Volume 40 no/nr 1 July/Julie 2015
Problem-solving, reasoning and numeracy
Integrating phonetics in the pre-school 2015 a year of practical inspiration 2015 - a year of practical inspiration
4 From The Committee / Bestuursbrief 6 Your Questions / Vra Gerus 14 Post Box / Posbus
Editorial / Redaksie Nicolene du Preez Lize Bredell Marthie Stoltz Roeleen Lemmer Mariette van Eeden Graphic Design / Grafiese ontwerp Nicolene du Preez
- On The Cover / Voorbladstorie 22 Problem-solving, reasoning and numeracy 36 Integrating phonetics in the pre-school
Design & Layout / Ontwerp & Uitleg AECYC / VVOS
- Articles / Artikels 16 Problem-based learning in Mathematics 34 What is Howard Gardnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MI? 52 Why do some kids fidget?
Publishers / Uitgewers AECYC / VVOS
- Management / Bestuur 27 The SCARF model 62 Ten body language secrets of highly successful people - Baking / Bak en Brou 32 School kitchen 46 Custard cookies - Theme thoughts / Tematyd 40 Story 41 Songs and Rhymes 42 How to use a worksheet 48 Motor development with Carla Grobler - Health / Gesondheid 54 When your child goes to hospital 56 Parent poster / Ouerplakkaat 58 School news / Skole nuus 66 Seminar / Seminaar 69 AECYC - Afilliation Form
Advertising / Reklame Lize Bredell
Distriburion / Verspreiding AECYC / VVOS Affiliation / Affiliasie AECYC / VVOS Contact Us / Kontak Ons Tel: 012 667 2028 Fax: 086 642 5855 E-mail: email@example.com www.vvos.co.za www.aecyc.co.za Opinions expressed in this magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the Editorial Team or the AECYC Committee. The Editorial Team reserves the right to amend or reject any editorial matter or photographs submitted for publication. Acceptance of advertising does not represent the AECYCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s endorsement of any product or service, nor is the AECYC responsible for representations made by advertisers. Geen aanspreeklikheid word aanvaar vir enige geding wat uit hierdie publikasie mag spruit nie.
“What is the goal of schooling?”
ave you ever found yourself asking the question of what the goal of schooling is without finding the answer that deeply satisfies you in your soul? As an educator, trainer and owner of two schools and an aftercare centre in the 21st century, I think one always seeks the answer to that question. I firmly believe that as educators we should constantly stop and reflect on the enormous task at hand. I was introduced to the following piece by one of the AECYC members and felt the urge to share it with you in this edition of the Learning Years. It is an extract from a book written by Haim Ginott. In his book, Teacher and Child, Ginott shares a letter provided to all the teachers in a school on the first day of class by their principal. It reads as follow: “Dear Teacher: I am the survivor of a concentration camp. My eyes saw what no person should witness: Gas chambers built by learned engineers. Children poisoned by educated physicians. Infants killed by trained nurses. Women and babies shot and burned by high school and college graduates. So I am suspicious of education. My request is: Help your students to become human. Your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psychopaths, educated Eichmanns. Reading, writing and arithmetic are important only if they were to make our children more humane.” Read more: http://www.care2.com/causes/making-our-children-more-humane html#ixzz3ZzDGViDdw 4
n this edition we will look at theme planning through phonics from page 36 - 47, as well as and problemsolving and the importance thereof in mathematics on page 22. We hope that you will enjoy this fun-packed edition as much as we enjoyed putting it all together. May you enjoy fruitful and positive reflection on your own practice during 2015. I sincerely want to thank you for being a member of the dynamic and inspirational AECYC team.
Regards Marthie Stolz
Hoe om met ons liggeraakte sierboomkindertjies te praat Deur Hettie Brittz. Aangepas uit Kweek Kinders met Karakter. Kopiereg geld. Sierboomkinders is die kinders met wie ons moet praat asof woorde klippe is en hierdie kosbare kleingoed van glas gemaak is. Dit kan uitputtend wees om elke keer ons woorde te tel. MAAR as ons genoeg omgee om by hulle kommunikasievoorkeure aan te pas, blom hierdie soms pieperige kleingoed en word produktiewe, emosioneel intelligente bronne van vreugde! As ons werklik tot `n sierboompie wil deurdring, moet ons die volgende riglyne volg: - ‘n Sierboompie luister na hoe ons praat (die emosie), en nie net na wat ons sê nie. Ons moet dus baie rustig en vriendelik kommunikeer. Hulle “steek” ons negatiwiteit blitsig “aan” wanneer ons met `n kermstem praat, en dan kan ons `n mislike reaksie verwag. - Sierbome sukkel soms om net te luister, en wil graag soveel moontlik op skrif hê. Maak liewer tekeninge van die reëls, en plak dit iewers op as om jou kleuter heeldag daaraan te loop en herinner. `n Knaende gekerm maak hulle vies. - Praat rustig, en moet hulle nie te veel aanjaag nie, want sierboompies wil graag alles goed doen en het tyd daarvoor nodig. - Sierboompies wil voel hulle word waardeer, en dat jy verstaan dat jou verwagtinge vir hulle moeite of inspanning gaan kos. Sê dus asseblief en dankie. - Sierboompies moet alles in die fynste besonderhede verstaan, so herhaal geduldig wat jy gesê het indien nodig. - Kommunikeer jou begrip vir die emosies wat sierbome beleef deur te sê: “Ek besef hierdie opdrag/straf/ versoek/woorde laat jou _____________ voel.” - Pasop vir alle sêgoed wat `n sierboompie se diep emosies en ervarings kan afskiet. Verbode woorde sluit in: “Ruk jouself reg. Hou op huil. Kom nou daaroor. Hoe lank gaan jy nog huil? Wat is so erg daaraan? Môre is nog `n dag. Toemaar, ander mense kry baie swaarder as jy. Wees dankbaar – dit kon erger gewees het. Ek weet van iemand wat…” - Onthou dat sierboompies net die negatiewe hoor. Moet dus nooit komplimente met kritiek opvolg nie. Wanneer ons vir sierboompies sê, “Die kamer lyk pragtig, maar jy moet volgende keer onthou om jou kasdeure toe te maak”, hoor hulle net “Jou kasdeure moes toe gewees het.” “Wanneer ons sê, “Dis goeie punte hierdie, maar dit lyk my jy het verlede kwartaal nog beter gedoen,” hoor hulle net “Jy het al beter gedoen.” Gee jou kompliment, en weerstaan die versoeking om die klein bietjie kritiek daarby aan te las. Hanteer die kritiek later sensitief, as jy moet. - Sierboompies neem dinge maklik persoonlik op en is daarom baie sensitief vir beskuldigings. Wees dus seker van jou feite en praat privaat met hulle wanneer jy dink hulle is skuldig. Wanneer hulle publiek tereggewys word, word hulle baie aanvallend en sal hulle waarskynlik jok om hulle selfbeeld te beskerm. - As sierboompies iets aanvang wat ons nie van hulle verwag nie, moet ons nie oorreageer nie. Vra eerder vrae om beter te verstaan. My sierboompie is glad nie `n kind wat goed breek of beskadig nie, maar toe sy vier was het sy op `n dag vertikale vensterblinders stukkend gesny – elkeen `n ander lengte! Ek het woedend gereageer. Dit het eers baie later uitgekom dat sy gedink het dit gaan mooier wees as elke paneeltjie `n ander lengte is.
Waarom het ek sommer aanvaar sy was stout? As ek kalm gevra het hoekom sy dit gesny het, sou ek dadelik besef het dit was `n groot fout wat sy in kinderlike onskuld begaan het. Sy het gedink sy is besig met binnenshuise versiering! Noudat sy ouer is, sien ek elke dag tekens van hierdie kunstige, kreatiewe inslag! - Sierboompies word dikwels kwaad wanneer hulle gekritiseer word en kan dan vlymskerp reageer om jou ook te probeer seermaak. Moet dit nie persoonlik opneem of daarop reageer nie. Praat later daaroor om jou sierboompie te help om nie so terug te kap nie. - Ons kan niks leliks terugtrek wat ons vir hulle gesê het nie, want sierboompies onthou alles! Wanneer ons teen hulle uitgevaar het, in hulle karakter ingeklim het of onredelik was, moet ons teruggaan en om verskoning vra. Selfs om hard te skree, is te erg vir hulle sisteempies. Hulle ervaar die aggressie daarvan dieselfde as wat hulle fisieke geweld sal ervaar. - Moenie baie praat wanneer `n sierboompie emosioneel is nie – hulle word sommer kwater! Gee tyd en spasie, en praat later. - Sierboompies is baie sensitief vir stilstuipe, want hulle vul die “blanks” in. Hulle verbeel hulle die ergste, lê woorde in jou (toe) mond en verbeel hulle gewoonlik jou woede of ontevredenheid is heelwat erger as wat dit regtig is. Kry jouself minstens sover om te sê: “Ek sal later vir jou sê hoe ek voel, gee my net tyd.” Dit help hulle om te wag vir die waarheid, en nie so op hol te gaan nie. Dit leer hulle ook `n aanvaarbare manier om hulle reaksies uit te stel totdat hulle minder emosioneel is.
