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AP AP LUR RE PRO ALIS I AN NTE ACH TIC PO AG GRA TO PU ING TIN G LA TIO N

EN CO RE !

A n t h o n y M a i o l a t e s i | A d v i s o r s : A n n e M u n l y & V i c t o r T z e n | FA L L ‘ 1 2 T h e s i s


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Abstract

1

Thesis Contention Background

Heterotopias

4

Background Principles 1 & 2 Principles 3 & 4 Principles 5 & 6

Case Studies

19

Defining Typologies “Stealth Care� Case Studies Health = Wealth Shrinking Safety Net Human Infrastructure

Examining DC

41

Nursing Homes and Retirement Communities in the Metro Area Distribution of 65+ Population Median Housing Values Land Use Patching the Quilt

Proposal

53

Contention Encore Career Consituents of the City Program/Spatial Investigations Mapping/Site Considerations Formal Transformations Plans/Section Perspectives Embracing H Street Live/Work/Learn Unit

Bibliography

90


Abstract THIS THESIS CONTENDS by re-thinking the social, spatial, and programmatic constructs of conventional senior housing facilities and removing them from their current heterotopic conditions, a new typology can be developed which investigates opportunities for social reintegration provided by the emerging phenomenon of the encore career. The concepts of aging-in-place and universal design have become obfuscated in their meaning and broader applications of residential architecture. Accommodating the various physical abilities of residents within a community is merely addressing the most basic human rights. However, designing for aging-in-place does not limit solutions to the “who” but includes a very critical “what, where, when, why and how”. By 2030, approximately 50% of the population will be 50 years or older and nearly one in ive will be 65 and older. The “Baby Boomer” generation has been a major driving force for this demographic shift. AARP surveys reveal that approximately 90% of this population wishes to remain in their own homes and communities in which they have become established. This response is not surprising; however, this ideal situation may not be plausible or appropriate for all in this category. A combination of social stigmas and physical limitations affecting accessibility and mobility make it dif icult to age in place and age with dignity. Newer, or arguably revived, housing models which promote integrative living are replacing the notion of independent living and retirement homes as a practical solution. With medical treatment improving and life expectancy increasing, there are less and less younger people present to

BY 2030 APPROXIMATELY 50% OF THE POPULATION WILL BE 50 YEARS OR OLDER AND NEARLY ONE IN FIVE WILL BE 65 AND OLDER.


assist the elderly. Baby boomers are retiring much later than the previous generations and a “typical” family structure no longer exists. With these paradigm shifts, a need for a new, lexible housing solution arises. A paradoxical challenge presents itself in which permanence and adaptation must occur simultaneously to provide a forum of continuous change in order to sustain this growing population. Post World War II saw the invention of the welfare state intended to provide assistance for a retiring population, but also served to release the younger generation from the burden of the older generation. From this came a new model of care but also a segregation of a signi icant part of the population. Development of the nursing home typology was derived from the combination of the hospital and home, blending surveillance and simulation into an inauthentic representation of “home”. The ef iciency of operation in nursing homes and retirement communities portrayed them as a feasible solution to accommodate this portion of the population; however it only further reinforced the stigmas and fears associated with aging. In order to dissolve these negative social constructs the typology of the retirement community, assisted living and nursing home must be radically transformed. A reinvention of these typologies would provide the potential for the elderly to reintegrate with society through intergenerational exchange and cultivate a forum for reciprocity. Restrictions imposed by aging infrastructure and prohibitive living situations in American cities make it dif icult for exclusively one particular built environment to remain a viable place to live, work, and foster social encounters. Although most Americans prefer to remain in

their homes as they age, the reality is that many will move up to three times in the last three years of their lives. It’s a scary phenomenon that has become acceptable in society, but this doesn’t have to be the case. Matthias Hollwich of HWKN Architecture and the organizer of the 2010 New Aging conference in Philadelphia contests that 50% of people in nursing homes need to be there for health reasons, whereas the other half have lost their spouse or ind it dif icult to live alone. In addition, some retirement communities and nursing homes require residents to sign agreements that force them to move out as their health declines or their mobility becomes challenged (ie the need of a wheelchair). In addition, the phenomenon of compartmentalizing people based on age and ability perpetuates these problems. In order to create a truly livable urban community we must consider how the city functions on multiple scales. By integrating architecture with phenomena around the city and adapting to the speci ic lifestyle changes of the people, we can imagine a cross-pollination of catalytic typologies that works with residents of all ages instead of against. I intend to examine the city of Washington DC and propose how to implement strategies for aging in place and universal design, focusing on attracting, assimilating and sustaining an emerging elderly demographic while addressing the various needs its neighborhoods.


Background Principles 1 & 2 Principles 3 & 4 Principles 5 & 6


HETEROTOPIAS


Heterotopias Heterotopias, in the context of space and the built environment, were irst discussed by the philosopher Michel Foucault in 1967 when he presented a lecture entitled Of Other Spaces. “We are in the epoch of simultaneity; we are the epoch of juxtaposition; the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed.� Heterotopias represent dualities and contradictions that exist within societies created from social constructs, both physical and mental. They describe simple phenomena that deal with our immediate perceptions and complex relationships that de ine our existence. Site is one such relationship de ined by relative adjacencies and proximities between points or elements. Therefore, we allow ourselves to be situated within a context in order to de ine a condition, or are placed by other people. Foucault believed that much of the fears and stigmas within society led to and were perpetuated by our anxiety of spaces. Methods of organizing and appropriating space led to a obsequious regulations that created sharp dualities. Typologies of institutions remained unchallenged and unchanged. This can also be said about institutions for the elderly since Post World War II. Born out of the typology of the hospital and built around a culture of surveillance, the nursing home is one such institution that has become more ef icient rather than innovative in the US.


HETEROTOPIAS

“WE ARE IN THE EPOCH OF SIMULTANEITY; WE ARE THE EPOCH OF JUXTAPOSITION;THE EPOCHOFTHENEAR AND FAR, OF THE SIDE-BY-SIDE, OF THE DISPERSED.” -Michel Foucault, 1967 Of Other Spaces


ANXIETYOFSPACES Private Space

Public Space

Family Space

Social Space

Cultural Space

Useful Space

Leisure Space

Work Space

Private Space Public Space Family Space Social Space Cultural Space Useful Space Leisure Space Work Space


HETEROTOPIAS

“THE ANXIETY OF OUR ERA HAS TO DO FUNDAMENTALLY WITH SPACE…” The sancti ication of space essentially is what allows the typology of institutions to remain unchanged. The typology of housing for the elderly exists out of an anxiety of space. Also known by Foucault as a Heterotopia of Deviation emerging out of the crisis of aging, these typologies represent a struggle between a desired independence and a necessity for surveillance. The typology of the nursing home has not successfully differentiated itself from the Hospital. Arguably, the nursing home blends the typology of the hospital with a home, characterized by its domestic kitsch (ie wood inishes, aluminum siding, stone hearth, etc). However, these institutions still involve an anxiety that allows them to exist in the irst place, creating an environment associated with the physical and mental condition of its residents. This is where we can challenge the sanctity of the space and reinvent the nursing home with a cross-pollination of typologies.


PRINCIPLE 1 & 2

Acceptible Condition Deviant Relation to Society

Crisis Heterotopias The sancti ication of space essentially is what allows the typology of institutions to remain unchanged. The typology of housing for the elderly exists out of an anxiety of space. Also known by Foucault as a Heterotopia of Deviation emerging out of the crisis of aging, these typologies represent a reaction to a condition identi ied as being abnormal. Foucault adds, “Old age is a crisis but is also a deviation since in our society where leisure is the rule, idleness is a sort of dedication.” While these places are simultaneously real and unreal, and though many of these heterotopias have disappeared in modern society, the compartmentalizing of society based on age still exist.

Fringe Placement in Society

Isolation Reaction by Society

“OLD AGE IS A CRISIS BUT IS ALSOADEVIATION SINCE IN OUR SOCIETY WHERE LEISURE IS THE RULE, IDLENESS IS A SORT OF DEVIATION.”


HETEROTOPIAS

Walled City of Kowloon, Hong Kong

Heterotopias of Deviation Institutions where individuals are placed whose behaviors are considered abnormal are considered heterotopias of deviation. These may included hospitals, prisons, or cemeteries. A response for the crisis of aging would be to isolate the elderly into nursing homes or other such institutions which are derived from the typology of the hospital.

Society can rede ine heterotopias or replace values as time passes or conditions change. This means that we may transition from one heterotopia to another, ignoring the connotations associated with one, effectively dissolving the heterotopia. For instance, sickness may de ine the need for someone to enter a heterotopia of crisis (hospital) before returning to health.


PRINCIPLE 3 & 4

Microcosm & Superimposition Foucault states that Heterotopias can be simultaneously single real spaces which juxtapose multiple spaces. He cites several examples such as gardens and movie theaters. Gardens, for example are constructed to be microcosm of real climates/environments. Theaters, likewise see the projection of 3d space on a 2d screen in a room that loses its contextual setting.

“THEHETEROTOPIA IS CAPABLE OF JUXTAPOSING IN A SINGLE REAL PLACE SEVERAL SPACES, SEVERAL SITES, THAT ARE IN THEMSELVES INCOMPATIBLE.”


HETEROTOPIAS

Heterotopia 2

Heterotopia 1 SPACE

Space is activated TImeline New Era is Defined

TIME Event

Event

Heterotopias of Time Understanding time as a Heterotopia allows us to logically organize events and details chronologically. Time exists as an element to be observed and experienced. Museums, for example, hold objects from many periods, however they replaced in a context where they exist simultaneously and outside of time. Time also exists to activate heterotopias, like the social construct of

adolescence or old age, and allow us to transition from one into another. An event such as the year 2000 exists as a phenomenon wherein no physical changes occurred, rather it radically affected social perception of the zeitgeist.


