering on preserving the quality of residential environments, greater efficiency in providing services, and reducing the rate at which scarce resources are utilized (land, energy and finances). These goal priorities have led, in turn, to the selection of the strategy outlined. Please note that the six districts referred to in Chart 2.2 are those districts originally proposed for the District Planning System and are not those six districts finally adopted by City Council. In an upcoming amendment to the Bylaw this chart will be revised so that the information is based on the system of districts finally chosen by City Council. Since the data in this chart is to be used for guideline purposes only, and since some of the new districts differ only slightly from those originally proposed, the chart may be used in its present form to illustrate the City's strategy for accommodating growth on a district-by-district basis.

• 2.1 PART 11


2. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — KEY COMPONENTS

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

III 411

Principal Objectives

2.A

To accommodate and manage the future growth of the City in such a way as to: (a) facilitate the growth of the City's economy, the expansion of its pool of employment opportunities, and the strengthening and diversification of its real property tax assessment base; (b) facilitate the provision of an adequate quantity and variety of housing for all types of households at reasonable prices; (c) promote the development of efficient travel patterns which will reduce transportation costs and traffic congestion;

• • •

Policy Report #2, 5.B.1, 5.B.2, 5.B.3, 5.C.4, 7.A.1, 8.A, 8.A.1, 8.D.1, 13.A.3, 13.A.5, 13.A.7, 15.D.1, 17.D.2

(d) ensure the orderly, phased, and economical conversion of rural land to urban uses in a manner which minimizes the cost of extending and operating public services and utilities, promotes competition in the land market, and prevents premature or excessive consumption of arable land; (e) promote the development of a high-quality physical environment through urban design and the preservation of significant features of the natural and man-made landscape; (0 encourage efficient utilization of existing utilities and public services and reduce increases in the spending requirements for extension of these services to new areas;

2.2

PART II


2. THE GROWTH STRATEGY — KEY COMPONENTS

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(g) create conditions which will encourage the rejuvenation of established neighbourhoods through rehabilitation of existing housing stock and small-scale redevelopment, while preserving the essential character of these neighbourhoods as desirable family areas; (h) create integrated, pre-planned residential neighbourhoods in new suburban areas, with a complete range of schools, parks, and other public facilities and services, and with a functional, sensitive and appropriate distribution of different housing types in relation to one another; (i) ensure protection and enhancement of the natural environment through pollution control, environmental impact analysis and the prevention of urban sprawl; and, ())

• • •

facilitate the conservation and efficient use of energy in the future pattern of urban development.

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Growth Strategy

2.A.1

The City will adopt a strategy for accommodating growth in a more concentrated fashion, with the key components as outlined in Chart 2.1, and with the guidelines as outlined in Chart 2.2 and schematically illustrated in Map 2.1.

• • • •

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

2.3 PART II


RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT SUBURBAN RESIDENTIAL (No opportunity to increase density of single family development) SUBURBAN RESIDENTIAL (Opportunity to increase single family density as initiated by developers) INNER CITY RESIDENTIAL (To accommodate development as identified in District Plans)

//I /41,1 7.11

r

111

• •• •

/VA

: . 1

MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTRES (Existing/Proposed commercial centres with residential, social, cultural and/or recreational activities) DOWNTOWN TOWN CENTRES LRT STATION AREAS REGIONAL SHOPPING CENTRES

,

RIVER VALLEY

.......

, V

7/.4 1.

'7

mi

%////, SUBURBAN INDUSTRIAL AREAS

reTIMI ■I

RESTRICTED DEVELOPMENT AREA

106-

_

1

si■

EXISTING LRT LINE

MI111111111

PROPOSED LRT LINES

0

.. .. • „or . .

111a , 111111111110 AI 44.1

LRT STATIONS TRUCK ROUTE LOOP AND PROPOSED ARTERIAL EXTENSIONS IN NEW AREAS CITY BOUNDARY

Cleaned pall., of urban rem map teprusents a Moan ane conceplual MustratIon ol OevelopMent is not rnIoncted to punade mla mem, Moo 1,00 ,0 Mod II, mocaMon

di)

rdNi...37--

% ... • .... "'

..................

........

,14Dmi ti tutu t t ID

4 .............

F • . ..

.. .

.....

11111•

................

. •

.

. . . • .. .. . •

. . .

MAP 2.1 THE GROWTH STRATEGY

Iii*Minntai soy

0 KM 1

V

U'

TRi

2

3

4

5

6


Chart 2.1 The General Municipal Plan Growth Strategy

Element of Strategy

Council Commitments Required

Component of Plan

A. ACCOMMODATION OF GROWTH

1. Accommodating whatever growth is attracted to the City.

1. Support for suburban servicing programs; inner city rezonings which increase land supply; and housing programs deriving from the Housing Strategy.

1

2. Annexation application.

1. 14

3. Annexation application.

I. 14

4. Continued support to economic and business development programs such as that of the Business Development Department.

1, 7

5. Increasing compactness of residential development.

5. Initiation of a District Planning Program to increase residential densities in the inner city to allow infill family housing, and, in new suburban growth areas, allowing higher density of single family housing development.

5

6. Priority upon existing developed areas for: a) accommodating growth, in order to better utilize existing services and infrastructure; and b) improving services where necessary.

6. Commitment to give greater priority to improving the level of services in existing developed areas, through the capital and operating budgets.

5, 9, 10

7. A viable, strong Downtown to be retained and developed.

7. Support of an Area Redevelopment Plan for Downtown which: sets out measures to improve the environment of Downtown, through traffic management, parks, street furniture and commitment to an urban design philosophy implemented through the Land Use Bylaw; and sets out specific zoning designations for land use districts to achieve housing in the Downtown.

6

8. Office decentralization to Town Centres. L.R.T. stations and other selected locations along major transportation routes.

8. Initiation of a District Planning Program to achieve office decentralization through upzoning in key locations along major transportation routes combined with discouraging office decentralization in scattered locations.

6

9. Staging considerations at a broad level in new growth

9. Commitment to support staging at the Area Structure Plan level.

5

2. Annexation of land to ensure an adequate supply of residential and industrial land over the long term.

3. Reorganization of local government at the metropolitan scale to improve financial, political and administrative responsiveness and efficiency.

4. Promotion of growth in industries contributing to stability and diversity of the economic base. B. PATTERN OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

areas, to bring about servicing efficiencies for the municipality and school boards.

10. Promotion of energy efficient design and opportunities for energy conservation in land use and transportation planning, municipal servicing and building design.

10. Commitment to increases in residential densities, emphasis on public transit, and land efficient servicing and dedication standards.

5. 8, 9. 13

2.5 PART II


Chart 2.1 (cont'd.)

The General Municipal Plan Growth Strategy

Element of Strategy

Council Commitments Required

Component of Plan

C. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

11. A strong emphasis on the public transit component of the Transportation System.

11. Commitment to directing growth around transit

8

corridors/nodes in advance of service. Commitment to continued development of the transit system. 12. Commitment to control the amount and management of parking in the central area through a body such as a Parking Authority.

8

13. Commitment to giving greater priority to urban design, historical preservation, parks development, and social development implies: a) approval of specific design policies prepared by statutory plans and incorporated into the Land Use Bylaw; b) commitment to a system for cataloguing, evaluating and designating historical resources, and following through with regulations and/or funding as required; c) priority to neighbourhood arksand inner city parks, over regional and district level parks; and d) authority to the Social Services Department to prepare a social development strategy.

10, 13,

14. Commitment required through the Area Structure Plan terms of reference and the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan to increasing the importance of environmental protection in the planning process.

11, 12

15. District Planning System to link General Municipal Plan with Land Use Bylaw.

15. Commitment to establish a system of District Planning, utilizing the district boundaries proposed within the General Municipal Plan.

3

16. Formal citizen participation structure to advise on the

16. Commitment to create a structure to facilitate citizen participation in the preparation of District Plans and the monitoring of development applications.

4

17. Commitment to establish an ongoing Development Industry Liaison Committee.

4

12. A Downtown parking policy to encourage and support a viable downtown. D. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

13. Priority upon improving the quality of the environment, especially necessary given the increased compactness of development, through an emphasis on urban design, historical preservation, parks development and a social development strategy.

14. Natural environment sensitivity to be given increased emphasis in planning for new growth areas.

15, 16

E. DETAILED PLANNING PROCESS

preparation of District Plans and to monitor development trends.

17. A Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the City in implementing the General Municipal Plan growth strategy.

18. Increased flexibility for the development industry and opportunities for competition in the land development process (through flexibile land use control, and consideration given to non-contiguous development).

18. Commitment to improve the environment for the development industry, reflected in the Land Use Bylaw, the Area Structure Plan process, and the Area Redevelopment Plan process.

5, 6, 7, 9

2.6 PART 11


Chart 2.2 Comparisons of Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Trend and Preferred Growth Options Residential

Total 1. Downtown

•

1991 Growth Guidelines (Net Increase) Residential Growth (Units)

1976 Base Information Residential Development (Units)

Districts

3.321)

Estimated Ground Total Single Oriented Family Multiple Apt. Population 1711

30

3,120

5,130

2. West Edmonton Inner City

22,050

15,560

1,030

5,460

71,700

Suburbs

2,610

1,360

840

410

8,730

3. Southwest Inner City

29,230

14,130

3,440 11,660

78,420

Suburbs

3,090

4. Southeast Inner City

1,880

18,340 13,310

660

10,760

1,950 3.080

57,070

550

Total

Location & Design Requirements

Ground Estimated Single Oriented Total Family Multiple Apt. Population

4,900

4,900

(2,600)

(2,600)

11,300 (7,640)

890 (430)

58,820 (50,100)

Limited District Centres. Limited Neighbourhood Centres. Moderate Infill.

3,200 2,260 (6,000) (2,680)

46,880 (54,750)

Majority of area under approved Area Structure and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. One neighbourhood not yet approved.

3,000

4,280 (6,090)

66,290 (58,040)

Limited District Centres. Moderate Neighbourhood Centres. Substantial Infill.

3,760 2,850 (5,170) (3.050)

46,740 (48,900)

With exception of Neighbourhoods 4 - 9 in Riverbend, all areas under approved Area Structure and Neighbourhood Structure Plans.

3,100 (590)

-

13,160 7,700 (16,160) (7,480)

7,280 (6,090)

-

-

12,740 6,130 (13,690) (5,470)

1,560 (60)

2,210 (100)

-

1,560 (60)

44,120 - (39,360)

Mixed Use

developments with varying degrees of high density housing in different sectors of the Downtown.

Limited Neighbourhood Centres. Limited Infill.

Trend figures shown in brackets underneath.

2.7

PART II


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Comparisons of Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Trend and Preferred Growth Options Residential

Total Suburbs

1991 Growth Guidelines (Net Increase) Residential Growth (Units)

1976 Base Information Residential Development (Units)

Districts

3,880

Estimated Ground Total Single Oriented Family Multiple Apt. Population

3,040

740

100

13,510

Total

Location & Design Requirements

Ground Estimated Single Oriented Total Family Multiple Apt. Population

17,770 11,990 (19,470) (9,960)

4,210 1.570 (7,680) (1,830)

68,140 (71,750)

Majority of area under Approved Area Structure and

Neighbourhood Structure Plans. One neighbourhood not yet approved.

5. North Central

49,010 18,440

4,410 26,160

118,830

15,160 (13,220)

-

4,440 10,740 100,930 (70) (13,150) (102,810)

Inner City

Emphasis on LRT stations, Inner City. Moderate District Centres.

Moderate Neighbourhood Centres. Substantial Infill. Suburbs

2,340

1,890

410

40

8,510

4,570 3,270 (5,370) (3,340)

1,080 (1,770)

220 (260)

23,070 (25,360)

All of Castle Downs I under Approved Area Structure and

Neighbourhood Structure Plans. 6. Northeast

20,520 15,220

3,820 3,480

76,440

Inner City

Suburbs

3,250

2,370

760

120

12,400

3,330 (1,400)

(430)

13,840 10,310 (15,510) (7,600)

2,490

840 (840)

65,630 (45,380)

Emphasis on LRT areas. Limited Neighbourhood Centres. Moderate Infill.

2,490 1,040 (6,370) (1,540)

58,020 (60,760)

With exception of Castle Downs II, majority of area under Approved Area

(170)

Structure Plans and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Total

159,640 87,370

17,980 54,290

461,500

99,080 39,400 28,440 31,240 587,970 (94,200) (34,280) (37,450) (32,470) (565,120)

Trend figures shown in brackets underneath.

2.8

PART 11

• • • • •


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas : Strategic Indicators for Office Development Quantitative Indicators

District

1. Downtown

2. West Edmonton Inner City

Suburbs

Qualitative Indicators

Primary

Secondary

• Prime location for general financial. administrative and professional offices serving the whole region.

• Share of annual city-wide increase drops gradually from two-thirds to one-half or one-third towards the end of the Plan period. (1991).

• Average annual increase on the order of 60 000-70 000 in 1 in the short-term, decreasing over the Plan period to approximately 20 000-30 000 m`

• Emphasis on attracting major financial institutions and corporate head offices as part of the City's business development program.

• Remains the largest concentration of office space in the metropolitan Edmonton region.

• Note: These values are based on projected metropolitan growth at an average annual rate of 103 000 m 2 in the late 1970's, declining to 52 000 m in the late 1980's. Larger increases would be expected in the Downtown if metropolitan growth exceeds these levels.

• Development of office space along Stony Plain Road commercial strip, in the form of one to three storeys of office space above ground floor retail uses. (Provision for mixing with apartment residential development where appropriate.)

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

• Possible addition of office space to existing regional shopping centres at Meadowlark and/or Centennial Village, probably in the form of one or two buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys).

• Two or three buildings of about 10 000 m= for a total of 20 000-30 000 m'

• Not applicable.

• Development of low-density offices providing business support services for local industries at appropriate locations in Northwest Industrial Outline Plan.

• Not more than one-quarter of the total space developed outside the Downtown during early 1980's; one-sixth in late 1980's.

• Not more than one-sixth of total City growth in early 1980's; one-tenth in late 1980's.

• Development of office space at Westgate shopping centre to serve surrounding residential areas and the maximum feasible amount of general office uses.

• At least 15 000 - 20 000 rn:

• Not applicable.

• Small scale offices in local shopping centres (e.g. — realtors).

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

2.9

PART II


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Office Development

'INIMINWive Indicators

a 3. Southwest Inner City

Suburbs

4. Southeast Inner City

Redevelopment of Strathcona rail yards for office and light industrial uses on a staged basis during 1980's.

Primary

Secondary

• On the order of 50 000-60 000 m=

• Approximately one-tenth of the total City growth during 1980's and one-seventh of the space developed outside the Downtown.

• Development of office space along Whyte Avenue commercial strip in the form of one to three storeys of office space above ground floor retail uses. (Provision for mixing with apartment residential development where appropriate.)

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

• Possible addition of office space to existing regional shopping centre at Southgate. probably in the form of one or two buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys).

• One or two buildings of about 10 000 m 2 , for a total of 10 000-20 000 m 2

• Not applicable.

• Long-range potential for development of office uses in conjunction with retail development and/or housing, on the University Farm.

• Potential for development to accommodate one-fifth or one-quarter of the City's growth during 1990's.

• 10 000-15 000 m' per year during 1990's, contingent upon Area Redevelopment Plan(s).

• Development of office space at Kaskitayo and Riverbend Town Centres to serve surrounding residential areas and the maximum feasible amount of general office uses.

• Initial development on the scale of 3000-4000 m2 per Centre with provision for later expansion to 15 000-20 000 in 2 or more.

• Not applicable.

• Possible development of office space on Capilano shopping centre site and nearby commercial/industrial parcels to accommodate general office uses and services for nearby residential communities.

• Up to four or five buildings of approximately 10 000 m 2 each, for a total of 40 000-50 000 m 2 .

• Not applicable.

• Possible addition of office space to existing regional shopping centre at Bonnie Doon, probably in the form of one or two buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys).

• One or two buildings of up to 10 000 rn2 each, for a total of 10 00020 000 m2 .

• Not applicable.

2.10 PART II


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Office Development Quantitative Indicators

District

Suburbs

• • • • •

5. North Central Inner City

Qualitative Indicators

Primary

Secondary

• Possibility of intensive office development in immediate vicinity of L.R.T. stations in the industrial/ commercial portions of the South L.R.T. corridor, accommodating general office uses serving the South Side or the City as a whole.

• Potentially the most significant locations outside the Downtown for general office uses, accommodating at least one-tenth of space developed outside the Downtown during the 1980's.

• Up to 50 000-60 000 in 4 desirable at each station, contingent upon market support and subject to locational and design guidelines.

• Development of office space at Mill Woods Town Centre to serve residential population of Mill Woods, and the maximum feasible amount of general office uses.

• At least 25,000-30,000 rre.

• Not applicable.

• Development of low-density offices providing business support services for local industries at appropriate locations in the South and Southeast Industrial Outline Plan Areas.

• Not more than one-tenth of the space developed outside the Downtown, preferably less.

• Not applicable.

• Development of office space in mixed use developments near the Stadium and Coliseum L.R.T. Stations, in the form of buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys), with height decreasing at greater distances from stations. (Provisions for mixing with apartment residential development where appropriate).

• One to three buildings of approximately 10 000 ne per station area, for a total of 20 000-60 000 m 2.

• Not applicable.

• Development of office space along existing commercial strips on jasper Avenue, 124 Street and 118 Avenue, in the form of one to three storeys of office space above ground-floor retail uses, except where provision for more intensive development is made in an Area Redevelopment Plan. (Provision for mixing with apartment residential development where appropriate).

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

2.11 PART II


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Office Development Quantitative Indicators

District

Suburbs

6. Northeast Inner City

Qualitative Indicators

Primary

Secondary

• Possible addition of office space to existing regional shopping centre at Westmount, probably in the form of one or two buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys).

• One or two buildings of approximately 10 000 rn 2 for a total of 10 000-20 000 in2 .

• Not applicable.

• Development of some low-density office space providing business support services for surrounding light industrial uses, at appropriate locations in Yellowhead Highway Corridor (125 Avenue).

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

• Possible office development in immediate vicinity of stations on the North L.R.T. line, probably in the form of buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys).

• Four or five buildings of approximately 10 000 m 2 for a total of 40 000-50 000 rn 2 .

• Not applicable.

• Long range potential for development of office uses in conjunction with retail development and/or housing on the site of the Griesbach Armed Forces Base.

• Potential for development to accommodate one-fifth or one-quarter of the City's growth during 1990's.

• 10 000-15 000 m 2 per year during 1990's, contingent upon Area Redevelopment Plan(s).

• Development of office space at Castle Downs (Stage I) Town Centre to serve surrounding residential areas and the maximum feasible amount of general office uses.

• Initial development on the scale of 3 000-4 000 m 2 , with provision for later expansion to 15 000-20 000 in 2 or more.

• Not applicable.

• Development of office space in mixed-use developments near the Belvedere L.R.T. Station, in the form of buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys), with height decreasing at greater distances from the station.

• One to three buildings of approximately 10 000 m2 , for a total of 10 000-30 000 m=.

• Not applicable.

2.12 PART II

• • • • •


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.)

Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Office Development Quantitative Indicators

Qualitative Indicators

District

• • • • •

Suburbs

Primary

Secondary

• Possible addition of office space to existing regional shopping centres at North Town, Northgate and Londonderry, probably in the form of one or two buildings of medium height (up to approximately ten storeys).

• Three to five buildings of about 10 000 in2 , for a total of 30 000-50 000 mz.

• Not applicable.

• Development of office space along existing commercial strips on 97 Street and 118 Avenue, in the form of one to three storeys of office space above ground-floor retail uses. (Provision for mixing with apartment residential development where appropriate).

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

• Development of office space at Clareview and Castle Downs (Stage II) Town Centres to serve surrounding residential areas and the maximum feasible amount of general office uses.

• At least 25 000 30 000 m2 per Centre, for a total of -

• Not applicable.

50 000-60 000 m 2 .

Interpretative Notes

1. The descriptions and estimates in this table should be interpreted as indicators of the form of office development which may be expected to occur in each Planning District if the growth strategy is successfully implemented. As such, they are benchmarks which can be used to help in assessing whether development is proceeding as intended in the growth strategy and whether a reassessment of the strategy is necessary in order to account for factors which were unanticipated during the General Municipal Plan preparation process. The numbers presented in this table are not projections or targets, but are intended strictly as aids in interpreting the qualitative descriptions in the left-hand column.

3. Proportions of City growth and uncentralized growth are presented as fractions in order to emphasize the general nature of these indicators. 4. Metric conversion: Estimates of floor area in this table are presented in increments of 10 000 rre, which is equal to 107 639 sq. ft. However, if the table were presented in imperial units, the increment of floor area would be 100,000 sq. ft. Therefore, imperial equivalents in sq. ft. can be obtained by adding a zero to the m2 figure shown in the table. For example, the equivalent for 15 000-20 000 m2 is 150 000-200 000 sq. ft.

2. All measurements of floorspace are in square metres (m) of leasable floor area. Increments are presented generally in blocks of 5 000 in2 , equivalent to approximately 50,000 sq. ft. Lesser amounts are not dealt with.

2.13 PART 11


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Retail and Service Development District 1. Downtown

Qualitative Indicators

• Continued increase in quantity and variety of comparison shopping goods offered by department stores and specialty outlets.

• Particular emphasis on street level

Quantitative Indicators

• Desirable minimum increase of 30% in relationship to regional shopping centre retail space. • Not applicable.

retail uses and evening entertainment facilities.

• Increase in neighbourhood

• Not applicable.

commercial services (e.g. groceries, pharmacies) to serve the increased residential population of the Downtown. 2. West Edmonton Inner City

• Some replacement and minor expansion of retail space at Stony Plain Strip and district and neighbourhood shopping centres.

• Not applicable.

Suburbs

• Development of Westgate regional shopping centre.

• 60 000-70 000 m2.

• Development of retail and service space at lower-order shopping centres and commercial sites in accordance with Area Structure Plans.

• Not applicable.

• Development of tourist-related commercial uses in Highway 16 West corridor.

• Not applicable.

• Development of new retail facilities in conjunction with redevelopment of Strathcona rail yards, integrated functionally with upgrading and infill of Whyte Avenue commercial strip for more intensive pedestrian-oriented retail uses as warranted by market conditions.

• Not applicable.

3. Southwest Inner City

2.14 PART II

• • • • • • •


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Retail and Service Development

111

District

Qualitative Indicators

Quantitative Indicators

.vintawas Suburbs

• Development of regional shopping centres at Kaskitayo and Riverbend Town Centres, with phasing according to Area Structure Plans.

• 60 000-70 000 in= at each Centre, for a total of 120 000-140 000 m2.

• Development of retail and service space at lower order shopping centres and commercial sites in accordance with Area Structure Plans.

• Not applicable.

• Development of tourist-related commercial uses in Calgary Trail corridor.

• Not applicable.

• Some replacement and minor expansion of retail space at existing shopping centres.

• Not applicable.

Inner City

Suburbs

• Development of regional shopping

• 60 000-70 000 m=.

4. Southeast

centre at Mill Woods Town Centre.

5. North Central

Inner City

• Development of retail and service space at lower-order shopping centres and sites in accordance with Area Structure Plans.

• Not applicable.

• Development of a limited range of shopping facilities in conjunction with employment nodes in station areas in the commercial/industrial portion of the South L.R.T. corridor.

• Not applicable.

• Development of retail facilities in mixed-use developments in Stadium and Coliseum station areas.

• Not applicable.

• Some replacement and minor expansion of retail space at existing commercial strips and shopping centres.

• Not applicable.

2.15

PART II


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Retail and Service Development Qualitative Indicators

District Suburbs

6. Northeast Inner City

Suburbs

Quantitative Indicators

• Development of district shopping centre at Castle Downs (Stage I) Town Centre.

• 10 000-15 000 nr=.

• Development of retail space at other shopping centres and commercial sites in accordance with Area Structure Plan(s).

• Not applicable.

• Development of retail facilities at Belvedere L.R.T. station, in the form of ground-floor uses in new office buildings and revitalization of Fort Road commercial strip.

• Not applicable.

• Some replacement and minor expansion of retail space at existing commercial strips and shopping centres.

• Not applicable.

• Development of tourist-related commercial uses in appropriate sections of Highway 15 corridor.

• Not applicable.

• Development of regional shopping centres at Clareview and Castle Downs (Stage II) Town Centres.

• 60 000-70 000 rn 2 at each centre, for a total of 120 000-140 000 m 2 .

• Development of retail and service space at lower-order shopping centres and commercial sites in accordance with Area Structure Plans.

• Not applicable.

Interpretative Notes 1. The descriptions and estimates in this table should be interpreted as indicators of the form of retail and service development which may be expected to occur in each Planning District if the growth strategy is successfully implemented. As such, they can be used to help in assessing whether development is proceeding as intended in the growth strategy and whether a reassessment of the strategy is necessary in order to account for factors which were unanticipated during the General Municipal Plan preparation process. The numbers presented in this table are not projections or targets, but are intended strictly as aids in interpreting the qualitative descriptions in the left-hand column.

2. Units of measurement: estimates of floor area are in square metres (m2 ) of gross leasable floor area. 3. Metric conversion: Estimates of floor area in this table are presented in increments of 10 000 rn 2 , which is equal to 107 639 square feet. However, if the table were presented in imperial units, the increment of floor area would be 100,000 square feet. Therefore, imperial equivalents in square feet can be obtained by adding a zero to the in 2 figure shown in the table. For example, the equivalent for 60 000-70 000 ni 2 is 600,000-700,000 square feet.

2.16 PART 11


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Industrial Development District 1. Downtown

• • • • •

2.

Qualitative Indicators

Quantitative Indicators

• Redevelopment of warehousing district and rail yards for more intensive uses in accordance with Downtown Plan.

• Not applicable.

• Relocation of existing industrial uses to alternative locations in newer industrial areas in the City.

• Not applicable.

West Edmonton Inner City

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

Suburbs

• Continued development of Northwest Industrial Outline Plan Area for light, medium and heavy industrial uses.

• Approximately one third of the development in the City's suburban industrial areas. • Average annual development projected to be at least 30 net hectares (70 net acres) and possibly much higher.

3.

Southwest Inner City

Suburbs

• Redevelopment of Strathcona rail yards and some or all of nearby industrial lands for higher intensity office and light industrial uses with complementary retail and service component.

• Not applicable.

• Relocation of existing heavy industrial uses to alternative locations in newer industrial areas of the City.

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

2.17 PART II


Chart 2.2 (cont'd.) Growth Guidelines for District Plan Areas: Strategic Indicators for Industrial Development District 4. Southeast Inner City Suburbs

Qualitative Indicators

Quantitative Indicators

• Not applicable.

• Not applicable.

• Continued development of South and Southeast Industrial Outline Plan Areas for light, medium and heavy industrial uses.

• Approximately two-thirds of the development in the City's suburban industrial areas. • Average annual development projected to be at least 60 net hectares (140 net acres) and possibly much higher.

5. North Central Inner City

Suburbs

6. Northeast Inner City

Suburbs

• Redevelopment of some obsolete industrial uses in Northeast Light Rail Transit and Yellowhead Highway Corridors to office and light industrial uses or auto-oriented commercial parks as determined through District Plans.

• Not applicable.

• Relocation of existing industrial uses to alternative locations in newer industrial areas in the City.

• Not applicable.

• Completion of industrial development on industrially designated lands along the St. Albert Trail.

• Not applicable.

• Completion of industrial development in the Kennedale Industrial Outline Plan Area and adjacent industrially designated lands.

• Not applicable.

• Identification of lands within the territory annexed to the City's northeastern boundary on January 1, 1980 suitable for industrial designation and preparation of servicing program through sector studies carried out under the District Planning Program.

• Not applicable.

• •

• • • 2.18 PART II


• •

• • • •

3. DISTRICT PLANNING

INTRODUCTION In addition to the actual policies of the growth strategy, a key recommendation of the General Municipal Plan relates to the establishment of a District Planning Program as one of the primary initiatives Council must take to implement the growth strategy. The establishment of a District Planning Program implies: 1. the preparation of District Plans which will outline how the growth projected for a particular district will be accommodated within the district; and, 2. the establishment of a citizen participation structure linked to the District Plan boundaries, and charged with responsibility for participating in the District Plan process. District Planning will provide the link between neighbourhood plans and the General Municipal Plan, and in the majority of instances will remove the need for neighbourhood plans. In many areas of Edmonton, detailed neighbourhood plans have arisen in response to specific programs or citizen group pressure. This utilization of planning services has been inadequate for two reasons: 1. localized plans have tended to mask symptoms and not treat real causes; and, 2. once a neighbourhood plan has been completed, demand often continues for planning services, making the present approach inefficient.

Many of the problems identified in the neighbourhood planning process cannot be dealt with effectively on a neighbourhood basis. The District Planning approach is necessary to plan for local areas in the context of the broad growth strategy, in particular to ensure that growth is distributed equitably among neighbourhoods within the district. The proposed district boundaries are intended to allow the balancing of suburban and inner city concerns within the District Planning process. The preparation of District Plans is expected to be a two to three year process. During this period: • planning services will become decentralized to the district level; • planning staff in decentralized locations will provide residents with a key communication link to the City Administration; • District Planning Advisory Committees will be established; • areas and sub-centers for receiving projected future growth will be identified using principles set out in the General Municipal Plan (under Objectives 5.B and 5.C); and, • the guidelines set out in this Plan (under Objectives 5.B and 5.C) will be utilized for evaluating development proposals in the interim, until District Plans are approved.

• 3.1 PART 11


3. DISTRICT PLANNING

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

District Planning to Link General Municipal Plan and Land Use Bylaw

3.A.

To undertake District Planning as a means of providing detailed planning services over broad areas of the city.

Policy Report #3

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

System of District Planning

3.A.1

The City will establish a system of District District Planning Planning for the purpose of undertaking detailed Program plans necessary to provide the link between growth projected by the General Municipal Plan and the regulation of development on specific sites through the Land Use Bylaw.

Policy Report #3, 3.A.5

Adoption of District Plans

3.A.2

The City will adopt District Plans as District Planning amendments to the General Municipal Plan, and Program where appropriate, will also provide for simultaneous approval of portions of District Plans as Area Structure Plan(s) and Area Redevelopment Plan(s) for the purpose of implementing the provisions of the Planning Act, 1977.

17.B.3

Boundaries

3.A.3

The City will establish six districts for District District Planning Planning purposes, in accordance with the ward Program system boundaries, as outlined in Map 3.1, and will establish sub-district boundaries as outlined in Map 3.2.

Policy Report #3

Planning Offices

3.A.4

The City will establish one site office in each district.

3.2

PART II


3. DISTRICT PLANNING

Subject

District Planning Responsibilities

Reference No. 3.A.5

Objectives and Policies

The City will prepare District Plans to implement the growth and development policies of the General Municipal Plan. More specifically, District Plans will be responsible for the following activities: (a) the identification of the location, timing and form of residential development required by the General Municipal Plan, with a view to the policies of the General Municipal Plan regarding such areas as transportation objectives, urban environmental design objectives, and park space allocation objectives; (b) the identification of where commercial expansion, if any, will be accommodated and any special development guidelines for such development;

Program District Planning Program, General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Cross Reference

Policy Report #3, 3.A.1, 5.B.2, 5.B.3, 5.B.5, 5.B.7, 5.B.11, 5.G.1, 5.H.6, 6.H.6, 12.A.4, 13.A.3, 13.A.5, 13.A.6, 15.A.1, 15.B.6, 15.C.5

(c) the identification of additional park space needs, if any, and the establishment of criteria for the acquisition of park space in the districts; (d) the identification of additional physical infrastructure improvements or social services required to support development, if any;

• •

• •

(e) the identification of transportation plans and how any additional roadways or transit rights-of-way, if any, will be accommodated within the districts;

3.3 PART H


raTe IN1.11

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3

$ 2

7


• • • • • • •

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3. DISTRICT PLANNING

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(f) the identification of future housing needs, if any, and housing distribution (particularly social housing); (g) the identification of specific urban environmental design issues and opportunities, and development guidelines to retain the desired characteristics of the districts;

0

(h) the identification of growth staging within the districts;

0

(i) the identification of the social and environmental impacts of the Plan, if any, and the process by which any negative impacts will be minimized; and, (i) any additional factors of concern to local residents or City Council.

0

Timing of District Plan Preparation

3.A.6

The City will undertake the preparation of District Plans for all planning districts simultaneously, commencing in 1980.

District Planning Program

• • 3.6

PART II


.

.

.


4. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

INTRODUCTION As a process of implementing the General Municipal Plan strategy, District Planning cannot be accomplished by City Council and the Civic Administration alone. It can be accomplished only with the consent and participation of the people of Edmonton. To achieve the involvement of the public in carrying out the General Municipal Plan, the Plan provides for a formal system of citizen participation on the District basis. The recommendation for a formal structure for citizen participation is a key recommendation of the Plan (Objective 4.A). It is in response to the concerns expressed during the Mayor's Neighbourhood Planning Conference, the Citizens' Concerns Survey, and General Municipal Plan Workshops regarding the need for an ongoing, rather than an ad hoc, participation process. Involvement in the preparation of District Plans

provides an opportune set of terms of reference for initiating such a structure, which could gradually evolve into responsibilities for advising on development and rezoning applications on an ongoing basis. The concept of citizen participation includes the business sector. Since the majority of development in the city is undertaken by the private business sector, support from this sector is considered to be critical to the implementation of the Plan. Thus, the strategy envisages the establishment of a liaison committee comprised of organizations representing the development industry. The purpose of this committee would be to identify means by which the City can assist the industry in achieving the targets set out in the growth strategy.

4.1 PART II


4. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

• • • •

• •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Ongoing Community Participation in the Planning Process

4.A

To encourage the continuous involvement of citizens and business interests in land use planning.

Policy Report #4

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Structure for Citizen Participation

Guidelines for Committees

4.A.1

4.A.2

The City will create a structure to facilitate citizen participation in District Planning, the monitoring of plans and the review of development applications through the establishment of formal District Planning Committees composed of representatives elected from community leagues, area councils, and citizens at large, to be responsible for providing input to the Planning Department on land use planning issues.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

The City will require that District Planning Committees be structured according to the following guidelines:

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

(a) District Planning Committees will be legally constituted under the Societies Act of Alberta during the period of their operation;

Policy Report #4, 3.A.1, 13.A.2

(b) District Planning Committees will be composed of representatives from various sectors and interest groups, such as community leagues and area councils; and,

4.2 PART II


4. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

Subject

Reference I No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(c) District Planning Committees will strive to inform, solicit and evaluate input from as broad a range of population and interest groups within the district as possible.

Funding

4.A.3

The City will establish funding for citizen participation to assist District Planning Committees in meeting anticipated operational expenses during the District Planning process. Initial funding will be set at the outset of the District Plan process and revised on a yearly basis after a review of cost increments. The funds will be provided on an accountable basis to the Committees.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

Development Industry Committee

4.A.4

The City will establish an ongoing Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the Civic Administration on matters relating to land development.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

• • • • • • •

Policy Report #4, 5.A.7, 5.A.8, 5.E.3, 6.A.3, 6.A.7, 7.E.1, 17.A.3

4.3

PART II


III - GROWTH COMPONENTS

Component 5.

Residential

Component 6.

Commercial

Component 7.

Industrial

Component 8.

Transportation

Component 9.

Utilities

Component 10.

Parks and Recreation

Component 11.

River Valley

Component 12.

Natural Environment

Component 13.

Human Development and Social Services

Component 14.

The Region and Annexation

Component 15.

Urban Design

Component 16.

Historic Preservation


J


5. RESIDENTIAL

• • • •

INTRODUCTION The residential strategy for the City implies significant shifts in residential land use policies. The philosophy of increasing compactness has been reviewed in the Preamble to the General Municipal Plan; it will influence: • Downtown planning policy, requiring specific actions to achieve housing in the Downtown (Objective 5.A); • Inner city planning policy - recognizing that redevelopment can be beneficial, in particular if it is family oriented and integrated with the neighbourhood (Objective 5.B); and, • Suburban planning policy - amending guidelines for new growth areas with respect to the density of single family development (Objective 5.C). At the same time that the residential strategy proposes these policy shifts, it must be recognized that change will not occur immediately. The opportunities can be grasped most quickly in the Downtown; but, in the inner city, upzoning and redevelopment must proceed

on the basis of design guidelines to be reflected in the Land Use Bylaw and in accordance with District Plans, the preparation of which will likely take three years. In the meantime, inner city redevelopment will continue to be guided by provisions similar to those of the existing Zoning Bylaw and recent plan exercises which have resulted in Council adoption of policy (Objective 5.G). In the suburbs, commitments have been made in the neighbourhood outline plan approval process to such an extent that very few areas remain within the City limits where amended planning policies could be applied. The suburban policy shifts, therefore, would apply primarily to areas annexed to the City. The residential strategy also contains a number of process-oriented poliies, designed to improve the development control process from the perspective of citizens, the development industry, and the municipal administration (Objectives 5E to 5H). On the whole, these policies do not represent major shifts in direction, but rather, embody changes which have been developing over the last few years.

• • 5.1 PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Downtown Housing

• • • • •

5.A

To promote the development of substantial quantities of housing in the Downtown, as an essential element in achieving a diverse Downtown, a broader range of housing choices in general, and an efficient and equitable distribution of medium and high density housing across the City.

Policy Report #5, 6D, 6.D.8

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Downtown Housing Strategy

5.A.1

The City will incorporate meaningful incentives for the construction of housing in its system of development controls for the Downtown.

Downtown and Area Redevelopment Plan

5.B.5, 6.D.3

Existing Residential Areas

5.A.2

The City will confirm and protect existing residential areas from major intrusions of commercial or other non-residential development.

Downtown Planning Program: Land Use Bylaw

6.D.5

Land Use Bylaw

5.A.3

The City will create new mixed use districts in areas of the Downtown not presently residential in character. Land use and intensity regulations in these districts will be formulated to promote the development of housing by making residential development economically more attractive.

Land Use Bylaw

6.D.5

Environmental Quality

5.A.4

The City will undertake environmental improvements where necessary, including streets, sidewalks and community services, to make the Downtown more attractive for residential development.

Parks and Recreation; Transportation Plan Part III Downtown Plan

6.D.1, 10.A.5, 15.0

5.2

PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Broad Range of Housing Needs

5.A.5

The City recognizes that, while housing in the Downtown will serve primarily small households and moderate-to-high income groups, appropriate measures must be taken by civic, provincial and other agencies to ensure that accommodation is available for a broad range of income levels and households.

Real Estate and Housing-Housing Strategy

Use of City-Owned Land

5.A.6

The City will explore the possibility and utility of using the conditional sale of City-owned land as a technique to encourage the construction of housing in the Downtown.

Real Estate and Housing

Downtown Railway Yards

5.A.7

The City will continue to discuss and work with the C.P.R. and C.N.R. to establish and implement plans for redevelopment of all or portions of their downtown yards to uses which will include the provision of housing.

Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan; Non-Profit Housing Corporation Housing Strategy

Development Industry Committee

5.A.8

The City will work with the development industry to identify other means of making the construction of housing in the Downtown an attractive option for developers.

Development Industry Liaison Committee

Cross Reference 5.H

• •

4.A.4

It is the objective of Council:

Inner City

5.B

To increase the amount of future housing accommodated in the inner city, with a strong emphasis on family housing and requiring redevelopment to occur on a dispersed basis rather than concentrated in only a few areas.

Policy Report #5

• 5.3

PART III


CMS INNER CITY

• • •

= SUBURBS

• •

• •

MAP 5.1 RESIDENTIAL POLICY AREAS OM

1

2


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject MEM&

Reference No.

jimmiamOmmimiraminthimili bjectives and Policies

A

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Selective Higher Density Development

5.B.1

The City will permit relatively higher density residential development to take place throughout the inner city, with an emphasis on family suitable housing, rather than concentrating such development in a few neighbourhoods. However, the nature and extent of the distribution of development to higher densities in the inner city will be guided by policies 5.B.2 to 5.B.11.

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans; Land Use Bylaw

Encouraging Integration of Housing Types

5.B.2

The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, encourage variety in the types and density of residential land uses accommodated in inner city areas, subject to the achievement of compatible relationships, or an integration between housing types in inner city areas. In establishing compatible relationships attention should be given to the following factors:

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans

• • • •

\

2.A, 3.A.5

(a) consistent streetscapes should be maintained by: i) using street frontages within blocks as the basis for obtaining compatible types of residential land use in terms of density, building form, and the provision of family or non-family units; ii) ensuring the retention of mature vegetation, consistent front yards, height and building bulk relationships; and, iii) the retention of frequent openings between the building mass along the street frontage. 5.5 PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) dwelling units with family suitable characteristics, as defined in 5.B.9, should be provided in low density areas and may be encouraged in medium and high density areas if the following conditions are met: i) no significant traffic congestion or pedestrian-vehicular movement conflicts exist: ii) there is an absence of noise or other negative environmental influences: iii) schools in the neighbourhood are functional: and, iv) a proposed development in a high density area does not exceed 6 storeys in height. (c) the juxtaposition of developments with significant differences in density, such as low to high density, should be avoided.

Assessing Alternative Density Patterns

5.B.3

The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, assess alternative density patterns as a means of recommending how development will be accommodated within the area to achieve the objectives of the growth strategy. Such assessments will be undertaken prior to implementing Policies 5.B.5 or 5.B.6. The density and building form guidelines outlined in Charts 5.1 and 5.2 will be used to commence such assessments.

District Planning Program: Area Redevelopment Plans

2.A, 3.A.5, 13.A.8

5.6

PART III

• • • • • • •


5. RESIDENTIAL

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

Site Specific Definition of Density

5.B.4

The City will utilize the guidelines in Chart 5.1 in defining the relative degrees of density for the purpose of directing residential development within the inner city areas.

Land Use Bylaw

Concentrations of Higher Density Development Near Activity Centres

5.B.5

The City will, as part of the District Planning process, assess the feasibility and desirability of establishing "density nodes", or concentrations of higher density residential development, adjacent to or as part of activity centres. Activity centres will be highly accessible by private automobile and public transit and, in particular, will be the location of major public transit transfer points and existing or proposed commercial retail and office development.

District Planning Program

3.A.5 6.A.6 8.A.3

Guidelines for Concentrations of Higher Density Development

5.8.6

The City will, as part of the District Planning process and Area Redevelopment Plan process, utilize the following guidelines when recommending the establishment of density nodes:

District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans

3.A.5, 6.E.1, 6.F.2

(a) an increase in the density of development should be limited to a radius of 365 meters (1,200 feet) or 3 blocks, whichever is greater, from the centre of a Light Rail Transit, District, or downtown/inner city activity centre as outlined in Chart 5.2; (b) development within the area described in (a) should reflect a transition between the centre and edge, as outlined in Chart 5.2, by requiring:

5.7 PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

i) the highest height, dwelling unit density, and building intensity to occur within or adjacent to the centre. These residential developments are likely to be part of mixed use buildings or projects totally or predominantly oriented to non-family households and childless couples; and, ii) the development at the edge to be integrated with the residential development adjacent to the activity centre, if any, in terms of building height and intensity, dwelling unit density, and the provision of dwelling units with family suitable characteristics. (c) an increase in density adjacent to neighbourhood activity centres should be limited to the block(s) and street frontage(s) in which the activity centre is located. (d) development within the area described in (c) should reflect a transition between the neighbourhood activity centre and the surrounding residential development, if any, with guidelines as outlined in Chart 5.2 and by requiring: i) development on sites immediately adjacent to the centre not to exceed the height and intensity of adjacent commercial development; and,

5.8

PART 111

• • • • • • •


Chart 5.1 Inner City: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Development Within Inner City Neighbourhoods

1110

Maximum Density Units Per Net Residential Hectare

Maximum Height in Metres

42 (17)

10 (32.8)

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

I I)

High Density "Family"

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

High Density "High Rise"

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

Predominant Characteristics Low Density

Medium Density

Maximum F.A.R.

3.0

(No.) = Imperial Equivalent. Note: The guidelines presented in this chart are not to be interpreted as benefits which should be received "as of right" under the Land Use Bylaw. Rather, the guidelines are intended mainly to provide direction to other Statutory Plans in establishing the nature of future development within neighbourhoods.

• •

• 5.9 PART III


Chart 5.2 Density Nodes: Density and Building Form Guidelines for Transitional Development Within Density Nodes Maximum Density

Maximum Density

Maximum Density

Nearest Primary Access Points

At Intermediary Points

Furthest From Primary Access Points

UPH'

Height'

FAR'

UPH

Height

FAR

UPH

Height

LRT Station Area

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

3.0

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

65 (26.3)

14 (45.9)

Downtown/ Inner City

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

3.0

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

District Centre

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

1.0

65 (26.3)

15 (45.9)

Neighbourhood Centre

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

1.0

65 (26.3)

14 (45.9)

Location

FAR

Transition Principles

1.0

(No.) = Imperial Equivalent ' Units per net residential hectare 1n metres 'Floor Area Ratio 2

5.10 PART III

• • • • • • •


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

ii) family suitable dwelling units to be provided in developments where adverse noise, traffic or other environmental conditions do not make the provision of such units undesirable.

• • • • •

Low Density Areas

5.B.7

The City will encourage the rejuvenation of predominantly low density inner city neighbourhoods through an emphasis on both rehabilitation and selective redevelopment, subject to Policies 5.B.8 and 5.B.9.

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans

Establishing Density Levels for Low Density Areas

5.B.8

The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, establish residential densities on a block or site basis for low density neighbourhoods to reflect the desire to encourage a variety of housing types, encourage the rehabilitation of existing sound housing stock, and recognize the opportunities and constraints of the area imposed by existing infrastructure or area amenities. However, the maximum density for low density neighbourhoods or low density portions of neighbourhoods shall be as outlined in Chart 5.1, except as varied by a statutory plan for the purpose of organizing "density nodes".

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans

Family Suitable Dwelling Unit Characteristics

5.B.9

The City will, in the interior of low density inner city neighbourhoods, encourage the maintenance and provision of family suitable dwelling units with the following characteristics:

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans; Land Use Bylaw

(a) identity, such as through the provision of street addressing, individual entrances and the opportunity for personal expression; 5.11 PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) territoriality through the provision of clearly defined private outdoor space; (c) car convenience through the provision of direct non-mechanical access from the parking area to the dwelling unit; (d) direct non-mechanical first storey access from grade to the dwelling unit;

• • • • •

(e) orientation of the dwelling unit to allow for through ventilation and exposure to the sun; and, (f) acoustical privacy between dwelling units. Mixed Medium and High Density Areas

5.B.10

The City will encourage the stabilization of mixed density neighbourhoods in the inner city area undergoing redevelopment from low density uses to medium and/or high density residential uses, by:

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans; Land Use Bylaw

(a) allowing existing street frontages in blocks presently undergoing or substantially altered by higher density redevelopment to complete the redevelopment cycle, except where otherwise provided for by an Area Redevelopment Plan. Some provision of dwelling units with qualities suitable for families may be desirable where such blocks can serve as a transition between lower and higher density residential areas, as established by a statutory plan, and where the environmental qualities of the immediate area do not pose adverse impacts; and,

5.12

PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) retaining any low density street frontages in blocks within such areas where higher density redevelopment has not taken place, or where provided for by an Area Redevelopment Plan, and where opportunities exist to maintain family suitable housing because of high environmental amenities. Establishing Density Levels for Mixed Density Areas

5.B.11

The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, establish desired density levels in mixed density areas based on the following objectives:

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans

3.A.5, 17.B.4

(a) the desire to stabilize the area or mitigate negative impacts resulting from higher density redevelopment such as increased traffic congestion; (b) the desire to achieve variety in the provision of types of housing units subject to guidelines for the integration of different housing types; and, (c) the desire to recognize constraints imposed

by existing infrastructure such as schools, water and sewer distribution systems and opportunities in the area such as views of the river valley or proximity to parks and open space.

It is the objective of Council: Suburban Areas

5.0

To increase the permitted density of single family development in the suburbs and to improve the distribution of medium and high density housing, in particular in those areas which are annexed to the City.

Policy Report # 5, 13.A.6 5.13

PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subjecil t

L

erence No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Suburban Densities

5.C.1

The City will ensure that the density ranges, in terms of population per gross hectare and units per net hectare, proposed in an Area Structure Plan for a new suburban growth area, are sufficient to allow financially efficient operation of public services such as schools and public transit.

Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

Heterogeneous Suburban Areas

5.C.2

The City will encourage the establishment of heterogeneous communities reflecting a balanced and integrated social structure by providing a variety of housing types and neighbourhoods, consistent with guidelines outlined in Chart 5.3.

Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

Site Specific Definition of Density

5.C.3

The City will utilize the guidelines in Chart 5.4 in defining the relative degrees of density for the purpose of guiding development in new suburban growth areas.

Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

Site Specific Definition of Density

5.C.4

The City will ensure compatible relationships or integration between different housing densities and forms in suburban growth areas by:

Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

2.A

(a) avoiding the juxtaposition of residential developments with significant differences in density, by using a gradual transition in housing form or open space; (b) creating homogeneous sub-neighbourhood units: (c) limiting the size of parcels and the length of street frontage used for multiple unit residential developments; 5.14 PART 111


Chart 5.3

• • • • • • •

Suburban Planning Units Area

Characteristics

Planning Tool

AREA STRUCTURE PLAN

Minimum size of an Area Structure Plan should generally be 200 hectares (500 acres). The area should have the greatest extent of heterogeneity, as it is made up of the largest number of types of housing and other land uses. The Plan area as a whole will focus on facilities and services such as: commercial uses, secondary and post-secondary education,

district open space, social service offices; recreational, cultural, library, health and other institutional facilities. To reduce travel distance between home and place of work, and, thereby, traffic congestion throughout the city, Area Structure Plans should also focus on or be located in the vicinity of a substantial level of employment generating uses.

Area Structure Plan Bylaws

COMMUNITY

An area made up of approximately 5,000 homes or 13,000 - 15,000 people. This area will show less degree of heterogeneity than the overall district, but will still involve a significant variety of housing types and other land uses. Communities will focus on shopping and

secondary education facilities, community open space, and recreational facilities. Some employment generating uses may be planned for, in conjunction with the major commercial node in the community.

Area Structure Plan Bylaws

NEIGHBOURHOOD

An area representing approximately 1,000 - 2,000 homes and 4,000 - 6,000 people. A neighbourhood has less variety of housing types and block configurations than a community as a whole, however, some degree of heterogeneity is planned

for. Neighbourhoods will be centred around an elementary school, church site, and other community facilities and services. Neighbourhoods will also have a direct relationship to local commercial facilities.

Neighbourhood Plan

SUB NEIGHBOURHOOD

A sub-neighbourhood or precinct is an area comprised of approximately 50-150 homes and 150-450 people. Its housing types are homogeneous in nature. The

sub-neighbourhood will be based on a sub-collector roadway, have its own access, and identifiable boundaries.

Neighbourhood Plan/Subdivision Plan

5.15

PART III


Chart 5.4 Suburban Areas: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Suburban Residential Development

Predominant Characteristics Low Densit)

Maximum Density Units Per Net Residential Hectare 33.3

Maximum Height in Metres

Maximum F.A.R.

10

Single Family

(13.3)

(32.8)

Low Density Multiple Unit

42 (17)

10 (32.8)

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

1.0

High Density "Family"

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

High Density, "High Rise"

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

3.0

Medium Density

(No.) = Note:

Imperial Equivalent. The guidelines presented in this chart are not to be interpreted as benefits which should be received "as of right" under the Land Use Bylaw. Rather, the guidelines are intended mainly to provide direction to other Statutory Plans in establishing the nature of future development within neighbourhoods.

5.16 PART III

• • • • • • •


5. RESIDENTIAL

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(d) limiting the concentration of multiple unit developments adjacent to the central school/park site; (e) limiting the concentration of multiple unit developments adjacent to neighbourhood entrance ways; and, (f) encouraging high density apartment development to locate at the periphery of neighbourhoods.

Increase in Density of Single Family Housing

5.C.5

The City will permit increases in the density of suburban single family housing through increased use of two family housing, zero lot line housing, and planned unit residential developments.

Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

Multiple Unit Housing Distributed Throughout Neighbourhood

5.C.6

The City will plan for the distribution of multiple unit residential developments with densities lower than 33 units per net hectare (13.3 units per net acre) throughout suburban neighbourhoods.

Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

Concentrations of Higher Density Near Activity Centres

5.C.7

The City will, as part of the Area Structure Plan process, encourage the establishment of "density nodes" or concentrations of higher density residential development, adjacent to or as part of activity centres. Activity centres will be highly accessible by private automobile and public transit and, in particular, will be the location of major public transit transfer points and proposed commercial, retail and office development. The guidelines outlined in Policy 5.B.8 should be utilized in determining the nature of development in these areas.

Area Structure Plans

5.B.8, 8.A.3

5.17 PART 111


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference Ilia No.

Cross Objectives and Policies

Program

Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Innovation/ Flexibility

5.D.

To provide the development industry with greater flexibility and opportunity for innovation.

Policy Report #5

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Area Structure Plans/Neighbourhood Structure Plans

5.D.1

The City will give consideration to permitting Area Structure Plans to reflect increased flexibility in dwelling unit mix by undertaking the preparation of 5 year housing demand projection studies, indicating yearly production targets, as a basis for establishing the split for housing types. However, such flexibility should not be allowed to compromise objectives for the creation of heterogenous communities.

Real Estate and Housing; Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

Land Use Bylaw

5.D.2

The City will prepare the Land Use Bylaw to reflect a basic thrust of increased flexibility, in such areas as increasing the ease of building zero lot line developments or compatible mixed use developments and decreasing the emphasis on regulation in favour of performance criteria related to overall planning objectives.

Land Use Bylaw

15.D.3, 17.D.4

It is the objective of Council:

Housing Costs

5.E

To undertake changes in City actions or policies in order to slow down the rate of increase in housing costs.

Policy Report #5

5.18 PART III

• • • • • •


5. RESIDENTIAL

• • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

Municipal Standards

5.E.1

The City will provide for more flexible servicing standards in such areas as roadways, lot sizes and storm water systems in line with the recommendations of the Housing Task Force as approved by Council.

Land Development Coordination

9.D.1

Non-Contiguous Development

5.E.2

The City will consider proposals for non-contiguous development made at the time of application for amendments to Area Structure Plans through the Neighbourhood Structure Plan process, and/or subdivision approval, if the developer can demonstrate that the development will not result in any additional costs to the City or that the developer is prepared to assume the additional costs and that the developer agree to any design provisions which may be requested by City utility departments to ensure reliable service.

Neighbourhood Structure Plans; Land Development Coordination Servicing Program

9.C.2, 7.F.4

Development Industry Committee

5.E.3

The City will encourage the establishment of a Development Industry Liaison Committee to review mechanisms available to reduce housing cost.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

4.A.4

Annexation

5.E.4

The City will attempt to increase the supply of residential land within the city limits through annexation applications to the Local Authorities Board.

Annexation Application

1.B.1, 14.A

It is the objective of Council:

Servicing Efficiency

5.F.

To explore means of increasing the efficiency of servicing through staging at a broad level.

Policy Report #5

5.19 PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Staging Through Sector Plans

5.F.1

The City will implement staging at a broad level District Planning Program through the preparation of sector plans as part of the District Planning process for lands annexed to the City, which would allow the more effective and efficient planning and programming of roadway, transit and other public services to future growth areas. These sector plans would require a financial analysis in advance of approval. Map 14.1 identifies those areas for which sector plans would be prepared upon annexation.

9.C.1

It is the objective of Council:

Relationship of General Municipal Plan to Council Policies on Existing Plan Areas

5.G

Policy Report #5, 3.A.1

To maintain policies from existing neighbourhood plans until the policies of these plans would be reviewed as part of the District Planning Program. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Review of Plans

5.G.1

The City will review plans prepared and approved for the following areas, outlined on Map 5.2, during the preparation of the District Plans: Canora Alberta Avenue/ Eastwood Norwood Ritchie Calder

District Planning Program

3.A.5

Riverdale Strathcona Oliver Garneau Boyle Street/McCauley Groat Estate

5.20 PART III

• • • • •


NEIGHBOURHOOD IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM I [

2

I 3 4

1 5

CANORA CALDER ALBERTA AVENUE/EASTVVOOD NOR WOOD RITCHIE COMMUNITY PLANS

0 ifi:47f T 1 l4.i n

V i itialgar'. I

i ffEj ri nraol .. NVIIIIPari ' " :11L

STRATHCONA GARN EAU GROAT ESTATE OLIVER McCAULEY BOYLE STREET RIVERDALE

ill- likrrITAIN 41.ditrilog uWai Mill'ail-stqa lllll Jam,. ,,- lh itigilmem -

plaNgEEEW41 ,trav=imatra o1.-. --

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-41 1191 -- I SINCEviri ralp1 Ifli,„„„ • 1474

.

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: M-tas. i allillele

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argairfflg-Ase impErsaw,wen.

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0

M.

4

3

2

5

3


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Approved Suburban Area Plans

• • • •

Reference No.

5.G.2

Objectives and Policies

The City will support the implementation of Outline Plans and Area Structure Plans approved prior to the enactment of the Edmonton General Municipal Plan until the completion of the initial conversion from rural to urban usage, unless amendments are inititated by the owners and/or developers.

Program

Cross Reference

Land Use Planning Programs

It is the objective of Council: To endeavour to provide housing assistance for low income singles, families, and senior citizens.

Community Housing

5.11

Fair-Share Distribution

5.H.1

The City will provide, within the limits of its financial resources, community housing-on the basis of an equitable "fair share" distribution throughout the city in accordance with the location of demand.

Real Estate and Housing

Housing Demand Projections

5.H.2

The City will undertake to prepare 5 year housing demand projection studies, indicating yearly production targets, as a basis for assisting in the identification of community housing needs and the location of such.

Real Estate and Housing; Area Structure Plans

Suburban Areas

5.H.3

The City will continue to acquire land in suburban areas for the purpose of developing community housing for both the elderly and lower-income households in accordance with projected demand.

Real Estate and Housing; Area Structure Plans

Inner City Areas

5.H.4

The City will endeavour to obtain suitable sites for community housing porjects in the inner city areas on the basis of the location of demand.

Real Estate and Housing

Policy Report #5

5.22 PART 111


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Private Sector

5.H.5

The City will encourage the provision of community housing in developments undertaken by the private sector through senior government housing programs such as the Core Housing Incentives Program.

Community Housing Location Guidelines

5.H.6

The City will, in the process of preparing and/or approving statutory plans, recommend sites for community housing projects for various population groups, according to the following guidelines:

Program

District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

Cross Reference

3.A.5, 17.B.4, 17.C.5

(a) Senior Citizens: i) pedestrian access within one to two blocks of frequent, daily public transit service; ii) pedestrian access to convenience retail outlets such as grocery stores, drug stores, post offices, and banks, as well as direct access by public transit to low cost restaurants and entertainment facilities; iii) pedestrian access or direct (non-transfer) access by public transit to community facilities such as medical services, branch libraries, churches, and senior citizen centres; iv) pedestrian access within one or two blocks of parks and open spaces, which have features such as seating areas, and high visibility from surrounding uses or streets; 5.23 PART III

• • • • • •


5. RESIDENTIAL

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

v) a safe social and physical environment, a relatively low crime rate, casual surveillance from pedestrian traffic and removed from industrial and commercial offices areas; and, vi) such other guidelines as Council deems necessary from time to time. (b) Families (low-income households): i) as much as feasible, subsidized housing developments should be less than 1 hectare in size or occupying a total block or isolated parcel of a larger size, and no more than 1 project located in any particular sub-neighbourhood; ii) pedestrian access within three blocks of public transit services, convenience retail outlets, and community facilities; and, iii) such other guidelines as Council deems necessary from time to time.

Integration of Community Housing

5.H.7

The City will ensure that the design of community housing projects achieves an integration between the community housing project and the surrounding residential neighbourhood by implementing the following guidelines:

Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

(a) the size of community housing land parcels shall be limited to 1 hectare in size or larger sites where a total block or isolated lot is selected; 5.24 PART III


5. RESIDENTIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) the scale of the community housing land project should be compatible with existing development in the neighbourhood or development which is allowed by the Land Use District adjacent to the project; (c) the architectural style of the development, choice of materials and colours should relate to the established character of the neighbourhood; (d) on site amenities such as tot lots and multiple use indoor and/or outdoor recreational facilities for all age groups should be provided on the site; and, (e) sufficient parking space should be provided on the site of the project.

5.25

PART III

• • • • • • •


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6. COMMERCIAL

• • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION The Plan's strategy for commercial development covers both office and retail uses. It combines new policies and established practices in order to promote a pattern of commercial development which will not only minimize the immediate and obvious problems which can result from commercial development, but will also reinforce the other components of the overall growth strategy. The Objectives and Policies in this section of the Bylaw will fall into two groups. Objectives 6.A, 6.B, and 6.0 deal with general principles applicable throughout the city regarding office development, retail development and land use conflicts respectively. Objectives 6.D to 6.1 deal with the application of these general principles in specific types of areas, such as shopping centres or the Downtown. The major innovations of the Plan come in four areas. The first innovation is to promote a moderate degree of office decentralization (Objective 6.A). The second

innovation, which is strategically related to the first, is a policy promoting the integration of downtown office development with retail space, housing and other uses (Objective 6.D). Thirdly, the strategy involves more careful review of the location and design of major shopping centres in order to promote the development of multi-purpose suburban Town Centres (Objective 6.E). Finally, the strategy provides for the creation of employment nodes to accommodate decentralized office growth (Objective 6.F). To complement the four major innovations, the strategy refines and pulls together existing planning practices in five policy areas: distribution of retail development (Objective 6.B), minimization of land use conflicts (Objective 6.C), commercial strip development in older areas (Objective 6.G), highway commercial development (Objective 6.H), and commercial development in industrial areas (Objective 6.1).

6.1 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

• • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Balanced Distribution of Office Development

6.A

To accommodate and encourage a balanced distribution of office development in the Downtown and at other multi-purpose sub-centres which are easily accessible by both public transit and private automobile, and at which complementary commercial uses exist or can be developed.

Policy Reports #2 and #6, 5.A

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Creating Opportunities in the Suburbs

6.A.1

Objectives and Policies

Locational Principles for Uncentralized Development

6.A.2

The City will promote a pattern of office growth in which the total amount of office floor space in the Downtown area will continue to increase, but the Downtown's share of total office space in the city will decline gradually over time. The City will not set precise targets for office development in the Downtown or in any other area, but will:

6.E, 6.F

(a) co-ordinate its planning activities in such a way as to provide more opportunities for office development at suitable locations in the suburbs, as illustrated in Map 6.1; and,

District Planning Program

(b) apply policies which ensure that, over the long run, office development in the Downtown is balanced by the development of housing, shopping and entertainment.

Downtown Planning Program

The City will manage and direct uncentralized office growth so that its benefits will be maximized and its problems minimized.

District Planning Program; Area Structure Plans

6.E.1(c), 6.F.3, 8.A.3

6.2 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Mink

Objectives and Policies

AM —

Program

Cross Reference

(a) uncentralized growth will be directed, as much as possible, to locations which have high accessibility not only by private automobile but also by public transit, preferably express bus routes or Light Rail Transit lines; (b) uncentralized growth will be concentrated in suburban clusters or sub-centres of sufficiently high density that amenities and shopping opportunities can be provided; and, (c) uncentralized growth will be directed to locations with good connections to the Downtown by roadway and transit, so that functional linkages may be developed with downtown businesses as well as with clients in nearby industrial and/or residential areas.

Town Centres

6.A.3

The City will use the Town Centre concept, as described in Policy 6.E.1, to accommodate the maximum amount of office growth which can be attracted to these centres.

Employment Centres •

6.A.4

In addition to promoting Town Centres, the City Development Review will encourage the development of intensive mixed-use employment nodes at Light Rail Transit Stations and other locations outside the Downtown, subject to guidelines as described in Section 6.F.

Existing Shopping Centres

6.A.5

The City will encourage the intensification of existing regional shopping centres through the addition of office space, in preference to major expansion of the retail floor area.

Area Structure Plans

4.A.4, 6.E.1(a)

6.F

Development Review

6.3 PART 111


CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Ufs= Highest intensity of office development in accordance with Downtown Plan.

OUTLINE PLAN AREA TOWN CENTRES *

Site for major office component (10,C00 sq. m. or more) in accordance with existing plans

gm *

Site for minor office component (less than 10,000 sq. m.) in accordance with existing plans.

Office development at the initiative of the private sector in accordance with Area Redevelopment Plans.

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L.R.T. STATION AREAS

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EXISTING REGIONAL SHOPPING CENTRES

118 Ave

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Potential site for major office component (10,000 sq. m. or more), depending upon recommendation of Area Structure Plan or Sector Plan.

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Option of adding office space, at the initiative of the private sector, but in accordance with zoning requirements or performance standards.

COMMERCIAL STRIPS

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WESTGATE '' •

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Office development in accordance with commercial strip policies.

AS AMENDED BY: BYLAW 6160

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MAP 6.1 OFFICE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY

1'4

3


6. COMMERCIAL

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

Identification of Other Locations

6.A.6

Additional locations for local employment concentrations in the inner city may be identified through the District Planning Program

District Planning Program

5.B.5

Incentives for Office Decentralization

6.A.7

The City will endeavour to identify possible incentives for office decentralization, through ongoing liaison with the Development Industry Liaison Committee and other interested groups.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

4.A.4

Provincial Government Decentralization

6.A.8

The City will advise the Provincial Government of the City's strategy regarding office distribution and encourage the Provincial Government to assist in implementing this strategy.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

Municipal Decentralization

6.A.9

The City will implement decentralization of some of its functions in accordance with the Human Services Delivery System and the District Planning Program.

Real Estate and Housing (Property Management)

It is the objective of Council:

Emphasis on Planned Commercial Areas

6.B

To encourage the concentration of new suburban retail facilities in planned shopping centres and commercial districts.

Policy Report #6

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Limited Retail Development in Industrial and Residential Land Use Districts

6.B.1

Retail uses in industrial and residential land use districts under the Land Use Bylaw will be restricted as follows:

Land Use Bylaw

7.0

(a) general retail uses will not be included in the schedule of permitted uses for any of the residential or industrial land use districts in the Land Use Bylaw; 6.5 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) where general retail uses are included in the schedule of discretionary uses for residential land use districts, these will be limited to establishments serving the daily shopping needs of residents of the immediate surrounding area, with maximum floor areas as specified in the Land Use Bylaw; and, (c) where retail, office, or service commercial uses are included in the schedule of permitted or discretionary uses in an industrial land use district, these will be limited as specified in Sections 6.1 and 7.C.

Commercial Redistricting

6.B.2

No application to redistrict (rezone) a property from a non-commercial land use district to a commercial land use district, or to redistrict (rezone) to a more intensive commercial land use district will be approved unless: (a) the policy basis for this change has been established through the General Municipal Plan or an Area Redevelopment Plan or Area Structure Plan; or,

6.1, 7.0

Land Use Bylaw; Development Review

6.G.3

(b) the application is for neighbourhood commercial services intended to serve the daily shopping needs of the residents in the immediate vicinity. It is the objective of Council:

Minimizing Negative Impacts of Commercial Land Use

6.0

To ensure that the negative impacts of commercial development on adjacent neighbourhoods are minimized.

Policy Report #6

6.6 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

• • • •

Design Guidelines

6.C.1

Where detailed guidelines have not been set out as part of an approved Area Redevelopment Plan or Area Structure Plan, the City will have regard to the following considerations in reviewing proposals for commercial development:

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

6.E.6, 6.F.4

(a) commercial development sites should be located on arterial or collector roads to prevent the generation of traffic on local streets, but vehicular access to the site should not be directly from a major arterial, in order to prevent conflict with through traffic: (b) adequate parking should be provided on site to accommodate the peak demand in an average week; (c) in the case of sites adjoining existing or proposed residential developments, regulations regarding the permitted and discretionary uses should be formulated in such a way as to screen out uses which are likely to have a negative impact upon the adjoining residential areas by virtue of noise, traffic generation or unsightly appearance; (d) the height of buildings should be kept low or stepped down towards the edge of the site to ensure that the building height near the edge of the site does not exceed the height of any residential buildings on properties adjacent to or across from the commercial site; 6.7 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(e) it is desirable that adequate screening and/or landscaping be provided around the edges of the site to ensure that the view from any neighbouring dwellings does not face directly onto the backs of the commercial buildings; and, (f) it is preferable that loading areas be located as far away from any neighbouring dwellings as possible. It is the objective of Council:

Balanced Downtown Development

6.D

To promote the development of a vibrant, diverse and balanced Downtown, including substantial quantities of housing and an exemplary standard of urban design, while maintaining the importance of the Downtown as the predominant commercial, administrative and cultural centre of the Region.

District Planning; Downtown Planning Program

5.A, 8.0

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Commercial Development Adjacent to Downtown

6.D.1

The City will encourage the concentration of intensive downtown commercial development within the boundary defined generally by 109 Street on the west, 105 Avenue on the north, 97 Street on the east, and the top of the bank of the North Saskatchewan River Valley on the south, and will provide for the development of transitional areas with an emphasis on housing outside and adjacent to the western, northern and eastern boundaries such that:

District Planning; 5.A.2, Downtown 5.A.4, Planning Program 5.G.1, 6.D.8

• • •

• • •

6.8 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

III

(a) the intensity of development, the height of buildings and the proportion of floor space devoted to office uses generally declines with distance from the Downtown boundary described above, unless otherwise specified in an Area Redevelopment Plan;

(b) the maximum density within the transition area (i.e.- that which is permitted on parcels adjoining the Downtown boundary) approaches but does not equal the density permitted in the nearest adjoining area of the Downtown;

Cross Reference

(c) the depth of the transition area and the density of development permitted on those parcels within the transition area furthest away from the Downtown are consistent with the objectives and guidelines of any applicable Area Redevelopment Plan; or, in the absence of such a Plan, with the character of existing development; and,

III 1111

(d) development in the transition area is consistent with any special planning objectives identified for any part of the transition area in an approved Area Redevelopment Plan.

IP Downtown Planning Area

Program

6.D.2

The Downtown Commercial Development area defined in Policy 6.D.1 is shown in Map 6.2. (Bylaw 6202)

Downtown Planning Program

6.9

PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Downtown Housing

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

A

Program

Downtown Planning Program

Cross Reference

6.D.3

The City will encourage development of housing in the Downtown Commercial Development area as defined in Policy 6.D.1 and will provide meaningful incentives for construction of such housing. (Bylaw 6202)

6.D.4

Deleted. (Bylaw 6202)

6.D.5

Deleted. (Bylaw 6202)

Urban Design Guidelines

6.D.6

The City will introduce urban design guidelines for use in reviewing development applications in the Downtown area.

Downtown 6.D.7, Planning Program 15.0

Retail Activity at Street Level

6.D.7

The land use regulations and urban design guidelines employed in the Downtown area will give high priority to preserving the continuity of street oriented retail uses as the principal public spaces.

Downtown Planning Program; Land Use Bylaw

6.D.6, 15.C.1

Redevelopment of Railway Lands

6.D.8

The City will, as long-range policy, encourage the redevelopment of the downtown railway yards of the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways for a mixture of more intensive urban uses in accordance with the following general guidelines:

Development Review

5.A, 6.D.1, 17.D.5(b)

5.A.1

(a) the railway lands should be redeveloped on a comprehensive basis under the direct control provisions of the Land Use Bylaw and in conformity with the objectives and guidelines of the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan;

6.10 PART III

• • • • •


11111111111111

BOUNDARY BETWEEN DOWNTOWN AREA REDEVELOPMENT PLAN AND BEGINNING OF TRANSITIONAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS AS PER POLICY 6.D.1.

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MAP 6.2 DOWNTOWN PLANNING BOUNDARIES

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6. COMMERCIAL

• •

4111/

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) the type(s), density and design of land uses and structures should be such that when redevelopment is completed, the new development blends successfully with existing areas on both sides of the redevelopment and in particular: i) the type and intensity of redevelopment on those portions of the railway lands shown in Map 6.2 should be part of the gradual decrease of intensity from the core of the Downtown; the intensity of development on these lands should approach but not equal the density on the lands to the south and east; and,

ii) the type and intensity of redevelopment •

on that portion of the Canadian National

rail yards situated west of 111 Street

should be compatible with development in the adjoining areas of Oliver and Queen Mary. (c) the redevelopment of the railway lands should increase vehicular and pedestrian accessibility to and from the Downtown by providing extensions of selected roadways in such a manner that a normal building-to-street relationship is maintained;

(d) the redevelopment of the railway lands should include a major component of housing for a broad range of small households;

6.12 PART HI


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(e) the redevelopment of the railway lands should include a component of commercial uses mainly along the primary streets and in areas in close proximity to existing commercial concentrations; (f) the redevelopment of the railway lands should include local and regional retail uses at grade level along 109 Street and 104 Avenue east of 109 Street;

• • • •

(i) the redevelopment should provide a variety

of development forms and tenure;

(h) each phase of the redevelopment should provide satisfactory residential, street and park environments; (i) the redevelopment should provide

accessible, consolidated parks and open space for local as well as the general Downtown and adjacent area population;

()) the redevelopment should provide for the

extension of the Light Rail Transit network along both the C.N. and C.P. rail alignments; and,

(k) the internal circulation network on the redeveloped parcel should provide convenient access to the transit system, as well as safe, convenient and aesthetically pleasing routes to, within, and through the redeveloped lands for pedestrians and cyclists.

6.13 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

III

Promotion of Town Centres

6.E

To promote the development of planned mixed-use Town Centres in the suburbs.

Policy Report #6, 6.A.1

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Town Centre Concept Mixture of Uses

411 •

6.E.1

The City will encourage the development of planned Town Centres in new suburban areas according to the following guidelines: (a) a planned Town Centre will combine the following uses and facilities:

District Planning Program 6.A.3

i) a regional shopping centre; ii) a significant office component which provides services for households in the surrounding residential areas and also accommodates, contingent upon market demand, general office uses serving households and corporate clients from a larger area; iii) a substantial amount of housing, consisting primarily of apartment and row housing units; iv) landscaped outdoor areas including a large park and/or smaller amenity areas; and, v) a transit centre which acts as a focus for local feeder bus routes and provides direct connections to the Downtown and/or other major activity centres by Light Rail Transit, trolley or express bus rnittoc

6.14 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

it

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) Town Centres will be developed according to site plans which:

Advance Planning

i) are prepared and approved before the commencement of construction; and, ii) allow for the intensification of development on the Town Centre site to accommodate additional residential and/or office development in the future. (c) Town Centres will be appropriately spaced in order to ensure the viability of their retail facilities and transit centres, and the location for each Town Centre will have to be approved through an Area Structure Plan or amendment.

Locational Guidelines

Existing Town Centre Proposals

6.E.2

The City will encourage the developers of the proposed Westgate, Kaskitayo, Riverbend, Mill Woods, Clareview and Castle Downs II centres to develop their projects in a manner consistent with the Town Centre concept, and to make provision for the maximum possible amount of office space.

New Regional Shopping Centres

6.E.3

The City will encourage private developers interested in developing new regional shopping centres to choose sites within Town Centre locations designated in Outline Plans or Area Structure Plans and to prepare site plans which are consistent with the Town Centre concept.

Area Structure Plans

6.A.2, 8.A.3

6.15 PART 111

• • • • • •


, 'WA 0.41. , 1111r51

7.,

PLANNED TOWN CENTRE including regional - order shopping mall

REGIONAL-ORDER shopping mall serving some TOWN CENTRE functions

PLANNED TOWN CENTRE - with smaller retail facility

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MAP 6.3 TOWN CENTRE LOCATIONS *01-1

rails


• •

6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Evaluation of New Regional Shopping Centre Proposals

Reference No.

6.E.4

Objectives and Policies

The City will require that any application for redistricting (rezoning) to permit the development or expansion of a regional shopping centre be accompanied by an economic impact statement which:

Program

Cross Reference

Land Use Bylaw; Development Review

17.D.6

(a) describes the anticipated trade area to be served and the range of goods and services to be offered by the proposed centre;

(b) discusses the probable impact of the proposed development upon existing commercial areas and upon the feasibility of other proposed developments;

5 5

(c) discusses the relationship of the proposed regional shopping centre to the Town Centre Concept; and, (d) meets any additional requirements which may be set by City Council.

Maintaining Viability of Existing or Planned Centres

6.E.5

If an application is received for redistricting (rezoning) to permit the development or expansion of a regional shopping centre in a location where it could undermine the viability of a regional shopping centre provided for in a Residential Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan, the application will not be approved until and unless the Residential Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan has been amended.

Development Review

5.G.2

Development Guidelines for Town Centres

6.E.6

In reviewing proposed Area Structure Plans or amendments, and redistricting (rezoning) and development applications in connection with Town Centres, the City will have regard to the following considerations:

Development Review

6.C.1, 15.B.5, 15.C.2

6.17 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

3

Cross Reference

(a) circulation on the Town Centre site should • be planned in such a way that no through traffic crosses the site and pedestrians do not have to cross any roadways of a collector or arterial standard in order to walk between the different components of the Town Centre; and, (b) the use of multi-storey buildings and parking garages is appropriate provided that: i) visual intrusion and overshadowing of adjacent properties is minimized; ii) the capacities of the transportation links serving the centre are not overtaxed; iii) the parking spaces provided in the centre are sufficient to meet peak demand in an average week; iv) all residential units are afforded adequate sunlight, ventilation and amenity areas; v) the buildings in the centre do not cause wind tunnelling or other undesirable micro climatic effects; and, vi) the building facades along major pedestrian circulation routes are human in scale and the overall massing of buildings on the site is conducive to pedestrian circulation both during and after business hours.

