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India’s Only Monthly for Processed Food, Agro Commodities, Edible Oil & Allied Segments Issue Date of Publication-25th of Every Month Date of Posting-28th of Every Month

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Vol 7 Issue 12 Oct 2012 Rs. 100

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Producing High Quality

Latest trends in

Edible Oil

Sesame Seed

by using

Eco-Friendly Technology

Branding Up The Sweetness

Quality, food safety and hygiene should be given prime importance

Prakash Chawla

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Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

OIL FOO D EDITOR Manzar Aftab Naqvi CONSULTING EDITOR Basma Hussain GROUP EDITOR Firoz H. Naqvi Mumbai Adil Abbas (Mrktg. Co-ordinator) GRAPHICS DESIGNER Sameer CIRCULATION Seema Hayat Shaikh Delhi Sayyed Shahnawaz +91-9871255423 GENERAL MANAGER Gyanendra Trivedi Marketing & Circulation Office 301-A, Diamond Khan, Srikant Dharve Marg, Naya Nagar Circle,Mira Road(E), Mumbai-401107, Tf: +91-22-28555069, T: +91-22-22999815/16 Mob.: +91-9867601701, +91-9867992299 E-mail :

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Dear Readers

From the Desk of Editor


he food services sector in India is expected to witness a 50 per cent increase in investments in 2012 to about US$ 750 million, as food suppliers and retail companies plan to scale up business and stay competitive by tapping the large potential of the domestic market. Of the total investments of US$ 750 million in 2012, about US$ 165 million has gone into purely front-end retail, such as fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), food and beverage firms. But today I would like to bring your focus on a sector that is the most fast growing one -The bakery and cereal industry. The Indian bakery and cereal sector today hold a top position in the food industry. You would like to know how did this happen,the answer is simply the fact that …as India undergoes rapid development and population dynamics start to take effect….the Consumers' uptake of products and the influence of consumer trends are fundamental causes of change in markets - making knowing what these trends are and the extent of their influence crucial. Talking exclusively of cereal market, this is estimated at nearly Rs 500 crore with Kellogg's dominating it at the top end of the market. So as they say eat breakfast like a king, and on this line FMCG companies are making king-size plans to enter the breakfast category, diversifying from their core offerings. Recently biscuit maker Britannia entered this category with its range of ready-to-cook breakfasts and porridge under the Britannia Healthy Start brand. Marico has already extended the equity of its flagship Saffola brand to the breakfast cereal category, while sauce and malted drinks marketer Heinz has stretched its Complan brand with a range of muesli. All these years the traditional breakfast eating category has been largely unorganised. While MNCs such as Kellogg's have tried to make inroads with cornflakes, it is the traditional ethnic breakfast market which is poised to grow faster. Breakfast in India is still treated as the traditional nashta and marketers are trying to dabble in varied breakfast offerings to suit the Indian palate. Indian consumers were desirous of a breakfast solution that combined convenience, health and taste so the industry is cashing on cereal and breakfast starter with added health value with no transfats, no cholesterol and no preservatives. In fact, a 'healthy' breakfast is the new emerging category within the foods category. Last year there were new entrants such as Marico and Heinz which decided to enter the category with Saffola and Complan. While on the bakery front, this industry is on growth paths. The sector has indicated promising growth prospects and has been making rapid progress. The Indian bakery market which is currently valued at Rs 3,295 crore is growing annually at a steady rate of eight per cent.The sector which is highly unorganised has undergone a virtual metamorphosis since 2004, due to increasing consumer gravitation towards convenience products and healthy food items. Bread, biscuits and cookies account for 82 per cent of the bakery items while cakes, pastries and buns account for the rest. With globalisation and India being viewed as a potential growth market, there has been a profusion of bakery chains springing up across the country. These include Au Bon Pain, the US-based bakery café chain, Monginis, Donut Baker, Cookie Man, Croissant, Café Coffee Day, Ovenpick, Bread Talk, SAJ Industries' Bisk Farm, Hot Bread, Birdy's, Donut Master and Kookie Jar. The concept of bakery retail chains is a fashion. Aping the Western markets, India too has taken a strategic leap in the modern bakery space. The key growth driver of such retail bakery chains is the propensity to spend, young population willing to experiment on new products, overall change in consumption patterns, preferred locations for hangouts for all age groups.The food habits have witnessed a huge change in recent times and the Urban India is inquisitive, experimental and is willing to try new things. The main factors driving bakery industry are diverse. This is because the structure of the bakery industry comprises three segments namely need-based, basic hotel requirements and connoisseur requisites. The need-based category caters to products like bread and biscuits. Under hotels, it varies from breads to pastries, cakes, pizza and puffs. The connoisseur category focusses on international standard and will cover products like specialised pastries and cakes, including “pannanie tartsto” in addition to a number of fascinating breads with garlic content among others available in hard and soft textures The biscuits industry is estimated at around Rs 10,000 crore and is growing in double digits. At the same time, the rate of growth of the industry is also a function of what extent of the equally large unorganised sector is graduating towards quality and recognised offers. This means that there is space for everyone to grow and that the industry does not mandate each player to have a mutually exclusive set of products. Market valuation shows Bread & Rolls account for one-third of the Bakery & Cereals market in India, over twice the size of the second-largest product category, Cookies (sweet Biscuits). Private label penetration is extremely high in Morning Goods, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the market by volume. Bakery & Cereals tend to record a very high private label penetration rate given the undeveloped and fragmented state of the Indian retail market, as private labels are typically most successful in mature and concentrated retail environments. Significant “attitude-behaviour” gaps exist between the share of consumers citing that a trend affects their consumption and the actual share of the market value these trends influence. This is because consumers don't always act on these trends - the result is that overall trend influence is limited, but has the potential to grow.

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012



Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Contents Contents


12 DSM introduces Zivion™ M, the first natural fungicide against Dry Bubble disease in mushrooms

12 Novozymes develops fungus to produce biochemicals 14 National mission on food processing Centre will boost farm productivity 14 India's organic foods market growing at over 20%

15 Punjab tops milk production in India 15 Milk powder demand pegged at 88,000 tonnes in 2012-13 15 Farmers to be linked with mega dairy project

Are Vegetable Oils Always a Reliable Source of

Producing High Quality

Edible Oil

Vitamin A? 20

by using


Eco-Friendly Technology A Review


Branding Up The Sweetness Quality, food safety and hygiene should be given prime 40 importance 10

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Progress through innovation

HeatWave® Snack Frying System HeatWave is a patented and proven breakthrough fryer design that cooks snacks using curtains of clean filtered oil instead of submersion. Efficiently fry nuts, pellets, Namkeen and other snacks using less oil than conventional fryers. HeatWave operates with the lowest system oil volume of any continuous fryer. Rapid oil turnover rates produce snacks with a fresh flavour and long shelf life. • Namkeen Snacks • Pellet Snacks • Extruded Snacks • Green Peas and Lentils • Peanuts and Nuts • Coated Peanuts

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Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012


DSM introduces Zivion™ M, the first natural fungicide against Dry Bubble disease in mushrooms


ushroom growers in the US can look forward to maximizing their yields with a new effective solution to combat Dry Bubble disease. Applied directly to mushroom beds before and in-between harvests, the first ever natural fungicide Zivion™1 M, helps prevent Dry Bubble disease caused by the fungal pathogen Verticillium fungicola - one of the biggest threats to mushroom growers worldwide. Zivion M is the first launch under DSM's new Zivion trademark. In developing Zivion, DSM partnered with Sylvan Inc., an international leader in the mushroom industry, to meet the industry's stringent demands for safe and effective disease control. DSM's 50

years of expertise in effective, bio-based anti-mold solutions combined with Sylvan Inc.'s in-depth application knowledge resulted in the first ever natural fungicide against Dry Bubble Disease in the US. Sylvan Inc. will distribute the product and the two companies jointly share technology rights to the use of Zivion M in mushroom cultivation. “The mushroom industry is looking for new technology to enable them to provide a safe and wholesome product. Zivion M will help the mushroom grower prevent this destructive disease from occurring in the first place rather than just treating the problem after it occurs” comments Gregory Kesel,

Regional President, Americas, DSM Food Specialties. “Zivion M is a natural product, which means it minimizes risk for farm workers and enables growers to maximize their yields”. According to Dr. Mark Wach, Sylvan's Vice President for Research and Development. “The use of Zivion M requires no change to growers' current production processes. With Zivion M we have an effective natural crop protection solution that provides clear benefits to white button mushroom growers. We believe that the product will give our customers the confidence that their crop is effectively protected, which ultimately helps them to maximize their profits.”

Novozymes develops fungus to produce biochemicals


ovozymes has developed a robust microorganism that enables efficient production of biobased malic acid. The technology makes it possible to produce plastic and other oilderived products from renewable raw m a t e r i a l s COPENHAGEN, DENMARK - Aug. 16, 2012 - Novozymes, the world leader in bioinnovation, has succeeded in developing a fungus that enables production of malic acid from renewable raw materials instead of oil. Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer in the food industry and can be converted into other chemical derivatives used for a variety of plastic, polymer and resin products. Novozymes is now outlicensing the technology to partners who are interested in producing and commercializing malic acid and derivatives made from renewable raw materials instead of oil. “This is our first biochemical building block and a major milestone towards building a biochemical industry together with partners,” says Novozymes' Executive Vice President Thomas Videbæk. “Oilbased products are all around us, and biochemicals produced from renewable raw materials meet a global need for


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

sustainable alternatives. This need is growing due to concerns about crude oil scarcity and price fluctuations.” Jelly and golf ballsMalic acid occurs naturally in fruits and many vegetables. In the food and beverage industries, it is added to enhance the sour flavor in products such as jellies, jams, juices and soft drinks. Malic acid also has significant potential as a building block in the chemical industry. Along with succinic acid and fumaric acid it belongs to the group of C4 dicarboxylic acids. C4 acids can be converted into 1.4butanediol (BDO), a veritable Swiss Army knife of the chemical industry that can be further converted into numerous chemicals, including plastics, polymers and resins for use in everything from golf balls and skateboard wheels to printing inks and cleaning agents. The global market for malic acid is around 60,000 tons per year with a value of $130 million and a growth rate of 4% per year. The market for BDO and derivatives is around 1.4 million tons with a value of $2.8 billion and a growth rate of 3% per year. P a v i n g t h e w a y f o r biochemicalsNovozymes started its research in biochemicals in 2006 and has since initiated a number of highly

technically challenging projects to enable sustainable and cost-competitive production of biochemicals. In the production of biochemicals, renewable raw materials such as starch from corn or cellulosic biomass from agricultural waste are converted into sugars, just as in the production of biofuels. These sugars are then transformed into chemical building blocks by enzymes or microorganisms that have been designed specifically for this purpose. In the biochemicals value chain, Novozymes is primarily developing the enzymes or microorganisms that enable production of biochemicals, while partnering with chemical companies or agricultural processors. To date, Novozymes has announced partnerships with Cargill (acrylic acid), Braskem (polypropylene), Dacheng (glycols) and Meihua (amino acids). The contribution of biotechnology is still modest in the chemical industry, but it is gaining momentum. Analysts and researchers estimate that biochemicals could contribute as much as 17% of the global chemical market by 2025.