PRINCIPLE 5 & 6

Ritual Space and Changing Heterotopias Ritual spaces can be described as Heterotopias since they become spaces of modulation. They are both accessible and non-accessible depending on the meaning assigned to them by different groups of people. They are simultaneously physical and mental spaces where entering becomes contingent on order of ritual. Foucault also states that heterotopias, though constructed for one purpose, may be re-purposed or used beyond their original intent as time passes.

Heterotopias re lect the rules established by the culture that constructed, therefore, when these rules change or progress it may in luence the heterotopia, requiring it to take on a new form or function. He uses the cemetery as an example, stating that it has changed its position from within the city to outside the boundaries because of an evolved social perspective.


HETEROTOPIAS

Heterotopias of Illusion and Compensation Heterotopias of Illusion create sites which reveal the real space of the city by contrast. These are spaces of fantasy removed from the context of the city. A contemporary example of this situation, however kitsch, is Disney World where visitors are immersed into a realm of fantasy, and where speci ic areas are themed into distilled, idealized simulations of the real thing.

Heterotopias of compensation, by contrast, intentionally create real spaces. New urbanist communities and retirement communities, for example, are real spaces constructed on utopian ideals. These environments are as perfect and organized as our own lives are chaotic. They serve as alternatives and are constructed on a strict set of governing rules.


Defining Typologies “Stealth Care” Health = Wealth Shrinking Safety Net Human Infrastructure


CASE STUDIES


Independence

Third Party

Resident Community

Environment

I

I

Activities

Lifestyle Ammenities

E

A

LA

E

A

LA

NATURALLY OCCURING (NORC)

2,000*

250

I

A

COHOUSING VILLAGE BOFÆLLESSKAB

RETIREMENT COMMUNITY E

LA

ACTIVE ADULT COMMUNITY INDEPENDENT LIVING

Cohousing is type of community which is planned, owned and managed by the residents. The design of these communities is intended to foster social interaction, and encourage collaborate, but also respond to the individual needs and privacies of the residents. Cohousing originated in Denmark and was brought to the US by architects Kathryn McCamant and Charles Durret in the 1980s. Cohousing is built around a true cooperation between neighbors, often for the goal of the greater good; socially and environmentally.

CASE STUDIES

6 Characteristics (de ined by The Cohousing Association of the US): • Participatory process. Residents participate in the design of the community. • Neighborhood design. The physical layout and orientation of the community encourages a sense of community. • Common facilities. Community spaces are provided for daily use, such as kitchens, dining area, playrooms, laundry, library, etc.) • Resident management. Residents manage their community and are responsible for maintenance. • Non-Hierarchical structure and decision-making. No one person exists as a leader in the community. Each person takes roles within the community that complement their skills, abilities and interests. Decisions are made by consensus. • No Shared community economy. The community is not a source of income for the members.

A

I E

LA

Retirement communities, also known as age-restricted communities, usually accommodate residents over a certain age (usually 55 years and older). Many age-restricted communities are master planned census-designated areas consisting of suburban-style single family houses with community centers. Homes in these communities will employ universal design to allow residents to age in place comfortably and accommodate different levels of accessibility and mobility. Some age-restricted communities require that residence are retired, or at least semi-retired, while others do not, as it is becoming increasingly common (especially among the baby boomer population) to work much later in life. Unlike Cohousing where the residents make most of the decisions and are responsible for maintenance, a homeowners association is responsible for developing rules and maintaining facilities and landscaping for the residents. Retirement communities that cater to the speci ic interests and hobbies of the residents are known as Active Adult Communities. Less formal retirement communities, or Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORCs) offer many of the same amenities for older residents. These communities were not initially created for older residents, but as they age in place or attract new residents they adapt to accommodate the emerging demographic. NORCs represent a large portion of the aging population that prefer to age in place, without sacri icing the authenticity of home. NORCs can exist anywhere in most housing typologies (apartment buildings, homes, etc)


DEFININGTYPOLOGIES

16,100

6,315

ASSISTED LIVING RESIDENTIAL CARE HOME SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITY

A

I E

LA

Assisted living does not necessarily entail the institutionalization of individuals who need 24-hour supervision and assistance with daily living (like that provided by a skilled nursing facility). Assisted living may refer to the services provided by a health care professional who may also monitor residents for their safety and health. This care may be provided at the individual’s own residence or may actually may be provided at a facility. The need for assistance is contingent on the individual’s ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), which are outlined by the Assisted Living Foundation of America. Some activities include: • Personal hygiene • Dressing and undressing • Self feeding • Functional transfers • Use of restroom • Ambulation According to the Assisted Living Foundation of America more than 1 million Americans live in assisted living communities. Assisted living communities provide more personal care than independent living models of Retirement communities. Services and amenities include: • Three meals a day in a dining area • Housekeeping • Transportation • 24-Hour security • Exercise and wellness centers • Laundry services • Social and recreational activities Personal Care tasks include: • Assistance with eating, bathing, dressing, toileting, and walking • Medical care, physical therapy and hospice. • Medication management • Care for cognitive impairment

NURSING HOME SKILLED NURSING UNIT CARE HOME

A

I E

LA

A nursing home, or Skilled Nursing Facility is an institutions that provides the highest level of care for individuals. Nursing homes may be differentiated from other facilities such as assisted living homes by the level of care in which they provide. Although both offer the same type of care and assistance, assisted living facilities may require residents to ind a new housing situation that may cater to their worsening physical and mental condition (ie. the need of a wheelchair, etc). The nursing home typology is most closely modeled off the Hospital since they are medically-oriented and designed to make care more ef icient, in addition to the fact that individuals may be moved to a nursing home after recovering from a hospitalization. The necessity for an individual to move into a Skilled Nursing Facility usually comes from their ability to live independently. Much like the ADL guidelines of assisted living, if the individual requires more care than can be provided by a primary caregiver, than a 24-hour monitoring facility may work best. Skilled Nursing Facilities also provide care for individuals with degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Caring for these individuals may be done in a specialized facility where monitoring patience and accommodating their unique needs are a higher priority. The level of care and surveillance provided by a Skilled Nursing Facility is valued at an average annual cost of $70,000 per resident . Because of the growing number of individuals that may require the services of a Skilled Nursing Facility, it will continue to put a strain on government services like Medicare that provide inancial assistance for health care.


“STEALTH CARE” Case Study: Arons Gelauff Architects A common perception of housing for the elderly is one of nostalgic imagery with wood inished and stone ireplaces when reality is a clinical, even hospital-like environment. They are organized around an ef icient model of surveillance and repetition, resulting in the removal of individual expression and identity. The older an individual becomes--for reasons of declining health and decreased independence--support space for residential typologies often replace lifestyle and recreational program with health care needs. Arons Gelauff Architects of Amsterdam state in an interview, “In housing for the aged the private realm shrinks in size, but it should grow in quality and be supplemented by possibilities for collectivity and high quality, buzzing public space around.” Dubbed “Stealth Care,” the concept behind the housing projects of architects like Aron Gelauff Architects in Amsterdam is to preserve a certain level of autonomy amongst

residents. The image of downsizing to an apartment from a single-family house, for instance, is glamorized instead of stigmatized. As the residents age they will be able to take advantage of discreetly placed amenities which cater to emerging needs caused by decreased mobility and independence. These projects not only respond to the general needs of an aging population, but to the collective identity of a generation. Who are the people retiring today? Where were they 30 years ago and what major events have they experienced that shaped their unique personalities? The architects state that the original model for placing nursing homes and health care facilities on the fringe of urban development, or out in the countryside were to encourage the healing power of fresh air and sunlight. Today, however, this type of isolation is counterproductive. The conventional model must be challenged.

T

OR

PP

SU S

ED

NE

INDEPENDENCE

INDIVIDUAL

INDEPENDENCE

INDIVIDUAL

SUPPORT NEEDS


CASE STUDIES

De Plussenburgh in Rotterdam. Displays a playful expression meant to display the individuality of residents not willing to accept the stigmas of aging. It combines lexible apartments and quality public space with inconspicuous health care needs.


Case Study (Cont.) The Rotterdam Seniors Housing Trust is the governing body that creates policies speci ically affecting the design of projects like Arons Gelaouff’s De Plussenburgh. In the Netherlands housing for the elderly has achieved a level of balance between active urban lifestyles and necessary health services, a combinatory typology that has not existed in other countries. One policy advocates the homogenization of age groups between 55-85. It’s not such a drastic span that residents become uncomfortable with their neighbors, but it prevents an unfortunate phenomenon from occurring where residents pass away in a relatively short window of time. This can become a depressing setting, but it is also unpractical economically with regards to occupancy. Many of these projects imbue a certain list of essential elements that improve the quality of housing for the elderly: • • • • •

Intelligently organized plans prevent excess space lost to widened corridors. Flexibility allows for tenants to anticipate future changes. Promote a sensible mix of age groups. Provide amenities that target speciϐic groups within urban setting (rotate population around the city) Locate housing for seniors within the city.