OPSOMMING - Wees kalm - Wees spesifiek - Wees saaklik - Wees bereikbaar vir hulp - Wees waarderend vir hulle pogings
Hoe kan ek beter na my sierboompie luister? - Onthou die emosionele stortvloed is sierboompies se styl – as die storie deurmekaar is, luister na die hart. - Sierboompies sien al die detail as ewe belangrik, wees dus maar geduldig terwyl hulle die bobbejaan agter die bult gaan haal. - Vra hulle om op te som wat hulle alles gesê het wanneer jy nie volg nie, maar moenie afskakel nie – dit maak hulle geweldig seer. - Sierboompies kan onmiddellik voel wanneer jy krities of skepties is oor wat hulle sê en dan raak hulle op hulle hoede. Dit maak dat hulle nie verder hulle hart wil oopmaak nie. Pasop om nie deur jou wenkbroue te lig, te frons of te sug nie-verbaal sulke negatiewe terugvoering te gee terwyl hulle praat nie. Gee maar kans tot dit jou beurt is om te praat en reageer dan versigtig. - Verstaan dat wanneer `n sierboompie so baie detailvrae het, dit nie wantroue in jou beteken nie. Hulle het maar net `n groot behoefte om alles te weet en te verstaan. - Sierboompies kla graag en het gewoonlik `n heel aparte kermstem vir sulke geleenthede. Jy mag nooit na daardie stemmetjie luister nie, anders word hy permanent. Sê net baie kalm: “Ek wil graag luister, so jy sal in jou vriendelike stem moet praat.” - Wees bedag op sierboompies se geheime wapen – hulle gebruik emosionele kerm en bekuldigings van onreg om ouers te manipuleer. Wanneer jy hiervan hoor, moet jy dit uitwys, en seker maak dat dit nie `n patroon by jou sierboompie word nie. 7
Kom ons raak prakties:
Identifiseer die agt stellings of vrae wat ’n sierboompie se gevoelens sal misken. Vervang elkeen met ’n stelling of vraag wat empatie en begrip oordra. Ek gee moontlike antwoorde en alternatiewe reaksies onderaan. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
Dit lyk vir my jy is diep teleurgesteld. Vergeet nou daarvan. Hoekom huil jy alweer? Wat het jou so hartseer laat word? Jy kan nou maar ophou huil. Dis verby. Ek sien jy is geskok en ontsteld. Gaan sit gerus op ’n rustige plek totdat jy beter voel. Moenie jouself so jammer kry nie. Jy is nie die enigste een wat seergekry het nie. Jy het ’n baie sagte hart. Dit is kosbaar. Ek weet nie wat om te doen wanneer jy so huil nie. Jy kan enige tyd by my kom sit, selfs al is jy te hartseer om te praat. Lag en die wêreld lag saam met jou; huil en jy huil alleen.
Antwoorde: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Al is jy nog vir ’n rukkie daaroor hartseer, weet ek dat dit jou nie vir altyd sal bly pla nie. Ek kom agter dat jy kort-kort huil. Ek wil graag verstaan waarom, sodat ek jou kan help. Die ergste is verby. Jy sal later beter voel. Dit lyk vir my jy voel jy kry onnodig swaar. Daar is nog mense wat saamstem dat dit seer was. Ek hoop iemand troos hulle ook. Hoe kan ek jou help wanneer jy so hartseer is? Jy mag huil en jy mag lag. Ons almal voel soms lekker en soms sleg. Ek is jammer om te sien dat dit regtig vir jou erg is.
Merk die kommunikasiefoute wat jy nog soms met jou sierboompie maak. Omkring dié wat julle verhouding kan laat skipbreuk lei en maak werk daarvan om dit met goeie kommunikasie te vervang. o o o o o o o o o o o o
Ek vloek hom of haar soms Ek raak baie emosioneel as hy emosioneel is Ek loop weg wanneer sy huil omdat dit my afsit Ek hou nie van al die vrae nie Ek luister nie na die detail wanneer sy praat nie – dit maak my moeg Ek skryf geen briefies nie Ek gee nie terugvoering wanneer hy werk vir my gedoen het nie Ek praat met ander mense oor haar foute Ek stoot en trek wanneer sy moedeloos word, in plaas daarvan om haar aan te moedig Ek vergeet dikwels om vir hom te sê dat ek vir hom lief is Ek gee nie genoeg inligting betyds deur nie Ek jaag hom aan wanneer hy ’n lang storie vertel
Immergroen Ouerskap nooi jou om ‘n Immergroen Ouerskapkursus of Kleuterkursus by te woon om toegerus te word vir die hantering van “al die boompies in jou tuin,” sodat ouerskap en onderwys weer die uitbundige vreugde en vervullende ervaring kan wees waarvoor jy altyd gehoop het! Kom loer in by www.immergroenuoerskap.co.za en kuier saam op Facebook by Evergeen Parenting.
How to talk to our meltdown-prone lollipop tree children By Hettie Brittz. Adapted from Growing Kids with Character 2.0. Copyrighted. Lollipop trees are the children we need to talk to as though our words were stones and these precious kids were made of glass. It can be exhausting, BUT when we care enough to adapt to their preferred communication style, these sometimes timid little ones bloom into productive and emotionally intelligent delights. If we really want our lollipops to understand what we say, we will do them and ourselves a favour to follow these guidelines: • A lollipop listens to the way we speak (emotions), and not only to what we say. We should therefore communicate very calmly and in a friendly way. They can “catch on” to our negativity very quickly if we talk in a whiny tone and then we can expect a nasty reaction. • Lollipops sometimes have trouble listening and want as many written instructions as possible. Make sketches of rules and put them up somewhere. It will be more effective than walking around reminding your toddler all day long. A constant nagging exhausts them. • Talk calmly and don’t rush them too much. Lollipops want to do everything well and need time to accomplish this. • Lollipops want to feel appreciated and be certain you understand that your expectations will be hard work and trouble. Therefore, say please and thank you. Lollipops need to understand everything in detail, so repeat everything you said patiently when necessary. • Convey that you understand the emotion that your lollipop is experiencing by saying: “I realise that this instruction (or punishment or request or word) makes you feel ___________.” • Beware of saying things that could convey disregard for your lollipop’s intense emotions and experiences. Forbidden words include: “Get a grip. Stop crying. Get over it. How long are you going to keep on sulking? What is so bad about that? Tomorrow is another day. Don’t worry; other people are worse off than you. Be grateful – it could have been much worse. I know of someone who ...” • Remember that lollipops only hear the negative. Therefore, never follow up a compliment with criticism. When we tell lollipops, “The room looks nice, but next time you should remember to close the closet door,” they only hear, “Your closet door should have been closed.” When we say, “These are good marks, but it seems to me that you did better last term,” they will only hear, “You did better in the past.” Give the compliment and resist the temptation to add even a touch of criticism. If you need to deal with criticism, do it later in a sensitive way. • Lollipops are quick to take things personally and are therefore very sensitive to accusations. Be sure of your facts and talk privately when you think they are guilty. When they are reprimanded in public, they get very defensive and they will probably lie to protect their self-image. • If lollipops do something wrong that we didn’t expect of them, we shouldn’t overreact. Rather ask explorative questions. My lollipop was never one to break or damage things, but when she was four she cut up the vertical blinds – all into different lengths! I was furious. Later, it turned out that she thought it would look more artistic if every panel had a different length. Why did I just assume she was naughty? If I had stayed calm and asked her why she had cut them, I would have realised immediately that it was a big mistake made in childlike innocence. She thought she was busy with interior decoration! Now that she is older, I see signs of this artistic, creative tendency every day.
• Lollipops often get uncharacteristically aggressive when they are criticised and can react with razor-like sharpness to hurt you, too. Don’t take it personally nor react to it. Talk about it later and teach your lollipop not to react that way. They are usually remorseful within a few minutes after their counter-attack! • We can’t take back nasty words once we have said them because lollipops remember everything! When we have lashed out, attacked their character, or been unreasonable, we have to go back and apologise. Even shouting at them is too much for their delicate composition. They experience this type of aggression as in tensely as they would physical violence. • Don’t talk a lot when lollipops are emotional – they will get even angrier! Allow them time and space, and talk later. • Lollipops are very sensitive to the silent treatment because they fill the gaps themselves. They imagine the worst, put words in your (closed) mouth, and usually imagine your anger or unhappiness as far worse than it really is. At least try to say, “I will tell you how I feel later, just give me time.” This will help them wait for the truth and not have their imaginations run wild. It is also a way of postponing their reactions until they are less emotional. IN SHORT: • Be calm • Be specific • Be matter-of-fact • Be available to help • Be appreciative of their attempts
How can we better listen to our lollipops? • Remember that an emotional avalanche of words is part of the lollipop’s style – if the story seems confusing, listen to the heart. • Lollipops see all details as equally important. Therefore, be patient while they go down many detours to get to their destination. • Ask them to summarise everything they have said when you don’t follow, but don’t switch off – it hurts them immensely. • Lollipops can immediately sense when you are critical or sceptical about what they are saying and then they become guarded. It will prevent them from opening their hearts to you in future. Be careful not to raise your eyebrows, frown, sigh or give other negative non-verbal feedback while they are talking. Give them a chance to talk and respond with caution. • Understand that it is not mistrust towards you when lollipops have so many detailed questions. They merely have an intense need to know and understand everything. • Lollipops like to complain and usually have a completely separate whiny voice for such occasions. You should never respond to that voice or else it will become permanent. Say very calmly, “I want to listen, but you will have to use your friendly voice.” • Look out for the lollipops’ secret weapon – they use emotional complaining and unreasonable accusations to manipulate parents. When you hear this, point it out and make sure that it doesn’t become a pattern with your lollipop.
