www.advancedge.com EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Kamlesh Sajnani
EDITOR Rohit Pithauria
The race to the CAT’s ﬁnishing line has begun. The competitors are as ready as you are. But the unﬂinching determination, the pumping adrenaline, and thumping preparation add to your CAT aspirations. Remember that success does not come easy, and CAT is a game of
percentile, this means you have to wrest the win from someone else’s clutch.
Many give up, but not you! You know better! All you need to do is cleave all the
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fears, believe in yourself, and stay resolute. The Cover Story ‘Last Lap To CAT’ teaches you how to adopt a disciplined and strategic approach to preparations. It explicates how to succeed in CAT, smart approach to questions in each section, traps to avoid, and much more. In an interview to Advanc’edge, the CAT 2012 Convenor assures that there are no surprises this year and the two sections and timing remain exactly like last year. Prometric India Managing Director advises candidates to go through the practice test on www.catiim.in carefully to get familiarised with the screens, layout, and navigation.
The September Issue presents you an interview with the wizard of Marketing HEAD - PUBLICATIONS Anand Sutaria
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Advanc’edge MBA, IMS Publications, A Division of IMS Learning Resources Pvt. Ltd., E Block, 6th Floor, NCL Bandra Premises, Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (E), Mumbai - 400 051.
CONTRIBUTORS Vinayak Kudva, Tony Xavier,
and co-author of the globally-revered Marketing Management — Kevin Lane Keller. He talks about his passion of marketing, what the world of marketing is like today and how to ﬁnd success in the domain. Sector Scope talks about a career in FMCG and suggests the institutes for the sector based on the placement charts. Career Watch details the nuances of Sports Management and the avenues for sure-ﬁre success. Also, Advanc’edge offers you interviews with IRMA Director, and ApnaCircle.com CEO. I hope you make the most of the information and embark on a ﬂourishing journey.
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Advanc’edge MBA March 2011 1
Contents Contents First Step COVER STORY Last Lap To CAT
| Ticket To IIMs
| CAT Experience
September 2012 www.advancedge.com March 2011
| Understanding, Managing Time By David Allen
Debabrata Nag, IIM-A
Mishaal Sarawgi, IIM-B
| The CAT Approach
Career Watch Be A Sport
Director Speak Prof. Jeemol Unni Director, IRMA Deepak Chaube, IIM-C
MBA Buzz CAT Speak 2012
Vineet Singh, IIM-A
Sector Scope Tread Fast
SSS Kumar, CAT Convenor
Corporate Speak Yogesh Bansal
Success Street Soumitra Roy, MD, Prometric India
Hallowed Be Thy Name: Kevin Keller
Study Hour WORD DOSE Atlas Shrugged
Disclaimer : The views expressed in the articles by contributors and others are not necessarily those of the Publishers, unless speciﬁcally stated therein. While no effort is spared in ensuring the accuracy of the information published herein, readers are advised to reconﬁrm the current facts before acting upon any such information. The Publishers regret their inability to accept responsibility for any inadvertent errors of commission or omission in this issue. Readers are recommended to make appropriate inquiries before incurring expenses or entering into commitments in relation to any advertisement appearing in this publication. The publishers do not vouch for any claims made by the advertisers of any products or services. The Publisher, Printers or Editor shall not be held liable for any consequences in the event of such claims not being honoured by the advertisers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, in any form or means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without prior permission from the publisher.
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Cover Story FIRST STEP
Last Lap To CAT To succeed in the CAT, you’ll have to leverage your strengths, remedy your weaknesses and formulate a smart strategy to approach the test. Vinayak Kudva Head-Products, IMS
he most important thing is not to lose heart or feel that it’s just too late. There have been others in your position and they have made it to the top through sheer focus and determination, and more significantly, through a strategic and disciplined approach to achieving set targets. Read on to find out how you should go about formulating your strategy for the final lap of your preparation.
What Does The CAT Test You On?
The CAT is a test designed to filter out the “potential manager” from a huge populace. Around 2 lakh students appeared for CAT 2011 and a more or less similar number is expected to take CAT this year. While the CAT has been known for changing almost every year in terms of its structure, this year the IIMs have announced a similar structure to last year’s. Accordingly, CAT will continue to be a 60 question, 140 minute test with equal number of questions across two sections: Quantitative Ability & Data Interpretation and Logical Reasoning & Verbal Ability. Further, the test places sectional time limits to ensure that the test-taker cannot spend more than 70 minutes on each section. The test will continue to have negative marking for incorrect responses, thereby placing a premium on accuracy. While the test has metamorphosed into a computer-based interface and the www.advancedge.com
sanctity of a single date has stretched to a 21-day window, the objective of the test remains intact – to identify candidates who have a potential and aptitude for management. What you need to appreciate is the fact that the test is not just a measure of your mathematical and English language skills, but also a reflector of your management quotient.
Deﬁning Success In The CAT
Success in the CAT can be defined as the achievement of percentile required to get into your desired list of B-schools. The first step, therefore, would be to find out the cut-off percentiles of various institutes that you are interested in applying to. Based on the past data, we have observed that while a 95+ overall percentile (with equal competence across sections) can get you into the IIMs, you would need
at least a 75+ overall percentile to get into some of the top 100 B-schools in the country. It is therefore imperative that you define your success benchmark by first shortlisting the B-schools that you aspire to join.
How Do You Succeed In The CAT?
Once you have defined your success benchmark, you should follow an effective and efficient study plan from here on to ensure that you meet your target CAT percentile. Based on the data collected from past CATs and IMS SimCATs, we have an analysis of the number of questions students must attempt and get correct to achieve certain percentiles. The objective is to reach your target percentiles in a step-wise manner by achieving the benchmark attempts and number of correct answers at each stage as per the table. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
FIRST STEP Cover Story Percentile Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
75%ile 85%ile 95%ile 99%ile
Sectional Benchmarks # Questions # Attempts # Correct 30 30 30 30
The first step, therefore, is to identify your current level of performance by taking a simulated CAT in a proctored environment or at home. After taking the test, analyse your performance to identify where you stand with respect to the table. The remaining time from now until your actual test must be equally divided to improve your performance from one stage to the next. So, if you are at Stage 1 (i.e. at 75 %ile), then the remaining period should be divided equally to ensure that you reach Stage 4 before taking your test. Within each period, target to achieve the stated benchmarks of the next stage by:
12 15 18 24
10 13 15 20
Minutes Per Q 5.4 4.3 3.6 2.7
1. Working on your conceptual and application skills and 2. Fine-tuning your test-taking skills. At the end of each period, take another simulated test and check your sectional performance. If your attempt and accuracy are greater than or equal to the benchmarked percentile, you are ready to move on to the next stage. If on the other hand your attempts and accuracy are less than the benchmarked percentile, then analyse the test to find out where you need improvement. Use the explanatory answers provided to you with each test to aid this improvement.
How Many Tests Should You Take In The Last Month?