CASE STUDIES

“WITH STEALTH CARE WE MEAN THAT NECESSARY QUALITIESMUSTBE ‘EMBEDDED’, THAT YOUCANCONTINUE TO LIVETHERE LATE IN LIFE.” -Floor Arons, Arons Gelauff Architects

LEFT: Oosterhoogebrug, Groningen (Arons Gelauff Architects) RIGHT: De Rokade, Groningen (Aron Gelauff Architects)


FORMAL LESSONS Case Study: De Rokade, Arons Gelauff Architects


CASE STUDIES TRANSFORMATION

BUILDING FOOTPRINT

MINIMIZE OBSTACLES

CARVE AWAY TO MAXIMIZE VIEWS AND EXPOSURE

CORE

EMBED STRUCTURE TO GAIN FLEXIBILITY

A

B


Case Study: Nursing Home, Kronaus + Kinzelbach


CASE STUDIES TRANSFORMATION

PUSH INWARD TO IMPROVE VIEWS OUTWARD

PUSH OUTWARD TO BREAK LENGTH OF CORRIDOR

USE POCHE SPACE TO DECENTRALIZE CARE SUPPLY

PUSH INWARD TO IMPROVE VIEWS OUTWARD


Case Study: Intergenerational Learning Center, Of ice dA


CASE STUDIES UNIVERSAL DESIGN AS A VEHICLE

SOCIAL INTERACTION

OVERLAPPING SHARED SPACE


Case Study: Oosterhoogebrug, Arons Gelauff Architects


CASE STUDIES SCALAR SHIFTS

COMMON

SERVICE/ SURVEILLANCE

COMMON COMMON

SERVICE/ SURVEILLANCE

COURTYARD

COMMON COMMON

SERVICE/ SURVEILLANCE

COMMON

33%

33%

COMMUNITY SCALE

60 APARTMENTS FOR ELDERLY

33%

MULTIPURPOSE/COMMUNITY

CHILD CARE CENTER

MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

CARE UNITS FOR ALZHEIMER’S

DE-CENTRALIZE

CENTRALIZED


HEALTH =WEALTH WORKING

LEARNING

WORKING

LEARNING

WORKING

REST

REST

?

REST

?

ENCORE

LEARNING

Linking Longevity with Economic Growth Post war practices reinforced a triptych model of aging; learning phase; working phase; and retirement phase. Much like the heterotopias of time in which Foucault describes, this model separates the population by age further encouraging the consequences that come with it, including age discrimination. However, better access and improvements in health care lead to an increase of life expectancy and a growing elderly population. Therefore, the triptych model would be reevaluated wherein the threshold between work and rest would be blurred. Life expectancy in the US is currently at 78 years and rising 1.5 years every decade. With 10,000 baby boomers turning 65 every day this population has the potential to grow to 70 million by 2030 (Starobin). The implications of this projection might

LEARNING

suggest a serious inancial burden on society, however, as life expectancy in the US grew in the last 50 years so has the domestic product. Contingent on health and public policy, it is more likely that the quickly rising elderly population would be more of an economic asset than a burden. It’s becoming more common where seniors are contributing to the workforce, whether in their original ield of work or a new one. There also exists a potential for the senior workforce to contribute to communities that may not have the inancial resources to pay union or market rate prices for services, while also being compensated for their work and allowing them to re-integrate with the community.


CASE STUDIES

Case Study A veritable new stage of life has wedged itself between the ages 50 and 75, occurring after the prime working years and before retirement. A survey by Penn Schoen Berland shows that a signi icant amount of seniors who return to work often ind jobs in the public sector; which is not only socially rewarding, but convenient in communities where these jobs are in high demand and underfunded.

With the new “Encore�of our lives we may feel the need to continue working or pursue other dreams. From 1996-2010, 11 of those 15 years saw higher rates of entrepreneurs between the ages of 55 and 64 than any other ages. Washington passed a law promoting Encore Fellowships for adults interested in pursuing new careers in non-pro it or public-sector jobs, although there is still no funding available. Entrepreneurship among this demographic may provide a valuable catalyst to cities in need of assistance. Washington DC may provide a meaningful site to test this theory.


THESHRINKINGSAFETYNET 6% of GDP 5% 4% 3% 2% 1%

‘80

‘90

‘00

SOCIAL SECURITY

MEDICAID

MEDICARE

UNEMPLOYMENT

‘10

‘20

‘30

‘35

Source: Bureau of economic analysis

Linking Longevity with Economic Growth One of the more impending issues regarding the graying of the United States is the increasing dependency on government bene it programs such as Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security. As the baby boomer generation reaches the age of entitlement a major strain will be placed on these programs which simply can not sustain the growing demand. Compounded by a weak economy and unemployment as well as political unresolved, Social Security could reach insolvency by 2033. The program accounts for 6% of the country’s GDP , but the fastest growing concern is Medicare which grew from 1.6% of the GDP in 1985 to 3.6% in 2010 and is expected to reach 7% by 2035. In a report by Paul Storbin of The Atlantic Magazine, it is said that by “2050, Medicare is on track to pay 83 million retirees--nearly

twice as many as now--an average lifetime bene it (in 2010 dollars) of $554,942. This increase of necessary funding to these programs is understandable considering the number of baby boomers that are expected to retire in the near future, however a major fundamental problem exists when considering that the current American workforce which is funding it probably wont see a dime of this money. One solution to this inancial crisis is to postpone eligibility for these programs. The age to qualify for Social Security bene its currently stands at 65, but will increase to 67 by 2027, however there are no plans to increase this age as life expectancies inevitably improve.


CASE STUDIES $12,000 per person $10,000 $8,000 $6,000 $4,000 $2,000

‘60

‘70

‘80

‘90

‘00

‘10

TAX REVENUES GOVERNMENT SPENDING

ENTITLEMENT SPENDING

“THE TRUST FUNDS THAT SUPPORT SOCIAL SECURITY WILL RUN DRY IN 2033 – THREE YEARS EARLIER THAN PREVIOUSLY PROJECTED.” -Trustees of the Social Security Program

Source: Bureau of economic analysis

Another solution involves increasing the budget of certain government programs working to ind cures for diseases like Alzheimer’s, which costs Medicare and Medicade $130 billion annually in treatments (according to the same report in The Atlantic Magazine). By comparison only $469 million of the National Institute of Health’s budget is devoted to research. Although this solution involves greater risk if research proves unfruitful results. The most elegant solution to save these programs depends greatly on our society’s ability to capitalize on the health of the aging population. Even with an ever-increasing life expectancy, American cities should continue to explore ways of promoting healthy and integrative lifestyles.


HUMAN INFRASTRUCTURE Intervention

Primary Paths

Academic Stimulation

Mechanisms

+ vocabulary + alphabet recognition

Outcomes

Academic Performance

+ reading - disciplinary removals

Participation

Behavioral Management

- aggression + social skills + school attendance + motivation to learn

Readiness For Learning

+ concentration + school service

Classroom Behavior

Case Study, Cont. A study by Experience Corps was conducted to test the hypothesis that adults over the age of 55 represent an enormous potential of human infrastructure which could literally be employed to work with children to improve their skills in the classroom.

• •

The study challenges situational norms in American classrooms and suggests a list of recommendations that would encourage positive participation of young and old. This study recognizes that older adults have accumulated a great amount of skills and knowledge in which they can share with younger generations.

• •

• •

Strengthen the Infrastructure Challenge Stereotypes. Adults over 55 aren’t readily seen as ideal mentors despite their skills and knowledge. Allowing them to work with children provides valuable intergenerational exchange and reduces age discrimination. Recruit for talent, not age. Enlist experienced individuals in administrative or managerial roles. Adults over 55 have skills other than working with children, therefor they can assume other roles as well. Reward Services. Compensation can be provided to adults who are in need in exchange for their services. Use Existing model practices.


CASE STUDIES


Nursing Homes and Retirement Communities in the Metro Area Distribution of 65+ Population Median Housing Values Land Use Patching the Quilt


EXAMINING WASHINGTON DC


NURSING HOMES & RETIREMENT COMMUNITIES IN THE METRO AREA

Catoctin Creek Cohousing Eco Village Cohousing

Meadow Glen of Leesburg Morningside House of Leesburg

“IN NURSING HOMES PEOPLE ARESTOREDAWAY FROM SOCIETY. DO YOU WANT TO BE STORE AWAY FROM SOCIETY?”

Ashby Ponds

Tall Oaks Village Center

40 mi

30 mi

20 mi

The Vi

Regency at Dominion Valley Emiritus at Manassas

Fairmount Independent Retirement Living

-MATTHIAS HOLLWICH on the Aging City (PICNIC FESTIVAL 2011)

Emiritus at Lak


MAPPING DC

Morningside House of Friendship Asbury Methodist VIllage

Bedford Court National Lutheran Homes

Sunrise Senior Living

Potomac Valley Cohousing Classic Residence by Hyatt Sunrise at Fox Hill

Regency Park

Kensington Park Retirement Community HeartFields Assisted Living at Bowie

Sunrise of Annapolis

Eastern Village Cohousing

Eastern Village Cohousing Methodist Home of DC Lisner-Louise Dickson Hurt Home Barney Neighborhood House Senior Program Sunrise on Connecticut Ave Takoma Village Cohousing Ingleside at Rock Creek Arleigh Burke Pavilion Friendship Terrace NMS Healthcare IONA Senior Services Carroll Manor Nursing & Rehab Sunrise of Grand Oaks Seabury Ward 5 Aging Services Stoddard Baptist Nursing Home Vinson Hall Terrific Inc. Collington Episcopal Life Care Community Family Matters Aging Services Ward 6 Rock Creek Manor Blueberry Hill Cohousing Residence at Thomas Circle Deanwood Rehab & Wellness Center St Mary’s Court East River Family Strengthening Collaborative The Jefferson Emiritus at Arlington

10 mi

irginian Washington Nursing Facility The Fountains at Washington Goodwin House Nursing Home

The Manor at Victoria Park Family Matters of Greater Washington

Woodbine Healthcare Center Leewood Nursing Home Heatherwood Retirement Community Paul Spring Retirement Community

ke Ridge

Southwinds Active Adult Community CCNRC Family of Care

Morningside House of St Charles

Ginger Cove

Green House Cohousing Chase - Lloyd House

Kris-Leigh Assisted Living


DISTRIBUTION OF 65+ 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Armature Behavior

AR

M

AT U

RE

Distribution Behavior

DO WN TO WN Understanding the Population The distribution of the 65+ population in DC reacts in a radial repulsion from center of the city. The physical characteristic of the L’Enfant Plan--developed 1791 and revised by the McMillan Commission in 1902--reveal an economic and monumental core of the city. Radiating out from that center is a relative gradient of intensity in commercial and residential typologies. It can also be characterized by a gradient of intensity of ceremonial forms which begin at the more sacred axis created by the National Mall. Moving outward from this core there are smaller pocket

park which occur at the bisection of the regular grid by diagonal avenues. These avenues, which also act as gateways into the city, each provide an armature to support a second level of programmatic density to occur. Essentially, the layering of these systems de ines pockets of continuity which yield neighborhood identities. Unfortunately, these identities are further delineated by less rational political boundaries, school districts, strict zoning regulations.