Let’s get practical Identify the eight statements or questions that would hurt a lollipop’s feelings. Replace each of these with a statement or question that would convey empathy and understanding. There are some possible answers and alternative reactions provided at the end of this exercise.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
It seems you are deeply disappointed. Forget about it. Why are you crying again? What made you so sad? You can stop crying now. It’s over. I see you are shocked and upset. Go and sit somewhere quiet until you feel better. 8. Don’t feel so sorry for yourself. 9. You are not the only one who was hurt. 10. You have a very gentle spirit. That is precious. 11. I don’t know what to do when you cry like that. 12. You can come and sit with me any time, even if you are too sad to talk. 13. Laugh and the world laughs with you, cry and you cry alone. 14. Surely it can’t be that bad! 15. Have you ever noticed that rude people upset you?
Answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8
Even if you are sad about it for a while longer, I know it is not something that will upset you for life. I have noticed that you cry often. I want to understand why, so that I can help you. The worst is over. You will feel better eventually. I see you feel you are hurting more than you deserve. There are other people who agree that it was bad. I hope someone will hug them, too. How can I help you when you are so sad? You are allowed to laugh and cry. All of us feel happy at times and sad at times. I am sorry to see that it was really that bad for you.
Mark the communication mistakes you still make with your lollipop. Circle those that could cause your relationship to be shipwrecked and work on replacing these with good communication habits. • • • • • • • • • • • •
I sometimes swear at him. I get very upset when he is emotional. I walk away when she cries because it upsets me. I don’t like all the questions. I don’t write any notes. I don’t pay attention to detail when she talks – it exhausts me. I don’t give feedback when he did something for me. I discuss her faults with other people. I pull and push when she gets discouraged instead of encouraging her. I often forget to tell him that I love him. I often don’t give enough timely information. I rush him when he tells a long story.
oeie dag Lize en Marthie
Ek wil julle gelukwens met n baie pragtige seminaar – hierdie keer het julle julleself oortref! Dit was insiggewend om na die onderskeie sprekers te luister en die dissipline werkswinkel was ‘n fees. Vriendelike groete Ronel Viljoen. Zonkie Montessori
Terugvoer op Facebook / Feedback on Facebook: Wat ‘n voorreg om my lewensroeping so passievol te kan uitleef EN dit self so te geniet! Chrizanda du Preez : Dissipline werkswinkel aanbieder
Suzette Heydenreich: Thank you, VVOS. I enjoyed great content and major#inspiration to #changetheworld Elsa Schultz: Graham, baie dankie, dit was n lekker daggie. Het dit baie geniet. Juanita Beukman : Was heerlik. Dankie. Annalie Botha: Baie dankie vir ‘n puik dag
Baie dankie dat ek die eer gehad het om vandag se seminaar te kon bywoon. Dit was baie leersaam soos altyd en uitstekend georganiseer. Doen so voort, julle word net elke jaar beter en beter! Liefdegroete Zenda
ore Almal Eerstens wil ons net baie dankie sê vir ‘n ongelooflike seminaar, dit was heerlik om deel te wees van die seminaar. Baie dankie Annatjie van der Merwe Annie’s Creche/Kleuterskool
arthie en jou span
Baie dankie vir die geleentheid om ‘n woordjie te kon bydrae en ‘n stem vir soveel kinders te kon wees tydens jul groot byeenkoms van opvoeders. Aangesien dit vir my ‘n eerste van so groot formaat was en ook my eerste bywoning van jul byeenkoms, was dit ‘n heerlike ondervinding in persoon. Ek het nou gesien hoe dit gedoen word en was aangenaam verras. Baie geluk, julle doen wonderlike werk! Vriendelike groete Dr Lettie Horn
Problem-based learning in Mathematics
Problem-based Learning in Mathematics (
roblem-based learning (PBL) describes a learning environment where problems drive the learning. That is, learning begins with a problem to be solved, and the problem is posed in such a way that students need to gain new knowledge before they can solve the problem. Rather than seeking a single correct answer, students interpret the problem, gather needed information, identify possible solutions, evaluate options, and present conclusions. Proponents of mathematical problem solving insist that students become good problem solvers by learning mathematical knowledge heuristically.Studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; successful experiences in managing their own knowledge also helps them solve mathematical problems well (Shoenfeld, 1985; Boaler, 1988). Problem-based learning is a classroom strategy that organizes mathematics instructions around problem solving activities and affords students more opportunities to think critically, present their own creative ideas, and communicate with peers mathematically (Kruik & Rudnick, 1999;Lewellen & Mikusa, 1999; Erickson, 1999; Erickson, 1999; Carpenter et al., 1996; Hiebert et al., 1996; Hiebert et al., 1997).
PBL and Problem-solving
ince PBL starts with a problem to be sloved, students working in a PBL environment must become skilled in problem-solving, creative thinking and critical thinking. Unfortunately young childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s problem-solving abilities seem to have been seriously underestimated. Even kindergarten children can solve basic multiplication problems (Thomas et al., 1993) and children can solve a reasonably broad range of word problems by directly modeling the actions and relationships in the problem, just as children usually solve addition and subtraction problems through direct modeling. Those results are in contrast to previous research assumptions that the structures of multiplication and division problems are more complex than those of addition and subtraction problems. However, this study shows that even kindergarten children may be able to figure out more complex mathematical problems than most mathematics curricula suggest. PBL in mathematics classes would provide young students more opportunities to think critically, represent their own creative ideas, and communicate with their peers mathematically.
PBL and Constructivism
he effectiveness of PBL depends on student characteristics and classroom culture as well as the problemsolving tasks. Proponents of PBL believe that when students develop methods for constructing their own procedures, they are integrating their conceptual knowledge with their procedural skill.Limitations of traditional ways of teaching mathematics are associated with teacher-orientated instruction â&#x20AC;&#x153;ready-madeâ&#x20AC;? mathematical knowledge presented to students who are not receptive to the ideas (Shoenfeld, 1988). In these circumstances, students are likely to imitate the procedures without deep conceptual understanding. When mathematical knowledge or procedural skills are taught before students have conceptulized their meaning, studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;creative thinking skills are likely to be stifled by instruction. As an example, this standard addition algorithm has been taught without being considered detrimental to understanding arithmetic because it has been considered useful and important enough for students to ultimately enhance profound understanding of mathematics. Kamii and Dominick (1988), and Baek (1988) have shown, that the standard arithmetic algorithms would not benefit elementary studens learning arithmetic. Rather, students who had learned the standard addition algorithm seemed to make more computational errors than students who never learned the standard addition algorithm, but instead created their own algorithm.
Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s understanding in a PBL environment
he PBL environment appears different from the typical classroom environment that people have generally considered good, where classes are well managed and students get high scores on standardized tests. However, this conventional sort of instruction does not enable students to develop mathematical thinking skills well. Instead of gaining a deep understanding of mathematical knowledge and the nature of mathematics, students in conventionalclassroom environments tend to learn inappropriate and counterproductive conceptualizations of the nature of mathematics. Students are allowed only to follow guided instructions and to obtain right answers, but not allowed to seek mathematical understanding. Consequently, instruction becomes focused on only getting good scores on tests of performance. Ironically, studies show that students educated in the traditional content-based learning environments exhibit lower achievement both on standardized tests and on project tests dealing with realistic situations than students who learn through a project-based approach (Boaler, 1998).In contrast to conventional classroom environments, a PBL environment provides students with opportunities to develop their abilities to adapt and change methods to fit new situations. Meanwhile, students taught in traditional mathematics education environments are preoccupied by exercises, rules and equations that need to be learned, but are of limited use in unfamiliar situations such as project tests. Further, students in PBL environments typically have greater opportunity to learn mathematical processes associated with communication, representation, modeling and reasoning (Smith, 1998; Erickson, 1999; Lubienskik, 1999).
Teacher roles in a PBL environment
ithin PBL environments, teachers’ instructional abilities are more critical than in traditional teacher-centered classrooms. Beyond presenting mathematical knowledge to students, teachers in PBL environments must engage students in marshalling information and using their knowledge in applied settings. First, then, teachers in PBL settings should have a deep understanding of mathematics that enables them to guide students in applying knowledge in a variety of problemsolving situations. Teachers with little mathematical knowledge may contribute to student failure in mathematical PBL environments. Without an in-depth understanding of mathematics, teachers would neither chooseappropriate tasks for nurturing students’ problem-solving strategies, nor plan appropriate problem based classroom activities (Prawat, 1997; Smith III, 1997). Furthermore, it is important that teachers in PBL environments develop a broader range of pedagogical skills. Teachers pursuing problem-based instructions must not only supply mathematical knowledge to their students, but also know how to engage students in the processes of problemsolving and applying knowledge to novel situations. Changing the teacher role to one of managing the problem-based classroom environment is a challenge to those unfamiliar with PBL (Lewellen & Mikusa, 1999). Clarke (1997) found that only teachers who perceived the practices associated with PBL beneficial to their own professional development, appeared strongly positive in managing the classroom instruction in support of PBL. Mathematics teachers more readily learn to manage the PBL environment when they understand the altered teacher’s role and consider preparing for the PBL environment as a chance to facilitate professional growth (Clarke, 1997).
n implementing PBL environments, teachers’ instructional abilities become critically important as they take on increased responsibilities in addition of mathematical knowledge. Beyond gaining proficiency in algorithms and mastering foundational knowledge in mathematics, students in PBL environments must learn a variety of mathematical processes and skills related to communication, representation, modeling and reasoning (Smith, 1998; Erickson, 1999; Lubineski, 1999). Preparing teachers for their roles as managers of PBL environments presents new challenges both to novices and to experienced mathematics teachers (Lewellen & Mikusa, 1999).