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Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

News National mission on food processing Centre will boost farm productivity


he Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has approved a new centrally sponsored scheme titled "National Mission on Food Processing (NMFP)", which would be done in co-operation with the state governments in 2012-13. The NMFP scheme would help the states/union territories in maintaining requisite synergy between agriculture plans of states and development of food processing sector, which in turn would help increase farm productivity thereby boosting farmers' incomes. By bridging infrastructural and institutional gaps, this would also ensure an efficient supply chain. A National Food Processing Development Council (NFPDC) has been set up under the chairmanship of the minister of agriculture and food

processing industry with representatives of state governments, industry

associations and related government departments. According to a notification issued by the ministry, this will provide guidance to all schemes of Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MOFPI) including the NMFP. The basic objective of NMFP is


organic foods

decentralization of implementation of ministry's schemes, which will lead to substantial participation of state governments/union territories. Beneficiaries of MOFPI schemes will also find it easier to deal with state governments. This would be a paradigm shift in the ministry's approach and is driven by the need to make food processing truly a national initiative,'' the note stated. During 2012-13, schemes such as technology up-gradation, modernization of food processing industries, cold chain, value addition and preservation infrastructure for nonhorticultural products, among others, being implemented by the government directly will not be implemented through state governments under this scheme. based, with about 95 per cent of the brands existing in top 10 metros like Delhi (NCR), Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Bengaluru and other tier II cities, it said. According to government data, area under organic farming had risen to 1.08 million hectares. In addition, 3.40 million hectares is wild forest harvest collection area.

market growing at over 20%


he market for Organic food products in India is growing at 2022 per cent a year, a top official from private sector Yes Bank said. "The market for organic foods is growing at an compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20-22 per cent," Yes Bank's Country Head, Food and Agribusiness, Girish Aivalli told. With rising spending power of the growing middle class in the country and increased awareness towards chemical free food, organic and natural products sector will grow significantly in the coming years, he added. Yes Bank also released a report, 'Indian Organic Foods Market' at one-day conference, Jaivik India, on proliferation of organic and natural products in the Indian market. The report said the global organic food and


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

beverages market is expected to grow from USD 57.2 billion in 2010 to USD 104.5 billion by 2015 with a CAGR of 12.8 per cent. Europe contributed to the largest share of the organic foods market in 2010 with revenue of USD 27.8 billion, the report added. The Asia-Pacific organic food market had a total revenue of USD 3.5 billion in 2010 and had a CAGR of 16.2 per cent between 2006-2010, it said. On India, the report said that the market for organic food including exports is currently valued at Rs 1,000 crore. The report added that the country produced around 3.88 million tonnes of certified organic products, that includes basmati, pulses, tea, coffee, spices and oilseeds. Organic foods industry presently is metro-

The states doing well in organic farming are Madhya Pradesh (4.40 lakh hectares), Maharashtra (1.50 lakh hectares) and Orissa (95,000 hectares), the data added. Among crops cotton is the single largest crop accounting for nearly 40 per cent of total area followed by rice, pulses, oilseeds and spices. India is the largest organic cotton grower in world, and accounts for 50 per cent share of total world organic cotton production, it said.

News Milk powder demand pegged at 88,000 tonnes in 2012-13

Punjab tops

milk production D in India


unjab, known otherwise as the country's food bowl, has bagged top position in dairy farming with a 95.4 lakh metric tonne production in 2011-12 fiscal year, a release issued by the state's animal husbandary department said. It also said that Punjab has the highest milk availability of 944 grams per persons across the country. "Punjab's livestock has always played an important role in the economy of our

country. Now, our contribution to the country has risen to 13% in annual

income through the livestock," said state's animal husbandry minister Gulzar Singh Ranike. Decreasing population of buffaloes and low yield has been a concern in the state for last five years now, forcing the government to use artificial insemination with milk yielding potential of 4,000 litres per lactation. The state had 6,170,730 buffalos in 1997, which declined to 5,994,540 in 2003. In 2007, count declined further and touched 5,035,630, according to the last data available with the animal husbandry department. However, say officials, buffalos in Punjab, on an average, have been producing 8.585 kg milk, which is the highest in the country In Punjab, average daily milk production by cow stands at 10.947 kg, which is also the highest in the country, followed by

Fabcon & Dremax Japan Join hands in India


abcon India and Dremax of Japan have signed an agreement for the sale of Dreman product in India. Fabcon India will be their sole distributor in India. Dremax food slicers (vegetable processing machines) have exceptional operation performance. It carries a variety of food slicers which plays active role in any object from small quantity processing small sized machines for shops or kitchens to large quantity processing large sized machines for food processing plants or central kitchens. There has been a great demand of such products in India. Eying the same market with reliability of Dremax Japan we took


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

this responsibility to provide these machines here, said Nishant Bansal Director, Fabcon India. FABCON is the brain child of Er. Rakesh Bansal, Chairman and father of Nishant who conceptualized & started its operations in 1981, FABCON has seen tremendous growth over the years & has carved a name for itself in the market for Customized fabrication & material h a n d l i n g s y s t e m s . Nishant Also added, “Their Vegetables & Fruits Sizing Equipments will be very useful in RTE, Base Kitchen, Midday Meal Kitchens, Restaurant and Hotel Business.

emand for milk powder in the country is estimated at 88,000 tonnes during this fiscal as against current availability of 1.12 lakh tonnes, Parliament was informed.

"The demand projected by major milk federations and Mother Dairy (Delhi) is about 88,000 tonnes for the year 2012-13," Minister of State for Agriculture Charan Das Mahant told in a written reply to the Lok Sabha. The current stock of milk powder with milk federations, Mother Dairy (Delhi) and National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) is around 1,11,646 tonnes, he added. The minister said that Agriculture Ministry does not have information on the value of the current stock of milk powder in the country but its prices have not crashed due to lack of adequate demand. "...The average monthly price of milk powder in Khari Baoli wholesale market, Delhi, for 2012-13 is Rs 175 per kg," Mahant added. The government, in view of adequate availability of milk powder has allowed free export of skimmed milk powder (SMP) through a notification issued on June 8, 2012 and is giving an incentive of 5% for SMP under Vishesh Krishi and Gram Udyog Yojna ( V K G U Y ) , h e s a i d . The government had banned SMP exports in February 2011 to contain rise in domestic m i l k p r i c e s . Domestic prices of SMP had declined to Rs 150 per kg in May this year as against Rs 190200 per kg in the same period last year. Milk production in India, the world's biggest producer, is estimated at over 121 million tonnes in 2011.

Sesam Seed

Latest trends in

Sesame Seed S

esame seed is one of the oldest oil seeds the human race has ever known. The seeds of the sesame plant are the source of the very useful Sesame oil and have been used as a flavoring agent since the ancient time. Today, Sesame seed are extensively grown and traded in international market. About 60-70 percent of the traded Sesame are used for oil extraction, the rest being used as food ingredient. Sesame seeds are generally of two distinct types, the white and the black. There are also intermediate colored varieties varying from red to rose or from brown or grey. The seeds are either de-hulled or used with hull depending upon the type of application.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Sesam Seed The seeds are important ingredients for the booming bakery & confectionary industry and are added to give a crunchy flavor to food products like burgers, cakes and biscuits. It is also a generously used condiment to impart color, aroma and texture in the very popular Chinese and Japanese cuisine. Sesame seeds offer a high level of oil i.e. around 55% of its total mass. The Global trends and Market Dynamics The total global production of sesame seed sums up to around 3.8

million tons annually, India and Myanmar being the highest seed producer followed by China.The world Sesame production is very much dominated by Asian and African countries. Source: FAOSTAT Over 1 million tones Sesame seed goes into the international trade annually, making it a highly traded (26%) commodity in the world. Previously the export of this oil seed was mainly from India and China, but due to an increasing international market demand, new players such as Ethiopia, Sudan, Nigeria and Tanzania have now entered the market. Not only there is a rise in export volumes but also new buyers are coming into the market to gain from the global market potential. The new trend is very much reflected in export figures of 2009, where Ethiopia exported the highest volume of Sesame seed followed by India and China. The total value of commodity exported by these countries was around 1 billion US$.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Sesam Seed Source: FAOSTAT A large number of countries import sesame seeds to fulfil their domestic consumption demand. The value of the total seed imported by China and Japan

was around 650 million US$. Source: FAOSTAT The phenomenal growth of sesame market continues with internationally traded Sesame seeds value being doubled in last 5 years with a steep 40% rise in the total quantity traded. Growth Drivers The confectionary and bakery industries are growing at a fast pace and demand from companies like KFC and Mc Donalds for good quality sesame seeds have increased steeply. People life styles are changing very fast and the popularity of continental and Chinese cuisine has led to growth of the overall sesame market. Global consumers are now ready to experiment different products which provide them some value addition in terms of health benefits. Sesame oil being rich in natural antioxidants and components which reduces bad cholesterol, is fast emerging as the new choice for the urban health conscious population. Sesame processing: Challenges and Opportunities In an increasing globalizing world, the struggle to meet international market conditions and be competitive is becoming increasingly difficult as consumers (and therefore buyers) are becoming more and more conscious 17

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

about health concerns and suppliers from different parts of the world are also becoming more and more cost efficient. Moreover, to ensure premium price for

the commodity and enhance the market share through exports, maintaining product quality is most important. Most importers who supply ingredient distributors and oil processors only want to purchase properly cleaned, washed, dried, colour-sorted, size-graded and impurity-free seeds of given minimum oil content (not less than 40 percent) packed according to international standards. Usually, only seed meeting these criteria may be exported from a producing country. Today, the challenge for Sesame seed processors is to consistently meet the stringent quality standards for export and import market. To play a dominant role in the international trade, they need to enhance their competitiveness by increasing productivity and reduce process losses. With strong expertise and knowledge in seed processing, Bϋhler have been instrumental in providing complete processing solution to its customers to increase their competitiveness in the international market. With more than 70 sesame processing plants spread over processing hubs like India and Nigeria, Bϋhler customers are producing the best quality of product and gaining a premium price for them. The fact that Bϋhler has more than 95% share in sesame seed export market in

India which has 25% share in sesame international trade, clearly showcases the confidence level of sesame processors on Bϋhler. Bϋhler customers are benefitted not only from the in-depth knowhow and worldclass capabilities of Bϋhler in providing complete mechanical engineering solutions but also from automation & control systems and project management, including hulling of sesame. Customers can be assured that with Bϋhler on their side, they will always have the edge on global competitive sesame market and continue to be profitable. Bϋhler – Redefining Quality In today's food industry, producing safe and hygienic foods is no longer a choice but an absolute requirement. With Regulatory bodies like WHO, Codex and FAO emphasizing more and more on the food safety issues and individual traders having their own quality specification, the need of hygienic conditions, high reliability and clean environment in the processing plant is a must. Moreover, for various applications in food and for oil extraction, the seeds are expected to be of uniform grade and free from impurities. Bϋhler colour sorting machines 'Sortex ' equipped with state of the art optical technology, remove the minutest impurities and delivers a graded product for various application. The highly engineered Bϋhler processing plants selectively remove light seeds which usually have higher Free Fatty Acid (FFA) either through aspiration or through gravity separator and thus ensures that final sesame have less than 2% FFA which is considered suitable for oil extraction. Like all Bϋhler machines, these machines too offer high productivity and hygienic processing, while maintaining optimum operating costs and low power consumption. With product output purity in the range of 99.95%, Bϋhler is surely redefining quality standards for world Sesame market. For further enquiries please contact: Surojit Basu