65

64

62

58

56

100 200 300

59

.0 1

.0 2 55

53

.0 1 52 .0 2

53

52

51

.0 1 49 .0 2

50

.0 1 48 .0 2

49

.0 1 47 .0 2

48

47

46

44

45

.0 1 42 .0 2

43

42

.0 1 40 .0 2

41

40

39

38

36

37

35

.0 1

.0 2 34

33

33

32

31

30

.0 1 27 .0 2

27

29

.0 1 25 .0 2 26

25

.0 4

.0 3

.0 2

.0 1

.0 1 19 .0 2 20 .0 1 20 .0 2 21 .0 1 21 .0 2 22 .0 1 22 .0 2 23 .0 1 23 .0 2 24

19

18

18

18

.0 1 17 .0 2

18

17

.0 2 16

15

14

.0 1

.0 1

.0 2

14

13

13

.0 1

.0 2 12

11

9. 02

10

10

9. 01

8. 02

8. 01

7. 02

7. 01

6

5. 01 5. 02

4

3

1

2. 01 2. 02

Census Tracts (Subdivision of Wards)


TAKOMA VILLAGE 17.1 18.1

15

CHEVY CHASE 14.1

14.2

FRIENDSHIP HEIGHTS

11

17.2

4

18.4

18.3

19.1 19.2 95.5

20.1

95.7 21.1

21.2 95.8

13.1

22.1

10.1

95.9

22.2

12 26

3

9.1

25.1 95.4

95.1

24 25.2

CLEVELAND PARK

6

28.1

27.1

28.2

5.2 5.1 39

7.2

ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOMES 94

29

4

37

38 40.1

23.2

32

1

27.2

7.1 9.2 8.1

95.3 23.1

13.2 10.2

93.1

31

30

93.2

36

35

PALISADES VILLAGE

33.2

42.2 8.2 53.1

1

2.1

52.1

49.1

50

55

54.2

56

49.2

53.2

54.1

87.2

87.1

57.1

89.5

96.1 78.6

89.3

88.2

86

47

51

85 84.1

89.4

78.9

96.2

78.7

84.2

58

83.1

57.2

2

88.4

88.3

48.2

52.2

GEORGETOWN

90

48.1 46

2.2

91.1

91.2

33.1

44

43

42.1

41

92.4

92.3 34

KALORAMA VILLAGE

3

5

92.1

83.2

59

79.1

80.1

79.3 96.4

81 82

96.3

80.2

62.2 66

62.1

68.1

67

69

65

60.1

61

6

7 78.3

CAPITOL VILLAGE

77.3

77.8

68.2

78.4 78.8

99.4

99.7

70

60.2 72 63.1

71

77.7

77.9 99.1

76.1

99.2

PENN AVE VILLAGE

64 63.2

76.5

74.1

76.4

75.3 75.4 75.2

8

74.8 98.9 74.4

73.2

73.1 98.3

97 98.1

98.2 98.7 98.6

73.8

74.3

74.9

73.4

98.4

98.8

76.3

74.7

74.6

751-900 601-750 451-600 301-450 151-300 0-150

99.3

99.6

99.5

.0 3 98 .0 4 98 .0 7 98 .0 9 98 .1 1 99 .0 1 99 .0 2 99 .0 3 99 .0 4 99 .0 5 99 .0 6 99 .0 7

.0 1 98 .0 2

16

98

98

95

.0 1

.0 3 95 .0 4 95 .0 5 95 .0 7 95 .0 8 95 .0 9 96 .0 1 96 .0 2 96 .0 3 96 .0 4 97

95

.0 1 92 .0 3 92 .0 4 93 .0 1 93 .0 2 94

92

91

88

.0 3 88 .0 4 89 .0 3 89 .0 4 90

.0 2 88 .0 2

.0 1 87 .0 1

87

.0 1 83 .0 2

83

84

82

72

.0 1 73 .0 4 74 .0 1 74 .0 3 74 .0 4 74 .0 6 74 .0 7 74 .0 8 74 .0 9 75 .0 2 75 .0 3 75 .0 4 76 .0 1 76 .0 3 76 .0 4 76 .0 5 77 .0 3 77 .0 7 77 .0 8 77 .0 9 78 .0 3 78 .0 4 78 .0 6 78 .0 7 78 .0 8 78 .0 9 79 .0 1 79 .0 3 80 .0 1 80 .0 2 81

71

73

70

.0 1 68 .0 2

69

67

68

66

MAPPING DC


MEDIAN HOUSING VALUES *INFORMATION FROM WWW.ZILLOW.COM

GEORGETOWN

$600

$500 CAPITOL HILL

$400

WASHINGTON DC $300 DUPONT PARK $200

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Understanding the Population (Cont.) The diagram at the right is a continuation of the diagram on the previous page which describes the distribution of the 65+ population in DC using information from the 2010 Census. How does this information help with making projections for the future? The DC Of ice of Planning reported that housing prices have outpaced the income growth rates. Properties in well-established neighborhoods, like those in the Northwest of the city, become a strong source of wealth, however, they also make it dif icult for new residents to ind housing. This also perpetuates conditions that restrict inclusive and/or diverse neighborhoods.

“The overarching goal for housing is: Develop and maintain a safe, decent, and affordable supply of housing for all current and future residents of the District of Columbia. (DC Ofϔice of Planning)” DC must increase the rate at which it supplies a diverse mix of housing stock in order to meet projected needs in the 20 years or so. In addition, the city has determined that it has the land resources to satisfy the space for new housing, however the location of this land makes it dif icult to guarantee that it will be accessible and affordable to all existing and new residents.