REFERENCES Boaler, J. (1998). Open and closed mathematics: student experiences and understandings. “Journal for Research on Mathematics Education,” 29(1). 41 – 62. Carpenter, T., Ansell, E. Franke, M, Fennema, e., & weisbeck, L. (1993). Models of problem solving processes. “Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,” 24 (5). 428-441. Clarke, D.M. (1997). The changing role of the mathematics teacher. “Journal for Research Mathematics Education,” 28 (3), 278-308. Erickson, D.K. (1999). A problem-based approach to mathematics instruction. “Mathematics Teacher,” 92 (6). 516-521. Hiebert, J., Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, e., Fuson, K., Human, P., Murray, H., Olivier, A., & Wearne, D. (1996). Problem solving as a basis for reform in curriculum and instruction: The Case of Mathematics. “Educational Researcher,” 12-18. Hiebert, J. Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, e., Fuson, K.,Human, P., Murray, H., Olivier, A., & Wearne, D. (1997). Making mathematics problematic: A rejoinder to Prawat and Smith. “Educational Researcher,” 26 (2). 24-26. Krulik, S., & Rudnick, J.A. (1999). Innovative tasks to improve critical- and creative-thinking skills. In I. V. Stiff (Ed.), “Developing mathematical reasoning in grades K-12.” Reston. VA: National Council of Teacheers of Mathematics. (pp. 138-145). Lewellen, H., & Mikusa, M.G. (February 1999). Now here is that authority on mathematics reform, Dr. Constructivist! “The Mathematics Teacher,” 92 (2). 158-163. Lubienski S.T. (1999). Problem-centered mathematics teaching. “Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School,” 5 (4). 250-255. Prawat, R.S. (1997). Problematizing Dewey’s views of problem solving: A reply to Hievert et al. “Educational Researcher.” 26 (2). 19-21. Schoenfeld, A.H. (1985). “Mathematical problem solving.” New York: Academic Press. Smith, C.M. (1998). A Discourse on discourse: Wrestling with teaching rational equatons. “The Mathematics Teacher.” 91 (9). 749-753. Smith III, J.P. (1997). Problems with problematizing mathematics: A reply to Hiebert et al. “Educational Researcher,” 26 (2). 22-24. Scripts, and children’s understanding of emotion. In C. Saarni & P.L. Harris (Eds.), Children’s understanding of emotion (pp. 293-318). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Zeeman, J., & Shiman, K. (1996). Children’s expression of negative affect; Reasons and methods. Developmental Psychology, 32 (5), 842-850. EJ 534 557.e This publication was funded by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, under contract no. DERR93002007. The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of OERI. ERIC Digests ae in the public domain and may be freely reproduced. (Republished from the Learning Years Magazine Volume 32 number 3)
Problem-solving, reasoning and numeracy Teachers must support children in developing their understanding of problem solving, reasoning and numeracy in a broad range of contexts in which they can explore, enjoy, learn, practice and talk about their developing understanding. Teachers must offer opportunities for these skills to be practiced, in order to give children confidence and competence in their use. What problem solving, reasoning and numeracy means for children: This area of learning and development includes seeking patterns, making connections, recognizing relationships, working with numbers, shapes, space and measures, and counting, sorting and matching. Children use their knowledge and skills in these areas to solve problems, generate new questions and make connections across other areas of learning and development. How settings can effectively implement this Area of Learning and Development: Mathematical understanding should be developed through stories, songs, games and imaginative play. To give all children the best opportunities for effective mathematical development, teachers should give particular attention to: * Many different activities, some of which will focus on mathematical development and some of which will draw out the mathematical learning in other activities, including observing numbers and patterns in the environment and in daily routines. * Practical activities underpinned by children’s developing communication skills.
* Activities that are imaginative and enjoyable. * Real-life problems, for example: How many spoons do we need for everyone in this group to have one? * Modelling mathematical vocabulary during the daily routines and throughout practitioner- led activities. * Giving children sufficient time, space and encouragement to use “new” words and mathematical ideas, concepts and language during child-initiated activities in their own play. * Encouraging children to explore problems, to make patterns and to count and match together. *The balance between learning and teaching indoors and outdoors (e.g. having read a story about washing clothes, there might be launderette play indoors and washing line play outdoors; ships built out of recyclables; bikes and other wheel vehicles being used as delivery vans; numbered (and lettered) parking spaces. The staff would spend time in both environments and the level of child-initiated and teacher-led activity would be monitored and divided more or less equally across both environments. Displays would include examples from both environments). * Help for those children who use a means of communication other than spoken English in developing and understanding specific mathematical language. * Opportunities to observe, assess and plan the next stage in children’s learning. * Relevant training to improve teachers’ knowledge, skills and understanding. (Republished from the Learning Years Magazine Volume 32 number3)
â&#x20AC;&#x153;Teachers must offer opportunities for skills to be practicedâ&#x20AC;?
After having read the mathematics related articles, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s look at ideas in the five focus areas:
Nadat u die wiskunde artikels gelees het, kom ons kyk na idees in die vyf fokus areas vir wiskunde: 1. Numbers, calculations and relations 1. Getalle, bewerkings en verwantskappe
What do numbers look like? However; more importantly, what do they feel like?
Hoe lyk getalle? Of eerder, hoe voel getalle?
2. Patterns, functions and algebra 2. Patrone, funksies en algebra
Patterns are fun when integrated in the class and everyday life, see how these Grade R learners use their knowledge of patterns.
Dit is baie lekker om te sien hoe leerders hul kennis van patrone in hul wese toepas.
3. Space and form 3. Ruimte en vorm
Working with rectangles can be interesting and fun. Just paste random rectangles in any creatiwe way and see how learners can interpret their own understanding.
Wanneer daar met reghoeke gewerk word, kan dit baie interressant en pret wees. Plak reghoeke op enige kreative manier en sien hoe leerders hul eie begrip interpreteer. 24
4. Measurement 4. Meting
Measurement can be incorporated in the learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; development. By measuring learners every term and making the information visible, learners will be able to feel, compare and experience measurement.
Meting kan baie makilik deel word van die leerders se ontwikkeling. Deur die leerders elke kwartaal te meet en die informasie visueel en tasbaar aan leerders te toon, gee leerders die geleentheid om die informasie te vergelyk en om meting te ervaar.
5. Data Handling 5. Datahantering
Children love to work with concrete object and by nature have the ability to sort information. Give learners the opportunity to sort and record their own set of information.
Leerders is lief daarvoor om met konkrete voorwerpe te werk. Leerders het â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;n natuurlike aanvoeling om informasie te versamel en te sorteer. Bied leerders die geleentheid om hulle eie informasie te versamel en dit op te skryf soos wat hulle dink.
The SCARF model How leaders in the Early Childhood Development (ECD) sector can use the latest research of the brain to manage and improve performance in this sector
Erich Cloete -Principal Laerskool Westerlig -
Before we discuss the model and the application thereof for leaders in the ECD sector, it is necessary to briefly explore this new emerging field of Neuroleadership. It is a term coined in 2006 by David Rock. It is an emerging field of study focused on bringing neuroscientific knowledge into the areas of leadership development, management training, change management, all fields of education, consulting and coaching. It is exploring the processes within the brain that underlie or influence human decisions, behaviour, and interactions in the workplace and beyond. It focuses on how individuals in a social environment make decisions and solve problems, regulate their emotions, collaborate with and influence others, as well as how leaders facilitate change. In simple terms it means that Neuroleadership takes the latest information on how the brain works, which is gained through scientific research, and apply those principles and information to leadership. It must be seen as a subfield of leadership with the sole purpose of improving leadership practices. The study of the brain made one thing clear, and that is that the human brain is a social organ. Although a job is often regarded as a purely economic transaction in which people exchange their labour for financial compensation, the brain experiences the workplace first and foremost as a social system. Research has shown that people who feel rejected or excluded at work provoked the same sort of reaction in the brain that physical pain might cause. This means that when people feel betrayed at work or unrecognized or when they are reprimanded or given an assignment that seems unworthy, they experience it as powerful as a blow to the head. Leaders who understand this dynamic can more effectively engage their employeesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; talents, support their teams and create an environment that fosters productive change and performance. Indeed the ability to address the social brain in the service of optimal performance will be a distinguishing leadership capability in the years to come.Critical research on the social brain starts with the threat and reward response, a neurological mechanism that governs a great deal of human behaviour. A threat is usually associated with anxiety, fear and sadness, while a reward response indicates feelings of curiosity, happiness and contentment. Whenever we encounter something unexpected such as a manager calling you to his office, a meeting you have to attend to at short notice, a difficult parent arriving unannounced at the school, a new colleague moving into the classroom next door or a shadow seen from the corner of your eye, the limbic system of the brain is aroused. If the perception is danger, then the response becomes a pure threat response, also known as the fight or flight response, the avoid response and in extreme form, the amygadala hijack, name for a part of the limbic system that can be aroused rapidly and which creates a lot of emotional charge in our brains. 27
The threat response is both mentally taxing and deadly to the productivity of a person or organization, because it uses up oxygen and glucose from the blood which is used by parts of the brain, responsible for processing new information and ideas. This impairs analytical thinking, creative insight and problem solving, in other words, just when people most need their sophisticated mental capabilities, situated the prefrontal cortex, the brain’s internal resources are taken away from them. This is often visible when leaders trigger a threat response in their employees. Their brains become much less efficent. It is also true that when leaders make people feel good about themselves, clearly communicate their expectations, gives employees latitude to make decisions, support people’s efforts to build good relationships and treat the whole organisation fairly, it prompts a reward or approach response: employees become more effective and commited, more open to ideas, more productive and more creative. Research suggests that the following five qualities are used to minimise the threat (avoid) response and enable the reward (toward) response: These five qualities are expressed with the acronym SCARF and stands for: • • • • •
Status; Certainty; Autonomy; Relatedness; and Fairness.