To achieve your target we suggest you take 1 test per week (or a maximum of 2 tests per week), especially if you are a working professional. For every test you take, as per the table, you will attempt only the specified number of questions to ascertain your performance. Now for the post-test analysis and the process of improvement: Work on the questions that you got wrong, this is very important as you had more time per question. It means either an error of comprehension or a conceptual issue. Next, pick the questions you did not attempt, and solve these questions without a time limit. Once again, this exercise will point out areas for improvement. Doing this process for each test will definitely improve your performance in the next. To summarise, we recommend that you should take not more than 6 simulated tests in the last 45 days. But more important than taking the test is its analysis. If you don’t learn from each test before proceeding to the next, there is no point in taking a large number of them. Try out various strategies for each test, such as dividing your time equally in each section or spending more time on the weaker sections and working quickly in the stronger sections. It is also important to attempt a variety of tests because you may score well in a test that is more suited to your strengths while the CAT may carry more questions of the kind you are uncomfortable with. An exposure to a range of problems and the rationale behind them will ensure that you are better prepared.
What Exactly Do We Do When We Analyse A Test?
By now, you would have evolved as a “test taker” with certain identified strengths and weaknesses. With the CAT just around the corner, you need to manage both your strengths and weaknesses. Starting with the strengths, the first thing you need to do is to understand whether you have consistently done well in these areas to label them as strengths or is your performance purely incidental?
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Cover Story FIRST STEP In case of the first eventuality, the next point to address is whether these areas emerged as strengths in a fair distribution of time across all sections/ areas of the test or due to significantly more time allocated to these areas? If it is the first case, then it is infallibly a strength; you need to sustain the tempo and ensure that it stays as a cash cow for you. If it is the second case, you need to ensure that the same performance is upheld in a certain desirable time frame. E.g. A student faring better in data interpretation than quantitative ability cannot brand DI as his/her strength if the higher score in DI is at the expense of not devoting sufficient time to Quant questions. In case of the second eventuality, that is, when your performance in the so-called “strong areas” is a consequence of random flukes, you have to immediately stop cheating yourself, categorise it as a weakness and revamp your approach vis-à-vis these areas. Coming to weaknesses, you need to understand the core reasons for not doing well in these areas, wherein the following have been identified as the most common ones, with their corresponding remedies:l Inherent dislike for these areas, due to which students start ignoring them. For example, most of the students have a natural antipathy towards permutations and combinations and they start shying away from questions from this topic; consequently, even the easier questions get overlooked on that day and this adds to the opportunity cost. You need to prepare all topics/areas of the test; which ones you finally respond to or attempt would be a function of multiple variables. l Not being able to spend adequate time on these areas, due to which your performance gets marred. You need to apportion judicious time to all sections of the test. Placing the sections appropriately along the time curve is a skill you need to master. The sequence of attempting different sections will vary from one test taker to another and equilibrium will evolve only over a period of time. l Incorrect prioritisation and selection of questions due to which you end up picking “wrong” questions on that day. You need to be more vigilant and understand that wrong picks can www.advancedge.com
The objective is to reach your target percentiles in a step-wise manner by achieving the benchmark attempts and number of correct answers at each stage.
rattle even the best of students! While selecting questions, the following points need to be factored in:Do not pick questions only because they are shorter than their bulkier counterparts. Shorter questions are not necessarily easier and vice versa. Do not pick questions only because they are from apparently simpler topics. For e.g, students typically prefer questions on arithmetic and algebra as compared to geometry and modern math. Please ensure that you exhaust all ends of the section while selecting questions. Starting off in a sequence and not being able to reach the fag end of the section because of dearth of time may keep you away from potential picks. Conceptual flaws and loopholes in these areas, whereby they assume the proportions of “weaknesses”. This requires an immediate attention to fundamentals and revisiting concepts. Unless you have the requisite conceptual clarity, application of these concepts would be a far-fetched expression!
How Much Time Should You Spend On Studying For The CAT Everyday? Ideally, you shouldn’t spend more than four hours a day on studying for the CAT. The manner in which those four hours are utilised depends on the individual’s strengths and weaknesses. Some may prefer to spend more time on verbal while others on DI. Ultimately, you must ensure that your progress in
each section is equal. This holds greater relevance if you are aiming only at the IIMs because at these institutes, cutoffs matter. Organise your day in such a way that the hours spent studying are those when your brain is most alert. Working professionals, for example, shouldn’t study at night after a hard day’s work. Preparing for this test is not like preparing for school and college, where you need to spend long hours memorising.
Should You Leave Out Topics That You Find Too Tough?
Students usually find topics such as Modern Math tough, but you must remember that Modern Math questions in the CAT are not always tough nor are Arithmetic questions always easy. Your aim is to maximise your score in all sections, you can do that by solving all the easy questions. The earlier CATs had a greater number of questions so you could probably afford to leave out certain topics. But today, with 30 questions to a section, you cannot afford to leave questions out. If you leave out Modern Math entirely, you have narrowed your selection to only the easy questions in Arithmetic and Algebra. How do you maximise your score then? In one of the IMS SimCATs, a student left a question based on playing cards because he felt it involved permutations and combinations. When he looked at the problem later, it turned out to be a simple linear equations question. So, read problems properly before leaving them, they might be ‘sitters’.
Does Analysing A Test With A Group Of Friends Help? Taking a test with a group of friends is immensely beneficial because people tend to complement each other’s strengths and weaknesses. With say four friends, you will have four different approaches to solving a problem. When you analyse a test by yourself, you will probably come up with time-saving approaches for about 5-6 problems because one person can come up with a limited number of perspectives. With a group, however, you can be assured of multiple approaches to a problem. For example, some questions may not require you to use calculations and someone else might see that while it may not strike you. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
FIRST STEP Cover Story
The CAT Approach The countdown to CAT 2012 has begun and the outcome is precariously balanced on how diligently and smartly you go about your preparations. Tony Xavier Head-Academics, IMS
ince the CAT introduced sectional time limit last year, it has become more a test of skill than of strategy. You can no longer afford to maximise your strengths since you now have to spend an equal amount of time on both sections. In effect, the CAT now forces you to demonstrate equal competence in both sections. There are about six weeks left to the CAT and there is still time for you to take your skill sets to the next level.
Don’t Judge A Problem By The Topic
Most test-takers make the mistake of leaving questions just because they don’t like the topic; Geometry for one is something most test-takers love to hate, not to mention anything that has an f(x) or log or ! in it; it goes without saying that for many, Numbers, P & C and Probability can only be solved by a geek and not by any regular candidate. Therefore, what the average test-taker is left with are Arithmetic and Algebra, and within the latter, Inequalities and Quadratics are not exactly topics that arouse interest in Math. So, basically you are left with very little to solve. Let us look at a SimCAT problem from this year that 3 out of 5 test-takers did not even attempt. This problem is based on a CAT question we encountered last year. If 4m2, mlogn(2m+1-7) and [logn(2m-5)]2 are positive and are in geometric progression, then the value of m is equal to (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 Those who thought of this simple one-liner problem as a “log” problem gave away 3 marks just like that. If a, b, c are in G.P, it means that each term is obtained by multiplying the previous term by a constant factor or b/ a=c/b or b2 = ac m2[logn(2m+1-7)]2=4m2.[logn(2m-5)]2 Taking the square root on both sides and cancelling out common terms, logn(2m+1-7)] = 2[logn(2m-5)]. Now substitute options to see which one satisfies the equation! The first thing to do is to start evaluating a problem irrespective of the topic to which the problem belongs. Unless you do this, you are not even giving yourself a chance to clear the cut-off.