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Eco Friendly

Producing High Quality

Edible Oil by using

Eco-Friendly Technology A Review


b s t r a c t : Development of h e a l t h a n d environmental issues specifically related to the use of chemical ingredients in foods both in producing processes and as a preservative agent has encouraged the emergence of non-chemically processed products on the market. This condition is predicted to continue increasing with high market response. This review will discuss some developments, surrounding the edible oil extraction and purification technology, including some alternative to substitute conventional solvent extraction in order to produce a chemically free edible oil product. Enzymatic and ultrasound assisted/pretreatment in aqueous, cold pressing and supercritical fluid extraction will be highlighted, as well as adsorptive refining and other processes as an alternative for purification technology. Key words: Adsorptive, aqueous extraction, cold pressing, environmental friendly, enzymatic, ultrasound


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Eco Friendly INTRODUCTION Fat/oil has become an integral part of human diet. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2003), per capita fat consumption has increased significantly, from an average of only 53 grams in 1967- 1969 to as much as 73 g/capita/day in 1997-1999 around the world and contributes 30% of total energy supply of mankind. It is also projected to continue growing. The increase in oil production -which began with the application of solvent extraction method- made the access to these commodities easier. The increasing income in developing countries (WHO, 2003) and the emergence of various health issues that eliminate previous cynicism towards oil and fat products also contributed to this improvement. In general, extraction of oils and fats are done using three main ways, namely rendering (wet/dry), mechanical pressing and using a solvent extraction (Kiple and Ornelas, 2000). Rendering method is the oldest method used by humans, and often referred to as a traditional method (Ketaren, 1986). Large-scale oil development started when a mechanical pressing method was applied, and reached its peak 120 years ago when solvents were initially introduced for oil extraction (Matth채us, 2008). Currently, edible oil products generally undergo a process of purification by using these methods; degumming, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing to produce uniformity in good quality oil. At this stage, the minor components are either physically or chemically separated because it is considered as impurities and will destabilize the oil in the next usage (McWilliams, 2001). Despite that, there are also products that maintain this component as it is medically useful for both, health and economical profitability. These products are usually referred to virgin oil products, whereas the aforementioned is referred to as refined oil (CAC, 2001). The development of health issues and the increasing awareness of the environment that has become more frequent recently, urged the existence of 21

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

healthy, free of chemicals and cleanmethods for obtaining produce. The effect of this sentiment can be seen on the market today. The development of less-processed products and less or nonpurified products while still retaining much of its original content has grown rapidly, to the extent that these products became popular because it has been shown to have many advantages. Various developments in the field of oil extraction and purification technology that support it have also been much studied. This review will discuss the development of extraction and purification technology of oil/fat, which refers to the eco-friendly technology and its development potential compared to the already implemented technology now present.

SOLVENT-FREE EDIBLE OIL EXTR CTION Aqueous extraction: Among the three types of extraction that are commonly used, rendering is the earliest method used by humans. The main principle of this method, either wet or dry is by disrupting the tissue of the material by applying heat to allow oil separation. Dry rendering is done by heating a material so that the fat melts out and can be separated (Mc-Williams, 2001). Wet rendering in term of aqueous extraction, containing three important processes; material crushing, cooking process which at first development is using heated water- and oil separation either using a pressing or centrifuging (Kiple, 2000). Low quality of oil produced and inefficiency in the application of materials are the reasons why this method is displaced by the other methods (Kiple, 2000). Through subsequent developments, the use of dry or wet steam, sometimes done under pressure, is used to improve the performance of the process (Kiple, 2000). However, it is still not as effective as the results produced by other methods, especially when compared to solvent extraction method. The advantage of using this method is, of course, related to the yield and

flexibility of this method which can be applied to almost all materials. Many options of solvent and the variations of the results make it thoroughly highlighted. Hexane is the most widely used solvent today. Soybean and cottonseed oil is extracted using hexane, which is then distilled and reused. The high volatility of the solvent makes this method leave little to almost none of the residue in the product (Lawson, 1995). Even though this method was initially ineffective, the market needs for the less-processed products and processed with little or no chemicals, made this method rise again (Matth채us, 2008). Many studies have been carried out to improve the efficiency of this process. In wet rendering method, the development is done mainly on malaxation treatment. Malaxation is generally done by boiling the solution or heating it with steam (Mc- Williams, 2001). This method produced higher yields, but also caused minor compound damage to the components. Particularly, using higher temperature resulted in degradation of flavour and aroma in olive, giving it the heated or burnt odour (Boselli et al., 2009). To tackle this issue, methods were developed using low temperature processes (Angerosa et al., 2000; Wong et al., 2010), where these methods are mostly used to produce virgin oil appreciated for its quality. Mechanical pressing: Extraction of edible oil using mechanical pressing is also recognized as a solvent-free alternative. Mechanical pressing process in the common practice consists of two stages, preparation and extraction. The preparation phase consists of cleaning, breaking, grinding and cooking, to make the material in optimum condition before being pressed (Fils, 2000). Cooking process is usually done at 90-115oC, then the extraction is done by screw press that can produce up to 7182% oil recovery (Gunstone, 2004). This method is generally combined with solvent extraction to extract the remaining oil content in the meal (Lawson, 1995). Full-pressed method is rarely done in large-scaled industries but


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Eco Friendly more popularly carried out in small industries (Fils, 2000). In comparison with aqueous extraction, mechanical pressing can be used more flexibly in these materials and capable of providing a higher yield. In small scale industries it can yield almost 71-97% oil/fat depending on the materials and expeller used (Gunstone, 2004). However, it can only be done on materials with high fat/oil content (Hamm and Hamilton, 2000). Lately, the extraction of oil using a full-press, especially with the coldpressed method is re-blooming. The fundamental difference with the general method is it does not use heat at all (CAC, 2001) apart from the heat generated due to friction during pressing. This method is preferred because it's a simpler process though it causes the resulting of slight yield, yet has very high quality and acquires premium price, mainly on the healthfood market (Fils, 2000). Since this method is widely used on a small scale, yield becomes an important issue, even if the oil produced can be sold at high prices. On this scale, other than using a screw press, the use of hydraulic presses is also


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widely applied (Fils, 2000).

DEVELOPMENT IN AQUEOUS AND COLD PRESSING EXTRACTION Enzymatic assisted: As mentioned above, the insufficient yield is the main problem facing solvent-free edible oil extraction. In some previous studies, the increase in extraction yield was done using enzymatic treatment as practiced by Sharma et al. (2001) and Najaifan et al. (2009). The list of several researches that has been carried out is shown at Table 1. The selection of a suitable enzyme is an important factor since every ingredient has a specific cell wall structure (Chen and Diosady, 2003). According to Ranalli et al. (2003) these enzymes, mainl pectolytic, cellulolytic, and hemicellulolytic species are applied in order to recover oil which is enclosed in the cell by breaking the cell wall. In virgin olive oil extraction, these enzymes were added to replace the endogenous enzymes that are deactivated during crushing and extraction process (Ranalli et al., 1998).

Ranalli et al. (1999) reported that the use of enzymes in the extraction of virgin olive oil increased the yield by 1% w/w (olive fruits basis); and in 2003, the following research indicated the increase in virgin olive oil yield rate of 12.5-14.6 kg/ton of processed olives (Ranalli et al., 2003). Besides increasing yield, the use of enzymes also have positive influence in the increasing of its phenolic content (Faveri et al., 2008) of pinoresinol, orthodiphenol and nonorthodiphenol (Garcia et al., 2001). Ranalli et al. (2003) also reported that there is an increasing content of pleasant-volatile compounds (such as nonan-1-ol) and the amount of tocopherols. It also has been found that the use of enzymes increase the content of pleasant smells such as 1-penten-3one, 1-penten-3-ol, trans-2-hexenal, 2penten- 1-ol, 1-hexanol, cis -3-hexen-1ol, and trans-2-hexenol (Ranalli et al., 1999). The increase in oil yield was also reported in oil extraction from sesame seeds. When compared with controls (12.3% yield), treatment with enzymes was capable to produce yields as much as 16.5-24.8%. In addition, it also increased the content of tocopherols, resulting in a higher total tocopherol content and similar different fatty acid composition with oil produced by solvent extraction and normal aqueous extraction (Latif and Anwar, 2010). Latif and Anwar (2009a) also studied the effect of enzymes on oil extraction from sunflower seed, which produces a much higher yield (26.6-39.7%) instead of 18.3% in normal aqueous extraction, close to the results of solvent extraction (45.5%). The increase in tocopherol content also occurred here, where the content of " and (-tocopherol reached 516-582 and 259-268 mg/kg, respectively. The application of enzymes in the beans products had previously reported by Sharma et al. (2002). Using commercial enzymes this process was capable to generate 100% higher recovery when compared to the absence of it, while papain, chymotripsin and trypsin enzymes were able to recover oil yields as much as 76, 61 and 67% respectively. Similar results were also shown by Hanmoungjai et al.

Eco Friendly


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(2002) with the use of aqueous enzymatic extraction of rice bran. The method could produce yields (what yield) up to 75%, followed by a 56% yield of protein extraction. Sharma et al. (2001) also reported that the highest oil recovery is obtained at 18 hours incubation and that mixing is important in this method. It was shown by the results of extraction that yielded as much as 76, 78, 67 and 60% at 50, 80, 100 and 200 rpm shaking using enzymes-assisted method compared to only 13, 14, 8 and 6% in the control treatment. Not only performed on aqueous extraction, the use of enzymes is also done in cold pressing. Table 2 shows several cold pressing method assisted with enzymatic pretreatment. The enzymatic pretreatment using coldpressing method


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did increase the yield of oil extracted. Latif and Anwar (2009b) reported that the yield of hemp oil extraction by this method raised 6-23%, which was 28.432.8% of oil extract compared to control (26.7%). Similar results were also reported by Soto et al. (2007) which achieved 76-87% oil recovery for borage oil extraction by single pressing (39.2 MPa) and up to 94.4% by dual pressing using enzymatic pre-treatment. 45ยบC, 20% moisture and 9 h incubation found to be the optimum condition when compared to 66-85% and up to 89% at control treatment. For rose hip seed oil extraction, enzymatic pre-treatment resulted in the increase of yield, up to 36% compared to 47% oil yield for control (Concha et al., 2004). Besides yield increase, Soto et al. (2008) had also reported that using enzyme-assisted

cold-pressed method for borage, resulted in the increase of solids and phenolic compound recuperation as well as improve the antioxidant activity (as DPPH scavenging) compared to non enzymeassisted cold-pressed method. The increase of tocopherols content has also been reported by Latif and Anwar (2009b) whom found the increase of tocopherols content at as much as 514%, and also the increase of other bioactive compounds as well. Interesting results were reported by Sengupta and Bhattacharyya (1996), whom mentioned that in addition to producing solvent-free meals, meals resulting from oil extraction processes of mustard and rice bran with enzymeassisted method had a higher protein and low ash content. This condition allows the meal to be a source of livestock feed. The same thing was reported by Chen and Diosady (2003) i.e., in addition to producing high quality coconut oil, the by-product produced by the process also has potential to be utilized. Ranalli et al. (2003) also mentioned that the enzyme preparation for olive oil extraction produced more environmentally friendly liquid waste, which reduced the potential of pollution up to 30%. Later research also found that the method did decrease the amount of solid particles and oil droplet at effluent which was equivalent to wastewater reduction by 30-35% (according to suspended solid content) (Ranalli et al., 2004). These results show that the enzymes-assisted method is one of environmentally friendly alternative technology that can be applied (Latif and Anwar, 2009a) because in addition to producing a high