MAPPING DC

TAKOMA

CHEVY CHASE FRIENDSHIP HEIGHTS

AFRHS

CLEVELAND PARK

WOODRIDGE FORT LINCOLN

KALORAMA VILLAGE PALISADES

GEORGETOWN

PER SQ. FT

CAPITOL HILL

$600 $400 $300 $200 $100

DUPONT PARK FAIRLAWN

FORT DAVIS


NE

RD NE

USET

LANG PL NE

NE

NE S ST

17TH PL NE

STA PLE

EN ORR

18TH ST NE

N ST

L ST NE

NE

19TH ST NE

FLO RIDA

20TH ST NE

AVE

13TH ST NE

5TH ST NE SW

IO DR SW

ST NE 20TH

18TH

17TH

ST NE

ST NE

14TH ST NE

NE

PL NE

AVE

ST NE

25TH

PL NE

24TH

OKL AHO MA

23RD

20TH ST NE

18TH ST NE

NE

NES

19TH ST NE

17TH PL NE

ANACOSTIA AVE NE

16TH ST NE

22ND ST NE 22ND ST SE

22ND ST SE

19TH ST SE

14TH ST SE

18TH ST SE

12TH ST SE

SE ANACO STIA

FWY

17TH ST SE

AVE

FWY

SE

LINA H CARO

LINA H CARO

AVE

D ST SE

SE

5TH ST SE

E 695

CAPITOL SQUARE PL SW

D ST SE

D ST SE

SOUT

SE

ELY PL SE

S

E ST SE

F ST SE

INTERSTATE

INTERSTATE 395

BURKE ST SE

C ST SE

8TH ST SE

OH

SOUT

Parks and Open Spaces

D ST SE

E ST SE

DUDDINGTON PL SE

INTER STAT

BAY ST SE

SE

32ND ST SE

CAR

NOR ST

E ST SW

E ST SW FRONTAGE RD SW

INTE

AVE

ANACO STIA

5TH ST SE

1ST ST SE

TH L

4TH ST SE

E

CA NA SE

E ST SW

D ST SE

6TH ST SE

AV

SW

SW

LINA H CARO

10TH ST SE

2ND ST SW

4TH ST SW

SOUTH CAPITOL ST

A AVE N

IA AVE AVE

OLIN

TO

SW

6TH ST SW

SE

IVY ST SE

ING

VIRGIN VIRGI NIA

E SE

C ST SE

SOUT

SH

SW

C ST SE

SEWARD SQ SE

D ST SE

WA

9TH ST SW

13TH ST SW

SE

BLVD

L'ENFANT PROMENADE SW

ETT C ST SE

Y AVE

TON

AVE

SCHOOL ST SW

SAC HUS

JERSE

D ST SW

MAS

EWARD SQ SE

NEW

3RD ST SW

SW

C ST SW

D ST SW VIRGI NIA

D ST SW

BAY ST SE

WALTER PL SE

C ST SW

11TH ST SE

DR RAOUL WALLENBERG PL SW

EAST CAPITOL ST

A ST SE

SE A AVE OLIN INDEPENDENCE AVE SE

9TH ST SE

H

HING WAS

D ST SW

SW

CAR

1ST ST SW

NC

SW

D ST SW

AVE

7TH ST NE

TH NOR

C ST SW

LAND

5TH ST NE

1ST ST

5TH ST SE

7TH ST SW

12TH ST SW

SW ST H

A ST

INDEPENDENCE AVE SW

SW

MARY

AVE

MARY

EAST CAPITOL ST

EAST CAPITOL ST

SW

7TH ST SE

12TH ST EXPY SW

17TH ST SW

EAST CAPITOL ST

16TH ST SE

12TH ST EXPY NW

HEN

NW DR OHIO

15T

AVE LAND

LAND

SW

A ST NE

NW

4TH ST NW

17TH ST NW

AVE LAND MARY

JEFFERSON DR SW

MARY

AVE

A ST NE

2ND ST SE

16TH ST NW

NW DR ON

NE AVE

9TH ST NE

2ND ST NW

10TH ST NW

20TH ST NW

22ND ST NW 23RD ST NW

BAC RY

CAR

AMES PL NE

AVE

EAST CAPITOL ST

C ST SW

MAI NE

ND

MAR

SW

FRE

23RD ST SW

YLA NW

MADISON DR NW

C ST SW

SW

Public, Quasi-Public, Institutiona

NE A AVE OLIN TH NOR

S AVE

NE AVE

1ST ST

C

INDEPENDENCE AVE SW

PARK ST NE

NE

IEL

ORIA MEM

NE

SAC ETT

DAN

SW L BRG ON

Institutional

BENNING RD

HUS

Transport, Communication, Utilit

Mixed Use

NE

E ST NE

12TH ST

C ST NE

CONSTITUTION AVE NE

PENN NIA

Industrial

LE ST

MAS

ELLI

SYLVA

Commercial

NE

TEN

CORBIN PL NE C ST NE

CONSTITUTION AVE NW

PSE

CONSTITUTION AVE NW

14TH PL NE

T ST NE

PICKFORD PL NE

D ST NE

NE

C ST NE

C ST NE C ST NW

ROSEDA

F ST

SEE

NW

IAN UIS LO

C ST NW

NW

S AVE

INDIAN

ATE 66 INTERST

NE

EAMES PL NE

MBUS COLU NE AVE

E AV

ETT

15TH ST NE

A AVE

E

ISHERWOOD ST NE

DUNCA

HUS

14TH PL NE

NW

EMERALD ST NE

DUNCAN PL NE

SAC

WARREN ST NE

AVE

AVE

LEXINGTON PL NE

MAS

1ST ST NE

NIA

NW

LE ST

NE CIR

1ST ST NW

D ST NW

D ST NW

SYLVA

C ST NW

ND

MAR

NE

12TH PL NE

13 1/2 ST NW

E AV

PENN D ST NW

RD

ST NE

NE YLA

ACKER PL NE

E ST NE

A

A D ST NW

NE

IAN UIS LO

11TH ST NE

NW

E ST NW

KRAMER

F ST NE

E ST

E ST NW

DELAW ARE

8TH ST NW

E ST NW

3RD ST NW

EXPY

2ND ST NW INTERSTATE 395

14TH ST NW

PENNSYLVANIA AVE NW

D ST NW

ST NE

ROSEDA

ALEXANDER HAMILTON PL NW

YORK

GALES

F ST NW

F ST NW

MITCH SNYDER PL NW

STATE PL NW

MORRIS PL NE

NW

NW

H ST NE

ST NE

G ST NW

Y AVE

AVE NEW

H PL NE

G ST NE

G ST NW

G ST NW

JERSE

F ST NW

E ST NW

E ST

INTERSTATE 395

8TH ST NW

G PL NW

EAST EXECUTIVE AVE NW

NW

ROCK CREEK & POTOMAC PKWY NW

G ST NW

G ST NW

AVE

NE

LINDEN PL NE

AVE

NEW

NEW

IA

WEST EXECUTIVE AVE NW

HAM

GIN

I ST

WYLIE ST NE

H ST NE

G PL NE

26TH ST NE

PARKER ST NE

NW

15TH ST NW

20TH ST NW

VIR

RD

SUM MIT

ENS RO

AVE

LEVI S ST

K ST N

10TH ST NE SACH

LEY

18TH PL NE

NE ST

LYMAN PL NE

BUR

N

NE

BLAD

NE

ST

IDAD

NE

8TH ST NE

L ST

TRIN

ABBEY PL NE

4TH ST NE

IS

9TH ST NE

2ND ST NE

18TH ST NE

G RD

NE

3RD ST NE

NE

16TH

NE AVE MON

L NE

NEA

7TH ST NE

5TH ST NW

MAS

VAL

AV E IA GIN VIR ST

NE

ST

NE

MORTON PL NE

H ST NW

H ST NW

NE

E AV OL

NE PL 11TH ST 6TH

TEL LO

ST

EEN LEV

ST

I ST NE

AVE NW

H ST NW

MADISON PL NW

JACKSON PL NW

NEW NW AVE PSH

IRE

G ST NW

C ST NW

MEM

SS

ES

E ST

1ST ST NW

NW

NW

PSH

I

T AVE

VERM ONT

TICU

AVE

NEC

HAM

I ST NW

USET TS

Medium Density Residential

Local Public

ST

CHIL DRE

NE

OAT

3RD ST NW

ACH

I ST NW

E ST EXPY NW

NGT ARLI

M

ST

ORLEANS PL NE

I ST NW

NW

TS

F ST NW

L AVE ORIA

RAU

WE

1ST TER N

7TH ST NW

10TH ST NW 12TH ST NW

18TH ST NW

K AVE

OD WO

BEE

NE

NE

EEN

M NORTH CAPITOL ST

NW AVE VERM ONT

19TH ST NW

CON

I ST NW

H ST NW

Federal Public

N

KENT PL NE

MT VERNON PL NW

27TH ST NW

26TH ST NW

YOR NEW

NW

High Density Residential

S PL

TER

NE

AVE

I ST NW

RD

MEIG

B

K ST NE

K ST NW

SYLV ANIA

Low-Medium Density Residentia

L ST NE

K ST NW

K ST NW

I ST NW

PENN

I ST NW

Low Density Residential

EA

NE

N

NE

1ST ST NE

NE DELAW ARE

AVE

1ST PL NW

PIERCE ST NE

CONGRESS ST NE

24TH ST NW 26TH ST NW

29TH ST NW

THOMAS JEFFERSON ST NW

CECIL PL NW

NW

WHITEHURST FWY NW

Existing Land Use

NEW

ATE RST INTE

POTOMAC ST NW

YO L ST NW

AVE

RD NE

NE

AZAL

ST

PEN

OWE N PL

L PL NW

395

L ST NW

H

NE

ATE RST INTE

SYLV ANIA

M

NE

KIRBY ST NW

PIERCE ST NW

L ST NW

PENN

ST

N ST NE

M ST NE

DE SALES ST NW

SOUTH ST NW

CA PIT

ON PL

1ST ST NW

N ST NE

M ST NW

M ST NW

NW

CH NE

RAU

CRABTREE RD NE

PATTERSON ST NE

VE

1ST TER NW

AVE

RD

S PL

SE

USET TS

OLIV ET

SIMM

NE

YO NEW

M ST NW

NW SACH

9TH ST NW

M ST NW

NT

NEA

MOR

VERM ONT

TER

NE RD

MOU

MT HAMILTON

N ST NW

ST NW

RIDGE ST

LAND MAS

NE D PKWY TWOO

NE

W

HIGH

NW

NE

BREN

K AVE

L PL

3RD ST NW

AVE

16TH ST NW

21ST ST NW

23RD ST NW

ND ISLA

N ST

YOR NEW O ST NE

HANOVER PL NW

D

31ST ST NW

DE RHO

PEN

P ST NE

T NW

1

BATAAN ST NW

CORREGIDOR ST NW

17TH ST NW

HAM NW

HARRY THOMAS WAY NE

ECKINGT

4TH ST NW

P ST NW 3RD ST NW

8TH S COLUMBIA ST NW

NW

N ST N

15TH ST NW

NW AVE IRE PSH

22ND ST NW

PL

PORTER PL NE

NW AVE

13TH ST NW

IN ST FRANKL

P ST NW

AVE

NW

N ST NW

NEW

POTOMAC ST NW

NW

11TH ST NW

27TH ST NW

AVE

JEFFERSON PL NW RD

POTOMAC ST NW

MARION ST NW

FLOR

W

NW 30TH ST NW

ETTS

SUNDERLAND PL NW

WA

OLIVE ST NW

T ST NW

33RD ST NW

AVE

N

RD NE

AVE

NW

ND ISLA

Y AVE

NW

ST NW

DE RHO

O ST NW

JERSE

T AVE

NW

WATER

ND OD

W

SSAC HUS

OR ARTON ST NW

D

VERM ONT

IDA

NW

TICU

N AVE ONSI O ST NW

RCH ST NW

KINGMA

AVE

ELLIPSE

28TH ST NW

TS

NEC

DUMBARTON ROCK CT NW

AVE

USET

O ST NW

PRO

19TH ST NW

SACH

P ST NW

POPLAR ST NW

NEW

34TH ST NW

EAST PL N

CON

WISC

33RD ST NW

MAS

NW

32ND ST NW

VOLTA PL NW

P ST NW

ORCORAN ST NE

BATES ST NW

Q ST NW

EAGLE NEST

NE

NE

LAND USE

G ST SE

G ST SE

VIRG SE

I ST SE

SAC

G ST SE

HUS ETT

E 295

L ST SE

S AVE SE

K ST SE

SE

STAT

295

LYN DA

INTER

SE

PEN

10TH ST SE

AVE

SE

NSY

OTA NES

E

LVA NIA AVE

A DR OSTI

SE

SE 12TH ST SE