6.18 PART III

• • • • • • •


6. COMMERCIAL

• 1111

Subject

Town Centre Locations in Annexed Areas

Reference No. 6.E.7

Objectives and Policies In any areas which are annexed by the City in future, consideration will be given to the full range of alternative locations for new Town Centres, including sites which offer proximity to commercial and office development, as well as residential communities.

Program District Planning

Cross Reference

14.A.2

Program

It is the objective of Council:

ID

4111

• • •

Employment Nodes Outside Downtown

6.F

To encourage the development of medium to high intensity employment nodes at appropriate locations outside the Downtown.

6.A.1, 6.A.4, 7.C.1, 15.B.5

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Redistricting Individual Parcels

6.F.1

The City will provide for the redistricting (rezoning) of some individual parcels outside the Downtown for medium to high intensity office developments with secondary retail and housing components, subject to the guidelines described below.

Mixture of Uses

6.F.2

The desired mixture of uses for medium to high intensity employment nodes outside the Downtown, other than planned Town Centres, will be as follows:

Development Review

(a) the commercial floorspace is to consist primarily of office space; (b) the retail component is to be secondary in nature, consisting primarily of establishments oriented to the personal needs of the office employees and the lower-order shopping needs of any nearby residential areas; and, 6.19 PART 111


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(c) incorporation of housing units in the project(s) is to be permitted and encouraged in cases where the surrounding area offers a suitable environment for residential development.

Locational Reouirements

6.F.3

The development of medium to high intensity office nodes outside the Downtown, other than planned Town Centres, will be subject to all of the following locational requirements:

Development Review

• •

6.A.2, 7.C.1, 8.A.3

(a) accessibility by transit: the proposed development must be within five minutes walk of an approved transit centre or a potential L.R.T. station along one of the alignments approved in principle by City Council for long-term extension of the L.R.T. network, with the feasibility of a station to serve the proposed development to be assessed in detail by the City at the time of application;

(b) accessibility by automobile: the proposed development must abut an arterial or collector roadway which:

• •

i) provides access to the proposed development, either directly or via a service road; and, ii) has sufficient capacity to accommodate the traffic generated by the proposed development.

6.20

PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

• • 0 ID

ID

Subject

Reference No.

Cross Objectives and Policies

Program

Reference

(c) proximity to shopping facilities: the proposed development should either include, or be within a five-minute walking distance of a secondary commercial node which offers such services as a convenience store, restaurant(s), and personal service establishments. Design Guidelines

6.F.4

The development of medium to high intensity office nodes outside the Downtown, other than planned Town Centres, will be subject to the following design guidelines:

Development Review

6.C.1, 15.B.5, 15.C.2

(a) the developer should be given the maximum possible opportunity to develop the site intensively, but the following constraints will apply, unless relaxed by an Area Redevelopment Plan or Area Structure Plan: i) visual intrusion and overshadowing of any residential development in the vicinity is minimized; ii) the capacity of the roadways serving the proposed development must not be over taxed;

111

•

iii) the parking spaces provided in the proposed development must be adequate to meet peak demands in an average week; and, iv) the structures in the proposed development must not cause wind tunnelling or other undesirable micro-climatic effects. 6.21

PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) the use of buildings over three floors and parking structures is appropriate where the constraints enumerated in (a) can be met; (c) attractively landscaped outdoor amenity areas should be provided for the use of the employees and (if applicable) the residents of the project;

• •

(d) if housing is included in the project, provisions should be made for separate access to the residential component of the project and for a sidewalk or walkway connection to adjoining residential or recreation areas; and, (e) if the proposed development abuts properties which are, or could be, developed for residential or commercial (i.e. non-industrial) uses, the layout of walkways and retail facilities in the proposed development should facilitate and encourage pedestrian movement between the properties.

Procedural Requirements

3.F.5

Approval for the development of a medium to high intensity office node which is outside the Downtown but is not part of a planned Town Centre will be contingent upon the approval or amendment, as the case may be, of an Area Redevelopment Plan, Area Structure Plan or Outline Plan.

Development Review

• 6.22 PART 111


6. COMMERCIAL

• • • • • • •

Referenl,

Subjej c

po,

MUM Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Commerical Strip Areas

6.G

Policy Report #6

To stabilize, consolidate, and improve established strip commercial areas, and accommodate a wide variety of commercial activities having due regard to the maintenance of the character and amenities of adjacent residential areas. (Bylaw 6160) It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Land Uses in Commercial Strip Areas

6.G.1

Land use regulations for strip commercial areas will permit a wide variety of retail stores, service establishments, and offices, provided that the following uses may be subject to prohibition or discretionary review:

Land Use Bylaw

(a) uses which are likely to generate noise and/or attract large volumes of automobile traffic; (b) uses which require on-site outdoor storage of goods or vehicles; and, (c) businesses of a type which, as they become more firmly established, are likely to require sites larger than those which can be provided in older commercial strips. Areas Requiring Area Redevelopment Plans Prior to Change

6.G.2

On commercial strips designated in Map 6.4 as strips on which the existing extent and intensity of commercial development is to be maintained, no property will be redistricted (rezoned) to a commercial land use district except on the basis of an Area Redevelopment Plan.

Land Use Bylaw; Area Redevelopment Plans

6.23 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Areas of Limited Expansion

Reference No.

6.G.3

Objectives and Policies

IMO

On commercial strips designated accordingly on Map 6.4, limited increases in the extent and intensity of commercial development will be permitted in accordance with the following guidelines:

Program

Land Use Bylaw; Area Redevelopment Plans

Cross Reference

6.B.2(a)

(a) properties situated on the shopping street, which do not lie within a commercial land use district, may be redistricted (rezoned) to a commercial land use district, provided that the depth of the new commercial property does not exceed the prevailing lot depth of the area; and,

• •

(b) the maximum permitted intensity of development shall be governed, except at the northwest corner of 124 Street and 102 Avenue, by the following considerations:

i) the height of the buildings shall be kept low or stepped down so that the building height at the edge of the site shall not exceed the height of any adjoining residential development; and, ii) off-street parking, access, and landscaping shall be provided to the satisfaction of the City. (Bylaw 6160)

Assisting Private Sector Initiative

6.G.4

The City will encourage and facilitate the efforts of any merchants' association to improve the streetscape and/or parking in a strip commercial area through the creation of a business improvement area, with the cost of improvements being recovered through a Local Improvement Assessment.

Area Redevelopment Plans; C.P.P.O. Coordination of Capital Budget

1 5 .0 . 8

6.24 PART III

• •


AREAS SUITABLE FOR LIMITED INCREASES IN EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH POLICY 6.G.3 =I AREAS IN WHICH THE PERMITTED INTENSITY AND EXTENT OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT SHOULD REMAIN AS IS * INTEGRATION OF COMMERCIAL STRIP AND L.R.T. STATION AREAS

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Commerceal stops not mMcated on this map will be deemed to be included in the list of commercial stops in which theatre'', and intensity at development will be maintained at existing levels

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MAP 6.4 COMMERCIAL STRIP POLICY AREAS 144, I

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6 11.1111


6. COMMERCIAL

411/ Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

4110

• • • • 5

Highway Commerical Areas

6.H

To develop attractive highway commercial areas along major highways entering and traversing the City, primarily for commercial establishments serving the travelling public, and reduce the pressure for developments of this type in other areas.

Policy Report #6

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Highway Commercial Function

6.H.1

Highway commercial areas will be designated along selected sections of highways entering and traversing the city, and land use regulations in these areas will be structured and applied so as to ensure that priority is given to uses serving the travelling public.

Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

Guidelines for Delineation

6.H.2

The precise boundaries and configurations of highway commercial areas will be determined by District and Sector Plans and Area Structure Plans within the following general guidelines:

District Planning Program; Area Structure Plans

(a) commercial districts may be designated on one or both sides of the highway; and, (b) parcel depth should be sufficient to permit the economic development of the desired uses, as described in Policies 6.H.1 and 6.H.3.

Desirable Land Uses

6.H.3

Priority uses will include the following:

(a) facilities for the travelling public:

District Planning Program; Area Structure Plans

6.26 PART 111


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

i) hotels and motels; ii) restaurants; and, iii) service stations. (b) ancillary uses:

• •

i) entertainment facilities associated with a motel or hotel, and consistent in scale with the number of rooms provided in the motel or hotel; and, (c) other uses which, in the opinion of City Council, are compatible with uses serving the travelling public and are included by Council in the list of permitted or discretionary uses under the highway commercial designation(s) of the Land Use Bylaw. Undesirable Land Uses

6.H.4

Uses which are not directly related to the needs of the travelling public will not be permitted, and without restricting the generality of the foregoing, the following uses will be prohibited:

• • •

Land Use Bylaw

(a) regional shopping centres; (b) retail establishments containing 5,000 square metres (53,800 square feet) of floor space or more; (c) developments in which the total leasable office floor space exceeds 60% of the site area; and, (d) entertainment facilities, unless these are part of a hotel or motel complex. 6.27 PART 111


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Development Guidelines

6.H.5

Cross Reference

In structuring and applying the development regulations for highway commercial areas, the City will have regard to the following considerations:

Land Use Bylaw

15.B.3

(a) wherever possible, and especially in areas of new development, the provision of service roads is desirable in order to minimize the disruption to through traffic;

411

(b) the potential benefits of highway commercial development, as a noise buffer for any adjacent residential areas, should be carefully examined; and, (c) the provision of a high standard of landscaping and buffering is desirable in order to create the best possible impression upon both residents and visitors.

41111

Program

MINIM E

It

Objectives and Policies

Designated Highway Commercial Areas

6.H.6

Highway commercial areas will be designated in District Planning Program the corridors shown on Map 6.5 and described below:

3.A.5

(a) Calgary Trail, from 51 Avenue to 23 Avenue; (b) Highway 16 West from 170 Street to the city limits; and, (c) Fort Road, from 129 Avenue to the city limits.

• 6.28 PART III


6. COMMERCIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Commercial Uses in Industrial Areas

6.1

6.B.1, 7.C, 7.C.1

To exercise strict control over the development of commercial uses in industrial areas so as to preserve an adequate supply of land for medium and heavy industrial uses.

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Control Through Industrial Policies

6.1.1

The City will control the development of office, retail, and other commercial floorspace in industrial areas, as indicated in Section 7.C.

Land Use Bylaw; Development Review

7.C.1 to 7.C.5

IIIII

• • • 6.29 PART III


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This map representa a broad and conceptual illustration of the desired location ot hignway commercial areas Its not intended lo prowde Srfe , Spec/tic direction to land use regulatron rnechanains. Highway commercial Lend U. DISVICtS may he applied along one or both sides of the indicated highway on accordance with the test ol the General Municipal Plan Bylaw and any other relevant statutory plan.

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Highway Commercial Land LI. Districts may applied on one or both sides of highway, depending on local constraints. See test for details.

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MAP 6.5 CORRIDORS IN WHICH HIGHWAY COMMERCIAL POLICIES WILL APPLY 1r 1

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7. INDUSTRIAL

• • • • •

INTRODUCTION The General Municipal Plan's strategy for dealing with industrial land use contains an important shift in philosophy with respect to the types of industrial activities which the city will accommodate within its present boundaries, as well as direction to regulate both the location and types of service commercial and office uses in existing and future industrial areas of the City of Edmonton.

Another important policy direction incorporated in the industrial strategy, relates to the location of commercial and office uses in industrial areas. The essential industrial nature of these areas must not be jeopardized, but provision must nevertheless be made for local services and offices linked to industrial functions and the overall objective of the office decentralization strategy (Objective 7.C).

Key industrial issues in the city relate to the limited supply of industrial land, particularly for heavy industry, and its high price. The main thrust of the strategy, therefore, is to work towards a regional strategy which optimizes the location of heavy industry and provides for orderly and economic industrial development (Objective 7.A).

The remainder of the strategy is process-oriented, aimed at providing mechanisms to help ensure a continuing supply of attractive industrial land, especially relevant if the city's boundary is expanded to include industrial lands currently outside the boundary (Objectives 7.D), providing for continuous involvement of business interests in the planning process (Objective 7.E), increasing flexibility in subdivision requirements and engineering standards in the city's industrial areas (Objective 7.F), and maintaining a balance between residential and industrial assessment in order that urban services can be provided at a reasonable level of residential taxation to the citizens of Edmonton (Objective 7.G).

In regard to older inner city industrial areas, the strategy proposes the City continue its present practice of encouraging relocation or upgrading of obsolete or noxious industrial uses (Objective 7.B). To ensure this objective is accomplished in an equitable and effective manner, incorporating input from the business sector, it is proposed that the City identify industries which should be relocated or upgraded through a District Planning Program (Policy 7.B.1).

7.1 PART III


7. INDUSTRIAL

• •

• • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

City Role With Respect to Heavy Industry

7.A

Policy Report #7

To enhance the position of the City of Edmonton as a location for industrial development through the preparation of a comprehensive strategy to accommodate demand for industrial land. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Regional Industrial Land Strategy

7.A.1

Contingent upon the availability of sufficient land, the City of Edmonton will develop a comprehensive strategy for industrial land use and development which will:

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

1.B.2, 2.A, 14.A

(a) address the location of potentially offensive industrial uses, which, as a result of their noxious emissions or visual impact, require large parcels of land in areas removed from higher quality industrial districts and residential environments; and, (b) identify a preferred pattern of sequential development for industrial activity in the city based upon anticipated demand, locational requirements, servicing capability and other land use planning requirements. It is the objective of Council:

Relocation of Obsolete Inner City Industries

7.B

To encourage the relocation or upgrading of obsolete or noxious industrial uses in the inner city.

Policy Report #7

7.2 PART 111


7. INDUSTRIAL

Subject

Reference No. •

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Use of District Planning Program

7.B.1

The City shall provide for the relocation or upgrading of older, obsolete, or noxious heavy industrial uses in the inner city through the District Planning Program.

District Planning

Use of City Assistance

7.B.2

The City will apply city assistance tools (such as city-owned land) wherever possible, to assist key industries in the inner city to relocate to suburban locations.

Real Estate and Housing Property Management Program

3.A.1

It is the objective of Council: Control of Non-Industrial Uses

7.0

To exercise strict control over the development of non-industrial uses in industrial areas so as to ensure a supply of land for medium and heavy industrial uses.

Policy Report #7, 6.B.1,

6.1

It is therefore the policy of Council that: General Office Development at Employment Nodes

7.C.1

The City will permit general office development at a limited number of employment nodes in industrial areas, subject to the following conditions:

Land Use Bylaw

6.F, 6.F.3, 6.1, 6.1.1, 17.D.6

(a) detailed review at the time of application for conformity with guidelines for employment nodes, specified in Section 6.F; (b) enactment or amendment of the applicable Outline Plan, Area Structure Plan or Area Redevelopment Plan; and, (c) redistricting (rezoning) to a commercial land use district.

7.3 PART III

• • • • •


MI INDUSTRIAL OUTLINE PLAN AREAS

k,......i.

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= INNER CITY INDUSTRIAL SUB-DIVISIONS

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NORTHEAST INDUSTRIAL ,QLITLINE PLAN AREA

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NORTHWEST OUTLINE

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IN

SOUTHEA ST INDUSTRIAL OUTLINE PLAN AREA

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MAP 7.1 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS I 144418

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2

3

4 2

6


7. INDUSTRIAL

• •

Subject

Reference No.

General Office Development Along Arterials

7.C.2

Retail and Office Development in Business Parks

7.C.3

Objectives and Policies The City will apply a commercial land use

designation allowing for general business uses along selected portions of arterial roadways passing through industrial areas where the character of existing development is clearly commercial in nature. The City will permit the development of some retail and office floor space at low densities in industrial business parks, under a light industrial land use designation, subject to the following conditions:

Program

Cross Reference

Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

61 1

Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

6.1.1

(a) light industrial land use designations (zoning) will be applied only to lands which abut or are located near arterial roadways, and only if a light industrial land use designation would be compatible with surrounding land uses; (b) all development on lands under light industrial land use designation is to be in a low-rise, low-intensity built form;

• •

(c) office park development on lands under light industrial land use designations will be restricted to parcels which abut an arterial roadway with regular transit service or are within a five-minute walking distance of a transit stop; and, (d) retail and personal service uses will be limited to those types which are oriented primarily to the corporate clients or the personal needs of the industrial employees in the surrounding area. 7.5 PART III


7. INDUSTRIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

Industrial Service Centres

7.C.4

The City will encourage the development of low Area Structure intensity retail and service commercial facilities Plans; Land Use catering specifically to the industrial firms and Bylaw employees in the area at Industrial Service Centres designated in an Industrial Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan.

6.1.1

Ancillary Commercial Uses

7.C.5

The City recognizes the need for some office, showroom and sales areas in industrial buildings and will permit the inclusion of such space in industrial developments if it is ancillary to the permitted industrial use and does not exceed 20% of the gross floor area.

6.1.1

Land Use Bylaw

It is the objective of Council: Actions Necessary to Maintain an Adequate Inventory of Industrial Land

7.D

To prepare, review or approve Area Structure Plans and any other servicing programs or actions such that the city is able to accommodate at least 50 percent of industrial growth in the Edmonton Sub-region within the plan period.

Policy Report #7

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Industrial Reserve Lands

7.D.1

The City will undertake an examination of all industrial lands presently classified under the industrial reserve district (AGI) which are developed, serviced, and from which roadways have been dedicated with a view to initiating a blanket rezoning of AGI land to the desired industrial category.

Annexation

7.D.2

When required, the City will attempt to increase Annexation the supply of industrial land within the city Application limits through annexation.

Land Use Bylaw

Policy Report #7, 14.A.2

1.B.1, 14.A 7.6 PART III

• • • • •


7. INDUSTRIAL

• •

• • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

Area Structure Plans

7.D.3

To continue to select areas for the preparation of industrial Area Structure Plans on the basis of a contiguous pattern of land development.

Area Structure Plan Program

9.C.2

Area Structure Plan Implementation

7.D.4

Area Structure Plans prepared by the City and/or the development industry for future industrial areas will contain an implementation strategy which shall be adopted as an integral part of the Area Structure Plan Bylaw approval process. The implementation strategy shall describe the preferred staging for land servicing and development as well as guidelines and procedures for the implementation of specific recommendations of the Area Structure Plan.

Area Structure Plan Program

17.C.5

It is the objective of Council:

Business Sector Participation

7.E

To provide opportunities for continuous involvement of the business community in the planning process for new industrial areas.

Policy Reports #4 & #7

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Development Industry Liaison Committee

7.E.1

The City will establish a Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the civic administration on matters relating to industrial land development.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

4.A.4

It is the objective of Council:

Cost of Industrial Land

7.F

To increase flexibility in subdivision requirements and engineering standards in the city's industrial areas, in order to reduce the cost of industrial land.

Policy Report #7

7.7

PART III


7. INDUSTRIAL

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Storm Water Management

7.F.1

The City will encourage the use of alternate storm water management techniques to reduce the cost of servicing in industrial areas.

C.P.P.O. Co-ordination of Land Development Servicing Program

9.D.1

Servicing Standards

7.F.2

The City will, in consultation with the development industry, determine standards and types of municipal services to be provided to future industrial areas.

Land Development Servicing Program

Building and Site Design

7.F.3

The City will consider, in the Land Use Bylaw and in the preparation of industrial Area Structure Plans, opportunities for encouraging innovative and cost efficient building and site design.

Area Structure Plan Program; Land Use Bylaw

2.A, 15.D.1, 15.D.3, 17.D.2

Non-contiguous Development Proposals

7.F.4

The City will consider proposals for non-contiguous development made at the time of application for amendments to Area Structure Plans and/or subdivision approval if the applicant can demonstrate that development will not result in any additional costs to the City or that the applicant is prepared to assume additional costs, and that the applicant agree to any design provisions which may be requested by City utility departments to ensure reliable service.

Area Structure Plan Program

5.E, 5.E.2, 9.C.2

7.8 PART III

• • • • •


7. INDUSTRIAL

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Maintaining a Balanced Tax Base

7.G

To maintain a balance between residential and industrial assessment in order that urban services can be provided at a reasonable level of residential taxation to the citizens of Edmonton.

Policy Report #7

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Residential and Industrial Tax Balance

7.G.1

Business The City will strive to maintain a balance in Development taxation revenue between residential and Program; Area industrial land uses through an aggressive Structure Plan business development program and by undertaking planning and servicing programs to Program accommodate demand for industrial land.

1.0

7.9 PART III


z. < Z: <

CC)


8. TRANSPORTATION

• • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION The General Municipal Plan growth strategy is not a transportation strategy. Such a strategy will be embodied in the Transportation System Plan (the Transportation Plan, Part III) currently under preparation. At the same time, though, there is such a close inter-relationship between transportation and land use that this Plan must contain some reference to the direction implied for the transportation system by the growth strategy. In the Edmonton General Municipal Plan, the growth strategy was developed with the objective of enhancing the utility and efficiency of the transportation system — in particular, emphasizing the transit components of this system. Although it is recognized that the most effective transportation system is an integrated one which provides for the use of each mode where it is most efficient, a strong emphasis on transit is essential if the urban system envisaged in the growth strategy is to be achieved. Moreover, the land use implications of the transit system—in particular, compactness of residential development, continued support for a viable Downtown and the focusing of development towards the transit network—are more desirable than the land

use implications of a lower density, dispersed strategy which encourages the use of the automobile. The directions to the Transportation System Plan contained in the General Municipal Plan, therefore, emphasize the need for the transportation strategy to incorporate the City's commitment to the overall growth strategy (Objective 8.A) through the provision of acceptable levels of accessibility and mobility (Objective 8.B), the maintenance of a viable Downtown (Objective 8.C), the enhancement of inner city redevelopment (Objective 8.D), the efficient, orderly development of new areas (Objective 8.E), and the provision of ancillary transportation facilities (Objective 8.F). Furthermore, while the General Municipal Plan does not establish specific requirements for the Transportation System Plan in detail, the policies within this component provide basic directions or principles for the development of a comprehensive, integrated transportation system ensuring the greatest degree of compatibility with the growth strategy. Moreover, the policies also establish the links between the Transportation System Plan and the various Area Structure and Redevelopment Plans.

8.1 PART HI


• •

• • • • •

8. TRANSPORTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Transportation System and Growth Strategy

8.A

To develop and maintain a transportation system which supports and enhances the City's growth strategy.

Policy Report #8, 2.A

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Development of Transportation System Plan

8.A.1

The City will develop a Transportation System Plan which determines the most efficient use of resources to accommodate the travel demands generated by the growth strategy.

Transportation System Plan

Integrated Transportation System

8.A.2

The City's transportation plans will provide for a fully integrated system of roadway and public transit facilities and services.

Transportation System Plan

Use of Transit Corridors

8.A.3

The City will focus higher density residential development and decentralized employment opportunities in the inner city and suburban areas upon future transit corridors or areas of high transit accessibility.

District Planning Program; Area Structure and Redevelopment Plans

Transportation System Improvements

8.A.4

The City will develop and implement programs of roadway and public transit modifications, improvements and extensions, as set out in the Transportation System Plan, which will facilitate achievement of the growth strategy.

Transportation System Plan; Engineering Capital/ Operating Programs

Alternative Transportation Strategies

8.A.5

Consistent with the growth strategy, the development of the City's Transportation System Plan will take into account the economic, level of service, social and environmental aspects of alternative transportation strategies.

Transportation System Plan

2.A (c)

5.B.5, 5.C.7, 6.A.2, 6.E.1, 6.F.3

8.2 PART III


8. TRANSPORTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Functions of Roadways and Transit

8.B

Policy Report #8

To provide roadway and public transit facilities and services which achieve an acceptable level of accessibility and mobility, consistent with the overall objectives of the General Municipal Plan.

• • •

It is therefore the policy of Council that: The City will maintain a basic level of public Basic Public 8.B.1 Transit Service transit service throughout the city, to ensure adequate transportation for those persons not having access to alternate modes of travel.

ETS Capital/ Operating Programs

Transit for Transportation System Efficiency

8.B.2

The City will provide a high level of public transit service to major activity centres within the city where this service will benefit the overall transportation system.

Transportation System Plan; ETS Capital/ Operating Programs

Roadway Access for Land Uses

8.B.3

The City will provide a basic level of roadway access to approved land use developments within the city.

Transportation System Plan; Engineering Capital Program

Arterial Roadway Function

8.B.4

The City will provide an arterial roadway network which has, as a primary function, the mobility of public and private vehicles within the city.

Transportation System Plan; Engineering Capital/ Operating Programs

• • 8.3 PART III


8. TRANSPORTATION

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Downtown Transportation System

8.0

To develop and maintain a Transportation System which supports and enhances the retention and development of a viable, strong Downtown consistent with the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan.

6.0

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Public Transit Service to Downtown

Downtown Parking

8.C.1

8.C.2

The City will develop and maintain a high level of public transit service to and within the Downtown, including L.R.T. and express bus service and bus priority measures to reduce travel reliance on the private automobile. The City will develop comprehensive policies on the supply, pricing and management of parking in the Downtown which: (a) will encourage an adequate supply of short-term parking for approved business, commercial, retail and recreational developments;

Transportation System Plan; ETS Capital/ Operating Programs Transportation System Plan; Land Use Bylaw; Parking Authority

(b) will encourage a supply of long-term or employee parking which is compatible with the Transportation System Plan; and, (c) will encourage a supply of parking for residents, which reflects the role of the Downtown as the Region's principal employment, service and cultural centre, the excellent level of public transportation, and the demographic characteristics of the downtown residential population. 8.4 PART III


8. TRANSPORTATION

Subject Downtown Access and Circulation

Reference No. 8.C.3

Objectives and Policies The City will develop and maintain a plan for public and private vehicular access to and circulation within the Downtown, consistent with the Transportation System Plan and the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan, giving full consideration to maintaining the environmental, aesthetic and recreational attributes of the Downtown, to the efficient utilization of existing arterial roadways within the Downtown, and to encouraging through traffic to utilize routes outside the Downtown.

Program

Cross Reference

Transportation System Plan; Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw

It is the objective of Council: Reduction of Inner City Impacts

8.D

Policy Report #8

To minimize the impact of transportation on inner city communities.

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Discourage Through Traffic

8.D.1

The City will investigate and implement, where feasible, measures to discourage community disruption by through commuter traffic on non-arterial roadways.

District Plans; Area Structure and Redevelopment Plans; Neighbourhood Structure Plans; Engineering Capital Program

2.A (c)

8.5 PART 111

• • • • •


• • • • • • •

8. TRANSPORTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Improvements on Community Periphery

8.D.2

The City's Transportation System Plan will strive to restrict the development of new and improved transportation facilities to the periphery of communities, so as to minimize the internal disruption of existing communities.

District Plans; Area Structure and Redevelopment Plans; Neighbourhood Structure Plans; Engineering Capital Program; Transportation System Plan

Minimize Transportation/ Land Use Conflicts

8.D.3

The City will strive to develop land use plans for existing communities which minimize conflicts between community activities and approved transportation facilities.

Transportation System Plan; Area Structure and Redevelopment Plans; District Plans; Neighbourhood Structure Plans

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Transportation to New Communities

8.E

To provide transportation facilities and services to and within new suburban development, which support the approved level of development.

Policy Report #8

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Internal Roadway and Transit Facilities

8.E.1

The City will develop and maintain plans for .internal arterial and collector roadways and public transit as an integral activity in the preparation of an Area Structure Plan.

Transportation System Plan; Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

1 7.C.4,

17.C.5

8.6

PART HI


8. TRANSPORTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Evaluation of Transportation Implications

8.E.2

The City will assess the transportation implications of alternative land use options on the city-wide transportation network, as set out in the Transportation System Plan, before approval is given for an Area Structure Plan.

Transportation System Plan

Land Use/ Transportation Staging

8.E.3

The City will develop and maintain compatible staging programs to provide transportation facilities and services in concert with land use development in new suburban areas to ensure efficient and orderly development consistent with the transportation system.

Transportation System Plan; Area Structure Plan

Cross Reference

17.C.4

It is the objective of Council:

Ancillary Transportation Facilities

8.F

To provide ancillary transportation facilities such as bikeways and pedways for functional and recreational use.

Policy Report #8

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Downtown Pedways

8.F.1

The City will develop and maintain a system of pedways in the Downtown to enhance the vitality of this area.

Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan

Residential Area Pedestrian Facilities

8.F.2

The City will provide pedestrian facilities within residential areas to provide access to community facilities for recreational or other uses.

Neighbourhood Structure Plan

Bikeway Facilities

8.F.3

The City will develop and maintain a city-wide bikeway network for both utilitarian and recreational purposes.

Bikeway Planning Process; Area Structure Plan

15.C.3

• • • • •

• • 8.7 PART III


1410

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9. UTILITIES

• • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION The major thrust of the utilities strategy is to emphasize the programming of water and sanitation improvements in the inner city consistent with the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, to increase the amount of infill residential redevelopment directed to the existing developed residential areas (Objective 9.A). A second strategic area relates to reducing the financial burden placed upon the City in providing for utility extensions to new industrial areas when annexed to the City of Edmonton. The strategy has reiterated the recommendation of the Mayor's Task Force on Industrial Land Strategy - that the City should explore the costs and benefits of withdrawing from the program of financing utility extensions within the next three to five years.

The last strategic area is the question of supporting non-contiguous development to give the development industry a greater chance for competition. This thrust is particularly necessary given the likely future environment of greater compactness. Although, at first glance, non-contiguous development would appear to be inconsistent with a compact strategy, it is necessary to provide for competition and variety, especially in the short run. In the long run, development would remain contiguous, since it is only at the neighbourhood structure plan or subdivision level that non-contiguous development would be considered.

9.1 PART 111


9. UTILITIES

• •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Focus on Inner City

9.A

Policy Report #3

To undertake improvements to the utilities infrastructure in the inner city on the basis of priorities established through the District Planning Program. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

41111 III

Inner City Priorities

9.A.1

The City will prepare the Local Policy Plan to ensure that priorities established for water and sanitation system improvements in the inner city are based upon the recommendations of the District Planning Program.

District Planning; 3.A.1 Local Policy Plan

It is the objective of Council: Financial Burden

9.B

Policy Report #9

To examine alternate methods of financing industrial land servicing in the City of Edmonton. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Front-ending of Utility Extensions in Industrial Areas

9.B.1

4110

In accordance with the recommendation of the Mayor's Task Force on Industrial Land Strategy (1979), the City will explore the feasibility and implications of withdrawing completely from the financing and construction of industrial trunk services in the next three to five years.

Local Policy Plan

It is the objective of Council:

Delays in Opening New Areas

9.0

To incorporate economic and market input in the development of utility servicing plans for new areas of the city.

Policy Report #9

9.2 PART III


9. UTILITIES

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Sector Studies

9.C.1

The City of Edmonton will utilize Sector Studies, incorporating financial and market considerations, to establish priorities for the preparation of land use and utility service plans for future residential and industrial areas.

District Planning; Local Policy Plan

5.F.1

Non-contiguous Development

9.C.2

The City will approve proposals for non-contiguous development made at the time of subdivision approval if the developer can demonstrate that any additional costs will not result in a significant additional financial burden to the City or that he is prepared to assume the additional costs himself; and secondly, that the applicant agree to any design provisions which may be requested by the City utility departments to ensure reliable service is provided to the area.

Area Structure Plans; Residential and Industrial Servicing Programs

5.E.2, 7.D.3, 7.F.4

It is the objective of Council:

Utility Servicing To give consideration to mechanisms of 9.D Standards reducing standards in utility servicing without compromising efficiency or health and safety objectives.

Policy Report #9

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Utility Servicing Standards

9.D.1

The City will implement the recommendations from recent reviews of servicing standards for residential and industrial land, such as the Housing Task Force recommendations and those from the Mayor's Advisory Committee on Industrial Land, as approved by City Council.

Land Development Co-ordination

5.E.1, 7.F.1

9.3 PART III

• • • • •


9. UTILITIES

S ubj e ct

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

4110

Solid Waste Disposal

9.E.

To develop a strategy to address the location and operating standards of future solid waste disposal sites. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

• • •

• •

Solid Waste Disposal

9.E.1

Contingent upon the availability of sufficient land, the City will work to develop a strategy to centralize the location of future solid waste disposal facilities on a regional basis and to establish appropriate site management standards for their operation.

Local Policy Plan Policy Report #9

It is the objective of Council:

Snow Disposal

9.F

To designate permanent sites for snow disposal activities in the city. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Snow Disposal

9.F.1

The City shall take action to acquire sites and develop operating standards for permanent snow disposal yards in the city's industrial areas, and at locations in the Restricted Development Area, including the North Saskatchewan River Valley, upon receipt of approval from the Minister of Environment.

Land Purchase Program, Real Estate and Housing; Operating Standards, Planning Department

Policy Report #9

9.4 PART III


9. UTILITIES

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Energy Networks

9.G

To ensure that the alignment of future pipeline and powerline rights-of-way avoids the unnecessary fragmentation of land and provides adequate buffering from existing and proposed residential and industrial areas. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Avoiding Fragmentation

9.G.1

In responding to referrals from the Energy Resources Conservation Board and National Energy Board regarding pipeline and powerline projects within the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, the City will request that future projects remain well removed from the urban area within exclusive transportation/utility corridors, such as the Restricted Development Area.

Land Use Planning Program

Subdivision Guidelines

9.G.2

The City will, in consultation with the pipeline companies and Provincial and Federal energy agencies, establish guidelines for subdivisions adjacent to pipeline rights-of-way, which direct the manner in which the pipeline shall be incorporated in a plan of subdivision, as well as establish set back standards for buildings situated on parcels adjacent to a pipeline right-of-way.

Land Use Planning Program

17.C.4

• • • •

• 9.5 PART 111


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10. PARKS AND RECREATION

• • • • • •

INTRODUCTION The thrust of the General Municipal Plan strategy for parks is consistent with the recently adopted Parks and Recreation Master Plan. The strategy first sets out the link between the Parks and Recreation Master Plan and the General Municipal Plan (Objective 10.A), and then sets out future priorities required if key parks policies are to be consistent with the land use strategy. The land use strategy focus is on density and the distribution of people. Future delivery of parks services should, therefore, reflect the key thrusts of the General Municipal Plan. Since parks funds are constrained, priorities must be established. These priorities must reflect not only current public views, as reflected in the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, but also the General Municipal Plan land use strategy. Further priorities emanating from the General Municipal Plan emphasize inner city and neighbourhood parks development over river valley and regional parks (Objective 10.A) and maximizing the use of existing parks (Objective 10.B).

Finally, the General Municipal Plan strategy deals with delegating responsibility for the provision of recreational services to the community and citizens (Objective 10.C). Although such a program-oriented recommendation appears, at first glance, to be inappropriate in a land use strategy, its inclusion is justified in that the thrust of the strategy is for a greater spinoff of responsibility to citizens. For example, in the recommendations relating to District Planning, citizens' involvement in advising on development applications and developers assuming responsibility for greater variety in the urban environment are all part of a General Municipal Plan strategy for allocating greater responsibility to the community. Thus, in many ways, this last aspect of the land use strategy is a key strategic thrust, tied to District Planning and citizen participation, even though it is not directly related to land use policies. The basic.thrust of the Parks and Recreation Master Plan also reflects this strategy.

10.1 PART 111


• • • • • • •

10. PARKS AND RECREATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Parks Master Plan

10.A

Policy Report #10

To implement the Parks and Recreation Master Plan in a manner which is supportive of the General Municipal Plan land use strategy. It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Relationship Between General Municipal Plan and Parks Plan

10.A.1

The City will utilize the Parks and Recreation Master Plan as the implementation mechanism for the parks portion of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, and will adjust it as necessary in response to ongoing evaluation of development trends.

Parks Master Plan; General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Inner City Neighbourhood Park Emphasis

10.A.2

The City will emphasize the acquisition and development of parkland in inner city neighbourhoods after 1984, particularly those designated for redevelopment, and will ensure that such emphasis is reflected in revisions to the Parks and Recreation Master Plan.

Parks Master Plan and Capital Budget

Downtown

10.A.3

The City will, after 1984, have as its second priority for park space acquisition and development, the Downtown area.

Parks Capital Budget

Redevelopment Levy

10.A.4

The City will impose a redevelopment levy to assist in the acquisition of land for parks and schools in areas undergoing redevelopment within the city through the adoption of Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaws.

Area Redevelopment Plans

10.2 PART III


10. PARKS AND RECREATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Suburban Parks

10.A.5

Parks Capital Given emphasis in the other areas outlined above, the City will allocate proportionately less Budget priority to suburban parks development after 1984.

Suburban Parks System Design

10.A.6

The City will investigate alternative arrangements of suburban parks and their locations to inject more variety into new residential environments in a way which meets park needs.

Parks Operating Budget

Recreational Space Within Developments

10.A.7

The City will encourage and/or require the provision of recreational space on the site or within the complex of comprehensively designed medium and high density projects, particularly within or in proximity to major activity centres for commercial developments, in accordance with recommendations outlined in statutory plans or urban design handbooks.

Land Use Bylaw

Industrial Park Reserve

10.A.8

The City will continue to require dedication of a Area Structure Plans; 10 percent municipal reserve, or money in lieu Subdivision of reserve, for park space in industrial areas at the time of subdivision, in accordance with The Planning Act, 1977.

Cross Reference 5.A.4

It is the objective of Council:

Utilization of Parks Space

10.B

To optimize the potential use of existing parks and recreation facilities.

Policy Report #10

10.3 PART III

• • • • •


MI CITY LEVEL Ell DISTRICT LEVEL

IMO NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL MN SCHOOL GROUNDS

• • • • •

MAP 10.1 PARKLAND DISTRIBUTION 0 M

WI=


10. PARKS AND RECREATION

S siihiect

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Upgrading Existing Park Facilities

10.B.1

The City will emphasize upgrading and improving the quality of existing park facilities.

Parks Capital Budget

It is the objective of Council:

11

0

Delegation of Responsibility

10.0

To require the delegation of responsibility to the development industry and to encourage the involvement of citizens in parks and recreational services and facility developments.

Policy Report #10

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

4110

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Private Sector Responsibility

10.C.1

The City will delegate the responsibility for the development of neighbourhood park sites to the development industry through the Standard Residential Servicing Agreement.

Land Development Co-ordination

Local Community Involvement

10.C.2

The City will increase the involvement of local communities in developing and implementing parks and recreation services.

Parks and Recreation Operating Budget

10.5 PART HI


11. RIVER VALLEY

• •

INTRODUCTION The strategy does not propose any shifts in Council policy towards the river valley. The objectives reflect past Council directives and the thrust of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw towards continued acquisition in the river valley for environmental protection (Objective 11.A) and public parks (Objective 11.B). Continued protection of the river

valley is an integral part of the land use strategy. The river valley provides Edmonton with open space and natural environment, as well as being a main element in the city's urban design image. These three factors will all become increasingly valuable as the City moves towards a more compact form of residential development.

• • •

• • 11.1

PART III


11. RIVER VALLEY

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Environmental Protection

11.A

Policy Report #10, 15.B.1

To continue to acquire and control land in the river valley and ravine system as an environmental protection area (refer to Map 11.1 for boundary of control area).

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Roadway Crossings

11.A.1

The City will not develop transportation facilities through the river valley or ravine system except for direct crossings.

Transportation System Plan

Environmental Protection Principals

11.A.2

The City will establish a procedure for controlling land use and development within the river valley, through establishing land management units which provide guidelines for development based on environmental protection principles.

River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan

12.A.1

Environmental Impact Statements

11.A.3

The City will implement a process of evaluating developments through the use of environmental impact statements, in order to protect the river valley as well as the urban development on the plateau beyond the valley break.

River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan

12.A.3

Bank Instability

11.A.4

The City will initiate studies to identify and analyze areas of critical bank instability.

River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan

Top of the Bank The City will reaffirm its position of 11.A.5 Setback maintaining a minimum 25 foot setback from the geographical top of the bank in which no development will be permitted.

Land Use Bylaw

11.2 PART 111


11. RIVER VALLEY

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

River Valley as Public Park

11.B

Policy Report #10

To continue to acquire land in the river valley and ravine system for public park purposes.

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Acquisition of River Valley Lands

11.B.1

The City will continue to acquire privately-owned land in the river valley.

Parks and Capital Budget

Acquisition of River Valley Lands

11.B.2

The City will, as part of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, establish how land will be acquired in the communities of Rossdale, Lavigne, and Cloverdale so as to minimize the social impacts in making the transition from residential to park usage.

River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan

Parks Development

11.B.3

The City will develop the river valley according to the parks development program set out by the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83.

Parks and Recreation Master Plan; Parks Capital Budget

-

15.B.2

11.3 PART III

• • • • •


• • • • 1

0.ar

4 i 0.XV[11-01 ea. 140/ jr-‘ 30■MISTitgreal Ora 112 al INFAMMIllrart a rdirrA9Vall :rattaaiSMIWI„ 91.141V/P1FIKV, rk

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MAP 11.1 BOUNDARIES OF THE RIVER VALLEY AREA REDEVELOPMENT PLAN 0 KM I

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2

4

3

2

411


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12. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

• • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION In the 1971 General Plan, limited concern was displayed for the protection of the natural environment within the city, with the exception of policies respecting the North Saskatchewan River Valley System. Given that the natural environment is a limited, sensitive and often irreplaceable resource, the land use strategy incorporates an increased emphasis on recognizing and planning for the sensitivity of the natural environment when planning the development of growth areas. In addition, the land use strategy is concerned that future development is safeguarded from potential natural hazards which may cause loss or damage to life and property (Objective 12.A).

This theme will increase in importance as the amount and density of urban development in the Edmonton Sub-region increases and places greater pressure upon the environment to tolerate its impacts. This theme is further reflected in Policy 12.A.1 respecting the preservation of the river valley and ravine system; Policy 12.A.2, regarding the incorporation of environmental impact statements as input to the preparation, review and approval of Area Structure Plans, and plans for transportation corridors and utility or energy networks or corridors; Policy 12.A.3, regarding the establishment of guidelines for environmental impact assessments; and, Policy 12.A.4, concerning the preservation of existing natural and open space environments.

12.1 PART III


12. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

• • • • •

• •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Protection of Natural Environment

12.A

Policy Report #11

To inject into the land use planning process a greater sensitivity to the protection of the natural environment, particularly in the planning of new residential growth areas.

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Environmental Impact Upon the River Valley

12.A.1

The City will require the preparation of environmental impact statements to assess the impact of proposed development on the river valley.

River Valley Area 11.A.2, Redevelopment 15.B.1 Plan

Ecological Planning Approach

12.A.2

The City will adopt an ecologically sensitive planning approach and will require the preparation of environmental impact statements as input to the preparation, review and approval of plans for:

Area Structure Plans; Transportation Plans

17.C.4

(a) new suburban growth areas (Area Structure Plans); (b) transportation corridors; and, (c) utility or energy networks or corridors.

Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines

12.A.3

The City will undertake a study to establish guidelines and, where possible, measurement standards for environmental impact assessments and statements.

Planning Department; Parks and Recreation Department

11.A.3

Existing Natural Areas

12.A.4

The City will ensure that existing natural and open space areas, including parks, golf courses, and other "open space", be preserved from urban development through the District Plan process.

District Planning Program

3.A.5

12.2 PART III


• • • • • • •

13. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES INTRODUCTION Human development and social services pertain to all aspects of the physical and social environment and the network of human services which together contribute to individual, family and community well-being, self-sufficiency, and the quality of life for all persons in the city. This includes the following institutional uses: educational, cultural and recreational, medical, religious, social, public safety and protection. Those aspects of human development and social services which are intimately related to the planning process are directly considered and accommodated in other policy areas of the General Municipal Plan, such as those Components and Policy Reports dealing with Urban Design, Citizen Participation, District Planning and Residential Development. The major issues are reiterated and dealt with in this section for the purpose of drawing together areas of concern to human development and social services in Edmonton.

The provision of human services and facilities plays an important role, both in the development, as well as in the implementation, of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy. The feedback which the City has been receiving about the social impact of its planning policies emphasizes the importance of incorporating this factor in measuring the quality of the urban environment (Objective 13.A). As a consequence of this, the General Municipal Plan land use strategy will have definite implications for the provision of many human services. The preparation of a Human Development Strategy to deal with the social implications of the land use strategy is thus essential to the successful implementation of a land use strategy which aims for increasing compactness without detracting from the quality of urban living. The proposed Human Development Strategy will provide for an integrated approach to planning and growth management, which coordinates land use, social and environmental strategies and programs according to the needs and concerns of citizens, by providing a social framework within which issues can be resolved.

13.1 PART III


13. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

0

Social Development

13.A

To account for social planning issues and citizen involvement in the land use planning process.

Policy Report #12

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

• • • • •

Human Development Strategy

13.A.1

Structure for Citizen Participation

13.A.2

Equitable and Co-ordinated Delivery of Services

13.A.3

The City will prepare and implement a comprehensive Human Development Strategy which provides for land use planning in light of the overall set of goals, objectives and standards relating to the nature and quality of the environment and to the delivery of human services.

Social Services Department

The City will create a structure to facilitate citizen participation in District Planning, the monitoring of plans, and the review of development applications through the establishment of formal District Planning Committees composed of representatives elected from Community Leagues, Area Councils, and citizens at large, to be responsible for providing input to the Planning Department on these matters.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

Policy Report

The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, encourage an equitable distribution and co-ordinated delivery of services which are accessible and responsive to local requirements, in accordance with the Human Services Delivery System boundaries.

C.P.P.O.; District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

2.A, 3.A.5, 13.A.4, 17.C.4

Policy Report #12

#4,4.A.1

13.2 PART III


13. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

Adequacy and Suitability of Services

13.A.4

The City will work towards the provision of types and levels of public services and facilities in a community which are sufficiently flexible to support the range and mix of residential densities, present and planned, as well as the demographic structure of the population.

Social Services Department; Planning Department

13.A.3

Quality of Environmental Design

13.A.5

The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, give particular attention to creating living environments, especially in the case of multiple unit housing, which make optimal use of the site, are free from crowding, and which respect the users' needs for privacy, open space, security, aesthetic design, and protection from noise.

District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

Policy Report #13,2A, 3.A.5, 15.A.2

Housing Alternatives

13.A.6

The City will, in the design of new neighbourhoods and in the redevelopment of existing areas, encourage the provision of a range of housing alternatives by type, tenure, and cost.

District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

Policy Report #5, 3.A.5, 5.B, 5.0

Maintenance of Inner City Schools

13.A.7

The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, and particularly the redevelopment of existing neighbourhoods, direct attention toward the maintenance of inner city schools by encouraging the provision of family suitable units in redevelopment projects and upgrading environmental amenities, such as parks.

District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

2.A, 5.B

Neighbourhood/ Community Identity

13.A.8

The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, give attention to the development and retention of neighbourhood or community identity.

District Planning; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

5.B.3

13.3 PART III

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14. THE REGION AND ANNEXATION

• • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION Although the General Municipal Plan growth strategy embodied within this document was developed excluding assumptions with respect to the annexation of lands to the City of Edmonton, it is recognized that there is a definite shortage of sufficient developable land to satisfy the city's long range growth requirements, and further, that existing fragmented jurisdictional arrangements in the Edmonton Metropolitan Area are inadequate to effectively plan and manage the growth and development of the city. However, it is beyond the scope of the General Municipal Plan to provide detailed policy statements as to the rationale for boundary adjustment and the numerous requirements in the extension of jurisdictional control over annexed lands. Such detailed statements are contained within the City's boundary submission to the Local Authorities Board. Rather, this Component of the General Municipal Plan provides only very broad statements concerning those lands which should be brought under the City's jurisdiction to

ensure adequate land use planning controls may be exercised to safeguard options for long range development requirements in the Edmonton Metropolitan Area (Policy 14.A.1). Furthermore, the preferred use of lands annexed to the city is described in Policy 14.A.2 and the requirement for a unified metropolitan government structure to effectively control annexed lands in Policy 14.A.3. However, since the General Municipal Plan cannot possibly cover all necessary policies with respect to the annexation of land to the city and the effective control of these lands, Policy 14.A.4 recognizes that the City's report to the Local Authorities Board, entitled, "Long Term Planning Analysis-Edmonton Annexation Project", provides these details. That report furnishes the basic rationale for the City's annexation application to the Local Authorities Board and concludes with a series of specific recommendations relative to.an appropriate boundary, and the principle elements which should be considered in establishing any form of government for the newly-annexed area.

14.1 PART III


14. THE REGION AND ANNEXATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

4110

Long-Range Growth Requirements

14.A

To bring under the jurisdiction of the City of Edmonton sufficient land to satisfy long range urban land development and growth requirements.

1.A.3, 1.B, 5.E.4,

7.A.1, 7.D.2

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

411

III II/

Annexed Territories

14.A.1

The City will pursue a comprehensive boundary Annexation Application adjustment, merging within the 1979 municipal boundary those peripheral municipalities or parts thereof which demonstrate an interdependence with the City of Edmonton for growth, development and the provision of some or all essential municipal services, or other lands which offer a long-term potential for urban development (Map 14.1).

Preferred Use of Annexed Lands

14.A.2

The City will adopt a land development strategy Sector Studies; Area Structure for those lands annexed to the City of Plans Edmonton, as schematically illustrated on Map 14.1.

Unified Government Structure

14.A.3

The City will adopt a unified government structure extending over those annexed territories illustrated on Map 14.1, and implemented consistent with the general principles included within the City's boundary submission to the Local Authorities Board.

Annexation Application

Land Use Development and Servicing Guidelines

14.A.4

The City will follow long range land use development and servicing guidelines as detailed in the City's comprehensive annexation submission, "Long Term Planning Analysis — Edmonton Annexation Project", presented to the Local Authorities Board in September, 1979.

Annexation Application

1.B.1, 5.E.4, 6.E.7, 7.D.1

1.A.2, 1.A.3, 1.A.4, 1.A.5, 1.B.1

14.2 PART 111


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EXISTING GENERAL URBAN FUTURE GENERAL URBAN EXISTING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE INDUSTRIAL AREA RECOMMENDED FOR ANNEXATION TO THE CITY OF EDMONTON (MARCH 1979). Note Tna Map represent. • Ore40 marl conCeOluel ollustraron potent4I pettern of 400 use Clere/opmenr to Me year 2020 • would De dependant upon the success of fr. City of Ea , • ennerapon applmanon to Me Proymmal Government ltfa , . • • Ms Map 4 not 0de00e0 to promo.e slte specMc adecfmn use regulePon From - Long Venn Planmng Analysts Edmonton Annerallon

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MAP 14.1 PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED BY THE ANNEXATION PROJECT TO THE YEAR 2020

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15. URBAN DESIGN

INTRODUCTION As the City of Edmonton has grown, so has the scale and intensity of development and redevelopment. New developments, particularly in the Downtown, tend to have a significant impact on the surrounding area. Views may be blocked, unpleasant wind conditions may be created and interesting retail streetscapes may be destroyed. For this reason, greater attention must be paid to urban design, that is, to the design of our city beyond the level of the individual building or project.

It is not within the scope of the General Municipal Plan to address the many urban design issues beyond this city-wide level. Detailed urban design objectives, policies and guidelines are best developed through local planning activities, such as the proposed District Planning Program and the Downtown Plan, where design recommendations can be tied more closely to specific situations and to community values, needs and aspirations.

Urban design can play an important role in protecting and enhancing the quality of the urban environment, in creating a city which is beautiful, interesting, efficient, humane and liveable. General Municipal Plan policies are thus directed toward increasing the consideration given to urban design in the City's land use planning and development regulation processes (Objective 15.A).

Several specific urban design policies are, however, to be found throughout the Plan. Because streets and sidewalks constitute a major component of public open space where citizens experience the city most intimately, this section of the Plan includes policies to improve the amenity of the pedestrian environment (Objective 15.C).

The General Municipal Plan also sets out a number of broad urban design policies concerning major elements of the city's environment which contribute to Edmonton's overall image, such as the North Saskatchewan River Valley and the major approach routes into the city.

Also included in this section are policies on designing the city for energy conservation (Objective 15.D). These policies represent a relatively new direction for the General Municipal Plan and reflect a concern whichhas guided the preparation of the Plan's growth strategy. The policies recognize the need to start shaping the city's built environment now to meet the types of energy issues anticipated in the future.

15.1 PART III


15. URBAN DESIGN

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Urban Design

15.A.

Policy Report #13

To establish a process by which greater consideration is given to urban design in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals.

It is therefore the policy of Council that: District Plan Urban Design Component

15.A.1

District Plans prepared for each of the districts in Map 3.1 will include an urban design component which will:

District Planning Program

3.A.5

Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

13.A.5, 17.B.4, 17.C.4

(a) set out general design objectives, policies and guidelines for each district; (b) provide, where required, detailed design guidelines for such things as district activity centres, special character areas and residential development; (c) address city-wide design concerns as outlined in Policies 15.B.1 to 15.B.6; and, (d) propose, where required, amendments to the Land Use Bylaw through the Statutory Plan Overlay or other mechanisms. Area Redevelopment Plans

15.A.2

Area Redevelopment Plans and Area Structure Plans prepared by the City will include an urban design component which will: (a) incorporate the design objectives, policies and guidelines of the General Municipal Plan and the District Plan; and, (b) set out additional design guidelines where necessary.

15.2 PART 111


15. URBAN DESIGN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Referenci

Area Structure Plans

15.A.3

Area Structure Plans prepared by the private sector will incorporate the design objectives, policies and guidelines set out in the General Municipal Plan and other planning documents adopted by City Council.

Area Structure Plans

17.C.4

Requirement for Urban Design Statement and Context Map

15.A.4

The City will require that Neighbourhood Structure Plans, when submitted for approval, be accompanied by an urban design statement and context map whose terms of reference shall be prepared by the Planning Department and which will describe:

Area Structure Plans

17.C.5

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ 41111

(a) the manner in which the design objectives, policies and guidelines set out in the General Municipal Plan and other statutory plans and documents adopted by City Council have been incorporated into the design of the Plan;

1111

(b) particular urban design opportunities present in the area; and, (c) any trade-offs between urban design considerations and other objectives or requirements which have been made in the Plan.

Development Applications

15.A.5

The City will require an urban design statement and context map as part of the development application for all developments which have a significant urban design impact due to their size, complexity or context, such as:

Land Use Bylaw

17.D

(a) mixed use commercial and residential projects;

411 15.3 PART III


15. URBAN DESIGN

O

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) developments along highways which serve as major entrance routes to the city; (c) large, comprehensively designed developments consisting of a variety of buildings and/or uses;

III

(d) infill residential projects; and, (e) developments involving buildings, sites or areas of historical interest. â&#x20AC;˘

Pre-Submission Design Consultation

15.A.6

The City will establish procedures for reviewing Land Use Bylaw the urban design component of plans and development proposals, for which urban design statements and context maps are required, prior to their submission for approval.

17.D

Urban Design Evaluation of Redistricting Applications

15.A.7

The Planning Department will include an urban Land Use Bylaw design evaluation as part of its reports to the Municipal Planning Commission and City Council dealing with redistricting (rezoning) applications.

17.D.6

Urban Design Guidelines Handbook

15.A.8

The City will prepare a comprehensive handbook of urban design guidelines applicable to the Edmonton context as a reference document to assist in the preparation of the urban design component of District Plans and other statutory plans, and in the review of redistricting (rezoning) and development applications.

Planning Department

Development of an Urban Design Language

15.A.9

The City will develop an urban design language to be used in the preparation of urban design plans, statements and context maps, and in the

Planning Department

0 III O

â&#x20AC;˘

18.B.1

15.4 PART III


15. URBAN DESIGN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

review of redistricting (rezoning) and development applications. The language will be set out in a reference handbook and will provide a consistent vocabulary of words and a system of symbols for identifying and describing features of the urban environment which present design problems or opportunities.

Design Guidelines for Newly Developing Areas

15.A.10

The City will prepare a handbook of urban design objectives, policies and guidelines for newly developing areas to be used in the preparation of Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans and plans of subdivision, and to be used in the review and approval processes for these plans.

Planning Department

18.B.1

It is the objective of Council:

The City Image

15.B

To protect and enhance those major elements in the urban environment which contribute to the overall image of the city.

Policy Report #13

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

The North Saskatchewan River Valley

15.B.1

River Valley Area The City will manage development within the Redevelopment river valley and ravine system, and along its bluffs, to protect the natural environment of this Plan dominant topographical feature and the unique view and recreational opportunities which the valley provides.

11.A, 12.A.1

River Valley Urban Design Plan

15.B.2

Parks and The City will prepare an urban design plan for the river valley, its ravine system and immediate Planning Departments environs in conjunction with the identification and specification of land management units

11.B.2

15.5 PART III

• • • • •


• • • • • • •

15. URBAN DESIGN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

recommended in the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan and park development set out in the Parks and Recreation Master Plan 1979 1983. -

Major Approach Routes

15.B.3

The City will undertake Area Structure Plans or Area Redevelopment Plans for major highway entrance corridors, with an emphasis being placed by these plans on urban design considerations.

Planning Department

6.H.5, 15.C.10, 17.B.1, 17.C.3

The Downtown Skyline

15.B.4

The City will maintain the downtown skyline as the dominant point in Edmonton's built form by encouraging the most intense and highest development to occur in the downtown area.

District Planning Program; Land Use Bylaw

6.D.5

Sub-Centres

15.B.5

Sub-centres and major nodes around the city will be developed in a manner which emphasizes their function and importance as focal points of community and business activity. Consideration in the design of sub-centres will therefore be given to such things as building heights, special landscaping and lighting, and the development of unique design themes.

District Planning Program; Land Use Bylaw

6.E.6, 6.F.4

Character Areas

15.B.6

The City will identify and conserve historic and distinctive older areas of the city which contribute to the interest and character of the urban environment. Furthermore, the City will establish policies and design guidelines to ensure that new buildings constructed in areas of special identity are compatible with existing development.

Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation Policy; District Plans; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans

3.A.5, 16.A

15.6 PART 111


15. URBAN DESIGN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

Street Environment

15.0

To create a pedestrian system and street environment which is pleasant, safe and attractive and provides for the convenient movement of pedestrians.

Policy Report #13, 5.A.4, 6.D.6

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Building-Street Relationships

15.C.1

The City will establish design guidelines concerning the relationship of new buildings to the street to ensure that new developments, particularly in commercial and high density residential areas, create an environment at-grade which is attractive and in scale with pedestrians.

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment and Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

6.D.7

Micro-Climate

15.C.2

New buildings shall be designed and sited so as to minimize the creation of undesirable wind and shade conditions on streets, sidewalks, and public open spaces in the vicinity.

Land Use Bylaw

6.E.6, 6.F.4

Development of the Pedway System

15.C.3

New developments in the Downtown shall make provisions to link up with existing and future pedways in accordance with the Pedway Concept Plan.

Land Use Bylaw; Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan

8.F.1

Protection From Inclement Weather

15.C.4

Developments along major pedestrian and transit routes will be encouraged to incorporate such design features as awnings, arcades, and enclosed shelters which offer protection to pedestrians from inclement weather.

Land Use Bylaw

15.7 PART III

• • • • •


15. URBAN DESIGN

• • • • • • •

Subject

Street Furniture and Streetscape Priority Areas

Reference No.

15.C.5

Cross Reference

Objectives and Policies

Program

The City will, as part of the urban design component of District Plans and statutory plans, identify priority areas for street furniture improvements and streetscape plans based on an integrated evaluation of the following types of criteria:

District Planning Program; Area Redevelopment and Area Structure Plans

3.A.5, 17.B.4, 17.C.4

(a) ability and utility in emphasizing movement to and from focal points or activity centres; (b) greater emphasis on improving the quality of higher density and intensity environments; (c) greater emphasis on improving areas of greatest need, such as commercial strip areas; and, (d) greater emphasis on implementability, particularly the availability of alternate funding sources and support from local residents, property owners and businesses. Street Furniture Handbook

15.C.6

The City will prepare a handbook for Council's approval, of performance standards or guidelines for the design, siting and maintenance of street furniture to be used in the preparation of design specifications and contracts and the review of such by the Technical Review Committee.

Planning Department; Parks and Recreation

18.B.1

Municipal Role

15.C.7

The City will take on a major responsibility for co-ordinating the implementation of street furniture and streetscape plans proposed in statutory plans through the rationalization of Departmental responsibilities and co-ordination of Departmental budgets.

Executive Services; Corporate Policy Planning Office; Planning Department

17.A.2

15.8

PART III


15. URBAN DESIGN

Subject

Private Sector Sponsored Improvements

Reference No.

15.C.8

Objectives and Policies

The City will investigate the following methods for increasing private sector involvement in the provision of street furniture and the general upgrading of the street environment:

Program General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

Cross Reference

6.G.4

(a) expanding the use of Local Improvement Assessment levies; and, (b) establishing provincial business improvement district legislation which would create a loan fund to be used by groups of businesses for upgrading their business areas.

Control of Signs

15.C.9

The City will establish sign regulations to implement the following types of design principles:

Land Use Bylaw

17.D

(a) signs should be properly scaled to the development of a site, building or area with respect to size, height, shape and numbers; (b) signs should generally complement the architectural style of a building; and, (c) signs should be designed, engineered, situated and maintained in a manner which is safe and without hazard to the general public.

Signs along Approach Routes

15.C.10

The City will establish special regulation zones with specific signage guidelines for major transportation corridors and approach routes to the city.

Planning Department

15.B.3

15.9 PART III

• • • •


15. URBAN DESIGN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council:

0

• • • • •

Energy and Planning

15.D

To promote energy conservation in land use and transportation planning, and in building and site design.

Policy Report #13

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Factors

15.D.1

The City will give consideration to energy efficiency and conservation, amongst other factors, in the review and approval of statutory plans and development proposals. More specifically, the City will evaluate the following design elements in terms of their potential contribution to energy conservation:

District Plans; Area Redevelopment Plans; Area Structure Plans; Land Use Bylaw

2.A, 7.F.3, 17.D.2

(a) pattern and density of land uses; (b) transportation network;

(c) lot and building orientation; (d) landscaping; (e) utility servicing; and, (f) building designs. Design Guidelines for Energy Conservation

15.D.2

The City will prepare a handbook of design guidelines for energy conservation to assist in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals.

Planning Department

18.B.1

Demonstration Projects

15.D.3

The City will encourage innovative projects which demonstrate opportunities to create an attractive, energy-conserving living environment.

Development Review

5.D.2, 7.F.3

15.10 PART 111


fl

I


16. HISTORIC PRESERVATION

INTRODUCTION

• • • • •

The General Municipal Plan strategy recognizes the need to maintain and improve the quality of the physical environment. The preservation of historic buildings and areas can contribute to environmental quality in several ways. Historic structures and areas serve an educational purpose by providing links with past events and architectural styles. As well, historic buildings provide aesthetic benefits by adding variety to the built form. Also, the typical height and bulk of historic buildings is usually very effective in creating attractive, pedestrian-oriented urban spaces on sidewalks and public squares. Historic areas can provide opportunities to create unique and commercially successful developments which simply would not be possible without the existence of the historic buildings, such as the Boardwalk. Similarly, historic structures can be the focus for unique housing developments, entertainment facilities and parks. Imaginative renovation of older buildings to accommodate modern functions can help maintain or increase property values in an area which might otherwise slip into a run-down condition. Commercial centres in historic areas can also serve as tourist attractions, thus bringing funds into the city's economy from outside. Historic preservation offers educational, cultural, aesthetic and economic benefits, and policies to promote historic preservation are an integral part of the Plan's overall growth strategy.

In October, 1978, City Council directed the Administration to explore and study the financial and legal implications of an historic preservation program. In order to carry out this directive, the Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation was established, with representatives from the Civic Administration and interested non-governmental organizations. The Committee is to prepare policies and guidelines for historic preservation. As well, the Committee is responsible for reviewing the Edmonton Historical Board's terms of reference and, therefore, outline the Board's future role in the determination of historic sites. The Ad Hoc Committee's report was submitted to Council in the Winter of 1980. It is expected that the findings and recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation will have a strong influence on the detailed policies and procedures applied by the City in connection with historic preservation. Therefore, the policies in the General Municipal Plan Bylaw are intended to provide the basic policy direction and describe general principles to be considered in the development of detailed policies, programs and organizational structures.

16.1

PART III


16. HISTORIC PRESERVATION

• • • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Preservation of Historic Resources

16.A

Policy Report #14, 15.B.6

To promote the preservation of historic buildings, sites and areas in the City of Edmonton.

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Development of Specific Policies and Programs

16.A.1

The City shall develop a set of policies and procedures to promote historic preservation and in so doing shall have regard to the following considerations: (a) the establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive inventory of historic resources is a prerequisite for any truly effective program of historic preservation;

Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation; C.P.P.O.; General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

(b) the formulation of clear criteria to be used in deciding which buildings and areas warrant preservation is needed in order to preserve a representative sample of past development and achieve the maximum benefit from preservation efforts; (c) the creative renovation of historic buildings to accommodate modern functions and the preservation of historic buildings in their original condition are both important components of a successful historic preservation program;

16.2 PART III


16. HISTORIC PRESERVATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(d) the widest possible range of fiscal and legal techniques should be considered to maximize the cost-effectiveness of the City's preservation activities; (e) the provision of a longer review period prior to the issuance of a demolition permit on an historic site is desirable, in order to provide adequate time to assess the historic value of the site and arrange compensation for its preservation, if appropriate; and,

III

(f) the co-operation and participation of private groups should be actively encouraged to make use of the specialized knowledge and volunteer labour these groups can offer and to ensure that the program reflects the objectives, values, and sentiments of the general public to the maximum possible extent.

0

• • 16.3 PART 111


IV - IMPLEMENTATION

Component 17. Implementation Component 18. Monitoring and Managing the Plan

E4


.

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;


17. IMPLEMENTATION

• • • • •

INTRODUCTION The General Municipal Plan can be implemented only if the policies in it are translated into regular programs and procedures. It is for this reason the format of the Plan has emphasized policy-program linkages in its structure. The philosophy of using existing and new programs to implement the Plan is embodied in Objective 17.A, which provides the summary of all the programs required to implement the Plan. The most significant programs for implementing the Plan—the area where the City has the most tools—is in the land use control system. Objectives 17.B to D set out the directions for Area Redevelopment Plans, Area Structure Plans and the Land Use Bylaw respectively, the three major tools provided to the City under The Planning Act. The Planning Act, 1977, allows municipalities to adopt smaller Area Redevelopment Plans for the purpose of promoting conservation, rehabilitation or redevelopment of land and/or buildings. Detailed smaller area plans will be required in some instances to plan adequately for the implications of the land use growth strategy for presently developed areas and to impose a redevelopment levy to assist in upgrading areas through the acquisition of parkland and/or land for schools.

The hierarchical structure of statutory plans permitted by The Planning Act, 1977, also allows municipalities to adopt smaller Area Structure Plans for the purpose of providing a framework for the subsequent subdivision and development of land within a municipality. The Area Structure Plan will provide a means of ensuring the implementation of General Municipal Plan policies regarding orderly and efficient development of an area in terms of the provision of essential services and facilities, and the structuring of land use and transportation systems. The Land Use Bylaw, as provided for in Sections 62-72 of The Planning Act, 1977, is the most significant and direct means by which private development proposals will be guided to implement the land use strategy and policies related to the quality of the urban environment established in the General Municipal Plan, District Plans and Area Plans. In its approach to the implementation of statutory plan objectives, the Land Use Bylaw must be concerned with the fair and balanced treatment of legitimate interests in decision-making, some measure of certainty and continuity to the process of change, and flexibility to allow statutory plan objectives to be accommodated.

• • 17.1 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Implementation Through Programs

17.A

To utilize existing programs, and establish new programs where required, for implementation of the General Municipal Plan.

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

• • • •

Summary of Implementation Programs

17.A.1

The City will utilize the programs outlined in Chart 17.1 for implementing the General Municipal Plan.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

17.A.2

Specifically, the City will establish a General Municipal Plan Implementation Program to co-ordinate, in conjunction with the Corporate Policy Planning Office, the delegation of responsibility to program managers to implement the policies of the General Municipal Plan.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

15.C.7

Initiation of New Programs

17.A.3

Specifically, the City will also establish the following new programs:

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

4.A.4

(a) District Planning Program; (b) Citizen Participation Program; (c) Development Industry Liaison Committee Program; and, (d) General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program.

17.2 PART IV


Chart

17.1

Plan Implementation Programs

Programs

New/ Existing

Major Coordinating Responsibility: Input Responsibility * Input from all Civic Departments as Part of the Plan Process

Timing 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Cross Reference

Operating 1. Land Use Planning and Control Programs N (a) District Planning (b) Area and Neighbourhood E Structure Plans (c) Area Redevelopment E Plans E (d) Downtown Plan E (e) Land Use Bylaw (f) River Valley Area (E)/N Redevelopment Plan (g) Sector Studies (h) Regional Industrial Land Strategy 2. Land Use Planning Studies (a) Urban Design Guidelines Handbook

PLANNING *

3.A.1, 17.A.3

PLANNING *

17.0

PLANNING * PLANNING * PLANNING *

17.B 6.D 17.D 9.C.1, 11.A

N

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation PLANNING "

(in conjunction with District Plans)

N

PLANNING *

(contingent on Annexation)

N

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation

15.A.8, 15.D.2

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation, Social Services

15.A.10

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation

12.A.2, 12.A.3

N

PLANNING *

7.D.1

N

PLANNING *

4.A.1, 13.A.2,

(b) Design Handbooks — newly developing areas

(c)

Ecological Land Planning and Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines

(d) Industrial Land Use District and Designation Study 3. Citizen Participation Program

5.F, 9.C.1 7.A.1

17.A.3

17.3

PART IV

• • • •


Chart 17.1 (cont.)

• • •

• • • •

Plan Implementation Programs

Programs

New/ Existing

Major Coordinating Responsibility: Input Responsibility " Input from all Civic Departments as Part of the Plan Process

Timing 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Cross Reference

4. Development Industry Liaison Committee

PLANNING *

5. Annexation Application

COMMISSION BOARD

6. Input to Edmonton Regional Planning Commission

PLANNING *

1.A.3

SOCIAL SERVICES; Planning PARKS AND RECREATION *

13.A.1

8. General Municipal Plan Implementation

PLANNING *

17.A.2

9. General Municipal Plan Monitoring

PLANNING *

17.A.3, 18.A.1

10. Local Policy Plan

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFFICE *

9.A.1, 17.A

11. Business Development Programs

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

1.C, 7.G

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM DESIGN; Planning

8.A

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFICE *

9.C.1

ENGINEERING

8.A.4, 8.B.4

7. Public Services Programs and Studies (a) Human Development Strategy (b) Parks Master Plan

12. Transportation System Plan 13. Coordination of Servicing Program 14. Engineering Operating Program

(E)/N

4.A.4, 17.A.3 As required

1.A.5, 1.B.1, 14.A

10.A

17.4 PART IV


Chart 17.1 (cont.) Plan Implementation Programs

Major Coordinating Responsibilty: Input Responsibilty Programs

New/ Existing

15. Transit Operating Programs 16. Parking Authority

17. Housing Targets 18. Information Base Programs

19. Property Management Programs

(E)/N

*Input from all Civic Departments as Part of the Plan Process

Timing 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Cross Reference

EDMONTON TRANSIT

8.B.1, 8.C.1

BYLAW ENFORCEMENT *; Transportation System Design

8.C.2

PLANNING/REAL ESTATE & HOUSING

5.D.1

MANAGEMENT STUDIES, SYSTEMS AND BUDGET; Planning

18.A.4, 18.A.5

REAL ESTATE & HOUSING

6.A.9

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFICE *

1.A.4, 1.B.2, 9.B

ENGINEERING EDMONTON TRANSIT

8.A.4, 8.B.4

REAL ESTATE & HOUSING

5.A.6, 5.H.1

REAL ESTATE & HOUSING; Planning

5.H

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFICE

13.A.4

PARKS AND RECREATION PARKS AND RECREATION

10.B 10.A.3, 10.A.5,

Capital 1. Land Servicing Programs 2. Engineering Capital Programs 3. Transit Capital Programs 4. Land Acquisition and Disposition 5. Housing Construction Programs 6. Public Facility Construction Program 7. Park Development Programs 8. Park Land Acquisition

8.B.1, 8.C.1

11.A

Note: The cross-reference section of this chart only indicates the primary policies which recommend the establishment or use of a program. Secondary cross-referencing as outlined in the text of Volume I is not included.

17.5 PART IV

• • • • • •


17. IMPLEMENTATION

• • • • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Role of Area Redevelopment Plans

17.B

To utilize Area Redevelopment Plans, as provided for by Sections 63 65 of The Planning Act, 1977, as a means of providing detailed direction to the implementation of policies of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan, and direction to land use regulations on specific sites within developed areas or parcels of the city.

Policy Report #15

-

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Purpose of Area Redevelopment Plans - Developed Areas

17.B.1

The City will undertake the preparation of Area Redevelopment Plans as a means of directing the preservation, rehabilitation, and/or redevelopment of developed areas of the city, as outlined on Map 17.1, in conformity with the intent of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan policies, the Land Use Bylaw and other relevant municipal policies.

Community Planning and Area Planning Programs

Purpose of Area Redevelopment Plans - New Growth Areas

17.B.2

The City will consider the use of Area Redevelopment Plans for portions of new suburban areas where older, inefficient forms of land use require adjustment to enable the development of a viable and integrated community around it.

Land Use Planning Programs

Link Between District Plans and Area Redevelopment Plans

17.B.3

The City will, where appropriate, simultaneously adopt portions of District Plans as amendments to the General Municipal Plan and as Area Redevelopment Plans for the purpose of implementing The Planning Act,

District Planning Program

15.B.3

3.A.2

1977.

17.6 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Contents of Area Redevelopment Plans

Reference No. 17.B.4

Objectives and Policies The preparation of Area Redevelopment Plans shall adhere to the requirements of Section 65 of The Planning Act, 1977, and shall further indicate:

Program

Community Planning and Area Planning Programs

Cross Reference

5.B.11, 5.H.6, 15.A.2, 15.C.5

(a) the location, timing and form of development, consistent with the policies of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan regarding transportation objectives, urban environmental design objectives, and park space allocation objectives; (b) implementation strategy for proposals relating to the staging of redevelopment, methods and guidelines of land use control, particularly where direct control is envisaged, and the financing of capital improvements; and, (c) environmental, social and economic impacts of proposals and how any detrimental impacts will be minimized. It is the objective of Council:

Role of Area Structure Plans

17.0

To utilize Area Structure Plans, as provided for by Section 62 of The Planning Act, 1977, as a means of establishing a framework for the subdivision and development of new suburban areas and, in special cases, for redevelopment within developed areas of the city, with the policies of the General Municipal Plan, any District Plan and other relevant municipal, provincial policies or legislation.

Policy Report #15

• • • • •

17.7 PART IV


URBAN RIVER VALLEY

• 1, _c3 , ragyet ,L-p elliaaniii Efr ati 411I■

Alp.A.19Frowitmay,E..frAma/z iowiit = -,, VIIIIIir MLEISmoritztra■P ., mitaty

IRME17.411-Iftelklarfa 1IPIIMM shiMititsidItmairMirelfinadiraiiEwJal!

kklita. \ c4.11-1F4. 4i.V ... v,

4011firkiiiiiims .. -...i i

it+ r

reT" ^'

• • • •

INIPlik. ' ! ' 'At

st, .............0

, )

gitgi-4-. ■'01011-111'j ‘ -*AEI REIT . . Raill .

. ., A.1.

lrial = klialti/LM =-7.0glits'7.4 Trimp011 == • . ...... 67

■ u

MAP 17.1 AREAS SUITABLE FOR AREA REDEVELOP MENT PLANS 0 II

2

3

5


17. IMPLEMENTATION

4110

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

41)

Purpose of Area Structure Plans Suburban

17.C.1

The City will undertake or require the preparation of Area Structure Plans prior to the approval of any neighbourhood plan or subdivision application in any area for which a District Outline Plan, as provided for under The Planning Act, 1970, has not been prepared or approved. As indicated in Map 17.2, no suburban growth areas within the corporate limits of the City of Edmonton, as of August, 1979, are without approved plans or plans well advanced in the preparation and approval stages.

Area Structure Plan Program

Purpose of Area Structure Plans Inner City

17.C.2

The City may undertake or require the preparation of Area Structure Plans within the developed portion of the city for large areas not developed to an intensity of urban usage.

LSnd Use Planning Programs

Role of Public Initiated Area Structure Plans

17.C.3

The City will identify priority areas for public-initiated Area Structure Plans during the preparation of District Plans, where potential difficulties in servicing and transportation require initiation of public plans for an area.

District Planning Program

15.B.3

Contents of Area Structure Plans

17.C.4

The preparation of Area Structure Plans shall adhere to the requirements of Section 62(2) of The Planning Act, 1977, and shall further indicate:

Area Structure Plan Program

8.E.1, 8.E.3, 9.G.2, 12.A.2,

110

5

0 III 410

(a) existing conditions in terms of land use, transportation, natural environment and social and economic characteristics of existing population;

13.A.3, 15.A.2, 15.A.3 , 15.C.5

17.9 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(b) the environmental, social and economic impacts of land use proposals; (c) the conceptual identification or designation of functional areas such as neighbourhoods, the distribution of residential development by type and density, commercial districts, industrial districts, and parks and institutional uses in accord with the policies and principles of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan; and,

(d) any information on public land requirements.