Eco Friendly oil recovery, itm also avoids the use of harmful solvents as well as its byproduct (Concha et al., 2004; Sharma et al., 2002). Ultrasound aided: The use of enzymes in oil extraction is not the only option that can be applied. Another method that has had attention is the use of ultrasound as an assist. Ultrasound use in olive oil aqueous extraction method was previously reported by Jimenez et al. (2007). In this method, the malaxation process was performed using ultrasound devices, which perform with indirect and direct sonication method at 25 and 24 kHz, 30ºC for 30 min, respectively. This method did increase the oil extractability significantly and did not alter the fatty acid composition of the oil that was produced. Meanwhile, with the cold-press method, ultrasound can also be used as a pre-treatment instead of using enzymes or heat, as performed by Azadmard-Damirchi et al. (2010), whom used the pre-treatment condition of 2450 MHz for 24 min. The obtained result was an increase in yield of rapeseed oil up to 18% using 2 min and 25% for 4 min pre-treatment. Supercritical fluid extraction: Instead of aqueous extraction and cold-pressing method, the new term of solvent extraction also provide “green” technology to be applied. This method, namely supercritical fluids (SFE) usually use CO2 as its solvent, which was promoted as environmentally friendly compared to others. CO2 is utilized due to its unique solvating power; which is controllable and regulated by relatively small changes in temperature and pressure when above its critical point (304.15 K and 7.38 MPa) (Brennecke, 1997). Some research about it has been conducted with samples of sesame seed (Corsoa et al., 2010), grape seed (Passosa et al., 2009), wheat germ (Piras et al., 2009) and others, details of which are shown at Table 3. Based on previous research, the use of this method on high oil content samples such as walnut, were capable of producing the oil recovery up to 95% at its maximum extraction time (390-minute), but the 150-minute process (85%) is reported as the most efficient condition due to its shorter time and the less use of CO2 (Oliveira et al., 2002). It's also reported that this method resulted in a higher content of tocopherol and clearer oil compared to the oil from hexane extraction. Bernardo-Gil et al. (2002) also reported the use of this method on hazelnut, which resulted in higher total tocopherol content (458.7 :g/g oil) compared to 382.2 :g/g oil acquired from n-hexane extraction. It is also mentioned that there was a little difference in fatty acid composition obtained from SFE and n-hexane method. Oil extracted from SFE had lower content of PUFA, higher content of MUFA and so on higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid value. A study of seeds samples was carried out by Salgin (2007) on jojoba seed, which concluded that the use of this method was capable of producing yields up to 44% (w/w). This study also showed that the addition of ethanol in the process of SFE CO2 extraction could improve the process performance and generate up to 62% yield. Other studies on grape seed carried out by Passosa et al. (2009) was able to produce as much as 11.5% yield. The interesting part in this study is the use of enzymatic pretreatment in the method; it was able to increase the extraction's performance by 29

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Eco Friendly

43.5% resulted in 16.5% yield. Recent studies conducted with sesame oil show that this method could produce yield up to 35%, notably high when compared to hexane extraction of 52.6% and the use of the propane in the same method that produced 33.5% yield. Although producing a lower yield, the extraction 32

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using propane can be done in a much shorter time (40-70 minute) when compared with using CO2 as a solvent that spent 510-1380 minute, and the pressure utilized was also lower (Corsoa et al., 2010). The use of this method in canola samples (37% oil) showed slight differences; the use of propane as

solvent could produce a higher yield of up to 23.83% compared to only up to 19:49% by using CO2. However, the extraction using propane in these samples also required the lower value of pressure and time (Pederssetti et al., 2011). Although in these experiments, the use of CO2 is not able to surpass the

Eco Friendly use solvents or other materials such as hexane and propane, the use of a safer and more environmental friendly solvent can be a good reason for these methods to be further developed. In addition, the results of chemical-free byproducts, makes it more flexible to be developed into other potential materials through the methods described previously. Edible oil refining technology: The application of rendering and cold pressing methods indeed produce high quality oil and a premium value on the market. However, with a high content of non-triglycerides in it, these types of oil is unsuitable to be applied in the use of which requires a neutral oil in terms such as colour, flavour, etc. For example, the flavour produced by the virgin olive oil may be preferred as a salad dressing or cooking oil, but on the other hand, it would be very


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inconvenient for a large industry that wants products, so they're uniform and unaffected by variations in the type and quality of oil used. The presence of the colour pigments in oil that is processed in such as the manner, which varies greatly in each batch, also makes it difficult to make products that have a certain colour appearance if the oil is used directly. Therefore, it is still necessary for the oil refining process as a process carried further in certain cases. E.g. if the extraction results obtained are not in accordance with expectations, it is insufficient to meet the market requirements, which is needed to improve the quality or processing of information to be used as it should. And in special cases, purification is quite necessary, as in certain types of oils or fats containing compounds that are hazardous to health if consumed by humans. In general, edible oil refining can be done either chemically or

physically. Degumming, chemical neutralization followed by physical refining of bleaching and deodorization, might be the most conventional process that is widely used. This process, as explained earlier, is objected to converting crude oil or fat into a more suitable form for the subsequent use. Typically, it will produce oils that have minimum colour and flavor because the minor compound, which is not desirable, has been removed during the process (Gunstone, 2004). According to Greyt and Kellens (2000), degumming process was intended to remove the phosphatides and mucilaginous material from crude oil by means of washing with water, dilute acid or sometimes dilute NaOH. Gunstone (2004) also mentioned, that phospholipids are powerful emulsifying agents, and that if not removed, will increase the refining losses and decrease


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Kco E ingFriendly of vegetable the oil oxidative stability due to its ability to carry pro-oxidants associated metals. Neutralization process utilises alkaline compounds to produce soapstock so that it can be separated from the oil body. Soapstock contains free acid in the form of sodium salt, which is mixed with triacylglycerols and phospholipids. This byproduct will then be acidified again to get the fatty acids that can be used for the soap manufacture or animal feed additives. The next stage, namely bleaching is a process that is aimed to eliminate colour substances that are not desired in the oil. This process is done by mixing the oil with a small amount of adsorbent or can be done chemically (Ketaren, 1986). However, the process in addition to using the adsorbent, i.e. hydro-bleaching or chemical bleaching is not utilized on edible oil refining (Greyt and Kellens, 2000). The final process, which is deodorization, is designed to produce oil with a bland flavour, odour and good shelf life. This process usually undergoes high temperatures between 170-250ÂşC under reduced pressure to volatilize the oxidation products responsible for oil offflavours (Gunstone, 2004). Physical refining as eco-friendly alternative: In the context of environmentally friendly technology, physical refining is an appropriate solution due to its ability, in addition to reducing the risk of environmental damage, to produce higher oil yields. Although in this case, physical purification is delicate to be applied to all types of crude oil (Greyt and Kellens, 2000). Bleaching process, in term of adsorptive refining, is one of the methods that gets a lot of attention, not only because of its flexibility both in the process as well as the source, but also reported is its 36

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capability of substituting other purification processes. As reported previously by Proctor and Harris (1996), the use of adsorptive agent, in this case, the soy hull carbon as refining agent, can lower the levels of lutein, Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV) and phospholipids phosphorus content in soy oil. It is also supported by the research of Sabah and Çelik (2005) that reported the use of sepiolite as the adsorptive agent, in addition to producing a pale color, was also able to reduce levels of FFA, PV, anisidine value, and phosphorus content in oil. Furthermore, it also reported that the performance of the process increased along with the increase of adsorbent concentration. As mentioned earlier, oxidation products are usually removed from oil when the alkali neutralization and deodorization process is carried out. Deodorization process uses a high temperature steam (>220oC) which raises the issue of degradation of vitamins and the formation of transisomers and polymers (Gumuskesen and Cakaloz, 1992; Gunstone, 2004; Maza et al., 1992). Adsorptive refining, although more effectively done at higher temperatures (Zhu et al., 1994), can also be done at a lower temperature. This is very useful especially in oil products that are sensitive to heat treatment such as fish oil (Francis, 1999). As practiced by Huang and Sathivel (2010) who performed this process only at a temperature of 22oC in salmon oil samples. The process, in addition to producing better colour appearance; is also capable to reduce the level of FFA in oil. In addition to previously mentioned advantages, this process also offers an attractive flexibility. Many choices of adsorbent types can be used make this process easy to apply for more specific results. Besides a wide choice between synthetic and natural adsorbents, the utilization of by-products converted into an adsorbent allows the application process for a zerowaste clean technology. Adsorbent, including chitosan, activated carbon, activated clay, sepiolite, soy hull carbon, rice hull ash, attapulgite and other clays mineral (Boki et al., 1992; Huang et al.,

Eco Friendly 2007; Huang and Sathivel, 2010; Proctor and Harris, 1996; Proctor and Palaniappan, 1990; Sabah and Çelik, 2005; Sathivel and Prinyawiwatkul, 2004) are an option that can be used in addition to synthetic adsorbents, including Magnesol XL, alumina (aluminum oxide), magnesium silicate, silica (silicon dioxide) and others (Boki et al., 1994; Farag and El-Anany, 2006). Another interesting study is that this method can remove the harmful content of pigments such as gossypol in cottonseed oil than the previously done chemicall alternative, as reported by Kuk and Tetlow (2005) and Kamga et al. (2000) using alumina, silica, magnesium silicate and bentonite as the adsorbent agent. Among others, the terms membrane filtration and modified deodorization can also be used. The study carried out by Bottino et al. (2004) on extra virgin olive oil, Koris and Vatai (2002) in sunflower and soybean oil, Lin et al. (1997), Snape and Nakajima (1996) and Subramanian et al. (1998) mentioned that membrane filtration is able to reduce wax, phospholipids, suspended particles, and even the trace amounts of heavy metals like copper, iron and