Moving towards the above qualities will create a reward response, while moving away from them, will create a threat response.
The language of SCARF can helps us notice a threat occurring while it is happening in real time and help to regulate our emotions.
The battle for Status Everyone’s brain is constantly monitoring their status in any group. It literally assigns a person a number in that group. People are always screening their relative importance and seniority to others (e.g. peers, co-workers, friends, line managers) as anyone who has lived in a modest house in a high priced neighbourhood would know. This is why winning an argument, or being first off the mark at the green light or even winning a board game feels so good, even if nothing is at stake. When people have a perception of increased status, they start to feel reward or toward emotions. On the other hand, when someone is left out or overlooked by their manager, they will experience a threat response. If someone is accused of being ineffective at a task, they will perceive themselves as to be “less than others” which will trigger a threat response. This is why the words: “Can I offer you some feedback?” put people on the defensive, because they perceive the person offering the advice as claiming superiority. It is the same situation as hearing footsteps in the dark. In such a situation people secrete cortisol which is a stress hormone. This is why it is good to have people give themselves feedback within a safely structured setup. Leaders in the ECD sector must also take note of the many less-costly ways to improve the perception of status their staff has: • Give praise and let people feel good about themselves – remember people pay a lot of time to protecting and building their status; • Encourage your staff to master a new skill as this enhances status and give recognition to the newly acquired skill; • Value and respect your staff equally; • Don’t attack someone’s status publicly (in front of others) or unfairly - research has shown that social pain comes back when you think about it again whereas physical pain doesn’t. • Encourage staff to play against themselves - because we perceive ourselves with the same circuits as when perceiving others, we can literally trick our brains into a status reward by playing against ourselves. It is also true that when staff is trying to be of higher status than others there will be a decrease in relatedness.
A craving for Certainty Certainty has to do with being able to predict the future with accuracy. Any time we experience too much uncertainty we get a limbic system response. In other words, we experience more of the away emotions. It is like a flashing icon on the desktop of your computer and it will not stop until the uncertainty is resolved. Too much uncertainty is like an inability to create a complete map of a situation and with parts missing you are not as comfortable as when the map is complete. This is why people crave certainty. Look at the following ways in which leaders in the ECD sector can create a perception of certainty in their centres or schools: • Share information freely and try to be as transparent as possible. If a new staff member is appointed and he or she doesn’t know where the coffee is or the copier machine, it will create uncertainty. This is why induction is so important. • Let information flow freely through the school; • Break a complex project down into small steps; • In learning situations, tell people what you are going to tell them, tell them, then tell them what you told them, all of which increases certainty. • Give people more choices as this also reduces stress and creates certainty.
The Autonomy factor Autonomy is about choices and control. When you sense you have choices, something that used to feel stressful, feels more manageable. Example: When a child won’t go to bed, you might reduce the resistance by giving back a choice. The child can choose whether to read a book or be told a story. This choice can have a big impact. It is the perception of choice that matters to the brain. Leaders in the ECD sector must find ways for their staff to make their own choices as it shifts people’s emotions away from an away response more to a toward response. Example: Create a broad framework from within which they can choose. Inform them about the timeframe of class visits, but let them choose the specific date. Further ways to improve autonomy in the centre/ school - remember that employees with a greater sense of autonomy report greater job satisfaction: • Try not to micro manage your staff as this creates a threat response; • Provide them with a sense of control over events – inescapable or uncontrollable stress is very destructive; • Grant more autonomy as a reward for good performance; • Teach your staff to be responsible for their mental state instead of a victim of circumstances; • Much has been made of taking responsibility in life and at work. Generating a definite toward response by making an active choice, increases your ability to respond to incoming data in adaptive manner.
Relatedness - turn enemies into friends In the absence of safe social interactions the body generates a threat response. This is why meeting someone unknown creates a threat response. On the other hand one feels better at a new centre / school knowing one or two educators, rather than none. Relatedness also involves deciding whether others are “in” or “out” of a social group, whether someone is friend or foe. People naturally like to form tribes when they experience a sense of belonging as they feel greater trust and empathy toward people who are similar to themselves. That is why there usually is a natural distinction between ECD practitioners and management teams. Ways to improve relatedness at schools: • Increase safe connections between staff members; • Set up a clearly defined buddy, mentoring or coaching program; • Smaller groups appear to be safer than larger groups; • If two or more groups or teams need to work together, fostering more social contact between them is one way to increase relatedness; • Teach your staff that anytime they meet someone new, to make an effort to connect on a human level as early as possible to reduce the threat response. Fairness can be more rewarding than money. The perception that an event has been unfair, generates a strong response in the limbic system, undermining trust. The cognitive need for fairness is so strong that some people are willing to fight and die for causes they believe are just, or commit themselves wholeheartedly to an organisation they recognize as fair. This is why voluntary work is done by so many, as they feel it decreases the unfairness in the world. When we feel we have been treated fairly, we experience toward emotions and are more committed and motivated.
On the other hand, if you perceive somebody as unfair, you do not have empathy with them and this closes down communication. Within an ECD center / school unfairness creatre an environment in which trust and collaboration cannot flourish. Fairness makes you open to new ideas and more willing to connect with people which also impacts positively on relatedness.
How to improve fairness in your school • Be transparent; • Have the same set of rules for everyone; • Share information and increase involvement so that people understand why some decisions are made; • Establish clear ground rules and expectations; • Don’t let unfairness go unpunished.
Putting on the scarf
Leaders in the ECD sector should realize that every action they take, every decision they make, either supports or undermines the perceived level of status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness and fairness. This is why leading is so difficult. Every word and every glance is loaded with social meaning. Sentences and gestures are noticed and interpreted, magnified for meanings you may never have intended. The SCARF model provides a means of bringing conscious awareness to all these potentially fraught interactions. Start by reducing the threats inherent in your centre / school, in your management team’s behaviour and create a place where people are treated fairly, drawn together to solve problems, make choices, have certainty and perceive high levels of status. References: Rock, D. and C Cox (2012) SACRF in 2012: updating the social neuroscience of collaborating with others. Rock and Ringleb, ALH (2009) Defining Neuroleadership as a field. Rock, D. (2009) Your Brain at Work, Collins, New York. Rock, D. (2009) Managing with the brain in mind. Rock, D. (2008) SCARF: a brain based model for collaborating with and influencing others.
School Kitchen The winter chill is upon us and there is nothing as tasty as soup and bread to serve as a healthy meal for our children. Brown Bread Rolls (40 children) 2 rounded tsp dried yeast 8 cups warm water 8 cups bread flour 2 tablespoons oil
4 tsp sugar 8 cups nutty wheat 4 tsp salt
Method: 1. Mix yeast and sugar together with 1 cup of warm water, and allow to stand till bubbly. 2. Mix nutty wheat, flour and salt together in another bowl. 3. Make a well in the middle and stir in the yeast mixture and the remaining water to make a sticky dough. 4. Form into rolls (putting oil on hands) and allow to rise in warming drawer for 15 minutes. 5. Bake at 180 degrees for 15 minutes.
Competition time!!! Kompetisie-tyd!!!! The lucky reader that feels they know what baby is thinking, must e mail their answers to vvos@tiscali. co.za before 30 August 2015. The lucky winner can choose any one training session provided by the AECYC for free in 2015 / 2016. The winner will be notified via e mail and the winning response will be published in the next edition of the Learning years. Do you think you know what I am thinking? give it a try... Dink jy jy weet wat ek dink? probeer gerus...
Die leser wat dink hy/sy weet wat hierdie baba dink kan die antwoord na firstname.lastname@example.org epos voor 30 Augustus 2015 / 2016. Die gelukkige wenner kan enige een opleiding sessie van hullle keuse tydens 2015, wat deur die VVOS aangebied word verniet bywoon. Die wenner sal per e-pos gekontak word en die antwoord sal in dievolgende uitgawe van die kleuterklanke gepubliseer word.
What is Howard Gardnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MI ? Knowing about the eight Multiple Inteligences is one of the most helpful ways of thinking about how to improve your teaching.