9TH ST SE

M PL

POTOMAC AVE SE

10TH ST SE

PARSONS AVE SE

ISAAC HULL AVE SE

WARRINGTON AVE SE

MAS

SE

295

INTERSTATE

M ST SE

Y CIR BARNE

IVES PL SE

KS

TATE

30TH ST SE

POT

E 295

INTERS

ANAC

SE

MIN

M

NEL SON

ST

SE

P

ST TER WA

NAS H PL

SE

30TH ST SE

7TH ST SE

3RD ST SE

5TH ST SE

2ND ST SE 1ST ST SE

HALF ST SE VAN ST SE

SW

ST

SW L ST

E EY CK BU

SW ST H 14T

CANA

DR

SW

SW BRG U

395 E

AM BEA

TAT ERS

RO CH

SW

INT

MO

BRG

IVES PL SE

LE PL SE

SE

SW

ME RIA

U

ST

W Y

L PKW

AM BEA

R

G SW

RO CH

C AVE OMA

BRANCH AVE

6TH ST SW

L ST SW

TE M ST SW

CUSHING PL SE

HALF ST SW

MAKEMIE PL SW

K ST SW

K ST S

WA

Water Vacant

I ST SW

WESLEY PL SW

UnDetermined

K ST SW

H ST SE

SE

SW INTERSTAT

Transportation Right of Way

BAYLEY PL SE

SE

SE

AV

I PL AVE

I ST SE

WN

E 695

SE

FAI RLA

ST

I ST SE

15TH ST SE

E AV

I ST SW

14TH ST SE

H ST SW

13TH ST SE

SW

CROISSANT PL SE

1ST ST SE

AL

INE MA

DR

SE

STAT IO

VIRGI NIA

INTER CAN

OH

EAST BASIN DR SW

31ST ST SE

AVE

H ST SE

AVE

T SW

SW

KY

IAL PKWY

TUC

MEMOR

KEN

G ST SW

GW

Roads; Alleys; Median

32ND ST SE

INIA

Parking

M ST SE


WASHINGTON MAPPING DCDC


GARDENS/PARKS

PATCHING THE QUILT Sites with Potential One policy as outline by the DC of ice of planning, in conjunction with the Comprehensive Plan states, “Strongly encourage the development of new housing on surplus, vacant and under utilized land in all parts of the city. Ensure that a suf icient supply of land in planned and zoned to enable the city to meet its long-term housing needs, including the need for low-and moderate-density single family homes as well as the need for higher density housing.” The off ice of Planning also states that 15% of new housing stock and 10% of job growth will placed on newly developed large sites outside of the economic core of Washington DC. These large sites represent an aggregate of nearly 57 million square feet scattered east of the city’s N-S 16th St meridian.

UNDEVELOPED/UNDERUTILIZED SITES

WALTER REED MEDICAL CENTER 4,922,280 SQ FT

ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME 12,022,600 SQ FT MCMILLAN WATER FILTRATION PLANT 12,022,600 SQ FT FORT LINCOLN (REMAINDER) 3,490,000 SQ FT UNION STATION RAIL YARD (850,000) SQ FT

NW NW

RFK STADIUM AND PARKING LOT 3,000,000 SQ FT SOUTHWEST WATERFRONT 1,960,200 SQ FT POPLAR POIINT (ANACOSTIA) 2,613,600 SQ FT

57,000,000 SQ. FT

ST ELIZABETH HOSPITAL 14,636,160 SQ FT

DC VILLAGE 7,274,500 SQ FT

UNDEVELOPED/UNDERUTILIZED SITES


GARDENS/PARKS

GREENBELT PARK

FORT DUPONT PARK

ANACOSTIA PARK

BERNARD HILL PARK ANACOSTIA PARK NATIONAL ARBORETUM

CONGRESSIONAL CEMETERY

FORT STANTON PARK

EAST POTOMAC PARK ANACOSTIA PARK BRENTWOOD PARK LINCOLN PARK FORT BUNKER HILL PARK

FORT TOTTEN PARK

SHERMAN CIRCLE GRANT CIRCLE PARK SENATE PARK FORT CIRCLE PARK

PINEY BRANCH PARK MERRIDIAN HILL PARK CONSTITUTION GARDENS

ROSE PARK DUPONT CIRCLE

WOODLAND NORMASTONE TERRACE PARK ROOSEVELT ISLAND DUMBARTON OAKS NATIONAL MALL ROCK CREEK PARK/PUBLIC GOLF COURSE

ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY

FORT BAYARD PARK GLOVER ARCHBOLD PARK

BATTERY KEMBLE PARK WESLEY HEIGHTS PARK

MAPPING DC


Contention Encore Career Consituents of the City Program/Spatial Investigations Mapping/Site Considerations Formal Transformations Plans/Section Perspectives Embracing H Street Live/Work/Learn Unit


PROPOSAL


THIS THESIS CONTENDS... BY RE-THINKING THE SOCIAL, SPATIAL, AND PROGRAMMATIC CONSTRUCTS OF CONVENTIONAL SENIOR HOUSING FACILITIES AND REMOVING THEM FROM THEIR CURRENT HETEROTOPIC CONDITIONS, A NEW TYPOLOGY CAN BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVESTIGATES OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOCIAL REINTEGRATION PROVIDED BY THE EMERGING PHENOMENON OF THE ENCORE CAREER.


PROPOSAL


OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ENCORE LEARNING

WORKING

REST

TRADITIONAL PHASES (PRE-BABY BOOMER)

LEARNING

WORKING

REST

?

INTRODUCTION OF ADDITIONAL “ENCORE” PHASE

ENCORE

SENIOR SE

LEARNING

WORKING

REST

ENCORE CAREER FEEDBACK LOOP

?

SCALES OF INVOLVEMENT small

medium

large larg ge

TUTORING

COACH/INSTRUCTOR

CLASSROOM

LEARNING YOUNGER GENERATIONS

Why the Arts? Many studies have pointed to the bene its of art and art education for seniors and children. Among children, such programs have been shown to improve social interaction as well as increase the child’s comprehension of other subjects such as math and reading. Among the elderly, the programs have been shown to improve overall physical health (resulting in fewer doctor visits), less medication use, increased morale, and overall level of happiness.


PROPOSAL HIGHEST RATES OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN THE US RANK 2008

1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

RANK 1990

1 WASHINGTON DC 2 BRIDGEPORT, CT 4 SAN JOSE; SUNNYVALE; SANTA CLARA, CA 3 SAN FRANCISCO, CA 7 BOSTON; CAMBRIDGE, MA 8 RALEIGH, NC 5 MADISON, WI 6 AUSTIN, TX 11 MINNEAPOLIS; ST. PAUL, MN 9 DENVER; AURORA, CO

SOURCE: BROOKINGS INSTITUTE

Why DC? Washington DC was chosen for the simple reason that it has consistently been ranked as the most educated city in the US. For reasons of posterity, it makes sense to assume that the educated population living in and around the DC Metro area will continue to age here, providing the critical human infrastructure needed to support this new typology.


CONSTITUENTS OF THE CITY CHILDREN

REINTEGRATE

LIFESTYLE CHANGE (HOUSING) APPROPRIATE SPACE FOR CHILDREN

ELDERLY


PROPOSAL

Aligning Opportunity OPEN PLAY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION FAMILY CONDITION (ie FOSTER CARE) ACCESS TO QUALITY EDUCATION/AFTERSCHOOL

RECIPROCITY THROUGH INTERACTION IMPROVE ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL SKILLS IMPROVE PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE ABILITY DECREASE STIGMAS

DISABLING ENVIRONMENTS AND ISOLATION HEALTH CONCERNS $

ACCESS TO INCOME

Social constructs have placed senior housing within a crisis condition that removes and sometimes quarentines this group from mainstream society because they are no longer seen as contributing members. The baby boomer generation, however, is consistenly challenging lifestyle patterns that have resulted in existing housing typologies. Age no longer de ines when an individual stops working, though retirement from one job could mean the beginning of another, most of which take the form of entrepreneurship and public service. Constructive dynamisms exist between the interactions of the “creative senior” residents and the urban youth, de ining the opportunity for educational exchange based on the residents’ expertise. As the residents continue to practice their personal interests in verious mediums of artistic expression, afterschool programs can provided students with a focused secondary curriculum in valuable arts topics.


CONSTITUENTS OF THE CITY AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

DCPS AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

Academic Power hour and enrichment and wellness programming

Proving What’s Possible Program (PWP) Major Grants ($250,000-$400,000) Targeted Grant ($50,000-$100,000)

Partners with community-based organizations (CBO) and neighborhood-based organizations (NBO)

Office of Out-of-School Time Program (DCPS) Specific to school curriculum

CASE STUDY: WARD 6 SCHOOLS CAPITOL HILL MONT.