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manganese in the oil. Whereas modified deodorization uses other medium i.e. nitrogen bubbles as a stripping medium to allow the use of lower temperature, instead of steam. As reported by Tsiadi et al. (2001), the use of nitrogen bubbles on sunflower oil deodorization was possible to remove some volatiles and odoriferous compound under 150oC condition, although higher molecular compound such as FFA could only be done at temperature of not less than 180oC. C O N C L U S I O N A N D RECOMMENDATION The development of environmentally friendly process has its definite difficulties and challenges. The increase in yield that can be achieved by the methods described previously is certainly a very suitable solution applied to small industries. However, the use of these methods on large industries will be a dilemma, where the quantity produced is a far comparison to the common method of solvent extraction. The higher cost, especially in enzyme procurement and ultrasound infrastructure pose a significant problem. Even so, as the growing trend of healthy products in which less-processed product such as

virgin oil are well appreciated and rewarded with premium prices, this scenario is without doubt an opportunity that cannot be ignored. The increasing public awareness of the environment has also helped to change the paradigm. Buyers these days do not mind paying more for organic and chemical free products. Furthermore, the possibility of clean production can also be developed due to the possibility to reuse the byproducts generated. The ease of application is clearly the advantage of aqueous extraction; moreover, its performance can be improved with either of the use of enzymes or ultrasound assistance. Cold extraction process promises a consistent means to produce high enough yield. Supercritical fluid extraction provides a technique with high extraction rates. Meanwhile, the purification technique, flexibility and ease of application are the advantages of adsorptive refining, whereas more specific purpose can be obtained by membrane filtration. With these advantages, surely there is no reason to not be able to produce high quality edible oil with environmentally friendly methods; all the more, because it is much appreciated with a high price in the market.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Food Safety


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Exclusive Interview


Quality, food safety and hygiene should be given prime importance


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

amani Oil Industries is one of the leading manufacturing organization in the field of specialty oils and fat products in India. The company is the first Indian vegetable oil industry to be HACCP certified (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point). The company is dedicated to providing highest quality oils and fats to the customers and has a wide range of products for specialized applications to the Food, Pharma, Cosmetic and Nutraceutical industry. The company has a state of art production facility which is being constantly upgraded to ensure production flexibility. The product range includes whole range of vegetable oils, Bakery shortenings, Margarines, Confectionery fats, Dairy fat replacers, Nutritional and healthy oils. Recently we had an opportunity to have an interview with Managing Director of the group Prakash Chawla a well known personality in the Indian edible oils & fats business. Due to his business acumen and futuristic approach today Kamani is a well known Bakery Shortening supplier to the Indian food processing industry along with number of other products.

Exclusive Interview How has been the last one year for your group in terms of new launches, achieving targets and further investments and business expansions in the country? The last year has been extremely exciting with launching of new products for health and culinary purposes. We have achieved good development here in specific products and applications, keeping in mind the future of the industry. Kamani Oil Industries is one of the oldest edible oil processors of the country, along with this success the company is yet again a well known brand in fats business. How do you look at these two branches of your tree for the growth of your company? Our Plant at Khopoli is state-of-the-art and the first HACCP certified Oil Refinery in India. We are now FSSC 22000:2010 certified company, our expertise and a systematic approach we

look forward to achieve our annual targets and forecasted growth. Despite the fact that Indian food processing industry is growing with double digit growth rate along with the food ingredients industry, consumption of good quality fats is still very less compared to the developed world or China. What needs to be done to reach that level in India ? The per capita consumption increases with the per capita income of the country. We feel in a matter of time the consumption would augment. Quality, food safety and hygiene should be given prime importance in a developing country like India. We should start manufacturing food products keeping these things in focus and also maintain the international standards to make India a Global hub for food exports. What are the most exciting segments

in the Indian food and beverages market from an innovation point of view and why, for your company? With constant innovation the food processing industry is creating outstanding products and it will only be a matter a matter of time for the consumption to not only increase but multiply. There has been unprecedented puzzlement over implementation of FSSAI (Food Safety & Standard Act of India) in the country which witnessed huge hue and cry from the food processors and hoteliers. How do you see these activities especially for a food ingredients company like yours? GMP and Food Safety is the need of the hour, so there definitely is a need for food safety management systems. FSSAI was introduced as it has got an integrated approach and harmonizes with CODEX and other international laws.

People are waking up to the reality of consuming healthy and tasty products


r i s h i k e s h Bhatjiwale, Regional Sales Head, Kamani Oil, has briefed our editorial team about his experience in the market and latest trends…….

How focused is you company towards increasing the consumption of good quality bakery fats and what are your efforts throughout year to promote your products? We at 'Kamani have always taken the initiative to understand changing needs of the Bakers thus making good and healthy quality products. Our “Trans-free” ranges of products are a good example of that. . Our technical team is always available to answer and solve all the queries and issues raised by our bakers. We run periodic schemes for bakeries based on their


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

consumption. We advertise in bakeries and periodicals, take part in exhibition and conferences and our state – of-art R & D facility keeps innovating and creating new applications/recipes, ultimately adding value to the end user. What are you focus areas within the food & beverages industry (Bakery, Icec re a m , C o n f e c t i o n e r y, e t c ) The segments mentioned are poised for growth in the coming months and our focus will be on them as well as on the expectations of our customers. Every big country or Sub-continent has its own unique preferences and requirements of food ingredients. What type of demand you see of your products

from this country and what are the ingredients you would like to focus for next couple of years? People in our country are waking up to the reality of consuming healthy and tasty products. Our state of the art facility and our innovative R&D team are geared up to take this challenge and make products which give customer delight at a reasonable price. Our constant endeavor is to focus on creating products which give additional benefit to them. Presence of Trans fats in the food items on retail shelves has been a matter of contention from NGOs and other related group. What are your comments on this and what are the solutions Kamani Oil Industries is providing to the food processing industry in India on t h i s f r o n t ? The altering Indian lifestyle is moving towards health, variety and taste. At Kamani Oil Industries we constantly educate ourselves on all nutritional aspects of Oils and Fats to the consumer requirements. We have introduced a range of Trans free bakery fats and premium culinary oil to take care of this.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

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Topics of Presentations and Discussions: Cold Chain Solutions for Ice-Creams Global Trends in Ice-Creams segment Innovative Ingredients for Ice-Creams Modern Day Branding & Packaging of Ice-Creams Food Safety in an Ice-Cream Factory & Consumer Awareness Group Discussion “Ice-creams Vs Frozen Desserts” Advance Processing Technologies

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Vitamin A

Are Vegetable Oils Always a Reliable Source of

Vitamin A?


Critical Evaluation of Analytical Methods for the Measurement of Oxidative Rancidity

Introduction Vitamin A is essential for eye health and the proper functioning of the immune system. It is found in foods such as milk, liver and eggs as retinol, and in red and orange fruits, red palm oil, and green leafy vegetables in the form of provitamin A carotenoids. The amount of vitamin A readily available to the body from these sources varies widely. In developing areas of the world, where vitamin A is largely consumed in fruits and vegetables, daily intake is oft en insufficient to meet dietary requirements. Inadequate intakes are further compromised by increased requirements for the vitamin as children grow, or during periods of illness, as well as increased losses during common childhood infections. As a result, vitamin A deficiency is quite prevalent in the developing world, and particularly in countries with the highest burden of under-five deaths. A child deficient in vitamin A faces a 25% greater risk of dying from common ailments, such as measles, malaria, or diarrhea. Programs to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency enhance a child's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals, and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities. The following three major deficiency control strategies are all meant to complement ongoing public health measures for child health and development: supplementation, dietary diversification, and food fortification.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Vitamin A A safe, efficient strategy Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every four to six months, targeting all children between the ages of six and 59 months, living in affected areas. Providing young children with two high-dose vitamin A capsules a year is a safe, cost-effective, efficient strategy for eliminating vitamin A deficiency, and improving child survival. Giving vitamin A to new mothers who are breastfeeding helps protect their children during the first months of life, and helps replenish the mothers' stores of vitamin A, which are depleted during pregnancy and lactation. Dietary diversification in the developing world is hard to implement, since nonanimal sources of vitamin A account for greater than 80% of intake for most individuals. In order to meet the nutrition needs of children, it would be necessary for intake of these sources to increase up to tenfold. Feasible control of deficiency through dietary diversification would require the increased consumption of bioavailable, vitamin A rich foods of animal origin, coupled with the continued promotion of nutritious fruits and vegetables. Although multiple interventions to this effect have been carried out, scale-up of these efforts is limited by natural r e s o u r c e s . Food fortification is being introduced in more and more countries, and holds great hope for the long-term control of vitamin A deficiency. Multiple products currently serve as vehicles: vegetable o i l s , m a r g a r i n e , m i l k , s u g a r, complementary food supplements, and various types of flour are among the most common. Although fortification can take several years to initiate, and longer still to reach all at-risk children and their families, it is an effective and sustainable approach to vitamin A and other micronutrient nutrition. Vegetable oil fortification Vegetable oil fortification with vitamin A is currently one important strategy to lower the burden of vitamin A deficiency. Assuming that all vegetable oil consumed in the 75 developing 45

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

“Dietary diversifi cati on in the developing world is hard to implement, since non-animal sources of vitamin A account f or g r e a t e r than 80% o f int a ke f o r most indi v idua l s” countries for which data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is available was fortified to a level of 60 Iu/gretinylpalmitate – as currently practiced by the united Nations World Food Programme (WFP) – and given an assumed average retention of vitamin A through storage and cooking of 60%, this will provide 44% of the WHO Safe Level for vitamin A of 600 µg RE/day, or 2,000 Iu/d, for adolescents (10–18 years old). This calculation was based on 70 g of oil. However, loss of vitamin A during storage and cooking has a crucial impact on its delivery. Although vitamin A can be uniformly distributed in oil and is easily absorbed from oil, it is unstable when exposed to light − particularly ultraviolet (uV) light – air, oxidizing agents, and heat. Heavy metals and acids, even in trace quantities, can

Edible vegetable oils are often exposed to elevated temperatures during processing, shipping and/or storage. High temperatures and the presence of oxygen favor the process of oxidative rancidity, which results in the formation of characteristic off-flavors and less palatable oils. The rate of oxidative rancidity strongly depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fat. The degree of unsaturation is determined by the number of double bonds in the fatty acid molecules − a neighboring double bond decreases the energy of the hydrogen binding to the carbon. A high number of adjacent double bonds facilitates the detachment of the hydrogen atom (Figure 1). A high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PuFAs) renders the vegetable oil more prone to oxidation, resulting in a loss of PuFAs due to the

figure 1: Relative oxidation rates of fatty acids H (410 kJ/mol)

Induction period (h)


Relative oxidation rate 1

H (322 kJ/mol) 18:1 (9) 18:2 (9, 12)

18:3 (9, 12, 15)

H (272 kJ/mol)

H (171 kJ/mol)

accelerate its decomposition. It can be assumed that there is a direct relationship between the stability of vitamin A and the oxidation status of the oil. The higher the markers of lipid oxidation, the greater the loss of vitamin A. using high quality oil, and protecting the oil from oxidization and rancidity, is therefore basic to preserving the vitamin A.







formation of early and advanced volatile and non-volatile lipid oxidation products. As high levels of PuFAs are considered beneficial in terms of sustaining health, the oxidative quality control of oils containing high amounts of PuFAs, such as soy bean oil, becomes essential not only for the evaluation of the sensory quality of vegetable oils, but also for the determination of their

Vitamin A nutritional value. Oxidative stability is mainly affected by processing conditions that imply the