Neighbourhood Structure Plans

17.C.5

The City will undertake or require the preparation of Neighbourhood Structure Plan Bylaws, to be adopted as amendments to Area Structure Plan Bylaws, as a basis for approving subdivision applications, which plans shall indicate:

Area Structure Plan Program

5.H.6, 7.D.4, 8.E.1, 15.A.3

(a) existing conditions in terms of land use, ownership, transportation and the natural environment; (b) identify sub-units which can be demonstrated to be serviced at certain stages; (c) identify residential, commercial or industrial density in total and ranges by any specified sub-units;

0

• •

(d) identify the actual location of major transportation system components and conditionally identify internal circulation for auto, LRT and pedestrians; 17.10

PART IV


1

CASTLE DOWNS PLAN Approved — January, 1972

2

EDMONTON NORTH AREA STRUCTURE PLAN Bylaw Received First A Reading—Jane '77 ,

. 3

STEELE HEIGHTS PLAN Approved May. 1972

1E6 CLAREVIEW PLAN Approved — August. 1972

"qr - HERMITAGE PLAN Approved — May. 1970

NM NORTHWEST INDUSTRIAL PLAN Ac ; •

7

— May 1974

WEST JASPER PLACE PLAN Approved — May, 1972

WEST JASPER PLACE

North Area Structure Plan Approved — June, 1979

an WEST JASPER PLACE

South Area Structure Plan Scheduled For City Councll — August. 1979

RIVERBEND AREA STRUCTURE PLAN

SY

eox,ra) le co

ftrallir .06mava. .:4.-411

". 9111

Tx al ti I EtrailN . =E'

Bylaw Received First And Sec • Reading — June. 1979

11

SOUTHEAST INDUSTRIAL PLAN

12

KASKITAYO PLAN

/3

SOUTH INDUSTRIAL PLAN

Approved — March. 1975

Approved — October. 1973

Approved — January. 1974

14

MILLWOODS PLAN Approved — June 1971

MAP 17.2 COMPLETED DISTRICT OUTLINE AND AREA STRUCTURE PLANS

*Nvis


• •

• • • •

MAP 17.3 AREAS SUITABLE FOR AREA STRUCTURE PLANS 0 IOC 1

OM

4

3

2

6

3

7


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(e) identify actual location for major utility infrastructure; (f) designate land uses and land use districts for each subdivision unit; (g) outline public land requirement statistics; and, (h) identify implementation procedures regarding phasing and mechanics of subdivision.

It is the objective of Council: Role of Land Use Bylaw

17.D

To regulate the development of land through the preparation and adoption of a new Land Use Bylaw which embodies the intent of the principles outlined in the policies of the General Municipal Plan and any statutory or District Plans, where appropriate, and achieves an appropriate balance between the desires to provide for certainty, flexibility, equity, and environmental quality in land use regulation.

Policy Report #15, 15.A.4, 15.A.5,

15.C.9

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

Density Guidelines in Land Use Bylaw

17.D.1

The City will incorporate into the Land Use Bylaw regulations or clauses which accommodate the residential and commercial density guidelines and requirements as outlined under Objectives 5.B, 5.C, and 6.D.

Performance Criteria in Land Use Bylaw

17.D.2

The City will establish performance objectives, Land Use Bylaw standards and/or tests pertaining to such matters Program as density, yard and setback requirements, and floor area ratio, where feasible and desirable, to provide flexibility in guiding land use decisions towards the implementation of statutory plan

Land Use Bylaw Program

2.A, 7.F.3, 15.D.1

17.13

PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

objectives. Performance criteria in the Land Use Bylaw should be specifically directed towards the desire to achieve the following types of objectives: (a) the promotion of compatible, functional, and scale relationships between different land uses and densities, in accord with the policies of statutory plans; (b) the promotion of high environmental standards in relationships between uses usually perceived as being incompatible; (c) the promotion of mixed use developments which include the provision of housing in major activity areas such as the Downtown, L.R.T. station areas and suburban town centres; (d) the promotion of multiple unit housing projects which include provision of units with qualities desirable for child-rearing families, such as direct at-grade access to units and private outdoor amenity space; (e) the retention of structures of historic significance; and,

(f) the promotion of cost and energy efficient site planning and building design. Administrative Discretion

17.D.3

The City will utilize administrative discretion for the purpose of providing flexibility to allow minor variances to the regulations of the Land Use Bylaw. However, administrative discretion should be limited in scope by:

Land Use Bylaw Program

Policy Report #15

17.14 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

• •

• • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

(a) establishing objective tests or standards wherever feasible and desirable; and, (b) establishing appeal procedures with means to inform the public and special interest groups of the rationale for, or points on which administrative decisions have been made, with the basis for appeal, and of the mechanical requirements such as place, time, etc. of public hearings. Discretionary Authority of Development Appeal Board

17.D.4

The City will undertake action to maintain its

5.D.2

predominant role in land use regulation by encouraging the Development Appeal Board to use the following guidelines: (a) variance from maximum height and floor area ratio should not exceed 25% of the land use district regulation; (b) the general purpose of the land use district must be maintained; and, (c) a variance shall only be permitted in the case of unnecessary hardship or practical difficulties which are not shared in common with other lands regulated by the same land use district.

Direct Control

17.D.5

The City will utilize the direct control powers, as permitted by Section 68 of The Planning Act, 1977, on a limited basis where:

Land Use Bylaw

6.D.8

(a) approved statutory plans have identified the need to exercise detailed control, on specific sites or groups of sites, over: 17.15 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

i) the aggregate relationship of building placement and mass, for reasons of urban design; ii) the relationship of new building forms to those building forms of historic and/or cultural significance; iii) land use relationships within multi-use centres; and, iv) where the approved statutory plans have itemized development criteria and/or regulations for evaluating development proposals; (b) comprehensively designed developments, under one ownership, which are compatible in use, scale and intensity with developments permitted in the surrounding districts, but which cannot achieve the desired level of integration with surrounding sites, or different uses on a specific site if regulated by conventional districts in the Land Use Bylaw, and for which detailed physical, economic and social impact assessments are provided prior to designation; (c) large scale, comprehensively designed sites, envisaged for subdivision for multiple ownership, proposed for development to a variety of uses and buildings which will be implemented within a five-year staging period;

17.16 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

â&#x20AC;˘

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

III

(d) Council wishes to temporarily limit develop ment to allow the preparation of replotting schemes or Area Redevelopment Plans when present land use designation and existing uses are deemed inappropriate; and,

III

(e) lands are affected by legislation by the Provincial or Federal Governments and development proposals are submitted which do not conform to the provision of superior legislation and therefore fall within the realm of municipal jurisdiction. Redistricting Applications

1110

17.D.6

Program

The City will, as part of the information Land Use Bylaw required on redistricting (rezoning) applications, Program undertake and/or require assessments outlining:

Cross Reference

6.E.4, 7.C.1, 15.A.6

(a) relationship/compliance to approved statutory plans or special policy reports;

III

(b) relationship/compliance to statutory plans or replots in progress; (c) compatibility with surrounding context in terms of land use function and scale of development;

0

â&#x20AC;˘

(d) relationship to, or impacts on, services such as water and sewage systems, public transit and other utilities, and public facilities such as parks and schools; (e) relationship to, or resolution of, municipal land, right-of-way or easement requirements;

17.17 PART IV


17. IMPLEMENTATION

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

(f)

Program

Cross Reference

potential precedent and/or effect on stability, retention and rehabilitation of desirable existing uses and/or buildings in the area;

I I

(i) necessity and appropriateness of proposed

zoning district in view of the applicant's stated intentions;

(h) relationship to the concerns/views of area residents in the review of the application; and,

I

(i ) other factors determined by City Council.

I I I I 17.18 PART IV


r'J P oยง < 2q CO l'โ€ข1


18. MONITORING AND MANAGING THE PLAN

• • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION An essential difference between the 1980 General Municipal Plan and the 1971 Plan lies in the area of monitoring. Because the 1971 Plan lacked such a program, it began to lose its relevance as new issues arose which the Plan had not foreseen. If the 1980 Plan is to be valuable, a monitoring program is essential. Such a program is all the more necessary given the strategic thrust of this Plan. Ongoing evaluation and adjustment of the strategy will be particularly important to identify potential unforeseen impacts from the policy shifts. Objective 18.A sets out the components of a monitoring program.

Management of the General Municipal Plan and, in particular, the changes to land use policy which evolve over time as policy is further refined, is also important. Objective 18.B sets out proposals for maintaining the relevance of the General Municipal Plan in terms of land use policy through the preparation of Policy Handbooks and Information Updates.

18.1 PART IV


18. MONITORING AND MANAGING THE PLAN

• •

• • • •

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Updating of Land Use Strategy

18.A

To ensure that the strategy in the General Municipal Plan maintains its relevance to current issues and development trends, and is adjusted as necessary.

Policy Report #15

It is therefore the policy of Council that: Functions of Monitoring Program

18.A.1

The City will establish a General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program with the following functions: (a) evaluation of development and redistricting (rezoning) proposals, transportation and utility plans for consistency with the General Municipal Plan;

General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

(b) establishing an information system for the monitoring of development trends; (c) evaluating development trends for consistency with the General Municipal Plan and for unforeseen impacts, to determine if the strategy is being implemented; (d) co-ordinating and recommending amendments to the Plan necessary to keep the Plan up-to-date; and, (e) monitoring Council policy, in conjunttion with the Corporate Policy Planning Office, for consistency with the General Municipal Plan.

18.2 PART IV


18. MONITORING AND MANAGING THE PLAN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Consistency With General Municipal Plan

18.A.2

The City will ensure that all policies or plans proposed for adoption as City policy are consistent with the General Municipal Plan or that amendments to the General Municipal Plan, whether additions or deletions, are initiated prior to final endorsement or approval of policies or plans which are inconsistent with the General Municipal Plan.

General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Municipal Planning Commission Role

18.A.3

The City will, in amending the General Municipal Plan, seek the advice of the Municipal Planning Commission. All requests to amend the Plan will be made to or by the Planning Department and then forwarded to City Council through the Municipal Planning Commission.

General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Long-term Development of Information Systems

18.A.4

The City will actively pursue the development of the Geographic-Base Information System and the Property and Demographic Information System as the means of facilitating the economic and flexible monitoring of development trends over the long run.

Short-term Information Arrangements

18.A.5

The City will, in the short-term, obtain information for monitoring development trends from information requirements on development applications.

Cross Reference

• • •

• • • •

Development Permit Process

18.3 PART IV


18. MONITORING AND MANAGING THE PLAN

Subject

Reference No.

Objectives and Policies

Program

Annual Development Trends Report

18.A.6

The City will review development trends on an annual basis and prepare a report for submission to City Council outlining implications of development trends to the General Municipal Plan growth strategy and any amendments which may be required.

General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Five Year Review Evaluation

18.A.7

The City will evaluate the need to initiate a major review of the General Municipal Plan on a five-year basis or sooner if required.

General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Cross Reference

It is the objective of Council: Managing Land Use Policy

18.B

To ensure that municipal land use planning policy is undertaken and communicated to the public within a consistent framework.

Policy Report #15

It is therefore the policy of Council that:

• •

Land Use Policy Handbooks

18.B.1

The City will utilize a series of Land Use Planning Handbooks as a means of consolidating general land use policies or principles prepared for the purpose of further refining policies of the General Municipal Plan. Where new topics of concern are covered, the General Municipal Plan should be amended.

General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program

Information Update

18.B.2

The City will include, in its General Municipal Plan amendment process, a mechanism for informing the public, which includes a semi-annual information update on amendments to the General Municipal Plan to be available and distributed to individuals, companies, and institutions which have registered an interest in receiving such information.

General Municipal Plan Implementation Program

15.A.7, 15.A.9, 15.C.6, 15.D.2

18.4

PART IV


• •

PART V - DISTRICT' PLANS


EXPLANATORY NOTE

• • • • • •

Component 3, "District Planning", describes the purpose, scope and content of the District Plans which will be prepared through the District Planning Program. As stated in Policy 3.A.2, these District Plans will be adopted as amendments to the General Municipal Plan. Part V, "District Plans", has been set aside for these amendments. As each District Plan is adopted, it will be incorporated into this section of the General Municipal

Plan. The adoption of the objectives and policies contained in the District Plans as part of the General Municipal Plan Bylaw will underline the important links between the individual Plans and the General Municipal Plan. It should be noted that portions of District Plans will simultaneously be adopted as Area Structure Plans and/or Area Redevelopment Plans in order to implement certain provisions of The Planning Act.

1 PART V


•• • •• • •

PART VI- DEFINITIONS


DEFINITIONS

S

• • • • •

Activity Centre

• A concentration of predominantly non-residential development, generally associated with a point of high accessibility on the roadway and/or transit network, which may include any of the following uses: • stores, service establishments and offices;

Built Form

• The design of a building mass in terms of its internal and external arrangements of open space, and scale relative to surrounding buildings and streets.

Capital Programs

• Capital programs refer to long-term investment projects designed to improve the infrastructure of public facilities of the city such as roadways, L.R.T. lines, parks, etc.

City-Wide Park

• Serves the entire population of the city.

Community Housing

• Refers to developments in which the tenants of all or part of the dwelling units have their housing costs subsidized by Government.

Density

• Quantitative measure of the average number of persons, families or dwelling units per unit of an area.

Density Nodes

• Areas where there is a concentration of medium to high density development.

Developable Hectare

• A hectare of land available for the actual development of buildings. A developable hectare does not include that land which is used for roadways, parks, environmental reserves and utilities.

Development Process

• Steps or stages required to receive approval to undertake a development (development being defined by The Planning Act, 1977).

• motels, hotels and eating and drinking establishments; • recreational and entertainment facilities; • schools, colleges, hospitals and other institutions; and, • apartments and housing for special groups, such as the elderly.

Amenities

Annexation

Apartment

• All public facilities, cultural activities/programs and environmental features that serve to enhance the physical setting of a community.

• The legal process of taking jurisdictional control over land lying outside of a municipality's boundaries. • A dwelling unit within a multiple unit development which does not have fairly direct access from grade or private outdoor amenity area.

1 PART VI


DEFINITIONS

District Park

• Serves a population of 40,000 to 60,000, usually within 1 1/2 kilometres (one mile) of their residence.

Downtown

• This is generally the Central Business District (C.B.D.) of a city which offers the greatest variety and most specialized types of goods and services available in the city or region.

Employment Node

Family Suitable Housing

• A large concentration of employment housed in one or more intensive mixed-use office developments clustered around a point of high accessibility, such as a Light Rail Transit Station. • This type of housing refers to dwelling units which have qualities deemed desirable for households with children such as direct access to the unit from grade, private outdoor amenity or yard space, acoustical privacy between units, and street addressing for identity.

Floor Area Ratio (FAR.)

• This is the same as Floor Space Index (F.S.I.) which refers to the number of square units of building area compared to the number of square units of site area.

Gross Floor Area

• The combined area of all floors within a building including both leasable and non-leasable space.

Gross Leasable Area (G.L.A.)

• The total floor area of all spaces within a building - generally a commercial building - which can be leased to individual tenants; equal to gross floor area minus space occupied by hallways, elevators, stairways, shared washrooms, etc.

Ground Oriented Multiple

• A dwelling unit within a multiple unit development which has fairly direct, non-mechanical access from grade and private outdoor amenity areas.

Historic Preservation

• This refers to the protection of buildings/structures, or an area that has significance in terms of architecture or associated historic events.

Housing Starts

• The number of new housing units constructed during a period of time.

Impacts

• These refer to the physical, social, economical and environmental effects of any development on the existing characteristics of a community or area.

Implementation Program

• A plan of action designed to co-ordinate and carry out the policies of the General Municipal Plan with the aim of attaining the enunciated objectives.

2 PART VI

• • • • •


DEFINITIONS

In fill Development

• • • •

• Development in the inner city areas of the city occurring on small, vacant or under-utilized land, behind or between existing development, and which is compatible with the built-form characteristics of surrounding development.

Infrastructure • Refers to the permanent installations or facilities through which services are provided to the community such as school buildings, water and sewage systems, or power lines. Inner City

• The fully developed areas of the city, including the older neighbourhoods built prior to 1950, predominantly on a grid-street pattern and, suburban neighbourhoods which were built after 1950 on a curvilinear street pattern and are now fully developed.

Land Use Control

• This is the control and regulation of uses of land and buildings, and development through various legal mechanisms provided by The Planning Act, 1977, such as the Land Use Bylaw, Area Structure Plan Bylaw, and Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw.

Mixed Use Developments

• Developments designed for more than one type of land use on the same parcel of land such as residential and retail development; residential, office/retail development; office/warehouse development, etc.

Modes of Travel

• Refers to the various means by which one travels from one place to another, including automobiles, buses, Light Rail Transit vehicles, walking, and bicycle.

Multiple Unit Building

• A residential building containing three or more dwellings.

Neighbourhood Park

• Serves a population of 4,000 7,000 within one kilometre (one-half mile) of their residence.

NonContiguous Development or Leapfrogging

• The development of an area (e.g. a neighbourhood) where the adjacent parcel closest to the existing developed area of the city is not yet developed.

Objectives

• Qualitative statements of a specific aim to attain the goals or ultimate accomplishments of the General Municipal Plan, towards which planning efforts are directed.

Operating Programs

• Operating programs refer to short-term expenditure projects designed to deliver a service to residents of the city such as police protection, recreational and cultural programs/classes.

-

3 PART VI


DEFINITIONS

Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83 -

• Refers to the Council approved plan prepared by the Department of Parks and Recreation. It is a five year implementation plan which provides a detailed set of guidelines and recommendations for the development of open space, facilities and programs to meet the City's parks and recreation requirements.

Performance Standards

• Refers to qualitative statements or quantitative measurements which must be met or incorporated by developments as a condition of the development approval process.

Primary Access Points

• Areas which are the focal points of movement for both auto and transit such as intersections of major arterial roadways, L.R.T. Stations or Town Centres.

Planning Guidelines

• Positive statements pertaining to the manner in which land is subdivided and developed or to the relationship between different functional components of the city such as land use, the transportation system and the natural environment.

Policies

• Statements which describe definite courses of action adopted to guide decision-making in order to achieve the stated objectives of the General Municipal Plan.

Policy Reports

• These are the reports contained in Volume II of the General Municipal Plan. They give a detailed discussion of the data, issues, objectives, principles and alternatives of the various components covered by the General Municipal Plan, on which the Bylaw and policies are based.

Programs

• Plans of action or groups of activities of the Administration on a day-to-day basis, geared to fulfilling the General Municipal Plan's policies. The General Municipal Plan does not design individual programs, but simply identifies which program must be carried out by whom in order to achieve the policies.

Redevelopment Levy

• A provision of The Planning Act, 1977, which gives the City the right to impose and collect money from the owner of a property lying within the boundaries of an Area Redevelopment Plan for which a Bylaw has been adopted when the owner proposes to undertake a development. The Levy can only be imposed once with respect to a development. This money can only be used for the acquisition of land for parks and school buildings.

• • • •

4

PART VI


DEFINITIONS — Region

• • •

• Refers to the Edmonton Sub-region which comprises that part of the Edmonton hinterland which serves a labour and housing market. The Sub-region is specifically delineated in Map 1.1.

Regional Plan • A land use policy statement prepared by a Regional Planning Commission pursuant to the Planning Act, 1977, for the .comprehensive and co-ordinated development in a region. All statutory plans prepared by the municipalities must comply with the Regional Plan. River Valley

• Refers to the North Saskatchewan River Valley

Separate Regional Shopping Centre

• A shopping centre serving a large market area and offering a range of goods comparable to that which is available in the Downtown of a medium sized city. Under present-day development trends, regional shopping centres are generally built in the form of enclosed malls containing at least one major department store, a supermarket and a variety of smaller outlets, for a total leasable floor area on the order of 40,000 - 100,000 square metres (400,000 - 1,000,000 square feet). In Edmonton there are currently ten shopping centres which are considered to be

"regional" in importance, even though not all of them are as large as 40,000 square metres. These centres are Bonnie Doon, Capilano, Centennial, Kingsway, Londonderry, Northgate, North Town, Southgate and Westmount. These range in size from 22,300 to 63,400 square metres (240,000 to 682,000 square feet). Accordingly, shopping centres of over 20,000 square metres (215,000 square feet) are treated in the Plan as regional shopping centres.

Serviced Land

• Land where utilities such as water, sanitary and storm sewer, power, telephone, pavement and curbs are available.

Shopping Centre

• A parcel of land developed with one or more buildings in which space is rented to individual retailers, with off-street parking provided on the property for the joint use of all the tenants.

Single Family • Refers to a detached building, a Dwelling building containing one dwelling unit; or a semi-detached building, a building where only two dwelling units are joined by a common party wall. Staging of Development

• This refers to the sequence or phasing of large scale development in the city to bring about the economic provision of services and facilities. 5 PART VI


DEFINITIONS

Stepping Down of Building Height

• A design technique whereby the storeys of a building above the ground floor are set progressively further back from the property line in order to allow the development of a greater amount of floorspace without increasing the impact on adjacent properties in terms of visual intrustion and overshadowing. In order to ensure that the upper storeys do not lengthen the building's shadow for more than six hours a day during more than half the year, it is necessary to keep the slope formed by successive storeys below 25° or 1:2.17. This means that each storey of 10 feet must be set back at least 21.7 feet than the floor below it. This also preserves view of the sky, since the normal field of vision extends upward approximately 40°.

Suburban Towns

• Towns located outside of Edmonton, mostly dormitory towns like Sherwood Park, St. Albert.

Suburbs

• That part of the city located outside the developed inner city which is comprised of the newer developing areas that are mainly residential in function.

Through Traffic

• Refers to vehicle movements which bypass congested sections of arterial or collector roadways by 'short-cutting' along adjacent local

roadways, particularly in residential areas. It can also refer to those cross-city traffic movements which simply pass through the inner city.

Town Centre

• A suburban activity centre which includes a regional shopping centre, office and entertainment facilities, high density housing and a transit centre, as described in Policy 6.E.1.

Transportation • Refers to the Transportation Plan, System Part III which is the third and last Plan part of the Transportation Plan. It comprises of the Systems Review Plan which is the methodology of assessing long-term transportation requirements of new developments and changes in existing land uses. The basic principle behind this Plan is to recommend improvements to the existing transportation system, to accommodate public demands and in the future to concentrate the emphasis on developing the public transit component to carry a greater proportion of total trips throughout the city. Trunk Utilities

• These are the primary collection and distribution pipe systems for water, storm sewer, and sanitary sewer services which are initially provided to new development areas to accommodate service demands, usually at a district level.

6 PART VI


SD LIBRARY

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Edmonton General Municipal Plan

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VOLUME II POLICY REPORTS

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VOLUME II POLICY REPORTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS - VOL. II

• • • • •

POLICY REPORT

1.

Growth and Development

1.1

POLICY REPORT

2.

The Growth Strategy

2.1

POLICY REPORT

3.

District Planning System

3.1

POLICY REPORT

4.

Citizen Participation

4.1

POLICY REPORT

5.

Residential Development

5.1

POLICY REPORT

6.

Commercial Development

6.1

POLICY REPORT

7.

Industrial

7.1

POLICY REPORT

8.

Transportation

8.1

POLICY REPORT

9.

Utilities

9.1

POLICY REPORT

10.

Parks and the River Valley

10.1

POLICY REPORT

11.

Natural Environment

11.1

POLICY REPORT

12.

Human Development and Social Services 12.1

POLICY REPORT

13.

Urban Design

13.1

POLICY REPORT

14.

Historic Preservation

14.1

POLICY REPORT

15

Implementation and Monitoring

15.1


INDEX OF MAPS, FIGURES, CHARTS AND TABLES - VOL. II Map

Figure,1

Chart

Page

Table Trends In Population Allocation In Census Boundary Areas 1961-1978

1.3

Employed Labor Force Projections By Industry, Edmonton C.M.A. And The City of Edmonton, 19712001 And Projected Average Annual Growth, Edmonton Sub-region, 1971-1996

1.5

Edmonton Sub-region Showing Areas Used For Employment Forecasts

1.6

1.2

Employed Labour Force Projections, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area and City of Edmonton 1971-2001

1.8

1.3

Long Range Population Projections for the Edmonton Sub-region and the City of Edmonton, 1971-2001

1.9

1.4

Population and Housing Trends and Forecasts Edmonton Sub-region and City, 1951-2001

1.10

1.5

Projected Annual Dwelling Unit Requirements Edmonton Sub-region, City and Sub-region Beyond City 1976-2001

1.11

1

A Comparison of Growth Options

2.2

3.1

Hierarchical System of Plans

3.3

3.1

District Plan Boundaries

3.7

3.2

Sub-District Boundaries

3.8

3.3

Human Services Delivery System

3.11

3.4

Human Services Delivery System Sub-Boundaries

3.12

3.5

Parks and Recreation District Boundaries

3.13

3.6

Ward Boundaries

3.14

Example District Planning Process

3.17

3.7

West Edmonton District - Illustration of Growth Allocation Principles

3.19

3.8

North Central District - Illustration of Growth Allocation Principles

3.22

1.1

1.1

1.2

3.2

iv


INDEX OF MAPS, FIGURES, CHARTS AND TABLES - VOL. II (Cont'd.) Map,

Figure

Chart

Table

3.9

North East District - Illustration of Growth Allocation Principles

3.23

3.10

South East District - Illustration of Growth Allocation Principles

3.24

3.11

South West District - Illustration of Growth Allocation Principles

3.25

4.1

Citizen Participation in the District Plan Process

4.4

5.1

Theoretical Life Cycle Pattern of Neighbourhoods

5.2

Residential Policy Areas

5.9

5.1

Inner City: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Development Within Inner City Neighbourhoods

5.11

5.2

Density Nodes: Density and Building Form Guidelines for Transitional Development Within Density Nodes

5.12

5.3

Suburban Planning Units

5.20

5.4

Suburban Areas: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Suburban Residential Development

5.22

Housing Compatibility

5.23

Areas Affected by Recent Planning Programs

5.30

6.1

Demand and Capacity for Downtown Office Development

6.4

6.2

Design Principles for Enclosed Downtown Shopping Malls

6.6

Example of a Retail Hierarchy

6.8

Retail Hierarchy - Mill Woods

6.9

6.1

Office Distribution Strategy

6.13

6.2

Downtown Development Strategy

6.20

Comparison of Activity Center Concept and Conventional Shopping Mall

6.27

5.1

III III

III

5.2 5.2

6.1

III

6.3

6.4 â&#x20AC;˘

Page


INDEX OF MAPS, FIGURES, CHARTS AND TABLES - VOL. II (Cont'd.) Fligurel L_Chart rtabl 6.5

Page Example of Subdivision Conducive to the Development of a Multi-Purpose Activity Center

6.28

6.3

Town Center Location

6.29

6.4

Commercial Strip Policy Areas

6.36

Guidelines For Depth Of New Commercial Parcels in Strip Commercial Areas

6.38

6.6 6.5

Corridors In Which Highway Commercial Policies Will Apply

7.1

Major Industrial Areas

7.3

Summary of Trends - Level of Service

8.3

9.1

Residential Servicing In Outline Plan Areas

9.5

9.2

Industrial Servicing In Outline Plan Areas

9.6

1

* 6.43

10.1

Parkland Distribution

10.7

11.1

Boundaries of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan

10.12

13.1

Major Design Elements In The City's Image

13.9

Plan Implementation Programs

15.4

17.1

Areas Suitable For Area Redevelopment Plans

15.9

17.2

Completed District Outline and Area Structure Plans

15.12

17.3

Areas Suitable For Area Structure Plans

15.13

17.1

vi


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POLICY REPORT #1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION

This report summarizes recent economic and demographic growth trends and forecasts for the City of Edmonton. Unlike the Policy Reports which follow, it does not enunciate objectives or policies on the manner in which the city should grow. Rather, its principal objective is to document historical growth trends and to identify the economic forces which will likely prevail in

the Edmonton Metropolitan Region during the time period of the General Municipal Plan and, thereby, influence the future growth of the City of Edmonton. The trends and projections described in this Report form the basis for an assessment of existing planning policies and the context for the formulation of the General Municipal Plan Growth Strategy.

2.0 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 2.1 ECONOMIC GROWTH

The economy of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region has experienced dramatic growth during the past three decades as a result of a fundamental transformation in the Region's economy. During the 1950's, the economy of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region was primarily agricultural and was dominated, as it is now, by the City of Edmonton, which provided agricultural, governmental and educational services to the balance of the Region and the Province. Since that time, the economy of the Sub-region has been strengthened and diversified as a result of industrial activity generated by the discovery and development of oil and natural gas and other natural resources in northern Alberta and Canada's far north. During the 1960's and 1970's, the City of Edmonton and the Sub-region have become a major centre in Western Canada for petroleum exploration and refining activity, and the City of Edmonton has experienced rapid growth in its economy, as evidenced by the following statistics: The number of jobs in Edmonton is estimated to be increasing at 3.2% per year. Edmonton's employment is expected to grow from 206,900 jobs in 1977 to 266,400 jobs by 1985.

Economic Growth

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Building permits per capita for Edmonton were 147% higher than the national average in 1976. In 1978, the City of Edmonton issued building permits for projects with a total construction value of $750 million. This represents a 28% increase over 1977. Figures for the Edmonton Sub-region topped the billion dollar mark. Building Permits

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Retail Sales Retail sales in Edmonton doubled between 1972 and 1976, growing from $1,153,000,000 to $2,331,000,000. -

Value of Manufacturing Shipments - The value of

manufactured goods shipped from Metropolitan Edmonton increased 116% between 1972 and 1976, to almost $2 billion. Between 1972 and 1977, the personal disposable income of Edmontonians - that is, personal income less direct taxes paid to governments - grew at an average annual rate of 14%. Personal and disposable incomes in Edmonton are now approximately 17% higher than the Canadian average.

Personal Disposable Income

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POLICY REPORT #1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 2.2 LAND USE AND DEVELOPMENT Economic growth in the Edmonton Sub-region has resulted in land use change and development in the City of Edmonton. Office space increased from a 1971 base of 752,500 square metres (8.1 million square feet) to 1,012,600 square metres (10.9 million square feet) of gross leasable area in 1976. This represents an average annual increase of approximately 47,400 square metres (510,000 square feet). Approximately 80% of the total growth in office space occurred in the central area of the City of Edmonton.

1,170,500 square metres (10.8 to 12.6 million square feet) of gross leasable area, at a rate of 33,400 square metres (360,000 square feet) a year, or 3.1% per year. Approximately 20% of the growth in retail space occurred in Downtown Edmonton.

In the City of Edmonton, the annual absorption rate of industrial land from 1973 1976 was approximately 75 net hectares (185 net acres). In areas outside the city, the rate of absorption of industrial acreage over the 1973 1976 period averaged approximately 104 net hectares (256 net acres) annually. -

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From 1971 to 1976, the supply of retail and service facilities in the city increased from 1,003,300 to 2.3 POPULATION AND HOUSING DEMAND Population growth in the City of Edmonton has been much lower than economic growth, averaging less than 2% per year in the period 1974 1978. This has been due to a continuation of two factors: the extremely low fertility rates currently experienced (less than 2 children per household) and the growth of suburban towns around Edmonton since 1971, which have served as alternate growth areas. -

Despite the relatively lower rates of population growth in the city the demand for housing has remained high in the City of Edmonton, causing pressure in the inner city areas, where it takes the form of redevelopment, and in suburban growth areas and rural land areas. The reason for this apparent contradiction lies in the character of Edmonton's population, which is relatively young, with a high concentration of postwar "baby boom" children. This age group is now reaching the

stage in life where they are demanding housing for themselves. Therefore, they contribute to the pressures of residential development without contributing to the population increase. Currently, the number of households in Edmonton is increasing at an annual rate of 4.5%, which is approximately commensurate with housing production. The majority of new dwelling units are being constructed in six suburban residential Outline Plan Areas. For instance, in the period 1973 1977, these new suburbs accommodated 85% of new dwelling units and 187% of population growth. That is, the suburbs drew population from other developed residential areas of the city. The Census Tract population statistics presented in Map 1.1 illustrate the magnitude of the population decline in the inner city. -

1.2

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CENTRAL CORE CENSUS TRACTS 1961 - 128,040 1966- 119,640 1971 - 128,040 1976 - 122,620 1978- 116,510

I=

INN ER RESIDENTIAL CENSUS TRACTS 1961 - 143,080 1966- 168,310 1971 - 169,670 1976 - 150,651 1978 - 142.990

- 1961 Imo POST CENSUS TRACTS

• • • • •

1961 - 50,310 1966 - 88,970 1971 - 134,010 1976 - 162,080 1978- 169,400 =1111 POST - 1971 ANNEXATION AREAS 19611966- 1971 - 5,740 1976 - 26,220 1978 - 49,070

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MAP 1.1 TRENDS IN POPULATION ALLOCATION IN CENSUS BOUNDARY AREAS, 1961-1978

it

,

0 KM I

0 01

2

3

5

3

6

'

4

P


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POLICY REPORT #1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 3.0 FUTURE GROWTH PROSPECTS Statistics presented in the Local Policy Plan (1980 1984) estimate the growth rate of Alberta's economy will be 5% in 1979, increasing to between 6% and 7% for the next 5-year period, 1980-1984. This favourable economic forecast is due to the expected high level of investment during this period in major energy projects in northern Alberta, such as the Alaska Pipeline, Esso's heavy oil project in Cold Lake, and Alsand's oil sands project. -

As a result of the proximity of these major capital projects to the City of Edmonton, it is anticipated the City of Edmonton will continue to benefit substantially from the growth of the economy of Alberta. The prospects for growth in the Edmonton Region are also

expected to be enhanced through the efforts of the Provincial Government to strengthen and diversify the economic base of the Province by encouraging the transformation or refining of natural resources within Alberta prior to export. These expectations are supported by emerging development trends. For example, in 1977, within the immediate Edmonton area there were 47 industrial projects underway with a combined value of $1.7 billion. Additional oil sands development, major pipeline construction, and development of new oil and gas fields and coal deposits in the northern half of the Province should also greatly benefit the Edmonton Metropolitan Region.

4.0 GROWTH PROJECTIONS As the first stage in preparing the Edmonton General Municipal Plan, it was necessary to undertake projections on the amount and location of future growth which could be expected to occur in the Edmonton Metropolitan Region over the long-term. Such projections are essential if the City of Edmonton is to manage its growth, rather than simply reacting to it and accommodating it.

With respect to the forecast methodology utilized, it should be noted the projections contained in this Report are based upon a continuation of present growth trends, present land use policies, and present market conditions. It is intended to show what could happen if the City of Edmonton continues to develop according to past trends, with no contraints on the City's ability to accommodate future growth.

4.1 EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS Due to strong economic activity, it is anticipated the City of Edmonton will continue to have a favourable employment picture. During 1976, the average unemployment rate was less than 4%, considerably below the national average while the labour force participation rate was nearly 70%.

Growth in the employed labour force of the City of Edmonton and Metropolitan Area has been projected on a sectoral basis, as indicated in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 identifies those industries having a higher than average growth rate, thus acting as major propellants to the growth of the Regional economy. Of the major industry

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Table 1.1 Employed Labour Force Projections by Industry, Edmonton C.M.A. and the City of Edmonton, 1971 - 2001 and Projected Average Annual Growth, Edmonton Sub-region, 1971 - 1996

C.M.A.

City

C.M.A.

City

C.M.A.

City

Edmonton Sub-Region 1971-1996 Average Annual Growth'

4,280 19,348 13,698

7,247 32,550 20,397

4,647 26,845 19,144

7,868 45,162 28,506

5,045 37,246 26,755

8,543 62,661 39,839

5,478 51,677 37,392

0.826% 3.329 3.404

19,100

16,609

26,949

23,422

38,003

33,029

53,591

46,577

3.497

11,130 24,195

9,589 20,889

15,161 33,821

13,062 29,199

20,652 47,276

17,792 40,816

28,131 66,084

24,236 57,054

3.139 3.406

8,970

7,876

13,140

11,538

19,250

16,902

28,200

24,761

3.892

55,200

48,457

73,467

64,493

97,779

85,835

130,137

114,240

2.900

20,550 1,590

18,150 12,328

28,971 2,180

25,587 16,904

40,843 2,989

36,073 23,178

57,579 4,099

50,855 31,781

3.494 3.207

185,465

171,224

253,883

234,841

348,328

322,671

478,864

444,051

3.207

1981

1971 Industry

C.M.A.

Extractive 2 Manufacturing Construction Transportation, Communication and Other Utilities Trade Wholesale Retail Finance, Insurance and Real Estate Community, Business and Personal Services Public Administration and Defence Other

6,675 23,460 14,595

Total

City

1991

2001

' William Graham Consultants, Western Realesearch, 1977, p. 46. 'Includes Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Trapping and Mines, Quarries and Oil Wells. Sources: Statistics Canada, 1971, Census of Canada, Special Tabulation William Graham Consultants, Western Realesearch, 1977, C.P.R.R.S. Urban Development Component Phase One Working Papers NOTE: The figures here are from the working paper "Summary of Available Employment Projections" (prepared by General Plan Review, May 1978) and were used to: a) derive the density factors employed in Table VIII; and b) ensure that the total Sub-Regional commercial and industrial allocations for 1976-91 were consistent with projected total Sub-Regional employment increases for the same period. Prepared by: City of Edmonton Planning Department, 1978.

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EDMONTON SUB-REGION CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREA 1971 CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREA 1961, 1966

Bon Accord •

•Gibbons

Mo r inv il le•

Fort Saskatchewan

• Spruce Grove • Stony Plain

Sherwood Park

• Devon

°Beaumont

Leduc

MAP 1.2 EDMONTON SUB - REGION SHOWING AREAS USED FOR EMPLOYMENT FORECASTS 9

114160 M

=.1

10

KM. 10

20

3o 20

40

11.1111 30


POLICY REPORT #1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT categories, the fastest growing industries are finance, insurance and real estate (3.9%), transportation, communications, and other utilities (3.5%), and government (3.5%). The growth in the City of Edmonton's employed labour force over the period 1971-2001 has been projected at approximately 272,900 reaching 444,100 in 2001, from a 1971 base of approximately 171,200. This projection of growth reflects continued strong centralization of employment, and means the City is expected to absorb 93% of the

• • • • •

increase in jobs in the Census Metropolitan Area (see Map 1.2 for illustration of areas used for employment forecasts). The employed labour force in the Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area is expected to increase from 185,500 in 1971 to 478,900 in 2001. This represents an increase of 293,400 over the 30-year period, at a projected growth rate of 3.2% per annum. Labour force projections for the City of Edmonton and Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area are given in Table 1.2.

4.2 POPULATION FORECASTS Long range population projections for the Edmonton Sub-region and the City of Edmonton are presented in Table 1.3. As the basis for preparing these projections, the General Municipal Plan project has assumed the City of Edmonton will continue to attract approximately 75% of projected housing starts in the Sub-region, to 2001. Given estimates of future changes in household size, this implies 56% of the Sub-regional population increase from 1976-2001. Coincidentally, this proportion is very similar to that specified in the strategy preferred by the Edmonton Regional Planning Commission. According to the City projections, however, growth will increase from the present rate of 1.51% per year (annual increase of 7,200 in 1976-1981) to rate of 1.68% per year by 2001 (annual increase of 11,400, 1976-2001) for a total projected city population of about 711,600 in 2001.

At the same time the Sub-regional population is expected to be 1,041,000. Thus, from 1976-2001, Sub-regional population is expected to increase by 444,500 with 250,000 of this increase occurring inside the city, and 194,500 occurring outside. According to this projection, the city's share of Sub-regional population growth will increase from the present level of 38% to a projected 66% of the Sub-regional population increase during 1991-2001. In order to accommodate this anticipated growth (including projected changes in household size), it is assumed the city will be permitted to annex sufficient land as necessary.

4.3 HOUSING TRENDS AND PROJECTIONS Based on population and household projections, the City of Edmonton can expect to continue providing about three-quarters of Regional housing starts until 2001. Table 1.4 shows population and housing trends

and forecasts for the Edmonton Sub-region, and the City of Edmonton from 1951-2001. Table 1.5 shows projected demand in Edmonton for different types of housing units to 2001.

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Table 1.2 Employed Labour Force Projections, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area and City of Edmonton 1971 - 2001

Edmonton C.M.A. City of Edmonton

1971

1981

1991

2001

1977 Annual Growth

185,500

253,900

348,300

478,900

3.2%

171,200

234,800

322,700

444,100

3.2%

Sources: Statistics Canada, 1971, Census of Canada, Special Tabulation William Graham Consultants, Western Realesearch, 1977, C.P.R.R.S. Urban Development

Component Phase One Working Papers Prepared by: City of Edmonton Planning Department, March 1979.

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Table 1.3 Long Range Population Projections for the Edmonton Sub-region and the City of Edmonton, 1971-2001 City of Edmonton

Sub-region

Year 1971 •

Population

Average Annual Increase

Average Annual Growth Rate (%)

1 5,140

2.75

520.800

1976

596,500

1981

692,200

1986

781,100

1991

868,500

1996

954,600

2001

1,041,000

19,140 17,780 17,480 O

17,220 17,280

III

Population

Average

Average Annual

Annual Increase

Growth Rate 1%)

Without With Without With Without With Annexation Annexation Annexation Annexation Annexation Annexation na

437,, 600

n/a

461,600

497,600

497,600

542,700

542,700

565 , 800

598000 ,

584,300

654,600

607,000

711,600

3.02 2.45 2.14 1.91 1.75

n/a

4,804

n/a

1.07

7,200

7,200

1.51

1.51

9,020

9,020

1.75

1.75

4,620

11,060

0.84

1.96

3,700

11,320

0.65

1.83

4,540

11,400

0.77

1.68

Prepared by: City of Edmonton Planning Department, March 1979.

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Table 1.4 Population and Housing Trends and Forecasts Edmonton Sub-region and City, 1951-2001

IP

Edmonton Sub-region

Year

Population

Housing Stock

1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001

218,898 304,041 391,618 454,012 520,800 596,500 692,200 781,100 868,500 954,600 1,041,000

58,451 77,281 103,250 124,449 151,000 199,400 248,100 293,300 334,400 372,800 408,700

City of Edmonton Population Housing Stock Without With Without With Annexation Annexation Annexation Annexation rila n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 497,600 542,700 565,800 584,300 607,000

166,625 234,652 292,472 384,313 437,581 461,600 497,600 542,700 598,000 654,600 711,600

n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 196,100 230,600 252,000 269,600 286,500

43,000 56,000 76,269 102,267 131,130 159,600 196,100 230,600 261,500 290,600 317,900

NOTES: - nJa = Not Available. - Sub-regional housing stock figures for 1951 to 1966 are based on household sizes calculated for the Census Metropolitan Area. - Projection without annexation implies the City's boundaries will remain as in 1979. - Projection with annexation assumes that enough land will be annexed to permit the City to continue to take its share of dwelling increases. This scenario does not include population increases which may occur due to annexation of already developed lands.

III III 411

Sources: - Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada, 1951, 1961. - Statistics Canada, Census of Canada, 1971. Prepared by: City of Edmonton Planning Department, March 1979.

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ 1.10


Table 1.5 Projected Annual Dwelling Unit Requirements Edmonton Sub-region, City, and Sub-region Beyond City 1976-2001

1976-81

1981-86

1986-91

1991-96

1996-2001

1976-2001

Apartments

5,100 1,900 2,700

4,900 2,100 2,100

4,400 2,300 1,600

4,000 1,900 1,800

3N000 1,800 1,700

22,100 10,000 9,900

TOTAL

9,700

9,100

8,300

7,700

7,200

42,000

2,900 1,800 2,600

2,800 1,900 2,100

2,500 1,900 1,800

2,300 1,800 1,800

2,100 1,700 1,700

12,600 9,100 10,000

7,300

6,800

6,200

5,900

5,500

31,700

2,100 200 100

2,100 200 -

1,900 200 -

1,700 200

1,600 100

9,400 900 100

2,400

2,300

2,100

1,900

1,700

10,400

Type of Unit

Sub - Region Single family dwellings Row housing

IP

City (with annexation) .

III

Single family dwellings Row housing Apartments SUB-TOTAL

Sub Region Beyond City Single family dwellings Row housing Apartments -

SUB-TOTAL

411

• •

NOTE: Figures may not sum due to rounding. City projections assume annexation of land sufficient to permit the City to take its natural share of residential development. Prepared by: City of Edmonton Planning Department, March 1979.

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POLICY REPORT #1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT The allocation among housing types is based on analysis of the requirements for future population according to its age structure, and historical trends in the proportion of different types of housing built in the city.

The projections in Table 1.5 should be treated as minimum requirements. If suburban towns are not able to provide serviced land for the remaining need of 2,100 units per year, the City should be in a position to provide sufficient serviced lands for this additional need.

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POLICY REPORT #2

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THE GROWTH STRATEGY 1.0 INTRODUCTION In view of the problems and issues associated with the magnitude and pattern of growth in Edmonton in the 1970's, it has become apparent that the adoption of planning guidelines alone, as done in the 1971 General Plan, would not be effective enough to guide Edmonton's growth in the 1980's and 1990's. To answer concerns such as how much redevelopment should occur in the inner city or how much office space should be in decentralized locations, this General Municipal Plan outlines a specific strategy for accommodating projected growth in residential, office, retail and industrial land uses (refer to Policy Report #1 Growth and Development). This strategy identifies the approximate amount of growth which would be accommodated in various types of land use districts of the city: suburban residential, inner city residential, industrial areas, downtown, and various commercial districts. In addition to significant policies pertaining to the accommodation of physical development requirements, the growth strategy outlines

other significant policies pertaining to the transportation system, citizen participation, district planning, urban design and so on. These latter policies are included in the growth strategy as significant statements on the quality of the environment and the planning process which "condition" or qualify policies on the physical accommodation of growth. The purpose of this Policy Report is to identify the relationship between major growth issues and the physical development aspects of growth strategy. The 18 points of the growth strategy are treated selectively in this report since a thorough discussion of the points in the strategy is presented in the preamble to Volume I and in various Policy Reports in Volume II of the General Municipal Plan. Major points discussed in this report reflect the goals established for the selection of a growth strategy highlighted in Section 2.A of Volume I of the Plan.

1.1 ALTERNATE GROWTH SCENARIOS To assess the implications of alternate patterns of growth accommodation, three growth scenarios were prepared and established: the trend, compact and concentrated options. Detailed information on these options can be obtained by referring to Working Papers Nos. 8, 9, and 10 of the General Municipal Plan. Figure 1 is included in this report for a brief overview of the characteristics of the alternate growth scenarios. The alternate growth scenarios were evaluated by civic departments and residents of Edmonton. Based on feedback from these groups, a combined compact and

concentrated growth strategy has been recommended to maximize the City's ability to overcome fundamental growth issues. Growth targets generated through this process are included in Chart 2.2 of Volume I of the Plan. These targets are not intended for strict interpretation but mainly as an indication of the direction of future development and its relative magnitude (i.e. inner city versus suburban residential development). The key policies highlighted in Section 3.0 of this Policy Report are a representation of the growth targets in verbal terms.

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Figure 1 A Comparison of Growth Options Characteristics Growth Option and Purpose

1. Trend

• to minimize disruption and change in people's lives, through continuing with the present pattern of growth.

2. Compact

• to use the City's urban land resources more efficiently than under the trend, while not diverging to too great an extent from the quality of life experienced under the trend.

Office Decentralization

Inner City Redevelopment

Suburban Densities

Staging'

Limited increase. The Downtown would remain as the primary employment centre for the City as a whole.

Limited increase. Redevelopment would occur primarily in those inner-city communities where unused development capacity exists and other areas where redevelopment has been planned for (e.g. Northeast L.R.T. stations) or is likely to be planned for (e.g. South L.R.T. Corridor).

Present suburban densities and mix of housing types (e.g. single family and multiples) would be maintained.

No further controls over the staging of suburban development would be put in place.

Moderate increase. The L.R.T. stations, some of the City's commercial strips and the City's industrial areas would take an increasing amount of office space development.

Moderate increase. Redevelopment would be primarily of a ground oriented multiple type of development (e.g. town houses). This redevelopment would be spread throughout the inner-city. Some high density development would occur adjacent to existing and proposed L.R.T. stations. The Downtown would take an increasing amount of high density apartment development.

Moderate increase. This increase would occur only in those areas which do not yet have approved neighbourhood outline plans. With the exception of Castle Downs II, these areas are limited to one or two neighbourhoods in each outline plan area. This increase in densities would be achieved through smaller lots for single family development and a carefully integrated mixture of medium and high density apartment developments for the multiple family.

A moderate increase in controls over development would be put in place to ensure the availability of services required by these developments (e.g. roadways, parks).

2.2

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Figure 1 (cont'd) A Comparison of Growth Options Characteristics Growth Option and Purpose

3. Concentrated • to utilize the City's urban land resources as efficiently as possible, in order to preserve agricultural land, conserve energy, and provide services as efficiently as possible.

Office Decentralization

Inner City Redevelopment

Suburban Densities

Staging'

Substantial increase. The Downtown would no longer be the primary employment centre for the City. Additional amounts of office space development will be directed to existing and proposed L.R.T. stations, commercial strips, existing shopping centres, and suburban industrial areas.

Substantial increase. Additional apartment and ground oriented multiple development would be distributed throughout the inner city, resulting in larger amounts of existing housing stock being replaced. Additional apartment development within and adjacent to the Downtown would be required. A greater amount of high density redevelopment adjacent to proposed L.R.T. stations would be necessary.

Substantial increase. Densities would be increased in those areas without approved neighbourhood outline plans. This would likely mean the transition from single family detached dwellings to two family attached units (e.g. duplexes), in combination with single family development on smaller lot sizes.

The staging or timing of suburban and inner-city development would be increased.

' The staging of suburban development means having some control over when development takes place. At present, the City has very little control over the timing of suburban development which has resulted in delays in the provision of such services as parks, adequate roadways, and schools. There are a number of mechanisms being explored in the General Plan Review to improve this situation, such as use of taxation measures, or altering the agreements between the developer and the City over who provides (and pays for) the services and when.

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POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY 2.0 THE ISSUES This Section of the Policy Report briefly outlines the major growth issues which have emerged since the adoption of the 1971 General Plan. Discussion of these issues covers only key points, since greater detail can be obtained from Policy Reports on the particular

functional component or from General Municipal Plan Working Papers. The issues highlighted here are considered most significant in terms of how future growth in the residential, commercial and industrial components is accommodated.

2.1 INEFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF EXISTING SERVICES AND FACILITIES A primary concern in the City of Edmonton during the late 1970's has been the inefficient utilization of the "standing investment" in community buildings, the existing and often older communities of Edmonton. During the 1970's, Edmonton's older or established communities displayed an overall decline in populaiton, particularly in the school age categories. This decline in population reflects a general aging of the community, decisions in favour of smaller family households which commence later in women's child-bearing years, and a gradual trend toward

relocating from the inner city to the suburbs. With population growth focussed in the suburbs, several problems have arisen in providing public facilities and services at a fast enough rate to meet demand in new growth areas. Given these trends, the investment in facilities in inner city areas appears to be grossly under-utilized. How these public facilities, such as schools, community league buildings, water and sewerage systems, can once again fulfill the needs of an adequate proportion of Edmonton's population is an important issue to be addressed by the Plan.

2.2 DELAYS IN SERVICING NEW RESIDENTIAL AREAS The inability to extend urban services and facilities outward from the centre of the city at a rate similar to the rate of residential growth has become a major issue. Several factors have contributed to these delays: 1. increasing costs; 2. changing household sizes; and, 3. dispersed suburban expansion. As distance from the central core increases, the cost of providing many services is increased. For example, the transit system, road maintenance, and parks maintenance usually become more costly for each additional mile served. The provision of sewer and

water services is similarly related to the number of miles radiating from the core over which equal service is given. Perhaps even more important is that per capita costs are increasing in the suburbs, due to the fact that population thresholds are not being achieved as quickly as forecasted. Services, such as schools, are consequently being delayed or cancelled. Changing household sizes have drastically affected initial planning and staging of services delivery. The 1971 General Plan and the Outline Plan documents prepared in the early 1970's set density targets for suburban areas of an average of 22 persons per gross acre. Current suburban density levels average 13.5

2.4

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POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY persons per gross acre, and, although they will increase as new areas completely fill up, indications are that the original planned levels will not be reached. This decline in density is due to falls in household size, related to the declining birth rate, and current high levels of housing demand by single and divorced persons and other small families. This trend is making the staging of services, such as schools in new subdivisions, most difficult to plan.

• • • • •

At the same time, another factor is making it more difficult to stage services in a new area. This is the City's current policy to develop six suburban growth areas simultaneously, rather than staging growth in only two or three areas until population thresholds are reached. By dispersing population increases, the result is a delay in each area reaching sufficient threshold population for commercial services, schools, libraries and recreational facilities.

2.3 INSTABILITY OF INNER CITY COMMUNITIES Although Edmonton's inner city areas will continue to decline in population, it is anticipated these areas will continue to experience problems resulting from the growth of the city. One major problem is traffic congestion. Inner city areas experience many negative impacts from high volumes, since these communities are between the new suburban growth areas and the central city employment districts. A more serious concern, however, is redevelopment. Several inner city areas have been affected by the replacement of single family housing with medium to high density apartment housing. Redevelopment is of concern for several reasons:

2. the replacement of family housing by non-family, which further entrenches the inefficient use of existing facilities and services, which are predominately family oriented (e.g. schools); and, 3. the destruction of neighbourhood identity and integrity. However, without redevelopment, inner city areas will face problems, such as continued population decline and the deterioration of housing. How, then, can a balanced program be developed to rejuvenate inner city areas to realize a stabilization of population decline, improvement in the quality of the environment, and more efficient use of existing services?

1. the removal of structurally sound and relatively low cost housing; 2.4 INCREASING SPECIALIZATION IN THE DOWNTOWN In the last few years, Edmonton's downtown has undergone rapid redevelopment, mostly with offices, but also with retail and entertainment-oriented land uses. The projections indicate the pressure, on the Downtown, for redevelopment and change will continue to increase, with the result that the Downtown will be much more intensively developed in the future. A total

increase of 520,000 to 706,000 square metres gross leasable area (5.6 to 7.6 million square feet) of office and 130,000 square metres gross leasable area (1.4 million square feet) of retail space is anticipated in the Downtown by 1991.

2.5


POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY As part of the redevelopment trend over the past few years, the Downtown is becoming a much more cosmopolitan centre, with an increased range of opportunities and activities. It is felt this trend needs to be supported and enhanced. It is projected that about two-thirds of new office development is likely to be

located downtown, possibly undermining its vitality by resulting in an overspecialization of office uses and an increasingly sterile environment. The challenge will be to continue the trend towards diversification of functions in the Downtown, and prevent an over-emphasis on office development.

2.5 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRANSPORTATION AND LAND USE SYSTEMS Forecasts indicate the number of automobiles on Edmonton's roads will increase dramatically by 1991, resulting in an increase in time, money and energy consumed by the journey-to-work. Problems that arise in the transportation system stem not only from population growth but from land use - the way in which different activities, such as residential, industrial and commercial areas, are planned for affect and are affected

by the transportation system. If the emphasis on the centralization of office employment and the expansion of suburban areas for residential growth continues it can be expected that traffic congestion will worsen, even with increased transit usage. Therefore, the challenge is to develop a land use pattern which increases the efficiency of the existing transportation system.

2.6 INSUFFICIENT LAND FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT As of September, 1977, approximately 5,500 hectares (13,600 acres) of undeveloped potential residential land were available within the city boundaries. At an absorption rate of 365 hectares (900 acres) per year, this supply would last until 1992. Such a land supply is not large, particularly when considering the supply will be completely serviced by 1982. The lack of land for future

residential develoment is of concern for two reasons: 1. by the early 1990's it will be absolutely essential to meet housing demands; and, 2. it has had a negative impact on land costs because of the perception of a "drying up" of available land.

2.7 INSUFFICENT LAND FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT The City is expected to accommodate about 75% of the demand for residential development in the Edmonton Sub-region. At the same time, it will likely continue to accommodate only 50% of the demand for industrial development. Continuing this trend for many more years could mean an increasing imbalance in the tax base, and a greater reliance on the residential taxpayer for operating revenue.

The main reason for the low proportion of Sub-regional development of industrial lands occurring within the city is that Edmonton is at a competitive disadvantage in the development of industrial land in the Sub-region. Part of the problem is the supply of land serviced and available to the market on a "for sale" basis within the city is quite limited.

2.6


POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY

• •

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The city's current supply of undeveloped land zoned for industry is approximately 2,300 net hectares (5,700 net acres). This figure includes lands which will be constrained or excluded from development by reason of environmental, legal or economic factors. Of the remaining potentially developable industrial land, the land within the city appears to be less desirable mainly due to price and type. Many industries requiring large tracts of land for low intensity uses find the city's land costly and inappropriate and consequently locate outside the city boundaries. The major challenge facing

the City is to find a means of increasing the amount of industrial land in its tax base. The options are to increase the city's supply of lower cost industrial land through annexation, to increase the develoment of industrial lands within the corporate boundaries through servicing, marketing, zoning and tax incentive programs, to develop a method to share on a regional basis the assessment benefit of industrial growth, or more broadly to share the costs and benefits of regional residential and industrial growth.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES This section highlights key policies for the accommodation of future growth. The policies do not relate to any one component of Volume I of the General

Municipal Plan but rather, relate to several of the growth components (Part III), in Volume I.

Cross-Reference 3.1 DOWNTOWN To encourage a significant proportion of future city-wide demand for medium and high density housing to be accommodated in the Downtown over the next 13 years. Discussion Increasing housing in the Downtown would have the following advantages: 1. supporting the continued viability of the Downtown's retail, cultural and entertainment functions by adding variety to the function of the area and, thereby, improving its long-term stability;

2. providing an appropriate location for high density high-rise housing due to the existing scale of development in the Downtown. The Downtown Housing Study has confirmed there is more than sufficient land available in the Downtown to accommodate both the projected office space requirements and a substantial amount of housing;

Objective 5.A, Policies 5.A.1/2/3/5/6 /7

3. utilizing existing infrastructure (e.g. utilities and transit) more efficiently, with little increase in investment on the City's part;

2.7


POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference 4. increasing the choice of housing available in the city; 5. creating the Downtown as a 24-hour, as opposed to a 12-hour, activity area; 6. increasing the available source of employment for non-residential functions in the Downtown, resulting in shortened journey-to-work trips and, therefore, in all likelihood, less demand on the downtown roadway network, and greater use of the transit system;

7. relocating the older, marginal uses such as are presently located in the downtown warehouse area. The need of these uses for a downtown location no longer exists, and consequently, it is probable these uses would have undergone pressure for redevelopment to higher order uses with or without this policy shift; and, 8. reducing the need for older, stable communities in the inner city to accommodate high density housing and thereby, experiencing the impacts associated with it.

3.2 INNER CITY To adopt an overall strategy of accommodating a significant proportion of future demand for multiple family housing in the inner city, through a program of substantive, selective redevelopment which emphasizes the development of family housing. Discussion

The problems presently experienced in the inner city include: critically low school enrollments, redevelopment which is concentrated in only a few communities and is of a scale incompatible with existing development, deficiencies in parks and other support facilities, some under-utilized services, and the presence of incompatible, non-residential land uses.

The benefits associated with this strategy would be as follows:

Objective 5.B, Policy 5.B.1

1. the majority of inner city schools could be more feasibly operated by encouraging the development and maintenance of family housing. Redevelopment would be spread throughout the inner city and would recognize the character and scale of existing development. No one or two areas would be expected to receive all of the redevelopment and the impacts associated with it; 2. this strategy would allow the type of redevelopment which is compatible with existing development and community objectives;

2.8


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POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference 3. increased opportunities to improve parks and other support facilities through comprehensive redevelopment projects with their own facilities, facilities developed from a redevelopment levy, and through higher priority given to the development of these facilities in the inner city; 4. increased choice in housing and living environments available in the city; 5. more efficient use of existing services and facilities and, thereby, lower service investment dollars required than in placing a similar amount and type of development in the suburbs;

6. increased availability of housing would result in greater competition in the housing market and, thereby, a probable reduction in the rate of increase in housing costs; and, 7. increased inner city densities would likely result in increased transit ridership. Since a greater population will be living in closer proximity to the city's major employment centre (Downtown) and have greater accessibility to more frequent and better transit service, it is probable there will be an increase in transit usage as a result. This, in turn, will mean less traffic converging on the Downtown by automobile and, thereby, reduced traffic congestion.

3.3 SUBURBS To adopt a policy of permitting and encouraging increased densities of single family development in the suburbs Discussion The issues identified relative to present suburban development include: delays in the provision of services such as schools, parks and transit, high housing costs due to restricted supply of serviced land, inefficient use of land due to low density single family development and excessive roadway and parks standards, poor accessibility to the Downtown, and high amounts of multiple family housing in the suburbs.

Almost all of the above-noted issues would be addressed through a policy of increased single family densities. Furthermore, if given greater flexibility in the design of single family housing, the development industry could achieve this policy shstandards, poor accessibility to the Downtown, and high amounts of multiple family housing in the suburbs.

Objective 5.C, Policy 5.C.2

Increasing suburban single family densities will have implications on overall densities. It is likely the majority of new single family development will be a density of approximately 3 units per net hectare (7-8 units per net acre) and the remainder would be of a zero lot line or 2.9


POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY

other innovative design nature which can accommodate upwards of 4 units per net hectare (10 units per net acre). In looking at the increase in units or population per net hectare, it does not seem that significant. However, when the increase in units over the entire community is reviewed, the benefits begin to be clearly recognizable. This increase will increase the supply of single family homes, provide the threshold population needed to support services to the community earlier than under present densities and, thereby, reduce the delay in the provision of these services, and finally, utilize land resources more efficiently without significantly reducing the quality of the suburban living environment. , In summary, the benefits to be derived from this policy shift include:

1. increased ability to meet the demand for single family homes; 2. as more single family development would increase the population of an area, services such as schools, parks and transit, which require a certain threshold population to be economical, could be brought onstream more in line with when development occurs;

• • • •

3. the present quality of single family development would be maintained through high quality urban design; 4. most efficient use of land resources and support services; and, 5. increased availability of housing would add greater competition to the housing market and, thereby, assist in reducing the rate of increase in the cost of housing.

3.4(a) COMMERCIAL (OFFICE SPACE) To adopt a policy towards the decentralization of a majority of future office space growth to locations outside the Downtown. Discussion Office development represents the primary single generator of employment in the city. The continued concentration of office space in the Downtown would result in significant reductions in the

level of service available on major roadways entering into and within the Downtown. To continue to meet the travel demands associated with this development, an increased level of investment for the widening of existing roadways or the development of new roadways would be required. This would aslo result in significant impacts on the inner city communities through which these roadways run. Increased office

Objective 6.B, Policies 6.B.1/2/3/4 /5/6

2.10

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POLICY REPORT #2

• • • • • • •

THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference

decentralization will place centres of employment opportunity closer to where people live and, thereby, there will be less traffic travelling to the Downtown area only. The trend towards office decentralization is clearly occurring with approximately 35% of office space growth happening outside the Downtown. By strengthening this trend it is felt that several benefits will be delivered:

1. decreasing pressure on the transportation system by diverting journey-to-work trips away from the core; and, 2. increasing the viability of other types of activity centres in the city, such as Town Centres or shopping centres.

Discussion

future growth. The development of office space in the vicinity of existing and future L.R.T. stations would, in particular, help to reinforce the transit network, thereby helping to stabilize or potentially reduce the operating costs associated with the provision of public transit.

By locating decentralized office space in locations possessing excess roadway and transit capacities, these facilities would be used more efficiently, thereby reducing the level of investment required to meet the travel demands generated by the city's

The decentralization of office space to locations spread throughout the city but highly accessible by auto and transit would shorten the journey-to—work trip for people living in both the inner city and suburbs.

To adopt a strategy which encourages the decentralization of office space to locations which reinforce existing and proposed roadway and transit facilities (e.g., L.R.T. stations).

Objective 6.B

3.4(b) COMMERCIAL (RETAIL SPACE) To adopt a strategy which distributes the majority of the city's future retail development in the form of regional shopping centres associated with new residential growth.

Discussion

Policies 6.C.2, 6.D.2

Regional shopping centres have been the primary location for new retail services in the city over approximately the last decade. These centres serve their purpose

2.11


POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference well, as they are located in proximity to the population they serve, generally exist in highly accessible locations, and have adequate parking facilities to meet their needs. The one concern usually expressed relative to this type of retail strategy is the potential implications to the future vitality of the Downtown and other existing regional shopping centres. It is intended that these concerns be handled

through the requirement for a market analysis prior to approval being given to new regional shopping centre developments. This analysis would have to identify any implications to the Downtown and existing centres relative to their ability to continue to attract a certain proportion of the retail market.

3.5 INDUSTRIAL To enhance the position of the City of Edmonton as a location for industrial development through preparation of a comprehensive strategy to accommodate demand for industrial land. Discussion It is a major objective of the City of Edmonton to encourage industrial development in the city which will strengthen and diversify the economic base as well as provide Edmontonians with a variety of job opportunities. At present, the efforts of the City of Edmonton to accomplish these objectives are severely constrained by the high price of industrial land in the city and a rapidly diminishing inventory of land from which to accommodate future industrial growth. Problems with respect to the planning and co-ordination of industrial development also exist at the regional

level. At present, due to the multiplicity of municipal jurisdictions immediately adjacent to the City of Edmonton, there is no single authority with the ability and responsibility to plan for the accommodation of heavy industrial activities and other industrial activities which could be expected to occur in the Edmonton area over the long term.

Objective 7.A

Major problems include the inability of current government arrangements to ensure long range financial, transportation, utility systems and land use planning, and the inadequate provision of basic urban services in the intensely developed areas of the city's periphery. It is toward the resolution of these problems that the City of Edmonton's 1979 annexation application is directed. In particular, through the establishment of a unified government structure, the City

2.12


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POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference of Edmonton will provide for effective planning and management of industrial growth in the Edmonton area, thereby enhancing the position of the City of Edmonton as a location for industrial development. If the City of Edmonton is unsuccessful in its annexation initiatives, or is restricted to a minimum boundary expansion, the high costs of industrial land in the city as well as environmental concerns will make To maintain a balance between residential and industrial assessment in order that urban services can be provided at a reasonable level of residential taxation to the City of Edmonton. Discussion Through the promotion of industrial and commercial development opportunities in the City of Edmonton, the City strives to maintain a proper balance in the tax revenues derived from the business sector and residential property assessment to finance capital and operating costs of urban services. Continued emphasis on

it impractical and undesirable for the City to accommodate heavy industrial activity. In that event, the City of Edmonton should take the position that heavy industrial uses should be directed to those existing industrial areas well removed from the city's periphery and direct its planning and business development programs to accommodate predominantly light and medium industrial uses. promoting business development opportunities through the Business Development Program and land use planning is essential to ensure the costs of providing growth related services in the future do not necessitate placing increased reliance on the residential property tax for needed revenues.

Objective 7.G

This Policy is consistent with the underlying philosophy of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy as enunciated in Objective 1.C, and with the intent of Objectives 7.A and 7.D which deal with the accommodation of future industrial growth.

2.13


POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference 3.6 ANNEXATION To annex land as required to meet the projected demand for housing in the suburbs, and to increase the supply of industrial land within the city limits. Discussion

The city's land supply for single family housing will last until 1991-1992. Due to the increase in multiple family development in the inner city, there still will be land available in the suburbs in the 1990's for multiple family development. Should there be some conversion of existing suburban multiple family zoned land to single family development, this could extend the city's supply of land for single family development; however, it is not likely this conversion would result in a significant difference over the long-term.

Due to a shortage of industrial land, combined with the escalating cost of industrial land within the city's 1979 boundaries, the city has, over the last few years, been receiving a smaller and smaller proportion of the Sub-region's industrial growth. This industrial growth is needed to maintain and improve the present 40/60 split (40% industrial/60% residential) in the City's tax base, required to support the provision of existing and proposed municipal services. Consequently, to continue to provide the services demanded by residents of Edmonton as well as outlying communities, additional land is needed to attract the present, or even greater, proportion of the Sub-region's industrial growth to the City of Edmonton.

Policy 5.E.4

the General Municipal Plan was prepared assuming the existence of an efficient transportation system to serve the land uses proposed. Furthermore, these land use policies were defined, in part, with the objective of using the city's transportation system in the most efficient manner possible. Consequently, it is critical that the City's long-term transportation plan be supportive of this growth strategy.

Objective 8.A

• • • • • •

3.7 TRANSPORTATION To adopt a transportation plan supportive of the growth strategy inherent in the General Municipal Plan. Discussion

The transportation network of a city is highly inter-related with its land use pattern. In fact, the two systems work effectively only if they are co-ordinated such that one reinforces the other. The growth strategy recommended as part of

2.14


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POLICY REPORT #2 THE GROWTH STRATEGY Cross-Reference

To continue to emphasize the provision of public transit, in particular the extension of the City's light rail transit system. Discussion The growth strategy being recommended, in particular the policy of office decentralization, is dependent, in part, upon the City's transit system as a means

of accommodating the travel demands generated by these uses. Consequently, the transit system would assist in attracting office space to decentralized locations, and once there, this use would help to reinforce the transit system. By locating trip-generating uses in the vicinity of the City's transit system, there would be even further justification for the timely expansion of the City's L.R.T. system.

Objective 8.B, Policy 8.B.2

• 2.15


I


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POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM 1.0 INTRODUCTION The implementation of General Municipal Plan policies demands that detailed planning be undertaken. Although instrumental in establishing direction for the overall form and quality of the urban area, the General Municipal Plan cannot account for detailed constraints which will be encountered on a smaller scale in the implementation of these policies. For example, the objective to increase the amount of residential growth accommodated by inner city neighbourhoods by permitting higher residential densities through infill development and redevelopment may not be readily implementable or acceptable without detailed consideration and provision for such factors as the actual location of redevelopment, its relationship to existing development, and its transportation and social impacts. These types of concerns in both existing and new suburban neighbourhoods indicate a need for

detailed plans to provide a basis for fitting day-to-day development decisions within long range goals for the form and quality of the city. There are several types of detailed planning activities undertaken at present by the City of Edmonton Planning Department, such as initial subdivision and development planning in the case of new suburban areas, through Area Structure Plans, and rehabilitation/redevelopment plans or Area Redevelopment Plans under the Planning Act, for Neighbourhood Improvement Program and Community Planning Program areas. In addition, the Planning Department carries out special area land use plans for such areas as commercial strips or Light Rail Transit corridors.

2.0 EXISTING APPROACH TO DETAILED PLANNING: THE ISSUES Basically, Edmonton's system or hierarchy of plans is not that extensive or clearly linked. In many cases, detailed or smaller area plans have arisen in response to specific program requirements or citizen group pressure. This type of utilization of planning services has become inadequate for two basic reasons: 1. localized plans have tended to mask symptoms and not treat real problems; and, 2. the growing demand for detailed planning services beyond the initial development phase has made the present approach inefficient. The localized or neighbourhood-by-neighbourhood planning approach has been effective in dealing with the immediate concerns of citizens involved in the

neighbourhood planning process through such actions as downzoning to eliminate redevelopment concerns or new roadway regulations to eliminate through traffic. However, many of the problems which are identified in the neighbourhood planning process cannot be dealt with effectively on a neighbourhood basis. The sources of fundamental problems, such as traffic congestion or redevelopment pressure, are not contained within small neighbourhood units, but are more related to the districts in which these neighbourhoods are situated or their city-wide context. Past attempts to deal with these types of problems and issues on a neighbourhood planning basis have often led to solutions which mask the symptoms instead of treating the sources of problems, and in some cases have resulted in the inadvertent shifting of problems to other areas. There is

3.1


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM a strong concern that the issues of growth cannot be dealt with effectively on a neighbourhood or smaller area basis, but that they demand a broader area approach so the sources of problems can be adequately identified and dealt with. The second concern with the present approach to detailed planning is in regard to the growing demand for detailed planning services and the inability of the City to meet such demands under the present approach. Since growth problems are experienced over broad areas of the city, the list of requests for detailed planning has been growing. Older neighbourhoods faced with uncertainty resulting from rezoning and redevelopment are requesting community plans as a means of having

input to planning where redevelopment occurs and what form it takes, rather than responding to concerns on a site by site basis as proposals arise. Inner suburban neighbourhoods are also requesting a role in more detailed planning policy after the completion of Area Structure Plans to address concerns ranging from detailed neighbourhood design to the provision of neighbourhood services. The present approach to detailed planning cannot accommodate increasing demands except over very long time periods, through dramatic increases in professional planning staff, or through "stop-gap" approaches such as the creation of special planning teams through the direction of City Council.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 3.A To undertake District Planning as a means of providing detailed planning services over broad areas of the city. Policy 3.A.1 The City will establish a system of District Planning for the purpose of undertaking detailed plans necessary to provide the link between growth projected by the General Municipal Plan and the regulation of development on specific sites through the Land Use Bylaw. Discussion The concerns regarding the ability of the present approach to detailed planning to equitably deal with growth issues and meet increasing demands for planning services led to the consideration of District Planning as an alternative approach. There are relatively

few examples of District Planning and little agreement on its definition and on how it works. However, the important point is that District Planning can only be understood in relationship to a system of plans. The illustration in Figure 3.1 "Hierarchical System of Plans", outlines a hypothetical and idealized relationship between various types and levels of plans. At the broadest and most general level, there is a plan for the Edmonton Region which establishes guidelines for the magnitude and distribution of growth within and between all rural and urban areas. At the next level of refinement, the General Plan or General Municipal Plan is responsible for establishing policy on how such growth will be accommodated within one urban area, such as how much growth will occur, where such growth will occur within the urban area, and when and what types of support services must be provided for such growth.

3.2


Associated Bylaws

• • •

SITE PLAN

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN

LAND USE BYLAW

AREA REDEVELOPMENT PLANS AREA STRUCTURE PLANS

DISTRICT PLAN

GENERAL PLAN

• • •

REGIONAL PLAN k,

FIG 3.1 HIERARCHICAL SYSTEM OF PLANS


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM Based on the General Municipal Plan, the District Plan will fulfill the role of planning for growth or development allocated to the District by the General Municipal Plan in specific areas or neighbourhoods of the district. Such recommendations would be based on detailed analysis of constraints and opportunities within the district and the specific objectives of the General Municipal Plan for organizing development in relation to the transportation system, commercial centres, etc. Other qualitative policies of the General Municipal Plan would be applied in detail as conditions/regulations for development within the district. The location of major land uses, intensity of use, and other guidelines of the General Municipal Plan would be applied in more detail by the District Plan. Next, the Neighbourhood Plan would be used to accomplish the design of local roadways, traffic circulation, and the location and distribution of land uses by intensity. The most detailed level of the plan normally undertaken for public review is the Site Plan, which indicates in detail such factors as the placement of buildings, the location of parking and walkways. The purpose of such a system of plans is to work down, in gradually increasing detail, to guidelines for development on specific sites. Ideally, each plan would inter-mesh by implementing the policies of the broader plan preceding it and by establishing more refined policy direction for the detailed plan to follow. Within the context of such a system of plans, District Planning would occur on a scale smaller than the General Municipal Plan but larger than the Neighbourhood Plan. For this reason, District Planning can be viewed as a "bridge" within the planning system, providing a context for the application of general planning policies, and an equitable basis on which neighbourhood planning issues can be resolved. District planning as a "bridge" between the General Municipal and Neighbourhood Plans would logically mean that neighbourhood planning would be required

to complete the system of plans before area or site specific direction would result, such as the zoning of specific parcels of land under the Land Use Bylaw. Such an approach, however, would lengthen the overall planning process and impose additional public and private costs, which would not serve to meet the immediacy of detailed planning for the purpose of creating certainty in public policy. The proliferation of plans which would be created by this approach would also inhibit plan monitoring and revision. Therefore, it is proposed that District Plans be used in the place of Neighbourhood Plans for developed areas of the city to provide a direct link between General Municipal Plan policies and implementing mechanisms such as the Land Use Bylaw. For the majority of developed areas and neighbourhoods in the city, the proposed approach should be sufficient in providing clear policy direction on matters of land use and support services and facilities. By undertaking detailed land use, social and environmental inventories of the districts, fundamental strategies for the accommodation of growth, as outlined in Policy 2.A of the General Municipal Plan, can be established in a manner which is sensitive to local opportunities, constraints, and objectives. However, it is recognized that situations may arise where area or site specific land use plans may be desirable in developed areas of the city to account for factors such as building height and massing relationships. An example of where such specific land use plans may be required is in planning proposals for Light Rail Transit station areas. In such cases, the hierarchy of plans envisioned in Figure 3.1 would be used. Neighbourhood Plans will also be required for new suburban areas as part of the initial development phase. As outlined under Objective 17.0 of the General Municipal Plan, Neighbourhood Plans are essential as a basis for ensuring the efficient development of new areas.

3.4


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM Policy 3.A.2 The City will adopt District Plans as amendments to the General Municipal Plan, and where appropriate, will also provide for simultaneous approval of portions of District Plans as Area Structure Plan(s) and Area Redevelopment Plan(s) for the purpose of implementing the provisions of the Planning Act, 1977. Discussion

• • •

• •

It is important to consider the relationship between the proposed District Plans and the hierarchy of plans established by the Planning Act, 1977, if District Plans are to have a meaningful impact on implementation of the land use strategy and if the provisions of the Act are to be fully implemented. At present, there is no provision in the Statutory Plan Sections of the Planning Act, 1977, for District Plans as such. Without the incorporation of District Plans within the Statutory Plan Sections of the Act, the strength of District Planning as municipal policy could be undermined. Ideally, it would be desirable to have District Plans provided for as a Statutory Plan within the Act. Provisions for Area Structure Plans and Area Redevelopment Plans in Section 62 and Sections 63 and 65 respectively do not restrict the possibility of using District Plans as area plans. In Edmonton, however, it is mainly a private sector responsibility to prepare Area Structure Plans as a basis for developing new suburban areas. This approach is desired since it gives the development industry flexibility to respond to market influences in designing new neighbourhoods. Given such, it is not desirable to use the Area Structure Plan provisions of the Act to incorporate District Planning policy as it applies to suburban areas yet to be developed. Adoption of District Plans as Area Redevelopment Plans for those parts of the District Plan

pertaining to presently developed parts of the city is very desirable, particularly to allow implementation, where desired, of the Redevelopment Levy provisions of Section 73 of the Act, as well as to provide status for land use policy. However, without adopting portions of the District Plan pertaining to undeveloped suburban land as Area Structure Plans there would be no status for District Planning policies pertaining to subdivision development. For this reason, it is recommended that District Plans be adopted as amendments to the General Municipal Plan. Such a process will give status to the policy of the District Plan. However, to implement the Area Redevelopment Plan and Redevelopment Levy provisions of the Planning Act, 1977, it is further recommended that portions of District Plans affecting developed areas of the city be adopted simulatenously as Area Redevelopment Plans where it is considered that land use policy has been determined to a sufficent level of detail to implement satisfactorily, the policy of the General Municipal Plan, and satisfy major concerns.