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Don’t Solve Straight Away; First Decide — To Solve Or Not To Solve
Do not solve a section one question at a time. The objective is to ensure that you solve every easy question in a section. This means that you should not get stuck at questions. So, before solving you have to evaluate whether it makes sense to solve that question immediately, mark it and come back later, or leave it altogether. When you evaluate a question, you should be able to classify it as Easy, Medium or Difficult. Your task is to solve all the Easy and some of the Medium questions in the first round of solving and then come back, if there is time, to solve the remaining Medium questions.
Read The Final Part Of The Question Precisely
Do not proceed to start solving without fully paying attention to what the question is asking you to determine or solve. You might realise that problem can be solved faster by substituting answer options instead of trying to calculate the answer.
Data Interpretation (DI) questions are your best scoring bets in the QA-DI section, especially the ones that do not involve any deduction (like filling up empty tables, etc.) and are based purely on understanding the set and calculating precisely. At their toughest, they involve interpreting the meaning of the data given. But even then they offer a good value for time spent, since there is a very high chance of getting them correct. The set given below is a good example of such a set. Given below is the data for the number of Motor Vehicles in 3 countries X, Y and Z as on 31st December 2001 and 31st December 2011 Number of Motor Vehicles 31st December 2001 31st December 2011 Country Per square Per 1000 Per square Per 1000 mile population kilometer population X 108.6 181 48 208 Y 60 240 25 270 Z 54 120 30 156 1 square mile =2.6 square kilometers 1. Which of the following countries witnessed a decline in its population? www.advancedge.com
Cover Story FIRST STEP (1) X
(3) Both X & Z (4) Both Y & Z
2. What is the percentage change in the population of Country Z from 31st December 2001 to 31st December 2011? (1) 10% (2)-10% (3) 11.11% (4) -11.11% 3. If the area of Country X is somewhere between 95000 -100000 square miles, then its population on 31st December 2011 would have been somewhere in between : (1)15-20 million (2)35 -40 million (3)55-60 million (4)Cannot be determined This set was a part of a recent SimCAT and less than one in three test-takers attempted all the 3 questions and overall only 1 in 10 test-takers answered the whole set correctly. Was the set really that tough? Lets us have a look. For two years, 2001 and 2011, the table gives the following two stats for 3 countries: A. Number of motor vehicles per square mile B. Number of motor vehicles per 1000 people The first thing to do is to understand what these stats mean. A. Number of motor vehicles/Total area of the country in square miles B. (Number of motor vehicles/Total population of the country)*1000 The first two questions are related to the population of these countries. Given the above two stats, one should be able to somehow calculate the population. Otherwise, the question will not make any sense! Even going by a very, very layman approach, we can figure that there is no point adding or subtracting these fractions. Since one term is common to both, dividing seems to be the best option. If we divide A by B, we will get (Total population of the country/Total area of the country in square miles)*1000 1. Which of the following countries had a decline in population? Since the area of a country is constant, any change in the value of A/B should be due to the change in population. The only catch is that for the year 2011, A is given per square kilometer. So, you have to first convert it into per square mile. Since the conversion value given shows that a square mile is greater than a square kilometer, it is clear that there will be more people per square mile than per kilometer. So, all you need to do to convert is to multiply the A values of 2011 by 2.6. Now instead of directly calculating the A/B values for all three countries, it is better to look at the options. Two of them have Z, so it is better to first check if the A/B value for Z has decreased. The division might seem painful, but is it? A/B values for Z: 2001 – 54*1000/120 = 5400/12 2011 – 30*2.6*1000/156 = 78*1000/156 = 1000/2 = 500 www.advancedge.com
The 2001 value will be lower than 500 since 12*5 is 60 and the numerator is only 54. So, in the case of Z the population has increased. So, two of the options are ruled out and it is either X or Y and you need to calculate A/B for only one of them. It is better to choose Y since the values seem easy to calculate. 2001 – 60*1000/240 = 1000/4 = 250 2011 ¬– 25*2.6*1000/270 = 65*1000/270 65*4 is 260, so 270/65 will be greater than 4 and hence the 2011 value will be less than 250. Hence, for Y there is a decrease in the value of A/B and the answer is Y. The key to solving such questions is to know when to calculate precisely and when to approximate. 2. What is the percentage change in the population of Country Z? From the previous problem, we know that for Z there has been an increase. Therefore, the negative options are ruled out. From the previous question, for Z the 2011 value of A/B is 500. We had only approximated the value for 2001. For this problem, you would need to calculate precisely. 2001 – 54*1000/120 = 5400/12 = 450 2011 = 500 The increase is 50. The two options left for percentage increase in 2011 over 2001 are 10 and 11.11%. 10% of 450 is 45 (just moving one digit to the left of 450). So 50 will be greater than 10%, hence 11.11%. 3. What is range of the population of X in 2001, if its area is between 95000 and 100000 square miles? For X, A/B = 108.6*1000/181~108*1000/180 = 12*1000*/20 = 600 and 600 = Total population of the country/Total area of the country in sq. miles To find the range of population you need to plug in the lower and upper values of the range of area given. 600 = Total population of the country/95000 600 = Total population of the country/100000 Total population of the country= 600*95000 ~ 57000000 Total population of the country= 600*100000 ~ 60000000 This was a set that tested all the aspects of DI:
Still, it can be seen that it was possible to score 9 marks by devoting around 12-15 minutes to it. Not bad when you consider that the cut-off was just 16! The key to getting better at solving DI sets is to understand that DI does not just mean painful number crunching. That Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
FIRST STEP Cover Story
would mean going at the problem with a hammer. You need to develop the ability to determine when to calculate and when to approximate. While the CAT is now just a 60-question test, the skills of fast calculation that were indispensible when it was a 150 to 200 questions test will still come in handy. A few things imperative to know for fast calculation: 1. Powers of 2 till 12 and 3 till 6 2. Squares of numbers from 2 to 30 3. Cubes of numbers from 2 to 12 4. Reciprocals of numbers 1 to 12 5. Calculating without multiplying
Tackling Reading Comprehension Passage First, Questions Next Reading Comprehension (RC) passages are no longer long affairs. They are not more than 600 words long and you have plenty of time. So, DO NOT read the questions first. Unknowingly, you will not be reading the entire passage, but only trying to find the content relevant to answering the question. The result is a fractured understanding of the passage. Vary Your Reading Speed You cannot read the entire passage at the same intensity. The amount of mental energy you spend should depend upon the density of the text. Start at a medium reading speed. Increase or decrease depending upon the content of the text. Anticipate Questions Really good test-takers know to differentiate between key ideas and secondary ideas. You should be registering main ideas as you read. The moment you can do this, you will be able to identify the parts of the passage from where questions are most likely to come.