“Vegetable oil fortification with vitamin A is currently one important strategy to lower the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency” application of high temperatures, oxidants, enzymes (lipoxygenases), moisture, light and oxygen. Photosensitization facilitated by transparent packaging might induce the formation of singlet oxygen, which has been reported to react 1,500 times faster with linoleate than with oxygen in its triplet ground state and, thus, may promote oxidative rancidity. In contrast to lipid peroxidation, which only occurs in the presence of enzymes, lipid autoxidation in foods is based on a free radical chain reaction, starting off with an endothermic reaction by the loss of a hydrogen atom in the presence of oxidation initiators, such as traces of metals, light or heat. After the removal of the hydrogen atom at the initiation of lipid autoxidation, the carbon-centered radical undergoes molecular rearrangement to form stabilized conjugated dienes, following oxygen uptake to finally yield peroxyl radicals. During the stage of propagation

hydroperoxides, secondary decomposition products, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons, esters, furans and lactones, are formed. However, lipid hydroperoxides can also be oxidized to yield epoxyhydroperoxides, oxohydroperoxides, bihydroperoxides, cyclic peroxide and bicyclic endoperoxide. The secondary oxidation products can further decompose into onohydroperoxides, which may result in the formation of volatile products. Lipid hydroperoxides have also been reported to undergo condensation reactions that terminate the autoxidation process by forming dimers and polymers, which may also break down into volatile compounds. Due to these rather complex

“A universal method suitable for the evaluation of early lipid a u t o x i d a t i o n processes in edible oils is still lacking” mechanisms of lipid oxidation, a variety of analytical methods have been developed to investigate the different stages of lipid oxidation. However, auniversal method suitable for the evaluation of early lipid autoxidation

figure 2: Time dependent decrease of antioxidants, unsaturated fatty acids and formation of lipid autoxidation products in vegetable oils

Oxygen consumption Unsaturated fatty acids










(Figure 2), the peroxyl radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from another fatty acid to form the lipid hydroperoxide, a marker for early oxidation stages. Due to the instability of lipid 46

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

processes in edible oils is still lacking. Evaluation of analytical methods Upon oxidation of vegetable oils, unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants decline over time, while an increase of

oxygen consumption and the formation of hydroperoxides as primary oxidation products can be observed. However, hydroperoxides readily decompose, making their analytical monitoring difficult. Advanced oxidation products such as volatile and non-volatile compounds have much longer half-life times, and are more commonly analyzed as markers of lipid autoxidation. Figure 3 depicts a simplifi ed pathway of lipid autoxidation, pointing out the analytical methods applied for the quantitative analysis of oxidation products formed in vegetable oils. The loss of PuFAs and the formation of saturated fatty acids are commonly quantified by gas chromatography (GC) or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), whereas carbon-centered radicals can be analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR). After immediate molecular rearrangement, the carbon-centered radicals form conjugated dienes, which are relatively stable, and commonly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV techniques. Conjugated dienes may undergo oxygen uptake, analyzed by polarography such as Clark electrodes, to finally yield peroxyl radicals which can be quantified by ESR. Peroxyl radicals easily abstract hydrogen atoms from other fatty acids to form lipid hydroperoxides, also indicators of early oxidation stages that are quantified by m e a n s o f H P L C - U V. L i p i d hydroperoxides may undergo either condensation or degradation reactions, resulting in the formation of dimers or polymers or aldehydes, hydroxydienes or epoxyhydroxydienes, respectively. All of these compounds may be analyzed by means of GC or HPLC techniques. Chemical evaluation One of the most common methods of measuring the oxidative rancidity of vegetable peroxide value “One oilsofis the the most (PV). The PV determines the amount common methods ofof peroxides formed during early oxidation m e aexpressed s u r i asn millimoles g t h eor stages, oxidative ofrancidity milliequivalents peroxide oxygenof per one kilogram ofoils oil. is Numerous vegetable the analytical protocols have been described peroxide value (PV)” for the measurement of the PV.

Vitamin A figure 3: Analytical tools for the detection of primary and secondary lipid autoxidation products

Products of lipid oxidation

Analytical tool

GC/NMR PUFA -H∙ ESR Carbon-centered radical

HPLC Conjugated diene Clark electrode



Peroxyl radical +H∙ HPLC



Condensation reactions

Scission of C-chain

Dimers, Polymers

Degradation without scission of C-chain

HPLC Hydroxydienes

GC Aldehydes (hexanal, propanal)

HPLC Malondialdehyde


40 47

Oil & Food Journal Oct June2012 2012

HPLC Oxodienes

Vitamin A The most widely used procedure utilizes the oxidative capacity of lipid (hydro) peroxides to generate iodine from potassium iodide. Iodometric titration employs starch as the indicator and sodium thiosulfate as the titrant. One of the drawbacks of the PV method is the instability of the hydroperoxides, which leads to an initial increase, followed by a decrease of the hydroperoxides during the progress of lipid oxidation (Figure 2). Major concerns also relate to the accuracy of the measurement, pointing to the absorption capacity of unsaturated fatty acids for iodine and the additional release of iodine from potassium iodide by oxygen. Other possible obstacles comprise variation in sample weight, the type of solvent, variation in reaction time and temperature, and the constitution of the peroxides. Furthermore, it has been reported that the method failed to measure low PVs due to inaccurate determination of the titration end-point, leading to the introduction of electrochemical techniques. Alternative empirical colorimetric assays were developed, such as the analysis of ferric thiocyanate formed by oxidation in the presence of peroxides or diphenylcarbohydrazide, yielding a red color after reaction with oxidized lipids. Although widely used, the different inherent drawbacks of the determination of the PV have prevented this method from being recommended as a standard method for the evaluation of the oxidative rancidity of vegetable oils. One of the most commonly used chemical assays to determine secondary oxidation products is the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Two molecules of TBA condensate at low pH and high temperature with one molecule of malondialdehyde, a decomposition product of oxidized PuFAs, to form a pink chromogen that c a n b e q u a n t i f i e d spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 532 nm. The selectivity of the TBA assay can be further improved by utilizing the fluorescent property of the TBA chromogen. However, malondialdehyde is solely released from peroxides derived from 48

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

fatty acids containing three or more double bonds. The fatty acid composition of the oil under investigation therefore has to be considered, rendering comparisons between different oils unreliable. It has also been noted that the TBA test is not specific to malondialdehyde, but also gives pink chromogens with sugars, lipids, urea, oxidized proteins and other aldehydes not derived from oxidation. Prior HPLC separation and different absorption maxima of chromogens might reduce the limitations in specificity. However, an inevitable drawback of the TBA assay might be the additional assay-borne generation of malondialdehyde as an artifact, due to heat and acid treatment of lipid hydroperoxides. Despite some inherent disadvantages of the TBA assay, this method is widely used to rapidly screen large numbers of samples. The Kreis test was one of the first methods to be applied to determine the oxidative deterioration of vegetable oils. In this test, phloroglucinol reacts with epoxy aldehydes or their acetals under acidic conditions to form a red color. The Kreis test does not provide reliable information on the degree of lipid oxidation, since samples free from rancidity were shown to give positive results, probably due to the presence of aldehydes. In addition, some food additives, such as vanillin, were identified to interfere with the Kreis test. The Kreis test is therefore not considered to be a reliable rancidity index. Carbonyl compounds Several assays have been developed to analyze the carbonyl compounds derived from lipid autoxidation. One of the most commonly used assays for the detection of total carbonyl compounds is based on the formation of dinitrophenyl hydrazones in the presence of carbonyl compounds and trichloroacetic acid. Due to the required experimental conditions of high temperature and low pH, the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides is promoted, thereby interfering with the assay. Prior reduction of hydroperoxides to noncarbonyl compounds could not prevent

the generation of additional carbonyl sub-stances. Holm et al. suggested quantifying aldehydes by using benzidine acetate without the application of high temperatures or strong acids. Since benzidine acetate is carcinogenic, a similar method using p-anisidine has been proposed. P-anisidine reacts with 2-alkenals, forming reaction products that can be assessed photometrically at a wavelength of 350 nm. However, this absorption maximum was

“The Clark-type electrode, a sensitive oxygen sensor, might be a promising tool to characterize early stage lipid oxidation� demonstrated to shift towards longer wavelengths with increasing double bonds in the molecule, thereby impeding comparisons between different vegetable oils. To calculate the total oxidation (totox) value, the following equation including the p-anisidine value (AV) and the PV is used: totox value = 2 PV + AV. The totox value combines information about the early and advanced stages of lipid deterioration, rendering it a valuable parameter for rancidity evaluation of vegetable oils. Combination of the PV analysis with polarographic methods has also been demonstrated to provide valuable results up to PV of 250 mmol/kg. Polarographic methods are used to determine the oxygen consumption. The Clark-type electrode, a sensitive oxygen sensor, might be a promising tool to characterize early stage lipid oxidation. Physical evaluation The detection of conjugated dienes is a widely accepted physical method to assess the oxidative rancidity of vegetable oils. Oxidation of PuFAs results in the generation of conjugated double bonds, which exhibit absorption maxima in a range of 230 to 375 nm. Conjugated dienes were reported to absorb at 234 nm, whereas secondary oxidation

Vitamin A products, such as diketones, were shown to have their absorption maxima at 268 nm. Due to their rapid and simple performance, and their independence of chemical agents and reactions or color development, analyses of conjugated dienes are widely accepted for the evaluation of the lipid oxidation status in PuFA-rich vegetable oils. However, this method shows limited sensitivity in more saturated oils, such as palm olein, due to the lack of double bonds. The conjugation of PuFA dienes might also be assessed by qualitative methods such as refractometry or infrared spectroscopy. The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the evaluation of oxidative stability of vegetable oils has also been shown to be a promising technique. The NMR method analyzes the change of the fatty acid profile in oils

“Gas chromatography (GC) is widely used to determine volatile compounds that are generated by hydroperoxide scission” by calculating the ratio of aliphatic to olefinic protons. Wanasundara et al. observed a constant increase in the ratio of aliphatic to olefinic protons during the storage of canola and soybean oil, concluding that storage of the oils was associated with the progressive oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Small changes in the fatty acid profile analyzed by means of NMR comprise early and advanced stages of lipid deterioration, thereby outperforming most of the methods used for the assessment of oxidative rancidity of edible oils. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping techniques have also been applied to determine early oxidative events in palm oil. A widely applied spin trap that studies free radical formation during the storage of oil is N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN). A linear correlation was obtained between the PV and ESR results using PBN, although higher sensitivity for 49