Policy 3.A.3 The City will establish six districts for District Planning purposes, in accordance with the ward system boundaries, as outlined in Map 3.1 and will establish sub-district boundaries as outlined in Map 3.2. Discussion District Planning Boundaries There is a multitude of ways to establish planning boundaries: natural physical separations such as the river valley, man-made boundaries such as expressways or major features such as the Municipal Airport, observed patterns of community interaction based on detailed research such as associations, community leagues or clubs, perceived communities based on

3.5


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM detailed research such as mental mapping, and so on. Regardless of the method chosen to divide the city into parts, some degree of arbitrary definition is involved in interpreting and applying the findings of studies. Given this limitation, the main intent in the delineation of District Planning boundaries has been to establish large areas which will provide for a diversity of districts, with a mixture of land uses, social and economic groups, and residential areas of various densities and ages. Map 3.1, "District Planning Boundaries" indicates the delineation of boundaries, establishing 6 districts with boundaries which are coterminous to the ward boundaries. Discussion of Boundaries District 1 is defined by the city limits on the north and west, and the North Saskatchewan River Valley on the south. To the east, up to 111 Avenue, the McKinnon Ravine and 142 Street have been chosen as boundary defining features. The boundary jogs to the west on 111 Avenue to 149 Street, where the boundary continues north to the city limits. District 2 is bordered by 82 Street on the east, the city limits on the north and 149 Street on the west. The southern boundary begins on 125 A Avenue at 82 Street and goes southward on 85 Street until 122 Avenue, west to 97 Street and south until 118 Avenue. The boundary continues west to 124 Street and south again to 111 Avenue and along the avenue until it reaches 149 Street. District 3 includes the area of the city, north of the river valley and east of 82 Street to the city limits. There is a small jog in the western border between 125A and 118 Avenues, between 82 and 85 Streets. The two districts entirely south of the river are divided by the CPR tracks along 103 Street - the Calgary Trail. District 5 is to the west of this boundary-defining feature and District 6 is to the east.

The northern border of District 5 follows the North Saskatchewan River Valley from the City limits in the west, to 109 Street in the east. Saskatchewan Drive is the boundary defining feature from 109 Street to the CPR tracks (103 Street). The western border is the river valley and the southern border is the city limits. The northern border of District 6 does not follow the North Saskatchewan River Valley west of 92 Street Cloverdale Road. Rather, it extends south down Connors Road and 83 Street to 82 Avenue. This border continues westward to the CPR tracks. The western and southern boundaries are delineated by the city limits. District 4 is the central district including the Downtown and some of its adjacent communities. The western border is the McKinnon Ravine and 142 Street, north to 111 Avenue. The northern border has been previously described as the southern border in District 2. The eastern border begins on 90 Street at 122 Avenue. This border extends south to 118 Avenue, east to 82 Street and south to the river valley. The southern border follows the North Saskatchewan River Valley with the major exceptions previously noted in the descriptions for Districts 5 and 6. Size of Districts The size of districts is of concern from the perspective of the ability to manage a District Planning process, particularly to obtain effective and extensive citizen involvement in the preparation of the plan. To overcome any potential problems of the size of districts in undertaking a detailed planning process, it is recommended, and discussed in more detail in Policy Report #4, that the citizen involvement portion of the District Planning process be organized along the following lines:

3.6


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POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM 1. encourage the establishment of District Planning Committees, representative of a total district, to take part in specific details of the plan process and policy development for the purpose of providing speedy and continuous input into Plan preparation; and,

Recreation District system has one less district delineated and uses 97 Street north of the "Calder Yard" and 121 Street south of the Calder Yard to separate the eastern and western districts.

2. to undertake citizen input components such as surveys or planning workshops on a smaller area basis such as Area Councils, where they exist, or groups of 3 4 community leagues.

The proposal for District Planning and the establishment of District Planning Committees also presents a possibility for achieving a more direct linkage between the planning and political processes. Prior to 1980, the ward system consisted of 4 wards running north to south, as outlined in Map 3.6, with 3 aldermen elected in each ward and the Mayor elected at large. In 1980, the electoral ward boundaries were revised. Six wards were created, and the District Planning boundaries were made coterminous with them. By clearly combining the political and planning boundaries, the planning process should become more clearly identified with the process of making and implementing policies for the growth and development of the City. Local political representatives will be involved more closely with the District Planning process. The citizens at large may also become much more directly involved in the planning and political processes.

-

Relationship to Other District Boundaries There are two other major types of "district" boundaries: the Human Services Delivery System boundaries and the Parks and Recreation District boundaries. The Human Services Delivery System boundaries, outlined on Map 3.3 vary from the District Planning boundaries. The main discrepancies between the Human Services Delivery System boundaries and the District Planning boundaries are a result of the former system using: the total river valley as a boundary-defining feature; the Mill Creek Ravine as the boundary between the two southern districts; 149 Street and Whitemud Freeway to separate the western districts; and, the CNR "Calder Yard" (125 Avenue), 97 Street, Fort Road and the Capilano Freeway as boundary-defining features. Map 3.4 delineates the sub-boundaries of the six Human Service Delivery System areas which will be used for establishing civic service complexes. The Parks and Recreation District boundaries, as outlined on Map 3.5 correspond more closely to the Human Services Delivery System boundaries, than to the District Planning boundaries. Discrepancies are similar to those outlined above, although the Parks and

Relationship to Political Ward System

Policy 3.A.4 The City will establish one site office in each district. Policy 3.A.5 The City will prepare District Plans to implement the growth and development policies of the General Municipal Plan. More specifically, District Plans will be responsible for the following activities: (see the list of activities in the "Discussion" section, following.)

3.9


Discussion The policies of the General Municipal Plan are basically of two natures: strategic growth related policies and non-growth related policies. The growth related policies are oriented towards implementing a city-wide development strategy while the non-growth related policies are oriented towards establishing principles regarding the type and quality of city that is desired. To be workable, General Municipal Plan policies must be balanced to provide sufficiently detailed direction for neighbourhood and site specific decisions. Such balancing cannot be accomplished by the General Municipal Plan because of its city-wide scope anad inability to account for local factors. Instead, it will be the function of the District Plan to balance the numerous objectives and policies of the General Municipal Plan to reach the stage where more definitive land use policies are established and applied. More specifically, the District Plan shall constitute a long range development concept for the district by allocating the growth designated for the district in the General Municipal Plan to areas within neighbourhoods of the district having regard for the intent of General Municipal Plan policies regarding physical, economic, social and environmental development policies. Without limiting the generality of the above, District Plans shall give particular consideration to the following detailed planning requirements in the process of preparing a land use strategy:

(a) the identification of the location, timing and form of residential development required by the General Municipal Plan, with a view to the policies of the General Municipal Plan regarding such areas as transportation objectives, urban environmental design objectives and park space allocation objectives;

(b) the identification of where commercial expansion, if any, will be accommodated and any special development guidelines for such development; (c) the identification of additional park space needs, if any, and the establishment of criteria for the acquisition of park space in the districts; (d) the identification of additional physical infrastructure improvements or social services required to support development, if any; (e) the identification of transportation plans and how any additional roadways or transit rights-of-way, if any, will be accommodated within the districts; (f) the identification of future housing needs, if any, and housing distribution (particularly social housing); (g) the identification of specific urban environmental design issues and opportunities and development guidelines to retain the desired characteristics of the districts;

(h) the identification of growth staging within the districts; the identification of the social and environmental impacts of the Plan, if any, and the process by which any negative impacts will be minimized; and,

(i)

any additional factors of concern to local residents or City Council.

The growth guidelines outlined in Chart 2.2 of Volume I are discussed in greater detail in the "Detailed Discussion of Districts", included as part of this report.

Policy 3.A.6 The City will undertake the preparation of District Plans for all Planning Districts simultaneously, commencing in 1980. 3.10

• • • • • •


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POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM Discussion

• • •

Recognizing the need for detailed planning to comprehensively and equitably plan for policy shifts of the General Municipal Plan, there is an urgent requirement to prepare plans for the districts simultaneously as opposed to sequentially. Given the types of districts recommended for planning purposes and the experiene of growth related concerns and issues over a broad basis of the city, each district could be termed as being a priority for planning services. With the District Plan process anticipated to take 3 years to complete, a sequential preparation of plans would take

approximately 15 years to cover the entire city (the Downtown Plan process is already well established, and is not included in this time estimate). Given the growth strategy of the General Municipal Plan a sequential provision of plans would not be able to avoid the virtual necessity to undertake "stop gap" plans to deal with growth pressures which would generate concerns and issues in the districts before plans are prepared. If District Plans are prepared simultaneously commencing in late 1980, all plans should be in place by early to mid-1984.

4.0 IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISMS AND ACTIONS This section of the Policy Report is included to outline administrative actions required to bring the District Planning Program to fruition, and initial guidelines to

be considered in undertaking a District Planning process.

4.1 ESTABLISHMENT OF DISTRICT PLANNING TEAMS It is proposed that a District Planning Program be established as a "Special Project" or Section within the Planning Department. Some additional expertise will likely be required from a variety of subject areas for limited time periods during the Plan preparation stage, such as Social Services, Transportation, and Parks and Recreation. It is anticipated that such expertise can be obtained on a consultant basis from other Civic Departments or, in some cases from the private sector. For the most part, this structure could replace portions of the existing Community Renewal Section and Area

Planning Section of the Planning Department. In the case of the Area Planning Section, the Downtown planning team would remain as a separate component to fulfill the District Planning obligations for that area. Action 1. Planning Department (General Municipal Plan Implementation Program) - ensure the establishment of new program consisting of 6 teams, each with approximately 8 staff members.

• 3.15


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM 4.2 DECENTRALIZATION OF DISTRICT PLANNING TEAMS To assist in providing visibility to the District Planning process and assist volunteer District Planning Committees in their functions, it is recommended that District Planning teams be decentralized and set up in offices within each district. The Planning Department's experience with neighbourhood planning offices through the Neighbourhood Improvement Program has indicated such offices can establish desirable contact between planners, residents, and business interests.

Action 1. Real Estate and Housing - investigate and undertake required actions to accommodate District Planning teams in decentralized offices, one per district, in consultation with the Planning Department. 2. Planning Department (General Municipal Plan Implementation Program) - determine space requirements for District Planning teams and identify potential locations for offices with high visibility and transit service.

4.3 DISTRICT PLANNING PROCESS It is anticipated that a District Plan would be undertaken with consultation with district residents and special interest groups and take a minimum of 2 years and likely 3 years to reach completion in the form of bylaws approved by City Council. An example of the type of broad activities likely to be undertaken in this process is outlined in Figure 3.2, "Example District Planning Process". The major objective of the 6 month "start-up-period" will be to establish terms of reference for the District Plan and assist in establishing District Planning activities. It is anticipated that the terms of reference will be presented to Council for information as part of a progress report outlining the characteristics of a district, the potential issues, any special staff resource requirements, and the proposed involvement of residents both through the District Planning Committees and residents at large.

The Plan preparation stage will be the most time consuming and professionally demanding. This stage will involve the establishment of information inventories, the analysis of information, the design, initiation and analysis of any special studies, the identification of alternative planning measures to address issues in the area and meet the requirements of the General Municipal Plan, and the preparation of final planning recommendations in a planning report for submission to City Council. The adoption phase of the process will involve redrafting the final Plan and the preparation of legal documents for adoption of the Plan. The implementation stage represents an on-going involvement in the preparation of more detailed area plans and studies, if any, as identified in the District Plan.

3.16


• • •

• • • •

IMPLEMENTATION AND REVIEW On — Going

START UP PHASE 6 Months • Initial Data Collection 'Establish Terms of Reference 'Establish Citizen Participation Contact and Program

PLAN PREPARATION 12 Months • Detailed Data Collection • Resident Involvement in Identification of Problems, Potential Solutions and Evaluation • Preparation of Preliminary and Final Plans

PLAN ADOPTION 6 Months • Administrative Review of Plan • Preparation of Bylaw(s) • Presentation to MPC, CB and Council

• Preparation of Area Plans Identified in District Plan • Undertaking any Special Studies • Monitoring, Update and Revision as necessary

FIG 3.2 EXAMPLE DISTRICT PLANNING PROCESS


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM 5.0 ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION OF PLANNING DISTRICTS* The intent of this section of the Policy Report is to outline the range of growth or change in residential, commercial, and industrial development (and population) for each of the planning districts and to outline likely ways in which such change might be organized. As an expansion on Chart 2.2 in Volume I of the General Municipal Plan, this discussion is intended

to give a "feeling" for the variety of ways in which growth policies of the General Municipal Plan might be related to the districts. During the District Planning process, the emphasis will be to evaluate various organizational suggestions outlined in Chart 2.2 and this Policy Report.

5.1 WEST EDMONTON Map 3.7 outlines some organizational possibilities for the West Edmonton district. The major growth in the West Edmonton area will occur in the West Jasper Place suburban area. Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans have been approved for this area. Suburban development will increase the population of the area approximately five-fold, from the present 8,700 people to 38,000 people. Single family development is expected to account for approximately 60% of new dwelling units in the suburban area, with multiple family developments occurring adjacent to central areas in the neighbourhoods. Commercial office space and retail development will be concentrated at the Westgate Shopping Centre and in the general business zone of the Northwest Industrial Area. There will also be a dispersal of some commercial development throughout the area in smaller shopping centres. * Please note that the districts referred to in this section are those districts originally proposed for the District Planning System and are not those districts finally adopted by City Council. In an upcoming amendment to the Bylaw this section will be revised so that the information is based on the system of districts finally chosen by City Council.

The inner city portion of the West Edmonton district will continue to experience population declines in spite of redevelopment, declining from the present population of 71,000 to 57,000 in 1991. Residential development in the area is expected to add approximately 3,000 dwelling units to the present housing stock, over one-third in the form of ground-oriented multiples. Commercial office space and retail development is expected to be aimed at the upgrading of the Stony Plain commercial strip and the expansion of smaller neighbourhood shopping centres. There are various ways in which such development might be organized in the inner city. Map 3.7 suggests partial development of a district centre could be possible by concentrating commercial and residential redevelopment. A suggested area for such development is 156 Street and Stony Plain Road, which meets the Since the maps and district concepts presented in this section are to be used for guideline purposes only, and since some of the new districts differ only slightly from those originally proposed, the information may be used in its present form to illustrate the City's strategy for accommodating growth on a district-by-district basis.

3.18


MEM

• • • • • • •

Inner City

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---- Suburban Area Industrial Area Potential Development of Inner City Neighbourhood Centres with Neighbourhood Commercial Uses and Medium Density Residential Development

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Potential Development of Westgate Shopping Centre for Commercial Retail and Office Space

Dispersal of Commercial Development to Smaller Shopping Centres

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MAP 3.7 WEST EDMONTON DISTRICT ILLUSTRATION OF GROWTH ALLOCATION PRINCIPLES

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POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM requirements for a primary access point quite satisfactorily: excellent multi-directional transit service and accessibility to a wide range of commercial activities. Another emphasis in organizing residential and commercial redevelopment may be neighbourhood

centres. Again several potential locations are located on Map 3.7. Infill redevelopment may also be significant in the West Edmonton district, particularly in upgrading the housing stock in neighbourhoods surrounding the old town centre of jasper Place.

5.2 NORTH CENTRAL

• • • • •

Map 3.8 outlines some organizational possibilities for growth in the North Central district. A majority of development in the North Central district is projected to occur in the inner city area, with redevelopment adding approximately 15,000 new dwelling units. The suburban area, mainly Castle Downs I, will accommodate approximately 4,600 additional dwelling units. However, because of projected declines in household size in the inner city area and the form of redevelopment anticipated, the inner city area will continue to display a net loss of population. Suburban groWth in Castle Downs I will occur in line with previously approved Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Commercial development will likely take place in neighbourhood centres and along 127 Street commercial strip. The inner city portion of the district encompasses most of the inner city neighbourhoods which have experienced redevelopment pressure in the mid to late 1970's. Given the proximity of the inner city

neighbourhoods to the Downtown area and the desire to direct redevelopment to Light Rail Transit station areas, redevelopment in this district likely will display a great variety of organizational formats. The major emphasis probably will be on development of the L.R.T. station areas to mixed commercial and residential uses and infill residential redevelopment. Although opportunity for other organizational forms is considered to be limited, they should be reviewed in the District Plan process. The desire for various densities of infill redevelopment will also be reviewed, particularly in light of planning activities and commitments in areas such as Oliver, Boyle Street, McCauley, and Central. The organization of commercial development in the inner city will also emphasize development of the L.R.T. station areas, as well as upgrading commercial strips. Very little industrial development is projected in the area, with emphasis on upgrading existing industrial areas to higher quality industrial uses and higher order uses in general.

5.3 NORTHEAST

Map 3.9 outlines organizational possibilities for the Northeast district. The majority of growth in the Northeast district will occur in the new suburban areas, with the completion of development in Clareview and the initiation of development in Castle Downs II. All

areas except Castle Downs II are under existing approved Area Structure and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Suburban development in the Northeast is anticipated to increase about five-fold. Development is anticipated to house an additional 45,000 people,

3.20


POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM approximately 70% in single family dwelling units. Multiple family units will be distributed and designed, particularly in Castle Downs II, in accord with policies outlined in Component 5 of Volume I and the report, "Design Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods". Commercial development in the suburban areas is anticipated to emphasize the development of the Clareview town centre and the filling out of existing commercial shopping areas. Development in the inner city portion of the Northeast district is expected to be limited. Some emphasis will be placed on the development of the Belvedere L.R.T.

station area for higher intensity mixed use. Opportunities to select other organizational formats for residential and commercial redevelopment are limited, with the exception of existing commercial strip areas. Special attention should be given in the District Plan process to determine the desired growth of the commercial strip areas and, in particular, residential development in proximity to them. As well, attention should be given to the potential and need for low density infill development throughout the district to upgrade the quality of the housing stock in the inner city. Some expansion of industrial activity is anticipated in the Northeast.

5.4 SOUTHEAST Map 3.10 outlines some organizational possibilities for the Southeast district. Again, the majority of the growth will occur in the suburbs; namely, Mill Woods. All of the Mill Woods area is presently covered by approved Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Approximately 60% of the suburban residential growth will be in the form of single family developments, with multiple family development distributed according to existing Plans. Commercial development in the suburban area will emphasize the establishment of Mill Woods town centre and development in the general business zones of the Southeast and South Industrial Areas.

A very limited amount of development is projected to take place in the inner city portion of the Southeast district. With mainly ground-oriented multiples expected to occur, the organization of redevelopment in the District Plan process is anticipated to emphasize the establishment of neighbourhood centres and infill redevelopment. Opportunities for other arrangements are limited because of the amount of growth and the nature of the district.

5.5 SOUTHWEST Map 3.11 outlines some organizational possibilities for the Southwest district. The suburban portions of the district, Kaskitayo and Riverbend, will account for the major growth. With the exception of portions of the

Riverbend area, these areas are covered by approved Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Future suburban growth is anticipated to take the form of approximately 50% of single family development, with

3.21


Inner City

Residential Transportation and Industrial Government and Institutional

---- Suburban Area -------

Industrial Area Potential Development of Inner City Neighbourhood Centres with Neighbourhood Commercial Use and Medium Density Residential Development

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Commercial Parks and Schools N. Saskatchewan River

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Major Suburban Residential Development Under Approved Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans No Net Addition to Industrial Land Use Anticipated Potential Development of Downtown-Inner City Mixed Use Centres with Commercial Uses and High to Medium Density Residential Development Scattered Distribution of "Design Compatible" Residential Redevelopment

• • •

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Low Density Medium Density High Density Potential Development of L.R.T. Station Areas for Mixed Uses and High to Low Density Residential Development

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MAP 3.8 NORTH CENTRAL DISTRICT ILLUSTRATION OF GROWTH ALLOCATION PRINCIPLES

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• • • • •

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Major Suburban Residential Development Limited Net Addition to Industrial Land Use Anticipated Potential Development of Clareview Town Centre for Commercial Retail and Office Space

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Potential Development of Inner City Neighbourhood Centres with Neighbourhood Commercial Uses and Medium Density Residential Development Major Suburban Residential Development under Approved Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans

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Expanded Development of South East and South Industrial Areas for Industrial and Commercial Uses Potential Development of Mill Woods Town Centre for Commercial Retail and Office Space

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Potential Development of Kaskitayo Town Centre for Commercial Retail and Office Space Dispersal of Commercial Development to Existing Centres and smaller Neighbourhood Shopping Centres Potential Development of Inner City District Centre with Commercial Retail and Office Development and Mixed High to Low Density Residential Development Scattered Distribution of "Design Compatible" Redevelopment in the Inner City Low Density Medium Density High Density

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MAP 3.11 SOUTH WEST DISTRICT ILLUSTRATION OF GROWTH ALLOCATION PRINCIPLES

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POLICY REPORT #3 DISTRICT PLANNING SYSTEM multiple family development occurring in accord with approved plans or in line with suburban development policies outlined in the General Municipal Plan and the report, "Design Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods". Commercial development is expected to emphasize the establishment of the Kaskitayo town centre prior to 1991 and the Riverbend town centre after 1991. Retail development is also expected to emphasize the establishment of the Kaskitayo town centre and the development of the Calgary Trail area.

• • •

In the inner city portion of the district, redevelopment is expected to add approximately 7,000 dwelling units or 20% of the existing housing stock. Redevelopment, however will not be sufficient to counteract population decline in general within these inner city neighbourhoods. Organization of development in the District Plan process is anticipated to emphasize the

establishment of neighbourhood centres and infill redevelopment. The desire for varying the density of redevelopment will also be reviewed, particularly in light of planning activities and commitments in areas such as Garneau and Strathcona. Some opportunity may exist for implementing the creation of a district centre along Whyte Avenue at 109 Street, 99 Street or at the location of the C.P.R. "Strathcona" Yard, and this should be reviewed in the District Plan process. Commercial office space and retail development in the Southwest inner city portion is expected to emphasize the upgrading of the Whyte Avenue commercial strip and the continued expansion of Southgate Shopping Centre. Another opportunity for commercial development will exist if the C.P.R. Strathcona Yard is relocated.

• • 3.26


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2


POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION 1.0 PRESENT SITUATION Citizen participation is defined and understood in various ways. In general terms, it represents involvement by citizens in the planning and decision-making activities of government beyond elections. In this Policy Report, citizen participation is to be understood as including the public-at-large, special interest groups, and private business groups.

• • • • •

Citizen participation occurs in a variety of ways in planning the future of Edmonton. Participation in neighbourhood planning has become widespread in Edmonton in the last decade, with citizen concern about the revitalization of older neighbourhoods. Since 1971, the City of Edmonton has become increasingly involved with local residents in neighbourhood planning activities. The Canora Neighbourhood Improvement Program, which formally began in 1973, represented an important first step by residents and the City of Edmonton. With financial assistance from all three levels of government, residents were responsible for identifying issues and establishing priorities for the use of neighbourhood improvement funds. The response and acceptance which citizen participation in Canora

received from residents, administrators, and elected officials set the tone for citizen participation in later Neighbourhood Improvement Program areas. These early efforts also encouraged citizen participatation in another older neighbourhood program, the Community Planning Program, which has been developed and operated solely by the City of Edmonton. As a result of these efforts, extensive participation of residents and various interest groups has become an accepted and expected part of a valid neighbourhood planning process. Citizen participation in the preparation of the land use plan for the Northeast Light Rail Transit Corridor, and in the efforts of the West End Transportation Task Force are examples of participation at a district scale, where several neighbourhoods and associations are involved in identifying both unique and shared planning concerns. Participation has been encouraged also on a city-wide scale during the preparation of policies and plans, such as the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 1983, and civic strategies on housing. -

2.0 ISSUES IN PARTICIPATION Although citizen participation is fairly well accepted as a valid part of the planning process, particularly in neighbourhood planning, participaton is not that extensive. Areas of the city which have not been or are not involved in detailed planning programs are at a distinct disadvantage in organizing to influence planning decisions in their areas. In the absence of a formalized planning process groups have found difficulty in organizing input on an issue by issue basis, often resulting in difficulties in establishing or maintaining a citizens' organization.

Another area of concern relates to the activities in the planning process in which resident organizations are involved. Typically, resident organizations have been extensively involved in the planning preparation stage but minimally involved in the implementation stage. In some cases, resident planning organizations have remained involved in implementation concerns, such as through the review of development applications. This approach has been particularly evident in Neighbourhood Improvement and Community Planning Program areas. However, this approach has not been

4.1


POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION that extensive or systematic in obtaining resident input. There has also been a weakness, in general, in obtaining resident input to the monitoring and evaluation of plan policies. Perhaps the greatest concern and issue in citizen participation is that of representativeness. When special neighbourhood planning groups are established or community leagues become involved for the purpose of representing community views in public decisions, then the question of how representative the group is will

likely continue to be an important and legitimate concern of elected officials. Does the group represent all views or only some? What type of membership does the group have? What efforts were made to inform people, and solicit and evaluate alternative opinions? In spite of the significance of these questions and similar ones, representative participation can never be ensured or enforced. All that can be requested is that groups endeavour to seek representation and input from different sectors or interest groups.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 4.A To encourage the continuous involvement of citizens and business interests in land use planning.

benefits in the day to day operation of government and for residents both individually and collectively. A few of the benefits of participation are:

Discussion

1. participation can help to educate both the public and government;

The continuous involvement of residents and special interest groups can strengthen the democratic process. By making provision for citizen involvement in planning issues at the outset of the planning process, a greater effort can be made to ensure the needs and priorities of communities are reflected in planning proposals. To a certain extent, citizen participation is a requirement of the Planning Act, 1977. Provisions in Section 60 of the Act require participation of the public in the preparation of a General Municipal Plan. Provisions of Section 135 of the Act also require participation of residents in the amendment of bylaws affecting General Municipal Plans, Area Structure and Area Redevelopment Plans and the Land Use Bylaw. However, from a pragmatic viewpoint, citizen participaton has been demonstrated to have potential

2. on specific issues, participation can lead to better decision-making because the people affected by decisions can clarify issues and identify priorities; 3. participation can strengthen the democratic process by making government more accessible and responsive; 4. participation can be developmental through its encouragement of new leadership, individual responsibilty, and community interaction; and, 5. participation can assist in the implementation of the policy by securing citizen support and understanding during its development.

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POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION Policy 4.A.1. The City will create a structure to facilitate citizen participation in District Planning, the monitoring of plans and the review of development applications through the establishment of formal District Planning Committees composed of representatives elected from community leagues, area councils, and citizens at large, to be responsible for providing input to the Planning Department on land use planning issues.

of residents, it will allow the committees to take on more specific and detailed tasks, such as information collection and dissemination, thereby augmenting the activities of the District Planning team. Notwithstanding the value of encouraging some degree of formalization, other less formal types of participation, such as personal contact between planners and residents, are also recognized as valuable in accomplishing the objective of citizen participation.

Discussion

Citizen Participation in the District Planning Process

Citizen Participation in District Planning

Figure 4.1 displays several types of citizen participation activities which should be considered for use at various stages of the District Planning process. During the start-up phase, initial activities might be geared to stimulating awareness for the District Planning Program, likely issues to be addressed, and alternative ways of achieving input from residents. Use of the mass media, particularly information brochures, likely will be relied on heavily. Existing community and business organizations should be approached to provide awareness as well. Towards the middle of the six month start-up phase, a District Planning Committee should be approaching establishment. District Planning Committees should attempt to establish or use existing structures of sub-areas within the district for the purpose of receiving representation and perhaps establishing sub-committees. The remainder of the start-up phase would concentrate on discussing major planning issues and means fo'r encouraging greater public involvement in the planning process.

The proposed District Planning Program will not only be a key means of equitably and sensitively implementing policy shifts of the General Municipal Plan but also a primary means of facilitating citizen participation on a broad basis in planning issues. As outlined in Policy Report #3 - District Planning, citizen participation will be a key component of the planning process, particularly in identifying objectives and constraints, and in evaluating planning options. Although it is recognized that citizen participation can take many forms, from highly unstructured forms such as written briefs or appearance before City Council to highly structured forms such as citizen councils, it is recommended that the City encourage and assist in the establishment of District Planning Committees. Such committees will provide regular and consistent contact groups with which the City can work in preparing District Plans. In addition to consistency and continuity of contact, District Planning Committees would be advantageous in attempting to ensure a representative voice from all parts of the district is obtained in the planning process. Since District Planning Committees will bring together a more defined or identifiable group

During the plan preparation stage a wide variety of techniques will be required. Initial information collection might rely on questionnaires, interview surveys, and public meetings or workshops as a means of receiving resident input into problem identification.

4.3


IMPLEMENTATION AND REVIEW On — Going • Assist in Monitoring

NORM

START UP PHASE 6 Months • Establish Formal District Planning Committees • Establish Awareness and Visibility of District Plan Process • Discussion between Residents and Planning Staff

PLAN PREPARATION 12 Months •Assistance in Collecting Background Information through Surveys •Conduct Planning Information Sessions and Workshops • Prepare Progress Reports for Distribution to Residents .Identify and Evaluate Alternate Planning Recommendations

PLAN ADOPTION 6 Months •Stimulate Awareness of Planning Recommendations

• Identify Current/ Changing Issues, Concerns, Policies • Review/Advise City on LUB Amendments and Development Applications

• • •

• • • FIG 4.1 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN 0 THE DISTRICT PLAN PROCESS


POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

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As issues become more specified, detailed discussions might take place with District Planning Committees and more detailed planning workshops convenened. The length of the planning stage suggests that regular progress reports might be used to maintain awareness within the district. It is felt that such progress reports would become a responsibility of District Planning Committees. Once preliminary alternatives for organizing growth or dealing with issues are identified, brochures and/or discussion papers outlining preliminary alternatives, and using questionnaires for feedback, might be used to inform area residents. Similarly, when planning proposals are fairly well established, these techniques might be used again. In undertaking public meetings and workshops, it is suggested a smaller area or "roving" format be adopted. Meetings and planning workshops would be structured along smaller units within the district, and repeated several times in different areas. For example, meetings could be convened on the basis of existing area councils, groups of three to four community leagues, or some similar basis from which representation to the planning committee is drawn. A major advantage of this approach is avoiding the situation where larger, "one-shot" meetings covering the whole district are arranged. The larger meetings are not expected to be able to attract a broad base of participation. Therefore, to obtain more extensive input, a smaller area approach would be more effective. During the plan approval stage, activities should be geared towards preparing District Planning Committees to monitor the implementation of the planning policies. Such things as formalized channels for receiving information from the General Municipal Plan monitoring program or for receiving rezoning and development applications, as discussed later in this Policy Report, should be established.

Involvement in Implementation The District Planning process is not conceived as a "one-shot" plan to resolve all issues at one time. To be successful, the District Planning process would require an ongoing involvement in monitoring development and other environmental changes, and eventually in revising the General Municipal Plan and District Plan policies. Within an ongoing District Planning process, citizen participation also has a valid and valuable role to play after plans have been prepared. In situations where very detailed block or neighbourhood plans are recommended in District Plans, residents again would play a part in identifying issues and concerns, and developing policies to achieve local objectives. In other instances where very detailed plans are not likely to be prepared, residents have a role to play in reviewing proposed changes, such as rezoning proposals to determine consistency with plans. This last point emphasizes an orientation toward resident responsibility in the implementation of planning proposals. Although City Council has the ultimate authority and responsibility, residents have a responsibility to express their views to allow final decisions made by City Council to be made with an awareness of their views. As the first step toward extending responsibilities to residents to express their views on decisions affecting planning policies, it is recommended that residents be involved in the review of zoning amendment and development applications on a more rigorous and formalized basis than at present. Although most neighbourhoods have not been systematically and formally involved in the review of zoning amendment and development applications, those neighbourhoods involved in detailed planning exercises have been involved to varying degrees. Prior practice in detailed

4.5


POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION neighbourhood planning exercises has been to inform resident planning groups of applications as soon as received, and to seek the opinion of such groups in reviewing the applications. In some instances, such as an appeal to the Development Appeal Board or City Council, resident planning groups have made direct presentation of their views. The General Municipal Plan recommends that this policy of informing resident planning groups be extended to all areas of the city through the proposal for District Planning Committees and a District Planning Program. The role of District Planning Committees in reviewing zoning amendment and development applications would be an advisory one, as these decisions and recommendations cannot bind the Civic Administration or City Council. Copies of zoning amendment applications received by the City should be forwarded directly to the appropriate committee. The committee should then comment on the applications within the time period specified for review by all other agencies and Civic Departments consulted by and within the City, to ensure input at the earliest stage of review and avoid undue delay in decision-making. Copies of development applications received by the City, which do not pertain to "as-of-right" or unconditional permitted uses, should be forwarded immediately to the committees for review and response. The response period, again, should be consistent with that given other agencies and Civic Departments consulted prior to the development officer's decision. In applications subject to appeal to the Development Appeal Board, it is recommended the Development Appeal Board consider submissions and responses from District Planning Committees as input in their deliberations.

Policy 4.A.2 The City will require that District Planning Committees be structured according to the following guidelines: (a) District Planning Committees will be and remain legally constituted under the Societies Act of Alberta during the period of their operation; (b) District Planning Committees will be composed of representatives from various sectors and interest groups, such as community leagues and area councils; and, (c) District Planning Committees will strive to inform, solicit and evaluate input from a broad a range of population and interest groups within the district as possible. Discussion

One of the first steps in the District Planning process will be to inform residents of the potential benefits and role(s) of a District Planning Committee. To expedite the process of establishing these Committees, some basic ground rules are required concerning their composition and operation. The General Municipal Plan recommends that District Planning Committees be legally incorporated as non-profit groups under the Societies Act of Alberta. Formal incorporation of the Committees will lend order and stability to their functions by establishing specific officers and procedures. This recommendation is consistent with previous approaches in the Community Planning Program, which required groups to be legally constituted to receive financial assistance.

4.6


POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

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Another basic objective for these Committees is that they attempt to receive representation from as broad a range of citizens and groups as possible. As indicated under the issue section of this Policy Report, representativeness is a valid objective but very difficult to realize. It is impossible to enforce proportional representation according to any criteria such as interest groups, sex, ethnicity or age. All that can be done is to create an awareness among the population and encourage as many groups as possible to become involved. At the outset of the planning process it is suggested that identifiable and organizationally experienced groups, such as community leagues and area councils, be approached for representation. Another aspect of the representation issue concerns the operation of District Planning Committees. Even if the structure of the Committees is diversified, input on issues cannot be limited to formal representatives if the Committees are to strive to reflect community wide concerns. Therefore, the General Municipal Plan recommends that these Committees be responsible for demonstrating that the broadest range of input has been solicited and evaluated.

Policy 4.A.3 The City will establish funding for citizen participation to assist District Planning Committees in meeting anticipated operational expenses during the District Planning process. Initial funding will be set at the outset of the District Plan process and be revised on a yearly basis after a review of cost increments. The funds will be provided on an accountable basis to the Committees.

Discussion Citizen participation is first and foremost a volunteer activity. Inasmuch as citizen participation assists the Civic Administration and City Council in preparing meaningful and acceptable courses of actions or plans, it also assists in fulfilling the objectives of civic government. The intent of Policy 4.A.3 is to provide funding for citizen participation, through District Planning Committees, to assist volunteers in meeting operational expenses encountered in organizing a broad base of citizen participation. Since such expenses are incurred in assisting the City to fulfill its objectives, volunteers should not be expected to be directly and personally burdened with any expenses encountered in such. Expenses, such as establishing an office for the purpose of organizing citizen participation and preparing information brochures, are considered to be legitimate operating expenses which should be publicly funded. Under the Neighbourhood Improvement Program, funds were provided to allow resident planning committees to hire full-time professional co-ordinators. However, under a similar program - the Community Planning Program, funds were not available for this. Nonetheless, under both situations citizen participation has been comparably successful. Greater volunteer effort from residents in Community Planning Program areas has illustrated that hired co-ordinators are not a prerequisite for meaningful participation. It is felt provision for operating expenses will be sufficient to assist residents and also to limit the overall cost of the District Planning Program.

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POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION Similar to conditions stipulated for citizen participation funding in the Older Neighbourhoods Study, it is suggested citizen participation groups be legally constituted bodies, as under the Societies Act of Alberta, and be fully accountable to the Civic Administration for documenting all expenditures. Funds for citizen participation should also be provided in accountable advances to the group. These conditions are considered to be necessary to ensure control over the use of public funds. The amount of funding for operational expenses of District Planning Committees should be more firmly established after an actual year of operation, after which funding can be revised yearly. However, in initiating citizen participation funding for District Planning Committees, it is suggested a maximum of $5,000 per year for each District Planning Committee be allocated for operational expenses. The $5,000 ceiling should be sufficent to allow District Planning Committees to prepare and print brochures, such as progress reports, as well as organize meetings for planning workshops.

Policy 4.A.4 The City will establish an ongoing Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the Civic Administration on matters relating to land development. Discussion The General Municipal Plan growth strategy proposes some shift in policy to encourage development different from that which would probably be constructed under the market trend. To bring about these market changes, appropriate measures must be carried out by the City Council. It is insufficent, for example, for City Council to adopt a policy of increased housing in the core area without, at the same time, adopting measures which

will permit that goal to be achieved. City Council by itself cannot achieve such a goal, since it does not "develop" the city. By far the largest part of the built environment in the city is developed by the private development industry. Therefore, the achievement of the development goals in the General Municipal Plan is heavily dependent on the private developer. The actions of the private developer are determined in large part by the market place, or the economics of development. If it is economically not feasible for the private developer to build housing in the core area, no amount of objective-setting by Council will produce core area housing. However, if a municipal council takes steps which would make it attractive to the private development industry to build core area housing, or achieve any of the other goals of the General Municipal Plan which could not otherwise be achieved because of their infeasibility in the prevailing market, then the chances that those goals will be realized will be greatly improved. The private development industry, therefore, must play an important role in carrying out the General Municipal Plan, and the City must consult with the private development industry, not only on the means of reaching those goals, but even on the matter of setting them, if they are to be realistic goals which can be achieved by the development industry. To facilitiate collaboration between the development industry and the municipality in establishing land use objectives, it is proposed that a formal mechanism of communication be established. There are several organizations which represent the development industry in Edmonton, such as the Urban Development Institute and the Housing and Urban Development Association of Canada, which could provide the basis of a liaison group. Discussions with various members of the development industry have already indicated they

4.8


POLICY REPORT #4 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION would be prepared to participate in the development of land use policy in this way, and to appoint a committee to represent the industry in the planning process.

• • • •

The role of such a liaison committee would be to consult with the Civic Administration, under the co-ordination of the Planning Department, on a formal basis on all those matters which affect the achievement of goals in the General Municipal Plan in which the private development industry is the key factor. Essentially, the purpose of the consultations would be to find ways of assisting the development industry to reach the City's development goals, as set out in the General Municipal Plan land use strategy. Probably the most critical issues to be discussed would involve the land use regulations - particularly permitted densities, parking requirements, development bonuses, and similar items which are critical to the economic feasibility of development. Where City action in these areas is required to make the desired development feasible, the nature of the necessary measures would be

identified in these consultations. Recommendations might then be made to City Council for appropriate action. If the appropriate recommended action is not approved by Council then consideration might need to be given to amending the General Municipal Plan to recognize that a particular component of the development strategy cannot be achieved. This proposed system of formal liaison with the development industry would provide for the participation, in implementing the General Municipal Plan, of the third of the three major groups involved in the planning process. These three major participants in the planning process are the Civic Government, the citizens of Edmonton, and the business sector. With this formal systematic involvement of both the public sector and the business sector in the planning process, the chances for the successful implementation of the General Municipal Plan development strategy are significantly improved.

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POLICY REPORT #5

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RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT 1.0 PRESENT SITUATION During the early 1970's, the city witnessed a dramatic shift in emphasis placed on the role suburban areas played in accommodating growth. Between 1968 and 1972, approximately 57% of new dwelling units were built in inner city areas, with 43% occurring in new suburban areas. However, between 1972 and 1977, housing starts in inner city areas declined to 16% of total growth, while suburban areas accounted for 84%. Such a shift was, in part, the influence of the policies of the 1971 General Plan which heavily oriented growth towards suburban areas, targeting 88% of the city's population increase to the suburbs. The distribution of growth also was influenced by changing attitudes towards inner city communities, with negative attitudes

towards redevelopment substantially curtailing redevelopment activity in all but two communities Oliver and Garneau. However, the outcome of such policies in terms of population growth was dramatically different. The shift to suburban emphasis has seen a decline in inner city population, averaging about 4,800 persons per year between 1971 and 1978, with population increases occurring exclusively in suburban areas and the Oliver and Garneau communities. The dramatic difference in population terms was substantially the result of declining average household sizes resulting from an aging of the inner city population and fewer children per household in general.

2.0 ISSUES The emphasis and reliance on suburban expansion as a means of accommodating growth has created three basic groups of concerns: 1. concern over the role of various areas of the city in accommodating future growth;

2. concern over the effect that the roles designated for certain areas have on housing prices; and, 3. concern over the effect of the roles of various areas on the quality of life in the residential environment.

2.1 HOUSING ROLE Presently, the Downtown area is not fulfilling a significicant residential function within the city. The inability to attract residential development into the Downtown represents a failure to capitalize on the access provided by this area to city-wide services and amenities which would assist in reducing traffic congestion and in creating vitality in the Downtown. This situation is also of concern because of the limited use of the Downtown area after working hours, with the related concern about the creation of a "night-time ghetto" and its negative implications to the Downtown's retail and entertainment functions.

Even more critical is the future role of the inner city area. Edmonton's inner city neighbourhoods have experienced substantial population losses since the late 1960's as a result of the age of these communities in the life cycle pattern of neighbourhoods (refer to Figure 5.1), significant reductions in household size, and resistance to substantial redevelopment in most communities. Population losses have created several related concerns, such as the future viability of inner city schools currently experiencing declining enrollments and increasing operational costs, and the general inefficient use of public services and facilities. 5.1


• •

1st Peak

2nd Peak

Child-bearing years of new residents , Children gradually leaving home REGIONAL

Children leaving home

Gradual stabilization of age and cornposition of population

II

AVERAGE New couples movina in

2nd Low t 1st Low Initial Settlement

1 0 years

20

40

510

610

710

80

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FIG. 5.1 THEORETICAL LIFE • CYCLE PATTERN OF NEIGHBOURHOODS


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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Such concerns have created a great uncertainty regarding the future role of inner city areas in accommodating growth. Suburban residents also have been concerned about the role their areas play in meeting future housing needs, particularly in relationship to the roles played by the inner city and Downtown areas. Suburban areas recently

have begun to absorb the major portion of multiple unit residential developments. With the types of problems experienced due to population losses in the inner city areas, there is a growing concern about the need to place greater emphasis on accommodating multiple unit developments in the inner city areas, as opposed to total reliance on suburban neighbourhoods.

2.2 HOUSING COSTS The cost of housing has been of great concern during the last 5 years. There are several reasons for the sharp increase in housing prices. However, the unprecedented demand for housing created by population growth, rising incomes and government housing programs, coupled with inflation, speculative investment, and shortages in the supply of suburban land and delays in housing production all combined to generate upward pressure on ownership and rental costs. Although the ways in which municipal policies affect housing costs are limited in comparison to Federal and Provincial

policies affecting inflation and the availability of financing, the Housing Task Force identified several concerns regarding the way municipal policies affect housing costs, such as the price of land through policies regarding the future supply of land for residential development, land dedication requirements, and servicing standards. The policies of the General Municipal Plan can primarily assist in influencing the future supply of land and the degree of efficiency to which existing land is used.

2.3 LIVABILITY IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT Although the efficient accommodation of growth and the stability of housing prices are of primary concern, it is also important that desirable or livable residential environments be established or maintained. The range of concerns pertaining to the quality of the residential environment is vast, from those regarding relationships between different land uses and densities, to those regarding the upgrading of municipal infrastructure in older inner city neighbourhoods. In the Downtown, residential development is seen as an essential means of strengthening the Downtown's function in the city, through a diversification of activities, as well as a means of assisting in the reduction of traffic congestion

resulting from work trips destined for the Downtown area. A major requirement of General Municipal Plan policies is to establish some means to overcome the inhibitions of the marketplace to undertake extensive residential development in the Downtown. Although economic factors pose the most signficicant constraints, the desirability of the Downtown for residential development is also affected by the quality of its environment. Such factors as high traffic volumes, congestion and noise generated by traffic, lack of park space and recreational facilities, and unattractive street environments must be addressed if parts of the Downtown are to become desirable as residential areas.

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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Although the perception of quality or satisfaction with inner city residential areas is variable, the concerns of inner city residents are considered to be very similar. The condition of housing, municipal utilities and hard services, such as roads and sewers, the availability of park and recreational facilities, and the noise and physical danger posed by traffic congestion are very real issues requiring attention. However, redevelopment and, in particular, the relationship between new developments and existing development, have an even greater impact on the perceived livability of inner city areas. Redevelopment to date in the inner city has been of concern for two major reasons: 1. redevelopment has been of a form which has not been conducive to maintaining a family orientation in inner city areas - a major requirement if these areas are to be re-populated and maintain efficient operation of services and facilities such as schools; and,

2. the form of redevelopment has often resulted in

detrimental impacts, such as traffic congestion, and has often been out of scale with the surrounding environment. The quality of suburban areas has been of concern mainly in regard to delays in the provision of municipal services and facilities, for example schools, resulting from the amount of time it takes new neighbourhoods to reach "threshold" levels for the economically viable operation of facilities. The amount, location and design of multiple unit housing has been of concern for several reasons, such as creating the feeling of a more crowded and less private residential environment, and some degree of social stress resulting from the greater diversity of households. Another matter of concern regarding the quality of suburban areas is the increasing length of work trips and time spent in the journey-to-work, as a result of the concentration of employment opportunities in the Downtown area and an emphasis on suburban expansion in accommodating residential development.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 5.A To promote the development of substantial quantities of housing in the Downtown, as an essential element in achieving a diverse Downtown, a broader range of housing choices in general, and an efficient and equitable distribution of medium and high density housing across the City.

Discussion The realization of significant increases in housing in the Downtown should result in a significant proportion of

future high-rise, high density apartment development being accommodated in this area. Such an accomplishment will reduce the potential pressure for, and impact of, high density redevelopment on inner city neighbourhoods, diversify the function of the Downtown, utilize existing infrastructure more efficiently, provide additional choice in the housing market, and assist in reducing traffic congestion as a result of work trips to the Downtown. This objective will be implemented by pursuing the following policies.

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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 5.A.1

Discussion

The City will incorporate meaningful incentives for the construction of housing in its system of development controls for the Downtown.

This policy was approved by City Council on September 11, 1979 as part of the Downtown Housing Study. The Land Use Bylaw will be the most influential piece of Municipal legislation for encouraging housing Downtown. It is anticipated that when the new Land Use Bylaw is put in force in the spring of 1980, a mixed-use district will be applied, combined with a Statutory Plan Overlay based on the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan. The Statutory Plan Overlay will set out in detail the types and intensity of uses permitted in different areas.

Discussion

This policy is essential to the achievement of Objective 5.A, the promotion of residential development as part of the overall use mix in the Downtown. Policy 5.A.1 states that the City will amend existing regulations to introduce a form of incentive or bonus which will encourage mixed-use developments that include housing as a substantial component. It is intended that these changes to the development regulations will be introduced through the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan. (Bylaw 6202) Policy 5.A.2 The City will confirm and protect existing residential areas from major instrusions of commercial or other non-residential development. Discussion

This policy was approved by City Council on September 11, 1979, as part of the Downtown Housing Study. It will protect the existing McKay Avenue residential area, presently zoned for high density residential uses, from piecemeal conversion to non-residential uses. Policy 5.A.3

Policy 5.A.4 The City will undertake environmental improvements where necessary, including streets, sidewalks and community services, to make the Downtown more attractive for residential development. Discussion

This policy was approved by City Council on September 11, 1979, as part of the Downtown Housing Study. The ability to successfully attract residential development to the Downtown area will be affected by the environmental quality of the areas designated for housing. The Downtown Plan process will be important in identifying specific requirements, such as the relocation of incompatible uses, or areas where the pedestrian environment requires improvement, such as through streetscape plans.

The City will create new mixed use districts in areas of the Downtown not presently residential in character. Land use and intensity regulations in these districts will be formulated to promote the development of housing by making residential development economically more attractive.

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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 5.A.5 The City recognzies that, while housing in the Downtown will serve primarily small households and moderate-to-high income groups, appropriate measures must be taken by civic, provincial and other agencies, to ensure that accommodation is available for a broad range of income levels and households.

Policy 5.A.7 The City will continue to discuss and work with the C.P.R. and C.N.R. to establish and implement plans for redevelopment of all or portions of their downtown yards to uses which will include the provision of housing. Discussion

Discussion This principle was adopted by City Council on September 11, 1979, as part of the Downtown Housing Study. It is intended to ensure a balanced and diversified residential population for the Downtown and to provide Downtown housing opportunities for people of low and moderate incomes, sijgle adults and the elderly.

Policy 5.A.6 The City will explore the possibility and utility of using the conditional sale of City-owned land as a technique to encourage the construction of housing in the Downtown. Discussion The City can encourage residential development in several ways. However, the control of land use is accomplished most readily through the ownership of land. The above policy statement suggests that the City use portions of its existing inventory of land in the Downtown to encourage the private sector to undertake residential development through the conditional sale of land. The primary condition of sale would be to enter into a development agreement with the City to use the land for residential development.

The policy of continuing discussions with the railway companies regarding the potential redevelopment of the rail yards was approved by City Council on September 11, 1979, when Council considered the Downtown Housing Study. Potential redevelopment of the yards has been under discussion for some time. The range of possible uses for the Canadian Pacific yards was examined in great detail in the Canadian Pacific Rail Relocation Study, carried out by the City during 1976 79. The findings of the Study are still being discussed by the City and Canadian Pacific. Discussions with Canadian National Railways over the possible redevelopment of its yards have taken place on several occasions since the mid-1960's. Given the area of land involved and the complex economic questions associated with railway relocation, the ultimate future of the C.N.R. yards will necessarily be the subject of further negotiation. By assuming a co-ordinating role, the City can expedite the development of these lands for appropriate residential and/or commercial uses in keeping with its Downtown development objectives. -

Policy 5.A.8 City will work with the development industry to identify other means of making the construction of housing in the Downtown an attractive option for developers.

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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion The implementation strategy of the General Municipal Plan recognizes the predominant role of the private sector in development and, therefore, proposes the establishment of a Development Industry Liaison Committee. The involvement and input received from such a committee can be valuable in identifying the

impact of legislation, incentives and/or proposed revisions to legislation, and new ideas to encourage the implementation of city-wide and local objectives. The nature of the Development Industry Liaison Committee is discussed in greater detail in Policy Report #4.

Objective 5.B To increase the amount of future housing accommodated in the inner city, with a strong emphasis on family housing, and requiring redevelopment to occur on a dispersed basis rather than concentrated in only a few areas. Discussion A greater emphasis on accommodating residential development in the inner city such as through redevelopment in the form of multiple unit "family" housing is essential to the well-being of the city as a whole and to inner city neighbourhoods in particular. Reversing the rate of population decline, particularly by the attraction of childrearing households, is desired to achieve an efficient utilization of inner city resources and particularly to maintain inner city schools. However, the type of redevelopment which is encouraged should be compatible with the characteristics and needs of inner city communities. It is, therefore, the objective of the General Municipal Plan to encourage selective redevelopment which is undertaken in a manner that does not undermine the desirable characteristics of established communities. This objective will be achieved by pursuing the following policies.

Policy 5.B.1 The City will permit relatively higher density residential development to take place throughout the inner city, with an emphasis on family suitable housing, rather than concentrating such development in a few neighbourhoods. However, the nature and extent of the distribution of development to higher densities in the inner city will be guided by Policies 5.B.2 to 5.B.11. Discussion The implementation of an efficient city structure and maintenance of vitality in inner city areas depends on reversing the trend towards sharp population losses in inner city neighbourhoods, experienced during the last 10 years. With the exception of Garneau, and until most recently, Oliver, all inner city neighbourhoods have experienced population declines. It is the strategy of the General Municipal Plan to encourage the selective redevelopment of substantially deteriorated structures as a means of encouraging increases in population in inner city areas. Such an approach will also assist in overcoming problems (such as traffic congestion or burden on municipal facilities) experienced by concentrating redevelopment in only a few

5.7


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT neighbourhoods. To make selective redevelopment viable and to assist in re-populating the inner city, redevelopment to higher densities will be required. However, it is further proposed that the density of redevelopment be strictly regulated to maintain compatibility between the residential function and building form of new development and that of the existing community. It is suggested that compatibility between existing and new development in inner city areas can best be achieved by emphasizing the provision of housing with characteristics attractive and suitable for child-rearing families.

Policy 5.B.2 The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, encourage variety in the types and density of residential land uses accommodated in inner city areas, subject to the achievement of compatible relationships, or an integration between housing types in inner city areas. In establishing compatible relationships attention should be given to the following factors: (a) consistent streetscapes should be maintained by: i) using street frontages within blocks as the basis for obtaining compatible types of residential land use in terms of density, building form, and the provision of family or non-family units; ii) ensuring the retention of mature vegetation, consistent front yards, height and building bulk relationships; and, iii) the retention of frequent openings between the building mass along the street frontage. (b) dwelling units with family suitable characteristics, as defined in 5.B.9, should be provided in low density areas and may be encouraged in medium and high density areas if the following conditions are met:

i) no significant traffic congestion or pedestrian-vehicular movement conflicts exist; ii) there is an absence of noise or other negative environmental influences; schools in the neighbourhood are functional; and, iv) the proposed development' does not exceed 6 storeys in height. (c) the juxtaposition of developments with significant differences in density, such as low to high density, should be avoided. Discussion

In proposing a broader distribution of redevelopment within inner city areas, there is an awareness that the integration of new developments into these established neighbourhoods is essential to the quality of the neighbourhoods. The perceived quality of inner city neighbourhoods is significantly influenced by the relationship between buildings. Original subdivision patterns have determined the relationship of buildings to the street and to each other. With the passing of time such relationships have become valued for the visual order and stability they represent. If redevelopment is to be accepted by inner city residents, it is felt that it must be sensitive to the stabilizing characteristics of older areas such as building heights, front and side yards, orientation of buildings to the street, and the residential function of buildings, as influenced by the characteristics of units. Where different types and densities of residential development are proposed, the size of medium and high density land parcels should remain small and not occupy significant portions or total blocks. The mixing of family and non-family units in medium and high density projects is also a concern. The guidelines in Policy 5.B.2 indicate that careful consideration should be given to the environmental 5.8


I= INNER CITY

= SUBURBS

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• •

MAP 5.1 RESIDENTIAL POLICY AREAS INI■ wm


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT conditions of neighbourhoods or parts of neighbourhoods in recommending whether or not to encourage the provision of family suitable dwelling units. Policy 5.B.10 further suggests that family suitable units should be provided in medium and high density projects where such projects will serve as a transition between low density and high density areas, subject to environmental conditions. Policy 5.B.3

• • • •

The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, assess alternative density patterns as a means of recommending how development will be accommodated within the area to achieve the objectives of the growth strategy. Such assessments will be undertaken prior to implementing Policies 5.B.5 or 5.B.6. The density and building form guidelines outlined in Charts 5.1 and 5.2 will be used to commence such assessments. Discussion

Detailed planning is required to implement the inner city residential policies of the General Municipal Plan sensitively. This is particularly the case where the emphasis is on permitting redevelopment at increased densities which is sensitive to, or integrated with, the characteristics of established neighbourhoods. District Plans and Area Redevelopment Plans are proposed as the vehicles through which the characteristics of inner city areas will be defined on a block-by-block basis and a determination of suitable building forms and densities. In addition to community characteritistics, the establishment of suitable residential densities should take into account all factors outlined in Policy 3.A.5 for District Plans and Policy 17.B.5 for Area Redevelopment Plans.

Policy 5.B.4 The City will utilize the guidelines in Chart 5.1 in defining the relative degrees of density for the purpose of directing residential development within the inner city areas. Discussion

In its land use planning context, density refers to the number of people or dwelling units on a given area of land. Another closely related idea is "intensity", which is used to signify the amount of building floor space on a given area of land. There are two basic ways of defining or measuring density - in terms of people or buildings. The 1971 General Plan used population as a basis for density definition and measurement. The use of the population measurement was based on a capacity approach to density - at the lower end of the density scale, approximately 40 persons per acre for the establishment of minimum density for the efficient provision of services; and at the higher end of the density scale, 300 persons per acre to avoid complicated problems in the separation of vehicular and pedestrian movement. However, the use of the population basis for density definition is that population characteristics of households can change dramatically in short periods of time, thereby implying concomitant changes in building form or the number of dwelling units in a particular neighbourhood. In terms of economic efficiency, such an approach is highly questionable beyond the initial development stage when efficiency is of greatest concern. The population definition also fails to provide any direction for critical issues, such as compatibility between different building forms and site-to-site density relationships. It is for this reason that the General

5.10


Chart 5.1 Inner City: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Development Within Inner City Neighbourhoods

Predominant Characteristics Low Density

Maximum Density Units Per Net Residential Hectare 42

1111 Maximum Height in Metres

Maximum F.A.R.

10

(32.8)

(50.6)

14 (45.9)

High Density "Family"

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

High Density "High Rise"

45 (147.6)

3.0

(131.5)

Medium Density

125

325

(No.) = Imperial Equivalent. The guidelines presented in this chart are not to be interpreted as Note: benefits which should be received "as of right" under the Land Use Bylaw. Rather, the guidelines are intended mainly to provide direction to other Statutory Plans in establishing the nature of future development within neighbourhoods.

• • • 5.11


Chart 5.2 Density Nodes: Density and Building Form Guidelines for Transitional Development Within Density Nodes

Maximum Density

Maximum Density

Maximum Density

Nearest Primary Access Points

At Intermediary Points

Furthest From Primary Access Points

UPH

Height'

FAR'

UPH

Height

FAR

UPH

Height

LRT Station Area

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

3.0

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

65 (26.3)

14 (45.9)

Downtown/ Inner City

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

3.0

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

District Centre

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

1.0

65 (26.3)

15 (45.9)

Neighbourhood Centre

125 (50.6)

1.0

65 (26.3)

14 (45.9)

Location

FAR

Transition Principles

0

14 (45.9)

1.0

(No.) = Imperial Equivalent Units per net residential hectare In metres ' Floor Area Ratio '

• • •

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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Municipal Plan has selected to define density solely in terms of the building unit. A definition and measurement of density based on the building unit will provide greater stability in the measurement of density and allow for more definitive direction to be provided to the Land Use Bylaw and other statutory plans.

high density "family" category is specifically intended to establish a means of encouraging family-suitable units in a high density environment. The conditions for this density category are based on recent studies, such as the Alternatives to High-Rise Study (Edmonton) and Housing Families at High Densities (Vancouver).

The relative degrees of density, expressed as low, medium and high in Chart 5.1, are based on an assessment of several factors. For the definition of low density as applied to inner city areas, the objective was to achieve the following characteristics in developments:

Policy 5.B.5

1. provision of family suitable dwelling unit characteristics outlined in Policy 5.B.9, such as identity, territoriality, direct access from grade to the unit, and private outdoor amenity space; and, 2. provision of buildings which are compatible with the existing and established characteristics of communities, such as front yards, prevailing building heights, and frequent openings in the building mass along street frontages. The guidelines for low density areas are based on what is felt to be the maximum intensity of development that could meet the desired characteristics of redevelopment in inner city areas. These guidelines would allow at grade multiple units, such as terraced housing, to be built. The guidelines are consistent with residential districts in the preliminary draft of the Land Use Bylaw. Medium density, high density "family" and high density "high-rise" are based on the regulations of the preliminary draft of the Land Use Bylaw. These regulations basically fit the existing pattern and character of development in Edmonton, with the exception of provisions to encourage more family suitable qualities in dwelling units. In addition, the

The City will, as part of the District Planning process, assess the feasibility and desirability of establishing "density nodes", or concentrations of higher density residential development, adjacent to or as part of activity centres. Activity centres will be highly accessible by private automobile and public transit and, in particular, will be the location of major public transit transfer points and existing or proposed commercial retail and office development. Discussion The arrangement of density is not often found to be uniform over large neighbourhoods or even blocks. In most cases, density is related to specific areas or points where there is a concentration of activity and therefore accessibility such as the Downtown, town centres or major commercial strips. This pattern has resulted partly from market forces working to maximize accessibility, thereby limiting the need to move people, goods or services, and partly from a desire to create variety in the urban environment. Such tendencies to concentrate around points of high accessibility are very desirable and can be utilized to strengthen the implementation of decentralization and transportation efficiency objectives. In the inner city there may be a desire to establish density nodes to provide apartment dwellers with greater accessibility to services and facilities or to

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POLICY REPORT #5

• • • • • • •

RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT encourage transit usage. However, to actually achieve such objectives, points selected for concentrations of higher density must be directly related to peak or primary access points, such as activity centres. Such points will be characterized by major transit transfer points with mutidirectional service and the location of existing or proposed commercial centres providing employment and/or retail services or opportunities. Policy 5.B.6 The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, utilize the following guidelines when recommending the establishment of density nodes: (a) an increase in the density of development should be limited to a radius of 365 metres (1,200 feet) or 3 blocks, whichever is greater, from the centre of a Light Rail Transit, District, or downtown/inner city activity centre as outlined in Chart 5.2; (b) development within the area described in (a) should reflect a transition between the centre and edge, as outlined in Chart 5.2, by requiring: i) the highest height, dwelling unit density, and building intensity to occur within or adjacent to the centre. These residential developments are likely to be part of mixed use buildings or projects totally or predominantly oriented to non-family households and childless couples; and, ii) the development at the edge to be integrated with the residential development adjacent to the activity centre, if any, in terms of building height and intensity, dwelling unit density, and the provision of dwelling units with family suitable characteristics;

(c) an increase in density adjacent to neighbourhood activity centres should be limited to the block(s) and street frontage(s) in which the activity centre is located; and, (d) development within the area described in (c) should reflect a transition between the neighbourhood activity centre and the surrounding residential development, if ank with guidelines as outlined in Chart 5.2 and by requiring: i) development on sites immediately adjacent to the centre not to exceed the height and intensity of adjacent commercial development; and, ii) family suitable dwelling units to be provided in developments where adverse noise, traffic or other environmental conditions do not make the provision of such units undesirable. Discussion

The guidelines for development within density "nodes" are set out to encourage an integration between the density node and surrounding residential areas. The concept of "transitional development" is used as the primary means of integrating development. By gradually increasing/decreasing building height and intensity and dwelling unit density, the juxtaposition of building form extremes will be avoided. It is proposed that this "transitional development" take place within a 365 metre (1,200 foot) or 3-block zone or radius from the centre of a Light Rail Transit, District or downtown/inner city activity centre. This distance corresponds to the walking distance deemed desirable for encouraging transit usage.

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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT The built form and density transition approach will be used in all density concentrations except the neighbourhood activity centres. The types of nodes and guidelines for each reflect existing patterns of development proposed for Edmonton, such as the Northeast Corridor and others, which may be meaningful to explore as part of the District Planning process. In this sense, Chart 5.2 presents a collection of types of density nodes which will be evaluated in the District Plans. The L.R.T. station node is proposed mainly as a means of adopting the organization of residential density in station areas as established by the Northeast Light Rail Transit Corridor Study. The Northeast Light Rail Transit Corridor Study established basic density relationships for the redevelopment within the station areas of the Northeast Light Rail Transit line. The district centre node is proposed for accommodating a broad distribution of density within the inner city area overall. The integration of higher density built forms with lower density building forms will perhaps be of most importance within the proposed district centre nodes. For this reason a transitional approach is recommended. At the lower end of the density scale, the concern is to integrate higher density development with the existing character of 2 21/2 storey single family residential structures ranging in density from 17 to 24 units per hectare (7 10 units per acre). The row house is perhaps one of the most acceptable forms for integrating low density multiple forms within low density single family housing areas. Having regard for the existing scale and density of most inner city areas, it is suggested that a 3 storey row house structure, up to a maximum density of 65 units per hectare, can be developed at the edge of the district node and achieve and acceptable level of integration with surrounding -

-

-

low-density development. At the upper end of the density scale within the district centre node the objective will be to encourage fairly high densities within building forms and environmental conditions suitable for child-rearing families. As suggested in the reports, The Alternatives to High Rise Study (Edmonton) and Housing Families at High Densities (Vancouver), buildings for child-rearing families should be limited to 6 storeys in height. The downtown/inner city node is proposed for organizing density in neighbourhoods immediately abutting the downtown area. It is proposed that a transitional density and building height approach be used in the downtown/inner city node as a means of organizing density in relationship to access points in such neighbourhoods, and as a means of providing family housing units at higher densities. The integration of development at the edge of the downtown/inner city node with surrounding residential development will depend on or be geared to the density of surrounding development. The guidelines suggested in Chart 5.2 correspond to the proposals for L.R.T. Station areas, with the lower density end of the transition area oriented to low density apartment developments. The neighbourhood centre is recommended as a means of attracting medium density multiple unit residential developments into the interior of lower density residential areas, to provide greater choice in the housing market. However, to limit the impact of this type of redevelopment in established communities, it is suggested that development of a neighbourhood centre be limited to the block(s) and street frontage(s) in which commercial development is already located and that development be integrated with the scale, density and functional characteristics of surrounding residential development.

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POLICY REPORT #5

• • • • • • •

RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 5.B.7 The City will encourage the rejuvenation of predominantly low density inner city neighbourhoods through an emphasis on both rehabilitation and selective redevelopment, subject to Policies 5.B.8 and 5.B.9. Discussion The declining population of inner city areas is a major problem which must be overcome to achieve a more efficient urban community. Since 1971, sharp population losses have been experienced in all inner city neighbourhoods, with the exception of those undergoing substantial redevelopment to higher densities. Since 1971 planning policy has been aimed at the preservation and rehabilitation of older areas not yet undergoing redevelopment. Through such policies it was felt that the quality of older areas could be made more attractive for younger families and starting households. Although such an approach may be successful in the long term, it is not the only approach to rejuvenation of neighbourhoods. Redevelopment can be beneficial also in renewing older housing stock and re-populating inner city communities. However, the type of redevelopment must be geared towards providing a suitable housing environment for child-rearing families and must be compatible with the character of older areas if the objectives for rejuvenating these parts of the city are to be achieved. Therefore, the General Municipal Plan proposes an emphasis on rehabilitation and redevelopment, with redevelopment subject to specific guidelines.

Policy 5.B.8 The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, establish residential densities on a block or site basis for low density neighbourhoods to reflect the desire to encourage a variety of housing types, encourage the rehabilitation of existing sound housing stock, and recognize the opportunities and constraints of the area imposed by existing infrastructure or area amenities. However, the maximum density for low density neighbourhoods or low density portions of neighbourhoods shall be as outlined in Chart 5.1, except as varied by a statutory plan for the purpose of organizing "density nodes". Discussion If residential density policies for particular areas or neighbourhoods in the inner city are to be established in a manner sensitive to the building form characteristics, infrastructure capacities, such as sewerage systems or roadways, and amenities, such as parks or river valley views, detailed planning is required. It is proposed that the identification and assessment of such opportunities and/or constraints will be undertaken initially in the District Planning Process and later refined, where necessary, by Area Redevelopment Plans. In establishing desired density levels in low density areas, consideration should be given to encouraging a variety of housing types within neighbourhoods. Such variety might be designed to reflect different historical patterns of subdivision and development in the neighbourhood. However, the suggested density levels should be designed to allow the maintenance of

5.16


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT predominant building form and functional characteristics of dwelling units in low density areas, and create a positive environment for rehabilitation. In addition, future redevelopment in such areas should be encouraged to emulate the qualities of existing dwelling units which make low density older areas very suitable environments for child-rearing families.

Policy 5.B.9 The City will, in the interior of low density inner city neighbourhoods, encourage the maintenance and provision of family suitable dwelling units with the following characteristics: (a) identity, such as through the provision of street addressing, individual entrances and the opportunity for personal expression; (b) territoriality through the provision of clearly defined private outdoor space; (c) car convenience through the provision of direct non-mechanical access from the parking area to the dwelling unit; (d) direct non-mechanical first storey access from grade to the dwelling unit; (e) orientation of the dwelling unit to allow for through ventilation and exposure to the sun; and, (f) acoustical privacy between dwelling units. Discussion The encouragement of residential development, at densities higher than the traditional single family detached house and with amenities suitable for child-rearing families, has become an important concern in the redevelopment of Edmonton's established

neighbourhoods. The encouragement of dwelling units suitable for families will also be important in re-populating these older areas to achieve a more efficient use of existing public facilities, particularly schools. The Alternatives to High Rise Study, recently undertaken to suggest ways of achieving more family suitable development at high densities, outlined housing criteria for family dwelling units. These criteria are listed in Policy 5.B.9. As a statement of principles, the criteria can be used to evaluate alternate housing forms for family suitability. Although all housing forms may not achieve all of the qualities, it is worthwhile to establish these characteristics as long-term goals for the quality of residential development. By encouraging these housing characteristics, greater flexibility can be achieved in Edmonton's housing stock, by allowing units to be readily adaptable to family and non-family households.

Policy 5.B.10 The City will encourage the stabilization of mixed density neighbourhoods in the inner city area undergoing redevelopment from low density uses to medium and/or high density residential uses, by: (a) allowing existing street frontages in blocks presently undergoing or substantially altered by higher density redevelopment to complete the redevelopment cycle, except where otherwise provided for by an Area Redevelopment Plan. Some provision of dwelling units with qualities suitable for families may be desirable where such blocks can serve as a transition between lower and higher density residential areas, as established by a statutory plan, and where the environmental qualities of the immediate area do not pose adverse impacts; and,

5.17


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (b) retaining any low density street frontages in blocks within such areas where higher density redevelopment has not taken place, or where provided for by an Area Redevelopment Plan, and where opportunities exist to maintain family suitable housing because of high environmental amenities. Discussion There are several neighbourhoods within the inner city area which could be termed mixed density areas, such as Garneau, Oliver, Boyle Street, and Central. These neighbourhoods have undergone or are in the process of undergoing change from low density to higher density development. In most cases, redevelopment has been piecemeal in nature, without the benefit of a coherent plan. Where no Area Redevelopment Plan xisting, redevelopment has created uncertainty as to the future type of resiential environment being created. A major effort of planning activities in mixed density areas should be directed towards stabilizing the direction and process of change. Guidelines for stablizing these areas, presented in Policy 5.B.10, key in on the degree to which the older, low density environment has been changed. In addition, the policy suggests that opposing street frontages along blocks be used as a basis for physically delimiting the area in which efforts to stabilize change and achieve more homogeneous housing relationships should be focussed. In situations where redevelopment has altered the character and housing function of an area, it is proposed that the remainder of the area be allowed to complete the redevelopment cycle. It is suggested that, in instances where redevelopment has not affected an area (i.e. opposing street frontages along a block), there may be some potential to retain the lower density environment, if the qualities of the immediate area do not pose serious problems and there are no provisions

contrary to this objective stated in an Area Redevelopment Plan affecting the area. In addition, any decisions to encourage mixed residential developments serving both non-family and family households should be based on assessments of environmental conditions, such as traffic, availability of schools, and proximity to park space.

Policy 5.B.11 The City will, as part of the District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plan processes, establish desired density levels in mixed density areas based on the following objectives: (a) the desire to stabilize the area or mitigate negative impacts resulting from higher density redevelopment such as increased traffic congestion; (b) the desire to achieve variety in the provision of types of housing units subject to guidelines for the integration of different housing types; and, (c) the desire to recognize constraints imposed by existing infrastructure such as schools, water and sewer distribution systems and opportunities in the area such as views of the river valley or proximity to parks and open space. Discussion

As stated in the discussion of Policy 5.B.8, the establishement of desired density levels in a manner which is sensitive to local opportunities and constraints requires detailed planning, as proposed under District Planning and Area Redevelopment Plans. In establishing desired density levels for neighbourhoods, areas, or blocks, it is recommended that factors such as local infrastructure, the pattern of building form(s), traffic circulation, and proximity to parks or river valley be assessed and used as a basis for rationalizing density levels. 5.18


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Objective 5.0 To increase the permitted density of single family development in the suburbs and to improve the distribution of medium and high density housing, in particular in those areas which are annexed to the City. Discussion Encouraging higher density in the development of single family residential units is primarily aimed at reducing housing costs and achieving greater efficiency in land utilization. It is anticipated higher density single family development will also allow threshold population levels for the economical operation of facilities, such as schools, to be reached more quickly. Although higher density single family development represents some degree of trade-off between cost and quality, the production of a low and unacceptable quality of housing unit and residential environment is not an automatic implication of this policy. It does, however, mean greater emphasis will need to be placed on the design of houses in residential areas to reduce any potentially negative physical or psychological impacts, which might be associated with higher densities.

Policy 5.C.1 The City will ensure that the density ranges, in terms of population per gross hectare and units per net hectare, proposed in an Area Structure Plan for a new suburban growth area, are sufficient to allow financially efficient operation of public services such as schools and public transit. Discussion The establishment of density guidelines for new suburban growth areas on an overall area-wide basis

requires analysis on a case-by-case approach. The 1971 General Plan established an overall policy of 40 persons per net residential acre (99 persons per net residential hectare) for new suburban growth areas. However, with costs, community expectations, and transportation requirements varying from one place to another in the city, the establishment of overall density guidelines at the General Municipal Plan level cannot be very meaningful. For this reason, it is recommended that overall density levels be established by individual Area Structure Plans to achieve a density level sufficient to support services at an acceptable level of economic efficiency.

Policy 5.C.2 The City will encourage the establishment of heterogenous communities reflecting a balanced and integrated social structure by providing a variety of housing types and neighbourhoods, consistent with guidelines outlined in Chart 5.3. Discussion As outlined in the Planning Department report, "Design and Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods", there is a desire to encourage heterogeneity or a diversity of housing types in new suburban growth areas to meet diverse housing needs and situations, and promote the well-being of communities, such as through more diverse social contacts and life experiences. Notwithstanding the desirability of diversity, there is a need to limit the extent of mix so that a theme of continuity is achived. For this reason, it is recommended greater homogeneity in the housing function and building form be achieved at the

5.19

• • • • • • •


Chart 5.3

Suburban Planning Units Planning Tool

AREA STRUCTURE PLAN

Minimum size of an Area Structure Plan should generally be 200 hectares (500 acres). The area should have the greatest extent of heterogeneity, as it is made up of the largest number of types of housing and other land uses. The Plan area as a whole will focus on facilities and services such as: commercial uses, secondary and post-secondary education,

district open space, social service offices; recreational, cultural, library, health and other institutional facilities. To reduce travel distance between home and place of work, and, thereby, traffic congestion throughout the city, Area Structure Plans should also focus on or be located in the vicinity of a substantial level of employment generating uses.

Area Structure Plan Bylaws

COMMUNITY

An area made up of approximately 5,000 homes or 13,000 - 15,000 people. This area will show less degree of heterogeneity than the overall district, but will still involve a significant variety of housing types and other land uses. Communities will focus on shopping and

secondary education facilities, community open space, and recreational facilities. Some employment generating uses may be planned for, in conjunction with the major commercial node in the community.

Area Structure Plan Bylaws

NEIGHBOURHOOD

An area representing approximately 1,000 2,000 homes and 4,000 - 6,000 people. A neighbourhood has less variety of housing types and block configurations than a community as a whole, however, some degree of heterogeneity is planned

for. Neighbourhoods will be centred around an elementary school, church site, and other community facilities and services. Neighbourhoods will also have a direct relationship to local commercial facilities.

Neighbourhood Plan

A sub-neighbourhood or precinct is an area comprised of approximately 50-150 homes and 150-450 people. Its housing types are homogeneous in nature. The

sub-neighbourhood will be based on a sub-collector roadway, have its own access, and identifiable boundaries.

Neighbourhood Plan/Subdivision Plan

• • • •

Characteristics

Area

-

SUB NEIGHBOURHOOD

5.20


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT neighbourhood and sub-neighbourhood levels. Homogeneity is more desirable at the neighbourhood and sub-neighbourhood or micro scale, since it creates a sense of place and identity, and in the long run tends to maintain land use stability and the perception of real estate values. Homogeneity at this level also provides an opportunity to reduce social stress resulting from a greater diversity in household composition and life style, type of tenure and income in the area. At the Area Structure Plan level, this implies there will be a great diversity of neighbourhood types and some diversity of development within communities or groups of neighbourhoods.

Policy 5.C.3 The City will utilize the guidelines in Chart 5.4 in defining the relative degrees of density for the purpose of guiding development in new suburban growth areas. Discussion

(a) avoiding the juxtaposition of residential developments with significant differences in density by using a gradual transition in housing form or open space; (b) creating homogenous sub-neighbourhood units; (c) limiting the size of parcels and the length of street frontage used for multiple unit residential developments; (d) limiting the concentration of multiple unit developments adjacent to the central school/park site; (e) limiting the concentration of multiple unit develoments adjacent to neighbourhood entrance ways; and, (f)

encouraging high density apartment development to locate at the periphery of neighbourhoods.