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Avoid Traps Many a time, test-takers end up getting caught between two options because they fall for the option which is correct as per the passage and not the one that answers the question. So ensure that the option you are considering is not just correct as per the passage but is answering the specific question posed. Approaching Verbal Ability Test-takers have a tendency to take more guesses in the Verbal Ability (VA) section. What makes them do this is still a mystery; it is as if when they approach the VA section they start relying more on their gut rather than their brain. Just because you spend one minute reading a question does not mean that you have to somehow mark an answer. Also, it makes a lot of sense to be open with your VA strategy. For example, there is no rule that says you MUST complete the theme. Good test-taking is as much about avoiding negatives as it is about scoring. Even when you are caught just between two options, there is only a 50% chance of getting it right. So when you are finding it really difficult to zero in on an answer to a VA question, do not guess, since the odds are not in favour of you getting it right. Also, remember that intelligent guessing is possible only in QA not in VA.
Logical Reasoning is an area that essentially cannot be taught or learnt. But there are a few things that can help you approach it better, things that can help you get to the answer faster.
Avoid A Pavlovian Response
Don’t rush to draw a table or represent the information as soon as you start reading the passage. It is the test-takers’ equivalent of a Pavlovian response.
Avoid Redundant Scribbling
Read the information and figure out the best way to represent the information. This will help you avoid the redundancy of redrawing the information after reading the whole set.
Keep Going Back To The Conditions
After representing the initial information, you will be left with a half-full table or matrix. Go back to the conditions and try to draw deductions from each of them. Whenever you are stuck at one of the questions in the set, go back to the conditions, especially the condition or sub-condition you have spent least time on. Remember, you cannot keep doing the same things and expect different results. So incorporate the approaches outlined above and you will definitely see an improvement in your scores. www.advancedge.com
CAT Speak 2012
The CAT 2012 convenor, an IIM-Kozhikode professor, and the MD of Prometric, the agency conducting the CAT, offer their views on the CAT.
No Surprises This Year: Convenor A candidate who does well in other tests expects scores to match with what he thinks is his standard performance. But the fact is that there are others who scored better than him, and that needs to be understood and accepted. How marks are given needs to be explained. By the end of my tenure, I plan to prepare a document that actually states the connection between scoring and the merit of the answers.
Convenor, CAT 2012 Professor, Finance, Accounting, Control, IIM-K
How many registrations are you expecting this year?
It isn’t possible to put a figure to that. However, the number of candidates appearing for the CAT has stabilised, and I believe it won’t fluctuate drastically.
In case there are any errors in the questions, how will Why is CAT scheduled earlier this year as compared that be addressed? Every question is checked and double-checked thoroughly to previous years? before they are approved for the question paper. Even after all this, if we get thousands of candidates saying that a question or a set of questions is wrong, we will get it checked from proper agencies. If there is any doubt, we give the benefit of the doubt to the candidates, because the candidate is always the utmost priority for us. It is absurd and wrong to claim that we want to purposely give wrong questions to make things difficult.
Some students complain that the CAT results are somewhat arbitrary. They say that while they have consistently performed well in other competitive exams, they haven’t in the CAT, and that the CAT results don’t reflect the actual potential. What is your take on this? I cannot comment directly on this. It is relative to every person appearing for the test. It’s true that at the moment, some candidates can’t connect their performance with their actual scores. But they have to know how the marking system works.
Every year, the dates for CAT often clash with many festivals, such as Dusherra, Diwali and Eid. This year, we tried to keep as many festivals out of the exam season so that candidates can revise without any distraction.
Might the students expect any surprises in CAT 2012?
Actually, the biggest surprise might be that there are no surprises in CAT this year. Some significant changes were made last year, so we should give these changes time to settle.
Any message for those appearing for CAT 2012?
There is a lack of understanding of CAT amongst many. People need to be more aware of what CAT is. Read everything that is given on the registration page online thoroughly. Make sure you’ve done your homework before appearing for the test. There are no shortcuts to success; hard work and diligence are always rewarded. But most importantly, especially for the CAT, keep your cool.
We’re Well Prepared: Prometric Last year’s CAT administration as well as scoring went smoothly. Your comments.
We are pleased that the CAT administration went smoothly last year and we plan to follow the protocols that enabled us to achieve that success, and provide the best possible testing experience for candidates again this year.
Managing Director Prometric India www.advancedge.com
What are the measures that Prometric will take this year to ensure a smooth CAT? CAT has been very successfully conducted for the past few years. Our success rate for computer-based testing (CBT) Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
MBA BUZZ is unparalleled in the industry. We hope to continue on our trail of success in 2012. As in previous years, test centres with the required physical and technical infrastructure have been chosen. We will quarantine all test centres before we begin technical readiness and extensive operational trials that include preparing and testing all the computers that will be used to conduct CAT 2012. Training and certification of all test centre staff will be completed before the start of the testing window to ensure they are well equipped to assist candidates during the test. We have also built in contingent capacity in all locations to cater to any unforeseen technical issues that cannot be resolved immediately. Prometric remains committed, and we will ensure that all registered CAT 2012 candidates will be given the opportunity to test within this year’s testing window.
Around a month of registration for CAT 2012 have already passed. What is the update on the registration process? Are there any particular trends emerging from the registration? The registrations process has been going on smoothly and the response so far reflects that management is still a soughtafter career choice by young Indians. The final registration figures will be revealed only after the completion of the entire process.
Are you expecting a rise in the number of registrations?
We saw a slight increase in the number of registrations in 2011, and hope this trend will continue this year. CAT remains a highly prestigious exam and is the first step towards gaining admission to the 13 IIMs or over 130 other B-schools in India. With a likely upturn in our economy over the next few years, candidates who take the CAT this year may graduate in time to see that.
What is the scoring process for CAT 2012?
The CAT test development process was conducted in alignment with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, jointly developed by the American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), and National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). Prometric employs an industry-standard, psychometrically-sound approach to the scoring process which is outlined here: Step one: Raw scores are first calculated. These are derived by
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
awarding three points for each correct answer, and deducting one point for each incorrect answer. There is no penalty for omitted answers. Step two: These raw scores are then adjusted for variances in difficulty levels across the different test forms through an equating process. Each form contains a pre-defined number of statistically profiled questions selected from a large bank. Known as equating blocks, these have been designed to be equivalent based on their statistical properties, and allow us to measure how candidates taking different forms compare against each other when asked the same question. By looking at the performance of these equating blocks, we can adjust each candidate’s raw score and provide each candidate with the score they would have earned had each candidate taken the exact same form, at the exact same time. Step three: The equated scores are then placed on a common scale. Scaling creates a range of scores which can be used to create a percentile rank for the test as a whole, and for each section.
Last year, there were several complaints about the ID policy that caused candidates to be turned away at the test centre. How will you address the issue this year?
In order to protect the integrity of the CAT programme, Prometric implements a strict identity validation process on behalf of the IIMs. Prior to the biometric check-in process which includes the capture of a candidate’s digital image and fingerprint, an original and valid photo identification needs to be produced by every candidate. As with previous years, the list of approved identification types is communicated clearly on the CAT website, as well as on the admit cards that all registered candidates receive by email. The checkin process and ID policy remains the same this year and we urge all candidates to read their admit card carefully and also check the CAT website. If in doubt, candidates may bring a notarised affidavit (in English) with photo, signature, date of birth and residential address.
What is the purpose of the NDA?
The Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) has been instituted to protect the intellectual property of the IIMs, as well as the test experience of genuine, legitimate candidates. Every candidate should get a fair testing experience and no student should have an undue advantage going into the testing centre.
Any other information you would like to share with us?