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

early oxidative changes is achieved by ESR techniques. Disadvantages of the ESR techniques include the fact that spin adducts are only stable for a short amount of time, requiring the addition of the spin trap after sampling and immediate recording of the ESR signals. In addition, the ESR spin trapping technique has not been recommended for application in complex food systems containing antioxidants due to possible interactions with PBN, since PBN is known to inhibit lipid autoxidation in an a n t i o x i d a n t - d e p e n d e n t m a n n e r. Thereby, the spin traps form spin adducts with peroxyl radicals which rapidly decompose into alkoxyl radicals. Alkoxyl radicals, in turn, might be trapped by a new molecule PBN. In the presence of antioxidants, the radical scavenging activity of PBN is reduced due to higher rate constants of antioxidants with the respective free radicals. Thus, spin traps might be useful antioxidants, but are also valid candidates to investigate the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Chromatographic evaluation Gas chromatography (GC) is widely used to determine volatile compounds, such as hexanal and pentane, that are generated by hydroperoxide scission. GC provides information about the underlying mechanism of lipid oxidation. Convenient GC methods have been developed for the direct injection of the oil onto the column, however, resulting in an unstable chromatographic baseline and the shortening of column life. Thus, a u-tube, which was connected to the GC, was implemented for the isolation of volatile compounds. Another possibility with regard to oncolumn injection is to vacuum distil the volatiles into a cold trap prior to GC analysis. “Future research has to provide scientific evidence for the most reliable marker of lipid oxidation with respect to vitamin A stability” Alternatively, GC is often used for headspace analyses, whereby the volatile is accumulated by heating in the

headspace of a tube and subsequently injected onto the GC capillary. Here, high temperatures are required; they represent a drawback in terms of this method, since high temperatures might increase further reactions of the peroxides and secondary oxidation products. Furthermore, the partitioning of the volatiles between the vapor and the liquid oil might pose some uncertainties. Lipid oxidation was also monitored by combining solid phase microextraction (SPME) with GC. Prior extraction of volatiles with SPME was assessed to be an environmentally friendly method due to the omission of toxic solvents. In addition, more reliable information on the oxidative stage is provided, as compared to classical methods such as AV. The results obtained with SPME-headspace-GCmass spectrometry (MS) also showed good correlation to AV. All GC methods are limited to thermally stable compounds. Thus, non-volatile lipid oxidation products are favorably analyzed by means of HPLC coupled to uV or MS detectors. Steenhorst-Slikkerveer et al. developed a normal-phase HPLC/MS method for the detection of non-volatile triacylglyceride oxidation products, such as epoxy-triacylglyceride, oxotriacylglyceride, hydroperoxytriacylglyceride, hydroxyltriacylglyceride and glycerides with two intact fatty acid chains and one short chain with an aldehyde or hydroxyl group. The proposed method can be used to characterize and quantify non-volatile triacylglyceride oxidation products, although reference standards have to be synthesized for this method. Besides normal phase chromatographic methods, reversed phase HPLC techniques have also been described to separate and analyze mixtures of conjugated diene hydroperoxide isomers, but only according to cis-trans isomerism. To separate the hydroxyl or hydroperoxide substituent according to the position on the parent chain normal phase chromatography is used. Normal phase HPLC techniques, therefore, allow differentiation between different isomers, such as 13-

Vitamin A hydroperoxy dienes and 9-hydroperoxy dienes. Normal phase HPLC coupled with MS or UV detection might have the potential to emerge as a method, which combines the determination of early and advanced lipid oxidation products. Another promising HPLC method, concomitantly evaluating primary and secondary oxidation products, was developed by Mรกrquez-Ruiz et al. Trilinolein samples were first fractionated using solid phase extraction to separate polar from non-polar fractions. Subsequently, the polar fraction was analyzed by highperformance size-exclusion chromatography using a refractive index detector. Applying this methodology, oxidized monomers, dimers and polymers of methyl linoleate were detected. It could be shown that the amount of oxidized monomers represents the early oxidation stage, while dimers and polymers were indicative for advanced oxidation. This method has been successfully applied to study oxidative alterations in sunflower oils. Concluding remarks

Lipid oxidation critically determines the bioavailability of vitamin A from vegetable oils. Most of the assays developed to evaluate lipid oxidation detect either primary or secondary oxidation products, thereby limiting conclusions on the progress of lipid oxidation. For many assays, the application is restricted by inherent drawbacks. Therefore, evaluation of the oxidative rancidity in edible oils concomitantly to the analysis of vitamin A stability usually requires the application of different methods, which comprise the measurements of early and advanced oxidation products. Methods that combine the concomitant detection of primary and secondary oxidation products are scarce. NMR, HPLC and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography methods were discussed as three superior methods applied for the detection of the change of the fatty acid profile, conjugated diene hydroperoxides/hydroxides and condensation products of hydroperoxides. To analyze volatile compounds such as hexanal or propane, SPME-headspaceGC-MS has been demonstrated to be a



Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

reliable technique. Detection of nonvolatile compounds, such as epoxides, oxo- or hydroxy-dienes, might be carried out by HPLC or LC-MS. However, quantitative analyses by means of all of these chromatographic methods require reference standards, which might not be commercially available. The chemical synthesis of these reference compounds, which should ideally be labeled with stable isotopes for quantitative stable-isotope dilution analysis, is, in many cases, a major hurdle for the quantitative evaluation of lipid autoxidation. Nonchromatographic methods for the detection of early stage lipid oxidation include the determination of oxygen uptake by a Clark-type electrode, and the measurement of the peroxyl radicalderived alkoxyl spin adducts using ESR. However, future research has to provide scientific evidence for the most reliable marker of lipid oxidation with respect to vitamin A stability. By:Marc Pignitter, Veronika Somoza, Department of Nutritional and Physiological Chemistry, University of Vienna, Austria


Expecting overwhelming response for

CONTIBAG with 130packs/min


aurabh Flexipack Systems Pvt. Ltd. is well known brand in flexible packaging industry. Their efforts are always directed in development, improving the speed & performance of the machinery; making it the No. 1 packaging machines at price you can afford. More than 1000 global brands are using the packaging machinery manufactured by 'Saurabh' Flexipack Systems. They have developed various types of machines to meet specific customer's requirements. Having thier own SmartEx & Kawach brand of products with different filling systems which are catering to different needs of customer. Saurabh Flexipack has done a joint venture with a well-known packaging company from Czech Republic, Velteko Ltd. Managing Director of the company Pradeep Kataria is not only one of the most travelled persons in India but also a frequent flyer of third world countries and Asian countries. Kataria has developed a fantastic and unique rapport with different segments of the food industry.

What are the latest trends in snacks packaging technologies in the global market as well as at your company? These days snacks industry is in boom globally. The accepted packaging technologies are for moderate speed and high speed. 60 to 80 packs/min is the common speed for packaging snacks upto 50gms but now demands are growing and global packaging technology providers are looking towards this opportunities. Our company Saurabh Flexipack Systems has indigenously developed the continuous motion bagmaker to give speed upto 130bags/min. This bagmaker with suitable multihead weigher gives 110packs/min for 25gm potato chips and 130packs/min for 30gm extruded snacks like kurkure. With continuous efforts and using high end technology gives us this success to deliver such high speed. How has been the last one year for your group especially for the snacks packaging machinery? Last year was fantastic for snack packaging machines specially for potato chips, extruded snacks and Indian ethnic snacks. Almost 60% business is from this machines sales. This year we are expecting double and also expecting overwhelming response for our new CONTIBAG with 130packs/min. Do you think now the time has come for the Indian snack food industry to look at innovative & environment friendly packaging solutions? Yes! Now time has come to change the trends for snacks packaging. Usually these days' snacks are packed in pillow pouches and once packet is opened consumer has to finish the packet. Now the market trend is changing and demands are of some reclosable bags like Zipper or label application to pouch which will close the bag. This will help to increase the sales of snacks for family packs. We have joined hands with Velteko from Czech Republic for manufacturing packaging machines to make stand up bags with zipper, label etc in vertical form fill seal machines. There are three types of Business models in Indian snack food industry small, big and medium, all are making profits but who do you think would sustain in the longer run? In coming time and as per the governing laws for food and safety only medium and big industries will be sustain in longer run. It will become difficult to remain profitable for small units as competition is increasing with high standards for manufacturing and packaging. So volumes are needed. Snack foods segment is still one of the fastest growing segments in Indian food processing industry. How much growth rate you see for this segment for the next 5 years? Yes I agree this is the fastest growing segment in Indian food industry. If we see the growth in last five years it is really difficult to predict but it will not be less than 20 percent.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012


Branding Up The Sweetness


by Firoz H Naqvi & Basma Husain


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

ugar industry is the second-largest agro based industry, employing 0.5 million people in the sugar mills and 50 million farmers engaged in sugarcane cultivation. India is the largest consumer and the second largest producer of sugar across the globe. The production of sugar is spread across the country. Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh are the major sugar producing states in the country. Sugarcane is the primary raw material for the sugar industry. It accounts for almost 80-85 per cent of the total operating cost of the sugar industry. Uttar Pradesh is the largest sugarcane-producing state in the country and accounted for about 36.2 per cent of the total sugarcane output in SS 2010-11 followed by Maharashtra with 23.6 per cent. Even though, UP is the largest sugarcane-producing state in the country it is the second-largest sugar producer in India as drawl and recovery rates in UP are one of the lowest in India.

Sweetness Indian sugar consumption is growing at a CAGR of 3.75 per cent. Since India imports sugar in years of deficit and exports it in years of surplus, the country has to engage in production of raw and refined sugar rather than plantation of white sugar. Change in process technology to produce refined sugar throws up possibilities of producing various types of specialty sugars. In order to bring stability in the sugar industry, it is also essential to ensure proper utilisation of the co-products such as power, anhydrous and hydrous ethanol, among others. The government is seriously considering deregulation of the industry, which is expected to bring changes in the sugar business, both at farm level and at sugar sale or marketing end. Sugar being an essential commodity is highly regulated at present, be it raw material pricing or product sale. 20 per cent of sugar is subsidised by the industry for public distribution system at almost 35 per cent lower than the free sale price. Sugar, unlike commodities like salt, tea and milk, has not been so successful in transition from loose sale to a branded commodity. Branded sugar still has lots of work to do make them a household item despite the long presence of some leading sugar producers like Dhampur Sugars, Triveni Engineering, Simbhaoli Sugars and Mawana Sugars in the branded space. Even for these companies, branded sales account for 1 to 2 per cent of their total sales.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

Recently our editorial team interviewed a few leading companies from sugar business in India. Mawana Sugars Limited (MSL) is one of the largest sugar manufacturers in India and a leading business group with diversified interests in sugar, edible, oils and industrial chemicals. MSL has total crushing capacity of 29,500 TCD. Today MAWANA Sugar is the oldest and largest selling brand and is steadily growing. Apart from branded white sugar, the group has also launched Specialty Sugars In 2010-11. A k Mehra, Whole time Director, Mawana Sugars Limited is one of the most experienced person in the sugar industry in India. When we asked about the future of the branded sugar Mehra Says “There has been very slow growth in the branded sugar segment during the last 15-20 years. Sugar is a price sensitive commodity. However in the last five years there has been marked improvement in sale volumes of branded sugars. Many brands are now available in the market. The total market of branded sugar including all kind of packages and specifications like Crystal Sugar, Sugar in Sachet, Cubes etc was around 1.1Lac ton/year”. Mrehra also added “Besides this, lot of packaging of sugar is being done by large for malted Retailers. Their packed sugar is priced much lower than the price of branded sugar of organized sector producers. However there are some hygiene and quality issues with such packages. There is a boom in the retail segment. Also now a day's people are getting more and more quality and hygiene conscious and with changing consumer's life style it is expected that the branded sugar market will grow at a faster rate”. “We feel that packed sugar will have compounded average growth of 15 per cent in the next 5 years. If the companies are able to rationalize on both packaging and distributions costs then probably the growth rate will be much more” he says. Another leading sugar processing company in the country is Triveni Engineering & Industries Ltd (TEIL) is an industrial conglomerate with

mainstay in Sugar and Engineering. It has seven Sugar units located in U.P namely at Khatauli, Deoband, Ramkola, Sabitgarh, Raninangal, Milaknarayanpur and Chandanpur. For the year ending 2010-11, TEIL's Sugar business achieved an overall turnover of Rs 15366.3 Million. Their Brand Shagun Sugar was launched in the year 2003.This was the maiden initiative of TEIL in FMCG sector. Despite constituting a small percentage of the company's overall sugar business, Shagun has created a loyal and evergrowing customer base for itself. Puneet Rehani is Additional General