Discussion

Similar to the discussion under Policy 5.B.2 for the inner city residential component, the General Municipal Plan incorporates a site specific definition of low, medium and high density. The definition of low density for suburban areas is different from that for inner city areas, to recognize differences in current subdivision standards from those of 30 years or more ago. The maximum density guideline for low density areas reflects policies established in the report, "Design and Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods".

The relationship between different densities and forms of residential development in suburban areas has become increasingly important to residents. The design factors outlined in Policy 5.C.4 incorporate the major recommendations of the report, "Design and Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods". Figure 5.2 provides an illustration of the desired relationship between different housing types in suburban areas, as outlined in that report.

Policy 5.C.4 The City will ensure compatible relationships or integration between different housing densities and forms in suburban growth areas by:

As discussed under Policy 5.B.3, the integration of different residential types is important to maintaining identity. Perhaps the strongest measure to enable integration, in a physical sense, is to avoid the immediate juxtaposition of buildings of different density

5.21


Chart 5.4 Suburban Areas: Maximum Density and Building Form Guidelines for Suburban Residential Development

Predominant Characteristics

Maximum Density Units Per Net Residential Hectare

Maximum Height in Metres

Low Density Single Family

33.3 (13.3)

10 (32.8)

Low Density Multiple Unit

42 (17)

10 (32.8)

125 (50.6)

14 (45.9)

1

High Density "Family"

225 (91)

23 (75.5)

1.25

High Density, "High Rise"

325 (131.5)

45 (147.6)

3.0

Medium Density

(No.) = Note:

Maximum FA.R.

II

Imperial Equivalent. The guidelines presented in this chart are not to be interpreted as benefits which should be received "as of right" under the Land Use Bylaw. Rather, the guidelines are intended mainly to provide direction to other Statutory Plans in establishing the nature of future development within neighbourhoods.

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ 5.22


HOUSING TYPES

single family large lot

single family small lot

I semiI detached

street townhouses

project townhouses

• •

walk-up high-rise apartments apartments

single family large lot — single family small lot

o

semidetached

,s■

4,

street townhouses 4.0

project townhouses

walk-up apartments

high-rise apartments

'Jo 07‘,. 6/

Note: Figure illuStrates general compatibility of various housing types in close proximity. Greater flexibility may be available in backing-on relationships where design and landscaping may be employed to reduce potential conflicts. Source: Design and Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods (July 1978)

FIG. 5.2 HOUSING COMPATIBILITY

• • • • •


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT and height categories. Limiting the size, and particularly street frontage occupied by multiple unit developments, can also minimize the perception or obtrusiveness of higher density. Other measures proposed in Policy 5.C.4 are also intended to minimize perception of higher density.

Discussion

Policy 5.C.5 The City will permit increases in the density of suburban single family housing through increased use of two family housing, zero lot line housing, and planned unit residential developments.

In accordance with the recommendations in "Design and Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods", a broad distribution of low density multiple unit developments throughout neighbourhoods is recommended. Low density developments, such as duplexes and semi-detached housing, have similar characteristics to single family houses and can, therefore, be dispersed without adverse impact if they are designed in character with the scale and architecture of adjacent sites. The density levels recommended are consistent with provisions in the Land Use Bylaw.

Discussion

Policy 5.C.7

The basic intent of Policy 5.C.5 is to encourage more compact single family residential development as a primary means of increasing the availability of housing, achieving more efficient land utilization, and reaching threshold populations for servicing suburban areas more quickly. Encouraging more compact forms of single family housing can be achieved mainly by permitting smaller minimum site areas, encouraging attached or two family developments, permitting zero lot line developments, or permitting cluster development through such techniques as planned unit development. These types of changes will provide an increased variety in the housing market and more adequately meet demand for residential units with private amenity space and other characteristics of the traditional single family detached home.

The City will, as part of the Area Structure Plan process, encourage the establishment of "density nodes" or concentrations of higher density residential development, adjacent to or as part of activity centres. Activity centres will be highly accessible by private automobile and public transit and, in particular, will be the location of major public transit transfer points and proposed commercial, retail and office development. The guidelines outlined in Policy 5.B.8 should be utilized in determining the nature of development in these areas.

Policy 5.C.6 The City will plan for the distribution of multiple unit residential developments with densities lower than 33 units per net hectare (13.3 units per net acre) throughout suburban neighbourhoods.

Discussion As discussed under Policy 5.B.5 for inner city areas, the encouragement of density "nodes" or clusters in proximity to activity centres and public transit is an important land use pattern to support a transportion system with an emphasis on public transit. This objective and pattern of development is equally valid in suburban and inner city areas where land efficiency, support or public transit and the diversification of activity centres are important objectives. In assessing the desirability of density nodes and in establishing development guidelines for such areas, factors outlined in Policies 5.B.5 and 5.B.6 should be taken into account and/or implemented.

5.24


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Objective 5.D To provide the development industry with greater flexibility and opportunity for innovation. Discussion Planning concepts and legislation should always remain flexible to accommodate unforeseen changes or shifts in market conditions. Within guidelines pertaining to the quality of the urban environment, there should be room for the development industry to experiment with new forms and arrangements of housing. This objective will be pursued through the implementation of the following policies.

Policy 5.D.1 The City will give consideration to permitting Area Structure Plans to reflect increased flexibility in dwelling unit mix by undertaking the preparation of 5 year housing demand projection studies, indicating yearly production targets, as a basis for establishing the split for housing types. However, such flexibility should not be allowed to compromise objectives for the creation of heterogeneous communities. Discussion The concept of analyzing housing demand and preparing production targets has been put forward in the report, "Housing Strategy for the City of Edmonton". In the Housing Strategy report this analysis was to be undertaken on an annual basis. The purpose of this type of report would be to project housing requirements, monitor production, identify shortfalls or housing needs not being met, and identify types of public action to overcome shortfalls.

The approach proposed in the Housing Strategy report is very critical to meeting housing needs as they emerge or change over time. For this reason, Policy 5.D.1 proposes the use of housing demand projections as a basis for evaluating and/or determining housing mix proposed in Area Structure Plans, and amendments to them through Neighbourhood Structure Plans. An expanded use of the concept proposed in the Housing Strategy report should lend greater flexibility to the development industry in meeting housing needs. The proviso to this policy is that Policy 5.C.2 should not be weakened by efforts to provide flexibility. To account for time lags between planning for new suburban growth areas and the actual development of housing, it is proposed the annual report contain 5-year production targets or projections. These targets would then be reviewed and extended on an annual basis. Such an approach should respond to a Housing Task Force recommendation for greater flexibility in the Area Structure Plan process, to allow the industry to respond more readily to market conditions.

Policy 5.D.2 The City will prepare the Land Use Bylaw to reflect a basic thrust of increased flexibility, in such areas as increasing the ease of building zero lot line developments or compatible mixed use developments and decreasing the emphasis on regulation in favour of performance criteria related to overall planning objectives.

5.25


• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion The type of development and amount of flexibility in design for a project or development is greatly determined by the Land Use Bylaw.

The basic requirement of this policy is that the Land Use Bylaw not establish definitive aspects of development so as to predetermine the exact siting of buildings for all types of zoning districts, but rather that it establish performance standards by which planning objectives can be tested or judged, particularly in relation to the quality of the residential environment.

Objective 5.E To undertake changes in City actions or policies in order to slow down the rate of increase in housing costs. Discussion The cost of housing is fundamental to peoples' satisfaction with their urban environment. Although several key cost-affecting components and factors, such as inflation, capital gains taxation, or the availability and cost of mortgages, are beyond municipal influence, there are several areas in which municipal policy can influence housing costs. Planning and construction standards, and direct involvement in increasing the supply of serviced lands through annexation and/or land banking are the predominant policy areas in which municipal influence can be exerted. Another area in which municipal policy can influence housing costs, and particularly problems of affordability, is through publicly assisted housing programs for low income family households and senior citizens (refer to Objective 5.H).

Policy 5.E.1 The City will provide for more flexible servicing standards in such areas as roadways, lot sizes and storm water systems in line with the recommendations of the Housing Task Force as approved by Council.

Discussion The General Municipal Plan strategy supports the recommendations of the Housing Task Force regarding actions which will increase the efficiency of land utilization. Changes in municipal standards regarding such items as the design of roadways and land dedication policies will create greater opportunity for slowing the rate of escalation of housing prices, recognizing, of course, the influence of the market in terms of supply and demand, and asset valuation of the ultimate cost of housing.

Policy 5.E.2 The City will consider proposals for non-contiguous development made at the time of application for amendments to Area Structure Plans through the Neighbourhood Structure Plan process, and/or subdivision approval, if the developer can demonstrate that the development will not result in any additional costs to the City or that the developer is prepared to assume the additional costs and that the developer agree to any design provisions which may be requested by City utility departments to ensure reliable service.

5.26


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion Development in new suburban growth areas of the city generally has and will continue to follow a contiguous pattern of expansion or addition. However, provision is made in the General Municipal Plan for non-contiguous development, to encourage competition and ensure a sufficient supply of serviced land is available for residential development. Non-contiguous development, however, may pose some additional costs in the extension of utilities and provision of human or social services. As outlined in Policy Report #9, Utilities, additional costs implied by non-contiguous development should not be borne by the City. In addition, proposals for such subdivision and development must meet utility department design standards and/or requests for the provision of adequate back-up services.

Policy 5.E.3 The City will encourage the establishment of a Development Industry Liaison Committee to review mechanisms available to reduce housing cost. Discussion As part of the ongoing process of implementing the General Municipal Plan, it is recommended a Development Industry Liaison Committee be established to provide input to the administration on land use

planning matters. The cost of housing and factors which affect those costs are presently a primary interest of the development industry. The Development Industry Liaison Committee will be very valuable in continuing the discussion of recommendations of types of issues identified by the Housing Task Force and suggesting ways housing costs may be reduced. For additional discussion of the Development Industry Liaison Committee, refer to Policy Report #4, Citizen Participation.

Policy 5.E.4 The City will attempt to increase the supply of residential land within the City limits through annexation applications to the Local Authorities Board. Discussion The availability of raw land for subdivision, servicing, and development has the most direct and significant influence on housing costs. A perception of a "drying up" of raw land is presumed to have had an important influence on the cost of land and, subsequently, housing in Edmonton. An increase in the availability of long term land supply is essential to efforts at slowing cost escalation. Comprehensive, long term proposals to increase the supply of land within the city, such as the City's annexation application currently before the Local Authorities Board, are essential in this regard.

5.27


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Objective 5.F To explore means of increasing the efficiency of servicing through staging at a broad level.

Policy 5.F.1 The City will implement staging at a broad level through the preparation of sector studies as part of the District Planning process for lands annexed to the City, which would allow the more effective and efficient planning and programming of roadway, transit and other public services to future growth areas. These sector plans would require a financial analysis in advance of approval. Map 14.1 identifies those areas for which sector plans would be prepared upon annextion. Discussion

To ensure the efficient planning and servicing of future growth areas, particularly those annexed to the city, it is proposed that sector studies be undertaken as part of the District Planning process. Sector studies would

cover large tracts of land annexed to the City and outline how development should take place in these areas to meet transportation and other major servicing objectives. These studies would include a general examination of municipal expenditures required to service new growth areas with trunk utilities, roadway and transit facilities, and other ancillary support services. More specifically, the intent of sector studies would be to identify the costs and benefits of development as a basis for establishing the direction and timing of growth for annexed lands and areas for which Area Structure Plans should be prepared. It is critical that the sector studies be completed as soon as possible following the annexation of additional land to the city, so the development industry and the Civic Administration can begin preparing plans which would open up additional land for development as quickly as possible.

Objective 5.G To maintain policies from existing neighbourhood plans until the policies of these plans would be reviewed as part of the District Planning Program.

Policy 5.G.1 The City will review plans prepared and approved for the following areas, outlined on Map 5.2, during the preparation of the District Plans: Canora Alberta Avenue/ Eastwood Norwood Ritchie Calder

Riverdale Strathcona Oliver Garneau Boyle Street/McCauley Groat Estate

Discussion

Recently, City Council made major land use planning policy commitments to several areas of the city, through programs such as the Neighbourhood Improvement Program and the Community Planning Program. If is not the intent of the General Municipal Plan to re-open discussion of land use policy in these areas immediately, thereby undermining years of work by residents, the Civic Administration, and City Council. Rather, it is an objective of the General Municipal Plan to maintain existing policy commitments in these areas until District Planning processes have been undertaken and plans prepared. It will be through the preparation of District Plans that the area specific implications of the General Municipal Plan land use strategy will be determined.

5.28


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 5.G.2 The City will support the implementation of Outline Plans and Area Structure Plans approved prior to the enactment of the Edmonton General Municipal Plan, until the completion of the initial conversion from rural to urban usage, unless amendments are initiated by the owners and/or developers.

Discussion City Council has approved several Outline Plans and Area Structure Plans prior to the adoption of the General Municipal Plan. It is the intent of Council that land use policy commitments expressed in those approved plans should be maintained until the initially-planned development is completed. There is no intention of re-opening discussion or introducing changes to land use policy in these areas unless it is the expressed wish of area landowners and/or the developer.

Objective 5.H To endeavour to provide housing assistance for low income singles, families, and senior citizens. Discussion The Housing Strategy report has given extensive discussion to the role of the City in providing housing, and community housing in particular. As indicated in that report, the role of the City has been that of meeting shortfalls or needs not met by the private sector. The City's action in this role has been that of co-ordinating the delivery of senior government assistance programs, such as the Senior Citizens' Housing Program, and undertaking limited production on its own through the City's Non-Profit Housing Corporation.

Discussion A major issue in the provision of community housing in the city has been its distribution. To date, the development of community housing has been restricted to new suburban growth areas. The lack of community housing in the inner city area has been mainly the result of high land costs. Consequently, many low income households have had to readjust their housing desires and relocate to new suburban areas. As indicated in depth in the Housing Strategy report, although the provision of community housing in suburban areas should be continued, greater emphasis should be given to the development of community housing in inner city areas.

Policy 5.H.1 The City will provide, within the limits of its financial resources, community housing on the basis of an equitable "fair share" distribution throughout the city in accordance with the location of demand.

5.29


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POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 5.H.2

Discussion

The City will undertake to prepare 5 year housing demand projection studies, indicating yearly production targets, as a basis for assisting in the identification of community housing needs and the location of such.

In accordance with the approach suggested under Policy 5.H.2, the City should strive toward obtaining sites for community housing projects within the inner city in a manner which will meet demand and which will locate the projects where the demand is. Policy 5.H.4 is also intended to avoid situations where one neighbourhood or one specific area of the city is utilized, by way of convenience due to an ongoing or existing planning process, to absorb community housing disproportionately in relation to demand in that neighbourhood or planning area. Instead, it is recommended that strategies for accommodating community housing within the inner city be based on a broad area approach, such as through the District Planning Program, whereby several smaller projects can be obtained to meet needs within the district.

Discussion

• •

• • •

As indicated under the discussion of Policy 5.D.1, the Housing Strategy report has recommended the establishment of an annual housing report process for the purpose of outlining projections. The housing report process also could be a beneficial vehicle in identifying the magnitude and location of community housing needs to which programs could respond. Policy 5.H.3 The City will continue to acquire land in suburban areas for the purpose of developing community housing for both the elderly and lower-income households in accordance with projected demand. Discussion The acquisition of land through the development agreement process for subdivisions in new suburban growth areas has been very successful in supplying community housing in Edmonton. Such action should be continued in the future in accordance with demands which would result from a study of housing projections as discussed under Policy 5.H.2. Policy 5.H.4

Policy 5.H.5 The City will encourage the provision of community housing in developments undertaken by the private sector through senior government housing programs such as the Core Housing Incentives Programs. Discussion The ability of the private sector to assist in meeting

community housing needs is very limited due to costs. The Provincial Government's Core Housing Incentives Program is one means whereby some proportion of private, multiple unit apartment developments can provide community housing units.

The City will endeavour to obtain suitable sites for community housing projects in the inner city areas on the basis of the location of demand.

5.31


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 5.H.6 The City wiill, in the process of preparing and/or approving statutory plans, recommend sites for community housing, projects for various population groups according to the following guidelines: (a) Senior Citizens: i) pedestrian access within one to two blocks of frequent, daily public transit service; ii) pedestrian access to convenience retail outlets such as grocery stores, drug stores, post offices, and banks, as well as direct access by public transit to low cost restaurants and entertainment facilities; iii) pedestrian access or direct (non-transfer) access by public transit to community facilities such as medical services, branch libraries, churches, and senior citizen centres; iv) pedestrian access within 1 or 2 blocks to parks and open spaces which have features such as seating areas and high visibility from surrounding uses or streets; v) a safe social and physical environment with a relatively low crime rate, casual surveillance from pedestrian traffic and removed from industrial and commercial office areas; and, vi) such other guidelines as Council deems necessary from time to time. (b) Families (low-income households): i) as much as feasible, subsidized housing developments should be less than 1 hectare in size or occupying a total block or isolated parcel of a larger site, and no more than 1 project located in any particular sub-neighbourhood;

pedestrian access within three blocks of public transit services, convenience retail outlets, and community facilities; and, such other guidelines as Council deems necessary from time to time. Discussion

The criteria outlined in the above policy basically summarize those which were approved by Council in August, 1978 for the location of senior citizens' housing. The emphasis is to locate senior citizens' housing within short walking distance of convenience retail outlets and other types of commercial facilities which are used on a frequent basis. In addition, the site selection criteria emphasize easy access to public transit which can provide direct or non-transfer service to major facilities used on a less frequent basis, such as medical facilities or branch libraries. In addition, there is a need to locate senior citizens' housing within safe residential environments to minimize potential conflicts which might lead to an unenjoyable residential experience for seniors. The guidelines for family-type community housing are similar to those for senior citizens' housing, emphasizing easy location or access to commercial convenience facilities and public transit. In addition, it is recommended sites selected for family type community housing not be concentrated within any one particular neighbourhood or sub-neighbourhood.

Policy 5.H.7 The City will ensure that the design of community housing projects achieves an integration between the community housing project and the surrounding residential neighbourhood by implementing the following guidelines:

5.32


POLICY REPORT #5 RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (a) the size of the community housing land parcels shall be limited to 1 hectare in size or larger sites where a total block or isolated lot is selected; (b) the scale of the community housing project should be compatible with existing development in the neighbourhood or development which is allowed by the Land Use District adjacent to the project;

• • • • •

(c) the architectural style of the development, choice of materials and colours should relate to the established character of the neighbourhood; (d) on site amenities such as tot lots, and multiple use indoor and/outdoor recreational facilities for all age groups should be provided on the site; and, (e) sufficient parking space should be provided on the site of the project. Discussion

important if the pursuit of a fair share distribution strategy for community housing is to be acceptable to residents. The size of community housing parcels is of particular concern in this regard. As indicated in the Housing Strategy report, the selection of smaller parcels for community housing projects is desired by low income households in community housing developments, while the "Design and Distribution of Density in New Neighbourhoods" report has indicated this is also desirable from the viewpoint of residents of surrounding developments. In addition to the size of parcels, the actual treatment of the project in terms of its architectural style, its building height and bulk, and the types of facilities or amenities provided on the site are particularly important to integration with the surrounding neighbourhood. The guidelines suggested in Policy 5.H.7 are aimed at directing attention to these factors in the actual selection of sites and their design on a case-by-case approach.

The integration of community housing with adjacent residential land uses in a particular neighbourhood is

5.33


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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION Commercial land use includes office, retail facilities, hotels and other entertainment facilities. Commercial developments are the most critical types of land use in the city since they provide many of the employment opportunities in the city, are major attractors of traffic, and serve as landmarks identifying individual districts of the city. The form and distribution of commercial development has a fundamental effect on the functioning of all the urban systems in the city. Therefore, the commercial development policies in the

General Municipal Plan play an important role in the overall growth strategy. The purpose of this Policy Report is to discuss the major issues connected with commercial development in Edmonton, to describe the approach which has been taken in the formulation of the General Municipal Plan to resolve these issues, and to explain how this approach has been incorporated in the detailed policies contained in the General Municipal Plan.

2.0 ISSUES 2.1 DISTRIBUTION OF NEW OFFICE DEVELOPMENT Perhaps the most critical commercial development issue in Edmonton is the distribution of future office space development. A key component of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy is to encourage greater decentralization or dispersion of future office development to: 1. reduce the potential impacts of increased traffic pressure resulting from journey-to-work trips which focus on the Downtown area; 2. create opportunities for a closer distance relationship between places of work and residence; and, 3. enhance and diversify other activity centres or focal points in the city. The desire to increase office development outside of the Downtown area is really emphasizing an existing trend. Between 1971 and 1976, it is estimated that approximately 42,700 square metres (460,000 square feet) or 13 percent of the city's total office space

development had been built outside of the Downtown area. This trend increased even more substantially in the late 1970's with 92,900 square metres (1 million square feet) or 33 percent of office development taking place in a variety of locations outside the Downtown, including inner city commercial strips and suburban industrial areas. However, the pursuit of increased office decentralization does raise several important concerns. What type of companies or operators are most likely to be attracted to activity centres outside of the Downtown? Will office decentralization create benefits for the city's transportation system? What effect will office decentralization have on the vitality of the Downtown area? What degree and rate of decentralization is most beneficial to the implementation of the growth strategy? What locations and intensity of development should be encouraged? These questions are the subject of the General Municipal Plan office development policies.

6.1


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2.2 DISTRIBUTION AND FORM OF NEW RETAIL DEVELOPMENT As indicated by the following excerpt, the 1971 General Plan sought to reinforce a trend towards planned shopping centres: "Scattered commercial uses in residential neighbourhoods and strip commercial development along arterials should be discouraged in favour of a comprehensively planned, nucleated development. Existing facilities of this kind in a deteriorated state should be redeveloped or relocated to correspond with basic principles of desirable commercial development." The only undeveloped lands designated in the 1971 Plan for commercial development were shopping centre sites. However, since the enactment of the 1971 Plan the city has experienced a substantial amount of commercial development along arterials in newlydeveloping industrial areas. In addition, this emphasis in the 1971 General Plan was reduced by the completion of the Commercial Strip Study in 1973, which demonstrated the role of commercial strip areas

in accommodating businesses which are unable to find suitable accommodation in planned shopping centres because of the high rents, screening requirements, operating policies of the centre, or their own requirements for storage and/or expansion. The objectives, policies and principles of the 1971 Plan were based on the apparent advantages of planned shopping centres such as the adequacy of parking and unloading areas, the convenience of multi-purpose, one-stop shopping trips, and unified ownership. However, the 1971 Plan failed to adequately recognize the advantages of other areas for retailing, particularly commercial strips. For instance, commercial strips provide greater flexibility because of less unified ownership and, therefore, accommodate a wide variety of functions. The advantages and potential roles of different types of areas in accommodating retail functions are, therefore, key policies of this General Municipal Plan.

2.3 LAND USE CONFLICTS A major concern pertaining to virtually any commercial development is its impact on adjacent or nearby land uses, particularly residential. The potential negative impacts of a commercial development may be caused by the characteristics of the building, activities which occur in the building, traffic circulation to, from, and on the site, or by development expectations created by commercial development for redevelopment of adjacent parcels of land. In recently developed areas, these impacts have been minimized by the use of planning procedures and development regulations such as: 1. regulations governing the maximum height and size of a building and its position on the lot; 2. restrictions on the uses permitted on a property;

3. gradual transitions in the height of buildings and intensity of uses; 4. parking standards; and, 5. notification requirements for rezonings. In older areas of the city, commercial development consists primarily of diversified commercial facilities stretching along both sides of major thoroughfares or in small clusters on street corners and therefore, land use conflicts are a much more serious problem. Given the policies of the General Municipal Plan to recognize the role of commercial strips in accommodating retail activities and the policies for increased office space decentralization, guidelines to prevent land use conflicts are vital to the achievement of high environmental quality. 6.2

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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2.4 INTENSITY OF OFFICE DEVELOPMENT IN THE DOWNTOWN

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In terms of the General Municipal Plan, the most important issue connected with the Downtown is the appropriate intensity of office development in the area. The appropriate amount of Downtown office space is dependent on two factors: (i) the amount of office development in the city as a whole; and, (ii) the amount of other kinds of development in the Downtown area. The determination of an optimum target for Downtown office development cannot be adequately undertaken. The amount of development is guided however, by the objective of the growth strategy to increase office development in other activity centres. Therefore, it is desirable that the Downtown's share of the city's total office space development gradually decline over the Plan period. The amount of office development for the Downtown should also be tempered by the desire to establish other uses, particularly housing. Office development is certainly an economically stronger or more profitable form of development than housing since it can withstand higher land costs. If such a balance of

activities is desired in the Downtown, a reduction in the emphasis on office development is likely to be required. However, this does not imply that office space would have to be turned away from the Downtown. In practical terms, the only way to determine whether the amount of office development would be decreased during the foreseeable future is to compare the remaining capacity of the Downtown for office development with an assessment of future office space requirements. The capacity of the Downtown area for office development, under current land use regulations, is very large. As indicated in Figure 6.1, as of January, 1979 it was estimated that the existing development regulations in the Downtown would permit the construction of approximately 4,165,200 square metres (44,833,000 square feet) of leasable commercial floor space - enough to last an estimated 47 years. This analysis suggests that there is room for increasing the relative amount of residential development without reducing the opportunities for developers to realize a fair return on investment in Downtown office construction.

2.5 RETAIL AND ENTERTAINMENT USES IN THE DOWNTOWN The stability, prosperity and growth of retail and entertainment uses is crucial to the strength and vitality of the Downtown. While the City's overall approach to Downtown retail and entertainment uses has been desirable, there are two significant issues which must be considered in the formulation of General Municipal Plan policies: the continuity of retail activity at the street level, and the lack of activity after normal office hours.

The continuity of retail activity at street level relates to the number of stores, the type of outlets, the average frontage per outlet, and the type of display areas and facade presented to the sidewalk. Generally, it is preferable to have a large number of stores in a continuous string, with fairly short frontage for each outlet and distinct display windows which not only attract attention to the goods shown in them but also convey to passers-by that the street is lined with

6.3


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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT separate, individual stores. This form of development provides a great deal of visual variety, generates greater pedestrian traffic on the sidewalk, and makes the street a more pleasant place to be. Recently, however, developments such as Edmonton Centre have eroded the concept of continuous street level retail activity. Such integrated commercial complexes provide retail outlets oriented towards an enclosed pedestrian circulation area within the complex instead of the street. This type of development creates a streetscape that is less enjoyable for pedestrians than the traditional shopping street. However, the economic success of enclosed downtown malls is undisputable and, in a cold climate such as Edmonton's, their convenience for shoppers is indispensible. There will always be a trade-off between the advantages of enclosed malls and shopping streets. No development can combine all the advantages of both. However, there are opportunities to develop enclosed malls in a manner which minimizes the negative impact on the continuity and atmosphere of the shopping street by: 1. avoiding design features which obscure the identity of individual stores within the development. As shown in Figure 6.2(a), such undesirable features include: i) long sections of blank wall; ii) small and/or infrequent display windows unrelated to the store, hidden behind that section of the wall; and, iii) signage and advertising which emphasizes the unity of the complex without giving any hint of the variety of units within it.

2. where access to the individual stores is provided only from the interior mall, it is possible to provide a large display window and individual signs which permit pedestrians to see what kind of store they are passing by, as shown in Figure 6.2(b); 3. provision can be made for stores with entry both from the enclosed mall and the sidewalk, as shown in Figure 6.2(c); and, 4. stores in the mall can be grouped in a back-to-back

arrangement, as shown in Figure 6.2(d). The premises with access from the sidewalk only, would presumably be rented by stores which cannot afford locations in enclosed malls. This would enhance the variety of goods and activities in the Downtown. The vitality of the Downtown area after office hours is not something which can be created by public policy. This vitality is largely a function of the size of a city and the distribution of its population. To a large extent, the development of entertainment facilities in a suburban area is a normal and healthy market response to the fact that a great portion of the city's population lives in these areas. Moreover, the cultural and entertainment institutions of the Downtown (opera, symphony, theatre, art gallery, movie houses, clubs, restaurants) all enjoy steady patronage. Nevertheless, many residents and visitors feel a certain lack of vitality in the Downtown during the evening. It appears this is due partly to the small population of the area. Policies to increase downtown housing could, therefore, be expected to increase the vitality of the Downtown after hours.

6.5


A "POOR" TREATMENT

C

— Number, Location and Size of display windows does not relate to the number of stores in the mall. — Large sections of wall are blank. — Example: Edmonton Centre, Edmonton. "FAIR" TREATMENT — One display window for each store, preferably with individual signs. — Example: Pacific Centre South, Vancouver. "BETTER" TREATMENT — Individual display windows as in (B). —Stores abutting sidewalk have entrances from sidewalk as well as from interior mall. — Example: Macdonald Hotel Addition, Edmonton. "BEST" TREATMENT — Individual display windows as in (B). — Stores arranged back-to-back, with some having access to sidewalk only. — Example: Eaton Centre, Toronto. Note: This figure is intended to illustrate some of the design principles which can be employed to enhance the continuity of retail activity at the street level in cases where the decision has already been made to build a mixed-use development with an office tower on top of a retail podium. It is not intended to imply that the podium and tower design is the preferred form of development for the Downtown area.

FIG. 6.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR ENCLOSED DOWNTOWN SHOPPING MALLS


• • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2.6 LOCATION AND FORM OF SHOPPING CENTRES The number, size, location and form of shopping centres play an important role in shaping the nature of suburban living. The form of shopping centre development will, therefore, have an important effect upon the quality of life for an increasing percentage of Edmonton residents. Shopping centres are generally planned in a hierarchical fashion. This means that a city or area will have shopping centres of different sizes, which can be grouped into a number of classes or levels in the hierarchy. Three broad classes have gained general recognition: 1. "Regional" shopping centres serving very large areas and offering a range of goods comparable to that which exists in the Downtown; 2. "District" or "Community" shopping centres, which serve smaller areas and offer an intermediate range of goods; and, 3. "Neighbourhood" centres, which serve one or two residential neighbourhoods and offer goods and services required on a frequent and regular basis (e.g. groceries). Table 6.1 provides one example of how a retail hierarchy can be described in general terms and Fig. 6.3 shows how the general principle of hierarchical planning can be applied to a specific area. The main concern with respect to the hierarchical concept of shopping centres is the number, location and form of regional-order shopping centres. These centres have very significant impacts on the whole urban system. They attract traffic from large sectors of the city and frequently serve as major transfer points on the transit system. Often, they are focal points for

concentrations of high density housing. Their market areas overlap significantly with Residential Outline Plans and Area Structure Plans, of which they are not a part, and thus, success of a regional shopping centre within one planning area may, in some cases, be achievable only at the cost of developments planned in other areas. The development of independent regional shopping centres has had particular impact on the City's desire to encourage the integration of regional shopping centres into multi-purpose activity centres, which have been called Town Centres or District Centres. Although the implementation of the Town Centre concept has proven to be difficult for many reasons, such as their generally isolated and inward locations within suburban residential areas, thereby limiting their potential for city-wide functions, the viability of the retail component has been undermined by the development of regional shopping centres which serve the same trade area, such as Westgate in relationship to West Jasper Place Town Centre, and Londonderry in relationship to Clareview Town Centre. If the Town Centre concept is to be effectively supported, it is contended that strict regulation of regional order shopping centres will be required to ensure this component of Town Centres can be pursued. Over the long run, such control should bring about a more efficient distribution of retail facilities. Over the short run, however, it would restrict the freedom of the private sector, hinder competition to some extent, and increase travel distances for consumers. The basic issue is whether the long term benefits of partial implementation of the concept are sufficient to justify the firm policies and regulations required over the short term, in order to achieve this objective.

6.7


Table 6.1 Example of a Retail Hierarchy Neighbourhood Center

Community Center

Regional Center

1. Major function

Sale of convenience goods and personal services

Some functions of the Neighbourhood Center plus sale of shopping goods (wearing apparel, appliances, etc.)

Some functions of Community Center plus sale of general merchandise, apparel, furniture, etc.

2. Leading tenants

Super market and drugstore

Variety store and small dept. store

One or more large, major department stores

3. Location

Intersection of collector streets and/or secondary roads

Intersections of major roads and/or expressways

Intersections of expressways and/or freeways

1/2 mile

2 miles

4 miles

5. Minimum population to support center

4,000

35,000

150,000

6. Site area (gross land area)

4-8 acres

10-30 acres

40-100 acres and over

1.25%

4. Radius of service area

7. Desirable maximum size of center as percentage of total area served

(1 acre/1,000 pop.)

1.00% (0.75 acres/1,000 pop.)

0.50% (0.67 acres/1.000 pop.)

8. Ranges of Gross Floor Area

30,000-75.000 sq. ft.

100.000-250,000 sq. ft.

400.000-1,000,000 sq. ft.

9. Number of stores and shops

5-20

15-40

40-80

10. Parking requirements

Parking ratio: 4 to 1 (Parking area is four times gross floor area of building: 400 sq. ft. per parking space) 200-600 spaces 1,000-3,000 spaces 4,000 spaces and over

Source: De Chiara, Joseph and Lee Koppelman; Urban Planning and Design Criteria (Second Edition): New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1975. Note: This table is included only to indicate the kinds of criteria which can be used to describe a retail hierarchy. The numbers included in the table are not intended for application in Edmonton. Appropriate standards are likely to vary from time to time and place to place.

• • • • • • •

6.8


SHOPPING CENTRES •

REGIONAL

COMMUNITY

NEIGHBOURHOOD MILLWOODS OUTLINE PLAN AREA This map is included lot iglu...* purposes only It snows now Me concept of a retail hlerarchy was applied to a specibc ares at the earhest stages of planning. Adiustments lune smce been made to reflect clianglnb economic condItions, but the basic Ono'''e ot a hierarchy has been mantained Source City ot Edmonton Planning Department, Mill Woods Development Concept RePOrt Mach, 1971

F I G. 6.3 RETAIL HIERARCHY MILLWOOD S _ A*:


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2.7 OLDER COMMERCIAL STRIPS The commercial strips in the older parts of the city require a sensitive planning approach which recognizes two important but conflicting objectives: 1. the desire to encourage new development along commercial strips, to improve appearance and maintain their importance as commercial sub-centres; and, 2. the desire to exercise strict control over development because of the serious problems which exist in terms of incompatible uses and inadequate parking.

The City's approach to planning on commercial strips has evolved in response to growing recognition of the positive features of these strips. The 1971 General Plan emphasized the problems of strip commercial areas. However, in the 1973 report, entitled, "Commercial Strips in Edmonton - Issues and Opportunities", it was demonstrated that commercial strips play a unique and vital role in Edmonton's commercial structure. That study, therefore, recommended a more positive approach to planning for these areas and, therefore, outlines policies to attract development, yet avoid the creation of land use conflicts between the strips and adjacent residential areas.

2.8 HIGHWAY COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT The main issue with respect to highway commercial development is the conflict created between the role of highways for moving traffic speedily to, between, and through the city and the local consumer traffic attracted to highways by commercial activities. In addition to causing conflicts between through and

local traffic, highway commercial development is often visually unattractive because of the proliferation of large signs, which create a chaotic appearance, and the large number of temporary uses and outdoor storage areas. The potential circulation and aesthetic problems associated with highway commercial development warrant a sensitive planning approach.

Objective 6.A To accommodate and encourage a balanced distribution of office development in the Downtown and at other multi-purpose sub-centres which are easily accessible by both public transit and private automobile and at which complementary commercial uses exist or can be developed.

Discussion A balanced distribution of office development is necessary to achieve the benefits of office decentralization, while maintaining the vitality of the Downtown area. It is important that locations for uncentralized office growth be accessible by both major

6.10

• • • • •

• •


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT modes in order to provide access to a large labour pool. In addition, a high level of transit accessibility will ensure jobs can be reached easily, even if energy prices rise more steeply than anticipated. It is important that uncentralized office development occurs in close proximity to complementary commercial uses. The provision of opportunities for lunchtime shopping makes an area more attractive for employees, makes it easier for employers to retain their staff, and increases the prestige associated with an office in the area. All these factors help promote and maintain the long term viability of decentralized office locations.

Policy 6.A.1 The City will promote a pattern of office growth in which the total amount of office floor space in the Downtown area will continue to increase, but the Downtown's share of total office space in the city will decline gradually over time. The City will not set precise targets for office development in the Downtown or in any other area, but will: (a) co-ordinate its planning activities in such a way as to promote more opportunities for office development as suitable locations in the suburbs, as illustrated in Map 6.1; and, (b) apply policies which ensure that, over the long run, office development in the Downtown is balanced by the development of housing, shopping and entertainment. Discussion This policy sets out how the City will promote a continuation of the current market trend toward moderate office decentralization. The lack of information makes it impossible to set targets for the appropriate amount of office development in any particular area. In recognition of these difficulties, the policy is deliberately open-ended and flexible. It combines incentives and disincentives. The opening up

of additional opportunities for suburban development will provide an incentive to build office space outside the Downtown. Policies promoting the mixture of housing and office space in the Downtown will make the construction of downtown office space less attractive than it would otherwise be. This two-pronged policy will reduce the relative advantage of the Downtown as an office location and likely will trigger a series of adjustments in the marketplace. Those tenants for whom a downtown location is less crucial will tend to choose other locations which offer more value for their rental dollar. Businesses for whom a downtown address is more critical will remain. This will promote efficiency in a broad economic sense, and avoid the massive costs which the public sector would have to bear if the present degree of centralization was retained indefinitely. These costs relate to servicing ever-longer work trips to the Downtown and can only increase over the long run.

Policy 6.A.2 The City will manage and direct uncentralized office growth so that its benefits will be maximized and its problems minimized. (a) uncentralized growth will be directed, as much as possible, to locations which have high accessibility not only by private automobile, but also by public transit, preferably express bus routes or Light Rail Transit lines;

(b) uncentralized growth will be concentrated in suburban clusters or sub-centres of sufficiently high density that amenities and shopping opportunities can be provided; and, (c) uncentralized growth will be directed to locations with good connections to the Downtown by roadway and transit, so functional linkages may be developed with downtown businesses as well as with clients in nearby industrial and/or residential areas. 6.11


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion

Three problems commonly associated with uncentralized office space are poor accessibility by transit, the lack of amenities and shopping opportunities for employees, and poor connections with the Downtown. Therefore, uncentralized office development should be directed as much as possible to locations where these problems are minimized. Policy 6.A.3 The City will use the Town Centre concept, as described in Policy 6.E.1, to accommodate the maximum amount of office growth which can be attracted to these centres. Discussion

The Town Centre concept originates from the Residential Outline Plans prepared by the City since 1970. In most cases, the concept comprises regional-order commercial facilities in close proximity to high-density housing and a major transit facility. Because construction has not yet been completed on any of the Town Centres now underway, it is difficult to judge how much office space could be supported in these developments. However, it is estimated that approximately 20,000 square metres (215,000 square feet) of office space can be absorbed by tenants serving the households in the primary trade area of a Town Centre. The growth strategy amplifies the role of planned suburban Town Centres in balancing housing and employment opportunities in the various sectors of the city. Town Centres are to be developed with the maximum office space that can be supported by the households in their trade areas. In addition, provision should be made for accommodating office tenants

serving households and corporate clients from a larger area. This will imply an office component on the order of 20,000 40,000 square metres (215,000 430,000 square feet) for each individual Town Centre. With development of this form, Town Centres collectively will be able to accommodate an estimated 10-15% of the city's total office growth during 1976 91. -

-

-

Policy 6.A.4 In addition to promoting Town Centres, the City will encourage the development of intensive mixed-use employment nodes at Light Rail Transit Stations and other locations outside the Downtown, subject to guidelines as described in Section 6.F. Discussion

Planned Town Centres can accommodate only a limited portion of the office growth which is to be developed outside the Downtown. This is due to the limited number and variety of Town Centre sites, and the uncertainties concerning their attractiveness to general administrative, professional or financial offices serving corporate clients as well as households. Successful implementation of the office decentralization strategy requires the designation of other types of areas to receive office growth. At the same time, the objectives of enhancing the viability of public transit and creating attractive office environments require that suburban office development should not be permitted to occur on a random or scattered basis, but should be directed to the most desirable areas. Appropriate locations for intensive office developments exist both in the newer suburban areas and in the older established areas of the city. Most of these potential sites are already developed to some extent (either

6.12


CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT MEE Highest intensity of office development in accordance with Downtown Plan.

OUTLINE PLAN AREA TOWN CENTRES

Iti-sfacare4Inparirp evklif.4111raenneri7IN

*

Site for major office component (10,000 sq. m. or more) in accordance with existing plans

*

Potential site for major office component (10,000 sq. m. or more), depending upon recommendation of Area Structure Plan or Sector Plan.

*

Site for minor office component (less than 10,000 sq. m.) in accordance with existing plans.

Office development at the initiative of the private sector in accordance with Area Redevelopment Plans.

L.R.T. STATION AREAS BELVEDERE STATION

EXISTING REGIONAL SHOPPING CENTRES • 107 Ava

Option of adding office space, at the initiative of the private sector, but in accordance with zoning requirements or performance standards.

COMMERCIAL STRIPS IMMI Office development in accordance with commercial strip policies.

AS AMENDED BY: BYLAW 6160

h, mdp ',present, d p,pdp

p tw o

ipolit ".9.7 st fact 46. A.-Luta. iv/ ,

A

dluS1,311, Of MY ce,,c

ol

MAP 6.1 OFFICE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY m

,

5


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT built-up or serviced) and it is not appropriate to designate them for office development in a site-specific way. More detailed review on a case-by-case basis is required, to assess the local impacts of the change in use or designation. Therefore, the policy does not specify locations but provides development guidelines to be used in reviewing proposals initiated by the private sector. These are discussed in Section 6.F. The scale of office development which could be accommodated in any particular location would depend greatly upon the local site conditions and develoment constraints. On a large vacant site with wide separation from residential areas, a development in the order of 50,000 square metres (538,000 square feet) could be feasible. The total office space developed at these sites could amount to as much as 25% of the city's total growth, depending upon the number and intensity of proposals brought forward by the private sector. In any case, it is preferred that these areas. collectively, should accommodate the majority of the general office growth which occurs outside the Downtown. Policy 6.A.5 The City will encourage the intensification of existing regional shopping centres through the addition of office space, in preference to major expansion of the retail floor area. Discussion Existing regional shopping centres possess several features which make them desirable locations for uncentralized office growth. They are situated on large parcels of land which provide considerable flexibility to lay out buildings in a way which minimizes adverse impacts upon nearby residential areas. They are well served by public transit. They offer the potential to

make overlapping use of parking facilities already provided for the retail mall. They offer lunchtime shopping opportunities which make it easier to attract and retain employees. The addition of office space to existing shopping centres can occur only at the initiative of the owners. It is anticipated that intensification of shopping centres would most likely take the form of three to ten-storey office buildings constructed next to the existing retail mall, with two or three-level parking structures to make up for any loss of parking stalls. Development of this form would require amendments to existing land use regulations and these would have to be evaluated in light of local site conditions and any applicable District Plan, Area Structure Plan, or Area Redevelopment Plan at the time of application. Policy 6.A.6 Additional locations for local employment concentrations in the inner city may be identified through the District Planning Program. Discussion

Inner city redevelopment pressures suggest there is a strong market demand for medium and high-rise office space in the older, established parts of the city. However, the accommodation of these pressures may result in reduced amenities and increased traffic congestion because of the narrow separation spaces and limited roadway capacities which characterize the inner city. More detailed planning studies are required to deal with these problems, and the identification of additional employment nodes is, therefore, left to the District Planning Program.

6.14


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 6.A.7 The City will endeavour to identify possible incentives for office decentralization, through ongoing liaison with the Development Liaison Committee and other interested groups. Discussion Ongoing liaison will enable more sensitive and efficient implementation of the strategy. Policy 6.A.8 The City will advise the Provincial Government of the City's strategy regarding office distribution and encourage the Provincial Government to assist in implementing this strategy. Discussion The Provincial Government employs a very significant proportion of the office workers in Edmonton. If the

Provincial Government accommodates part of its future office space requirements at locations outside the Downtown, it will give a major impetus to the City's office decentralization strategy. Policy 6.A.9 The City will implement decentralization of some of its functions in accordance with the Human Services Delivery System and the District Planning Program. Discussion The City is itself a major office employer, and some of its functions can be decentralized. The City has already adopted the principle of decentralizing some of its functions which require direct contact with the public on a district basis. At the same time, there are many functions in the administration which are directly related to the decision-making process at City Hall and require a central location accessible to residents from all parts of the city. Therefore, a balanced and selective approach is required.

Objective 6.B To encourage the concentration of new suburban retail facilities in planned shopping centres and commercial districts. Discussion By promoting a balance between shopping malls in single ownership and commercial districts with individual commercial lots, the City will provide the business community with a variety of leasehold and freehold options. By restricting retail development, as much as possible, to planned centres and districts, land use conflicts are prevented and development pressure for retail uses in less desirable areas can be moderated.

Policy 6.B.1 Retail uses in industrial and residential land use districts under the Land Use Bylaw shall be restricted as follows: (a) general retail uses will not be included in the schedule of permitted uses for any of the residential or industrial land use districts in the Land Use Bylaw; (b) where general retail uses are included in the schedule of discretionary uses for residential land use districts, these will be limited to establishments serving the daily shopping needs of residents of the

6.15


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT immediate surrounding area, with maximum floor areas as specified in the Land Use Bylaw; and, (c) where retail office or service commercial uses are included in the schedule of permitted or discretionary uses in an industrial land use district, these will be limited, as specified in Sections 6.1 and 7. C.

(a) the policy basis for this change has been established through the General Municipal Plan or an Area Redevelopment Plan or Area Structure Plan; or, (b) the application is for neighbourhood commercial services intended to serve the daily shopping needs of the residents in the immediate vicinity. Discussion

Discussion

• • • • •

This policy is necessary to prevent the uncontrolled spread of commercial uses in residential and industrial areas. In residential areas, the object is to preserve the amenities of neighbourhoods. In industrial areas, the objective is to preserve the industrial character of the areas, consistent with the Plan's strategy objectives regarding economic development and commercial growth distribution. Policy 6.B.2 No application to redistrict (rezone) a property from a non-commercial land use district to a commercial land use district, or to redistrict (rezone) to a more intensive commercial land use district will be approved unless:

This policy is necessary to ensure commercial rezonings are properly evaluated in terms of their potential impacts on the surrounding areas and the city as a whole. The required statutory basis can be provided through a General Municipal Plan amendment, or an Area Redevelopment Plan or amendment, or an Area Structure Plan or amendment. This affords the City some flexibility in choosing the instrument by which commercial zoning is authorized, but at the same time it ensures consistency, since both Area Redevelopment Plans and Area Structure Plans must conform to the General Municipal Plan.

Objective 6.0 To ensure that the negative impacts of commercial development on adjacent neighbourhoods are minimized. Discussion The prevention and resolution of land use conflicts is important for the creation and preservation of high quality residential environments and the maintenance of residential property values.

Policy 6.C.1 Where detailed guidelines have not been set out as part of an approved Area Redevelopment Plan or Area Structure Plan, the City will have regard to the following considerations in reviewing proposals for commercial development: (a) commercial development sites should be located on arterial or collector roads to prevent the generation

6.16


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT of traffic on local streets, but vehicular access to the site should not be directly from a major arterial, in order to prevent conflict with through traffic; (b) adequate parking should be provided on site to accommodate the peak demand in an average week; (c) in the case of sites adjoining existing or proposed residential developments, regulations regarding permitted and discretionary uses should be formulated in such a way as to screen out uses which are likely to have a negative impact upon the adjoining residential areas by virtue of noise, traffic generation or unsightly appearance; (d) the height of buildings should be kept low or stepped down towards the edge of the site to ensure that the building height near the edge of the site does not exceed the height of any residential buildings on properties adjacent to or across from the commercial site:

(e) it is desirable that adequate screening and/or landscaping be provided around the edges of the site to ensure that the view from any neighbouring dwellings does not face directly onto the backs of the commercial buildings: and,

(I) it is preferable that loading areas be located as far away from any neighbouring dwellings as possible. Discussion This policy establishes high standards reflecting the priority placed on the resolution and avoidance of land use conflicts, while leaving the flexibility for varying these standards where appropriate, but only after proper notification and review by the public and City Council, through the preparation and adoption of a Statutory Plan.

Objective 6.D To promote the development of a vibrant, diverse and balanced Downtown, including substantial quantities of housing and an exemplary standard of urban design, while maintaining the importance of the Downtown as the predominant commercial, administrative and cultural centre of the Region.

Discussion One of the principal objectives of the 1971 General Plan was to promote commercial growth in the Downtown. This objective has been accomplished, due to the strength of Edmonton's economy and the planning policies applied since the enactment of the 1971 Plan. However, commercial development has not been

balanced by residential development. The construction of housing, and particularly rental housing, has been very limited during the past few years. The lack of housing in the Downtown, combined with the high concentration of office development, is a trend which would have serious negative impacts on the City as a whole if it continued indefinitely. These impacts include: 1. shortage of housing within walking distance of Downtown; 2. increased pressure for apartment redevelopment in inner city areas; 3. unnecessary strain on the transportation network;

6.17


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 4. increased pressure for roadway widenings; and, 5. longer travel times and higher transportation costs. To minimize these negative impacts, the General Municipal Plan growth strategy emphasizes office decentralization and Downtown housing. This requires that, in future, a greater proportion of the development in the Downtown area must consist of housing. Projections indicate there is enough room in the Downtown to accomplish this objective without having to turn away office development or expand the central business district beyond its present limits for many years to come.

Policy 6.D.1 The City will encourage the concentration of intensive Downtown commercial development within the boundary defined generally by 109 Street on the west, 105 Avenue on the north, 97 Street on the east and the top of the bank of the North Saskatachewan River Valley on the south, and will provide for the development of transitional areas with an emphasis on housing outside and adjacent to the western, northern and eastern boundaries such that: (a) the intensity of development, the height of buildings and the proportion of floor space devoted to office uses generally declines with distance from the Downtown boundary described above, unless otherwise specified in an Area Redevelopment Plan; (b) the maximum density within the transition area (i.e.- that which is permitted on parcels adjoining the Downtown boundary) approaches but does not equal the density permitted in the nearest adjoining area of the Downtown; (c) the depth of the transition area and the density of development permitted on those parcels within the transition area furthest away from the Downtown are

consistent with the objectives and guidelines of any applicable Area Redevelopment Plan; or, in the absence of such a Plan, with the character of existing development; and, (d) development in the transition area is consistent with any special planning objectives identified for any part of the transition area in an approved Area Redevelopment Plan. Discussion From a long term viewpoint it is impossible to define a precise and permanent boundary for the downtown of any city. For example, if Edmonton were to reach a population several times larger than is projected for the end of the Plan period, it is virtually inevitable that its Downtown would be much larger than the area indicated in Map 6.2. However, this does not imply that downtown functions and activities must be allowed to spread out on a random basis. Such uncontrolled expansion tends to create a large "urban shadow area" in which downtown and inner city uses are mixed. The character of this area does not correspond either to that of the Downtown or of an inner city neighbourhood. This "urban shadow" is detrimental both to the Downtown area and to the inner city. It reduces the economic efficiency of the Downtown by increasing the distance between Downtown businesses; it hastens the demise of inner city neighbourhoods by encouraging speculation and spot rezonings. Moreover, premature development may result in buildings which will not integrate well with the expansion of the Downtown in the future. Within the context of the growth strategy, it is preferable to have a reasonably distinct boundary for the Downtown area, which would be shifted outwards only when a substantial portion of the lands within it have

6.18


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT been fully developed. In the meantime, adherence to the boundary is desirable to promote compact development within the Central Business District and preserve the stability of neighbouring residential areas. The area included in the boundary should be large enough to accommodate downtown growth requirements for a reasonable length of time without expanding prematurely into adjacent areas. The boundary of the Downtown Plan area meets these criteria. It also corresponds to conspicuous and fairly permanent features of the environment: the top of the River Valley bank on the south, the C.P.R. tracks and railway yards on the west, the C.N. yards and tracks on the north and 97 Street on the east. These boundaries also fit precisely with the boundaries of neighbouring planning units: the Oliver Area Redevelopment Plan to the west, the Central/McDougall Area Redevelopment Plan to the north, the Boyle Street/McCauley Area Redevelopment Plan to the east, and the North Saskatchewan River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw to the south. For this reason, the growth strategy provides for adoption of this boundary as the limit to expansion of major Downtown commercial development, at least until the end of the Plan period. While the intensive nature of the Downtown should be reinforced through concentrated commercial development, the transition areas are to receive a different emphasis. This emphasis is based on the type of land use, its intensity, and its function in relation to the Downtown and adjacent inner city neighbourhoods. This policy proposes that housing be the principal land use in transition areas, but provides for a mixture of commercial uses as well. The key consideration is the nature and scale of development. The intensity and height of the proposed development, as well as the amount of non-residential floor space, should decline as

the distance from the defined Downtown boundary increases. The intent of this policy is to create a transition area which provides intermediate levels of development between the intensively developed Downtown and the low rise inner city neighbourhoods. A development proposal will be judged on the basis of the site's relationship to the Downtown and general or specific objectives or guidelines identified in any applicable Area Redevelopment Plan. The character of surrounding development may also be taken into account. Transition areas governed by the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw will provide the only exception to this policy. (Bylaw 6202) Policy 6.D.2 The Downtown Commercial Development area defined in Policy 6.D.1 is shown in Map 6.2. (Bylaw 6202) Discussion Deleted. (Bylaw 6202)

Policy 6.D.3 The City will encourage development of housing in the Downtown Commercial Development area as defined in Policy 6.D.1 and will provide meaningful incentives for construction of such housing. (Bylaw 6202) Policy 6.D.4 Deleted. (Bylaw 6202) Discussion

Deleted. (Bylaw 6202) Policy 6.D.5 Deleted. (Bylaw 6202)

6.19


11111111111111

BOUNDARY BETWEEN DOWNTOWN AREA REDEVELOPMENT PLAN AND BEGINNING OF TRANSITIONAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS AS PER POLICY 6.D.1.

104 •V

• Note ;wore asolopmeor revulenons roffnn Ines wee lobe establtshed by Dovenforen Arta Rodowlopenonl Plan

t11111= "

AS AMENDED BY: BYLAW 6202 q116

1

44 '

1111111111111111111111111,

4014limemuir

Area Subject to River Valley Policies

MAP 6.2 DOWNTOWN PLANNING BOUNDARIES aO

04

03

01

OS

OS

07

03

CIS

Os

OS

03


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERICAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion

Policy 6.D.7

Deleted. (Bylaw 6202)

The land use regulations and urban design guidelines employed in the Downtown area will give high priority to preserving the continuity of street-oriented retail uses as the principal public spaces.

Policy 6.D.6 The City will introduce urban design guidelines for use in reviewing development applications in the Downtown area. Discussion

• • • • •

Because of the high intensity of development, the Downtown area is a "hard" landscape, i.e.- it consists mostly of hard surfaces, such as walls, streets and sidewalks. Due to the height of buildings and their proximity to one another, streets, squares and other outdoor areas are perceived as enclosed spaces defined by the walls of the buildings around them rather than as open spaces surrounding the sites of buildings. Good urban design requires that buildings not only be attractive in themselves, but also that they contribute positively to the quality of the public spaces adjoining them, which may, in some cases, require compromising the architect's or client's desire for a striking or distinctive structure. In the Downtown, every aspect of a development - including the height and bulk of the buildings, the location of the entrances, the size of windows, and the colour of the walls - has an impact on all those who live and work in the Downtown. A high standard of urban design in the Downtown can be achieved only through careful attention to factors such as those discussed above. This, in turn, requires detailed and specific urban design policies at the local level. For the most part, the content of the urban design policies can be determined most appropriately by a local planning study, and the preparation of the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan will meet this need.

Discussion Guidelines which encourage the continuity of retail activity at the street level will help maintain the viability of traditional shopping streets and make the streets more pleasant to walk along, both during and after regular business hours. The exact details of such guidelines can be determined most appropriately through a detailed local study, and the preparation of the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan will meet this need.

Policy 6.D.8 The City will, as long-range policy, encourage the redevelopment of the downtown railway yards of the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways for a mixture of more intensive urban uses in accordance with the following general guidelines: (a) the railway lands should be redeveloped on a comprehensive basis under the direct control provisions of the Land Use Bylaw and in conformity with the objectives and guidelines of the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan; (b) the type(s), density and design of land uses and structures should be such that when redevelopment is completed, the new development blends successfully with existing areas on both sides of the redevelopment and in particular:

6.21


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT i) the type and intensity of redevelopment on those portions of the railway lands shown in Map 6.2 should be part of the gradual decrease of intensity from the core of the Downtown; the intensity of development on these lands should approach but not equal the density on the lands to the south and east; and, ii) the type and intensity of redevelopment on that portion of the Canadian National rail yards situated west of 111 Street should be compatible with development in the adjoining areas of Oliver and Queen Mary. (c) the redevelopment of the railway lands should increase vehicular and pedestrian accessibility to and from the Downtown by providing extensions of selected roadways in such a manner that a normal building-to-street relationship is maintained; (d) the redevelopment of the railway lands should include a major component of housing for a broad range of small households; (e) the redevelopment of the railway lands should include a component of commercial uses mainly along the primary streets and in areas in close proximity to existing commercial concentration; (f) the redevelopment of the railway lands should include local and regional retail uses at grade level along 109 Street and 104 Avenue east of 109 Street; (g) the redevelopment should provide a variety of development forms and tenure; (h) each phase of the redevelopment should provide satisfactory residential, street and park environments;

the redevelopment should provide accessible, consolidated parks and open space for local as well as the general Downtown and adjacent area population;

(1) the redevelopment should provide for the extension of the Light Rail Transit network along both the C.N. and C.P. rail alignments; and,

(k) the internal circulation network on the redeveloped parcel should provide convenient access to the transit system, as well as safe, convenient and aesthetically pleasing routes to, within, and through the redeveloped lands for pedestrians and cyclists. Discussion

The Canadian National and Canadian Pacific railway yards along the northern and western edges of the Downtown offer a unique opportunity to improve the urban environment, both in the Downtown itself and in adjacent areas. Potential benefits include: 1. achievement of a stable and compatible transition in development between the Downtown and adjacent areas; 2. removal of barriers to movement; 3. extension of the Light Rail Transit network and other links in the transportation system; 4. development of attractive pedestrian circulation routes and amenity areas; and, 5. development of attractive new residential and commercial buildings.

6.22


POLICY REPORT #6

• • • • • • •

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT However, the redevelopment of these lands will be a complex undertaking, requiring a process of negotiation between the City and the railways. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum long-range benefits from redevelopment of the rail yards, it is recommended a flexible approach be adopted. Under this approach, general policies describing the desired overall character and intensity of development are included in the General Municipal Plan, in order to: 1. provide the owners with positive reassurance of the City's favourable disposition towards redevelopment of the yards; and,

Detailed density and use designations for the rail yards are not considered necessary or appropriate for inclusion in the General Municipal Plan, due to the complex and detailed nature of the planning concerns which remain to be resolved. Rather, it is recommended that uses and densities be worked out through the review of comprehensive redevelopment proposals submitted by the railways, under the direct control provisions of the Land Use Bylaw. This approach will provide the railways with the flexibility to meet their redevelopment goals while protecting legitimate municipal planning objectives.

2. provide policy direction to those preparing and reviewing detailed redevelopment concepts for the yards. Objective 6.E To promote the development of planned mixed-use Town Centres in the suburbs. Discussion Planned Town Centres represent a refinement of the hierarchical pattern of shopping centre development, which has characterized the development of new retail facilities in our suburbs for the past quarter century. In a hierarchical pattern of retail development, there is a small number of regional-order shopping centres serving large market areas. Regional-order shopping centres typically contain two department stores and an enclosed mall with numerous smaller outlets. Within the market area served by each regional shopping centre, there are several district centres, which typically include a supermarket, pharmacy, and a limited range of other stores. Finally, within the market area of each district

centre, there are several neighbourhood shopping centres which cater to daily shopping needs, and typically include a neighbourhood grocery, laundromat and service station. The hierarchical pattern of retail development has worked well in Edmonton, minimizing land use conflicts and meeting the needs of consumers and the business community. The growth strategy provides for a continuation of hierarchical shopping centre development. Within the retail hierarchy, the element which has the most direct impact upon the growth strategy is the regional-order shopping centre. This is because a regional shopping centre affects many parts of the urban system: 1. it influences people's shopping patterns; 2. it generates large volumes of traffic;

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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 3. it shapes transit travel patterns by acting as both a destination and a transfer point; 4. it is often a focal point for high-density housing; and,

5. it acts as a landmark and is used by people to describe where they live. Because the impacts of regional shopping centres are felt so widely, the number, location and form of these centres is significant at the strategic level of planning, i.e., it affects the overall form of the City in which we live. The approach taken in the growth strategy is to encourage the integration of regional shopping centres in planned Town Centres. The Town Centre concept emphasizes a mixture of activities, including office employment, in an integrated, pedestrian oriented development, with a high standard of roadway and transit accessibility. The promotion of this concept offers several important benefits:

7. increasing the accessibility of shopping and employment opportunities by transit without any reduction in accessibility by automobile; and, 8. increasing the variety of built forms in the suburban environment.

Policy 6.E.1 The City will encourage the development of planned Town Centres in new suburban areas according to the following guidelines: (a) a planned Town Centre will combine the following uses and facilities; i) regional shopping centre; ii) a significant office component which provides services for households in the surrounding residential areas and also accommodates, contingent upon market demand, general office uses serving households and corporate clients from a larger area;

1. provision of an increased number and variety of employment opportunities in the suburbs;

iii) a substantial amount of housing, consisting primarily of apartment and row housing units;

2. improving the balance between population and employment;

iv) landscaped outdoor areas including a large park and/or smaller amenity areas; and,

3. encouraging reverse-flow ridership on the transit system, thereby increasing efficiency;

v) a transit centre which acts as a focus for local feeder bus routes and provides direct connections to the Downtown and/or other major activity centres by Light Rail Transit, trolley or express bus routes.

4. directing a larger portion of auto trips to the newer portion of the roadway network, where high standards have already been provided; 5. making use of the excess parking capacity available in shopping centres during workday office hours; 6. providing noon-hour retail trade for the stores in the shopping centre;

(b) Town Centres will be developed according to site plans which; i) are prepared and approved before the commencement of construction; and, ii) allow for the intensification of development on the Town Centre site to accommodate additional residential and/or office development in the future.

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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT (c) Town Centres will be appropriately spaced in order to ensure the viability of their retail facilities and transit centres and the location for each Town Centre will have to be approved through an Area Structure Plan or amendment. Discussion

• • • • •

A mixture of activities is essential to the Town Centre concept both in terms of making full use of transportation facilities and achieving the vibrant atmosphere which is desired. A regional shopping centre is the focal point around which a Town Centre is developed. Its inclusion is essential to ensure the Town Centre is, in every respect, the most important sub-centre for its part of the city. A significant office component is essential for a Town Centre to fulfill its role as an employment node and attractor of reverse-flow peak-hour work trips on the transit and roadway networks. A substantial housing component included in, or immediately adjacent to, the Town Centre provides increased transit patronage for work trips to the Downtown and further support for the retail component, particularly for entertainment facilities (e.g. restaurants, cinemas) which operate outside the peak shopping hours. The provision of a transit centre is important in order to cope effectively with the large number of trips generated by the retail, office and housing components of the centre. Using the Town Centre as a transfer point will enhance its importance within its district. Advance planning will allow the conversion of low-density single-purpose retail facilities into more intensive and diversified Town Centres on a gradual basis, as warranted by market conditions and the

development of surrounding lands. Trends in Edmonton have shown that, after a major shopping centre has been completed, additional components of the Town Centre concept (e.g. a transit centre, or high-density housing) may be retro-fitted to the site or development on adjacent parcels. However, this process may produce an unnecessarily awkward layout. For example, the transit centres retro-fitted to the existing shopping centre of Westmount and Southgate are not as convenient or attractive for transit users as they could have been if provision had been made for these facilities in the initial stages of site design. Figure 6.3 illustrates how a more functional design can be achieved if the relationships among the potential future components of a Town Centre are considered in the initial stages of design. The location of a proposed Town Centre in relation to other activity centres will affect the viability of its retail component and transit centre and have a major impact on other areas in terms of economics, travel patterns, transportation networks and property values. The requirement for an Area Structure Plan or amendment will ensure these relationships are adequately addressed before any development of the proposed Town Centre is begun.

Policy 6.E.2 The City will encourage the developers of the proposed Westgate, Kaskitayo, Riverbend, Mill Woods, Clareview and Castle Downs II centres to develop their projects in a manner consistent with the Town Centre concept, and to make provision for the maximum possible amount of office space. Discussion The proposed Town Centres for Kaskitayo, Riverbend, Mill Woods, Clareview and Castle Downs II are the

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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT prototypes of the Town Centre concept described in Policy 6.E.1. The location and preliminary design of each is consistent with the relevant Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan. The Westgate shopping centre is the only viable location for a Town Center in West Jasper Place, since most of the original Town Centre site at Callingwood was rezoned for residential development following the approval of the Westgate shopping centre proposal.

Policy 6.E.3 The City will encourage private developers interested in developing new regional shopping centres to choose sites within Town Centre locations designated in Outline Plans or Area Structure Plans, and to prepare site plans which are consistent with the Town Centre concept. Discussion

(c) discusses the relationship of the proposed regional shopping centre to the Town Centre concept; and, (d) meets any additional requirements which may be set by City Council. Discussion

This policy is designed to assist Council in evaluating the questions which arise in connection with the potential impact of a proposed regional shopping centre upon other retail centres and upon the growth strategy. The economic impact statement is not a trade area analysis. It may include a trade area analysis, but it goes beyond this to address the potential impacts of the proposed development upon other existing and proposed commercial uses. In this way, it relates more directly to the issues which Council must consider in assessing the impact of the proposal upon the city as a whole.

To provide an objective basis for determining which applications shall be subject to this review, it is necessary to draw up a quantitative definition. Shopping centres of potential regional significance are defined as those in which the Gross Leasable Area (GLA) is 20,000 square metres or more. This definition Policy 6.E.4 is based on the 10 existing centres in Edmonton which are considered to be regional shopping centres. These The City will require that any application for range in sizes from 240,000 to 682,121 square feet. The redistricting (rezoning) to permit the development or figure of 20,000 square metres is equivalent to expansion of a regional shopping centre be approximately 215,000 square feet. Therefore, it accompanied by an economic impact statement which: corresponds roughly to the lower end of the range of (a) describes the anticipated trade area to be served and existing regional shopping centres, and is likely to the range of goods and services to be offered by the ensure no proposal of potential regional significance is proposed centre; exempted from the detailed evaluation which it merits. An expansion large enough to require a redistricting discusses the probable impact of the proposed (b) (rezoning) is also subject to a detailed review, since development upon existing commercial areas and major expansion of an existing centre could affect the upon the feasibility of other proposed viability of a planned Town Centre. developments;

In order to preserve the market viability of the retail component of planned Town Centres, it is desirable to minimize the development of new suburban regional shopping centres which are not part of planned Town Centres.

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CONVENTIONAL SHOPPING MALL, SHOWING DEVELOPMENT ON ADJOINING PARCEL

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(2 LEVELS)

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Note: This figure represents a broad and conceptual illustration of principles which can be applied in the design of an activity centre. It is not intended to provide direction to land use regulation mechanisms on any specific site.

FIG. 6.4 COMPARISON OF ACTIVITY CENTRE CONCEPT AND CONVENTIONAL SHOPPING MALL


• • • •

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Schematic example based on planned Kaskitayo Town Centre. Not to scale.

FIG. 6.5 EXAMPLE OF SUBDIVISION CONDUCIVE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-PURPOSE ACTIVITY CENTRE


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PLANNED TOWN CENTRE including regional - order shopping mall

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PLANNED TOWN CENTRE - with smaller retail facility

This map represents a broad and conceptual oltustrellon of the desired locabons for Town Centres Jr is no: intended to p ,ov■ de sae spec. dorecnon piano use regulapon mechemsms

MAP 6.3 TOWN CENTRE LOCATIONS ¶i vi


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 6.E.5 If an application is received for redistricting (rezoning) to permit the development or expansion of a regional shopping centre in a location where it could undermine the viability of a regional shopping centre provided for in a Residential Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan, the application will not be approved until and unless the Residential Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan has been amended. Discussion

If the City approves a development which would undermine the viability of a regional shopping centre in a Residential Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan, it is, in fact, authorizing a departure from that Plan. Such a departure should be recognized and treated accordingly. This does not imply the application must necessarily be rejected, but it is important that all the ramifications of the application be considered, including the potential loss of the originally planned shopping centre, and the potential problems of finding suitable alternative uses for the originally designated site. Policy 6.E.6 In reviewing proposed Area Structure Plans and amendments as well as redistricting (rezoning) and development applications in connection with Town Centres, the City will have regard to the following considerations: (a) circulation on the Town Centre site should be planned in such a way that no through traffic crosses the site and pedestrians do not have to cross any roadways of a collector or arterial standard in order to walk between the different components of the Town Centre: and,

i) visual intrusion and overshadowing of adjacent properties is minimized; ii) the capacities of the transportation links serving the centre are not 5verfaxed; iii) the parking spaces provided in the centre are sufficient to meet peak demand in an average week; iv) all residential units are afforded adequate sunlight, ventilation and amenity areas; v) the buildings in the centre do not cause wind tunnelling or other undesirable microclima tic effects; and, vi) the building facades along major pedestrian circulation routes are human in scale and the overall massing of buildings on the site is conducive to pedestrian circulation both during and after business hours. Discussion

These guidelines will promote the development of a prominent, compact, and pedestrian-oriented built form. It is anticipated they will be implemented through the preparation of detailed regulations for each Town Centre, to be applied as a Statutory Plan Overlay for the applicable commercial land use district under the new Land Use Bylaw. Policy 6.E.7 In any areas which are annexed by the City in future, consideration will be given to the full range of alternative locations for new Town Centres, including sites which offer proximity to commercial and office development, as well as residential communities.

(b) the use of multi-storey buildings and parking garages is appropriate provided that: 6.30


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion The practice to date has been to seek sites located in the centre of proposed residential Area Structure Plans, but experience has shown these sites are not always the most popular for office and entertainment uses. In view

of the growth strategy's increased emphasis on multi-purpose Town Centres, it is important that future Town Centre sites be located where the potential for variety can be maximized.

Objective 6.F To encourage the development of medium to high intensity employment nodes at appropriate locations outside the Downtown. Discussion Successful implementation of the office decentralization strategy requires that some growth be accommodated in individual projects outside of planned Town Centres. Such projects are feasible both in newly-developing suburbs and in built-up parts of the city. With careful development review, this growth can be accommodated in a manner which is compatible with exisiting development or current commitments, as the case may be.

Policy 6.F.1 The City will provide for the redistricting (rezoning) of some individual parcels outside the Downtown for medium to high intensity office developments with secondary retail and housing components, subject to the guidelines described below. Discussion Because the potential sites for intensive office development outside Town Centres are in most cases already built up or serviced, the most practical way of co-ordinating the development of these sites is on a case-by-case basis. Strict guidelines are required due to the high intensity of the developments.

Policy 6.F.2 The desired mixture of uses for medium to high intensity employment nodes outside the Downtown, other than planned Town Centres, will be as follows: (a) the commercial floorspace is to consist primarily of office space; (b) the retail component is to be secondary in nature, consisting primarily of establishments oriented to the personal needs of the office employees and the lower-order shopping needs of any nearby residential areas; and, (c) incorporation of housing units in the project(s) is to be permitted and encouraged in cases where the surrounding area offers a suitable environment for residential development. Discussion The primary function of these employment nodes is to accommodate decentralized office growth. The inclusion of commercial and, in some cases, residential space is encouraged to complement the primary office function. The inclusion of commercial space provides lunchtime shopping opportunities, makes it easier to attract and retain staff, enhances the visibility and prestige of the node as a business address and increases the viability of the concept. Inclusion of housing, where appropriate, helps meet the demand for non-family accommodation with good transit service and may enable the residential 6.31


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT and commercial users of the project to make overlapping use of certain facilities, such as visitor parking or amenity areas, during different parts of the day, thereby achieving economies in the use of land. Policy 6.F.3

The development of medium to high intensity office nodes outside the Downtown, other than planned Town Centres, will be subject to all of the following locational requirements: (a) accessibility by transit: the proposed development must be within five minutes' walk of an approved transit centre or a potential L.R.T. station along one of the alignments approved in principle by City Council for long-term extension of the L.R.T. network, with the feasibility of a station to serve the proposed development to be assessed in detail by the City at the time of application; (b) accessibility by automobile: the proposed development must abut an arterial or collector roadway which: i) provides access to the proposed development, either directly or via a service road; and, ii) has sufficient capacity to accommodate the traffic generated by the proposed development. (c) proximity to shopping facilities: the proposed development should either include, or be within a five-minute walking distance of a secondary commercial node which offers such services as a convenience store, restaurant(s), and personal service establishments. Discussion

These locational requirements are based on the general location principles for uncentralized office growth described in Policy 6.A.2. The priority upon areas with direct access to transit centres or L.R.T. stations is

designed to increase the ridership on the transit system and maximize the accessibility of employment opportunities for those without cars. The opportunity for intensive development in an L.R.T. corridor before the alignment and station areas have been finalized allows for the construction of developments which will contribute to the feasibility of L.R.T. extensions. The requirement for automobile access is designed to prevent unnecessary congestion on the arterial network. However, it will be desireable, in some suburban locations, to permit projects which generate more traffic than was anticipated at the time of original subdivision, rather than having these trips attracted to inner city locations where the roadway system is already very congested. Proximity to existing commercial development is one way of creating the desired mixture of uses, and inclusion of shopping facilities within the office project itself is another way of accomplishing this end. The policy allows the flexibility to use either alternative to achieve the desired land use characteristics.

Policy 6.F.4 The development of medium to high intensity office nodes outside the Downtown, other than planned Town Centres, will be subject to the following design guidelines: (a) the developer should be given the maximum possible opportunity to develop the site intensively, but the following constraints will apply, unless relaxed by an Area Redevelopment Plan or Area Structure Plan: i) visual intrusion and overshadowing of any residential development in the vicinity is minimized; ii) the capacity of the roadways serving the proposed development must not be overtaxed; 6.32


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT iii) the parking spaces provided in the proposed development must be adequate to meet peak demands in an average week; and, iv) the structures in the proposed development must not cause wind tunnelling or other undesirable micro-climatic effects. (b) the use of buildings over three floors and parking structures is appropriate where the constraints enumerated in (a) can be met; (c) attractively landscaped outdoor amenity areas should be provided for the use of the employees and (if applicable) the residents of the project; (d) if housing is included in the project, provision should be made for separate access to the residential component of the project and for a sidewalk or walkway connection to adjoining residential or recreation areas; and, (e) if the proposed development abuts properties which are, or could be, developed for residential or commercial (i.e. non-industrial) uses, the layout of walkways and retail facilities in the proposed development should facilitate and encourage pedestrian movement between the properties.

Discussion

These guidelines are designed to promote a high standard of design. They will provide guidance for the preparation of detailed regulations in the Land Use Bylaw and Statutory Plan Overlays. Policy 6.F.5 Approval for the development of a medium to high intensity office node which is outside the Downtown but is not part of a planned Town Centre will be contingent upon the approval or amendment, as the case may be, of an Area Redevelopment Plan, Area Structure Plan or Outline Plan. Discussion

The approval of a Statutory Plan (and/or amendment of any existing Outline Plan or Statutory Plan) is necessary as part of the review process for development of this intensity. The requirement will not lengthen the review period, since the development of these employment nodes will require rezonings in any case and the rezoning and Statutory Plan or amendment can be processed concurrently.

Objective 6.G To stabilize, consolidate, and improve established strip commercial areas, and accommodate a wide variety of commercial activities having due regard to the maintenance of the character and amenities of adjacent residential areas. (Bylaw 6160)

Discussion

Commercial strips play a unique and important role in Edmonton's economy. They offer goods and services for surrounding neighbourhoods, accommodate specialized

6.33


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT

• • • •

commercial outlets serving a larger clientele and provide locational opportunities for businesses which are just starting out or which cannot find locations in planned shopping centres. To maintain this important economic function, it is desirable to accommodate commercial redevelopment on the strips. However, very intensive redevelopment in older strip commercial areas would have serious negative impacts. Acute parking and traffic problems already exist on many of the older commercial strips and would only be increased if massive redevelopment occurred. Also, high rise construction would result in serious problems of overshadowing and visual intrusion for adjacent residential uses. This would be in conflict with the emphasis of the growth strategy on maintaining and enhancing the environmental quality of inner city residential neighbourhoods and on minimizing land use conflicts. These factors suggest the character of development along commercial strips should remain small-scale and low-rise. Analysis of the alternative growth options examined in the preparation of the General Municipal Plan indicates that a greater intensity of development is not necessary for the implementation of the office decentralization study.

Policy 6.G.1 Land use regulations for strip commercial areas will permit a wide variety of retail stores, service establishments, and offices, provided that the following uses may be subject to prohibition or discretionary review: (a) uses which are likely to generate noise and/or attract large volumes of automobile traffic;

(c) businesses of a type which, as they become more firmly established, are likely to require sites larger than those which can be provided in older commercial strips. Discussion It is desirable to permit a wide variety of uses in order

to allow commercial strips to continue serving their economic role as, among other things, a location for new businesses and those which cannot find suitable locations in planned shopping centres. Some office development is desirable to bring the workplace closer to the home and take advantage of the high transit accessibility on most major commercial strips. However, some uses should be excluded in order to maintain the amenities and character of adjacent residential areas. Clauses (a), (b) and (c) indicate the criteria for determining which uses should be excluded. Clause (a), regarding noise and traffic, is designed to minimize the principal negative impacts of strip commercial development on adjacent residential areas. Clause (b), regarding on-site storage, is designed to achieve aesthetic objectives and minimize the intrusion of bright lights on adjacent residential areas. Clause (c), regarding businesses likely to require future expansion, is designed to minimize future land use conflicts. A large number of establishments which are likely to outgrow their sites would either cause development pressure for the extension of commercial uses into residential areas or lead to more rapid turnover of the uses on the strip, neither of which would be consistent with the intent of the growth strategy.