Candidates are advised to register early to get their preferred choice of location, date and time. Voucher sales end on September 17 and online registration closes on September 19. Also, a 15-minute tutorial will be provided before the start of the test, and candidates are advised to go through that carefully before starting the main examination. The total duration will be two hours and 35 minutes, including the tutorial. A practice test to provide candidates with a feel of the timed sections, as well as navigation and functionality of the actual test is available on the CAT website www.catiim.in. Once again, candidates are advised to go though it carefully to familiarise themselves with the screens, layout, and navigation. www.advancedge.com
Ticket To IIMs
Getting into any of the IIMs is not only about how high your CAT score is. Having the right profile is just as important. Here is how to go about it. Puja Shah
sk any postgraduate student which is the toughest exam they have written and most of them will promptly reply – CAT. The CAT is an entrance test that is mandatory for admissions into any of the IIMs and also some other top B-schools in India. It is arguably one of the most difficult entrance exams in the world, therefore, most people would be excused for thinking that getting a good CAT score guarantees an IIM admission. But that is not so. In the last couple of years, the admission process of the IIMs has inevitably evolved, taking into account many more parameters than just the CAT score. This leads us to the paramount question – why was the change inevitable? The change came about gradually, when Indian B-schools recognised that if they were to compete with international B-schools, then they would have to tweak their admission procedure, wherein admission essays, extra-curricular activities and your school grades are given equal importance to the entrance exam
Women On Board
scores. Vis-à-vis came the realisation that recruiters look for the entire package in a prospective employee. They not just want good grades but also expect the graduate to be streetsmart, knowledgeable, not just about their industry but also the market environment, and have excellent communication skills. After understanding the reason for the CAT score not being the only criteria for admission, comes the next logical question – How do I make my profile IIM-worthy or how do I make
Recently, the IIMs have taken initiatives to include more women candidates. They have started taking into account the past academic records. This is an advantage for women students, because, generally, it has been noted that women perform well at the board exams. Also, IIM-C has introduced the written analysis test followed by a discussion, since it was found that women feel a little intimidated during the GD sessions. l Compared to the last year, IIM-Calcutta has had an increase of 4% in the number of women students this year. l 17% of students at the IIM-Ahmedabad are women this year, compared to 11% last year. l At IIM-Lucknow, there has been a 150% hike in the number of women students in the 2012-14 batch, compared to the 2011-13 batch. l IIM-Kozhikode has 28% women students in their current batch. l IIM-Bangalore has seen women students’ percentage go up by 17% this year from the last year.
myself “place-able”? Firstly, think about the reason you want to do an MBA. This is the question most B-schools will ask during the personal interview or through the essays. Therefore, it is very important that you think clearly about your goals, what you want to achieve after doing the MBA, and which field you want to work in. If you are not sure, then talk it out with a counsellor or B-school alumni. If you say that you want to be an entrepreneur, then do some research, have a plan, and be prepared to answer basic questions about your goal. Typically, the admissions committee will want an aspiring entrepreneur to talk about their idea and the ways to scale it. And during interviews, remember, intent matters more than ideas, so it is imperative that sincerity and commitment to the cause comes across. Secondly, if you want to build your profile, there are loads of certificate courses in Finance, IT, Operations, etc. For marketing, you can try to gain experience in a firm’s marketing research and sales divisions. Work, even if it is for a short period of time. It helps build Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
MBA BUZZ your résumé. The easiest way to learn is to talk to people who are working in the industry and ask them if you can assist them. Previous work experience will also help in getting you a good placement. Most recruiters would prefer employing students who have some work experience, especially if it is in the same sector.
Lastly, get into extra-curricular activities. Be it in school, college or classes make sure you have done other things besides academics. Though extra-curricular activities are not taken into account during the admission process, it makes you confident and gives an impression of having an all-round development.
That being said, the initial shortlisting for any IIM is done on the CAT score. This score is always given the most weightage in any IIM admission process, since it is an exam that is used to establish the minimum level of proficiency that is expected in a student who wants to study at the IIM.
Admission Criteria IIM Ahmedabad
Source: http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/users/admission/files/ Short%20listing%20Criteria%20for%20PGP%202012-14.pdf
Source:http://www.iimb.ernet.in/sites/default/files/u181/PGP% 20Admission%20Process%20for%20IIMB%20Batch%20of% 202012%20Updated%20l_0.pdf
The initial screening for IIM Indore is done on the CAT score. The overall cut-off for CAT is 90 percentile and that of the sections is 85 percentile. For the second screening, the CAT sectional scores and previous academic performance is taken into account. Quantitative Ability and Data Interpretation is awarded 20, and Verbal Ability and Logical Reasoning is given 30. The rest 45% is judged on your Xth, XIIth and bachelors degree performance, and the 5% is awarded for professional diversity. The weightage given to these factors is as follows: CAT 2011 Section 1 (20%) + CAT 2011 Section 2 (30%) + Class X (15%) + Class XII (15%) + Bachelor’s Degree (15%) + Professional Diversity (5%).
IIM Lucknow goes about the admission process in two stages. The first stage is given a weightage of 50 where a candidate is shortlisted on the basis of CAT score, class X, XII and graduation marks, work experience, diversity factor of academic discipline, and gender. The overall CAT cut-off is 90 percentile and the sectional cut-off is 85 percentile. The weightage given to CAT scores is 38. For the scores of X and XII marks, the weightage is 1 each. The graduation marks and diversity factor of academic discipline weightage is 3 each. The weightage for work experience and gender diversity factor is 2 each. The total shortlist weightage is 50. The second stage is the WAT, GD and the PI. The weightage given to GD and WAT is 10 each, whereas for the PI it is 30.
Source: http://www.iimidr.ac.in/iimi/media/pdf/admissions/ WAT%20and%20PI%20Shorlisting%20Procedure.pdf
Source: http://www.iiml.ac.in/policy_lucknow.pdf? PHPSESSID=102a39d063657f6e2c7e0b5d1485daf5
To get into IIM Ahmedabad, your CAT score must be above 99 percentile. IIM Ahmedabad also takes into consideration work experience, and the marks obtained in class X, XII, bachelor’s and master’s degree exams. CAT scores will get 70 percent weightage and 30 percent will be given to the Application Rating Score. Exam results below 60 percent will get a Rating Score of 1, scores between 60 to 80 per cent will get a Rating Score of 2 and those beyond 80 will get a Rating Score of 3. Work experience of less than a year gets Rating Score of 1, those between one to two years will get a score of 2, and for more than two years the Rating Score will be 3.
IIMB rates students across multiple parameters: CAT score, academic performance in school, bachelors and masters degree, and work experience. The CAT cutoff for IIM Bangalore is 90 percentile. The sectional cut offs are 80 percentile for QA & DI section and 90 percentile for VA & LR section. For IIMB, an important factor is previous academic performance. A candidate with an excellent academic record and work experience would effectively replace a candidate who only has a good CAT score but a poor previous academic record.