NYLETICAL The following three intelligences are analytical because, even though they can have a social or introspective component to them, they most fundamentally promote the process of analyzing and incorporating data into existing situations. The analytical intelligences are by nature heuristic (speculative formulation) processes:
Children who display an aptitude for numbers, reasoning and problem solving. These are the children who typically do well in traditional classrooms where teaching is logically sequenced and learners are asked to conform.
Children who learn well through songs, patterns, rhythms, instruments and musical expression. It is easy to overlook children with this intelligence in traditional education.
Children who love the outdoors, animals and field trips. More than this, though, these students love to pick up on subtle differences in meanings. The traditional classroom has not been accommodating to these children.
NTROSPECTIVE The following two intelligences are introspective because they require a looking inward by the learner, an emotive connection to their own experiences and beliefs in order to make sense of new learning. The introspective intelligences are by nature affective processes:
These children are children who are especially in touch with their own feelings, values and ideas. They may tend to be more reserved, but they are actually quite intuitive about what they learn and how it relates to themselves.
Children who learn best visually and organizing things spatially. They like to see what you are talking about in order to understand. They enjoy charts, graphs, maps, tables, illustrations, art, puzzles, and costumes - anything eye catching.
NTERACTIVE The following three intelligences are interactive because even though they can be stimulated through passive activity, they typically invite and encourage interaction to achieve understanding. Even if a student completes a task individually, he/she must consider others through the way s/he writes, creates, constructs and makes conclusions. The interactive intelligences are by nature social processes.
Verbal (Linguistic… to do with words)
Children who demonstrate strength in the language arts: speaking, writing, reading, listening. These students have always been successful in traditional classrooms because their intelligence lends itself to traditional teaching.
Children who experience learning best through activity: games, movement, hands-on tasks, building. These children were often labeled “overly active” in traditional classrooms where they were told to sit and be still!
Children who are noticeably people oriented and outgoing, and do their learning cooperatively in groups or with a partner. These children may have typically been identified as “talkative” or “ too concerned about being social” in a traditional setting. When planning activities in the preschool, it is important to remember that: All children have all the intelligences!, and you as well. You can strengthen their intelligence! Intelligences can change! What you put in, you will get out. Knowledge of multiple intelligences is meant to empower, not label people! Enjoy the journey with the children. The idea is for teachers to balance their lesson planning with as many intelligences as possible. This will allow for optimal learning experiences and a chance for learners to experience activities in an exciting way. Sir Ken Robinson states that “the challenges we currently face are without precedent. More people live on this planet now than at any other time in history. The world’s population has doubled in the past 30 years. We’re facing an increasing strain on the world’s natural resources. Technology is advancing at a headlong rate of speed. It’s transforming how people work, think, and connect. It’s transforming our cultural values (cited in Azzam 2009:22-26)”. Instead of following typical methods and stategies teacher have eight times the opportunity of achieving the success rate that they were planning for. By changing your perspective on lesson planning you, will enhance creativity and innovation that is so desperately needed for the demand of a fast changing 21st century. References: Multiple Intelligences (M.I.) Inventory © 1999 Walter McKenzie (http://surfaquarium.com/MI/index.htm) Azzam, A.M. 2009. Why Creativity Now? A Conversation with Sir Ken Robinson. Educational Leadership. Vol. 67, no 1. Available from: < http://www. ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept09/vol67/num01/Why-Creativity-Now%C2%A2-A-Conversation-with-Sir-Ken-Robinson.aspx> [Accsesed: 30 December 2014]. 35
Learning through phonics Word list to get you thinking
Theme discussion in language â&#x20AC;&#x153;c for chameleonâ&#x20AC;? theme table, touch, feel with real life - real learning ideas...
Story with the c-sound (inspired by the Hungry Caterpillar) Caydon Chameleon lived in Cairo. One day he decided that he would love to move to South Africa. He packed his container and climbed on the back of a camel to start his journey. Caydon Chameleon travelled from Cairo to Cape Town. He could not wait to see his cousin, Candice Crocodile that lived in Cape Town. It was a long and exhausting journey. The camel walked and walked for a whole week to get from Cairo to Cape Town. Every time they saw a Combretum tree, Caydon Chameleon and his camel stopped to rest.
Monday they ate one cup of condensed milk Tuesday they ate two cabbages Wednesday they ate three cup cakes Thursday they ate four candy sticks Friday they ate five coffee cream cakes Saturday they ate six caramel cookies Sunday they ate seven carrots
During the third day of the week while they were eating cupcakes, Caydon and his camel met a new friend. Their new friend was the cleverest cat that they have ever seen and his name was Christopher. He could colour with five crayons in one hand while playing cricket and drinking Coke. Christopher Cat became Caydon Chameleon and his camel’s new best friend. At last, on the seventh day of the week, Caydon Chameleon, his Camel and Christopher Cat arrived in Cape Town. They were all very happy to see Candice Crocodile and decided to camp next to the seaside. It was extremely exciting. They all brought their fishing rods to the camp site. From dusk to dawn they were casting their rods in and out of the water. As the sun started to set, Caydon Chameleon felt a strong pull on the fishing rod. Everyone became excited! They all started to pull together...one, two,three...PULL!!! Caydon Chameleon could not believe his eyes. From the water appeared a huge cat fish, with a colourful smile. The camel had such a fright that he shouted, “Cupcakes, cream castles and jelly fish! Ahhhhhh!” and then ran away. At that very moment, the cat fish jumped back into the water and made a rainbow colour splash! All the animals fell backwards on their backs and began to laugh. They had such a fright that they decided to rather have creamed carrots for dinner around the campfire. Now that was a camp story to tell. 40
Songs and Rhymes Song (on the beat of Clever Cat from Letter Land) I am Caydon Chameleon, how do you do. I have the creamiest cup cake for you. If you stroke my head and tickle my chin, a colour collage will appear on my skin. Ohhh...I can count 1,2,3... I am the cleverest chameleon you have ever seen Ohhh...I can count 1,2,3… I am the cleverest chameleon you have ever seen.
Rhyme 1 I wonder why Caydon Chameleon had to wait... before he could burst through the top of the cake. He must have been curled up tightly inside, oh, what fun it is to hide. Rhyme 2 Chameleon, chameleon, let’s make a caterpillar collage, Chameleon, chameleon, call the whole class, Bring all colours, containers and cups, Draw a crocodile with candy and cream, be creative, as crazy as it might seem.
NOW SEE IF YOU CAN CREATE YOUR OWN FUN RHYMES, STORIES AND SONGS THAT WILL WORK BEST FOR YOUR LEARNERS. TEACHING SHOULD BE FUN,TAKE ON THE CHALLENGE!!! 41
How to use a worksheet for deep extended learning and consolidation.
This image was taken from the DBE ( Department of Basic Education) Grade R workbook, Term One, Week Five, pg 36. It might seem as a two dimentional page that should be completed with a pencil. However; when looking back at the Multiple Intelligences developed by Howard Gardner this page can be completed in various ways. 42
Think about all the ideas and activities you can create by just looking at the ‘c’ worksheet. The worksheet can be used as a reflection at the end of the week, after all the information below was used in context. Word smart / Linguistic: Ask learners what can they see on the worksheet. Look at all the pictures that are visible on the worksheet. Pointing at the pictures and prounouncing the words will help learnears to buid their vocabulary. Read the learnes a story book about cats. Give learners factual information about cats, for example, cats always land on their feet. Think of all the names you can give a cat. Self smart / Intrapersonal: Ask children to each tell you one thing they know or like about cats. Write the information on a white board and encourage learners to search for more information about cats during the week and add this information to the board. The information can be reviewed every day or at the end of the week. Group smart / Interpersonal: Learners prodominantly learn from each other in groups. A fun group activity would be to devide learners in groups and provide them with puppets to act out their own play. Learners can also do a class collage together as part of a side activity. Art smart / Visual: Draw cats with candles and colourwash the pictures with food colouring and water. Learners can make crows from scrap paper and use them during freeplay outside. Build a house for a cat with boxes and paint the boxes with your favourite colours. Body smart / Kinesthetic: Learners can make a ‘c’ with their bodies on the carpet. Learners have vivid imaginations and can act out being cats climbing a tree, or a cat crawling in the long grass or even acting how they think a cat can catch a bird. Pack cones or bottles in the shape of a ‘c’ and let the learners hop, crawl or jump in the right formation of the letter ‘c’. Nature smart / Naturalist: Learners are attracted to nature and enjoy learning outside. A well-prepared teacher can create a garden with her learners and plant cabbages. Learners can also carry water in cabbage leaves to water other plants in the school garden. Have storytime outside in nature at least once a week. Number smart / Logical: Make a class graph by collecting information from the learners. Ask the learners who have cats: How many girls have cats and how many boys have cats and who do not have cats. You can even ask the learners what their favourite colour cat is. Record the information with the learners and change it into a class cat graph. Interpret the graph with learner by asking specific for information such as,“Which colour cat was the most liked by the class, which colour cat was the least liked and how do you know?” Collect shapes and build your own cat picture. Music smart / Rythmic: Sing songs that involve the word cat and other ‘c’ words. Learners also enjoy making up silly nonsense songs. Encourage them to use as many ‘c’ words as possible to create their own song.