(b) uses which require on-site outdoor storage of goods or vehicles; and,

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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Policy 6.G.2 On commercial strips designated in Map 6.4 as strips on which the existing extent and intensity of commercial development is to be maintained, no property will be redistricted (rezoned) to a commercial land use district except on the basis of an Area Redevelopment Plan. Discussion

Not all commercial strips are suitable for increased commercial development or commercial rezoning. It is preferable to maintain the existing intensity and extent of development in cases where: 1. the strip is a small commercial concentration servicing primarily local needs; and/or 2. the strip has remained relatively stable over the years in terms of size and function; and/or 3. the entire length of the strip is already under commercial zoning; and/or 4. further commercial development would impair the capacity of the strip to carry through traffic, particularly peak hour traffic. On the basis of these criteria, certain strips have been designated in Map 6.6 to remain in their existing state. The map also shows that strips not specifically identified will be included in this group. This is consistent with the objective of minimizing land use conflicts.

Policy 6.G.3 On commercial strips designated accordingly on Map 6.4, limited increases in the extent and intensity of commercial development will be permitted in accordance with the following guidelines:

(a) properties situated on the shopping street, which do not lie within a commercial land use district, may be redistricted (rezoned) to a commercial land use district, provided that the depth of the new commercial property does not exceed the prevailing lot depth of the area; and, (b) the maximum permitted intensity of development shall be governed, except at the northwest corner of 124 Street and 102 Avenue, by the following considerations: i) the height of the buildings shall be kept low or stepped down so that the building height at the edge of the site shall not exceed the height of any adjoining residential development; and, ii) off-street parking, access, and landscaping shall be provided to the satisfaction of the City. (Bylaw 6160)

Discussion It is preferable that strip commercial redevelopment be

directed to areas which have the potential to become significant commercial and employment sub-centres. A commercial strip is likely to have this potential if: 1. it is a large concentration of commercial activities serving more than local needs; and/or 2. it is undergoing redevelopment which suggests an

evolution in its economic function; and/or 3. it contains parcels under residential or industrial zoning which could appropriately be converted to commercial use; and/or 4. it has a high standard of transit service.

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MIN AREAS SUITABLE FOR LIMITED INCREASES IN EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH POLICY 6.G.3 AREAS IN WHICH THE PERMITTED INTENSITY AND EXTENT OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT SHOULD REMAIN AS IS

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• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT On this basis, several strips have been designated in Map 6.4 as being suitable for limited increases in the extent and/or intensity of commercial development. However, the degree of redevelopment must be controlled, to maintain the amenities and character of adjoining residential areas. This is done in two ways. First, the map shows that only strips which have been expressly designated will be eligible for increased commercial development. In the case of any strip not expressly designated, an Area Redevelopment Plan and/or General Municipal Plan amendment would have to be prepared, thereby providing the public an opportunity to express their views at the policy stage. Secondly, Clauses (a) and (b) provide specific guidelines to limit the degree of increase in commercial development. Clause (a) requires that the depth of any new commercial parcels shall not exceed the prevailing lot depth in the area. This serves to: 1. prevent the gradual spreading of commercial uses along the side streets; and, 2. discourage new uses which require large parking areas and encourage smaller and/or pedestrian oriented businesses, thereby reinforcing the pedestrian-oriented character of the strip. The interpretation of clause (a) must recognize the lot configurations which exist in any particular section of a commercial strip. In cases where the lots are oriented towards the shopping street, as shown in Figure 6.6(A), the depth of any newly-created commercial parcels should be equal to the depth of the lots originally surveyed along the shopping street. Exceptions should be made only if the parcel in question is located between two abutting commercial parcels, both of

which are deeper than the original lots along the shopping street. In this case, the depth of the newlycreated parcel should not exceed the depth of the shallower abutting parcel. Commercial land use districts should not be applied to properties on the other side of the lane. In cases where the lots are oriented toward the side streets, as shown in Figure 6.6(B), the maximum depth of the newly-created parcel, in relation to the shopping street, should not exceed the depth of the other lots on the block, as shown in Figure 6.6(B). In most cases, this will mean the depth of the new commercial parcel will be less than the prevailing lot depth, unless an additional parcel is subdivided. In this case, the remaining portion would have to be consolidated with the adjoining residential parcel. Clause (b) is designed to prevent overshadowing and visual intrusion.

Policy 6.G.4 The City will encourage and facilitate the efforts of any merchants' association to improve the streetscape and/or parking in a strip commercial area through the creation of a business improvement area, with the cost of improvements being recovered through a Local Improvement Assessment. Discussion The improvement of aesthetics and parking along commercial strips is desirable for the prosperity of businesses, the convenience of shoppers, and the efficient flow of through traffic. An approach emphasizing private sector initiative is appropriate because it reduces the costs borne by taxpayers and is responsive to the desires of the business community.

6.37


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FIG. 6.6 GUIDELINES FOR DEPTH OF NEW COMMERCIAL PARCELS IN STRIP COMMERCIAL AREAS

• • • • S


• •

POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Objective 6.H To develop attractive highway commercial areas along major highways entering and traversing the City, primarily for commercial establishments serving the travelling public, and reduce the pressure for developments of this type in other areas. Discussion

• • • •

Highway commercial development will be most beneficial to the city if it is visually attractive and functionally specialized. A high standard of aesthetics will have economic benefits because many investors' and tourists' impressions of the city are influenced by the appearance of the highways along which they enter the city. In addition, attractive design will benefit residents and visitors alike by making the highways more pleasant to travel. The designation of areas specifically for highway commercial uses will facilitate the provision of adequate facilities for tourists and reduce the pressure for development of this type in areas designated for a different type or lesser intensity of development (e.g.- industrial areas, older commercial strips).

IP

Based on these considerations, the General Municipal Plan stresses a specialized economic role for highway

A general commercial character is not appropriate in highway entrance corridors for several reasons. General retail development would draw local residents unnecessarily onto inter-city highways, increase travel distances and impede the flow of through traffic. Intensive office development could not be served effectively by public transit. Intensive commercial development in highway corridors would also reduce the economic viability of the Town Centres and employment nodes emphasized by the growth strategy.

entrance corridors. This is consistent with the intent of the 1971 General Plan and the findings and recommendations of the Calgary Trail Land Use Study.

Policy 6.H.1 Highway commercial areas will be designated along selected sections of highways entering and traversing the city, and land use regulations in these areas will be structured and applied so as to ensure that priority is given to uses serving the travelling public. Discussion This policy is designed to ensure highway entrances develop to fulfill the specialized role envisaged for them in the growth strategy. The policy has two aspects. First, it is intended that certain uses locate along highway entrances rather than at other locations. Secondly, it is intended that certain types of uses be prevented from locating along highway entrances because it is desired these uses locate in other areas, and because it is important to preserve an adequate supply of land for the desired tourist-related uses.

Policy 6.H.2 The precise boundaries and configurations of highway commercial areas will be determined by District and Sector Plans and Area Structure Plans within the following general guidelines: (a) commercial districts may be designated on one or both sides of the highway; and, (b) parcel depth should be sufficient to permit the economic development of the desired uses, as described in policies 6.H.1 and 6.H.3.

6.39


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion

Policy 6.H.4

To determine appropriate precise boundaries for highway commercial areas, it is necessary to conduct detailed planning studies which examine local conditions, such as existing uses, existing and proposed property lines, and parcel sizes, and proposed roadway alignments. Studies of this type have been carried out successfully for Highway No. 2 South and Highway No. 16 West, and can serve as a model for any future highway commercial corridors.

Uses which are not directly related to the needs of the travelling public will not be permitted, and without restricting the generality of the foregoing, the following uses will be prohibited: (a) regional shopping centres;

Policy 6.H.3 Priority uses will include the following: (a) facilities for the travelling public: i) hotels and motels; ii) restaurants; and, iii) service stations. (b) ancillary uses: i) entertainment facilities associated with a motel or hotel, and consistent in scale with the number of rooms provided in the motel or hotel; and, (c) other uses which, in the opinion of City Council, are compatible with uses serving the travelling public and are included by Council in the list of permitted or discretionary uses under the highway commercial designation(s) of the Land Use Bylaw. Discussion

(b) retail establishments containing 5,000 square metres (53,800 square feet) of floor space or more; (c) developments in which the total leasable office floor space exceeds 60% of the site area; and, (d) entertainment facilities, unless these are part of a hotel or motel complex. Discussion A specific list of prohibited uses has been included to prevent ambiguity in the evaluation of future development applications, and to ensure that the application of land use regulations in highway commercial areas complements the Plan's strategic objectives for highway commercial areas, employment nodes, and Town Centres. 1. the construction of regional shopping centres in highway corridors would reduce the economic viability of Town Centres and employment nodes, referred to in Sections 6E and 6F respectively. This, in turn, would compromise the strategy of orienting development to the transportation system and reduce the effectiveness of the growth strategy as a whole;

A specific list of priority uses has been included to prevent ambiguity in the evaluation of future development applications.

6.40

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• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2. the exclusion of individual retail establishments containing more than 5,000 square metres of leasable floor space is intended to prevent the development of large department stores, which could act as "anchors" for a string of retail outlets. which might compete with regional shopping centres. The figure of 5,000 square metres is equivalent to approximately 53,800 square feet, or one floor in a department store; 3. this clause, limiting the intensity of office development, is designed to ensure any office space which occurs is at low densities. Site coverage for commercial developments in industrial areas typically falls within the range of 30-50%. In order to define the concept of low density office development, the lower end of this range has been used. It has been assumed the maximum building height for low density development would be two stories. The combination of the 30% site coverage and two storey construction yields a ratio of 60%; and, 4. the prohibition of independent entertainment facilities is intended to encourage the location of such facilities in the suburban Town Centres or multi-use centres emphasized by the growth strategy.

Policy 6.H.5 In structuring and applying the development regulations for highway commercial areas, the City will have regard to the following considerations: (a) wherever possible, and especially in areas of new development, the provision of service roads is desirable in order to minimize the disruption to through traffic; (b) the potential benefits of highway commercial development, as a noise buffer for any adjacent residential areas, should be carefully examined; and,

(c) the provision of a high standard of landscaping and buffering is desirable in order to create the best possible impression upon both residents and visitors. Discussion

This policy provides criteria to be used in determining the design guidelines for highway commercial areas under the Land Use Bylaw. 1. the use of service roads is desirable to maintain the efficient flow of through traffic on the highway; 2. commercial buildings have some potential to act as a noise buffer, but this must be carefully evaluated because any breaks in the continuity of construction seriously reduce its effectiveness as a buffer, and because the parking, loading and unloading activities frequently carried on in the rear of commercial developments can, in themselves, generate significant noise problems; and, 3. the appearance of highway entrance corridors significantly affects many people's first impression of the city. Therefore, the creation of attractive highway corridors will enhance Edmonton's image as a destination for tourists, and may also create a better impression on the minds of investors who are thinking of locating new industries in the city.

Policy 6.H.6 Highway commercial areas will be designated in the corridors shown on Map 6.5 and described below: (a) Calgary Trail, from 51 Avenue to 23 Avenue; (b) Highway 16 West, from 170 Street to the city limits; and, (c) Fort Road, from 129 Avenue to the city limits.

6.41


POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Discussion All provincial highway routes within the city limits were considered as potential highway commercial corridors. The suitability of each route for highway commercial development was assessed in terms of the character of surrounding development and the general state of the roadways in the area. Various sections of this network were eliminated if: 1. they were situated within the second ring in the city's ring route system (111/112 Avenue, Capilano Freeway, 75 Street Argyll Road, 63 Avenue, Allendale Road, 61 Avenue, 113 Street, Belgravia Road, Fox Drive, Quesnell Freeway, 149 Street); or, 2. they were bounded by completed or approved residential developments; or, 3. access was not provided from the highway to adjoining parcels; or, 4. the abutting lands could more appropriately be dealt with by the commercial policies for strip commercial areas, industrial areas, suburban commercial districts or shopping centres; or,

5. the parcel sizes or existing uses on abutting lands precluded the development of highway-oriented uses. The determination of the appropriate total acreage to be designated for highway commercial uses across the city is a difficult task. The demand for highway commercial sites along the Calgary Trail and Highway 16 West has been assessed as part of the land use studies for these areas. It appears the amount of land designated in each of these corridors is adequate to meet foreseeable requirements. It should be noted that the acreage designated for highway commercial uses will not limit the amount of accommodation or tourist services which can be developed, for these uses will also be permitted in some general business districts. The purpose of the highway commercial designation is to reserve certain corridors for tourist related facilities and protect them from the intrusion of other uses, which would drive up land prices or otherwise reduce the feasibility of developing tourist facilities. Additional future requirements for land protected in this manner can be identified through the General Municipal Plan Implementation and Monitoring Program.

Objective 6.1 To exercise strict control over the development of commercial uses in industrial areas so as to preserve an adequate supply of land for medium and heavy industrial uses. Discussion Commercial development on industrially zoned land has occurred in a number of forms. Examples include office parks, retail outlets selling goods that require large storage areas, and smaller outlets grouped in

shopping centre or multiple bay warehouse developments. This type of development has generally been approved as a discretionary use, and has occurred both within and beyond the limits of the Industrial Outline Plan Areas. Some commercial development in industrial areas is appropriate to accommodate business support services, industrial suppliers who have retail sales as an ancillary operation, retailers who cannot be suitably accommodated in planned shopping malls, and

6.42

• • • • • • •


• • • • • •

This map represents a OreaO end conception damnation of the desired location of highway commercial areas If Os not intended to provide site specific direction to Mod use regulation mechanisms HigInvay commercial Land Use Districts may be applied along one or born sides of the indicated highway In accordance with the ballet he General Municipal Plan Bylaw and any other relevant statutory plan

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POLICY REPORT #6 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT businesses serving the industrial employees of the area, such as banks and restaurants. However, uses of this type should not be permitted to proliferate to the point where the industrial character of the area is changed. Such a trend would undermine the growth strategy in two critical respects: 1. it would exert upward pressure on the price of industrial land, thus hindering the City's efforts to attract new industry and strengthen its assessment base; and, 2. it would tend to attract additional office and retail development which would more appropriately be accommodated in the Town Centres and employment nodes emphasized in the growth strategy.

Policy 6.1.1 The City will control the development of office, retail, and other commercial floorspace in industrial areas as indicated in Section 7.C. Discussion

Since the intent of Objective 6.1 is to preserve the industrial character of the city's industrial areas, specific policies in this regard are included among the industrial development policies of the Plan and are discussed in Policy Report #7 - Industrial Development.

• • • • 6.44


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POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL 1.0 INTRODUCTION Within the Industrial Outline Plan Areas and inner city industrial subdivisions outlined on Map 7.1, there were in June, 1978, 2,204 net hectares (5,447 net acres) of vacant industrial land in the City of Edmonton. Of this land, 660 net hectares (1,630 net acres), or 30%, were fully or partially serviced with water, sanitary and storm sewers, and roadway access. Approximately 2,013 net hectares (4,975 net acres), or 91%, of the vacant industrial land inventory was distributed among the South, Southeast and Northwest Industrial Outline Plan Areas. The largest proportion of lands zoned for active industrial development in the City of Edmonton is intended for light and medium industrial activities. Light and medium industrial districts (IB and IM land use districts) encompass 618 net hectares (1,280 net acres), or 83%, of the available inventory of lands classified for active industrial development. Lands zoned for heavy industry, designated IH, comprise only 105 net hectares (260 net acres), the largest proportion (56%) of which is situated in the Outline Plan Areas in Southest and Northwest Edmonton. A substantial amount of vacant industrial land in Edmonton is held under an industrial reserve classification (AGI) for future industrial expansion. In June, 1978, approximately 1,578 net hectares (3,900 net acres), or 71%, of the city's inventory of industrial land were included in this category. Approximately 1,295 net hectares (3,200 net acres) of this reserve were situated in the Northwest and Southeast Industrial Outline Plan Areas. Absorption of industrial land in Edmonton averaged approximately 75 net hectares (185 net acres) per year between 1973 and 1976, which is approximately 60% of industrial land absorption in the Edmonton Sub-region. More recently, the development in industrial land in the city has increased to approximately 87 net hectares (215 net acres) annually, although Edmonton's share of the

total industrial development in the Sub-region has remained constant at approximately 50%. Industrial land utilization in Edmonton has become characterized, in recent years, by retail and high quality office development and warehousing operations, with both industrial and commercial components. For reasons of marketability, the majority of these uses have tended to locate in areas of high visibility and good access along traffic arteries bordering or traversing industrial areas. Opinions regarding the effect these development trends have had on industrial land prices differ among the various interest groups which participate in the land development process. Similarly, other factors are speculated to have contributed to high industrial land prices in the City of Edmonton, although the relative importance of these issues and the manner in which they should be addressed are not generally agreed upon. These issues include the present shortage of available land, the practice of industries purchasing extensive sites for long term expansion, land speculation, and high standards of industrial land servicing. A general conclusion which may be drawn is that the final market price of industrial land in Edmonton is considered to reflect more than a simple summation of individual cost input factors, such as land acquisition cost, servicing cost and holding or opportunity costs. This conclusion is supported by land cost surveys which show the asking price for one acre of unserviced industrial land in Edmonton is presently between $75,000 and $150,000. Even allowing for the high standard and range of services provided to industrial areas in the City of Edmonton, these land prices are substantially higher than those in industrial areas adjacent to the city ; where industrial land is available at a range from $35,000 16 ;$100,000 per acre, including services as available. 7.1


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL 2.0 THE ISSUES The City of Edmonton has developed a strong and diversified economic base supported by regional agricultural activity and development of oil, natural gas, and other natural resources in northern Alberta and Canada's far north. The Region is the location of several refining and petrochemical plants, one of the largest meat processing and packing centres in Canada, a substantial secondary iron and steel industry, and an

increasingly important centre of industrial and resource research. Despite the growth and gradual diversification of the industrial base of the City of Edmonton, there are significant planning issues to be addressed if the city is to remain attractive as a major centre for future industrial development. These are:

2.1 PRICE OF INDUSTRIAL LAND The high price of serviced industrial land acts as a constraint to both healthy economic development and maintenance of a balanced property tax for the City of Edmonton. As indicated in the introduction, the cause of high industrial land prices in Edmonton is thought to be a result of a combination of factors, rather than a single all-encompassing reason. In addressing factors contributing to high industrial land costs, the City of Edmonton can attempt to influence land prices through positive actions, such as undertaking trunk servicing programs to increase land availability, regulating the type and location of commercial uses in industrial areas, initiating steps to annex additional industrial land, allowing for greater variety in the range and standard of services provided to industrial areas, and providing greater flexibility to the

development industry by considering non-contiguous development. Other options, such as the introduction of a land speculation tax, are also available, although experience in other jurisdictions, such as the Province of Ontario, has demonstrated that these measures have a detrimental effect on land development. The General Municipal Plan has endeavoured to take a positive approach in addressing the issue of industrial land costs. In particular, through forums such as the Development Industry Liaison Committee proposed in the Plan, the City hopes to directly involve development interests in the identification of priority actions to stabilize or reduce industrial land prices. In this manner, the City may obtain a consensus of opinion, both on the issues associated with land prices and on the manner in which they should be addressed.

2.2 SUPPLY AND TYPE OF INDUSTRIAL LAND There is a limited supply of IH zoned land in the City of Edmonton which is appropriate for heavy industrial uses. Industries requiring large sites and low intensity uses, such as storage facilities which do not require fully serviced land parcels, often consider heavy

industrial land in Edmonton to be too costly or inappropriate in terms of size, location, and level of service. Consequently, these industries locate outside the city boundaries.

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POLICY REPORT #7

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INDUSTRIAL In addition to the present small supply of heavy industrial land, the City of Edmonton is experiencing problems in maintaining an adequate inventory of serviced land for all types of industrial uses. The magnitude of this problem is borne out by studies undertaken by the City's Business Development Department in March, 1978. It was concluded that as much as 60% of the existing inventory of serviced industrial land was being withheld from development for such reasons as business expansion and land speculation.

The ability of the City of Edmonton to overcome this problem is encumbered by the fragmented ownership pattern in remaining industrial areas and the lengthy negotiation and approval process (i.e. replot process) required to achieve a properly designed subdivision, industrial roadway and utility rights-of-way, and establish each owner's share of the developable land entitlement.

2.3 LAND USE CONFLICTS The noise, odour and visual impacts of heavy industry may have a deteriorating effect on the environment of residential communities which are not adequately buffered from their building sites. Many older industrial areas in the City of Edmonton are also characterized by businesses utilizing large sites of land for low intensity storage uses or employing outdated production techniques which render them marginally viable.

The General Municipal Plan must provide direction with respect to the future of older, obsolete or noxious industrial uses in the inner city, yet remain sensitive to the significant employment and tax base which are generated by these uses.

2.4 INDUSTRIAL LAND SERVICING The Mayor's Task Force on Industrial Land (1979) has concluded there is a need for a joint investigation of alternate methods of financing industrial trunk services

by the City and the development industry, including the benefits and costs of the developer servicing these industrial areas.

2.5 PLANNING FOR NEW INDUSTRIAL AREAS There is a need for a more detailed level of planning for new industrial areas, and the provision of an implementation strategy for adoption as an integral part

of the Bylaw approval process for industrial Area Structure Plans.

7.4


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL 3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 7.A To enhance the position of the City of Edmonton as a location for industrial development through the preparation of a comprehensive strategy to accommodate demand for industrial land. Discussion It is a major objective of the City of Edmonton to

encourage industrial development in the city, which will strengthen and diversify the economic base as well as provide Edmontonians with a variety of job opportunities. At present, the efforts of the City of Edmonton to accomplish this objective are severely constrained in the high price of industrial land in the city and a rapidly diminishing inventory of land from which to accommodate future industrial growth. Problems with respect to the planning and co-ordination of industrial development also exist at the regional level. At present, due to the multiplicity of municipal jurisdictions immediately adjacent to the City of Edmonton, there is no single authority with the ability and responsibility to plan for the accommodation of heavy industrial activities and other industrial activities which could be expected to occur in the Edmonton area over the long term. Given the lack of a unified authority in control of industrial land planning, several major problems have arisen, such as the inability to ensure long range financial, transportation, utility systems and land use planning, and the inadequate provision of basic urban services in the intensely developed areas of the city's periphery. It is toward the resolution of these problems that the City of Edmonton's 1979 annexation application is

directed. In particular, through establishment of a unified government structure, the City of Edmonton will provide for effective planning and management of industrial growth in the Edmonton area, thereby enhancing the position of the City of Edmonton as a location for industrial development. If the City is unsuccessful in its annexation initiatives, or is restricted to a minimum boundary expansion, the high costs of industrial land in the city, as well as environmental concerns, will make it impractical and undesirable for the city to accommodate heavy industrial activity. In that event, the City of Edmonton should take the position that heavy industrial uses should be directed to those existing industrial areas well removed from the city's periphery, and direct its planning and business development programs to accommodate predominantly light and medium industrial uses.

Policy 7.A.1 Contingent upon the availability of sufficient land, the City of Edmonton will develop a comprehensive strategy for industrial land use and development which will: (a) address the location of potentially offensive industrial uses, which as a result of their noxious emissions or visual impact, require large parcels of land in areas removed from higher quality industrial districts and residential environments; and, (b) identify a preferred pattern of sequential development for industrial activity in the city based on an demand, locational requirements, servicing capability and other land use planning requirements.

7.5

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POLICY REPORT #7

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INDUSTRIAL Discussion Future prospects for further development of oil and natural gas and other natural resources in northern Alberta and the rapidly growing national and international resource markets are likely to ensure continued growth in the provincial economy. The Edmonton Sub-region, by virtue of its strategic location and strong industrial base, has the potential to benefit substantially from this expected growth, provided suitable sites are available for those primary processing and manufacturing industries which will be attracted to the Region. The Advisory Committee on Industrial Land (1979) made note of the absence of policies at the municipal, regional and provincial planning levels to direct the location of heavy industrial uses in the Edmonton Sub-region. Furthermore, the Committee gave recognition of the need for a regional strategy to rationalize the staging and distribution of industry. The Edmonton General Municipal Plan supports the principle that regional growth be accommodated and co-ordinated through a strategy which focuses future economic activity in a city-centred region. This concept

has been embodied in City Council policy as well as the Regional Plan. The City of Edmonton is expected to sustain growth within its own boundaries, as well as surrounding development, through the provision of regional systems for water distribution, treatment of sanitary wastes, and accommodation of storm water drainage. In light of this role, it follows that the City of Edmonton should play a leading role in the development of a comprehensive industrial land strategy. If the City of Edmonton is successful in its 1979 annexation proposal, the City will be able to set a comprehensive strategy for industrial land use, given the magnitude of the proposed boundary adjustment. Conversely, if Edmonton is unsuccessful in obtaining sufficient lands to meet its long range industrial land requirements, it is still desirable that the City provide a leading role in setting an industrial land use policy. Realistically, the City of Edmonton's ability to influence industrial development matters will be seriously limited if the present unbalanced representation structure of the Edmonton Regional Planning Commission is maintained.

Objective 7.B To encourage the relocation or upgrading of obsolete or noxious industrial uses in the inner city. Discussion The operation of industry in Edmonton's inner city area can have both positive and negative effects. It can increase the municipal tax base, provide employment opportunities and stimulate activity in the retail and service sectors of the economy.

Conversely, some aspects of industrial operation, such as truck movements, noise or air pollution, may impose a haxard or nuisance on adjacent residential land uses. At the same time, the encroachment of incompatible land uses upon the building sites of industry may limit opportunities for expansion or lead to demands for the introduction of more stringent standards of operation. The complexity of this issue requires that the future of inner city industrial activities be examined on a

7.6


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL case-by-case basis. Through a program or District Planning, the City will ensure that viable, clean inner city industries are preserved and protected from encroachment of incompatible land uses. In a similar manner, the city will provide assistance in relocating or upgrading obsolete or noxious industrial uses on the basis of the results of detailed studies carried out under the District Planning Program.

Policy 7.B.1 The City shall provide for the relocation or upgrading of older, obsolete, or noxious heavy industrial uses in the inner city through the District Planning Program. Policy 7.B.2 The City will apply city assistance tools (such as city-owned land) wherever possible, to assist key industries in the inner city to relocate to suburban locations. Discussion The history and development of industry in older industrial areas of the inner city and the development of residential areas in close proximity to industrial areas represent a complex planning issue which has

significant implications for the business tax base and future economic development of the City of Edmonton. The noise, odour and visual impacts of heavy industry have a deteriorating effect upon residential uses which are not adequately buffered from their building sites. Many older industrial districts are also characterized by businesses utilizing large sites of land for low intensity storage or employing outdated production techniques which render them marginally viable. Concerns related to land use conflicts between industrial and residential land uses and the under-utilization of industrial land must be balanced by a recognition of the significant tax base contributions and employment opportunities generated by inner city industrial uses. The key to the resolution of competing objectives may, therefore, lie in the feasiblity of upgrading older, noxious industrial uses in the inner city to achieve compatibility with surrounding residential districts. Inasmuch as industrial operations have different operational characteristics and locational requirements, the General Municipal Plan has concluded that the most effective and equitable means of dealing with this complex issue is to examine each situation on a case-by-case basis, through the District Planning Program.

Objective 7.0 To exercise strict control over the development of non-industrial uses in industrial areas so as to ensure a supply of land for medium and heavy industrial uses. Discussion Commercial uses have been permitted in industrial districts as discretionary uses under the City of

Edmonton Land Use Bylaw. However, these land use regulations do not contain guidelines or direction to define the types of commercial uses which would be appropriate in industrial areas or locational criteria. Further, the categorization of a proposed use as commercial or industrial is made difficult by the absence of a definition of commercial or industrial uses

7.7


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL in the Land Use Bylaw. For example, many uses may have a large warehousing function, possibly manufacturing, but may also have a large retail area. Consequently, it has become difficult for the Development Officer or Development Appeal Board, if involved, to be consistent and accurate in their rendering of a decision on development permits. The absence of definitive permitted use and locational guidelines for the commercial use of industrially zoned land has also created other problems: 1. many commercial uses contribute to traffic congestion in industrial areas by attracting traffic from outside the district. Also, access from the site to the roadway system often is not adequate and parking is insufficient; 2. the random proliferation of commercial uses in industrial areas is considered to have had some influence leading to a decrease in the supply of true industrial land in the city. Increased competition for industrial land may, therefore, increase its cost to the legitimate industrial user; 3. the tax assessment for commercially zoned land of a higher value than industrial assessment rates results in commercial uses receiving a substantial benefit. Accordingly, the City does not acquire this potential tax revenue; 4. the development of general retail facilities on a large scale would draw trade away from, and undermine the viability of, the Town Centres and employment nodes emphasized in the growth strategy; and, 5. the development of large amounts of office space in the form of low-rise developments dispersed throughout industrial areas would be very difficult to service with public transit and would be

inconsistent with the office decentralization strategy. In view of the above concerns, it is essential that the General Municipal Plan provide policy direction to define the range of commercial uses which would be considered appropriate in Edmonton's industrial areas.

Policy 7.C.1 The City will permit general office development at a limited number of employment nodes in industrial areas, subject to the following conditions: (a) detailed review at the time of application for conformity with the guidelines for employment nodes, specified in Section 6.F; (b) enactment or amendment of the applicable Outline Plan, Area Structure Plan or Area Redevelopment Plan; and, (c) redistricting (rezoning) to a commercial land use district. Discussion

This policy provides for the development of intensive employment nodes, as discussed in the office decentralization strategy, while at the same time ensuring that the impact of these developments on the supply and price of land for industrial purposes is minimized. Intensive office developments will be limited to an area within a five-minute walking distance of a relevant transit access point, thereby minimizing the amount of land affected. At the same time, it is expected these employment nodes will absorb some of the office space demand which would otherwise result in sprawling office developments at other less appropriate locations.

7.8


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL Policy 7.C.2 The City will apply a commercial land use designation allowing for general business uses along selected portions of arterial roadways passing through industrial areas where the character of existing development is clearly commercial in nature. Discussion Intense market pressure has resulted in the construction of some commercial floorspace on industrially zoned lands, along some sections of arterial roadways in industrial areas. This development has taken a number of forms, including large outlets which combine warehouse and showroom space in a single operation or small warehouse bays occupied by retailers who do not have the option of locating in a shopping centre, due to high rents or tenant management policies. In many cases, the high accessibility and visibility of the parcels drives their price out of the range of industrial buyers. At the same time, the city is experiencing a shortage of suitable sites for commercial establishments which require large land areas, such as automobile dealerships. In light of these considerations, it is appropriate to allow for some general commercial development along arterial roadways at the periphery of industrial subdivisions.

Policy 7.C.3 The City will permit the development of some retail and office floorspace at low densities in industrial business parks, under a light industrial land use designation, subject to the following conditions: (a) light industrial land use designations (zoning) will be applied only to lands which abut or are located near arterial roadways, and only if a light industrial land use designation would be compatible with surrounding land uses;

(b) all development on lands under light industrial land use designation is to be in a low-rise, low-intensity built form; (c) office park development on lands under light industrial land use designations will be restricted to parcels which abut an arterial roadway with regular transit service or are within a five-minute walking distance of a transit stop; and, (d) retail and personal service uses will be limited to those types which are oriented primarily to the corporate clients or the personal needs of the industrial employees in the surrounding area. Discussion The business park concept has been gaining increasing acceptance in the development industry. Business parks provide a preferred environment for many light industrial enterprises and permit business support services to locate near the industries which they serve. The trend toward business parks is also consistent with the growing importance of the tertiary section of the economy. For these reasons, it is in the City's interest to permit and encourage the development of business parks which enhance the City's competitive position in attracting new industries. At the same time, the growth strategy requires that controls be applied to prevent the dispersal of general office uses that could be concentrated at peak accessibility points. This policy includes guidelines to ensure commercial uses are compatible with the industrial character of the area and the supply of land for industrial purposes will not be diminished. These guidelines will help achieve the City's strategic objectives with respect to employment distribution and attracting industrial growth.

7.9

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POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL Policy 7.C.4 The City will encourage the development of low-intensity retail and service commercial facilities catering specifically to the industrial firms and employees in the area at Industrial Service Centres designated in an Industrial Outline Plan or Area Structure Plan. Discussion

• • • • •

The Industrial Service Centre concept has been an integral part of every Industrial Outline Plan prepared by the City to date. It is intended to group commercial services, such as banks and restaurants, at central locations accessible to the firms and employees of two or more industrial subdivisions. The number and location of the Industrial Service Centres within each Outline Plan Area has been established to ensure adequate coverage for the Outline Plan Area, while minimizing the amount of industrial land devoted for these uses. It is anticipated that applications for compatible commercial facilities within areas designated as Industrial Service Centres will be approved as discretionary uses under industrial land use districts.

Discussion Most industrial firms require some office space for normal administrative functions and business meetings. Showrooms may be necessary to conduct negotiations with potential corporate buyers. Similarly, a small retail sales area may be appropriate for firms which sell part of their output directly to the public. It would clearly be unreasonable to require that firms rent space for such ancillary functions on separate parcels with commercial designation. Allowance must, therefore, be made for office commercial and retail floorspace, even on sites at the interior of industrial subdivisions. However, due to the pressure for unrestricted general commercial development in industrial areas, it is necessary to formulate and apply an operational definition of "ancillary" office showroom and retail space. The 20% limit is based on a review of development trends in Edmonton and regulations applied in other North American cities. It has been used by the Development Officer as a guideline in evaluating applications for discretionary commercial uses under IB zoning since August, 1978.

Policy 7.C.5 The City recognizes the need for some office, showroom and sales areas in industrial buildings and will permit the inclusion of such space in industrial developments if it is ancillary to the permitted industrial use and does not exceed 20% of the gross floor area.

7.10


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL Objective 7.D

Discussion

To prepare, review or approve Area Structure Plans and any other servicing programs or actions such that the city is able to accommodate at least 50 percent of industrial growth in the Edmonton Sub-region within the Plan period.

The Mayor's Advisory Committee on Industrial Land (1979) has raised the concern that the extent of development of land classified as AG!, an industrial holding zone under the Land Use Bylaw, and the lack of clear direction regarding permitted uses has increased land values to the equivalent of lands which are zoned for active industrial development (i.e. IB, IM, IH under the Land Use Bylaw). The recommendation of the Advisory Committee was that consideration be given to the rezoning of AGI lands to a category which permits active industrial development.

Discussion

To maintain a prosperous and stable economic base, the City of Edmonton must provide a sufficient quantity and variety of industrial land at competitive prices to attract those industries which are regarded as being essential to strengthen and diversify the economic base of the city. At present, approximately one-third of municipal expenditures are financed by revenues from property taxes, composed of the residential and commercial (including industrial) tax assessments. The Local Policy Plan (1980 1984) projects that property tax revenues will increase as a percentage of total revenue over the Plan period. Therefore, to avoid placing increased reliance on the residential protlerty tax for operating revenues up to and beyond 1984, it would be advantageous for the City to increase its present share of regional industrial growth, and consequently increase the proportion of the property tax derived from the commercial component of the tax base. -

Policy 7.D.1 The City will undertake an examination of all industrial lands presently classified under the industrial reserve district (AGI) which are developed, serviced, and from which roadways have been dedicated with a view to initiating a blanket rezoning of AGI land to the desired industrial category.

This recommendation represents a means of increasing the short term supply of developable industrial land for the accommodation of industrial growth in the City of Edmonton and, hence, is supported by the General Municipal Plan Project.

Policy 7.D.2 When required, the City will attempt to increase the supply of industrial land within the city limits through annexation. Discussion

During 1979 and 1980, the City of Edmonton initiated steps to annex additional lands, including lands suited to the accommodation of heavy industrial as well as other industrial development requirements. The annexation proposal and boundary petition submitted to the Local Authorities Board would satisfy the City's industrial land requirements beyond a 40 year time horizon and thereby provide the necessary land inventory and flexibility to meet the variety of industrial demands occasioned by Edmonton's role as a major primary processing and manufacturing centre in northern Alberta. -

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POLICY REPORT #7

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INDUSTRIAL Policy 7.D.3 To continue to select areas for the preparation of industrial Area Structure Plans on the basis of a contiguous pattern of land development. Discussion It has been the City of Edmonton's policy to provide an orderly and efficient process to plan for the provision of land uses and municipal services on a scale which would accommodate expected industrial demand. In carrying out these programs, the City has adopted the practice of encouraging orderly and economic expansion by programming expenditures on trunk service extensions, roadways, transit and other ancillary services, on the basis of a contiguous pattern of land development. The process of establishing priorities for the preparation of Area Structure Plans for future industrial areas to be annexed to the City of Edmonton is to be undertaken on the basis of financial and market studies, termed Sector Studies. These studies will consider the municipal expenditures required to service new growth areas with trunk utilities, roadways and other ancillary services, as well as demand and locational factors to establish priorities for the preparation of Industrial Area Structure Plans. As part of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, it is proposed the City continue to support the principle of contiguous development at the Area Structure Plan level in future industrial areas. However, within the Area Structure Plan, the strategy proposes to increase flexibility to the development industry and increase opportunities for competition by consideration of non-contiguous development (see Policy Report #9 Utilities). Continuance of the City's policy of encouraging contiguous development at the district level is necessary

to ensure future industrial growth does not place an undue burden upon the financial resources of the City of Edmonton. This philosophy is also in keeping with the major thrust of the growth strategy to encourage compactness in the form of future development, and thereby promote a more efficient use of land resources and support services. Policy 7.D.4 Area Structure Plans prepared by the City and/or the development industry for future industrial areas will contain an implementation strategy which shall be adopted as an integral part of the Area Structure Plan Bylaw approval process. The implementation strategy shall describe the preferred staging for land servicing and development, as well as guidelines and procedures for the implementation of specific recommendations of the Area Structure Plan. Discussion The Mayor's Advisory Committee on Industrial Land (1979) has recognized the need for a strategy to ensure land use plans for industrial areas, once adopted, are capable of being implemented in a manner consistent with the recommendations of the Area Structure Plan. The Civic Administration has supported the recommendation in its application to new industrial areas. In this regard, it has been suggested that all new industrial Area Structure Plans be the subject of an implementation strategy, which would be included as an integral part of the bylaw approval process for Area Structure Plans. The implementation strategy will document and allocate actions to be carried out by the City and other parties to the development process, to ensure the intent and provisions of the Area Structure Plan are achieved. 7.12


POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL With regard to existing industrial areas, the City has initiated action, such as the establishment of priorities for replotting schemes, definition of industrial priorities

through the Local Policy Plan process, and other monitoring programs, to ensure the provisions of the existing District Outline Plans are being implemented.

Objective 7.E To provide opportunities for continuous involvement of the business community in the planning process for new industrial areas.

appropriately through an ongoing City/Development Industry Liaison Committee.

Discussion

The City will establish a Development Industry Liaison Committee to work with the Civic Administration on matters relating to industrial land development.

Continuous involvement of business interests in the planning process for industrial areas can lead to better decision-making because the people affected by decisions can clarify issues and identify priorities. It is felt this objective can be accommodated most

Policy 7.E.1

Discussion This policy is consistent with the content and intent of Policy Report #4 - Citizen Participation.

Objective 7.F To increase flexibility in subdivision requirements and engineering standards in the City's industrial areas, in order to reduce the cost of industrial land. Discussion The development industry, through the Mayor's Advisory Committee on Industrial Land (1979), has strongly supported this objective as a means of accommodating the diverse requirements of industry for various levels of servicing, parcel sizes as well as reducing the cost of industrial land. It is recommended that matters relating to servicing standards and subdivision design can be best addressed at the Area Structure Plan stage.

Policy 7.F.1 The City will encourage the use of alternate storm water management techniques to reduce the cost of servicing in industrial areas.

Discussion The City/Province/Industry Task Force on Housing Costs in Edmonton, in examining the costs and difficulties of providing conventional storm water pipe service to new developments, was unanimous in recognizing the potential of storm water management systems in reducing the cost of providing storm water services as development proceeds to greater distances from the North Saskatchewan River. Also, there would appear to be considerable potential for the use of storm water management techniques in new industrial subdivisions, by employing building roofs, parking lots and local collector roads as temporary catchment areas for storm runoff. The General Municipal Plan, therefore, recommends these techniques receive consideration in the design of future industrial trunk service systems. 7.13


POLICY REPORT #7

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INDUSTRIAL Policy 7.F.2 The City will, in consultation with the development industry, determine standards and types of municipal services to be provided to future industrial areas. Discussion Many industries which could be attracted to the City of Edmonton require large sites, often only partly serviced. These industries often find industrial land in Edmonton to be too costly, or inappropriate as a result of the size or level of servicing. This problem may be overcome if servicing standards in future industrial areas were determined on the basis of the site requirements of the end user - the private sector.

Policy 7.F.3 The City will consider, in the Land Use Bylaw and in the preparation of industrial Area Structure Plans, opportunities for encouraging innovative and cost-efficient building and site design. Discussion This policy is consistent with the major thrust of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy of increasing the compactness of urban development, thereby promoting more efficient and economic use of the land resources and support services of the City of Edmonton. Policy 7.F.4

The City will consider proposals for non-contiguous development made at the time of applications for amendments to Area Structure Plans and/or subdivision approval if the applicant can demonstrate that development will not result in any additional costs to the City or that the applicant is prepared to assume additional costs, and that the applicant agree to any design provisions which may be requested by City utility departments to ensure reliable service.

Discussion When an Area Structure Plan is developed for a portion of the city, a strategy for its development is included. A schedule of expected municipal expenditures is also formulated. The strategy is generally based upon a pattern of contiguous land development and is used as a guide to determine how the subsequent servicing and development of new residential and industrial areas should proceed. City Council has indicated, through this policy and others in the General Municipal Plan, a desire to encourage competition among developers. It is felt this competition will ensure an adequate supply of serviced land for residential and industrial purposes. To achieve this, proposals for non-contiguous development will be accepted. A development proposal which is considered non-contiguous or inconsistent with strategies for development contained in the applicable local Area Structure Plan must satisfy two requirements. Firstly, if a development proposal of this land is to be approved, it must not increase Edmonton's financial burden. Secondly, the developer must ensure the development of non-contiguous lands will not result in a decline in the reliability of utility services. For these reasons, approval of a non-contiguous development plan is conditional upon the developer assuming additional servicing costs. In addition, the proposal may have to incorporate utility departments' requests for the provision of back-up services to an area. Additional financial burden in these cases will be determined through cost comparisons with development in other new growth areas, at the neighbourhood structure plan or subdivision level.

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POLICY REPORT #7 INDUSTRIAL Objective 7.G To maintain a balance between residential and industrial assessment in order that urban services can be provided at a reasonable level of residential taxation to the citizens of Edmonton.

Policy 7.G.1 The City will strive to maintain a balance in taxation revenue between residential and industrial land uses through an aggressive business development program and by undertaking planning and servicing programs to accommodate demand for industrial land. Discussion Through the promotion of industrial and commercial development opportunities in the City of Edmonton, the

City strives to maintain a proper balance in the tax revenues derived from the business sector and residential property assessment to finance capital and operating costs of urban services. Continued emphasis on promoting business development opportunities through the Business Development Program and land use planning is essential to ensure the costs of providing growth-related services in the future do not necessitate increased reliance on the residential property tax for needed revenues. This policy is consistent with the underlying philosophy of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy as enunciated in Objective 1.C, and with the intent of Objectives 7.A and 7.D. which deal with the accommodation of future industrial growth.

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POLICY REPORT #8

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TRANSPORTATION 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this Policy Report is to discuss current issues with respect to transportation in Edmonton, identify the objectives and policies which are recommended for implementation in order to deal with these issues, and discuss the rationale behind each objective and policy. However, it should be recognized that the objectives and policies contained within the General Municipal Plan do not represent a transportation strategy. Rather, the City's long range transportation strategy will be embodied within the Transportation System Plan (Transportation Plan, Part III). At the same time, there is such a close inter-relationship between transportation and land use that the General Municipal Plan must clearly state the direction implied for the transportation system by the growth strategy. As part of the total urban system, land use and transportation are inextricably inter-related, with changes in one component having definite implications upon the other. The existence and type of transportation facilities play important roles in determining the attractiveness of areas for development and, hence, may cause a shift in activity patterns or affect the city's overall pattern of growth. On the other hand, changes in land use policy influence, to a certain degree, the effective achievement of the City's general transportation goals. Therefore, it is necessary that the distribution of density and land uses are as compatible as possible with the existing transportation system, and conversely, that an adequate transportation network is provided to service travel demands generated through the growth strategy. In the case of the Edmonton General Municipal Plan, the growth strategy was developed with the objective of

enhancing the utility and efficiency of the transportation system, in particular, emphasizing the transit components of this system. Although it is recognized the most effective transportation system is an integrated system which provides for the use of each mode where it is most efficient, a strong emphasis on transit is essential if the types of goals for the urban system envisaged in the growth strategy are to be achieved. Moreover, the land use implications of the transit system - in particular, compactness of residential development, continued support for a viable downtown and the focussing of development toward the transit network - are more desirable than the land use implications of a lower density, dispersed strategy, which encourages the use of the automobile. The directions to the Transportation Systems Plan, contained in the General Municipal Plan, therefore, emphasize the need for the transportation strategy to incorporate the City's commitment to the overall growth strategy, through the provision of acceptable levels of accessibility and mobility, the maintenance of a viable downtown, the enhancement of inner city redevelopment, and efficient, orderly development in new areas. Furthermore, while the General Municipal Plan does not establish specific requirements for the Transportation System Plan, the policies within this component provide basic directions or principles for the development of a comprehensive, integrated transportation system, ensuring the greatest degree of compatibility with the growth strategy. Moreover, the policies also establish the links between the Transportation System Plan and the various Area Structure Plans, Area Redevelopment Plans, and District Plans.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION 2.0 TRANSPORTATION ISSUES

With respect to the planning and development of the city's transportation system, a number of general issues can be identified. These issues are as follows: 1. compatibility between land use activities and the transportation system;

3. access to and mobility within the Downtown; 4. disruption to established inner city residential communities; and, 5. transportation to and within new growth areas.

2. roadway and transit levels of service;

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2.1 LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION COMPATIBILITY

As noted in the Introduction, land use and transportation are closely inter-related. Therefore, it is imperative these urban systems complement each other through the provision of a level of service which accommodates travel demands arising from specific land uses. However, these travel demands should not create undue pressure for excessive transportation capacity, which may be provided only at the expense of adjacent land uses, financial resources, and improvements in other areas. In Edmonton, land use development follows two distinct patterns: urban residential development which has spread outwards from the inner city at lower densities, and major office and retail uses concentrated in the Downtown. Although this land use pattern may satisfy individual preferences for low density suburban living and corporate locational desires, the magnitude, direction and length of trips, which such a pattern

generates, exert great pressure upon the existing transportation system such that, particularly during peak hours, many roadways operate at a low level of service, thereby increasing travel times and decreasing trip speeds. Conversely, the continued expansion of the transportation network should provide ready access for all land use developments by a suitable arterial roadway standard, and at least a basic level of transit service. This will ensure all major residential, commercial and employment areas are provided with access by several modes from all areas of the city. However, this is a problem with respect to non-contiguous development, as the City is required to extend interim access, which may be on undefined road rights-of-way, and transit service to areas which may possess insufficient ridership, increasing the operating deficit.

2.2 ROADWAY AND TRANSIT LEVELS OF SERVICE

One of the most obvious transportation issues in Edmonton concerns the level of service on the present arterial roadway network. Based upon information prepared by the Planning Department comparing 1975

data and projections for both 1981 and 2001, a number of trends, with respect to arterial roadway levels of service based on alternative land use scenarios, may be discerned as follows (see Figure 1):

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Figure 1 Summary of Trends â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Level of Service

Indicators of level of service on arterial roadways 1975

1981

Total number of trips on network

68.000

81,000-82.000

Mean trip travel time (minutes)

11.68

16-18

18-22

over 20

Mean trip speed (kilometres per hour)

35.73

26.5-28.65

23.17-25.72

24.62 - 25.27

Measure (for auto trips)

1991 99,000-103,000

2001 115,000

NOTE: 1. Although the effect on transit service has not been quantified, it is estimated that the "measure" would be of similar magnitude to those for private autos (since both modes use the same roadways under the assumptions used for these projections). 2. The above indicators are based on no improvements to the transportation system beyond those currently committed. 3. The range of values shown reflects conditions resulting from alternative land use scenarios. Source: City of Edmonton Planning Department, Transportation Planning Branch, August, 1979.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION 1. the a.m. peak hour city-wide arterial roadway volume will experience a rapid increase from 68,000 (1975) to about 115,000 (2001); 2. the average a.m. peak hour trip time will almost double, from 11.6 minutes to about 20 minutes by 2001, with no improvements to the system beyond the existing and committed roadway network; and, 3. considering the capacity of the 1975 arterial network, 15.4% of all a.m. peak hour vehicle miles were at a level of service E or less, and were confined primarily to major intersections. However, by 2001, on a program of existing plus committed improvements invested after 1981, about 50% of a.m. peak hour vehicle-miles will be at a level of service E or less. Based on these trends, the overall level of service is decreasing. However, these trends are dependent upon a number of factors: the municipal land use pattern discussed under 2.1, the number of external origin trips with city destinations, modal split, and transportation investment policy. Given the present level of development of Sub-regional urban centres in close proximity to Edmonton, and the fact that Edmonton is the focus of regional employment, there are a large number of morning peak hour work trips originating in the Sub-region destined for Edmonton, which in turn contribute significantly to the traffic congestion on the arterial network. A second factor which contributes to morning peak hour congestion on the arterial network is transit utilization. The Transportation Plan, Part I, emphasized improvements in the level of transit service as a means of increasing public transit ridership, particularly the transit share of modal split, from 19.4% in 1971 to higher levels in the future. However, much of the

projected increase in ridership has been identified as being attributable to transit riders attracted from a walking or auto-passenger mode and non-work generated trips, rather than the auto-driver mode. As a result, while transit ridership is projected to increase, peak hour auto volumes on the arterial network are continuing to escalate. In addition to the impacts of external trips and existing modal split levels, the anticipated decrease in the arterial level of service by 2001 is a direct result of the Transportation Plan, Part I, policy, which directed the largest proportion of roadway investment to providing service to developing suburban areas, and improving the links on the city's truck route loop. Aside from selected spot improvements, inner city arterials have received very little investment, although these routes currently experience the greatest volume of traffic and the poorest level of service in the peak hours. Concurrent with the implications of the investment allocation policy is the fact that increasing expenditures are required to maintain an adequate level of service. The City is constrained in its ability to finance massive transportation projects without placing the burden upon residents in the form of tax increases. At the same time, significant transportation system improvements in developed portions of the city will have adverse social and physical implications upon adjacent land uses. With resepct to public transit levels of service, the Transportation Plan, Part I, emphasized the expansion of bus transit service and the city's L.R.T. network to achieve an increase in ridership through a level of service improvements. These transit service policies have been fairly successful, with transit usage anticipated to represent 23.2% of modal split by 1981 (recognizing, of course, this increase may not produce a

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POLICY REPORT #8

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TRANSPORTATION proportionate decrease in auto usage). The level of service provided by the transit system has been improved in the North East Corridor with the operation of the Light Rail Transit line, and is further expected to increase with the initiation of the South Light Rail

Transit service. However, the level of service is declining in other areas where trip lengths and travel times are increasing and trip speeds decreasing due to roadway congestion, as well as some reduction in off-peak services to curb escalating operating deficits.

2.3 ACCESS TO AND MOBILITY WITHIN THE DOWNTOWN Since the Downtown is expected to maintain its position as the major employment centre within the Edmonton Region, it will remain the focus of morning peak hour work trips. Since there is a heavy reliance on the automobile for work trips destined to Downtown, the strain on arterial roadways presently providing access to the Downtown will continue to increase. Thus, the continued concentration of office space in the Downtown will result in significant reductions in the level of service available on major roadways, both entering into and within the Downtown. Congestion of access routes to the Downtown is perhaps compounded by two major factors: limited opportunities to implement arterial roadway improvements considering economic and social implications, and the amount of available long-term parking space. To continue to meet the travel demands associated with the concentration of office space, increased investment will be required for the widening of existing roadways or the development of new roadways. However, such a strategy will impose severe impacts upon adjacent land uses, particularly inner city residential communities, in terms of increased noise and air pollution levels, property requirements, reduced safety and visual amenities, potential decreases in property values and disruption of community activities. Furthermore, the ability to meet increased investment in the inner city is constrained since the majority of transportation funds have been allocated to extending the arterial network to developing suburban areas. In addition to the inability

of the City to improve downtown access through physical improvements, there is a large amount of relatively inexpensive long-term public parking on the Downtown fringes, although much of this parking constitutes interim land use awaiting redevelopment. Furthermore, the Land Use Bylaw permits land use developments to provide substantial amounts of private employee parking. Moreover, while parking pricing has an effect upon transit use, the City has very little, if any, influence over it. These three factors simply act as incentives for auto use, rather than encouraging transit use. Also of concern is the mobility of both private and public vehicles within the Downtown. Aside from the magnitude of vehicles, there are a number of other factors which affect Downtown mobility, including through traffic, on-street parking, truck traffic, pedestrian movements and local service vehicle movements. Traffic passing through the Downtown, rather than bypassing this area by utilizing the available ring route system, has a major impact upon levels of service, although actual volumes may not be significant. It is recognized, however, that this is perhaps due in part to the location of the main bridge crossings, which require traffic travelling across the river to traverse the Downtown, or that a route through this area is the most direct, although perhaps more time-consuming.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Another obvious impediment to downtown mobility concerns that of on-street parking, particularly on bus routes. Although some on-street parking is being eliminated over time to improve traffic flows on major routes, such parking is necessary in certain locations to ensure a supply for short-term use, since off-street parking has been utilized for the most part for long-term parking. It is evident, therefore, that off-street parking facilities are necessary for strictly short-term use only at specific locations to sustain land uses and improve traffic mobility, particularly that of transit vehicles.

Furthermore, truck movements seriously impair efficient downtown mobility, particularly for transit vehicles. However, while it is recognized that trucks do impede other vehicular, and possibly, pedestrian, movements, such traffic is generally a function of the land use pattern. The major warehousing district and terminal facilities are concentrated in the Downtown rather than outlying industrial locations, as well as major retail facilities, which utilize trucks for movement of goods. Similarly, service vehicles, which are characterized by stop-and-go movements, impede efficient traffic flow, particularly in peak hours.

2.4 INNER CITY IMPACTS

The trends discussed previously indicate that although there will be a gradual decentralization of travel demand, in terms of the proportion of total morning work trips, as trips to outlying employment areas increase quicker than those bound to the Downtown, travel demand based on absolute vehicle volumes is, and will continue to be, focussed on this area of the city due to the continuing requirements for auto trips from dispersed residential areas. With the continuing focus of the journey-to-work on the Downtown, and the magnitude of traffic flows into and out of this area during the morning and afternoon peak hours, adjacent land uses, particularly inner city residential areas, are subjected to numerous adverse transportation-related impacts, including: 1. undesirable levels of traffic noise; 2. an increase in air pollutants; 3. through traffic bypassing arterial bottle-necks; 4. reduced pedestrian safety;

With respect to traffic noise, levels have been dependent on a number of factors, such as the number of automobiles, the number of buses, the number and type of trucks, the speed at which these vehicles travel, and the type of roadway service. Given the decreasing level of service on arterial roadways, particularly decreasing trip speeds and the fact that almost every arterial road is a truck route and/or bus route, it is apparent that with increasing volumes of traffic passing through the inner city, noise levels will increase, irrespective of more stringent regulations of vehicle design technology and performance standards. With a lower speed of traffic on the inner city arterial network and the volume of vehicles, particularly trucks and buses, total pollutant emission levels will increase in proportion to the increase in vehicles and the decrease in operating speeds, in spite of improved engine design and pollution controls. It is in the inner city where congestion is the highest, and, therefore, the concentration of pollutants the greatest.

5. undesirable visual impacts; and, 6. a potential reduction in property values. 8.6


POLICY REPORT #8

TRANSPORTATION As vehicle volumes and the proportion of the arterial network operating at a level of service "E" or less increase, inner city local roadways will experience an increase in through traffic movements as a means of bypassing congested arterial roadway links. With increasing vehicle volumes on local roadways, the safety of non-vehicle movements and the visual

amenities of inner city residential areas will be reduced. In turn, reduced safety and visual amenities potentially may cause a reduction in property values. However, it should be recognized this may be offset, to some extent, by the creation of redevelopment potential to higher densities.

2.5 TRANSPORTATION SERVICE FOR NEW GROWTH AREAS

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At the present time, there is some justifiable criticism that newly-developing residential areas are not provided with adequate roadway and transit service to support the scale of development occurring within these areas. Although a number of factors have led to this situation, perhaps the most significant factor has been the high initial capital outlay for roadways and transit over a short period of time, which the City has been required to provide from general municipal revenues and provincial grants. Consistent with the Transportation Plan, Part I, the City was required to extend services to developing areas within municipal boundaries, while other locations requiring improvements within developed portions received little, if any, investment allocation. Furthermore, this problem was compounded, since the land use staging pattern required the provision of transportation services to developing suburban areas

on numerous fronts simultaneously. Therefore, the City's resources were spread thin in providing transportation services and, hence, the quality of such services has been inadequate in certain areas. The most obvious example has been the situation experienced in Clareview, where substantial residential growth took place, yet the City was unable to provide sufficient access into this neighbourhood when compared to the scale of development, since it was also servicing several other Outline Plan Areas at the same time. A similar situation existed in the development of Castle Downs, where limited access routes caused congestion problems on several arterials and could re-occur if development proceeds as planned in Castle Downs II, unless the staging of land use development is made more compatible with the City's ability to provide transportation services and facilities.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES As a means of attempting to alleviate or resolve the issues identified in the previous section, a series of transportation objectives and policies have been formulated. It is imperative to realize, however, these objectives and policies are not intended to represent the City's long-range transportation strategy. Rather, the

objectives and policies provide basic directions or principles for the Transportation System Plan in its efforts to develop a comprehensive, integrated transportation system, ensuring the greatest degree of compatibility with the growth strategy.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Objective 8.A To develop and maintain a transportation system which supports and enhances the City's growth strategy. Discussion This objective is a fundamental goal of the transportation system. As land use activities create a need for transportation, the objective that the transportation system support the growth strategy is a logical one. It has been noted previously that land use and transportation are closely related, with changes in one system having definite implications upon the other. Without neglecting the fact that travel demands arising from a particular land use configuration must not impose undue pressures for improvements upon the transportation system, if the land use system envisaged in the General Municipal Plan growth strategy is to be achieved, the transportation system must be capable of satisfying demands in the most efficient manner with the least amount of disruption to the adjacent land uses. Hence a key to the achievement of the growth strategy is the development of a high degree of compatibility between land use and transportation. In aid of this requirement for compatibility, the growth strategy emphasizes the decentralization of employment opportunities and increased emphasis on inner city areas for accommodating residential growth and, more specifically, the location of these employment opportunities and residential uses adjacent to transit facilities, to create opportunities for bringing jobs closer to places of residence. In doing so, this may decrease the number and length of automobile trips, with resulting positive benefits upon roadway congestion and public transit. Conversely, however, the transportation

system must ensure medium and high density residential and employment opportunities are provided with an acceptable level of transportation services, particularly transit, which are capable of accommodating travel demands efficiently. Policy 8.A.1

The City will develop a Transportation System Plan which determines the most efficient use of resources to accommodate the travel demands generated by the growth strategy. Discussion Since the growth strategy is not in itself a transportation strategy, it becomes necessary for the City to develop a supporting long-range transportation plan (Transportation System Plan), which aids in the achievement of the growth strategy by providing the necessary roadway, transit and other ancillary modes to accommodate travel demands. Given that the City has a limited source of funds with which to undertake transportation system extensions and improvements, the Transportation System Plan must identify and give priority to those extensions or improvements which are the most efficient in servicing the travel demands generated by the land use pattern and are the most cost-effective from an economic, social, environmental and service perspective. Policy 8.A.2

The City's transportation plans will provide for a fully integrated system of roadway and public transit facilities and services.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Discussion

Discussion

The General Municipal Plan growth strategy has been developed with an emphasis on the use of public transit as a means of enhancing the efficiency of the transportation system, given the adverse implications associated with a strategy encouraging automobile use. However, it is recognized that either the roadway or the transit mode may be more efficient than the other in accommodating travel demands, given certain situations. Therefore, although the Transportation System Plan has yet to be completed, it is envisaged the arterial roadway network will receive the greatest emphasis in lower density areas where transit ridership may only warrant basic service. On the other hand, in inner city areas, particularly activity centres providing areas of employment and higher density residential uses, the transit mode will receive emphasis given potentially higher ridership and the inability of the City to undertake necessary roadway improvements to satisfy demands without adversely affecting adjacent land uses. This reflects a need for automobile and transit modes to support rather than compete with each other. Aside from developing and maintaining system level integration, it is also imperative that, where necessary, the two modes are integrated physically, operationally and administratively, such that movements from one mode to another may be facilitated easily. As an example of this integration, to increase transit usage the City may choose to provide parking facilities at transit centres or LRT stations, permitting transfers from the automobile to the transit mode for completion of the trip.

The transit mode represents the best opportunity to contain the rising economic, social and environmental costs in accommodating the journey-to-work, and also makes the most efficient use of roadway capacity. As a result, the growth strategy will encourage the decentralization of office and higher density residential uses to areas within close proximity to existing light rail transit lines, in particular, station areas. In addition, such uses will also be directed to locations adjacent to roadways where a highly developed bus transit service is available. This policy is encouraged, since higher density residential and employment uses have the potential to generate a high degree of transit ridership and should have positive benefits for the entire transportation network in terms of reducing automobile congestion.

Policy 8.A.3 The City will focus higher density residential development and decentralized employment opportunities in the inner city and suburban areas upon future transit corridors or areas of high transit accessibility.

Policy 8.A.4 The City will develop and implement programs of roadway and public transit modifications, improvements and extensions, as set out in the Transportation System Plan, which will facilitate achievement of the growth strategy. Discussion

The achievement and, therefore, benefits of the City's growth strategy are inherently linked to a supporting transportation system incorporating extensions and improvements necessary to accommodate travel demands, as planned through the Transportation System Plan. In order to realize the benefits of the growth strategy, it is necessary that actual implementation programs be developed and pursued through Civic Department capital and operating programs, consistent with the land use development or redevelopment staging program.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Policy 8.A.5 Consistent with the growth strategy, the development of the City's Transportation System Plan will take into account the economic, level of service, social and environmental aspects of alternative transportation strategies. Discussion To provide a transportation system which supports the growth strategy, there are a range of strategic, system-wide transportation alternatives to be considered. With respect to the Transportation System Plan, the alternative strategies include the default or existing strategy, the auto-oriented strategy, the

transit-oriented strategy and the auto-restraint strategy (for a complete discussion of each strategy, reference should be made to the Transportation Plan, Part III, Volume I). Within transportation planning activities, all alternatives should be evaluated from the perspective of maximizing their attributes in terms of the transportation objectives of economics, service, social and environmental impacts. Hence, the preferred alternative must maximize cost-effectiveness in increasing roadway and transit efficiency and accessibility, while at the same time preventing adverse social and environmental costs, including increased community disruption, noise and air pollution levels, and decreased visual amenities. This objective is fully consistent with the quality of environment objectives of the growth strategy.

Objective 8.B To provide roadway and public transit facilities and services which achieve an acceptable level of accessibility and mobility, consistent with the overall objectives of the General Municipal Plan. Discussion Within the growth strategy, the general function of the transportation system is the provision of access to all land use activities and mobility between land use activities. The basic transportation modes which are utilized to achieve this function of accessibility and mobility are the roadway and public transit modes. Furthermore, this function of accessibility and mobility must be achieved in a manner which is consistent with the quality of urban environment objectives of the growth strategy.

Policy 8.B.1 The City will maintain a basic level of public transit service throughout the city, to ensure adequate transportation for those persons not having access to alternate modes of travel. Discussion In order to support the General Municipal Plan objectives of ensuring a high quality of life, a policy of developing and maintaining a city-wide public transit service providing for access to a wide range of opportunities for social, recreational and economic activities by all Edmonton's citizens is necessary. In this regard, transit provides a social service, ensuring mobility for those persons not having access to other

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POLICY REPORT #8

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TRANSPORTATION modes of travel or for those who, because of mental or physical handicaps, are unable to make use of other modes. Moreover, for handicapped persons, Edmonton Transit will continue to operate the Disabled Adult Transportation System and will also ensure regular bus and Light Rail Transit facilities accommodate the needs of these users. Policy 8.B.2 The City will provide a high level of public transit service to major activity centres within the city where this service will benefit the overall transportation system. Discussion

Where it is determined that public transit service offers benefits to the overall transportation system, in terms of reducing the requirement for arterial roadway investment, reducing congestion and, hence, improving the level of service on particular arterial roadways and minimizing adverse social and environmental transportation impacts upon adjacent land uses, the City should ensure the service is improved to an appropriate level warranted by these benefits. In this regard, for work trips to the Downtown or decentralized employment nodes, and also non-work trips to other major activitiy centres such as the Stadium, the Coliseum and the University of Alberta, transit usage should be emphasized. For trips to the Downtown, major capital investment in Light Rail Transit may be warranted. Also, the Transportation System Plan will assess the feasibility of a range of specific bus priority measures and park-and-ride services in conjunction with auto-restraint measures at the destination.

Policy 8.B.3 The City will provide a basic level of roadway access to approved land use developments within the city. Discussion

As an inherent transportation feature of the growth strategy, roadway access which is capable of accommodating private and, if necessary, public transit vehicles, is required to all land use developments which are components of this growth strategy. This policy is important on two scales: on a large scale respecting developing residential and industrial areas, and on a small scale for single land use developments. On the large scale, it is the intent of this policy to ensure roadway facilities are extended prior to or at least concurrent with approved land use developments within the municipal boundaries, such that situations similar to those experienced in Castle Downs and Clareview, which possess limited roadway access, are avoided in the future. Moreover, at such time as the City approves the development of a single parcel of land, this use must be provided with accessibility from a public road. Policy 8.B.4 The City will provide an arterial roadway network which has, as a primary function, the mobility of public and private vehicles within the city. Discussion

The primary function of the arterial roadway system is the mobility of private and public vehicles, such as the necessary interaction between land use activities can

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION occur. It therefore becomes necessary to remove, or at least minimize on existing roadways, and prevent on new roadways, and impediments, so this mobility may occur in the most effective and efficient manner, enhancing achievement of the growth strategy. There are numerous techniques to improve arterial roadway mobility which will be evaluated within the

activities of the Transportation System Plan and implemented where appropriate. It is important to recognize, however, the implementation of any techniques which give priority to efficient and effective mobility are not intended to improve the roadway capacity to the extent that a significant increase in traffic volumes occurs.

Objective 8.0 To develop and maintain a transportation system which supports and enhances the retention and development of a viable, strong Downtown consistent with the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan. Discussion A thrust of the General Municipal Plan development strategy is to give special emphasis to the role of the Downtown as a major land use activity centre in the city, although the detailed land use strategy for this area will be implemented through a Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan. Office development represents the primary single generator of employment in the city. Notwithstanding the objective of encouraging some decentralization of office development to activity centres outside the Downtown, a concentration of office space development will continue in the Downtown. Such a concentration of office space in the Downtown will result in significant reductions in the arterial level of service available to and within the Downtown, since many of the trips will be automobile trips. To continue to meet travel demand associated with this concentration of development will require increased investment in new and improved arterial roadways; measures will have to be adopted to reduce the impacts upon those inner city communities which these

roadways would traverse. Although the program of office decentralization is expected to draw a number of trips away from the Downtown, such a program cannot totally resolve the problem of access to the Downtown. Actual volumes will increase in spite of the decrease in the proportion of total morning peak hour trips destined for this area. Consequently, the Transportation System Plan, in conjunction with the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan, must establish a transportation system which focuses on public transit as the most efficient means of providing access to the Downtown. The public transit system focusing on the Downtown is a critical element in maintaining the vitality of the area, by accommodating the journey-to-work without increasing overall congestion, and creating extensive long-term parking demands at the expense of short-term parking. However, this emphasis on public transit for Downtown trips must be accompanied by auto-restraint measures to encourage transit use. In particular, parking controls which tend to discourage long-term parking represent an effective opportunity to promote transit usage, although a certain amount of short-term parking should be provided to ensure the Downtown is maintained as a thriving retail, cultural and recreational area.

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POLICY REPORT #8

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TRANSPORTATION Policy 8.C.1 The City will develop and maintain a high level of public transit service to and within the Downtown, including L.R.T. and express bus service and bus priority measures to reduce travel reliance on the private automobile. Discussion Given that the Downtown will remain as the primary traffic generator in the city and opportunities to implement arterial roadway improvements to permit vehicle access are rather limited without creating undesirable impacts upon adjacent land uses, public transit appears to offer the greatest benefit to the transportation system, particularly in accommodating the downtown journey-to-work. As well, transit is able to provide access for those not accessible to or capable of operating other forms of transportation. Therefore, it is imperative that the Transportation System Plan and the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan reflect this emphasis, by encouraging the development and maintenance of a high level of public transit service to and within the Downtown. This service is to be accommodated by major capital investment in Light Rail Transit, the extension of express bus service and the implementation of selective measures to extend transit priority, which will be determined through the Transportation System Plan.

Policy 8.C.2 The City will develop comprehensive policies on the supply, pricing and management of parking in the Downtown which: (a) will encourage an adequate supply of short-term parking for approved business, commercial, retail and recreational developments;

(b) will encourage a supply of long-term or employee parking which is compatible with the Transportation System Plan; and, (c) will encourage a supply of parking for residents, which reflects the role of the Downtown as the Region's principal employment, service and cultural centre, the excellent level of public transportation, and the demographic characteristics of the downtown residential population. Discussion The supply, pricing, and management of parking is an inherent component of the transportation system, which have significant implications upon travel behaviour, particularly in terms of transit usage. Also, the viability of many land use activities within the Downtown is strongly related to the provision of parking. Consequently, the logical integration of the City's transportation and land use activities requires the City to develop specific policies which deal with the supply, pricing, and management of parking, although it must be recognized that it is not within the scope of the General Municipal Plan to establish such specific policies.

Policy 8.C.3 The City will develop and maintain a plan for public and private vehicular access to and circulation within the Downtown, consistent with the Transportation System Plan and the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan, giving full consideration to maintaining the environmental, aesthetic and recreational attributes of the Downtown, to the efficient utilization of existing arterial roadways within the Downtown, and to encouraging through traffic to utilize routes outside the Downtown.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Discussion Within the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, the Downtown has been identified as an area to be maintained as the major activity centre of the City and an area which enhances the overall urban structure. However, current experience indicates this area is the focus of many of the city's perceived urban transportation problems. Therefore, it is essential this area be given special consideration within the

Transportation System Plan, in an attempt to achieve the greatest compatibility between this Plan and the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan. Consequently, any transportation system alternatives considered for this area must determine the most efficient utilization of the existing arterial roadway network for public and private vehicles, and be cognizant of maintaining the environmental, urban design, economic and recreational attributes of this highly visible area.

Objective 8.D To minimize the impact of transportation on inner city communities. Discussion Although the General Municipal Plan land use strategy is expected to create a gradual redistribution of travel demand through the decentralization of employment opportunities to dispersed areas, travel demand will continue to be focused primarily on the Downtown. As a result of the magnitude of the Downtown trips, severe impacts will continue to be imposed upon adjacent land uses, particularly inner city residential neighbourhoods. Given that two major goals of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy related to increasing densities in the inner city areas through redevelopment and improving the quality of the urban environment, the impacts of transportation facilities must be minimized to ensure the integrity and stability of these areas, enhancing their attractiveness as desirable residential locations. This is consistent with Objective 2.A, which emphasizes "preserving the essential characteristics of the environment in existing neighbourhoods which make for a humane environment. . .".

However, while the following policies reflect an attempt at improving the quality of life in the urban environment, particularly in the inner city, specific policy statements concerning the minimization of adverse impacts, particularly noise levels, are beyond the scope of the General Municipal Plan and can be dealt with more effectively in the Transportation System Plan or more specific studies. Rather, the General Municipal Plan Bylaw policies are general principles or guidelines for the Transportation System Plan, to be implemented where appropriate through District Plans and Area Redevelopment Plans, as a means of limiting the originating source of these impacts upon inner city residential communities. Policy 8.D.1 The City will investigate and implement, where feasible, measures to discourage community disruption by through commuter traffic on non-arterial roadways.

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Discussion

As previously identified, one of the major impacts upon inner city communities is through traffic bypassing congested roadway links or nodes by short-cutting along adjacent collector and local roadways. If such maneuvers are significant in number, they may increase noise levels experienced in adjacent neighbourhoods and decrease pedestrian safety, as well as visual amenities and possibly property values. Therefore, the Civic Administration should investigate and implement, where necessary, alternative means of alleviating or eliminating these movements and with them, community disruption, ensuring that non-essential through traffic utilizes the appropriate arterial network. Such mechanisms as forced turns, barriers, and road closures, as well as arterial roadway improvements have been used successfully in neighbourhoods such as the Canora Neighbourhood Improvement Area, with little adverse impacts upon accessibility to certain parts of the community or shifting traffic problems to other areas of the community. Policy 8.D.2 The City's Transportation System Plan will strive to restrict the development of new and improved transportation facilities to the periphery of communities, so as to minimize the internal disruption of existing communities. Discussion

The development of new and improved transportation routes through existing communities can create physical disruption, inhibiting community activities and detracting from the overall viability of neighbourhoods as attractive residential areas. Therefore, to minimize the social and physical impacts experienced by inner city residential communities as a result of significant roadway improvements, and to generally maintain these areas as cohesive residential units, the City will strive to

ensure such improvements are implemented on the periphery of the community rather than traversing them. It is recognized, however, that this desirable situation may not be possible in all instances, in which case appropriate mechanisms, such as noise barriers and minimal property requirements, may need to be employed to minimize the impacts to the greatest possible extent. This policy is to be implemented through the Area Redevelopment Plan or District Plan processes in those areas where transportation system improvements to accommodate the overall growth strategy are required. Policy 8.D.3 The City will strive to develop land use plans for existing communities which minimize conflicts between community activities and approved transportation facilities. Discussion

At such time as detailed plans are developed for particular inner city neighbourhoods, it is imperative the preferred land use plan be developed in a manner which is fully compatible with the Transportation System Plan. Therefore, the land use configuration should be such that those usages requiring high accessibility or generating high demands for transportation facilities shall be located adjacent to the arterial roadway network and transit focal points. Conversely, low density residential uses or other uses sensitive to transportation impacts should be situated in the interior of neighbourhoods, away from the arterial roadway network, although a minimum level of transit service should be available through these low density areas for access to transfer points or transit centres. Developing land use plans in this manner should minimize the impacts of transportation upon adjacent land uses and should maximize accessibility to the transportation system with a minimum of conflict. 8.15


POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION Objective 8.E To provide transportation facilities and services to and within new suburban development which support the approved level of development. Discussion At such time as new suburban areas are developed consistent with the growth strategy, transportation facilities are required to accommodate the demands of the approved level of development for accessibility and mobility. To avoid situations similar to those which have arisen in Clareview and Castle Downs, the necessary arterial roadway and transit plans must be established prior to approval of the Area Structure Plan. Moreover, at such time as the Area Structure Plan is submitted, the Civic Administration should assess the implications arising from the scale and type of land use development upon the transportation system adjacent to the area in question.

Policy 8.E.1 The City will develop and maintain plans for internal arterial and collector roadways and public transit as an integral activity in the preparation of an Area Structure Plan. Discussion For the design of a desirable urban structure in new areas, the internal transportation components must be planned concurrently with the land use pattern. It is the intent of this policy to ensure, firstly, that an adequate transportation system, including roadway and transit facilities and services, is provided, and secondly, that the land use configuration is compatible with the transportation system. This policy is fully consistent with the terms of reference for the preparation of Area Structure Plans.

Policy 8.E.2 The City will assess the transportation implications of alternative land use options on the city-wide transportation network, as set out in the Transportation System Plan, before approval is given for an Area Structure Plan. Discussion In conjunction with Policy 8.E.1, the Civic Administration should assess the system-wide transportation implications of alternative land use options at such time as an Area Structure Plan is prepared. This policy is intended to ensure that when a plan is prepared, the accommodation of travel demands resulting from the scale and intensity of land use development do not result in serious transportation implications upon other areas of the system, which were unforeseen at the time of plan approval. Should the travel demand assessment reveal definite implications upon other arterial routes, a decision must be made to proceed with development with or without attendant improvements, should funds be unavailable, or reduce the scale of development such that secondary implications are eliminated. The implementation of this policy through the Area Structure Plan process shall ensure the transportation network for the plan area is not developed and implemented in isolation from the remainder of the network.

Policy 8.E.3 The City will develop and maintain compatible staging programs to provide transportation facilities and services in concert with land use development in new suburban areas to ensure efficient and orderly development consistent with the transportation system.

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POLICY REPORT #8

TRANSPORTATION Discussion The City's long-range Transportation System Plan must contain specific staging programs which are compatible with the probable pattern of land use development in suburban areas. Such a staging program will ensure the requirements for transportation investment allocation

are known well in advance of the actual development of land use. Therefore, this policy should facilitate the most effective and efficient use of resources to accommodate the travel demands of development in new areas.