Manager ( Sales & Marketing) is one of the important faces of the group who has vast experience of branded Sugar Business. In reply to question about the future of the branded sugar segment Rehani says, “Branded sugar segment is growing consistently and promises tremendous scope of expansion. Consumer awareness and Quality consciousness has set the trend for growth in the segment. Large format stores and retail chains are driving the category growth”. Rehani also adds, “With possible inflow of FDI and other policy initiatives at Macro level, branded sugar segment may double in 5years. Evolution of Packaged/ branded Salt, Tea, Atta, Ghee, Oil, Spices etc has further accelerated the momentum”. Another well known face of the Sugar Segment whom almost all the leading

Sweetness compounded growth in the next five years” when we asked his view about the future of this segment. He said, “There are not many brands in India at the moment selling branded sugar in the retail market. Demand of sugar in packs is increasing” Singhal said. As an skilled marketing fellow Puneet Rehani has four points for those who want to get into this business.

processors not only respect but take advice, Sunil Singhal is the President of Chemical Systems Technologies a New Delhi based company offering technologies to Indian Sugar industry. He started his services in 1986, they have a large portfolio of process technologies mainly related to CLARIFICATION, PURIFICATION, & DECOLOURISATION. They also provide consultancy and turn-key supply of complete sugar plants to the segment. Singhal is very positive about the growth of the Sugar industry he said yes! “As the organised retail increases, the branded sugar market share will keep on increasing. We expect an 80 per cent

a) Economies of scale- Venturing into retail enables organizations leverage the existing resources and customer base established over the years. b) Creating Brand Awareness- It helps in creating a direct connect with the consumers, thereby increasing loyalty and hence market share of the other products of the Company as well. c) Understanding market trendsThrough branded, the sugar mill can also get an insight into the consumers need, in terms of whiteness, size of the crystal etc. This helps in production of even bulk sugar, according to the demand of customers. d) Leading the future- Small size packs are the future of the sugar industry. An early entry into this segment will ensure the Company gain a competitive edge and capitalize in this evolving market On the other hand Singhal sees three


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

opportunities in this segment one, Higher price realisation two, more visibility in the market place and three possibility of brand extension with specialised sugars: Icing, Coffee sugar, Demarara, Cubes, etc. Although Mehra says, “The Sugar industry today is quite vulnerable as its margin already stand squeezed due to high sugar cane prices and comparatively low price of Sugar. Any shift from commodity sugar to branded sugar will improve the viability of sugar manufacturers. Due to changing awareness of the consumers with regard t o t h e h y g i e n e a n d q u a l i t y, manufacturers are now shifting to refined sugar”. He also adds, “While bulk of the sugar move in the commodity form for medium and large scale consumers but proportionate shift to branded sugar for retail consumers is also taking place. This will improve the sustainability of sugar industry”. One more very interesting observer of Sugar industry AVP Sales & Marketing of India's leading packaging Solution Company to Sugar Industry, Nichrome India, R J Rayanade has his views, he said in reply to the same question, “The present system of loose sugar sale has limitation in visibility of the brands to retail consumer. The branding will bring such visibility as it has to offer /assure consistency in quality of the product to customers”. Branding can not only improve the margins of the companies willing to come it the sea of

Sweetness opportunities but also increase in sales is certain due to visibility on shelves. Packaging on any edible grocery item plays a very important role, Rayanade says, “The Sugar brands are getting ready for retail boom & FDI in retail sector. The branded sugar is considered to most hygienically handled product & hence preferred by customers. The value addition thru direct retail selling by sugar factories is seen as major gain in long term for sugar sector”. He also says, “In addition the possible de-control of sugar sector will force sugar factories to set their own retail packaging facilities & marketing set ups. The visionary players from Sugar sector have taken note of this forthcoming change & getting ready to meet challenges sugar decontrol will pose to them. When asked about latest trends in packaging, he said, “The sugar brands are looking for retail friendly pack formats like Centre seal side gusset packs, Four Line seal packs, Penta Seal packs, Flexi-block etc. which offers best aesthetics for shelf display at Retail Stores. The industry is looking for Innovative pack formats to differentiate their brand in the market”. On the other hand Mehra who is already selling his brands in pouches said, “In the recent years pouch packaging has become very popular and convenient in various types of food and consumer products. There is already a retail boom and consumers purchasing habits are changing very rapidly. In Tier I, II & III cities most of the consumers for their household purchases visiting Mega Stores and prefer to pickup pre-packed pouches of various products as it is very convenient for them for selection of any product keeping in view the quality and prices”. Mehra also adds, “Pouch packaging has inherent advantage of convenience as one can touch, see and feel the product which he is buying. This boom is also now spreading in rural areas and therefore the growth of various products including retail sugar will continue to increase as new and new markets and customers joining in this change”. Rehani confirms his marketing skills by producing another list in support of pouch packaging, his five points are, 55

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

a) Purity/ Unadulterated- free from any foreign matter. b) Hygiene- It is Untouched by hand, packed in hygienic conditions c) Easy to handle or carry. d) No Shortage in Weight for the consumer. e) Better sugar quality -in terms of sugar colour and uniform grain size, free from dust etc f) Brand commands higher trust among consumers. This gives another angle to the success of sugar industry, along with its success there is a great opportunity for packaging industry. Demand for such machines is growing in leaps and bounds. Rayanade says, “There are more than 500 Sugar factories from both Co-operative & private put together with more than 40,000 crore annual t u r n o v e r. T h e production by private sugar factories is exceeding 30 per cent of the total annual turnover which are p o t e n t i a l customers who can offer branded sugar to modern r e t a i l ” . He also informs, “Presently more than 30 private factories offer branded sugar to market thru retail chains. The leading brands are Renuka Sugar, EID Parry , Mawana Sugar , Triveni Sugar , Dhampur Sugar

Uttam Sugar , Simbhaoli Sugar , Somayya Sugar , Deccan Sugar , Rana Sugar etc .to name a few”. In addition retail chains like Reliance, More, D Mart, Future Group, Spencers & Sahara are either packing sugar at their facilities or getting their branded sugar packed at private sugar factories”. In addition Nichrome has recently executed its first major project of Branded Retail sugar packaging project for world's largest Sugar factory in Sudan. The project set up comprises complete packaging system including Packing machines for 1 to 10 kg range. Rayanade adds, “The forthcoming suga de-control will force sugar factories to create their own market set ups and brands. This will convert large volume of sugar production to retail /branded sugar”. Singhal also has some very interesting points in favour of pouch packaging as follows, 1. Pre-measured quantity 2. Easy to use 3. No wastage 4. Hygienic 5. Easy to store, dispense 6.

Sweetness Brand/Message/Logo printed on sachet outside. Due to higher income groups demand for ultra refines sugar is also increasing in the country. A K Mehra says in response to the question regarding demand for Ultra refines sugar, “There is a niche market for ultra refined sugar and this is gradually growing. Manufacturers are also creating USP and offering sugar of various variety and forms keeping in view the consumers requirements. Accordingly ultra refined sugar in various forms is being packed and marketed nowadays”. Mawana Sugars originally a player in the North India has last year launched premium branded sugar in the Mumbai market and has already gone PAN INDIA with their specialty Sugar brand – 'Mawana Select' and is now offering variety of specialty sugar such as Super White Sugar, Demerara Sugar, Icing Sugar, White Sugar Cubes and Demerara Sugar cubes. This provides strength in market to sustain the brand on a continuous basis. Mehra added, “The market is now steadily growing for these high purity specialty sugars and we are expecting 25 -30 per cent growth in this segment. Mawana has the capability of producing high purity sugar comparable to the best in the world”. Puneet Rehani is very optimist about the growth of this segment within the sugar industry. He said in reply to same query, “Refined sugar is the need of the present and future. Refined sugar leads to specialty sugar products such as sugar cubes (white and brown), sachets, mineral sugar, breakfast sugar, icing sugar, candy sugar, Demerara sugar and others. These specialty sugar varieties offer significant merit to consumers in terms of taste, usage and packaging”. Specialty sugar segment can be broadly classified into retail, food and beverage, pharma and candy bulk. Therefore, there is huge potential for specialty sugar depending on how well one offers and promotes the packs. Rayanade also see growth for this subsegment he adds, “The use of refined sugar by food, Beverage & pharmaceutical Industry is on rise. This has helped in substantial increment in 56

Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

refined sugar production. The globalization, increased competition, aggressive procurement pricing etc. will force sugar Industry to bring faster changes. Sunil Singhal being a technologist has very interesting point for our readers in his views there is nothing called Ultrarefined sugar. Either it is Refined or not refined. Refined sugar has generally two standard specifications that each has s o m e 2 6 p a r a m e t e r s . The commonest grade is the EU I Grade, and its best known parameter is colour less than 45 I.U. As stated above, it still has to meet some 25 other parameters. He informed, EU II Grade colour is defined as less than 22.5 I.U. Sugar has also been a victim of very fluctuating pricing. In the past it broken all the records and gave overnight success to the sugar companies. Stocks of sugar companies touched all time high peaks. We asked a common question to all. Do you think branded sugar availability would help in stopping sudden inflation in the rates of Sugar in the retail market and also a favorable option for consumers? Mehra replied, “The relationship between commodity prices and retail prices follow a simultaneous feedback loop. Although in short term the retail price changes lag commodity prices change but if the volatility persist in the long run they can drive the commodity price changes as well. Also when there is inflation the speculative forces

notionally drive the prices creating short term volatility in the market”. He also said, “Availability of sugar as a branded packing will provide greater stability to the price for the end consumers and in case the buoyancy in branded sugar catch up with the retail boom the sugar industry will also feel more stable and will be able to tide over fluctuations in the commodity markets”. This time Puneet Rehani was not so optimist he said, “Sugar price depends on varied factors like total availability of sugar cane, quantity of sugar production, Government policies , Market sentiments etc. So it is unlikely that the availability of branded sugar would have any major impact on inflation in rates of sugar”. Sunil Singhal echo's Rehani but in different words, “Sugar is a commodity hence price volatility in the market will get reflected at the retail level” he said. But Rayanade on the other hand is takes a mid-path, “The farm to fork is mantra of modern retail. The branding of sugar will evolve stable pricing policy. The current dynamic pricing method followed in the Industry resulting in wide price fluctuations”. Over all scenario looks good yet challenging for the sugar industry. Two well knows brands of the country are optimist about their moves in branded culture. Technologists are busy in installations and packers with handful of orders for high speed FFS machines.


Oil & Food Journal Oct 2012

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Oct 2012

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Oil & Food Journal Sep 2012

Oil & Food Journal Oct'12  

India's first magazine on Oil & Food Industries

Oil & Food Journal Oct'12  

India's first magazine on Oil & Food Industries