In stage 1, the selection is based on the CAT scores. The sectional cut-offs are 85 and 55, respectively. The other criteria are the past academic records. In stage 2, IIM Kozhikode will give 50 per cent weightage to the CAT scores. For the past academic records, 20 per cent weightage will be given to the Xth and XIIth marks and 10 per cent will be given to the Graduation marks. These marks will be standardised on the basis of the various disciplines across the boards. In each category, the top ranking candidates based on the index score are called for the personal interview process. The final selection criteria will be: Stage 2 index (30%), PI (35%), writing task (20%) and Profiles (15%) Source: http://www.iimk.ac.in/admission/CAT2011/ pdf/AdmissionPolicyPGP2012-14.pdf
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MBA BUZZ IIM Calcutta
For IIM Calcutta, the cut off percentile for CAT is 99.55. The short listing for the GD, PI & WAT process is done through CAT score, class X and class XII scores. The weightages given to these factors are as follows: CAT score – 80 per cent, class X marks – 10 per cent and class XII marks – 10 per cent. A candidate should have minimum 60 per cent marks in the board exams. Scores out of 5 are given, with maximum given to those who have secured 80% and above in board exams. Source: http://www.iimcal.ac.in/sites/default/files/Cut-off_2012_GDPI.pdf
The shortlisting at IIM Shillong is done on the basis of CAT score and past academic records. The overall cut-off for CAT 2011 was 94.5 percentile. Sectional percentile is 65. The minimum Class X score is 80 per cent and Class XII score is 75 per cent. The final merit list is based on the scores obtained in GD (15%), PI (35%), and overall CAT scores (50%). Source: http://www.iimshillong.in/admission/ shortlisting-criteria.asp
The CAT cut-off is 97 percentile overall and 70 percentile in sections. The initial shortlisting will be done based on sectional scores, and the final merit list will be based on CAT score (40%), PI and WA score (40%) and Profile (20%). Source: http://www.iimranchi.ac.in/result/ AdmissionsCriteria2012%5B1
Source:http://www.iimtrichy.ac.in/home/academics/admission_ procedure /IIM%20T%20Admission%20Criteria%202012-14%20 New.pdf
The shortlisting for the joint admission process takes place through CAT scores. The overall cut-off percentile for CAT 2011 was 80 percentile and the sectional cut-off was 70. The admission process of IIM Raipur consists of: CAT score - 50%, Personal Appearance (PA) - 30% and Profile - 20%. In the personal appearance process, the written test will account for 10% and the PI for 20%. The profile score will take into account your past academic record in which Class X and Class XII marks count for 10% each and graduation record counts for 20%, your work experience (30%), and diversity (30%).
The admission process for IIM Rohtak consists of CAT score, Personal Appearance Process (PI and WA), as well as work experience. The CAT cut-off for IIM Rohtak is 85 percentile overall, and sectional cutoff is 80. The minimum marks obtained in Class X, XII and graduation should be 70 per cent, 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Apart from these factors, due weightage is given to the components such as work experience, female candidates and non-engineering students. Source: http://www.iimrohtak.ac.in/wp-content/ uploads/2011/09/Admission-Policy.pdf
IIM Trichy prepares the list of candidates on the basis of CAT scores, past academic records, personal interview, work experience and written test. The overall CAT cut-off is 80 and sectional cut off is 70. The minimum percentage that a candidate should obtain in Class X, XII and at Graduation is 70, 65 and 60, respectively. The stage 2 short listing is done by the Written Analysis Test (15%), Personal Interview (25%), Work Experience (5%), and Performance at UG level (10%).
The overall cut-off percentile for CAT 2011 was 80 percentile and the sectional cut-offs was 70. The final merit list is based on - CAT score: 50%, Personal Appearance (PI & WA): 30% and Profile: 20%. In the personal appearance process, the written test will account for 10% and the PI for 20% weightage. The profile score will take into account your past academic record in which Class X and Class XII marks count for 10% each and under graduation counts for 20%, work experience (30%), and diversity (30%). Source: http://www.iimu.ac.in/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/08/Admission-Policy.pdf
Shortlisting is on the basis of CAT score, Class X, Class XII and graduation marks, work experience, diversity factor of academic discipline, and gender. The overall cut-off is 75 percentile and sectional cut-off is 70 percentile. The weightage given to CAT scores is 38. For the scores of Class X and Class XII marks, the weightage is 1 each. The graduation marks and diversity factor of academic discipline weightage is 3 each. The weightage for work experience and gender diversity is 2 each. The total shortlist weightage is 50. 40 is given to the PI and 10 is reserved for the written test. Source: http://www.iiml.ac.in/policy_kashipur.pdf
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CAT Experience Debabrata Nag IIM Ahmedabad, 2012-14 CAT percentile: 99.73
time resulting in 99.80 percentile. The second section was my concern as it had a high percentage of VA questions compared to LR questions (the composition varied across different slots). I focused first on the LR section (it being my strength) and finished all of them with forty minutes to spare. At the back of my mind I knew that I needed to do much more to cross the sectional cutoff. Thus, I turned my focus towards the questions from “Reading Comprehension”.
all four times, stand up the fifth time - it is RC is one section in VA which does not operate never too late to realise a dream. To reach the on rules of the language but is established on the green lawns and red bricks of IIM, Ahmedabad, foundation of reasoning, understanding and inferential the first milestone in the path was CAT. I have skills. It was a relatively stronger zone of mine within witnessed the evolution of the exam since 2007 when it the VA section. But, I always avoided the trap of being changed from paper based to online and subsequently inaccurate and thus didn’t solve all the questions from to sectional time limit format. The present format the passages. I chose to solve solely focuses on sectional core only those questions I was fairly competencies. The uncertainty sure of. concerning time management, as it Focus on one’s used to be in the previous versions With fifteen minutes to spare of the game, is now absent. Thus, strengths to develop I still felt I was lagging behind it allows candidates to focus more the mark I required to surpass 100% accuracy and on each section and makes the the cutoff mark. Till then I didn’t exam harder for students with even finish 50% of the section! I regularly validate the weak sectional areas. glanced through the remaining VA questions and attempted 3 Being a working professional exam strategy against or 4 questions I was fairly does not really allow much time performance in the mock comfortable with. It just helped for preparations. Still, I could me to complete only half of the manage about three hours during tests. With only a few VA section. Extreme focus on the weekdays and devoted around does make one slow six hours on Sundays. I have months left for the exam, accuracy on the number of attempts. The continuously struggled with my VA skills over the years whereas feedback analysis-based strategy worked perfectly for me and the overall percentile came QA, DI, LR have consistently to be 99.73! It resulted in getting practice is the key. been my stronghold sections. calls from all of the IIMs (except Accuracy rather than the number IIM Kohzikode) and from FMS. of attempts has always been my I could finally convert all the interviews that I had prime focus. I continued to validate my principal attended. accuracy-focused strategy across all the practice tests.
I used to appear for sectional tests during the weekdays and for a full length test during the weekends. Continuous testing and analysis provided the necessary feedback to recheck and redevelop the strategy that suited me for score maximisation. I ended up figuring that aiming for 25+ questions in the QA-DI section and 18+ questions in the VA-LR section put me at a very competitive and comfortable section. Since there was ample time in CAT 2011 for the sections, I could focus on my strengths properly. I did 28 questions in the first section (QA + DI) well within
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It is well established that the current version of CAT aims towards selecting candidates with core competencies in all the sections. It is thereby advisable to focus on one’s strengths in order to develop 100% accuracy in those domains and regularly validate the exam strategy against performance in the mock tests. With only a few months left for the exam, feedback analysis-based practice will be the key. I can assure you, from personal experience, that the taste of success achieved from hard work is indeed extremely sweet. All the best!