Objective 8.F

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To provide ancillary transportation facilities such as bikeways and pedways for functional and recreational use. Discussion Pedestrian movement and other means of short distance, specialized transportation, such as bicycles, are important modes of travel. Consequently, they should receive consideration as part of the overall transportation system, to ensure their requirements in terms of route development and maintenance, are accommodated for different types of trips. Such trips may be utilitarian or functional, special purpose trips such as the journey-to-work, shopping trips, and recreational trips, which will involve primarily trail development along the river valley and ravine system, or access to other recreational or cultural uses in a neighbourhood. This objective is consistent with the growth strategy in terms of promoting the development of a high quality urban environment.

Policy 8.F.1 The City will develop and maintain a system of pedways in the Downtown to enhance the vitality of this area.

Discussion Although pedways are important throughout the city, they should receive the highest priority in the Downtown, where the concentration of activity is such that more convenient access can be provided by this mode. Consistent with the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan, the Downtown Pedway Concept Plan shall serve as the planning framework for the development of a network of routes including weather-protected walkways, pedestrian malls, and wide sidewalks, developed at various levels. The purposes of this network of pedestrian facilities include: 1. minimizing conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles; 2. linking major functional areas and points of interest; 3. creating a safe and weather-protected pedestrian environment; and, 4. ensuring uninterrupted pedestrian movement. Moreover, a highly developed system of pedestrian routes may serve to reduce traffic congestion by providing alternate means of movement to the automobile. Also, a system of pedestrian facilities must

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POLICY REPORT #8 TRANSPORTATION be complementary to other transportation facilities which provide connections between transit stops, Light Rail Transit station areas, parking facilities, and places of work, entertainment and business.

Policy 8.F.3

Policy 8.F.2 The City will provide pedestrian facilities within residential areas to provide access to community facilities and for other uses.

Discussion

Discussion In addition to assisting in the creation of a livable environment in the Downtown, pedestrian facilities are desirable in residential areas to ensure safety of movement, as well to provide access to community amenity areas, shopping facilities, and public transit service, and for a relatively passive form of recreation. Ideally, pedestrian facilities should include grade level walkways separated from sidewalks, where such special rights-of-way may be accommodated in Area Structure or Redevelopment Plans and also, grade-separated pedestrian crossings to facilitate movements over major roadways.

The City will develop and maintain a city-wide bikeway network for both utilitarian and recreational purposes.

Similar to pedestrian facilities, bikeways are intended to serve a utilitarian purpose, providing access to community amenity areas and various commercial facilities within the neighbourhood, as well as a recreational purpose. In this regard, the Planning Department has already established a series of bikeway routes throughout much of the developed inner city areas, as a means of providing for safe utilitarian and recreational trips. As the demand for additional bikeway facilities increases, this system should continually be improved in inner city areas and, where required, should be extended to developing suburban areas.

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POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES 1.0 EXISTING SYSTEM The public utilities system includes water supply, sewage disposal, storm water runoff, solid waste disposal (including snow disposal), telephone and power facilities. The energy networks comprised of powerline and pipeline rights-of-way, and the natural gas distribution system will also be addressed in this Policy Report.

Edmonton is unique among municipalities in Canada in that, except for natural gas, the municipalilty owns the revenue-producing utilities. The monies generated from public utilities thus provide the City with an important source of revenue in addition to the municipal property tax and provincial and federal government grants.

1.1 SUBURBAN LAND SERVICING Although the plant facilities and distribution system for the city's water supply, sanitary sewer and storm sewer network are owned by the City of Edmonton, it is only in the case of industrial land servicing that the City assumes responsibility for the initial financing of trunk utility extensions. This factor has been important in the development of new residential areas because until May, 1979, the financing and construction of utility trunks and, hence, the provision of developable residential land, has been at the initiative of the development industry. Accordingly, the City of Edmonton has not been in a strong position, except through its role as the subdivision approving authority, to ensure the maintenance of an adequate supply of serviced residential land for building purposes.

The City's strategy with respect to industrial land servicing has consisted of simultaneous, orderly expansion of trunk utilities into three suburban industrial districts (Outline Plan Areas) in South, Southeast and Northwest Edmonton. In a similar manner, the City has encouraged, through district and neighbourhood planning and subdivision approvals, the expansion of housing development into six suburban districts. This pattern of land servicing and development was in response to an unprecedented demand for land in the early 1970's and to an implicit desire on the part of the City to plan and service land at a rate which would accommodate the new residential and industrial growth directed toward the City of Edmonton.

In an effort to increase the inventory of serviced land available for residential development, and thereby reduce residential lot prices, the provincial government has created a Capital Service Loan Fund to finance extensions of the trunk utility systems into new residential areas. The City of Edmonton still retains responsibility for financing construction of industrial trunk services, although the Mayor's Task Force on Industrial Land Strategy (1979) has recommended the City consider withdrawing completely from this area of responsibility within the next three to five years.

Whereas the trunk utilities component of the public utilities infrastructure is planned and constructed in advance of development, other utility operations, such as telephones, power and gas and solid waste disposal, have tended to follow the direction of new development as construction activity is initiated in new residential and industrial areas. This situation has, in the past, led to delays in the provision of certain services to new residential areas where the staging of development was largely dependent upon the initiative of the development industry. 9.1


POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES Problems associated with the provision of power, telephone and natural gas services to new residential areas have been addressed by the Task Force on Housing Costs in Edmonton (1979). As a result of this study, the following policy shifts affecting public utility planning have been approved: 1. commencing in 1980, responsibility for the design and installation of electrical power services will be transferred from the City to the development industry;

2. installation of major distribution cable for the telephone system will become the responsibility of the development industry. Edmonton Telephones will continue to splice and install accessory cables to new homes; and, 3. Northwestern Utilities Ltd. will begin to pre-service new residential subdivisions with natural gas services.

1.2 INNER CITY SERVICING PROGRAMS The Municipal Taxation Act requires that municipalities assume responsibility for the maintenance and operation of the water, storm sewer and sanitary sewer collection and distribution systems following the completion of land servicing. Consequently, the City of Edmonton is responsible for financing any upgrading of systems improvements made necessary because of the approval of land redevelopment proposals by City Council. 1.3 ENERGY NETWORKS

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The revenues expended to undertake these improvements are funded through user rates for the water system and the sanitary sewer system, through the general tax levy for the storm sewer system, and are programmed to the operating budgets of the civic utility departments on the basis of priorities identified through ongoing monitoring programs.

POWERLINES AND PIPELINES

The Edmonton Metropolitan Region is centrally located with respect to Alberta's coal deposits and oil and gas fields. It is also the location of major thermal power facilities. The City of Edmonton is consequently ringed

and traversed by major powerlines and pipelines which distribute power and petroleum products to local and provincial destinations and beyond.

2.0 ISSUES The following land use related issues have been identified relative to present trends in planning and

provision of public utility services and pipeline and powerline energy networks.

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POLICY REPORT #9

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UTILITIES 2.1 SUBURBAN TRUNK UTILITIES Costs The City's present development strategy, providing for simultaneous residential and industrial development on several fronts, has permitted a wide range of locational choice in the residential, commercial and industrial land markets. However, this pattern of development has been costly in that services have had to be extended to all areas at once rather than a more economical concentration of development activity in a limited number of areas. Present development trends, characterized by low density suburban expansion, have also meant utility services have had to be extended over greater areas, at increased cost to the municipal budget and the taxpayer. The capital costs associated with the provision of trunk utility extensions to new and industrial areas require a substantial commitment by the parties who must finance the cost of construction. This factor has been acknowledged by recent committees such as the Housing Task Force, as a constraint to the initiation of massive trunk servicing programs required to open up new residential and industrial,areas, and to participation by smaller development corporations in the land development process. Action has been taken by the Province of Alberta to alleviate the financial constraints of servicing new residential areas, through the provision of a $300 million Capital Service Loan Fund to municipalities and land developers to initiate residential trunk servicing

programs. However, the substantial capital requirements to undertake industrial trunk servicing remain a concern to the City of Edmonton. Consequently, the City has requested a joint City/Development Industry Advisory Committee on Industrial Land examine the costs and benefits of alternate methods of financing industrial trunk services, including the implications of the City withdrawing from this area of responsibility in the next three to five years. Land Supply

The residential land development guidelines contained in the Local Policy Plan (1980 1984) have projected that, with the exception of the North Edmonton Area Strucutre Plan (Castle Downs II), extension of trunk utility services will have been completed to all existing residential areas within the existing City boundary by 1984 (see Map 9.1). Furthermore, to accommodate the expected demand for residential lots, other "unspecified areas" within the Annexation Area, proposed in 1979 by the City, have been designated for development. The Plan also projects trunk services will be provided to approximately 121 to 141 net hectares (300 to 350 net acres) of industrial land annually, which will open up a large proportion of the remaining developable land in the city's Industrial Outline Plan Areas (see Map 9.2). -

These projections indicate there is an immediate need for annexation of additional land, for planning and servicing to satisfy long-range urban land development and growth requirements of the City of Edmonton.

2.2 INNER CITY TRUNK UTILITIES Although the city utility departments regularly monitor the operation of trunk utilities in the inner city to determine requirements for system upgrading or relief, it is difficult to predict confidently the impact which isolated rezoning proposals will have on the operation

of trunk services, in particular, the storm and sanitary sewer network. As a result, the City may, in certain circumstances, be faced with the prospect of undertaking unexpected, costly upgrading of segments of the system to accommodate redevelopment. 9.3


POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES This problem is reinforced by the inability of the present neighbourhood planning approach to address fundamental issues, such as redevelopment potential on a city-wide basis, and to anticipate requirements for utility system upgrading at a broad level. As a rule, in areas of the inner city which have been or are presently involved in detailed planning programs, expenditures

on trunk utilities relief can be projected and programmed in an efficient manner in conjunction with detailed land use studies. Conversely, utilities planning in other areas of the inner city is subject to greater uncertainty, given the absence of detailed criteria to evaluate isolated redevelopment proposals.

2.3 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL There is a scarcity of designated sites to accommodate the long-range requirements of the Edmonton Sub-region for solid waste disposal facilities, including

snow disposal. The absence of operating standards for these facilities is also of concern to the City of Edmonton.

2.4 ENERGY NETWORKS- POWERLINES AND PIPELINES There is a need for development of referral procedures between the City and pipeline/powerline companies, to ensure all energy rights-of-way avoid the unnecessary fragmentation of developable land parcels and are

properly integrated with future subdivision designs. At the same time, definitive setback standards are required to guide the location of buildings on land parcels which abut the boundary of a pipeline right-of-way.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 9.A To undertake improvements to the utilities infrastructure in the inner city on the basis of priorities established through the District Planning Program. Discussion The District Planning Program will address fundamental issues, such as redevelopment potential and the provision of support services and facilities on a city-wide basis. In this manner, it will be possible to provide clear policy direction to the planning and provision of utility systems in the inner city through the co-ordination of land use and utilities planning.

Policy 9.A.1 The City will prepare the Local Policy Plan to ensure that priorities established for water and sanitation system improvements in the inner city are based upon the recommendations of the District Planning Program. Discussion It is an objective of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy to increase the amount of future residential

9.4


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POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES development directed to the existing developed residential areas of the city. The major thrust of this policy shift is to promote a dispersed pattern of selective redevelopment in older communities, emphasizing family oriented housing, and recognizing the scale and character of existing development. In this manner, the City will be able to maintain and perhaps enhance the quality and vitality of the environment in residential districts of the inner city.

The General Municipal Plan has proposed the introduction of a District Planning process to ensure the inner city redevelopment policies of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy are implemented in an effective, sensitive and equitable manner. The identification of utility service program spending priorities, in concert with the District Planning process, is therefore essential to ensure the success of the residential development strategy for the inner city.

Objective 9.B To examine alternate methods of financing industrial land servicing in the City of Edmonton. Discussion

The Local Policy Plan (1980 1984) projects that capital expenditures on major utility projects will account for an average of 49.1% of overall City expenditures during the next five years. The effects of capital intensive projects, such as the Genesee Power Plant and a major expansion of the E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant in particular, will be felt in 1983 when utilities are projected to account for over 70% of the City's capital expenditures. In light of the impact of utility project costs on the municipal budget, there is merit in examining alternate methods of financing trunk service extensions, particularly in the city's industrial areas where the initial costs of major trunk utilities are borne by the City of Edmonton. -

Policy 9.B.1 In accordance with the recommendation of the Mayor's Task Force on Industrial Land Strategy (1979), the City will explore the feasibility and implications of withdrawing completely from the financing and construction of industrial trunk services in the next three to five years.

Discussion

The industrial land servicing program undertaken by the City of Edmonton has endeavoured to maintain a three year supply of serviced industrial land for building purposes in the city. In carrying out this program, the City of Edmonton has provided exceptionally high standards of industrial servicing, at significant cost to the municipal budget. For example, the Water and Sanitation Department estimates the average cost of servicing IB or IM industrial land with trunk and lateral water, storm and sanitary sewer pipes, to be in the order of $27,000 per net acre. While the City's servicing strategy has attempted to maintain an adequate inventory and variety of sizes and types of industrial land at competitive prices, the results of land availability and cost surveys undertaken by the City's Business Development Department indicate the industrial land servicing program has been unsuccessful in achieving these objectives. In March, 1978, studies showed that more than 60% of the City's inventory of serviced industrial land was being withheld from development for business expansion, land speculation or other reasons. Further, the cost of industrial land in Edmonton was and has remained substantially higher than costs in other industrial areas outside of the City, despite the ambitious servicing programs that have been undertaken. 9.7


POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES On the basis of these findings, there is justification for the initiation of a study to examine the appropriateness of the present standard of servicing provided to industrial areas, as well as the cost and benefits of

alternate arrangements for financing industrial trunk services, including further study of developer servicing of industrial areas.

Objective 9.0 To incorporate and market input in the development of utility servicing plans for new areas of the City.

Policy 9.C.1 The City of Edmonton will utilize Sector Studies, incorporating financial and market .considerations, to establish priorities for the preparation of land use and utility service plans for future residential and industrial areas.

for competition and locational choice in the residential and industrial land markets will be considered in establishing priorities for the preparation of Area Structure Plans. The initiation of Sector Studies will thus provide a means of incorporating financial and market criteria to establish policies directing the provision of utility systems and the staging of land development.

Policy 9.C.2 Discussion As previously discussed, the provision of utility services to undeveloped land requires substantial financial resources on the part of groups who must finance their construction. For this reason, major utility facilities, such as water treatment and power plants and trunk sewer pipes, often require substantial lead time to allow for efficient programming of capital payments. To provide for efficient planning and programming of expenditures for major utility improvements, it is proposed that Sector Studies be undertaken simultaneously for future residential and industrial areas annexed to the City of Edmonton. These studies will include a general examination of municipal expenditures required to service new growth areas with trunk utilities, roadway and transit facilities and other ancillary support services. As well, other objectives, such as maintaining an adequate inventory of developable land and encouraging opportunities

The City will approve proposals for non-contiguous development made at the time of subdivision approval if the developer can demonstrate that any additional costs will not result in a significant additional financial burden to the City or that he is prepared to assume the additional costs himself; and secondly, that the applicant agree to any design provisions which may be requested by the City utility departments to ensure reliable service is provided to the area. Discussion The Sector Studies to be undertaken by the City will examine the costs associated with servicing new growth areas as a basis for the selection of areas for the preparation of Area Structure Plans. At the Area Structure Plan stage, a strategy for the staging of land servicing and developemnt will be formulated together with a schedule of municipal expenditures required to carry out that program.

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POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES The Sector Studies, and staging programs contained in the Area Structure Plan, will generally be based upon a contiguous pattern of land development and will be used as a guide for the future servicing and development of new residential and industrial areas. They will also serve as a basis of comparison to estimate the additional costs of allowing the non-contiguous development at the neighbourhood structure plan or subdivision level. Provision for non-contiguous development is contained in the General Municipal Plan to encourage competition

in the development industry and to ensure a sufficient supply of serviced residential and industrial land is available for development purposes. However, to ensure this pattern of land development does not impose undue financial burden upon the City or result in a decline in the reliability of electrical and telephone services, the condition is stated that approval of non-contiguous development operations will be contingent upon the developer assuming any additional costs and incorporating any requests by the utility departments for the provision of back-up services.

Objective 9.D To give consideration to mechanisms of reducing standards in utility servicing without compromising efficiency or health and safety objectives.

Policy 9.D.1 The City will implement the recommendations from recent reviews of servicing standards for residential and industrial land, such as the Housing Task Force recommendations and those from the Mayor's Advisory Committee on Industrial Land, as approved by City Council.

Discussion

The Task Force on Housing Costs in Edmonton (1979) and the Mayor's Advisory Committee on Industrial Land Strategy (1979) have concluded there are opportunities to stabilize the price of housing and cost of industrial land through the adoption of more flexible servicing standards for residential and industrial land. It is, therefore, recommended that the City give consideration to greater use of storm water management techniques and more flexible design standards in future residential and industrial areas, as suggested by the review committees.

Objective 9.E To develop a strategy to address the location and operating standards of future solid waste disposal sites.

Policy 9.E.1 Contingent upon the availability of sufficient land, the City will work to develop a strategy to centralize the location of future solid waste disposal facilities on a regional basis and to establish appropriate site management standards for their operation.

Discussion

Solid waste disposal constitutes a problem for many rural and urban municipalities in the Edmonton Sub-region, because of the scarcity of suitable sites, public opposition to the establishment of sites, and the visual and environmental impacts associated with their operation. Accordingly, there is a need to designate and protect future sites for waste disposal on a regional scale, as well as to establish appropriate standards for their operation. 9.9


POLICY REPORT #9 UTILITIES Objective 9.F To designate permanent sites for snow disposal activities in the city. Policy 9.F.1 The City shall take action to acquire sites and develop operating standards for permanent snow disposal yards in the city's industrial areas, and at locations in the Restricted Development Area, including the North Saskatchewan River Valley, upon receipt of approval from the Minister of Environment.

Discussion Existing snow disposal sites are temporarily located on City-owned or privately owned sites which will only remain available for snow disposal until the land is developed for other purposes. With the potential long-term loss of usable sites to other uses, and the limited number of alternate sites, there is a need to establish permanent snow disposal locations as well as develop standards of operation to ensure these activities do not impose any adverse impacts upon the districts in which they are situated.

Objective 9.G To ensure that the alignment of future pipeline and powerline rights-of-way avoids the unnecessary fragmentation of land and provides adequate buffering from existing and proposed residential and industrial areas. Policy 9.G.1 In responding to referrals from the Energy Resources Conservation Board and National Energy Board regarding pipeline and powerline projects within the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, the City will request that future projects remain well removed from the urban area within exclusive transportation/utility corridors, such as the Restricted Development Area. Policy 9.G.2 The City will, in consultation with the pipeline companies and Provincial and Federal energy agencies, establish guidelines for subdivisions adjacent to pipeline rights-of-way, which direct the manner in which the pipeline shall be incorporated in a plan of subdivision as well as establish setback standards for buildings situated on parcels adjacent to a pipeline right-of-way.

Discussion Many difficulties are encountered in attempting to establish a policy framework for powerline and pipeline projects. For instance, the potential dangers and hazards of transmitting certain types of energy and chemical products in close proximity to each other are unknown, although signs of problems are emerging. Municipal control over transmission corridors is restricted because jurisdiction over energy network location belongs to the Energy Resources Conservation Board, thereby limiting municipal influence to reacting to proposals. Several other problems exist in the maintenance of lines and the way in which urban development affects the integrity of lines. For safety purposes, energy transmission corridors should be isolated from the public. The degree of isolation will vary with the potential danger associated with the matter transmitted or transported. In addition, lines within corridors must be separated, not only to protect the integrity of each individual line but also for maintenance, inspection, and the containment and correction of any problems. 9.10

• • • • •


POLICY REPORT #9

• •

• • • •

UTILITIES Safety precautions taken to ensure the separation or isolation of energy networks generally lead to a more extensive use of land and often have the effect of creating inefficient land use patterns and greater accident hazards. For instance, the fragmentation of areas of potential urban expansion by numerous separate or "exclusive" corridors hinders the ability to design cost and energy-efficient subdivision patterns. With development in proximity to these corridors, there is an increased possibility of accidental pipeline rupture or damage during construction of roads and urban utilities.

Area (R.D.A.) surrounding Edmonton is seen as an important location for future energy, transportation and utility networks. However, given the highly intensive use of the R.D.A. proposed to-date, the capacity of it as a corridor is now under evaluation. Therefore, it is likely other corridors will be required. Policy 9.G.1 acknowledges the role which these other corridors might be required to fulfill. Policy 9.G.2, however, stresses that some guidelines are required for urban subdivision adjacent to powerlines and pipelines. A process which involves discussions and co-operation with the oil industry is proposed.

It is primarily for these reasons that it is desirable to locate new pipelines or powerlines outside of the urban and urban fringe areas. The Restricted Development

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POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY 1.0 INTRODUCTION The demand for parks and recreation facilities in Edmonton has grown substantially over the last several years. The rapid growth of the city's population, together with trends toward fewer hours of work, earlier retirements, and rising incomes, has increased the demand for recreation opportunities. Recreation demands are not only growing but they are changing and becoming more diversified, extending beyond the general provision of parks, athletic fields, pools and arenas, to include requests for specialized cultural facilities and programs, and new amenities such as all-terrain vehicle sites, racquetball and squash courts and skateboard parks. While there has been extensive development of major recreation facilities in Edmonton over the last several years to meet these growing and changing demands, there is still much to be done in the provision of district and neighbourhood parks, recreation facilities, and services. A large portion of the existing parks and recreation facilities lie in the river valley and ravine system, which provides a spectacular feature of the natural environment made up of approximately 3,200 hectares (8,000 acres) of land, through which the river extends 45 kilometers (24 miles) within the corporate limits of the city, offering Edmontonians and the residents of the Region a unique recreation and scenic resource. The recreational potential of the river valley has been enhanced over the years by the City and the provincial government, particularly with the development of the Capital City Recreation Park. The City has long acknowledged the importance of the river valley and ravine system, and has had a long history of land acquisition policies in this area for the purposes of developing a continuous, open space system and as a means of ensuring environmental protection. The first such policy was introduced in 1907 and since then has been continually refined, including additional details for more positive action in achieving the objectives.

In 1933, the river valley was zoned as a public park by the City, and through this zoning category, land use regulations were imposed upon all river valley lands. In 1949, the river valley policy further evolved with a recommendation for the long-term acquisition of private property for the provision of a "comprehensive system of park space" throughout the river valley. In 1979, City Council adopted "top-of-the-bank" policy recommendations, whereby boundaries of the river valley and ravine system were defined and regulations regarding developments in proximity to the system were prescribed. In 1971, the General Plan Bylaw gave, for the first time, legal authority to river valley policy objectives, in particular, the need for environmental protection and designation of lands for long range acquisition for future parks development. The Parks Master Plan, 1970-80, recommended a policy of eventual acquisition of lands for parks and environmental purposes, introduced a "River Valley Parks Development Plan", and prescribed requirements for building setbacks from the valley boundary. In 1972, the Preliminary Edmonton Regional Plan, Metropolitan Part, zoned most of the river valley and ravine system as Metropolitan Recreational land, which supported the City's parks policy in terms of permitted land uses, since the Provincial Planning Act required that General Plan bylaws and zoning bylaws be in conformity with any Preliminary Regional Plan or Regional Plan. In 1975, Council further reiterated its river valley policy in a series of five directives which: 1. reaffirmed objectives concerning land acquisition for parks and environmental purposes; 2. supported the continued existence of Cloverdale, Lavigne and Rossdale, as long as they remain viable; and,

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POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY 3. instructed the Planning Department to prepare development scheme bylaws for the river valley, creating a public metropolitan recreation zone and, for the preservation and rehabilitation of the Riverdale community. In response to City Council's 1975 directives and the increasing concern shown by the public regarding the protection and development of the river valley, the Planning Department prepared an initial draft of an Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw for the North Saskatchewan River Valley. The two objectives of this draft Bylaw are:

2. the preservation of the river valley and ravine system

as an environmental protection area. Essentially, this Bylaw is intended to control the use and development of lands within the river valley and ravine system. Aside from the draft River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, which has yet to be approved by Council, the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83, and the General Municipal Plan also provide principles, guidelines and policies and programs necessary to ensure the City achieves its goals and objectives for parks and recreation. -

1. the acquisition of land in the river valley and ravine system for public park purposes; and, 1.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PARKS AND RECREATION MASTER PLAN, 1979-83, AND THE GENERAL MUNICIPAL PLAN The recently approved Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83, is essentially a five-year implementation plan linked to the budgeting process of the Parks and Recreation Department. It provides a review of current recreational philosophy, an inventory of existing parks and recreation services and facilities, projected future demand for such services and facilities and a detailed set of guidelines and standards for the development of open space and recreation facilities and programs. The specific recommendations for such facility and program needs are reflected in the five-year capital and operating budgeting program, which priorizes the demand for -

1979 83. -

1. that neighbourhood parks receive greater budgetary emphasis in terms of new park developments, upgrading of parks and intensification of park development; and, 2. that more emphasis be placed on encouraging community involvement and assisting communities in providing for their own recreation needs, rather than the City providing a greater number of direct recreation opportunities. A number of concerns and issues with regard to parks and recreation in the city have been addressed in the recommendations of the Parks Master Plan, 1979 83. These recommendations are outlined as follows: -

Although the Parks Master Plan, 1979 83, addresses a number of concepts for improving the level of service provided to the public, two basic concepts were identified as key elements in the preparation of action programs. These key concepts are: -

1. improve parks and recreation facilities in inner city neighbourhoods;

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• • • • • • •


POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY 2. provide more parks and open space in the Downtown; 3. ensure better staging of development, and greater variety in suburban parks and recreation facilities; 4. ensure the effective management of the river valley and ravine system as an environmental protection and public park area; and, 5. meet the increased demand for parks and recreation facilities throughout the city through: (a) increased utilization of community resources; (b) expanded role of the development industry in the provision of parks and recreation facilities; (c) improved parks and recreation planning; and, (d) continued provincial government funding. The General Municipal Plan is an umbrella policy statement that provides longer term parks policies, which essentially provide the framework for the implementation of the more detailed policies in the Parks Master Plan, consistent with the growth strategy. The General Municipal Plan growth strategy has implications for the planning of parks and recreation facilities in the city, emphasizing more compact growth and development as well as environmental quality. In this regard, the growth strategy recommends placing greater emphasis on accommodating new residential

development in the inner city, primarily through an increase in multi-family housing in the older neighbourhoods and high-rise apartments in the Downtown. Therefore, this strategy should result in an increase in the number of childless households living in the Downtown. This, in turn, will aggravate the existing problem of neighbourhood park deficiency in the inner city and will require corresponding improvements in the parks and recreation amenities provided in these areas. Due to the implications of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy upon the quality of urban life, park space is regarded as an important component in enhancing the livability and overall quality of a compact environment. Thus, the General Municipal Plan parks policies reflect an emphasis on park space acquisition and priorities for park space development. At the more detailed level, the Parks Master Plan, 1979 83, reflects a priority on the development of more neighbourhood park space in the suburbs. However, it is anticipated that by the mid-1980's there will be an increased need for a shift in emphasis to park space provision and development in the Downtown and those inner city areas designated for redevelopment under District Plans. Therefore, in order to support the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, parks and recreation budgeting and resource allocation should reflect the thrust of District Plans to provide additional amenities in areas where redevelopment is likely to result in increased park space deficiencies. -

2.0 ISSUES 2.1 INADEQUATE PARK SPACE ALLOCATION

A major problem with respect to parks and recreation facilities concerns the inadequate provision of general park space in the inner city and the uneven allocation of park space in suburban areas.

The inner city, particularly the Downtown, is characterized by the greatest intensity of daily activity in Edmonton, yet has proportionately less open space than any other area in the city. The problem of inadequate 10.3


POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY provision of park space in this area is due to the fact that many inner city neighbourhoods were developed before open space standards were in effect. Moreover, the trend toward higher density redevelopment is placing more pressure on the existing limited facilities, and the high cost of inner city land requires the expenditure of considerable funds to acquire land for even a small park. Finally, the lack of vacant land in the inner city necessitates the demolition of existing buildings to create a park, giving rise to a conflict between the need to conserve older housing and the need for parks and recreation facilities. Given high land costs, shortages of suitable available land, and higher density redevelopment pressures, it will be exceedingly difficult to alleviate this problem.

In suburban areas, land use planning practices have tended to concentrate open space into large central sites, primarily in connection with school sites. However, this concentration of park space does not permit the development of neighbourhood parks. If park space could be more evenly distributed to a number of smaller parks, this would contribute to a neighbourhood's visual attractiveness and provide recreation areas that are safe and accessible to young children. These benefits, however, do not come without disadvantages, such as expensive maintenance costs, the loss of integrated park space, and the potential loss of a central focus for the neighbourhood.

2.2 PARK SPACE DEVELOPMENT To offset the problems of park deficiency and limited funds in alleviating the park space deficiency problem, future park space strategy may have to emphasize the quality of park development as well as the quantity of park space. In this regard, where it may not be possible to increase the quantity of park space in inner city areas, improvements to existing facilities may encourage greater utilization of existing park areas.

In the suburbs, the problem of park space provision has been created by the rapid growth of residential subdivisions in the city. This, coupled with the problems of limited funds, has meant that neighbourhood parks in new suburbs are sometimes developed a few years after the initial development of the neighbourhoods, in which case residents locating at the time of initial development are not provided with parks and recreation facilities.

2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE RIVER VALLEY AND RAVINE SYSTEM The draft River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan has been prepared to provide guidelines for the control of land use and development in the river valley, to ensure the river valley objectives can be accomplished. The challenge will be to successfully resolve the conflicts between the objective of protecting the river valley and its ravines, and the use of these areas for such purposes as transportation, utilities, and residential development. Unfortunately, the various land uses exist mainly in prime parklands and, in some instances, create a barrier to the development of the intended continuous parks and open space system. Other land use activities are

detrimental to the environmental quality of the river valley. Moreover, the river valley and ravine system has environmental constraints, due to natural processes such as soil erosion, which may limit the type of development permitted. Other areas have the danger of bank instability, either due to physical developments on the already unstable banks, or due to natural processes which make it dangerous to allow any development in particular areas. As well, some residential communities within the river valley are situated on flood plains. 10.4


• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY Given the problems noted above, it is imperative the General Municipal Plan establish the framework for the implementation of a comprehensive approach to the provision of parks and recreation facilities throughout

the city, as well as for the protection of the North Saskatchewan river valley and ravine system environment.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES In developing the objectives and policies which are contained herein, the Planning Department acknowledges they reflect the recommendations of the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979-83, and the "River Valley Study" (1974), approved by Council, as well as the parks objectives and principles of the 1971

Edmonton General Plan. Moreover, river valley objectives and policies have drawn heavily upon the draft North Saskatchewan River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, although it is recognized this Bylaw has not, yet, been approved by Council.

Objective 10.A To implement the Parks and Recreation Master Plan in a manner which is supportive of the General Municipal Plan land use strategy. Discussion Since the focus of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy is on slightly increasing residential density and creating a more compact distribution of people without eroding the quality of life, parks and recreation facilities must reflect this focus if concerns with the quality of the urban environment are to be dealt with systematically and thoroughly. There are no major inconsistencies between the General Municipal Plan and the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979-83. However, by the mid-1980's, it is foreseen that, with the implementation of the growth strategy, the emphasis of future Parks and Recreation Master Plans, with respect to park space acquisition and development priorities, will have to be shifted to the Downtown and those areas of the inner city which will be designated for redevelopment.

Policy 10.A.1 The City will utilize the Parks and Recreation Master Plan as the implementation mechanism for the parks portion of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, and will adjust it as necessary in response to ongoing evaluation of development trends. Discussion By recognizing the role which parks can play in upgrading the quality of the urban environment, particularly the residential environment, park space acquisition and development priorities can be tied to the various development and growth accommodation objectives of the General Municipal Plan, such as encouraging inner city neighbourhoods and the Downtown to accommodate more residential development. In this regard, the Parks and Recreation Master Plan will reflect the development priorities of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy by ensuring parks facilities are provided consistent with the timing of development.

10.5


POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY Policy 10.A.2

Discussion

The City will emphasize the acquisition and development of parkland in inner city neighbourhoods after 1984, particularly those designated for redevelopment, and will ensure that such emphasis is reflected in revisions to the Parks and Recreation Master Plan.

Park space is important to both the working population as well as residents of a residential community. As the primary activity centre, the Downtown has always been faced with park space deficiency. Since a key component of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy proposes an increase in the number of housing units in the Downtown, it is, therefore, important that environmental improvements, including additional park provision, be undertaken in those areas of the Downtown designated for residential development. As well, those areas of the Downtown which have been identified for mixed use development should also be provided with park space to complement and enhance their functions.

Discussion

It has been identified and acknowledged that there is currently a general deficiency of neighbourhood parks throughout the city. Since the city has a relatively high acreage of district and city-wide parks, and it is anticipated there will be increased redevelopment in inner city neighbourhoods where larger scale park development is not possible due to high land costs and limited availability of land, future budget priorities should be allocated to the development of neighbourhood parks. It is anticipated that, with the implementation of the growth strategy, the rate of inner city population decline will slow down, population densities will stabilize, and an urgent need for public space in those areas of the inner city designated for redevelopment will result. This policy will be implemented after 1984, since the priority for the 1980 to 1984 period is on suburban neighbourhood park development. In addition, if inner city park land acquisition is to be undertaken strategically, it should be based on recommendations evolving out of the District Planning process.

Policy 10.A.3

The amount of park and open space development in the Downtown is dependent both upon the financial capability of the City and on legal instruments or incentive programs that require or encourage the development industry to provide open space. High and rapidly rising land prices in the Downtown seriously limit the purchasing power of the City's parks and recreation funds. For this reason, a greater responsibility should be placed on the development industry in the future, to develop parks and recreation facilities in the central area. Developers and commercial establishments should be required to undertake development of open space and beautification projects in the Downtown through local improvement levies or the redevelopment levy after the adoption of the Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan. This policy is consistent with the Parks Master Plan, 1979 83. -

The City will, after 1984, have as its second priority for park space acquisition and development, the Downtown area.

10.6


CITY LEVEL

• • • • • • •

IIMI DISTRICT LEVEL

I= NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL NM SCHOOL GROUNDS

MAP 10.1 PARKLAND DISTRIBUTION


• • • • •

• •

POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY The City's efforts to improve parks and open space in the Downtown should include planning, designing, and possible funding of open space development. Several alternative ways of increasing both passive and active recreational space in the Downtown area should be considered as well. Approaches, such as developing small permanent or temporary parks on vacant, leased or city-owned land and the utilization of "roof top" spaces, may be suitable alternatives. The comprehensive Downtown Area Redevelopment Plan will assist in the future improvement of parks and open space in this area, through the establishment of detailed policies for the provision of downtown parks and open space, outlining methods for land acquisition and development. Policy 10.A.4 The City will impose a redevelopment levy to assist in the acquisition of land for parks and schools in areas undergoing redevelopment within the city through the adoption of Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaws. Discussion

The Planning Act, 1977, provides for the imposition of a redevelopment levy in areas undergoing redevelopment, as a means of collecting funds for the imposed acquisition of land for parks, schools, and new or expanded recreation facilities. Before the levy is imposed, however, an Area Redevelopment Plan for a neighbourhood, community or district must be adopted by City Council. In this regard, the redevelopment levy will have a fairly immediate impact on several older inner city areas which are currently deficient in park space and for which Area Redevelopment Plans are being prepared, and thus assist in alleviating this deficiency.

By altering the original development to higher density, there will be a need to offset the loss of private amenities with public amenities. Such situations are legitimate for the imposition of the levy. Notwithstanding the contributions which may be received through the redevelopment levy, the impact of the levy likely will not be so significant as to eliminate requirements for other funds for land acquisition. Policy 10.A.5 Given emphasis in the other areas outlined above, the City will allocate proportionately less priority to suburban parks development after 1984. Discussion

Since it is anticipated District Plans will be complete by 1983, appropriate policy shifts, such as increased inner city redevelopment, will be initiated and hence, will require a shift in the emphasis on park development to the inner city. After 1984, parks provision and development in the new suburbs will be the responsibility of the development industry. Policy 10.A.6 The City will investigate alternative arrangements of suburban parks and their locations to inject more variety into new residential environments in a way which meets park needs. Discussion

Recent land use planning practices have tended to concentrate open space in new subdivisions into large central sites, primarily in conjunction with school sites. This type of centralized community park site has the advantages of providing:

10.8


POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY 1. integrated recreation facilities in one area; 2. a focal point for community gatherings; and, 3. larger parks which are relatively cheaper, especially in terms of maintenance. However, they also have the disadvantages of: 1. a lack of convenient access for small children; 2. a problem of safety for younger children; and, 3. a lack of visual attractiveness in neighbourhoods, resulting from an absence of a park setting. A more even distribution of park space throughout the neighbourhood, such as the provision of a number of smaller parks would contribute to its visual attractiveness and provide recreation areas that are safe and accessible for young children. These benefits, however, do not come without disadvantages, including higher maintenance costs, the loss of integrated park usage, and the loss of a central neighbourhood focus. In light of the advantages and disadvantages of different park designs and arrangements, the City has undertaken a preliminary study to determine the ability of alternative park developments to meet different parks and recreation needs of different communities and user groups. However, further study of the preliminary results is required prior to any shift in current design practice. Policy 10.A.7

The City will encourage and/or require the provision of recreational space on the site or within the complex of comprehensively designed medium and high density projects, particularly within or in proximity to major activity centres for commercial developments, in

accordance with recommendations outlined in statutory plans or urban design handbooks. Discussion

In addition to the provision of park space as separate and distinct land use parcels, the provision of recreational space as a component of developments can be important to meeting active and passive recreational demands. Recreational space within developments can take many different forms, such as "tot lot" or playground areas within multiple unit residential projects, to "roof top" tracks or tennis courts on office towers within the downtown area. The provision of recreational space in this manner is likely to be most beneficial in proximity to major activity centres where land costs severely restrict the ability of the City to acquire land for exclusive recreational usage. Within residential areas, the provision of on-site recreational facilities is likely to be most beneficial in larger scale multiple unit developments designed for child-rearing families. Policy 10.A.8 The City will continue to require dedication of a 10 percent municipal reserve, or money in lieu of reserve, for park space in industrial areas at the time of subdivision, in accordance with the Planning Act, 1977. Discussion

Park space within industrial areas is important to the manner in which recreational needs are met in the city. Several types of recreational needs (such as major athletic grounds, general fitness centres, or night-time sporting activities) are and can be met most appropriately by park development in industrial areas due to the separation of industrial areas from residential areas.

10.9


POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY The land for park space in industrial areas is obtained through the reserve land dedication requirements of the Planning Act, 1977. Reserve land, or money in lieu, should continue to be required as part of the

subdivision process. According to the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83, such lands will be developed by the developer and property owners in the future. -

Objective 10.B To optimize the potential use of existing parks and recreation facilities. Discussion A considerable number of facilities for parks and recreation already exist in developed areas. However, there is some concern these facilities may not be used to their maximum potential. Given the financial difficulty of continued expansion of the parks budget, the growth strategy should strive to allocate redevelopment in such a way as to encourage the greater utilization of parks facilities, by organizing medium and higher density development adjacent to facilities and open space, and by ensuring facilities are easily accessible and attractive to a greater number of people. Policy 10.B.1 The City will emphasize upgrading and improving the quality of existing park facilities.

Discussion This policy is mainly directed toward the inner city areas where land acquisition for parks has been and will likely continue to be constrained, due to the high cost and limited availability of land, and the City's objective of preserving existing housing stock. It is, therefore, likely that open space deficiencies in many of the inner city neighbourhoods will not necessarily be relieved by simply adding to the open space inventory. Given the limited ability of the City to add to open space inventories in the inner city, it is likely that recreational needs will be met through improved and more intensively developed neighbourhood oriented facilities, providing a broader range of recreation opportunities for a greater number of people. Such improvements are considered to be significant to the implementation of the growth strategy. By improving the quality of park space through increased land acquisition and more intensive park development, the attractiveness of inner city areas should be increased.

Objective 10.0 To require the delegation of responsibility to the development industry and to encourage the involvement of citizens in parks and recreational services and facility developments. Discussion The desired shift in the responsibility of services and facility development to the private sector was initiated

by the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83. The rationale for this objective is three-fold. Firstly, the municipal financial situation requires that the City no longer continue to assume full responsibility for provision of a broad range of parks and recreation services. Thus, the development industry and local citizen groups will have to play a more important role -

10.10


POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY in the provision of parks and recreation opportunities. Secondly, the thrust towards increased citizen participation support increases the responsibility and authority citizens have for their environment and for providing their own services. Thirdly, delegating responsibility to the development industry and involving citizens in providing parks and recreation servces will result in greater variety and greater freedom of choice, a desirable objective which is consistent with overall municipal goals.

Policy 10.C.1 The City will delegate the responsibility for the development of neighbourhood park sites to the development industry through the Standard Residential Servicing Agreement. Discussion Presently, the majority of land for parks in new subdivisions is dedicated by the developer in accordance with requirements of the Planning Act, 1977, and the City develops the parks when funds are available. In some cases, only a playground is available five or six years after construction of a neighbourhood has commenced. Even when funds are available, the City usually has to wait until the population in the subdivison has reached a threshold required to make parks development economical, which, in most instances, is approximately two to three years.

Therefore, the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83, has recommended that the current Standard Residential Servicing Agreement include a provision whereby the developer is responsible for the full development of neighbourhood school and park sites and boulevard tree planting on streets in new subdivisions. -

Policy 10.C.2

The City will increase the involvement of local communities in developing and implementing parks and recreation services. Discussion Since local communities may have a sound knowledge of community recreation needs, the General Municipal Plan, consistent with the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83, recommends that community leagues undertake the construction of their own facilities. The General Municipal Plan recognizes, however, that municipal funds will have to be provided through the Community League Operating Grant, the Federation of Community Leagues Operating Grant, the Community League Construction/Renovation Grant, and grants to emerging community leagues, as approved by Council in the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83. This process is also consistent with the objectives of the General Municipal Plan respecting the citizen participation program. -

-

Objective 11.A To continue to acquire and control land in the river valley and ravine system as an environmental protection area (refer to Map 11.1 for boundary of control area).

Discussion The City's policy respecting the protection of Edmonton's river valley has evolved since 1907, and recently was reiterated in a 1975 City Council policy

10.11


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POLICY REPORT #10

• •

• • • • •

PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY The City will, however, permit the construction of roadways across the river valley only if such a crossing is found to offer significant benefits to the transportation system. Even when such crossings are necessary, it is imperative the location and design ensure the crossing has minimal physical impact upon the natural environment of the valley.

which led to the preparation of the draft North Saskatchewan River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw. As Edmonton grows, there is likely to be continued pressure on the river valley and ravine system to accommodate urban land uses and transportation facilities. Developments such as roadways, utility lines, pipelines and housing in the valley and on the top of the bank are proposed constantly. To maintain the river valley's physical uniqueness, it is important steps be taken to manage development carefully and protect its environment from deterioration and destruction resulting from human activities. (Refer to Map 11.1 for the boundary of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw.)

The City will establish a procedure for controlling land use and development within the river valley, through establishing land management units which provide guidelines for development based on environmental protection principles.

Policy 11.A.1

Policy 11.A.3

The City will not develop transportation facilities through the river valley or ravine system except for direct crossings.

The City will implement a process of evaluating developments through the use of environmental impact statements, in order to protect the river valley as well as the urban development on the plateau beyond the valley break.

Discussion

This policy is consistent with the draft River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw and the intent of policies contained within the 1971 Edmonton General Plan concerning the development of transportation facilities in the river valley and ravine system. In this regard, the draft River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw prohibits the planning and development of transportation access into or through the system. This draft bylaw does, however, recognize that emergency and park service vehicle access may be required in certain instances, and this requirement will be satisfied where such need is clearly indicated. Moreover, transit and parking facilities also may be necessary to satisfy access requirements for major parks and recreation facilities, however, such facilities will be located at the perimeter of the park.

Policy 11.A.2

Policy 11.A.4 The City will initiate studies to identify and analyze areas of critical bank instability. Discussion

As proposed in the draft River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, the river valley and ravine system will be divided into specific land management units that permit particular land uses in accordance with the ability of the land to tolerate the impacts of development. The units will vary in their sensitivity from low tolerance to high tolerance for development, and specific guidelines for permanent land uses will be

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POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY established for each unit. These guidelines will ensure permitted developments will not place undue pressures upon the physical conditions of the river valley and ravine system. This will be accommodated through a requirement for an environmental impact assessment to determine the environmental consequences of any proposed land use development. In this regard, an application for the development of a permitted land use must be accompanied by a statement providing information concerning any adverse effects which the proposed development is likely to have upon the river valley's natural environment. No development permit will be issued until such a statement, illustrating that the development can be tolerated by the river valley environment, has been completed to the satisfaction of the Development Officer. Bank instability is a problem in some areas of the river valley and ravine system which makes these areas unsuitable and dangerous for development. Therefore, consistent with the intent of the draft River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, the General Municipal Plan

recognizes the necessity to identify the areas where bank instability is or may be evident, and to determine the type of control mechanisms necessary to prevent any bank slippage and potential dangers to development in the valley.

Policy 11.A.5 The City will reaffirm its position of maintaining a minimum 25-foot setback from the geographical top of the bank in which no development will be permitted. Discussion To prevent encroachment on the river valley and ravine system and, in particular, avoid problems of potential bank instability, the City has adopted a policy of requiring that development in new and older areas not take place within a 25-foot distance of the geographical top of the bank. This policy is reaffirmed by the General Municipal Plan, as a means of protecting the integrity of the river valley system.

Objective 11.B To continue to acquire land in the river valley and ravine system for public park purposes. Discussion Due to its ecological importance, recreational potential, and consistency with City objectives to develop the river valley and ravine system for public park and recreational purposes only, all private land (with the exception of that part of Riverdale that does not front onto the river valley) lying within the boundaries of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw is subject to long range consolidation for public park and

environmental protection purposes. In this regard, it is recognized that municipal ownership would provide the best means of control, although a well-defined physical boundary is necessary to eliminate any confusion or ambiguity regarding acquisition and development which may arise due to the broad definition of the public park boundary. Policy 11.B.1

The City will continue to acquire privately-owned land in the river valley.

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POLICY REPORT #10 PARKS AND THE RIVER VALLEY Discussion The river valley and ravine system is the single most important physical feature in the city, providing parks and recreational potential to Edmontonians. This importance has been recognized in Council's policy of acquiring privately held lands in the river valley and ravines as they become available. Details as to the source of funding and acquisition procedure will be dealt with in the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw.

15 year time period from the passage of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, so the impacts of a transition from residential to recreational use in the area can be minimized. However, the actual details of the acquisition proceedings will be included within the final River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw. -

Policy 11.B.3 The City will develop the river valley according to the parks development programs set out by the Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979-83.

Policy 11.B.2 The City will, as part of the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, establish how land will be acquired in the communities of Rossdale, Lavigne and Cloverdale so as to minimize the social impacts in making the transition from residential to park usage. Discussion As it has been the intent of Council to support the continued existence of the communities of Rossdale, Cloverdale and Lavigne so long as circumstances permit their viability, no part of the communities will be redeveloped for park and recreational purposes within a

Discussion The Parks and Recreation Master Plan, 1979 83, includes a conceptual development plan for the North Saskatchewan River valley and ravine system. In conjunction with the Capital City Recreation Park, the City, within its financial guidelines, is attempting to create a continuous open space system within its corporate limits. Therefore, in implementing the growth strategy, the City will ensure the parks development plan is not adversely affected through the allocation of undesirable land uses or the intensity of development adjacent to the river valley and ravine system. -

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POLICY REPORT #11 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION The natural environment is defined as, "the physical conditions existing within a particular area which may be affected by a proposed land use or transportation development, including soil, vegetation, air, water, unique land forms, wildlife, and objects of geologic or aesthetic significance." Defined as such, the natural environment within an urban context is a limited, largely irreplaceable resource. Moreover, it is also important to ensure that when development does occur, it is safeguarded from natural hazards which may cause a loss or damage to life and property. In this regard, this Policy Report focuses primarily upon two major concerns in the implementation of the growth strategy:

1. preservation of the North Saskatchewan river valley and ravine system; and, 2. the inclusion of a formal environmental analysis component in Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Furthermore, it is the intent, in the natural environment component of the General Municipal Plan, to inject into the land use planning process greater ecological sensitivity in determining land use potential and arrangements. The goal of this is to ensure features of the natural environment are appropriately maintained and utilized, to enhance the quality of urban development, and to add variety and uniqueness to developing areas.

2.0 ISSUES In the 1971 Edmonton General Plan, the City did not set out specific policy statements designed to protect and enhance the natural environment, with the exception of parks objectives and a transportation principle prohibiting the development of roads through the river valley and ravine system, except for crossings. However, Land Use Bylaw No. 5996 has stipulated that when a development application is submitted for a site within or adjacent to the river valley and ravine system, the applicant is required to provide information regarding existing and proposed grades, and the application is transmitted to the Parks and Recreation Department for review. Moreover, Land Use Bylaw No. 5996 states that no development permit will be issued for development at any location within the city which possesses unstable soil conditions, without certification that such conditions are to be taken into account in the design of the structural foundations.

From the perspective of provincial legislation, The Planning Act, 1977, Section 95, requires that a developer dedicate as environmental reserve, all or any of the following lands: 1. swamp; 2. gully; 3. ravine; 4. natural drainage course or creek bed; 5. land that is subject to flooding or, is in the opinion of the subdivision approving authority, unstable or unsuitable in its natural state for development; and, 6. a strip of land not less than 20 feet in width abutting the bed or shore of any lake, river, stream or other body of water for the purpose of preventing pollution and providing public access.

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POLICY REPORT #11 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT In this regard, the City may protect certain sensitive areas, including watershed drainage courses and significant vegetation stands, from development impacts. In addition, the Subdivision Regulation, Section 8, requires consideration of selected variables in determining the suitability of land for development, such as topography, soil characteristics, flood potential, storm water drainage, and sanitary sewer availability. To date, these provisions within the legislation have been utilized to protect environmentally sensitive or unique lands within municipal and provincial legislation. However, while the absence of a co-ordinated and comprehensive environmental planning approach has not resulted in severe problems in the past, it is anticipated this component of land use planning will become very important in areas annexed to the city in the future. In addition, with the thrust of the General Municipal Plan toward increased compactness of development, particularly residential, there will be an increasing requirement to preserve

environmentally sensitive lands which provide for recreational pursuits, foster wildlife, and contribute to the overall quality of the urban environment. As well, it is imperative that urban development or redevelopment is directed to lands whose inherent physical characteristics have the ability to tolerate the proposed scale of development without the potential loss of or damage to life and property. As noted above, the underlying philosophy of these policies will increase substantially in significance should the City undertake to annex lands adjacent to its boundary, given the numerous environmentally sensitive lands, such as lake and stream shorelands, within the potential annexation area. In this regard, it is imperative the General Municipal Plan Bylaw establish the framework for the implementation of a co-ordinated and comprehensive environmental planning approach through the North Saskatchewan River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw, as well as the Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plan processes.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 12.A To inject into the land use planning process a greater sensitivity to the protection of the natural environment, particularly in the planning of new residential growth areas. Discussion Primarily, it is the objective of the General Municipal

Plan to provide the basic framework for the inclusion of a comprehensive, co-ordinated environmental planning approach within the overall land development process, and to inject into the land use planning process a mechanism which balances legitimate development needs with valid environmental concerns, in a rational manner.

There are numerous technical planning methods or analytical procedures for identifying, interpreting and synthesizing information concerning the ability of the natural environment to sustain alternate uses of the land. In this regard, it is proposed that an environmental planning approach be established to preserve the integrity of environmentally sensitive lands, such as those within the North Saskatchewan river valley and ravine system, to ensure, through the Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plan preparation process new development is compatible with the components of the natural environment, and to maintain existing natural or environmentally sensitive lands and other "green space", through District Plans. 11.2


POLICY REPORT #11 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Policy 12.A.1 The City will require the preparation of environmental impact statements to assess the impact of proposed development on the river valley. Discussion

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The North Saskatchewan river valley and ravine system is Edmonton's most attractive natural area, one that is important in the city's urban design image and which provides a major recreational resource. Hence, there is a definite requirement to ensure its protection from the adverse effects of urban growth. The proposed North Saskatchewan River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw includes a series of five land management units to be applied throughout the river valley, each of which permits particular land uses in accordance with the ability of the land to tolerate development. These land management units have been designated as follows: 1. natural preservation areas; 2. environmental protection areas; 3. low and high intensity recreation use areas; and, 4. utility installation areas. These areas range from no tolerance to high tolerance, respectively, in their ability to accommodate development. Consistent with the proposed River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan, the General Municipal Plan attempts to recognize the objective of generally maintaining the river valley and ravine system as an environmental protection area, by ensuring permitted land use developments within a particular land management unit will not place undue pressures upon the physical conditions of the river valley. This will be

accommodated through a requirement for an environmental impact assessment as a means of identifying, measuring and evaluating the environmental consequences of any proposed development. In this regard, any application for the development of permitted land uses within the river valley must be accompanied by a detailed statement providing information concerning any adverse effects which the proposed development is likely to have upon the varied components of the river valley's natural environment, identifying means of minimizing the adverse effects, and recommending alternatives to the development. No development permit will be issued until such a statement, illustrating the development can be tolerated by the river valley environment, with or without remedial measures, has been completed to the satisfaction of the Development Officer. Moreover, the Land Use Bylaw has designated the area delimited by the proposed River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw as A - Metropolitan Recreation (Interim), until such time as a formal Area Redevelopment Plan Bylaw takes effect. This land use district requires the submission of an environmental impact assessment, albeit for discretionary uses only, as the Development Officer in consultation with the General Manager of the Parks and Recreation Department may require. This is, however, not totally consistent with the intent of Policy 12.A.1, which requires an environmental impact assessment for both permitted and discretionary uses. In addition to determining the type of use which may be developed in certain locations within the North Saskatchewan river valley, the environmental impact assessment will be used to safeguard future development from natural hazards which may adversely affect life and property, including bank stability and

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POLICY REPORT #11 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT susceptibility to flooding, not only on the valley floor but also on those portions of the valley plateau which are included within the limits of the river valley (Map 11.1). Also in this regard, as property in the river valley which is subject to natural hazards, becomes available for purchase, the City shall initiate their acquisition, and maintain them as natural areas.

implemented through a requirement for an environmental impact study to identify, predict and evaluate the environmental consequences of land use proposals in specific areas. It is expected the terms of reference for environmental analysis will require that the following factors be addressed: 1. soil type and stability;

In summary, the submission of an environmental impact assessment, in conjunction with the development guidelines for the various land management units, should ensure this environmentally sensitive natural resource is protected from intolerable development impacts and, also, that permitted development occurring within the river valley and ravine system is not subjected to undue natural hazards.

4. vegetation conditions;

Policy 12.A.2

5. the necessity for erosion control mechanisms;

The City will adopt an ecologically sensitive planning approach and will require the preparation of environmental impact statements as input to the preparation, review and approval of plans for: (a) new suburban growth areas (Area Structure Plans); (b) transportation corridors; and, (c) utility or energy networks or corridors. Discussion

In addition to the use of environmental impact assessments within the river valley and ravine system, it is imperative the overall land use planning process, particularly relating to new residential and industrial areas, contain an environmental planning component to be implemented through Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans. Pursuant to the terms of reference for these plans, such a planning approach would be

2. slope of the site; 3. hydrological parameters of the site and adjacent areas, including water sources and quality, water table level and drainage patterns, the existence of surface water or wetlands, flood susceptibility;

6. the existence of natural scenic views or unique land forms; 7. wildlife considerations; and, 8. the manner in which the above have been addressed in the Plans. It is apparent that within the present city boundaries, there will be little opportunity to implement such a process, given the extent of urban development. However, should the City undertake the annexation of adjacent lands, the incorporation of an environmental planning analysis within the Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plan preparation process, through a detailed environmental impact assessment, will be an important consideration in the land use planning review and approval process.

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POLICY REPORT #I1 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Policy 12.A.3 The City will undertake a study to establish guidelines and, where possible, measurement standards for environmental impact assessments and statements. Discussion

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There are numerous approaches to ecological land use planning ranging from land use suitability approaches to carrying capacity standards. The environmental impact assessment approach is one general type of approach which has beep utilized in other jurisdictions for proposals affecting natural hazard or sensitive areas. However, to make the concept workable, a detailed terms of reference is required outlining appropriate factors to be considered, methods of analysis, and standards.

Policy 12.A.4 The City of Edmonton will ensure that existing natural and open space areas, including parks, golf courses, and other "open space", be preserved from urban development through the District Plan process.

Discussion The implementation of Policies 12.A.1, 12.A.2 and 12.A.3 will be most important in the development of new areas. However, given the thrust of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy toward increasing the compactness of inner city development, there is a need to ensure such redevelopment does not place undue development pressures upon natural areas within the existing city limits. It is proposed, in the General Municipal Plan, that this objective of retaining existing natural areas be implemented through the District Plan process. That is, at such time as the preparation of a District Plan is initiated, natural areas and "green space" will be identified, and growth projected for the district will be excluded from such lands. It is recognized, however, that certain natural areas or "green space" may be desirable for development, although any decision to develop these areas must include citizen input and, ideally, development should be placed in another location within the district.

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POLICY REPORT #12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Human development and social services pertain to all aspects of the physical and social environment, the network of human services which collectively contribute to individual, family and community well-being and self-sufficiency, and to the quality of life for all persons in the city. This includes the following institutional uses: educational, cultural and recreational, medical, religious, social, public safety and protection. Intrinsic to the planning process is the reality that physical planning decisions affect the social interaction and social viability of local neighbourhoods and communities on a long-term basis. The quality of life in an urban centre is affected by the land use decisions, such as the location of physical facilities, which influence interaction patterns, and by the human service systems which enable continuing inter-relationships between people and the achievement of their needs and desires. The provision of human services and facilities is important to both the development and the implementation of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy. The incorporation of the human development

and social service factors in assessing and planning the urban environment are important if desirable living environments are to be maintained and established. Since the General Municipal Plan land use strategy will have definite implications for the provision of many human services, the preparation of a Human Development Strategy is considered to be essential to the successful implementation of a land use strategy which aims for increasing compactness without detracting from the quality of urban living. The proposed Human Development Strategy will provide an important link in the movement toward an integrated approach to planning and growth management, which co-ordinates land use, social, and environmental strategies and programs according to the needs and concerns of citizens. Such a strategy will provide a social context for land use guidelines which centre on individual and community well-being. By outlining factors which contribute to the quality of life in Edmonton, a framework can be provided within which goals, objectives and policies can be evaluated, priorized, and systematically reviewed.

2.0 ISSUES Several aspects of human development and social services intimately related to the land use planning process are directly reflected in other policy areas of the General Municipal Plan, such as urban design, citizen participation, district planning and residential

development. The major issues are reiterated and dealt with in this section for the purpose of drawing together areas of concern to human development and social services in Edmonton.

2.1 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION The desire of the citizens of Edmonton for greater involvement in the land use planning process, and in municipal decision-making in general, is growing. This is evident from recent reports, such as the Mayor's Conference on Neighbourhood Planning and the

Citizens' Concerns Survey, as well as the Edmonton Social Planning Council's report on the Edmonton General Municipal Plan Citizen Participation Program. Improved channels of communication are necessary and the exchange of information must be a two-way process. 12.1


POLICY REPORT #12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES 2.2 HUMAN SERVICES DISTRIBUTION AND COSTS Human services include the following institutional services: educational, medical, cultural and recreational, religious, social, public safety and protection. The two main issues of consequence to the provision of human services and facilities are the costs, including their distribution and the equity of distribution of adequate facilities and services. Changing social and cultural standards have contributed to higher expectations, and in turn increased demand for the range and availability of human services and facilities. A natural consequence

of this is the increasing cost of providing and maintaining these services. To overcome many problems associated with the distribution of services, the City has proposed the Human Services Delivery System. The new system would be aimed at co-ordinating the delivery of a number of human service functions, such as health clinics, social services, branch libraries and planning services, by providing all these services within one complex or building within each of 12 districts in the city.

2.3 HUMAN SERVICES ADEQUACY AND SUITABILITY As the character and demographic structure of residential neighbourhoods, particularly those in the inner city, change over time, adjustments to the types and levels of human services provided are often delayed

or not provided at all. Human services and facilities should be flexible enough to accommodate the changing needs of local residents.

2.4 QUALITY OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Citizens are concerned about the deterioration of residential environments, particularly in the inner city. Some of the perceived problems include traffic congestion, parking, the intrusion of commercial and industrial land uses into residential areas, poor quality

park space, inadequate public facilities, vandalism, and insufficient public safety and protection services. In addition, there is general dissatisfaction with the quality, design and distribution of high density multiple unit housing.

2.5 NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING The desire for citizen participation in the planning process, particularly at a local neighbourhood or district level, has been previously noted and described. However, planning at the neighbourhood level alone has several inadequacies and is generally inefficient in resolving city-wide planning problems. Therefore, there is a demonstrated need for a broader, more long-term

system of District Planning to treat planning problems affecting larger areas. Public participation is advocated at this district level. Neighbourhood plans can still be developed, with public input, as part of the overall District Plan process, but in isolation there is the risk that neighbourhood plans will provide only stop-gap planning measures and temporary solutions.

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POLICY REPORT #12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES 2.6 HOUSING ALTERNATIVES There is some immediate concern regarding the long-term supply of a range of housing alternatives by type and cost. The quality, design, and location of various housing types, particularly high density multiple unit housing and public housing, also have

been criticized. Detailed treatment of proposed residential development can be found in Policy Report #5 in Volume II and Component 5 in Volume I of the General Municipal Plan.

2.7 SCHOOLS The under-utilization of schools in the older neighbourhoods has prompted proposals for the closure of several school facilities in the inner city, while at the same time, schools in developing suburban areas are overcrowded or delayed for an undesirable period of time. The declining enrollment problem in inner city schools cannot be corrected directly by public policy. The combined impact of trends toward the aging of families in these communities and general decreases in household size will continue to be felt for many years. However, there are some ways in which the trends in inner city areas can be influenced to improve the school

enrollment outlook. The General Municipal Plan strategy emphasizes the need to accommodate more residential development in inner city areas, with such development geared to family suitable housing. If such a strategy is successful, then a greater opportunity exists for slowing the rate of decline in school enrollment in the inner city. In addition to the General Municipal Plan growth strategy, other courses of action may have to be considered, such as the consolidation of school districts and eventual re-use of school buildings and/or lands.

2.8 COMMUNITY IDENTITY Concerns have been expressed about the lack of a sense of community pride and neighbourliness, particularly in areas of the city which are predominantly developed to high-rise apartments, where the turnover of residents is high. Similar difficulties are encountered in areas with

low-cost public housing projects. A partial solution to this problem lies in sensitive and innovative urban environmental design and the availability and accessibility of suitable human services and facilities.

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POLICY REPORT #12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES 3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 13.A To account for social planning issues and citizen involvement in the land use planning process.

Policy 13.A.1 The City will prepare and implement a comprehensive Human Development Strategy which provides for land use planning in light of the overall set of goals, objectives and standards relating to the nature and quality of the environment and to the delivery of human services. Discussion The proposal for an overall Human Development Strategy dealing with social planning concerns is suggested as a means of achieving a better link between physical and social issues in planning the future of the city. The aim of the Human Development Strategy will be to provide a social context for land use guidelines which encourage the fulfillment of the needs an desires of individuals, families and communities within Edmonton. The strategy will assist in achieving an integrated approach to planning and growth management by outlining factors which contribute to the quality of life in Edmonton, thus providing a sensitive framework within which goals, objectives, and policies can be evaluated and priorities determined.

Policy 13.A.2 The City will create a structure to facilitate citizen participation in District Planning, the monitoring of plans, and the review of development applications through the establishment of formal District Planning Committees composed of representatives elected from

Community Leagues, Area Councils, and citizens at large, to be responsible for providing input to the Planning Department on these matters. Discussion An improved structure for information exchange and the opportunity for meaningful participation should be formally established if more effective planning is to be achieved. The City should ensure information is available, accessible and understandable on all municipal processes and programs unless such access is detrimental to the public good or the individual citizens affected by the information. Better dissemination of information should lead to a more knowledgeable public, more aware of current issues and better able to participate in decision-making. A participatory process will result in more acceptable decisions, as there will be less distrust when people become more aware of what is happening, and have concrete input into, and specific responsibility for, resolving local problems. The District Planning system will have particular impact in this regard, not only through its formal structure for citizen participation, but also through the decentralization of planning and human services to a district level, thus making information and services more accessible and responsive to the public.

Policy 13.A.3 The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, encourage an equitable distribution and co-ordinated delivery of services which are accessible and responsive to local requirements, in accordance with the Human Services Delivery System boundaries.

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POLICY REPORT #12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES Discussion There is a need for a more equitable and co-ordinated delivery of services and facilities which meet the needs of the communities for which they are planned. The lack of, or delay in, the provision of sufficient public facilities and services is a major concern of residents in both inner city and developing surburan areas. The Human Services Delivery System will have a positive impact in this regard, as the main attempt to equalize and co-ordinate the delivery of these services across the city. The boundaries of the Human Services Delivery System coincide closely with those of the proposed District Planning system. Management of human services and facilities at a district level will help ensure services are readily accessible to residents, as well as responsive to their needs and desires. The Human Services Delivery System will attempt to provide services on a decentralized basis, preferably from common office space within each area. The human services which will lend themselves particularly well to this method of distribution are health clinics, social services, branch libraries and District Planning services.

Policy 13.A.4 The City will work towards the provision of types and levels of public services and facilities in a community which are sufficiently flexible to support the range and mix of residential densities, present and planned, as well as the demographic structure of the population. Discussion This recommendation, pertaining to the creation and maintenance of balanced neighbourhoods, applies to suburban areas where human services delivery usually

follows residential development, and must be made to bear a close relationship to it. The recommendation is also applicable to inner city areas slated for redevelopment, where the tendency is toward higher density residential development such that levels of human services must be adjusted to accommodate a population of, perhaps, a different demographic structure.

Policy 13.A.5 The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, give particular attention to creating living environments, especially in the case of multiple unit housing, which make optimal use of the site, are free from crowding, and which respect the users' needs for privacy, open space, security, aesthetic design and protection from noise. Discussion More compact urban development, if not carefully designed and managed, can foster perceptions of crowding and congestion. Since the General Municipal Plan growth strategy favours more compact development overall, there is a need to achieve better quality design for new neighbourh000ds, as well as for areas slated for redevelopment. The design and construction of housing, open spaces, public facilities and amenities must be sensitive to both the character of the neighbourhoods and the need of its users, as well as the natural environment. High quality, aesthetic and functional design, based on sound environmental development principles, can succeed in improving the quality and safety of the urban environment, making it more attractive to future development.

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POLICY REPORT #12 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL SERVICES Policy 13.A.6

The City will, in the design of new neighbourhoods and in the redevelopment of existing areas, encourage the provision of a range of housing alternatives by type, tenure, and cost. Discussion The City has a responsibility to encourage the provision of a range of housing alternatives to meet the affordability range, locational preferences, and housing type preferences of citizens of all age groups. The quality and design of housing also warrants consideration, so adequate standards for privacy, health, and security are maintained.

Policy 13.A.7 The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, and particularly the redevelopment of existing neighbourhoods, direct attention toward the maintenance of inner city schools by encouraging the provision of family suitable units in redevelopment projects and upgrading environmental amenities, such as parks. Discussion The concern over increasing costs incurred in the provision of educational facilities alone is sufficient to justify attempts to utilize existing school facilities to their optimal potential for educational as well as

recreational and cultural activities within, as well as outside of, normal school hours. All feasible alternative uses for under-utilized facilities should be considered. Attempts also should be made to boost inner city school enrollment by permitting residential redevelopment to slightly higher density housing with qualities suitable for families. Policy 13.A.8

The City will, in the preparation of statutory plans, give attention to the development and retention of neighbourhood or community identity. Discussion Physical as well as social factors influence the development of neighbourhood and community identity and integrity. A well-balanced and integrated neighbourhood, in terms of high quality urban design and servicing, can significantly contribute to building a sense of community among residents. The design of the urban environment should be sensitive and innovative, and able to respond to the changing needs of its users. Adequate human services and amenities must be available also, as a lack of, or delay, in their provision will emphasize the problems which exist. The opportunity for citizens to become involved in local planning decisions, and their responsibility for doing so, is also conducive to the development of community identity and integrity.

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POLICY REPORT #13 URBAN DESIGN 1.0 INTRODUCTION

As it relates to the General Municipal Plan, urban design is defined as, "the design of the spaces around and between buildings, and the design and location of those buildings within the space called the City of Edmonton." In practical terms the urban design process means control and organization of: • • • • • •

function; form; streetscapes; building facades; street furniture; and views.

Designing the city as a conscious act is an attempt to modify our physical surroundings so they become more habitable, more in keeping with our aspirations. It is part of the process to establish the quality of the city's physical environment - a quality which is based upon human needs, pleasing physical relationships, and a fitting together of scale, interest, and contrast without disruption. Design provides a sense of order, of visual

unity, of rhythm, of collective harmony, and of details of texture, colour, light and shade. An Urban Design policy allows Council, the citizens and the administration, to comment upon, and then seek ways to control, retain, manipulate, enhance or improve the general apprearance of the city. It allows them to introduce those qualities of culture, feeling or ambience, and behaviour, into the design of the city, or neighbourhood, group of buildings or a space, such as a street or park. It recommends to designers that they be more aware of the context into which they will be placing their developments, far more so than they have done in the past. More importantly, the policy draws attention to the opportunity to improve the livability of the city. In summary, an urban design policy sets out guidelines to shape three main aspects of the urban environment; the physical, the ambient, and the behavioural. The policies of the General Municipal Plan are directed towards establishing a process by which greater consideration is given in the planning process to these urban design concerns.

2.0 ISSUES The pace of growth, development and change in Edmonton over the last few years has been rapid. While this growth has brought renewal, it has also meant disruption, and has been characterized by numerous shortcomings where little attention has been given, in the rush of the boom, to the quality of the environment being created. Numerous urban design planning concerns have been raised with regard to existing and future development.

At the city-wide scale, there is a need to articulate Edmonton's built form, to make the city more comprehensible to its residents and visitors, and compensate for the lack of natural topographic features which might otherwise add interest to the urban environment. This involves giving definition to Town Centres, and establishing variety and distinction among neighbourhoods and areas of the city. At the same time, it is also important that the city, in its

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POLICY REPORT #13 URBAN DESIGN development, capitalize on its unique and significant natural topographic features - the North Saskatchewan river valley and ravine system, and the prairie landscape. Other urban design concerns at the city-wide scale include the impact of transportation corridors, especially L.R.T. lines, on surrounding residential areas, and the need to improve the landscaping and quality of development along the major approach routes to the city. At the neighbourhood scale, urban design issues include the design and distribution of parks and multiple-unit dwellings in the suburbs, and a need to promote energy conservation in building and site design. Another design issue concerning suburban development is the improvement of variety in housing styles. In older neighbourhoods, the major design issue is the need for sensitive, compatible redevelopment.

At the detailed scale of the street and individual site, there are many urban design concerns. Site-specific design problems are most complex in the Downtown, where the intensity of development and activity is the greatest. Here, there is a need for imagination in architecture and urban design to deal with the scale of buildings in human terms, and to create a hospitable street environment for pedestrians. Also of concern in the design of the city at the site scale is the need to consider the special requirements of the elderly and the handicapped, and the possibilities of creating "defensible" space. Many of the above issues are addressed by the General Municipal Plan. Urban design policies are found throughout the Plan as well as in Component 15 of the Bylaw. Urban design concerns will be addressed in more detail through the various activities outlined in Policies 15.A.1 to 10 of Volume I.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 15.A To establish a process by which greater consideration is given to urban design in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals. Discussion The General Municipal Plan reaffirms the City's commitment to urban design expressed in the 1971 General Plan, and it establishes a greater emphasis on urban design in the planning process for three reasons. First, it is clear the existing planning process and the bonus approach to securing public amenities has not created an especially satisfying or attractive environment. Secondly, the continued growth of the City into a large metropolis will mean a greater scale of development and redevelopment which will, in turn,

require stronger efforts to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment. Thirdly, the successful implementation of elements in the General Municipal Plan growth strategy - compact development and the creation of sub-centres along major transportation corridors - will also require greater attention to urban design considerations. The General Municipal Plan, therefore, proposes District Plans, Area Redevelopment and Area Structure Plans prepared by the City include an urban design component. It is also recommended that Neighbourhood Plans, Plans of Subdivision and certain development applications, be accompanied by an urban design statement and context map which outlines how urban design considerations have been addressed. 13.2


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URBAN DESIGN Policy 15.A.1 District Plans prepared for each of the districts in Map 3.1 will include an urban design component which will: (a) set out general design objectives, policies and guidelines for each district; (b) provide, where required, detailed design guidelines for such things as district activity centres, special character areas and residential development; (c) address city-wide design concerns as outlined in Policies 15.B.1 to 15.B.6; and, (d) propose, where required, amendments to the Land Use Bylaw through the Statutory Plan Overlay or other mechanisms. Discussion To be implemented effectively, urban design policies and guidelines must be relevant and have the support of citizens living in the particular community where they are to be enforced. The proposed District Planning system provides a vehicle for tying policies to specific situations and areas, and for ensuring, through its citizen participation structure, that the policies and guidelines that are developed reflect local values and concerns. District Planning provides an opportunity to prepare urban design guidelines for most of Edmonton, and thus achieve a general improvement in the quality of the city's environment. In dealing with the arrangement of growth within large areas of the city, District Planning also permits a co-ordinated, more comprehensive approach to the development of those features of the urban environment which contribute to the city image (Objective 15.B).

Policy 15.A.2 Area Redevelopment Plans and Area Structure Plans prepared by the City will include an urban design component which will: (a) incorporate the design objectives, policies and guidelines of the General Municipal Plan and the District Plan; and, (b) set out additional design guidelines where necessary. Discussion Area Redevelopment and Area Structure Plans provide an opportunity to refine design policies and guidelines outlined in the General Municipal Plan and District Plans. Design guidelines will be appropriately included in all Area Redevelopment Plans, to ensure compatible redevelopment. The City might undertake Area Strucutre Plans for large or unique projects or areas, such as activity centres, highway and transit corridors, or the river valley, where special design considerations are involved.

Policy 15.A.3 Area Structure Plans prepared by the private sector will incorporate the design objectives, policies and guidelines set out in the General Municipal Plan and other planning documents adopted by City Council. Discussion While it is not expected the private sector will include an urban design component in the Area Structure Plans which it prepares, it is expected these plans will be developed in accordance with the City's design objectives, policies and guidelines. Area Structure Plans

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POLICY REPORT #13 URBAN DESIGN undertaken by the private sector will deal primarily with newly-developing areas of the City, for which the Planning Department will prepare a specific handbook of design guidelines. Policy 15.A.4 The City will require that Neighbourhood Structure Plans, when submitted for approval, be accompanied by an urban design statement and context map whose terms of reference shall be prepared by the Planning Department and which will describe: (a) the manner in which the design objectives, policies and guidelines set out in the General Municipal Plan and other statutory plans and documents adopted by City Council have been incorporated into the design of the Plan; (b) particular urban design opportunities present in the area; and, (c) any trade-offs between urban design considerations and other objectives or requirements which have been made in the Plan. Policy 15.A.5 The City will require an urban design statement and context map as part of the development application for all developments which have a significant urban design impact due to their size, complexity or context, such as: (a) mixed use commercial and residential projects; (b) developments along highways which serve as major entrance routes to the City; (c) large. comprehensively designed developments consisting of a variety of buildings and/or uses: (d) in fill residential projects; and, (e) developments involving buildings, sites or areas of historical interest.

Discussion

It is especially important that urban design is emphasized in the preparation of plans for neighbourhoods and individual sites. At this scale, the detailed features of the urban environment are being shaped. To ensure urban design concerns are addressed at this level, it is proposed the City require all Neighbourhood Structure Plans and certain development applications to be accompanied by an urban design statement and context map. The urban design statement and context map would outline how the plan or development proposal has responded to the City's design objectives, policies and guidelines, and to local design issues and opportunities. The context map would also illustrate the relationship of the development proposal to the surrounding area, and thus assist the City administration and the public to evaluate the proposal in terms of its impact and design compatibility with adjacent development. The requirement for a context map and urban design statement formalizes a process which is usually followed in the preparation of plans and development schemes. Terms of reference for the context map and design statement will be prepared by the Planning Department and incorporated into the Land Use Bylaw, which will identify those districts requiring an urban design statement and context map. The terms of reference will ensure a standardized presentation format, which will permit individual plans or developments to be incorporated into and compared with adjacent plans or developments. Policy 15.A.6 The City will establish procedures for reviewing the urban design component of plans and development proposals, for which urban design statements and context maps are required, prior to their submission for approval. 13.4


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URBAN DESIGN Discussion A pre-submission design review/consultation process would be advantageous both to the City and to the developer in the following ways: 1. it would provide an opportunity to clarify procedural requirements related to the urban design statement and the context map. The boundary of the design impact area might be determined at this point; 2. it would provide an opportunity to review the urban design objectives, policies, and guidelines relevant to the particular area. Specific concerns of the local community might also be reviewed; 3. it could assist in the identification of urban design opportunities or problems presented by existing and other proposed developments in the area; and, 4. it would facilitate necessary changes at the schematic design stage, avoiding the costs in time and money of modifying the detailed, finalized plan or design. The design review process might involve one pre-submission conference or a series of optional and mandatory meetings between the City Planning Department, citizens and the developer. Development proposals involving rezoning, for example, might require two mandatory pre-submission meetings - one with the Planning Department and one with the District Planning citizens' committee. Procedures for reviewing the urban design component of plans and development proposals prior to their submission for approval will be established in the Land Use Bylaw as part of the regulations for those land use districts which require an urban design statement and

context map. One model of a design review process is provided in the urban design report prepared for the City of Toronto, "On Building Downtown - Design Guidelines for the Core Area," 1974 (Sections 4 and 5). Policy 15.A.7

The Planning Department will include an urban design evaluation as part of its reports to the Municipal Planning Commission and City Council dealing with redistricting (rezoning) applications. Discussion Development proposals which require rezoning involve uses not normally permitted, either outright or as discretionary uses, because they are considered incompatible with existing or proposed development in the area. Many of the reasons for feeling certain uses are incompatible relate to design issues. It is, therefore, proposed the Planning Department include an urban design evaluation in its reports to the Municipal Planning Commission and City Council on redistricting (rezoning) applications. Where development proposals involve important urban design considerations, the Planning Department might recommend approval for rezoning be subject to the initiation of a development agreement or the imposition of certain caveats which address the urban design concerns.