Art... A colourful class collage with clay on a picture of a chameleon. The learners used cars and paint to create the background on the brown paper. Whole class activities are good for communication and social skills. When the theme or phonic for the week is integrated, it creates a rich environment for directed learning and meaningful discussions. These diverse understandings and discussions are the heart of constructivism, where children are considered to be active learners who construct their own knowledge. Art works best when there are multiple stations that allow learners to rotate through the creative process. Rotating stations helps learners with shorter concentration span to complete art activities. Educators should be aware of the enormous emotional impact that “a sense of achievement” can have on a learner’s self confidence. Self confidence is essential for learners to establish a positive self image. Different art mediums and experiences are essential for fundamental brain development and creativity.
“a sense of achievement” 44
Candle cutting... Create your onw paterns with a candle, polistyrene, paint and a sponge
1. Draw a symmetrical pattern on a thick square of polistyrene. 2. Heat the tip of a steel kebab stick over a candle. 3. Use the warm tip to burn into the polistyrene , following the pattern that you drew. 4. Put different colours of paint on a sponge and press the polistyrene stencil into the paint. 5. Press the pattern as many times as you like onto a piece of paper.
Bak en Brou...
Maak jou eie resepplakaat. Kyk in koerante en tydskrifte vir prente van bekende produkte. Andersins kan die boksie of houer se prent gebruik word. Stoor jou produk in lugdigte sakkie of houer.
Bak die koekies met die leerders se name in die oond.
Laat leerders self die resep volg en onthou om hulle te laat gesels oor wat hulle doen. Dit bemagtig leerdes om hulle gedagtes te kan weergee en hardop te dink.
Make your own recipe poster. Look inside newspapers or magazines for pictures of well known products. Otherwise, use the pictures on the box of the product and store your ingredients in an airthight bag or container.
Bake the cookies with the learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; names in the oven.
Let the learners follow the recipe by themselves. Encourage the learners to talk about what they are doing. It is important for learners to be able to think both verbally and nonverbally express their thoughts.
Motor development for young children The following are examples of checklists developed by occupational therapist, Carla Grobler: Each check list covers the function of what the learner should be able to do, and the age of the child when he or she should be able to complete the given function. Movement: 7 years - he / she is able to: • ride a bicycle • roller-skate • skip • jump rope • do summersaults: 3 consecutively, deviation not more than 10 degrees 6 years - he / she is able to: • do sit-ups: 9 – 10 in 20 sec • able to maintain the following position for 20 – 30 sec when lying on stomach, lift head and legs • able to maintain the following position for 20 sec with moderate resistance applied while lying on back bend head to chest and tuck knees to belly. 5 years 6 months- he / she is able to: • handle beanbags: advanced throw, catches with hands • stand on 1 leg for more than 12 sec • jump on 1 leg: 5m in 6 sec • walk on a balancing beam, sideways, without falling over • walk on toes: walks backwards for 1m, balances for 10 – 15 sec • use alternating feet for climbing up and down stairs • jump with both feet at the same time • walk backward for 5 seconds • skip: turn and change directions without losing rhythm • stand upright and balance on both feet • walk and run • ride a 2-wheeler and falls less • use arms and legs when climbing objects • copy movement of others • stand still, on toes, for 12 – 15 sec with hands on hips
General: 6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 7 years old o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
Allow your child to brush his / her own hair Child should bath and dry himself / herself Allow your child to choose his / her own clothing when buying Child should be able to stand on one leg Teach your child to respect others and their property Allow your child to use a knife and fork when eating Do peg-board activities Stand with eyes closed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; always remain nearby to reassure him / her Dance on toes Jump with both feet together Jump up and down Skip Gallop Introduce your child to a skipping rope Run and kick a ball Encourage your child to cut more complex shapes Thread small beads Do sit-ups Do push-ups Do somersaults Show your child how to do star-jumps Throw a ball in the air and catch it Bounce a ball with one hand Copy different forms Encourage your child to imitate simple clay models
These checklists can be used to develop purposeful activities that are developmental for learners. Remember to integrate these activities with the theme of the week for example: If your theme is Wild Animals, ask learners to gallop like a zebra, or bounce a ball with one hand as if he/she is a monkey in a tree. Be creative and use the learners imaginations to participate in developmentaly appropriate activities that extend learning from inside the classrroom to the whole school yard. If you are interested in ordering more checklists, please contact: Carla Grobler: 0862194325 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org 49
Uitstallers by die seminaar / Seminar exhibitors
In Loving Memory of / In Tere Herinnering aan
Ina van Schalkwyk
11 Mei 1957 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 13 Januarie 2015 51
Why do some kids fidget?
hat is meant by fidgeting? The ‘act of moving about restlessly’ or ‘the behaviour of being continually in motion’ is termed as fidgeting. Thus the child will tap his fingers, ride his chair, chew his pencil, twirl her hair, tap her feet, rock up and down in her chair, stand up constantly, etc. Such a child will be labelled as fidgety or hyperactive. But it is important to note that not all kids who fidget are hyperactive!
Why do kids fidget? When kids need to use their working memory (including recalling and manipulating information) they all fidget more. Movement may have a calming or energizing effect on the brain as it now involves more neurons when thinking and movement are combined. More reasons why kids fidget: o o o o o o o o o o o
Low muscle tone ADHD Hearing problems Visual problems Concentration difficulties Physical discomfort Unspoken feelings (usually negative feelings) The activity / work demands may be too easy/difficult The child may be bored Nervous system immaturity going hand-in-hand with emotional immaturity and the disability to focus attention Sensory integration difficulties: e.g. craving vestibular and/or proprioceptive input
Tips for the classroom / at home when doing homework: • We need to investigate why a child needs to move so frequently • What does the body crave? Most children move due to one of the above reasons, not just because they are naughty or suffer from ADHD.
When we find the reason for the fidgeting, we can address the craving/ need and thus manage the fidgeting and thereby help the child. o o o o o o o o o o o o o
Let the child kneel on his chair Let the child stand and work Let the child sit on an exercise ball Let the child sit on a balance cushion Physical exercise Doodling Playing with any small object e.g. paper clip, small rock, eraser, etc. Sand-filled / flour-filled balloon Play Baroque music Moving e.g. stretching Fidget toys: these toys help children to self-regulate and thus improve attention Provide a piece of fabric that the child can keep in his pocket and touch to calm himself when needs be. Ask the child’s preference of the type of material e.g. bumpy/scratchy/smooth. Do the following exercise (which provides proprioceptive and vestibular input) that normalizes muscle tone and improves postural control – see the attached document.
Places to buy a fidget toy: www.sensorystuff.co.za www.cleverfish.co.za References: http://www.additudemag.com http://bodylogique.blogspot.com http://www.buzzle.com
Carla Grobler Arbeidsterapeut Occupational Therapist Pr No. 0660000080136 10 Starling Street Phalaborwa email@example.com www.carlagrobler.co.za
WHEN YOUR CHILD GOES TO HOSPITAL
oing to hospital can be a very traumatic experience for any child. Except for being sick or in pain, the hospital is an unfamiliar place which can be frightening and where the child might feel lonely. Children often feel they have little control over their bodies and the situation and may experience a lack of “Preparing a child for privacy. Children’s emotions and fears might include the following: • • • • • •
hospitalisation might reduce the trauma.”
“I don’t want to be here! I want to go home. “I am scared.” “Will I recover? What will happen if I don’t?” “I am responsible for disrupting our normal family life by being sick.” “Will Mom or Dad be able to pay all the medical bills?” “I miss my friends and school.”
Preparing a child for hospitalisation might reduce the trauma. Here are a few tips: • Explain step by step what is going to happen – if you are not sure, ask the hospital staff to assist you. • Read a children’s book which explains the medical procedures on a child’s level. • Encourage medical play with medical toys. Medical play has a lot of benefits for the child in health care as well as the siblings: • • • • • •
It gives the child a sense of control when he/she pretends to be the doctor or nurse; It makes it easier for the child to understand medical procedures; It is a medium for the child to communicate fears, emotions and questions; It makes it easier for the parent or medical professional to explain procedures; It is fun! Let your child choose which toy/s he/she wants to take to the hospital. Rather let the child take toys he/she is fond of than buying new ones. • Always be honest. • Never threaten a child with a doctor or injection when he/she misbehaves. It is normal for children to experience behavioural changes during or after hospitalisation. These might include separation anxiety, nightmares and sleeping- or eating problems. If the child’s behaviour persists, rather seek professional help to help the child deal with the trauma. Wietske Boon Play Therapist: www.childtherapist.co.za; firstname.lastname@example.org 54
WANNEER JOU KIND HOSPITAAL TOE GAAN
ospitalisering kan vir kinders baie traumaties wees. Behalwe dat hy/sy siek of in pyn is, is die hospitaal ‘n onbekende plek wat die kind bang en alleen kan laat voel. Kinders voel baie keer dat hulle min beheer oor hul lywe en die situasie het en ervaar min of geen privaatheid. Kinders se gevoelens en vrese kan die volgende insluit: • • • • • •
“Ek wil nie hier wees nie! Ek wil huis toe gaan.” “Ek is bang.” “Gaan ek gesond word? Wat as ek nie gesond word nie?” “Ek is verantwoordelik vir die ontwrigting van ons gesinslewe.” “Gaan Ma of Pa die mediese kostes kan betaal?” “Ek verlang na my maats en die skool.”