Mishaal Sarawgi IIM Bangalore, 2012-2014 CAT percentile: 99.78
y CAT 2011 percentile was 99.78. The sectionals were QA/DI 99.70 and VA & LR 97.84. I got calls from all the 13 IIMs and I converted all except IIM-A. My primary focus was to capitalise on my strong areas — LRDI and QA (in that order) — and try and get the best out of the Verbal section (weak area). To achieve this, I reminded myself of some of my past feats and achievements and this helped me keep a positive attitude throughout the test. I kept saying to myself during the exam: ‘Mishaal, this is achievable and you can do it!’ As I mentioned earlier, I was not all that comfortable with VA. To counter this difficulty, during my preparations for the exam, I made it a point to allocate more time to this section as compared to the other two (which I was confident of cracking). Also, the fact that I was working made the whole issue of proper and effective time apportion very important. I made every effort to improve upon my reading speed, get acclimatised to thinking from the author’s perspective, try to narrow down the close set of options to 2 etc. I also had a hand-made dictionary (word+meaning+usage) which I kept on updating.
VA questions as always required reading between the lines and proper judgment in eliminating close choices. The difficulty level for this section was moderate-difficult.
The LR-VA section was tough for me. With tricky questions distributed throughout the section, it was a tough nut to crack. As it turned out, my strongest area (LR) became my nemesis, to an extent because of the pre-conceived notion of a probable easy LR section and more so because of my over-confidence! Nevertheless, overall it went well but more importantly it taught me a lifelong lesson — One must not get not to be overconfident of your certain strengths. bogged down by few
My CAT experience can be treated as a good example of busting a few myths about this exam. It’s not necessary that the papers across the slots will follow similar patterns, in terms of level of difficulty across sections. On a single day, in the morning slot you could get an easy QA and just the opposite in the evening slot. Also, be ready to face questions ranging from as simple as it could get to ones which might test you to the core. The smartness lies in your ability to filter out such easy to moderate questions and attempt them first and park the tough ones for later. Do not spend more than two to two-and-a-half minutes on a single question.
low percentiles in some of the mocks. Failures do happen. Learn to learn from them. Put your best foot forward and you will be surprised to see the positive results!
As far as QA is concerned, some of my weak areas in that section included Number Theory and Geometry. I took special care to practise as many questions pertaining to these topics as possible. And here, the IMS material really made my life easier.
I gave my test on 16th November 2011. I was lucky, as things started on a really pleasant note — I found that I was able to tackle most of the questions in the QA-DI section (attempts-28). Though there were few tricky questions but then there were also a few sitters to compensate the same. DI, though calculation intensive, was manageable. Overall, the difficulty level was easy-moderate in this section. But then came the bouncer!
The rumor mills suggesting that it would be an easy LR section that year (going by earlier slot papers) were all put to rest by the set of LR questions I got. Notwithstanding my fascination for LR, I was taken aback by the sheer quality of those questions. I ended up spending more than 35 minutes for those 10 LR questions. With just some 35 minutes left, I had to literally rush through the verbal section (my weakest!). Thankfully, I was able to keep myself calm and composed, and I managed an attempt of 25 in this section.
One piece of advice that I can positively give to all CAT takers would be to take a number of mock tests and take them seriously! It doesn’t stop at that. The key to continuous improvement lies in effectively analysing the mocks (post test) and working on your weak areas. Also, remember, one must not get bogged down by a few low percentiles in some of the mocks. Failures do happen. Learn to learn from them. Put your best foot forward and you will be surprised to see the positive results!
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Deepak Chaube IIM Calcutta, 2012-14 CAT percentile: 99.89
AT 2011 had only two sections instead of three. The first section is Quantitative Ability and Data Interpretation and the second section is Verbal Ability and Logical Reasoning. This was beneficial, as Quant was an area of concern for me and its combination with DI helped. Verbal and LR were my strong areas, that I didn’t really need to worry about. So for a month before the CAT I focused exclusively on Quant to ensure a good percentile. This strategy could have backfired and I would recommend it only to those who have a very good grasp over what they perceive as their strong area. I would also suggest that for the weak areas one needn’t try and read from ten different sources. Simply reading the IMS course material and attempting all the problems at the back of the book and the class problem sheet are more than sufficient. Writing the SIMCATs is very important as it tells you
Vineet Singh IIM Ahmedabad, 2012-14 CAT percentile: 99.76
or CAT 2012, I would recommend that you practise as much as possible. Usually, the questions in CAT are not very difficult and test very basic concepts. However, the immense competition that you will face for this exam requires that you give your best performance. For that you need to attempt as many questions as possible (Speed) with a high degree of accuracy (Precision). The only way to improve upon those two parameters, Speed and Precision, is through practice. I was comfortable with the concepts that are usually tested in Quantitative, Data Interpretation, Verbal and Logical Reasoning section of CAT. Hence, I used the mock tests as a primary tool for my preparation. However, in case you are not comfortable with the basic concepts, I would recommend that you go through the study material provided by your mentors or institute. If you have more time you may like to go through the GMAT Verbal Books (Official Guide to GMAT Verbal, Manhattan Series on Sentence Correction, Critical Reasoning and Reading Comprehension). I subscribed to mock tests from IMS and a couple of other institutes. I used to solve them over the weekend. Also, I used to rigorously evaluate my performance using the solution key for
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about weak and strong points. It is not only important to write the test but to analyse your performance and improve on it in the subsequent tests. During the tests, the aim initially must not be to score a high overall percentile, which is possible even with a low percentile in the area of weakness and a very high percentile in the area of strength. The initial focus should be to improve the percentile in one’s weak area so that he/she is able to clear the cut-off with ease. While appearing for the SIMCAT choose the slots that have the same timing as the slot of your final CAT exam as this helps you in getting accustomed to thinking at that time. I firmly believe that each person should devise his/her own strategy. Understand that what might work for others needn’t necessarily work for you. Get very serious at least 3 months before the CAT, with 4 hours of regular preparation. By this stage you should have ideally discovered your areas of strength and weakness and devised a strategy about how you will attempt the paper. Don’t miss out on SIMCATs as your performance there will help you in discovering where you stand and is a close reflection of your performance in the final CAT exam. Last but not the least, it is important not to get disheartened, and keep trying. This was my 3rd attempt at the CAT.