LUDLOW TAYLOR ES

CHARTER 211

J.O. WILSON ES

TIER 2 367

TIER 2 226

IN BOUNDARY: 35%

IN BOUNDARY: 21% MATH: 51.9% READING: 45.7% Out-of-School Time 3:30 -6:00 PM

TIER 4 86

IN BOUNDARY: 0%

MINER ES

TIER 3 496

IN BOUNDARY: 34%

MATH: 53.4% READING: 53.4%

MATH: 24.7% READING: 12.3%

MATH: 33.1% READING: 36.5%

Out-of-School Time 3:30 -6:00 PM

Proving What’s Possible (PWP) Grant

Out-of-School Time 3:30 -6:00 PM

2:30 -6:00 PM

WHEATLEY CAMPUS

TIER 4 463

STUART HOBSON MS

TIER 1 403

IN BOUNDARY: 57%

IN BOUNDARY: 20%

MATH: 20.4% READING: 18.7%

MATH: 62.2% READING: 67.2%

Proving What’s Possible (PWP) Grant

3:30 -6:00 PM

Out-of-School Time 3:30 -6:00 PM

ome

7:00

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“Springboard” 3:30 -4:30 PM

PROSPECT CENTER

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ISSUES SURROUND CHILDREN

HOW DOES THE STUDENT GET TO AND FROM SCHOOL? IS THERE A GUARDIAN OR CARE-GIVER PRESENT WHEN THE STUDENT ARRIVES HOME? DOES THE STUDENT NEED HELP WITH HOMEWORK? DOES THE STUDENT HAVE ACCESS TO AFTER SCHOOL CARE PROGRAMS? IS THE STUDENT INTERESTED IN AFTER SCHOOL CURRICULA? IS THE STUDENT CONTRIBUTING TO HIGHER/LOWER MATH/READING SCORES? DOES THE STUDENT COME FROM A HOUSEHOLD BELOW THE POVERTY LEVEL?


PROPOSAL

STUDENT COMMUTE PATTERNS BY PERFORMANCE CLUSTER


PROGRAM INVESTIGATIONS COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL

OUTDOOR

INDOOR

PUBLIC

PRIVATE

GYMNASIUM AUDITORIUM THEATER GALLERY LIBRARY PARK LIVE/WORK COMMUNITY PERCORSO HEALTH CENTER OFFICE

GYMNASIUM

COMMUNITY

LIVE/WORK

BASKETBALL COURTS

MEETING ROOM

DOMESTIC

CARDIO ROOM

DIGITAL IMAGING

UTILITY

LOCKERS

KICTHEN

FLEXIBLE

YOGA

STORAGE

TRANSPARENT

THEATER

UPPER LOBBY

REHEARSAL ROOM

VESTIBULE

FLYLOFT

ASSEMBLY SPACE

BACKSTAGE

STORAGE

DOUBLE-SIDED STAGE

PERCORSO

VISAUAL CONNECTION PROGRAM LINKAGE ASSEMBLY

LIBRARY

ART STUDIO

INFIRMERY

READING AREA

NORTH EXPOSURE

CLINIC

COLLECTION

UTILITY SINKS

PHYSICAL THERAPY

CIRCULATION DESK

STORAGE

HEALTH CENTER

FREIGHT ELEV.

STORAGE

GALLERY

OFFICE

DANCE STUDIO

VESTIBULE

SUPPORT STAFF

VIEW TO STREET

ART STORE

INFO/RECEPTION

FRONTAGE TO L/W

ARCHIVE STORAGE

MEDICAL STAFF

SQUARE PROP.

FEATURE SPACE

BREAK ROOMS


PROPOSAL

The Public Realm This thesis challenges the notion of singularity among constituancies and programmatic separation seen in traditional models of senior housing, through the introduction of a gradient of privacy levels. An interstitial space would slide between public and private realms in order to avoid an otherwise inevitable empty corridor condition. This interstitial space would also mediate the connection between the residential units and the adjacent public program by acting as a threshold. The radicalization of the senior housing typology with a hyper-public space is an organizational strategy used to promote the reintegration of the residents with the events and activities occuring in the city. A list of primary and secondary (support) spaces were hypothesized to foster healthy social interaction among various age groups. They include spaces for visual and performing arts, spaces to congregate, as well as more intimate spaces for more private and specialized lessons, and inally spaces designated for speci ically the residents or support staff.


SPATIAL INVESTIGATIONS RELATIVE AREA

ADJACENCIES

ADJACENCIES

ART STORE CARE GALLERIES AUDITORIUM

PRIVATE

DANCE STUDIO ART STUDIO MEDIA CENTER EXERCISE

PRIVATE

SEMIPRIVATE

SUPPORT STAFF COURTYARD INTERSTITIAL CIRCULATION/PERCORSO

PUBLIC LIVE/WORK

PUBLIC PUBLIC PRIVATE

THEATER/GALLERY INVESTIGATION

ENTRANCE INVESTIGATION

SEMIPRIVATE

INTERSTITIAL


PROPOSAL LEVEL OF PRIVACY

SECTIONAL CONFIGURATION

PRIVATE

CIRCULATION/PERCORSO

CONVENTIONAL MODEL

PUBLIC

PROPOSED MODEL

LIVE/WORK LIVE/WORK

ART STUDIO

ART STUDIO DANCE STUDIO

“PERCORSO”

LIVE/WORK

PUBLIC

INTERSTITIAL

SEMI-PRIVATE

PRIVATE

DANCE STUDIO

LIVE/WORK

AUDITORIUM CARE MEDIA CENTER

AUDITORIUM

SUPPORT STAFF COURTYARD

GALLERY GALLERY

EXERCISE

ART STORE

EXERCISE GALLERIES ART STORE

STREET


MAPPING AMMENITIES H M metro

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PROPOSAL

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SITE CONSIDERATIONS A Palimpsest H STREET HISTORY US Soldiers Home authorized by Congress (1851)

RECONSTRUCTION DC Streetcar begins operation with horses (1862)

7 Little Sisters of the Poor arrive from France (1871)

1850

1860

1870

7 Little Sisters of the Poor move to 220 H Street Building (1872)

1880

DC Streetcar Electrified Cable Cars (1890)

1890

Washington Brewery Co. begins Operations on 4th and E (1890)

1900

PROGRESSIVE R RE ERA Union Station Begins Operation (1908) Apollo Theater Opens on H Street (1913)

1910

Washington Brewery Co. Closes (1917)

Apollo Theater Closes (1922)

1920

1930 Atlas Movie Theater Opens on H Street (1938)

1940

POST P OS WWII WWI

1950

DC Streetcar Operation Ends (1962)

DECLINE NE

1960

DC Riots destroy properties along H Street (1968)

Construction of H Street Bridge forces Little Sisters of the Poor to relocate. (1976) Atlas Theater Closes (1976) Capital Children’s Museum Opens in former 7 Sisters Home(1979)

1970

1980

H Street Community Dev. Corp Reopens Atlas Theater (1985) Strip Mall built between 8th and 10th (1985)

1990

RENAISSANCE ENA AIS H Street Playhouse Opens 100-seat black box Theater (2002) Capital Children’s Museum Vacates Building (2005) Atlas Performing Arts Center Opens (2005) Construction for New Streetcar System Begins on H Street (2008) Burnham Place Union Station Railyard Revevelopment announced (2012) New H Street Streetcar line to begin operation (2014)

2000

2010

2020

Several considerations were made when picking the site of this building. First, there needed to be a plethora of local ammenities to support the basic needs of the residents. This includes grocery stores, pharmacies, access to health care clinics, clothing, and restaurants. Second, the residents would need access to convenient public transportation. This site along H street is within walking distance to Union Station (the largest intermodal hub in Washington DC), as well as several bus lines and the planned streetcar line which stop at the corner of 3rd and H. Tertiary considerations include proximity to other visual and performing arts programs as well as local schools. While looking into the history of the site, I discovered that the renovated lofts directly north of the site once housed the Litte Sisters of the Poor, a care facility for the aged. More recently, it was the location of the Capital Children’s Museum before it vacated in 2005. This serendipidous coincidence was one of many that can be noted along the H Street NE corridor. The street itself is a veritable palimpsest still bearing traces of its eventful, sometimes infamous past. Important to note, H Street was one of the major sites of violence during the 1968 riots after the assassination of MLK Jr. To this day buildings destroyed in ires set during the riots remain as strip mall parking lots or vacant sites. However, these physical characteristics become reminders of H Street’s rich heritage.


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R ET AI R D ED (A ES PA U TR L TO O A C PA YED E R : MU TS R S E AN SI IC A D DE CLU PA NT B JO TLA Y S R IA KI L O P R F ER N BL O G O G CK MO FO LO C A N TI R T) K H LL O M R ST ER OL N IN D G L R Y EE O CO H AN AR T ON OT CE T N PL EL N ST S C ER AY H U EN SM D T H IO E O IT U R H SE AR T G AL LE RY

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(O EM U OL R IS IS M HE AN D : CH AP EV OL R LO O LE TH D T; E (S ES TR ST AT T H R O O ER I R P Y R 57 M E AG JA AL D: E) ZZ L) MI XE CL D U U B SE D BL O CK

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LR Y EP IS EA CO TE PA FO W R/O FO ( L FO A R U M CH S R R M ER RM HI I U ER R ER NG SM M CH TO AN ST O L Y R N R C T U EE IO LI CO HE N TC N L VY ’ E S I AR A S D EP RE EU TR N M T. AN U D ST A) N O S I O O FE U N R G R E LA TE PO S R M IN M IN T EM A L O R M IA AR L KE G M AL ET T LA H U OD D IS ET T U CH N IV UR TR D ER C IN R M SI H ID .G ED TY A R D IT A N ER N AT V E R IG IL LA AN LE H S BO EA M PE R N O H R O N O FO R EI O E R G D H M H O BO IN M G E R H AR O O TS D CE N TE R

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U A FO RT R H M O ER B S SI ON FO TE M R O ID M F D E W LE O RS AS S F H C TH ITE BR IN HO E O EW GT OL CH PO F ER ON IL O LIT D R TL Y R A E EN N S ’S D C IS M AP TE U IT RS SE O U L M

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PROPOSAL


Collective Urban Character The H-Street corridor consists of several neighborhoods, including Capitol Hill, NoMa, Carver Langston, and Trinidad, and runs in an EW direction. The NE portion of H-Street has been the subject of much talk and action regarding revitalization in Washington DC. Some of the major catalysts responsible are the numerous arts venues, Atlas theater renovation, and the upcoming streetcar. Although several of ice and apartment buildings have been developed along H-Street, the character of the street remains as a patch-work, with inconsistent building heights, intermittent

vacant lots, parking lots, and strip malls. This portion of H-Street has only recently been connected with the rest of the city west of Union Station (as of the 1970’s) after experiencing devestating effects from ires set during the riots of 1968. Today these scars remain, and the street is inally experiencing a rennaisance that has avoided overt gentriication. Instead, we see a “softening” of the city, which proves to be a choice fronteir for experimental activity. Case in point, the city decided to place the irst lengtyh of track of the new streetcar system exclusively along H-Street.