Wanneer ‘n kind voorberei word op hospitalisasie kan dit trauma verminder. Hier is ‘n paar wenke: • Verduidelik stap vir stap wat gaan gebeur – as jy onseker is vra die hospitaalpersoneel om jou te help. • Lees ‘n kinderboek wat die mediese prosedure op die kind se vlak verduidelik. • Moedig mediese spel met mediese speelgoed aan. Mediese spel hou baie voordele vir die kind en die sibbe in: • • • • • •
Dit gee die kind ‘n gevoel van beheer wanneer hy/sy speels die dokter of verpleegster is; Dit maak dit makliker vir die kind om mediese prosedures te verstaan; Dit is ‘n medium vir die kind om sy/haar vrese, emosies en vrae te kommunikeer; Dit maak dit vir ouers en mediese personeel makliker om prosedures te verduidelik; Dit is pret! Laat jou kind kies watter speelgoed hy/sy wil saamneem hospitaal toe. Neem liefs ‘n geliefde speelding saam as om nuwes te koop. • Wees altyd eerlik. • Moet nooit ‘n kind dreig met die dokter of ‘n inspuiting wanneer hy/sy ongehoorsaam is nie. Dit is normaal dat kinders se gedrag verander gedurende en na hospitalisasie. Veranderinge kan skeidingsangs, nagmerries en slaap- of eetprobleme insluit. Indien die kind se gedrag hom/haar negatief beïnvloed, kry professionele hulp om jou kind te help om die trauma te hanteer. Wietske Boon Spelterapeut: www.childtherapist.co.za; email@example.com 55
presence more than your presents.
Your child need your
teenwoordigheid meer nodig as u geskenke.
U kind het u
SCHOOL NEWS The Grade R group at Lebone College of the Royal Bafokeng in Rustenburg had a very busy year thus far in 2015. They have experimented high and low with various topics. Some of their topics during thesecond term were Jobs people do, Family and Recycling. During the theme of “Jobs people do”, the learners had a chance to ride in the firetuck with a real firefighter. They visited the fire station to see what is expected within this daring occupation. During the theme of Recycling the learners collected 700 plastic bottles. However; before they sent them to the recycling centre, the grade R Hornbills and Guineafowls decided to embark on a different adventure. They researched what people do with recyled plastic, but specifically with plastic bottles. They then were inspired by numerous global attempts of how to build an actual boat. The two classes took up the challenge and in the end all 48 learners had the opportunity to sail this macnificent recycled boat. Afterwards the learners took the bottles to the recycling centre to have them recycled. These were only a few of the exciting problem-solving learning experiences we encountered. Here are what some of the learners had to say:
Kuzi’s favourite topic was Recycling, because he was excited to bring bottles to school to build the bottle boat. He enjoyed the outing to the fire station and says, ”I want to be a fire fighter when I grow up. I loved seeing the fire pole and watching how the fire fighters put on their suits, they put water on the fire.” David’s favourite topic was Recycling, because he feels that recycling is a good thing to do, “If you litter, people pick it up and remind you to take care of your own mess.” He enjoyed the outing to the fire station and says, “I liked going to the fire station. I liked seeing the equipment. My favourite was the spreader, because if there is a door that can’t open, the spreader will help you push it open. I learned to never try and slide down a pole at home.”
Die waarde van sinvolle uitstappies! ‘n Ongelooflike waardevolle uitstappie! Leerlooiery? “Wat is dit, Juffrou?” Ogies sonder begrip staar my aan. Maak nie saak hoe hard ek probeer verduidelik en hoeveel prente ek van die proses wys nie, dit bly ‘n baie vreemde onderwerp. Na ‘n groot soektog vind ek nog ‘n looiery in die omgewing. Die oggend van die uitstappie is almal so opgewonde, dis nie sommer ‘n gewone uitstappie nie! Die vrae stroom in en die onkunde is baie duidelik in die tipe vrae. By die looiery het hierdie groep kinders ‘n ervaring beleef wat hulle seker nooit weer sal vergeet nie. Hulle kon sien waar die looiproses begin vandat die velle van die slagpale of jagters af, afgelewer word. Eers word die rou velle ingesout.
Dan word die velle oornag in ‘n bad met chemikalieë gelos. Daarna draai dit vir 14 dae in dromme om dit te droog en sag te maak. Die skaafproses was vir hulle baie interessant: dis waar al die oortollige vliese verwyder word. Hier was hulle verstom – daar was ‘n olifant en ‘n kameelperd vel – wat ‘n ervaring! Daarna kon hulle sien hoe word leerprodukte vervaardig. Ons is huistoe, baie slim en baie wys, en beslis weet elke Kabouterlander wat beteken leerlooiery. Dìt is mos ‘n waardevolle uitstappie!
Kabouterland Kleuterskool Rustenburg 61
10 Body Language Secrets of Highly Successful People Jun 2, 2015 “You control your body, but your body also controls you,” says Jeff Haden. He mentions taking note of how yuo use your body in a very important aspect of being a highly successful person. It also influences your management style. He gives the following 10 ideas to improve your body language that will influence how successfull you are.
1. Lie Down, Be More Creative According to Australia National University professor Dr. Darren Lipnicki, lying down can lead to creative breakthroughs. “It might be that we have our most creative thoughts while flat on our back,” he says. One reason might be that more of the chemical noradrenaline is released while we’re standing, and noradrenaline could inhibit our ability to think creatively. Now you have a great excuse to lie back and think. 2. Cross Your Arms, Be More Determined Oddly enough, crossing your arms will make you stick with an “unsolvable” problem a lot longer and will make you perform better on solvable problems. That’s definitely cool, because persistence is a trait most successful entrepreneurs need in abundance.Whenever you feel stuck, try folding your arms against your torso. And then keep pushing ahead! 3. Stand Like Superman, Gain Confidence According to Harvard professor Amy Cuddy, two minutes of power posing--standing tall, holding your arms out or towards the sky, or standing like Superman with your hands on your hips, will dramatically increase your level of confidence. Try this one before you step into a situation where you know you’ll feel nervous, insecure, or intimidated. (Just make sure no one is watching.) I do it for a few minutes before every speaking gig because it definitely works. 4. Tense Your Muscles, Gain Willpower You know how you instinctively tense up before you have blood drawn? That’s your body’s way of trying to minimize pain. Flexing your muscles also helps you stay more focused when you hear negative information. Flexing can even increase your ability to resist eating tempting food.
5. Smile, Reduce Stress Frowning, grimacing, and other negative facial expressions signal your brain that whatever you are doing, is difficult. So your body responds by releasing cortisol, which raises your stress levels. Stress begets more stress...begets more stress...and in no time, you’re a hot mess. Here’s the cure: Make yourself smile. You’ll feel less stressed even if nothing else about the situation changes, and there’s a bonus: When you smile, other people feel less stressed, too, which, of course, will reduce your stress levels. So, kill two stresses with one smile. (By the way, smiling also makes working out easier. Say you’re doing reps with a heavy weight; naturally you’ll grimace. But if you force yourself to smile, you’ll often find you can do one or two more reps. Try it--but be prepared for it when other gym rats look at you oddly.) 6. Bow Slightly, Put Yourself at Ease Tilting your head forward slightly when you meet someone shows deference and humility and helps remove any perceived differences in status. The next time you meet someone, tilt your head forward slightly, smile, make eye contact and show you are honoured by the introduction. We all like people who like us, so if I show you I’m genuinely happy to meet you, you’ll instantly start to like me. And you will show you like me...and that will help calm my nerves and help me be myself. 7. Mimic Others, Understand Their Emotions Sounds strange, but research shows that imitating other people’s nonverbal expressions can help you understand the emotions they are experiencing. Since we all express our emotions nonverbally, copying those expressions affects our own emotions due to an “afferent feedback mechanism.” In short: Mimic my expressions and you’ll better understand how I feel--which means you can better help me work through those feelings. Plus, mimicking facial expressions (something we often do without thinking) makes the other person feel the interaction was more positive.
8. Stand at an Angle, Reduce Conflict When tensions are high, standing face to face automatically feels confrontational. When what you have to say may make another person feel challenged, shift your feet slightly to stand or sit at an angle. And if you’re confronted, don’t back away. Just shift to that slight angle. You’ll implicitly reduce any perceived confrontation and may make an uncomfortable conversation feel less adversarial. 9. Use Your Hands, Improve Retention Research shows requiring children to speak while they are learning has no effect on enhancing learning -- but requiring them to gesture helps them retain the knowledge they gain. If it works for kids, it will work for us, too. According to one researcher, “Gesturing can thus play a causal role in learning, perhaps by giving learners an alternative, embodied way of representing new ideas.” 10. Chew Gum, Be More Alert and in a Better Mood OK, so chomping on a wad of gum may not look particularly professional, still, a number of studies show chewing gum can make you more alert. And improve your reaction times. And improve selective and sustained attention. And improve your disposition. According to Jeff Haden the next time you need to solve a difficult problem, lie down, cross your arms, and pop in a stick of gum. Maybe, just maybe, that’s the winning combination you need to achieve your next breakthrough. Read more about Jeff Haden: www.inc.com/jeff-haden/10-body-language-secrets-of-highly-successful-people.htm
Follow him on twitter @jeff_haden
The AECYC seminar on 7 March 2 at UNISA Pretoria Every person is a person no matter how small -Dr Seus-
ECD needs to identify learner with barriers early.
2015 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Burn worksheets!â&#x20AC;? to enhance creativity in ECD
Creativity is the highest form of thinking