Policy 15.A.8 The City will prepare a comprehensive handbook of urban design guidelines applicable to the Edmonton context as a reference document to assist in the preparation of the urban design component of District Plans and other statutory plans, and in the review of redistricting (rezoning) and development applications.

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POLICY REPORT #13 URBAN DESIGN Discussion It is proposed that a comprehensive handbook of urban design guidelines be prepared for Edmonton as a supplement to the General Municipal Plan and a basis for further policy development. Similar handbooks have been prepared by the City of Toronto "On Building Downtown," the City of Vancouver "Downtown Design Guidelines, West End Urban Design Guidelines" and the City of San Francisco "The Urban Design Plan for the Comprehensive Plan of San Francisco." The handbook would assist in the preparation and review of the urban design component of plans and development proposals. It would itemize design factors to be considered and illustrate possible design solutions to various land use problems. The intent of the design guidelines would be to encourage increased awareness of urban design considerations; the guidelines would not require literal interpretation/application. Policy 15.A.9 The City will develop an urban design language to be used in the preparation of urban design plans, statements and context maps, and in the review of rezoning and development applications. The language will be set out in a reference handbook and will provide a consistent vocabulary of words and a system of symbols for identifying and describing features of the urban environment which present design problems or opportunities. Discussion It is recommended an urban design language, consisting of words and symbols, be established to provide the designer, developer, lay citizen, administrator and policy-maker with a consistent method and vocabulary for identifying and discussing urban design

considerations. This language would be used in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals. The development and use of a consistent vocabulary would contribute to clarity and expediency in the communication of design issues and opportunities, and would provide continuity between plans prepared for districts, areas, and specific sites. The General Municipal Plan Working Paper, "Urban Design Recommendations for the City of Edmonton" provides an initial step toward the development of a design language. Once the handbook is completed, it is expected the language will be expanded and adjusted over time, and become familiar in use and understanding, like the language of zoning (RF1, RF2, RF3, etc.). Policy 15.A.10 The City will prepare a handbook of urban design objectives, policies and guidelines for newly developing areas to be used in the preparation of Area and Neighbourhood Structure Plans and plans of subdivision, to be used in the review and approval processes for these plans. Discussion Neighbourhood design and land use in new areas are affected by a considerable number of policies, development standards, design guidelines and pieces of legislation which have been established by the City, senior governments and various agencies. City policies affecting newly-developing areas are to be found throughout the General Municipal Plan, particularly in the residential component. This, however, is not the only statement of City policy. Various policies and design guidelines affecting the development of new areas have also been approved over

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POLICY REPORT #I3 URBAN DESIGN time by City Council, the Commission Board and the Municipal Planning Commission. These include recommendations on such things as mobile home parks, innovative housing schemes, the campus concept, and the distribution and design of neighbourhood density. In addition, the preparation and approval of neighbourhood plans and subdivision developments is governed by general planning principles and guidelines not stated in any particular City document. Many of these guidelines such as those outlined in the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation Site Planning Handbook, originate outside the City Planning Department. The preparation of a handbook or urban design objectives, policies and guidelines for newly-developing areas would benefit the City and the developer in a number of ways:

1. it would consolidate existing City policies affecting newly-developing areas and reference all other legislation policies and guidelines. This consolidation would assist the developer in preparing his plans and help ensure the City's design objectives were met; 2. it would provide a more explicit statement of the City's design policies and allow for a more consistent approach in the review and approval of plans and development proposals; and, 3. it would review the relevance of design guidelines and development standards originating outside the City, and establish additional design policies and guidelines where required. It is expected that, once prepared, the handbook of design guidelines would be adopted by Council by resolution.

Objective 15.B To protect and enhance those major elements in the urban environment which contribute to the overall image of the city.

comprehensible to people as they move about the city. Distinctive districts and sub-centres, views and landmarks help citizens orient themselves in their daily activities.

Discussion

Policy 15.B.1

The term "image" can best be described as one's mental view of the city, the form it takes in one's mind when the question is asked, "what are the most important features of the city which make it distinct from other cities?". Major components of a city's image include the downtown skyline, the street pattern, the topography, the overall built form, special character areas, and transportation corridors which enter and pass through the city. Protecting and enhancing the elements of a city's image contributes to a sense of pride and belonging among the city's residents. Enhancing the image of Edmonton makes the city more

The City will manage development within the river valley and ravine system, and along its bluffs, to protect the natural environment of this dominant topographical feature and the unique view and recreational opportunities which the valley provides. Discussion The North Saskatchewan river valley and ravine system are Edmonton's most outstanding physical features and, as such, are a major element in the city's image. The deep trenches carved by the river provide relief from 13.7


POLICY REPORT #13 URBAN DESIGN the surrounding flat prairie landscape, and the trees, grass and river offer a welcome change in texture from the concrete, glass, and asphalt of the urban environment. The river valley and its bluffs offer panoramic views of the city's downtown skyline, the University, the Legislature buildings and the river itself. The river valley is a recreational, as well as a scenic resource, providing diverse recreational opportunities which include golf, hiking, canoeing, picnicking, bicycling, and nature studies.

valley and along its rim, and the design of roadways and traffic signage, and would identify special viewing points to be maintained, such as the intersection of 103 Street and Saskatchewan Drive.

In summary, the North Saskatchewan river valley, and its ravine system and bluffs, are one of Edmonton's prime assets which, through the varied and unique impressions and experiences they offer to both residents and visitors, contribute to the city's distinctive image and the pleasure and pride of its citizens. It is, therefore, important the City continue to manage development within the river valley and along its bluffs, to maintain and enhance their special qualities and the opportunities which they afford.

Policy 15.B.3

Policy 15.B.2 The City will prepare an urban design plan for the river valley, its ravine system and immediate environs in conjunction with the identification and specification of land management units recommended in the River Valley Area Redevelopment Plan and park development set out in the Parks and Recreation Master Plan 1979 -

1983.

Discussion Preparation of an urban design plan for the river valley, its ravine system and bluffs, will help to ensure the unique scenic and recreational resources they offer will be protected and enhanced. Such a plan would set out policies and guidelines on such things as the construction and design of buildings within the river

The preparation of a special urban design plan for the river valley is proposed because this area will not be adequately covered through District Planning or existing river valley planning, especially with respect to edge considerations.

The City will undertake Area Structure Plans or Area Redevelopment Plans for major highway entrance corridors, with an emphasis being placed by these plans on urban design considerations. Discussion The approach routes to the city are the "front doors" of the city. Unfortunately, most approaches to the city currently present an unpleasant image. They are generally visually chaotic and ugly or boring. More control is needed over such things as building design and location, and signage. Major landscaping improvements are also required. To address these problems, and because the approach routes to the city will probably not receive adequate design attention through other planning activities, it is proposed that Area Structure or Area Redevelopment Plans, which emphasize urban design considerations be undertaken specifically for the major highway entrance corridors.

Policy 15.B.4 The City will maintain the downtown skyline as the dominant point in Edmonton's built form by encouraging the most intense and highest development to occur in the downtown area.

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â&#x20AC;¢ SUB-CENTRES 4h APPROACH ROUTES THE DOWNTOWN HISTORIC AREA THE NORTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER VALLEY AND RAVINE SYSTEM

MAP 13.1 MAJOR DESIGN ELEMENTS IN THE CITY'S IMAGE 7

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URBAN DESIGN Policy 15.B.5

Sub-centres and major nodes around the city will be developed in a manner which emphasizes their function and importance as focal points of community and business activity. Consideration in the design of sub-centres will therefore be given to such things as building heights, special landscaping and lighting, and the development of unique design themes. Discussion

A city's overall built form is another major aspect of a city's image, and can assist residents and visitors to orient themselves as they move about the city, by giving visual expression to major destinations.

The cityscape is a particularly important element in Edmonton's image because of the general lack of variation in the topography. It is, therefore, proposed that the downtown and sub-centres around the city be developed to punctuate the horizon, and thus provide the vertical accents which make a city interesting and comprehensible.

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The downtown skyline should be maintained as the dominant point in Edmonton's built form to reflect its major importance as the heart of the city and the Region. Sub-centres around the city should reflect their importance as focal points of community activity, not

only in their building heights, but also in special design and landscaping treatments. The development of unique design themes will further contribute to their distinctive identity. Policy 15.B.6 The City will identify and conserve historic and distinctive older areas of the city which contribute to the interest and character of the urban environment. Furthermore, the City will establish policies and design guidelines to ensure that new buildings constructed in areas of special identity are compatible with existing development. Discussion Distinctive districts, such as Old Strathcona, the Highlands and Glenora, are another major element in the city's image. In their building form, materials, and mature vegetation, older neighbourhoods provide a richness of character, texture and scale not often found in new development. The City must conserve these areas and establish urban design guidelines to ensure any redevelopment which occurs is sympathetic to existing development. The conservation and enhancement of special character areas will not only make the city a more interesting place, but will nurture an awareness and pride of citizens in their community.

Objective 15.0 To create a pedestrian system and street environment which is pleasant, safe and attractive and provides for the convenient movement of pedestrians.

Discussion Streets, which comprise 30% of the land area of the city, are an important part of the city's image. It is on

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POLICY REPORT #13 URBAN DESIGN the streets and sidewalks where citizens and visitors experience the city more intimately. Streets take on roles or personalities, which are only partially related to their traffic functions. Because city streets and sidewalks are public meeting grounds as well as transportation corridors, they should be attractive as well as efficient. The General Municipal Plan thus sets out a number of policies to improve the quality of the street environment. The Plan proposes design guidelines concerning the relationship of new buildings to the street be established and steps be taken to ensure new buildings do not create undesirable micro-climates. Expansion of the pedway system in the downtown is proposed to provide for the safe, comfortable, and convenient movement of pedestrians. The Plan also requests that greater recognition be given to Edmonton's harsh northern climate, with new developments providing pedestrians with protection from inclement weather. Finally, the Plan sets out a number of policies on the provision of street furniture and the regulation of signs to improve the attractiveness of the street environment. Efforts to improve the quality of the street environment are especially crucial to the successful achievement of General Municipal Plan policies to develop housing in the Downtown and to maintain the vitality of the retail function in the Downtown.

Policy 15.C.1 The City will establish design guidelines concerning the relationship of new buildings to the street to ensure that new developments, particularly in commercial and high density residential areas, create an environment at-grade which is attractive and in scale with pedestrians.

Policy 15.C.2 New buildings shall be designed and sited so as to minimize the creation of undesirable wind and shade conditions on streets, sidewalks, and public open spaces in the vicinity. Discussion

The quality of the street environment is very much influenced by the design of the buildings which front onto the street. This is perhaps most clearly evident in the Downtown where the human scale and variety of a few remaining older retail shopping strips contrast with the uninteresting, featureless and unbroken facades of mirror glass offered to pedestrians by some of the newer developments. The newer developments also tend to be overwhelming in scale. The design and siting of new buildings can further contribute to the hostility of the street environment by blocking out light and sun, and increasing wind velocities at-grade. It is, therefore, important that the City develop design guidelines concerning the relationship of buildings to streets, sidewalks and public open space.

Policy 15.C.3 New developments in the Downtown shall make provisions to link up with existing and future pedways in accordance with the Pedway Concept Plan. Policy 15.C.4 Developments along major pedestrian and transit routes will be encouraged to incorporate such design features as awnings, arcades, and enclosed shelters which offer protection to pedestrians from inclement weather.

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URBAN DESIGN Discussion Both these policies are directed at creating a safe, convenient and sheltered walking environment in the city. The Pedway Concept Plan, adopted by Council in July 1977, puts forth recommendations for the future development and management of a downtown pedway network. The proposed network contains at-grade, above-grade and below-grade connections.

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Though several linkages in the pedway system have been developed, the system is far from completion. Many of the pedway connections at grade level could be improved with proper signage, widened sidewalks, street furniture, landscaping, and, in some cases, a weather protected environment. Other issues concerning the development of the pedway system - such as the unsatisfactory hours of operation, too frequent changes in grade, and the interiorization and privatization of pedestrian routes and activity to the possible detriment of the vitality of the Downtown streets - have yet to be resolved. The completed pedway system will do much to improve the comfort of the pedestrian environment in the Downtown, but will not serve the entire downtown or the rest of the city. It is, therefore, proposed that all new developments, especially those along major pedestrian and transit routes, incorporate design features which offer shelter from inclement weather to pedestrians.

Policy 15.C.5 The City will, as part of the urban design component of District Plans and statutory plans, identify priority areas for street furniture improvements and streetscape plans based on an integrated evaluation of the following types of criteria:

(a) ability and utility in emphasizing movement to and from focal points or activity centres; (b) greater emphasis on improving the quality of higher density and intensity environments; (c) greater emphasis on improving areas of greatest need, such as commercial strip areas; and, (d) greater emphasis on implementability, particularly the availability of alternate funding sources and support from local residents, property owners and businesses. Discussion Street furniture includes all those items placed on the street or sidewalk, such as public telephones, kiosks, litter receptacles, newstands, planters, clocks, benches and similar items. The need to improve the manner in which street furniture is designed and placed in the street was recognized in the 1971 General Plan. As stated in that Plan, "Street furniture is one of the most conspicuous elements of a street and often is the difference between making a street pleasant or unattractive", (p. 16.2). Although some of the suggested improvements outlined in the 1971 Plan were not implemented immediately, in 1975 the Commission Board directed action be taken to achieve a co-ordinated street furniture program. Two reports were prepared, Street Furniture I and II, outlining the potential and requirements of a street furniture program. The two major requirements in initiating the implementation of a street furniture program are the identification of priority areas and the completion of streetscape plans. Concerning the identification of

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POLICY REPORT #I3 URBAN DESIGN priority areas, the Plan recommends this be done as part of Statutory Plan and District Plan exercises. Emphasis should be put on areas where the intensity of buildings, signage and human activity is greatest, for these areas usually display a high degree of physical and visual clutter unless well-planned.

Policy 15.C.7

The preparation of streetscape plans may only have to be done in a preliminary sense for cost determination during the formulation of statutory plans. However, a final design scheme will be required ultimately. Streetscape plans will deal with the total visual impression of the street, although placing particular emphasis on that viewed or experienced from eye level, such as the sidewalk space. Such plans will determine the street furniture requirements in a more purposeful manner.

Discussion

Policy 15.C.6 The City will prepare a handbook for Council's approval, of performance standards or guidelines for the design, siting and maintenance of street furniture to be used in the preparation of design specifications and contracts and the review of such by the Technical Review Committee. Discussion A major part of the Street Furniture II report was the determination of performance criteria and design requirements for particular items of street furniture. It is proposed this part of the Street Furniture II report be implemented through the policy and design handbooks proposal of the Plan. These handbooks are intended as a management tool for policy developed on a special study basis and, as design guidelines, to aid in the generation of innovative responses to problems.

The City will take on a major responsibility for co-ordinating the implementation of street furniture and streetscape plans proposed in statutory plans through the rationalization of Departmental responsibilities and co-ordination of Departmental budgets.

The City presently fills a major role in providing street furniture items. For instance, the Water and Sanitation Department is responsible for placing and maintaining litter receptacles on public roadways, the Parks Department has responsibility for similar functions in public parks, and the Engineering Department is responsible for traffic signs and parking meters. The actions of these departments and others constitute a strong municipal involvement in street furniture. Through the co-ordination of departmental activities, particularly design and maintenance, overlapping responsibilities can be eliminated and harmonious design achieved.

Policy 15.C.8 The City will investigate the following methods for increasing private sector involvement in the provision of street furniture and the general upgrading of the street environment: (a) expanding the use of Local Improvement Assessment levies; and, (b) establishing provincial business improvement district legislation which would create a loan fund to be used by groups of businesses for upgrading their business areas.

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URBAN DESIGN Discussion Traditionally, private sector involvement in the provision of street furniture has been confined to contractual arrangements between the City and a few businesses. Discussions during the preparation of the street furniture reports strongly supported an increased emphasis on private sector involvement. To increase involvement of the private sector, several methods can be utilized, such as introducing a street furniture provision into the Land Use Bylaw for selected high density and intensity zones, increasing contractual arrangements using a Local Improvement Assessment, or establishing Business Improvement Districts. The last two options are of greatest interest since they are primarily of a self-help nature, where local owners or businessmen initiate or respond to an initiative requesting the upgrading of the street environment. To be able to use Local Improvement Assessments, an amendment to the Municipal Taxation Act would be required. Presently the Act does not permit use of Local Improvement Assessment for streetscape amenities on sidewalks, although some individual items are covered in Section 145. To initiate Business Improvement Districts, legislation would be required, since the key aspect of this approach is the creation of a provincial loan fund. Business groups can then borrow from such a fund and cover costs of streetscape plans, building improvements, land acquisition for parking, and other business area promotion programs. Policy 15.C.9 The City will establish sign regulations to implement the following design principles:

(a) signs should be properly scaled to the development of a site, building or area with respect to size, height, shape and numbers; (b) signs should generally complement the architectural style of a building; and, (c) signs should be designed, engineered, situated and maintained in a manner which is safe and without hazard to the general public. Discussion Signs are important to commercial enterprise. Their presence also adds colour and vitality to the city. However, the competitive aspects of sign usage can often result in a visual clutter of oversized, misplaced signs, which block important views, obscure interesting architectural features of buildings, and are inappropriate to the character of an area. The adequate regulation of signs is necessary to protect the visual quality of the environment. Policy 15.C.10

The City will establish special regulation zones with specific signage guidelines for major transportation corridors and approach routes to the city. Discussion The regulation of signs is particularly important along the major routes into the city, for it is here many visitors gain their first impressions of the city. Improving the visual quality of the city's entranceways will enhance Edmonton's image and the pride of its citizens in their city.

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POLICY REPORT #I3 URBAN DESIGN Objective 15.D To promote energy conservation in land use and transportation planning, and in building and site design.

employment, the development of a compact city and increased flexibility for the development industry could achieve significant energy savings for the City. -

Policy 15.D.1

Discussion The promotion of energy efficiency and opportunities for energy conservation in land use and transportation planning, municipal servicing, and in site and building design, is identified as a major objective of the City in the General Municipal Plan 18 point growth strategy. It may, perhaps, seem to be a curious objective in light of the fact that Edmonton is the capital of a province which is relatively well endowed with fossil fuel resources. However these resources are finite. As conventional oil and gas reserves are depleted over the next decade, we will have to turn to other sources of energy which are more expensive, both financially and environmentally, such as the extraction of oil from the tar sands and the generation of thermal energy from coal. -

Actions to develop a more energy efficient city in concert with energy conservation are necessary, if the impact of diminishing fossil fuel resources and rising energy costs on the future quality of life in Edmonton is to be minimized. As was noted in the Preamble of Volume I, accommodating growth in such a way as to reduce the city's future energy requirements has been one of the guiding principles behind the formulation of the General Municipal Plan. Implementation of the Plan's proposals the development of a transportation system which emphasizes public transit, the provision of housing in the downtown, the decentralization of office -

The City will give consideration to energy efficiency and conservation, amongst other factors, in the review and approval of statutory plans and development proposals. More specifically, the City will evaluate the following design elements in terms of their potential contribution to energy conservation:

(a) pattern and density of land uses; (b) transportation network; (c) lot and building orientation; (d) landscaping; (e) utility servicing; and, (f) building designs. Discussion

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The above elements can have a significant effect on the city's future energy requirements. The discussion that follows briefly notes some of the opportunities for energy conservation in site design. In site design, buildings can be arranged to reduce energy requirements for heating and cooling. For example, attached housing forms in subdivisions can be grouped to buffer inner areas from prevailing winter winds. Similarly, on individual lots, accessory buildings such as garages can be positioned to protect the dwelling unit. The orientaton of the dwelling unit itself is also important for energy conservation. Southern exposures

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URBAN DESIGN permit buildings to take advantage of the natural heating and lighting effects of the sun. Aligning street systems in new residential areas from east to west would maximize the number of north/south building lots. In site design, attention should be paid to building heights as well as orientation, if future options for applying solar energy technology are to be retained. Where possible, buildings should be located so they do not shadow other buildings. This is especially important in Edmonton where, because of the northern latitude, the shadows are the longest of any major city in Canada. Landscaping is another aspect of site design which can affect the amount of energy required to heat and cool a residential building. Earth berms, fences and dense plantings of evergreen trees can be placed on a site to shelter the building from winter winds. Deciduous trees planted on the south side of buildings provide shade in the summer but allow the sun through in the winter to warm the building. Policy 15.D.2 The City will prepare a handbook of design guidelines for energy conservation to assist in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals. Discussion

in detail how the design elements listed in Policy 15.D.1 might contribute to energy savings in urban development. The handbook would include examples of projects undertaken in other cities and would assist in the preparation and review of plans and development proposals. It is expected Council would adopt the handbook of energy conservation guidelines, by resolution. Policy 15.D.3 The City will encourage innovative projects which demonstrate opportunities to create an attractive, energy-conserving living environment. Discussion It is proposed that the City encourage projects which

illustrate the opportunities for energy efficiency and conservation in design and planning. These projects shall be prompted through the provisions of the Land Use Bylaw for flexibility in the planning process. Development proposals will not, however, be approved solely on the basis of their energy conserving merits. A residential redevelopment project using solar heating, for example, will also be evaluated in terms of its compatibility with the scale and form of surrounding buildings. The City will strive for the creation of attractive, energy conserving living environments.

It is proposed that the City will prepare a handbook of guidelines for energy conservation which shall outline

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POLICY REPORT #14 HISTORIC PRESERVATION

• • •

• •

1.0 INTRODUCTION The General Municipal Plan growth strategy emphasizes the need to maintain and improve the quality of the urban environment. The preservation of historic buildings and areas can contribute to the achievement of this objective in several important ways: 1. educational and cultural benefits - links with the events and architectural styles of the past; 2. aesthetic benefits - preservation of buildings whose height, bulk and facades are typically very effective in creating attractive pedestrian-oriented spaces on the sidewalk and in public squares; and, 3. economic benefits - opportunity to develop unique office, retail, housing or entertainment projects which enhance property values and generate tourist revenue. At the same time, the implementation of any affirmative program of historic preservation will raise complex financial and legal issues which require careful consideration. Historic preservation has been a subject of public policy in Edmonton for many years. Since 1938, the Edmonton Historical Board and its predecessors have provided advice to City Council regarding the maintenance of public archives, the collection and display of historical artifacts and the purchase of properties or objects of historic significance. In 1974, the Historic Sites Selection Committee was established as a sub-committee of the Edmonton Historical Board to

provide advice and recommendations to Council regarding the protection of historic sites and buildings. In October, 1978, City Council directed the Administration to study the financial and legal implications of an historic preservation program. To carry out this directive, the Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation was established, with representatives from the Civic Administration and interested non-governmental organizations, to prepare policies and guidelines for historic preservation. As well, the Committee is responsible for reviewing the Edmonton Historical Board's terms of reference and, therefore, outlining the Board's future role in the designation of historic sites. The Ad Hoc Committee's report was submitted to Council in early 1980. In determining the degree of detail included in the General Municipal Plan policies regarding historic preservation, it is important to consider the potential contribution of historic preservation to the quality of the environment, the complexity of the legal and fiscal issues involved, and the status of the detailed studies already undertaken to explore these issues. Based on these factors, the General Municipal Plan policies regarding historic preservation have been drafted in such a way as to set out the basic policy objective and describe general principles to be considered in the formulation of detailed policies, programs, procedures and organizational structures for the promotion of historic preservation.

2.0 ISSUES

The discussion of technical issues has been omitted from this Policy Report. A full discussion can be found

in the report summarizing the investigations of the Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation.

14.1


POLICY REPORT #14 HISTORIC PRESERVATION 3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 16.A To promote the preservation of historic buildings, sites and areas in the City of Edmonton. Discussion Since 1938, the City of Edmonton has been actively engaged in efforts to preserve traces of the area's history for educational and cultural purposes. The growth strategy enunciated in the General Municipal Plan emphasizes the need to maintain and enhance the best features of the built environment in developed areas of the city. Historic buildings, sites, and areas serve educational purposes because they are reminders of important events in our history, and provide life-size examples of the architectural styles of the past. Historic buildings enhance the visual quality of the environment because they add variety to the built form and, by virtue of their height and scale, usually create attractive spaces for pedestrians at the street level. In addition, historic buildings offer the opportunity to create unique developments which enhance property values and attract tourist revenue. For these reasons, it is desirable to preserve a portion of the built environment of Edmonton's past. It must be recognized that the degree and type of preservation which is feasible and desirable depends on financial and legal considerations and on the values and sentiments of the population. However, the experiences of other cities in Canada and the United States have shown that the legal and financial issues are not insurmountable, and the residents and Councils of the City of Edmonton have consistently expressed a desire to support historic preservation in one form or another. Therefore, it is appropriate that the objective of historic preservation be stated emphatically as part of the City's overall growth strategy for the future.

Policy 16.A.1 The City shall develop a set of policies and procedures to promote historic preservation and in so doing shall have regard to the following considerations: (a) the establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive inventory of historic resources is a prerequisite for any truly effective program of historic preservation. Discussion In early 1980, the Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation submitted its report to City Council. The structure of municipal programs can be determined most appropriately through the implementation of the Committee's recommendations. However, it is clear certain overall principles should be observed if historic preservation is to make its full contribution to the growth strategy, and these principles are, therefore, described in the General Municipal Plan. An historic preservation program must be selective, and it is difficult to make wise choices if one does not know what there is to select. Without an inventory, buildings of great significance may be lost or unnecessary delays could be caused in the development process, as the historic significance of a building is researched, documented and assessed. From a procedural and administrative point of view, a program of historic preservation cannot operate efficiently without reliable base information.

(b) the formulation of clear criteria to be used in deciding which buildings and areas warrant

14.2


POLICY REPORT #14 HISTORIC PRESERVATION

preservation is needed in order to preserve a representative sample of past development and achieve the maximum benefit from preservation efforts; Discussion

• • • • •

The preservation of any given site on which redevelopment has been proposed may require public expenditure or compensation in some form. To make responsible decisions about the investment of public resources in such cases, it is necessary to have ground rules. These ground rules should be sensitive to factors such as the objectives of the historic preservation program, the significance of a particular building in relation to others of its type, the number of buildings from a category which have already been saved, and the financial or other resources available for compensation. Due to the subtle, subjective nature of historic preservation, it is impossible and undesirable to create a standard set of perfectly objective criteria which would allow decisions to be made automatically. Therefore, the nature of the decision-making process, such as which group is responsible for decisions and whether or not public hearings are involved, eventually may prove to be more significant than the contents or wording of any written criteria. These questions warrant additional consideration. (c) the creative renovation of historic buildings to accommodate modern functions and the preservation of historic buildings in their original condition are both important components of a successful historic preservation program.

Discussion From a historic or educational perspective, there are benefits in preserving a building exactly the way it was at a particular period in the past, especially if the interiors and activities of the past are also recreated, as in Fort Edmonton Park. However, it is unlikely this approach could be used for many buildings. Therefore, in most cases, it would be desirable to retain historic buildings as functioning parts of the city. From a philosophical point of view, this gives the preserved building a special kind of value because people relate to it in their everyday life, just as previous generations have done, rather than on an occasional basis as a museum. As well, retaining the productive function of buildings allows the costs of preservation to be recovered partially, or entirely, from the owner's revenues. Thus, the need for public subsidy could be reduced or eliminated.

(d) the widest possible range of fiscal and legal techniques should be considered to maximize the cost-effectiveness of the City's preservation activities. Discussion The Ad Hoc Committee on Historic Preservation has catalogued a variety of techniques, which have been applied in other cities or proposed in the literature. Many of these techniques offer substantial cost savings in relation to the very effective, but very expensive, method of buying the historic property outright. Some of these techniques are complex in legal and administrative terms, but can be implemented

14.3


POLICY REPORT #14 HISTORIC PRESERVATION successfully if a municipality is prepared to exercise initiative and adjust its procedures accordingly. Given the rapid rate of development in Edmonton, the high costs of preservation, and the limited funds available, it is desirable to refine and implement the most appropriate techniques from among those which have been identified. (e) the provision of a longer review period prior to the issuance of a demolition permit on an historic site is desirable, in order to provide adequate time to assess the historic value of the site and arrange compensation for its preservation, if appropriate; and, Discussion If an historic building is to be saved from demolition, a period of time is necessary to negotiate compensation and/or alternative development schemes. Even if an adequate historic preservation program is in place, it is not possible to anticipate the timing of redevelopment of historic sites. In each case, there are likely to be some issues which can be addressed only when a development proposal has been received. For example, the options available for preservation may depend on the nature and scale of the proposed redevelopment, or on the extent and location of the applicant's other property holdings in the area. Currently, there is provision in Edmonton's development approval process for a ten-day delay in demolition if the property is included on a list of historic sites provided as reference for the Development Officer. This is adequate to ensure structures can be photographed, and movable historic artifacts can be collected and stored. However, ten days is not enough time to discuss the precise details of the options which may be available for the preservation of the building

itself. Many cities have extended the length of time for processing demolition applications to three or six months. The imposition of a three to six-month review period will lengthen the development process to some extent, however, the development industry may be able to adapt by applying for a demolition permit before investing in the preparation of detailed building plans. The impact of a three to six-month period can also be minimized by applying it only to properties on an official list of historically significant sites. (f)

the co-operation and participation of private groups should be actively encouraged to make use of the specialized knowledge and volunteer labour these groups can offer and to ensure that the program reflects the objectives, values and sentiments of the general public to the maximum possible extent.

Discussion Private individuals have made significant voluntary contributions to the work of quasi-governmental agencies, such as the Edmonton Historical Board and its Historic Site Selection Committee, the Old Strathcona Foundation, and the City Archives. In addition, private groups, such as the Old Timers' Association and the Society for the Preservation of Architectural Resources in Edmonton (S.P.A.R.E.), include many individuals who are knowledgeable about Edmonton's history and/or interested in devoting some of their own time to historic preservation. While their membership does not constitute a representative sample of the population, it does include a variety of opinions and offers an opportunity to discuss the trade-offs involved in assessing the historic merit of different sites. By taking advantage of the resources which these groups offer, it is possible to achieve results at a lower administrative cost.

14.4


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING 1.0 INTRODUCTION A General Municipal Plan, by itself, cannot be meaningful or effective if its policies are not implemented and monitored. Therefore, this General Municipal Plan identifies specific mechanisms, such as programs and more detailed statutory plans which will be utilized to implement its policies. The purpose of this Policy Report is to explain the rationale for new

programs proposed in the Plan, to discuss directions for legislative mechanisms permitted by The Planning Act, 1977, that can be used to implement policies of the General Municipal Plan, and to discuss monitoring functions which must be undertaken to keep the Plan relevant to changing situations.

1.1 PLANNING ACT, 1977 The Planning Act, 1977, makes provision for various mechanisms by which the City can regulate the use of land and/or buildings. These mechanisms are: the Land Use Bylaw, Area Structure Plans, Area Redevelopment Plans, subdivision planning, and replotting schemes. The Land Use Bylaw, as provided for in Sections 62 72 of The Planning Act, 1977, is the most significant and direct means to implement the land use strategy and policies on environmental quality contained in the General Municipal Plan. It replaces the functions of Development Control and Zoning permitted by the former Planning Act, which enabled the City to exercise control over land use and development. Area Structure Plans provide a framework or conceptual plan for future subdivisions and development, generally in new suburban areas, to ensure orderly and efficient servicing and development of an area, and the structuring of land use and transportation systems. However, at a more -

refined level, Area Structure Plans will be amended by Neighbourhood Structure Plans, which describe in detail the location of such things as roads, walkways, schools and housing areas. Area Redevelopment Plans are intended to serve as conservation, redevelopment and/or rehabilitation schemes for land and buildings. Given the intended purposes of Area Redevelopment Plans, these plans will have their greatest impact on older, developed parts of the city. Subdivision planning is the process of preparing "plans of subdivision", the legal instruments which bring into effect the subdivision of land. Replotting schemes are processes used to re-subdivide or consolidate an existing subdivision plan or several lots for orderly future development by cancelling existing subdivision plans, making a new subdivision plan, and redistributing the newly-created land among property owners.

1.2 LOCAL POLICY PLAN

The Local Policy Plan is a 5 year, capital and operating programs plan, which is prepared and reviewed annually by the Corporate Policy Planning Office and approved by City Council. The Plan is based on the City's expenditure priorities and financial situation, and identifies departments responsible for program implementation. The Local Policy Plan has been and -

will continue to be a significant instrument by which the City can implement land use policies. By co-ordinating the City's capital and operating programs, the Local Policy Plan can bring the day-to-day operations and short-term capital investment plans of the City into harmony with the strategy of the General Municipal Plan. 15.1


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING 1.3 MONITORING THE PLAN In addition to the initial implementation of General Municipal Plan policies, there is a need for a monitoring program designed to evaluate the relevance of the policies over time and make any necessary adjustments. The absence of a monitoring program will diminish the role of the General Municipal Plan as a

policy vehicle and will inhibit meaningful review, until time has clearly demonstrated the Plan to be outdated. The section on objectives and policies will discuss in more detail the nature and functions of the General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program.

2.0 ISSUES A basic concern with the 1971 General Plan was maintaining the implementability, credibility and relevance of the Plan to current situations until the termination of the planning period. It appears this problem was caused by the lack of a direct linkage between the policies of the 1971 Plan and implementing mechanisms, particularly the operational aspects and priorities of civic government. Moreover, the 1971 General Plan did not contain any structure to monitor the Plan after its adoption or to keep it up-to-date. As a consequence, the Plan quickly

lost its utility and was rarely used by the administration on a day-to-day basis in evaluating the desirability of development proposals. Furthermore, because the Plan did not contain any provision for structuring an information system for monitoring development trends, it became impossible to evaluate the degree to which the Plan had been successful. Therefore, if the General Municipal Plan is to be useful it must be made dynamic, through an implementation and monitoring system which enables the Plan to be utilized and kept up-to-date.

3.0 OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES Objective 17.A To utilize existing programs and establish new programs where required for implementing the General Municipal Plan. Discussion Detailed and comprehensive programming is required to bring about effective implementation of the General Municipal Plan for the following reasons: 1. to provide for more detailed planning and regulation of development to sensitively implement policies of the Plan;

2. to facilitate more ongoing involvement of the private sector in civic affairs; 3. to complement the growth strategy through capital expenditures programming; and, 4. to implement municipal objectives and policies through the day-to-day operations of the civic administration. Such programming is co-ordinated within the City of Edmonton by the Local Policy Plan, which provides a 5-year plan for capital and operating programs.

15.2


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Reviewed and updated annually, the Local Policy Plan allows the City to be highly sensitive and responsive to its ability to implement the General Municipal Plan policies within its financial resources.

Policy 17.A.1 The City will utilize the programs outlined in Chart 17.1 for implementing the General Municipal Plan.

Discussion The General Municipal Plan Implementation Program, together with the Corporate Policy Planning Office, will help to maintain continuity between the General Municipal Plan and directives to specific departments regarding requirements, to ensure appropriate and thorough programs are established.

Policy 17.A.3 Discussion The two types of programs, operating and capital programs, outlined in Chart 17.1, are important functions in the processes of plan preparation, policy refinement, and delivery of goods and services. Most of the operating programs listed in Chart 17.1 are programs which exist within the civic administration. However, some of them will be required to shift their orientation in carrying out their functions, such as the requirements of the Corporate Policy Planning Office (C.P.P.O.) to co-ordinate servicing and utilities programs with the land use strategy and any District Plans. Other operating programs, such as District Planning, are new and proposed to facilitate the sensitive implementation of General Municipal Plan policies, and to refine guidelines or criteria.

Policy 17.A.2 Specifically, the City will establish the General Municipal Plan Implementation Program to co-ordinate, in conjunction with the Corporate Policy Planning Office, the delegation of responsibility to program managers to implement the policies of the General Municipal Plan.

Specifically, the City will also establish the following new programs: (a) District Planning Program; (b) Citizen Participation Program; (c) Development Industry Liaison Committee Program; and, (d) General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program. Discussion These are the four key new programs recommended in the General Municipal Plan. Each of the proposals is discussed in more detail in other Policy Reports; they are only highlighted in this section. 1. District Planning Program This will be undertaken for different sectors of the city, both new and old, to help resolve some of the problems which transcend the boundaries of new and old areas. It will also help enable more detailed plans to be prepared, which are necessary to implement the policy shifts of the General Municipal Plan more rapidly and sensitively;

15.3


Chart 17.1 Plan Implementation Programs

New/ Existing

Major Coordinating Responsibility: Input Responsibility * Input from all Civic Departments as Part of the Plan Process

Timing 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Cross Reference

Operating 1. Land Use Planning and Control Programs N (a) District Planning (b) Area and Neighbourhood E Structure Plans (c) Area Redevelopment E Plans E (d) Downtown Plan E (e) Land Use Bylaw (f) River Valley Area (E)/N Redevelopment Plan

PLANNING *

17.0

PLANNING " PLANNING * PLANNING *

110■■■■■

17.B 6.D 17.D

110■11.1■•■■

9.C.1, 11.A

(in conjunction with District Plans)

5.F, 9.C.1

(contingent on Annexation)

(g) Sector Studies (h) Regional Industrial Land Strategy

N N

PLANNING *

2. Land Use Planning Studies (a) Urban Design Guidelines Handbook

N

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation

111■1

7.A.1

15.A.8, 15.D.2

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation, Social Services

15.A.10

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation

12.A.2, 12.A.3

N

PLANNING *

7.D.1

N

PLANNING *

(c) Ecological Land Planning and Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines (d) Industrial Land Use District and Designation Study

3.A.1, 17.A.3

PLANNING *

PLANNING; Parks and Recreation PLANNING *

(b) Design Handbooks — newly developing areas

110■•■■•■

3. Citizen Participation

Program

110■N■i■o■ill■

4.A.1, 13.A.2, 17.A.3

15.4


Chart 17.1 (cont.) Plan Implementation Programs

• Programs

• • • • •

New/ Existing

Major Coordinating Responsibility: Input Responsibility *Input from all Civic Departments as Part of the Plan Process

4. Development Industry Liaison Committee

PLANNING *

5. Annexation Application

COMMISSION BOARD

6. Input to Edmonton Regional Planning Commission

PLANNING *

7. Public Services Programs and Studies (a) Human Development Strategy (b) Parks Master Plan

(E)/N

SOCIAL SERVICES; Planning PARKS AND RECREATION *

Timing 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Cross Reference

4.A.4, 17.A.3 As required

1.A.5, 1.B.1, 14.A

1.A.3

13.A.1

111101■■1

11111■11

10.A

8. General Municipal Plan Implementation

PLANNING *

17.A.2

9. General Municipal Plan Monitoring

PLANNING *

17.A.3, 18.A.1

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFFICE *

9 A 1 17.A

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

1C, 7.G

10. Local Policy Plan

11. Business Development Programs 12. Transportation System Plan 13. Coordination of Servicing Program

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM DESIGN; Planning

110■•

8.A

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFICE *

9.C.1

14. Engineering Operating

Program

ENGINEERING

I

4

8A 4 8B4

15.5


Chart 17.1 (cont.) Plan Implementation Programs

Programs

New/ Existing

15. Transit Operating Programs

18. Information Base Programs

19. Property Management Programs

Timing 1980 1981

EDMONTON TRANSIT BYLAW ENFORCEMENT *; Transportation System Design

16. Parking Authority

17. Housing Targets

Major Coordinating Responsibilty: Input Responsibilty * Input from all Civic Departments as Part of the Plan Process

(E)/N

Cross Reference

1982 1983 1984 1985

8.B.1, 8.C.1 11111■1

8.C.2

PLANNING/REAL ESTATE & HOUSING

5.D.1

MANAGEMENT STUDIES, SYSTEMS AND BUDGET; Planning

18.A.4, 18.A.5

REAL ESTATE & HOUSING

6.A.9

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFICE *

1.A.4, 1.B.2, 9.B

ENGINEERING EDMONTON TRANSIT

8.A.4, 8.B.4 8.B.1, 8.C.1

REAL ESTATE & HOUSING

5.A.6, 5.H.1

REAL ESTATE & HOUSING; Planning

5.H

CORPORATE POLICY PLANNING OFFICE

13.A.4

PARKS AND RECREATION PARKS AND RECREATION

10.B 10.A.3, 10.A.5, 11.A

Capital 1. Land Servicing Programs 2. Engineering Capital Programs 3. Transit Capital Programs 4. Land Acquisition and Disposition 5. Housing Construction Programs 6. Public Facility Construction Program 7. Park Development Programs 8. Park Land Acquisition

Note: The cross-reference section of this chart only indicates the primary policies which recommend the establishment or use of a program. Secondary cross-referencing as outlined in the text of Volume I is not included.

15.6

• • • • •


• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING 2. Citizen Participation Program Provision for the continuous involvement of concerned citizens can lead to greater support for plans. This program will be required to deal with issues which will emerge after the approval of the General Municipal Plan and District Planning Program; 3. Development Industry Liaison Committee Program The role of the business sector is central to the implementation of the growth strategy. Formal consultation of the development industry from the outset of detailed land use policy formulation can ensure support of the business sector in meeting municipal objectives. Therefore, the Liaison

Committee Program is one of the key means of implementing the General Municipal Plan policies; and, 4. General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program The General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program, as discussed in more detail in Policy 18.A.1 of this report, is proposed as a vehicle by which the relevance of the Plan can be ensured. Through the establishment of information systems, evaluation of development trends, and preparation of amendments, efforts will be directed to adjust the Plan to reflect critical changes in factors such as population growth or land absorption.

Objective 17.B To utilize Area Redevelopment Plans, as provided for by Sections 63-65 of The Planning Act, 1977, as a means of providing detailed direction to the implementation of policies of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan, and direction to land use regulations on specific sites within developed areas or parcels of the city. Discussion Sections 63 65 of The Planning Act, 1977, make provisions for the use of Area Redevelopment Plans, which are intended primarily to plan for redevelopment and/or rehabilitation schemes for land and buildings in an area where only limited subdivision of land is required or intended. -

As statutory plans, Area Redevelopment Plans will ensure development in an area is consistent with the City's long range development objectives. Area

Redevelopment Plans must conform to the General Municipal Plan and Land Use Bylaw. Conformity with the General Municipal Plan is intended to ensure consistency with the City's long range development goals, while conformity with the Land Use Bylaw means the City must ensure its development objectives can be implemented through development regulations. As such, the Area Redevelopment Plan can be an instrumental mechanism in bringing about conformity between the General Municipal Plan and Land Use Bylaw. With regard to clauses in The Planning Act, 1977, requiring conformity between Area Redevelopment Plans and the Land Use Bylaw, it is suggested such clauses should be implemented in a manner which does not limit the scope of area plans by the structure of the Land Use Bylaw. Without such an interpretation, the Area Redevelopment Plan process would be limited in

15.7


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING its ability to deal with growth and development issues by the planning principles, and issues which were paramount at the time the Land Use Bylaw was adopted. Policy 17.B.1

The City will undertake the preparation of Area Redevelopment Plans as a means of directing the preservation, rehabilitation, and/or redevelopment of developed areas of the city, as outlined on Map 17.1, in conformity with the intent of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan policies, the Land Use Bylaw and other relevant municipal policies. Discussion Area Redevelopment Plans are intended to implement objectives for the renewal and preservation of land and/or buildings in the urban environment through a variety of approaches. These plans will have their most important impact in older, developed areas of the city; particularly given the growth strategy of the General Municipal Plan. There are situations where Area Redevelopment Plans can also be used in newly developing areas of the city, such as the redevelopment of older country residential subdivisions, as the city expands it boundary. However, the use of Area Redevelopment Plans in new suburban growth areas will be limited to situations where low intensity or incompatible land uses are to be encouraged to redevelop as more suitable and intensive urban uses. Given that the use of Area Redevelopment Plans in the suburban areas will be limited, suburban areas have not been included in Map 17.1 outlining areas potentially suitable for Area Redevelopment Plans. Instead, it is proposed that amendments to Map 17.1 of the General Municipal Plan be made as required.

Policy 17.B.2 The City will consider the use of Area Redevelopment Plans for portions of new suburban areas where older, inefficient forms of land use require adjustment to enable the development of a viable and integrated community around it. Discussion

In situations where existing forms of development are to be changed to achieve more intensive land use and an integration within a new suburban neighbourhood, community or area, it is suggested Area Redevelopment Plans might be utilized. Such an approach would be particularly desirable in allowing the City to partially recapture the costs of providing higher levels and quality of services and facilities to such properties (through the redevelopment levy). It is likely the use of Area Redevelopment Plans in these situations will involve relatively small land parcels and require replotting schemes to implement proposals for future public rights-of-way or public land dedication.

Policy 17.B.3 The City will, where appropriate, simultaneously adopt portions of District Plans as amendments to the General Municipal Plan and as Area Redevelopment Plans for the purpose of implementing The Planning Act, 1977. Discussion

District Plans are proposed to promote delivery of detailed planning services to different areas of the city more rapidly, in order to have comprehensive land use plans in place to sensitively guide development toward the implementation of the General Municipal Plan growth strategy. District Plans have no specific status

15.8


• • • • •

URBAN RIVER VALLEY

z. eiNeE

7:

_

211.10. -12.9.A.S.mr=atio_116- _ !i. l ■-joiltAresinaallgrir01141.7F41r-57.51,

Uri\

5111PIONOM

MAP 17.1 AREAS SUITABLE FOR AREA REDEVELOP MENT PLANS

TA]

O

N

2


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING under The Planning Act, 1977, and it is, therefore, proposed that District Plans be adopted as amendments to the General Municipal Plan Bylaw. However, only adopting District Plans as amendments to the General Municipal Plan Bylaw will limit the City's ability to implement provisions of The Planning Act, 1977, in particular, the redevelopment levy provisions which will be required for financing additional park space requirements in the inner city. Therefore, portions of the District Plans applying to areas in which substantial redevelopment will take place, should also be adopted as Area Redevelopment Plans. Areas which require further detailed planning, particularly design, and/or integration guidelines prior to permitting development, such as L.R.T. station areas or other density nodes, will have separate Area Redevelopment Plans prepared. District Plans will identify such areas and priorities for plan preparation based on the likelihood and urgency of redevelopment.

Policy 17.B.4 The preparation of Area Redevelopment Plans shall adhere to the requirements of Section 65 of The Planning Act, 1977, and shall further indicate: (a) the location, timing and form of development, consistent with the policies of the General

Municipal Plan and any District Plan regarding transportation objectives, urban environmental design objectives, and park space allocation objectives; (b) implementation strategy for proposals relating to the staging of redevelopment, methods and guidelines of land use control, particularly where direct control is envisaged, and the financing of capital improvements; and, (c) environmental, social and economic impacts of proposals and how any detrimental impacts will be minimized. Discussion The content requirements of Area Redevelopment Plans are set out by Section 65 of The Planning Act, 1977. Given the intent to develop Area Redevelopment Plans through the District Plan process, the responsibility of Area Redevelopment Plans will be similar to those assigned to District Plans. However, where a District Plan recommends to undertake a smaller Area Redevelopment Plan, so as to consider detailed design schemes prior to establishing development guidelines, the additional functions and requirements of Area Redevelopment Plans will be assigned by District Plans.

Objective 17.0 To utilize Area Structure Plans, as provided for by Section 62 of The Planning Act, 1977, as a means of establishing a framework for the subdivision and development of new suburban areas and, in special cases, for redevelopment within developed areas of the city, with the policies of the General Municipal Plan, any District Plan and other relevant municipal and provincial policies or legislation.

Discussion The main purpose of Area Structure Plans is to provide a framework or conceptual plan to guide subdivision and development. There is a rather obvious need for such plans in the initial development phase of new suburban areas, in particular, with regard to the sequencing of service delivery and municipal expenditures. 15.10


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING In developed areas, the need for Area Structure Plans will be limited, since re-subdivision is not that prevalent. However, where there is a need to guide specifically the timing of any development proposal which involves re-subdivision of an existing parcel, so as to closely regulate its development, there may be a legitimate role for Area Structure Plans to play. In other instances where specific control of timing is not deemed necessary, conventional replot processes could be used. Policy 17.C.1

The City will undertake or require the preparation of Area Structure Plans prior to the approval of any neighbourhood plan or subdivision application in any area for which a District Outline Plan, as providedfor under the Planning Act, 1970, has not been prepared or approved. As indicated in Map 17.2, no suburban growth areas within the corporate limits of the City of Edmonton, as of August, 1979, are without approved plans or plans well advanced in the preparation and approval stages. Discussion The use of an Area Structure Plan is necessary to guide subdivision and development, by taking into account specific site contexts and constraints as well as applying the principles of the General Municipal Plan, and in the future, any District Plan. There are no areas remaining in the City for which Area Structure Plans are not in the planning stage or have been approved. Several areas developing in the late 1970's were planned as District Outline Plans under the Planning Act, 1970. However, any lands annexed to the city in the future will require Area Structure Plans as the basis for subdivision and development.

Policy 17.C.2 The City may undertake or require the preparation of Area Structure Plans within the developed portion of the city for large areas not developed to an intensity of urban usage. Discussion The Planning Act, 1977, specifically indicates that the role of Area Structure Plans is to guide future subdivision and development. Under the definition of development in the Act, this can also apply to redevelopment where existing structures are to be demolished, and a lot or lots are to be re-subdivided. However, the same thing may be accomplished through an Area Redevelopment Plan and replotting scheme. Therefore, in order to maintain some distinction and clarification between the various tools available to implement the General Municipal Plan, it is proposed that the use of Area Structure Plans for developed or older areas of the city be restricted to cases where the subject land is not developed to any intensity characteristic of urban areas. For example, Area Structure Plans might be used in the redevelopment of rail yards.

Policy 17.C.3 The City will identify priority areas for public-initiated Area Structure Plans during the preparation of District Plans, where potential difficulties in servicing and transportation require initiation of public plans for an area. Discussion Although all areas of the city are at least well into the planning phase of Area Structure Plans or already have

15.11


INN CASTLE DOWNS PLAN Approved — January, 1972

EDMONTON NORTH AREA STRUCTURE PLAN Red": • —

MI STEELE HEIGHTS PLAN Approved May. 1972

CLAREVIEW PLAN Approved August. -

IlrairectEllaffeimil

lintlritallh_i_ Illarr al 121111110M2EISIIIIIII

'' ' 'ff,M, , V„,.:larritilEITETKIIIITIFZE401 FILTir de 4=Aturieliyinziernm elailikribigh.xl!Pillill

. .0:111 :'22.1 in T-Tuutliimg-RiERNIO. ■3.121 ma Ppm ,„, r n r \ ..ail4:1 fir I.-1Z p.1i

lip.

MINI HERMITAGE PLAN NM NORTHWEST INDUSTRIAL PLAN NM WEST JASPER PLACE PLAN MI WEST JASPER PLACE ,

Approved — May, 1974

Approved — May, 1972

North Area Structure Pid• •i, r

T r a r i n ft

111-111 . MI

04116 ••••

A

4 s a'

'.

so

oved — May. 1970

11.111

r rr

•une, 1979

WEST JASPER PLACE South Area Structure Plan Scheduled For City Council — August, 1979

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RIVERBEND AREA STRUCTURE PLAN Bylaw Received First And Se, Reading — June, 1979

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SOUTHEAST INDUSTRIAL PLAN Approved — March, 1975

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KASKITAYO PLAN roved — October. 1973

INDUSTRIAL PLAN I= SOUTH :)roved —

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ILLWOODS PLAN Approved —

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MAP 17.2 COMPLETED DISTRICT OUTLINE AND AREA STRUCTURE PLANS Tay


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MAP 17.3 AREAS SUITABLE FOR AREA STRUCTURE PLANS 1

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING approved Area Structure Plans, potential areas for Area Structure Plans may result from annexation. New annexed areas will be considered within the District Plan process through the preparation of Sector Plans, which inventory existing physical conditions and identify servicing and transportation requirements for various types of urban development. Sector Plans will also be responsible for determining the approximate timing of development in new areas, as well as identifying potential configurations or spatial divisions for Area Structure Plans. During the preparation of District Plans, it will be important to consider the following problems which might be encountered in the development of annexed areas: 1. government land ownership; 2. fragmentation of private ownership; and, 3. particular environmental problems. These problems could disrupt or prevent adequate comprehensive planning to occur where or when intermediary lands are not planned or held off the market. In instances where problems appear imminent, City-initiated Area Structure Plans should be considered, in consultation with property owners. Policy 1 7. C.4 The preparation of Area Structure Plans shall adhere to the requirements of Section 62(2) of The Planning Act, 1977, and shall further indicate: (a) existing conditions in terms of land use, transportation, natural environment and social and economic characteristics of existing population; (b) the environmental, social and economic impacts of land use proposals;

(c) the conceptual identification or designation of functional areas such as neighbourhoods, the distribution of residential development by type and density, commercial districts, industrial districts, and parks and institutional uses in accord with the policies and principles of the General Municipal Plan and any District Plan; and, (d) any information on public land requirements. Policy 1 7. C. 5 The City will undertake or require the preparation of Neighbourhood Structure Plan Bylaws, to be adopted as amendments to Area Structure Plan Bylaws, as a basis for approving subdivision applications, which plans shall indicate: (a) existing conditions in terms of land use, ownership, transportation and the natural environment; (b) identify sub-units which can be demonstrated to be serviced at certain stages; (c) identify residential, commercial or industrial density in total and ranges by any specified sub-units; (d) identify actual location of major transportation system components and conditionally identify internal circulation for auto, LRT, and pedestrians; (e) identify actual location for major utility infrastructure; (f) designate land uses and land use districts for each subdivision unit; (g) outline public land requirement statistics; and, (h) identify implementation procedures regarding phasing and mechanics of subdivision.

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Discussion The contents of Area Structure Plans must be sufficiently comprehensive to adequately address the concerns of the General Municipal Plan policies, as well as meet all the requirements of Section 62 of The Planning Act, 1977, the Regional Plan, the Land Use Bylaw, and regulations pursuant to the Act. To do so, an understanding of the existing physical, social and economic conditions is required. Therefore, any land use proposal for an area should be supported by an impact assessment, which thoroughly documents the implications of the proposal on existing conditions, and identifies measures to minimize the anticipated negative impacts. The proper level to undertake such a detailed analysis will be the initial Area Structure Plan, as this level provides the intermediate link between the General Municipal Plan and the Neighbourhood Structure Plan. Area Structure Plans also deal with the basic and primary design decisions for a new area including, in both qualitative and quantitative terms, the different land uses, transportation, services and utilities, density and development sequence, as well as how the

development of these components will occur. These decisions are required to ensure sufficient facilities are provided for the optimal function of the area. The City's Terms of Reference for the preparation of Area Structure Plans, approved by the Municipal Planning Commission in July, 1979, ensure such decisions are based on detailed support materials pertaining to the different components that make up the physical, social and economic fabric of the area, so as to result in as comprehensive, harmonious and functional a plan as possible. The factors outlined in Policy 17.C.5 are intended only to highlight the key points in the Terms of Reference approved by the Municipal Planning Commission. Neighbourhood Structure Plans, on the other hand, provide the linkage between Area Structure Plans and the plans of subdivision which bring into effect the division of land, as required by The Planning Act, 1977. The contents are essentially the same as that identified in the corresponding Area Structure Plan, except that they are more specifically identified on the basis of more detailed information available at the level of neighbourhood units, and indicate the Land Use Bylaw districts which will be used to regulate development.

Objective 17.D To regulate the development of land through the preparation and adoption of a new Land Use Bylaw which embodies the intent of the principles outlined in the policies of the General Municipal Plan and any statutory or District Plans, where appropriate, and achieves an appropriate balance between the desires to provide for certainty, flexibility, equity, and environmental quality in land use regulation.

Discussion The Land Use Bylaw is established, under Sections 66-72 of The Planning Act, 1977, as the legislative tool by which the use and development of land and/or buildings will be regulated or controlled. It is, therefore, the pivotal instrument for implementing many of the General Municipal Plan policies.

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Many of the General Municipal Plan policies can be effected by the types of regulations established in the Land Use Bylaw: from the latter's ability to encourage more family-oriented multiple housing in the redeveloping inner city areas, to its ability to achieve a high quality of urban environment, through required standards for the design of buildings and open space. The requirements of the Land Use Bylaw are also instrumental in meeting the following objectives with regard to land use regulations: 1. certainty in terms of the development expectations and the process of change in the Bylaw; 2. flexibility in terms of performance standards, such as varying separation spaces between buildings according to the locations of windows and habitable rooms. Such flexibility in the Land Use Bylaw enables the private sector to pursue their objectives in innovative forms; 3. equity, in terms of fair treatment of divergent interests, through open public consultation; 4. environmental quality, through urban design and environmental protection requirements; and, 5. practicality in terms of ease and clarity of administration. The preparation of the Land Use Bylaw must ensure all of the above objectives are achieved, to meet the divergent interests and needs of the private sector and the public.

Policy 17.D.1 The City will incorporate into the Land Use Bylaw regulations or clauses which accommodate the residential and commercial density guidelines and requirements as outlined under Objectives 5.B, 5.C, and 6.D.

Discussion

The density and intensity guidelines outlined under Objectives 5.B, 5.C, and 6.D are presented primarily to guide more detailed planning, such as District Plans, Area Redevelopment Plans, and Area Structure Plans. These guidelines express objectives for integrating different types of development, which detailed plans will evaluate in particular contexts. Generally, the guidelines are consistent with the regulations of the Land Use Bylaw.

Policy 17.D.2 The City will establish performance objectives, standards and/or tests pertaining to such matters as density, yard and setback requirements, and floor area ratio, where feasible and desirable, to provide flexibility in guiding land use decisions towards the implementation of statutory plan objectives. Performance criteria in the Land Use Bylaw should be specifically directed towards the desire to achieve the following types of objectives: (a) the promotion of compatible, functional, and scale relationships between different land uses and densities, in accord with the policies of statutory plans; (b) the promotion of high environmental standards in relationships between uses usually perceived as being incompatible; (c) the promotion of mixed use developments which include the provision of housing in major activity areas such as the Downtown, L.R.T. station areas and suburban town centres; (d) the promotion of multiple unit housing projects which include provision of units with qualities desirable for child-rearing families, such as direct

15.16


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING at-grade access to units and private outdoor amenity space; (e) the retention of structures of historic significance; and, (f) the promotion of cost and energy efficient site planning and building design. Discussion There are several areas of concern in land use control where greater flexibility should be encouraged as a means of addressing critical issues in innovative ways, which will allow for more compact and resource efficient developments, while maintaining a high quality of living environment. Performance criteria, essentially an open-ended approach, enables the kind of flexibility required by demanding only that a specified objective be satisfied, without spelling out how this is to be achieved. It is, therefore, up to the applicant to decide the methods to be used in order to achieve a certain objective. To realize the objective of allowing for more compact and resource efficient development while maintaining a high quality of living environment, more refined knowledge and understanding of the relationships between different land uses, building forms and elements of design are required. As such, performance criteria will evolve over time, to some extent, as new techniques are developed. Performance criteria can be used as potential incentives to meet the policy objectives of the General Municipal Plan, such as in promoting compatible relationships among different land use activities and densities, both between sites and on sites, to encourage energy efficient site and building design.

The ways in which municipal objectives can be met are likely to change over time. As an example, energy efficient land use planning is an area of growing importance, which has implications to development regulations. For instance, yard and height requirements limit the flexibility in orienting the direction of structures on lots to maximize energy efficiency or to ensure access to sunlight. It is anticipated District Plans and Area Structure Plans will give additional consideration and direction to performance criteria as related to objectives that are important to specific areas, thereby making them more sophisticated and responsive to the conditions and requirements of specific areas. Policy 17.D.3

The City will utilize administrative discretion for the purpose of providing flexibility to allow minor variances to the regulations of the Land Use Bylaw. However, administrative discretion should be limited in scope by: (a) establishing objective tests or standards wherever feasible and desirable; and, (b) establishing appeal procedures with means to inform the public and special interest groups of the rationale for, or points on which administrative decisions have been made, with the basis for appeal, and of the mechanical requirements such as place, time, etc. of public hearings. Discussion Administrative discretion is an essential ingredient in dealing with minor contraventions of the regulations of the Land Use Bylaw, to provide flexibility in the Bylaw where insignificant changes are required to allow otherwise acceptable developments to proceed.

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• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING The degree of discretion that can be exercised is of concern, however, where wide-ranging variances are permitted, thereby undermining Council's right to establish and maintain land use policy. Therefore, the Land Use Bylaw should establish some guidelines for discretionary aspects, such as height, density and intensity, through the use of performance criteria and tests or standards. The use of administrative discretion is usually accompanied by the rights of appeal, either because of legal requirements of The Planning Act, 1977, or because of political desirability to maintain equitable treatment of individuals in an open forum. Therefore, where such discretion is exercised, rigorous public information requirements should be followed to inform the public where and when appeals may be initiated.

Policy 17.D.4 The City will undertake action to maintain its predominant role in land use regulation by encouraging the Development Appeal Board to use the following guidelines: (a) variance from maximum height and floor area ratio should not exceed 25% of the land use district regulation; (b) the general purpose of the land use district must be maintained; and, (c) a variance shall only be permitted in the case of unnecessary hardship or practical difficulties which are not shared in common with other lands regulated by the same land use district.

Discussion

Section 83(3) of The Planning Act, 1977, establishes the authority of the Development Appeal Board to resolve areas of conflict in land use and development. However, the degree of latitude provided by Section 83(3)(c) of The Planning Act, 1977, is of particular concern, since the authority of the Development Appeal Board to exercise its option may seriously infringe on Council's right to establish and maintain land use policy. To ensure Council maintains its primary role in land use policy, it is proposed that the degree of discretionary authority to be exercised by the Development Appeal Board be guided by policies of the General Municipal Plan. It is, therefore, proposed that the Development Appeal Board be encouraged to limit approvals to that of granting minor variances which do not contravene the general intent of the land use districts. The granting of variance is understood to be relative action. It is the intent herein that leeway be provided where a situation would otherwise create hardship. To this end, only one guideline has been provided to the Development Appeal Board. In the case of building intensity and height, the maximum variance from the land use district regulation in question should be 25%. This allows for ample latitude where required. The alternative available for any variation which is not of a minor nature is an application for rezoning. In addition, under the provisions of Section 83(3)(c)(ii) of The Planning Act, 1977, any variances permitted must not be in conflict with the type of uses prescribed by the applicable land use districts for the land and/or building.

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Policy 17.D.5 The City will utilize the direct control powers, as permitted by Section 68 of The Planning Act, 1977, on a limited basis where: (a) approved statutory plans have identified the need to exercise detailed control, on specific sites or groups of sites, over: i) the aggregate relationship of building placement and mass for reasons of urban design; ii) the relationship of new building forms to those building forms of historic and/or cultural significance; iii) land use relationships within multi-use centres; and, iv) where the approved statutory plans have itemized development criteria and/or regulations for evaluating development proposals;

(b) comprehensively designed developments, under one ownership, which are compatible in use, scale and intensity with developments permitted in the surrounding districts, but which cannot achieve the desired level of integration with surrounding sites, or different uses on a specific site if regulated by conventional districts in the Land Use Bylaw, and for which detailed physical, economic and social impact assessments are provided prior to designation; (c) large scale, comprehensively designed sites, envisaged for subdivision for multiple ownership, proposed for development to a variety of uses and buildings which will be implemented within a five-year staging period;

(d) Council wishes to temporarily limit development to allow the preparation of replotting schemes or Area Redevelopment Plans when present land use designation and existing uses are deemed inappropriate; and, (e) lands are affected by legislation by the Provincial or Federal Governments and development proposals are submitted which do not conform to the provision of superior legislation and therefore fall within the realm of municipal jurisdiction. Discussion

Direct control is permitted by Section 68 of The Planning Act, 1977, where City Council has adopted a General Municipal Plan. The purpose of direct control is to exercise "particular control" over land use and development. This means that, in special cases, the fine level of detail in information required to achieve land use objectives, can only be determined on and applied on a site-by-site basis. Direct control will likely be cumbersome administratively, thereby requiring the selective or strategic use of the technique. Three types of direct control districts, as described under (a), (b), and (c), are intended to provide flexibility in accommodating projects of merit which, because of their complexity, cannot be dealt with under conventional land use districts, or.require a fine level of control to meet the objectives of statutory plans. The remaining two types of direct control districts are intended to provide Council with some influence over areas in the process of planning, or land under the jurisdiction or senior government legislation. Thus, in areas which are undergoing a planning process, direct control can serve as a means of preventing undesirable changes until the plan is approved. However, such control should be temporary in nature so as not to interfere with development rights. 15.19


POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Policy 17.D.6 The City will, as part of the information required on redistricting (rezoning) applications, undertake and/or require assessments outlining: (a) relationship/compliance to approved statutory plans or special policy reports;

• • • • •

(b) relationship/compliance to statutory plans or replots in progress; (c) compatiblity with surrounding context in terms of land use function and scale of development; (d) relationship to, or impacts on, services such as water and sewage systems, public transit and other utilities, and public facilities such as parks and schools; (e) relationship to, or resolution of, municipal land, right-of-way or easement requirements; (f)

potential precedent and/or effect on stability, retention. and rehabilitation of desirable existing uses and/or buildings in the area;

(g) necessity and appropriateness of proposed zoning district in view of the applicant's stated intentions;

(h) relationship to the concerns/views of area residents in the review of the application; and, (i) other factors determined by City Council. Discussion All proposed changes to land use district designations on specific sites should be reviewed in accord with the policies of the Edmonton Regional Plan and applicable statutory plans so as to achieve public land use objectives. Different factors should be considered in determining the compatibility and acceptability of any proposed changes to Land Use Bylaw districts, such as impacts on services and facilities and the relationship of the proposed changes to potential changes that may occur as a result of the eventual development. The above factors are a checklist of concerns to be addressed by the Administration and City Council in evaluating redistricting (rezoning) proposals. Reports and analyses will be completed by the Administration. Any information required of the applicant will be as set out in the Land Use Bylaw.

Objective 18.A To ensure that the strategy in the General Municipal Plan maintains its relevance to current issues and development trends, and is adjusted as necessary.

Policy 18.A.1 The City will establish a General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program with the following functions:

(a) evaluation of development and redistricting (rezoning) proposals, transportation and utility plans for consistency with the General Municipal Plan; (b) establishing an information system for the monitoring of development trends;

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING (c) evaluating development trends for consistency with the General Municipal Plan and for unforeseen impacts, to determine if the strategy is being implemented;

2. monitoring the daily list of development applications and commenting, where appropriate, on those which might be subject to appeal to the Development Appeal Board;

(d) co-ordinating and recommending amendments to the Plan necessary to keep the Plan up-to-date; and,

3. monitoring rezoning applications and commenting on them from the perspective of policies in the Plan;

(e) monitoring Council policy, in conjunction with the Corporate Policy Planning Office, for consistency with the General Municipal Plan.

4. monitoring the progress of statutory plan preparation, providing advice as requested, and reviewing all plans for conformity with the General Municipal Plan; and,

Discussion

5. monitoring district plans and reviewing them for conformity with the General Municipal Plan.

The General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program is proposed as an administrative vehicle by which the relevance of the Plan can be maintained over time. The monitoring program is anticipated to become the specific responsibility of a branch and section of the Planning Department. The activities of the monitoring program are aimed primarily at ensuring conformity between actions, such as plans and development proposals and the General Municipal Plan, and undertaking periodic review of development trends to determine the effectiveness of the Plan, and recommending changes when necessary. If the General Municipal Plan is to be effective, it must be capable of providing general direction to the day-to-day planning and decision-making activities. It is, therefore, proposed that the General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program be given the responsbility of undertaking on-going evaluation, such as: 1. monitoring land use change to determine the degree to which the General Municipal Plan is being implemented;

A second aspect essential to any monitoring program is the ability to adjust the General Municipal Plan to reflect critical changes in population, housing, employment and land absorption factors. To achieve this objective, it is first essential to establish an adequate information system, so that an up-to-date picture of the impact of recent developments on various areas of the City can be obtained. As discussed under Policy 18.A.4, information systems, such as the Geographic Base Information System and Land and Property Records System, are being developed within the Civic Administration. The most significant step or task in a monitoring program is the analysis of information pertaining to key areas, such as population and development activity, and the evaluation of General Municipal Plan policies in light of such findings. This analytical and evaluation function will, therefore, be a principal function of the monitoring program. It is tentatively suggested that the

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• • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING analysis be brought together in an annual report for presentation to City Council. Based on the results of analysis and discussion of potential implications, Council support should be sought for initiating any amendments to, or review of, the General Municipal Plan. Initial factors suggested to assist in evaluating the growth strategy are as follows: 1. Inner city and suburban residential growth rate: percent and number of units per year in Area Structure Plan Areas, the Downtown and the inner city; 2. Densities: monitoring of densities in suburban and inner city areas; 3. Office decentralization: monitoring of office and retail space by district, including the Downtown and suburban areas (square metres); 4. Land absorption rates: monitoring of industrial and residential land absorption; 5. Impact on traffic congestion: monitoring of traffic congestion; 6. Impact on schools: monitoring of school enrollments; and, 7. General evaluation criteria: monitoring of trends in growth variables such as population, housing starts and employment growth. Another important task of the monitoring program would be the review and evaluation of policies and plans prepared to further refine the General Municipal Plan or to meet the requirements of The Planning Act, 1977. As indicated under Policies 18.A.2 and 18.A.3, this is an essential function, to ensure consistency in land use policy and to bring about increased awareness of the implications of modifications to the Plan.

Policy 18.A.2

The City will ensure that all policies or plans proposed for adoption as City policy are consistent with the General Municipal Plan or that amendments to the General Municipal Plan, whether additions or deletions, are initiated prior to final endorsement or approval of policies or plans which are inconsistent with the General Municipal Plan. Discussion New policies and plans will be required to carry out Council's concern in land use regulation. Such actions should be reviewed, under the General Municipal Plan Monitoring Program, to ensure consistency with General Municipal Plan objectives. Where desirable policies or plans are proposed which are inconsistent with the General Municipal Plan, amendments should be initiated. It is suggested amendments be initiated prior to approval of inconsistent policies or plans, to ensure their broader implications are fully understood and endorsed.

Policy 18.A.3 The City will, in amending the General Municipal Plan, seek the advice of the Municipal Planning Commission. All requests to amend the Plan will be made to or by the Planning Department and then forwarded to City Council through the Municipal Planning Commission. Discussion The Municipal Planning Commission has a major responsibility in the preparation and implementation of planning policy. The Commission is a critical review stage which brings to bear the expertise of all civic departments in evaluating policies. By using the

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Commission to advise City Council on amendments to the General Municipal Plan, a comprehensive evaluation of the implications of amendments to the principles of the growth strategy should be ensured.

Policy 18.A.4 The City will actively pursue the development of the Geographic-Base Information System and the Property and Demographic Information System as the means of facilitating the economic and flexible monitoring of development trends over the long run. Discussion To facilitate economic, efficient, and flexible monitoring and evaluation of the General Municipal Plan, an adequate information system is required. The development of an information system is an absolute prerequisite to establishing an initial data base and monitoring change. The key objective in developing the information system should be to develop the capacity to produce statistical summaries of different measures of development activity, using efficient computerized methods, with the maximum possible flexibility to accommodate variable user demands. Ultimately, the system should be developed to the point where: 1. summaries can be obtained for any index of development activity such as:

3. demolitions can be tabulated as well as construction; 4. it is possible to distinguish readily between different

types of commercial uses, office and retail, and to measure the floorspace devoted to each; and, 5. summaries can be produced automatically for any standard or special aerial unit, period of time, type of development, or type of permit, or any combination thereof.

Policy 18.A.5 The City will, in the short-term, obtain information for monitoring development trends from information requirements on development applications. Discussion Over the short term, the monitoring of development trends will be based principally on summaries of development applications received by the City. The following information should be requested on all development applications: 1. actual, discrete land use(s), including, in the case of mixed-use developments, a relative or absolute measure of the gross floor area devoted to each land use category (i.e. residential, retail, office, and industrial) and ownership;

(a) building permits (of a specific type, if appropriate);

2. size of structure or alteration, in terms of gross floor area, to a magnitude of error of not more than 10 square metres;

(b) development permits (of a specific type, if appropriate); and,

3. the number of residential units, including hotel units;

(c) potential dwelling units created by a rezoning, etc.

4. the number of floors above grade, including the grade level; and,

2. an application can be followed through all stages of the development process, from Land Use Bylaw amendment to business licence;

5. the area of the site.

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• • • • • • •

POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING The data will be recorded and stored in such a way that a summary of the development applications for any specified type of land use received during any specified time period, in the area covered by any specified map sheet(s) in the platbook can be produced on short notice. Although this level of detail is far from ideal for monitoring purposes, it is the best which can be readily achieved over the short term, in light of: 1. the need to process applications quickly; 2. the complications caused by the transfer of responsiblity, with respect to development permits and building permits, from the Planning Department to the Bylaw Enforcement Department; and, 3. the importance of devoting sufficient resources to the long-range development of information systems, which will give a permanent solution to the problem. This information will be sufficient to identify changes in the pattern of development at a macroscopic level, provided that sufficient care is taken to make corrections for demolitions, reductions in size or characteristics of large developments, before the development permit is actually approved and any other difficulties which may arise.

Policy 18.A.6 The City will review development trends on an annual basis and prepare a report for submission to City Council outlining implications of development trends to the General Municipal Plan growth strategy and any amendments which may be required.

Discussion A report to City Council should be prepared annually describing and analysing the development which has occurred during the past year. The annual report basis is suggested to permit closer co-ordination with the Local Policy Plan process. The descriptive part of the report should indicate how many dwellings of different types were constructed, how much retail and office floorspace was built, and how much industrial land was developed in each area of the City. The areal units for the summary should be similar in size to an Outline Plan area (there would, therefore, be between 10 and 20 within the existing city limits) and they should fit perfectly into the proposed District Planning boundaries. The analytical portion of the report should discuss whether the pattern of development which occurred is consistent with the pattern sought by the growth strategy, the trend growth scenario, or a process/pattern which was not anticipated in the preparation of the General Municipal Plan. The emphasis of the annual report should be on the general pattern of development, as expressed in descriptive terms. Comparison with the numerical guidelines of indicators included in the General Municipal Plan should only be used in relationship to the shifts proposed in the plan, such as greater decentralization of office space development and rejuvenation of inner city areas through increased selective redevelopment. The ultimate purpose of the report should be reflected in its conclusions to strengthen development activity, which provides positive reinforcement of the growth strategy, or to undertake amendments to the growth strategy because of the emergence of unanticipated changes in key factors, such as population or suburban land absorption.

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING Policy 18.A.7 The City will evaluate the need to initiate a major review of the General Municipal Plan on a five-year basis or sooner if required. Discussion Under section 97 of the former Planning Act, a municipal council was required to completely review the General Plan once every five years. Although the current statute, The Planning Act, 1977, no longer

requires such automatic review, it is recommended an evaluation of the need to review the Plan be undertaken on a five-year basis or sooner if warranted. Based on input from the annual review of development trends or land use change and amendments to the Plan, the objectives of the evaluation would be to determine if the growth strategy is being implemented and/or to determine if it is relevant to new issues and community objectives. The evaluation and its recommendations will be presented to City Council through the Municipal Planning Commission.

Objective 18.B To ensure that municipal land use planning policy is undertaken and communicated to the public within a consistent framework.

further refining policies of the General Municipal Plan. Where new topics of concern are covered, the General Municipal Plan should be amended.

Discussion

Discussion

Maintaining the relevance of the General Municipal Plan requires not only monitoring and periodic amendment, but adequate management of the process of continually refining land use policy and communicating such changes to the public and development industry. It is proposed that a structure be established to relate changes which take place over time to the broader "umbrella" policies of the General Municipal Plan. Such a structure will keep the General Municipal Plan in the forefront of land use policy and permit easy identification of the implications of policy changes in relation to what had been envisaged in the Plan.

To structure the relationship of General Municipal Plan policies to policies which evolve through continual refinement, it is proposed a series of handbooks be utilized. These handbooks can serve to consolidate all policies affecting a type of area (for example, suburbs) or a functional category of land use policy (for example, residential). Within these handbooks, planning principles can be established to guide the preparation of statutory plans or detailed site plans. It is anticipated two handbooks should be established in the immediate future: one for suburban planning and one for urban design guidelines.

Policy 18.B.1

Policy 18.B.2

The City will utilize a series of Land Use Planning Handbooks as a means of consolidating all general land use policies or principles prepared for the purpose of

The City will include, in its General Municipal Plan amendment process, a mechanism for informing the public which includes a semi-annual information

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POLICY REPORT #15 IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING update on amendments to the General Municipal Plan to be available and distributed to individuals, companies, and institutions which have registered an interest in receiving such information.

Discussion

The public information requirements for amending a General Municipal Plan are set out in Section 135 of The Planning Act, 1977. Basically, the only requirements are to give notification of and convene a public hearing of Council, at which hearing all affected parties are to be heard.

• • • 15.26