PROPOSAL


COLLECTIVE SITE FORCES


PROPOSAL


FORMAL TRANSFORMATIONS


PROPOSAL


PROPOSAL


ROOF

ROOF

SIXTH FLOOR/ROOF

E-W SECTION

6

1/8” - 1’

1/16” - 1’

LOUNGE

MOVIE TERRACE

TERRACE

FIFTH LEVEL

N-S SECTION_3

5

1/8” - 1’

1/16” - 1’

ART STUDIO

DANCE STUDIO

DANCE STUDIO

EXAM 1

CARE

EXAM 2

OFFICE

FOURTH LEVEL

EXAM 3

N-S SECTION_2

4

1/8” - 1’

1/16” - 1’

LIBRARY

LIBRARY

LIBRARY LOBBY

4

AUDITORIUM

REHEARSAL

DEMONSTRATION KITCHEN

EXAM 1

CARE

EXAM 2

OFFICE

THIRD LEVEL 1/16” - 1’

3

EXAM 3

N-S SECTION_1 1/8” - 1’


3&H ART SUPPLIES


EMBRACING THE STREET

HST RE ET

“PERCORSO”

COLLECTION OF URBAN CHARACTER

H-STREET


PROPOSAL

The “Percorso”

PRIVATE

PUBLIC

The collective urban character of H Street, de ined by its charming irregulatities (inconsistent building heights and ornamentation, intermittent vacant lots, and the wide variety of program), represents a prime model for integration. Up to this point, the social reintegration of the elderly population was addressed through policies and programmatic considerations. In order to accommodate these ideas within another scalar shift (from the Street to the block; block to the building, and now the building to the interstitial spaces) we must consider the advantages of a street-like organization. The narrative here describes the collective urban character of H Street and the city in iltrating the site and meandering its way through the building, connecting critical public/semi-public program. Within the building this intergenerational pathway is known as the “Prcorso.” This Percorso enters the building from the corner of 3rd and H Street, passes through the entrance gallery to the lower gallery and archive, and begins its ascent up the series of ramps and through the corridors to the live/work/learn units. It’s adjacency to the units is inteded to encourage a public in iltration to occur around the residents, in order to avoid visual, physical, and social isolation that may occur in a conventional senior housing model.


EMBRACING THE STREET


PROPOSAL

PRIVATE LESSON/TUTORING

CLASS DEMONSTRATION


LIVE/WORK/LEARN

1

5

WIDE OPEN SPACE As people age they tend to collect artifacts, whether bought or handmade. Lifestyle changes usually mean down-sizing, forcing the owner to redistribute their belongings due to smaller dwellings. The Live/Work/Learn unit is intended to provide ample space for the creative senior to practice their particular form of artistic expertise. Utilizing, double-sided sliding storage partitions, occupants can store and collect their belongings and multiply spaces.

GALLERY/CLASSROOM Because these units are designed for the creative senior, there not only becomes a need for ample storage space, but for display space as well. By opening the front doors the occupant creates a welcoming environment to encourage public infiltration. In the case of an exhibit opening the occupant can display their work, while keeping the private realm of the bedroom and bathroom hidden. This arrangment is also convenient for small student groups to assemble for group lessons, and tutoring sessions.

2

6

COOKING The ability to eat and cook for one’s self are metrics of ADLs (activities of daily living) used to quantify a person’s level of independence. As a person ages and inevitably loses the ability to perform ADLs independently, or in the case of a life-changing injury needs special assistance, certain ammenities become unsafe or unnecessary. Without having to move out of the unit, appliances can be disconnected and safely hidden behind a sliding storage partition.

2 BEDROOM There are several scenarios that would necessitate multiple bedrooms or an additional partitioned space: sub-letting the unit with a roommate or business partner or even providing a bedroom for visiting family members. Occupants may even desire a private studio or office. Additionally, as occupants become older and lose the ability to care for themselves, they could bring in a personal skilled live-in or on-call assistant.


PROPOSAL

3

7

UTILITY As some occupants will be practicing forms of artistic expression that result in large messes, whether from paint splatter or dust particulate, there arises the need to provide for hygiene and cleanliness. A utility area placed along a shared “wet wall� provides occupants with laundry hook-ups and a large utility sink. Here, paints and chemicals can be stored, brushes can be soaked, and clothes can be washed and dried. The concrete floor also provides an easy to clean surface that can eventually be laminated with a safer material later on.

WALK-IN CLOSET Whether occupants need the space or not, conventional built-in closets create an obstruction and take up useful space. By implementing the same sliding storage partition system, closets can occupy less space and hold more. By sliding out just a few feet, the occupant[s] can move between the storage units and easilty access all articles of clothing. In addition, this condition also provides privacy while they dress.

4

8

SECONDARY STORAGE By overlapping the sliding partition storage units with wall-mounted storage, the occupant[s] can define a hierachy of space. Doors on both sides of the sliding storage units will ensure the occupant would never have to continuously alternate their positions to access stowed items. The utility are can be closed off, masking noxious odors of paints and chemicals, and keeping hazardous items out of the reach or visiting children.

DINING In addition to cooking, residents will have the opportunity to entertain guests. The sliding storage unit adjacent to the kitchen has a telescoping serving counter where food can be placed within reach to the dinner table. Cabinets on casters have folding table surfaces that can be articulated for events expecting several guests.


ENCORE IMAGES 3RD ANDAND H STREETCAR STOP 1_3RD H STREETCAR STOP

2_ENTRANCE GALLERY AND ART STORE LOBBY GALLERY AND ART STORE LOBBY G ALLERY A ND A RT S TORE


PROPOSAL 3_LOWER GALLERY AND ARCHIVE

4_AUDITORIUM ATRIUM

5_EXERCISE ROOM AND GARDEN


BIBLIOGRAPHY “Aging Boomers Will Strain Senior Services - AARP Bulletin.” Aarp, n.d. http://www.aarp.org/politics-society/government-elections/info-06-2011/aging-boomers-will-strain-senior-services.html. “Anything But Grey”, 2011. http://www.aronsengelauff.nl/A&G-book.pdf. Bronson, A. A., Arons & Gelauf, Paul Meurs, Deanne Simpson, Geoff Manaugh, and and many others. Volume 27: Aging. Edited by Archis + AMO + C-LAB. Archis, 2011. Bureau, U.S. Census. “American FactFinder”, n.d. http://fact inder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. Chapter 3 Land Use Elements. Volume 1 Acknowledgments, Introduction and Citywide Elements. DC Of ice of Planning, n.d. http://planning.dc.gov/DC/Planning/Across+the+City/Comprehensive+ Plan/2006+Comprehensive+Plan/Volume+1+Acknowledgements,+Introduction+and+Citywide+E lements/Land+Use. Chapter 8 Parks, Recreation and Open Space Element. Volume 1 Acknowledgments, Introduction and Citywide Elements, n.d. http://planning.dc.gov/DC/Planning/Across+the+City/Comprehensiv e+Plan/2006+Comprehensive+Plan/Volume+1+Acknowledgements,+Introduction+and+Citywide +Elements/Parks+Recreation+and+Open+Space. Chapter 9 Urban Design Element. Volume 1 Acknowledgments, Introduction and Citywide Elements, n.d. http://planning.dc.gov/DC/Planning/Across+the+City/Comprehensive+Plan/2006+ Comprehensive+Plan/Volume+1+Acknowledgements,+Introduction+and+Citywide+Elements/ Urban+Design. Freedman, Marc. “An ‘Encore’ Life Beckons...” The Atlantic Magazine, no. Winter 2011-2012. The Next Economy (n.d.): 8–9. “Medicare, Social Security Finances Strained By Aging Workforce And Slowing Economy.” Huf ington Post, April 23, 2012. http://www.huf ingtonpost.com/2012/04/23/social-security-medicareinances_n_1445752.html. Rebok, George, Michelle Carlson, and Thomas Glass. “Short-Term Impact of Experience Corps Participation on Children and School: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial.” Journal of Urban Health: Bullitin of the New York Academy of Medicine 81, no. 1 (n.d.). Shane, David Grahame. Recombinant Urbanism: Conceptual Modeling in Architecture, Urban Design and City Theory. 1st ed. Academy Press, 2005. Starobin, Paul. “No, Malthush, No: Living Longer Is a Blessing Not a Curse.” The Atlantic Magazine, no. Winter 2011-2012 (n.d.): 8–13.


Encore!  

Syracuse University Thesis Proposal

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