each test. I would say that self-appraisal is the most important part of your preparation. Once you are done with the test, take some extra time and try to solve the questions that you didn’t attempt. Once you have tried to solve all questions by yourself, take the solution key and go through each solution. For the questions that you have attempted correctly, try to compare your methodology with the one provided in the solution key. This way you will know the most efficient way to tackle a particular type of question. This will really improve your speed. Now for the questions that you didn’t attempt or attempted incorrectly, try to analyse as to what went wrong. Was it a conceptual error? Record it in a notebook so that you can revise it later and avoid repeating it. Was it because you didn’t know a concept? Record it. Was it a silly mistake? Record it in dark and bold letters and take an oath that you will never repeat it. Making note of your mistakes will improve your precision. Gradually as you give several mock tests, your speed and precision should increase. If that is not the case, then go back and revise your old mock tests before moving further. That’s pretty much it. Don’t try to memorise shortcuts. Always try to understand the basic concept and its application. Practise, practise, practise and do a thorough self-appraisal. Don’t repeat mistakes. Maintain records of your performance in each test. Also, one must always remember that stress is good but only to a certain degree. Don’t overstress yourself. Don’t forget to take a break between your preparation. Spend time with family and friends. Go watch a new movie. Go out on dates. But don’t lose focus. I wish you success in all your endeavours. www.advancedge.com
Hallowed Be Thy Name:
Kevin Keller He is an authority on Marketing, and is acknowledged as one of the international leaders in the study of brands, branding, and strategic brand management. He is one of the co-authors, with Philip Kotler, of Marketing Management, the Bible for almost all marketing students across the world. He is also the manager of the rock band The Church. Kevin Lane Keller speaks to Aditya Prakash Iengar on his love of marketing, what the world of marketing is like today, and the reasons to join the domain. Why did you choose marketing and not some other field such as sales or operations?
Well, you know, it’s actually interesting. I was planning to go into Finance; my graduate degree was Masters in Economics and I went to Carnegie Mellon for my business degree. It was a very, very quantitative programme. While I was studying Finance at Mellon, the first marketing course really fascinated me. It seemed so fundamental to what businesses do and what marketing really is. I loved the consumer aspect of marketing, I loved the competition, I loved the whole concept of developing marketing strategies and tactics. So, I really fell in love with marketing in business school, and I pursued that. I think I made the right choice, because ever since then I’ve always enjoyed it so much, a lot more than I would’ve enjoyed Finance, I’m sure!
Of course, Marketing isn’t as quantitative as Finance, but being so closely related to consumers, www.advancedge.com
it must be a very dynamic field, isn’t it? Wasn’t that a challenge for you?
I think that’s the thing I found so interesting about Marketing. You see, the thing with Finance is that... In my first job, after my MBA, I moved towards marketing for Bank of America; it was in 1980, so it was a long time ago, and banks weren’t really marketing, so to speak. The thing I realised is that Finance is about, well, money, basically! (laughs) But Marketing is about people — whether it’s the consumer or the employee — and it’s very different from Finance. The thing I found most fascinating about Marketing is how much it keeps changing, and how there’s such a strong cultural component. When I was studying Marketing, I realised that there are many parts of Marketing; some of them are more quantitative and some are more psychological. I was coming from a quantitative economic research kind of a background and yet I found myself fascinated by the consumer psychology! So, I actually focussed on that area more — concentrated more Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
SUCCESS STREET on the behavioural aspects. And of course, the field itself is very dynamic, and it changes as the people and their needs change, which is why the markets change and adapt. So for me, it was a very exciting and dynamic field to study.
Since it is a dynamic field and market, there are so many competitors coming up with products constantly to challenge your own. And all depends on how the product is marketed. But can there be too much marketing of a product, multiple products, or a brand?
You see, the thing about marketing that’s so very crucial is that there are so many ways with which you can create value for customers and can differentiate yourself from your competitors. And a big part of it is developing and designing products and services that are truly unique. Though people say there are enough commodities, I actually think there are still tremendous opportunities to create product and service differentiation that are very fundamental and can separate your product from others. We call that innovation! So there can never really be enough. And also, there are so many other ways to create value outside of the product and services in terms of how you deliver it and how you communicate about it and what kind of relations you develop with your customers and that is where the uniqueness of your marketing comes through — all the different ways with which you can create value and loyalty with your customers, therefore, do a better job against competition. Which do you think is more important, the product that a company is marketing, advertising and selling, or the company’s image itself and its relationship with its customers? Well, I think they’re both important. I think at the heart of a great brand is a great product or service. It’s really hard to build a great brand and to create tremendous loyalty with the customers if you just don’t have a great product or service! So, I always think that it is necessary, but not sufficient, for brand success or customer success; the sufficient part is that you’ve got to market it properly — that’s channels of distribution and pricing and communication and all those things. It’s really like a one-two punch — a great product or service is really necessary but not sufficient. You’ve got to make sure you market it properly.
Do you have any examples of any marketing campaign or advertising that you personally liked for its innovation and being different from its competitors?
I’ve always been a fan of the classic marketing brands and companies such as Nike, Starbucks and Intel, and they’ve all done a remarkable job in terms of developing products that truly are unique in different ways, and all of these products have been marketed really well! To give you a quick example, I’ll tell you about Apple. When they came out with the iPod, it was another MP3 player in the market. It was, of course, a great product, but it was also marketed really, really well. In fact, that was the first time Apple guys went outside Apple stores and broadened their channels of distribution and went through electronic retailers and things like that. And that was critical for their success! I think some people don’t know or recognise how important that step was in Apple’s goal to
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launch the product in a successful bid. So like I said before, it was a great product, but Apple marketed it really well. Recently too, they’ve really thought through the channels and distribution and pricing and are doing some things differently than they did before. The same is true of Nike and how they’ve marketed their products globally, even during the Olympics we just had. Nike has always been an aspirational brand. They’ve been about self improvement and self empowerment, and the idea that everyone’s an athlete and we all have it in us to go and exercise and enjoy, and make ourselves healthier and fitter, no matter whether we’re world class and in the Olympics or just someone in a small town in India or the US or anywhere in the world. I think they’re also remarkable in how they develop their products and their advertising, to connect to people and send the message of being more active and benefit from that.
Speaking about campaigns — do all marketing and advertising campaigns have a beginning and an end?
In some cases, you could say that, but there are some brands that do continue. Take MasterCard for example. Think of their “priceless” ad. They’ve run it around the world for years and years to get their message across — there are some things money can’t buy, for everything else, there’s MasterCard. So with that ad, they showed that they understand what really matters to people, they showed that they realise there are some things people care about very personally. So theirs is like a long campaign; it should by definition have a beginning and an end, but it began and it hasn’t ended for quite a while! That said, I think there are some campaigns that have very deliberate purposes and have a finite shelf life; they come to the market, change certain things and then the brand moves on. Take BMW or some other examples — such brands are very, very focused and have a strong and compelling message. They may change the execution, they may even change the tagline a little bit, but the basic message remains the same; because it’s so powerful, enduring and defining that they keep it that way.
Do you think it is absolutely necessary to keep marketing and advertising a product all year round, instead of aggressively advertising it when it is being launched, and then letting the product work for itself on the market? Well, the reality today is that you do need to have a presence all year round. Many products, not all of course, typically have the opportunity to be bought all year round, even if it is in a purchase cycle that’s three or six or even nine months, and at any one time in that period somebody may be in the market for that product. And because of that, you do need to be visible, to be out there and let people know that you’re out there in different ways. But today, there are so many ways to communicate, especially online, that it’s easier to keep your presence visible and make sure that your voice is heard. So, the idea of having a continuous marketing effort that’s not restricted to certain times in a year has become quite common.
Can bad marketing of a product result in it failing on the market? www.advancedge.com
SUCCESS STREET Yes, I believe marketing can make or break a product. There are many examples of good marketing, so crucial that it has helped a brand broaden its access point with its customers and made the brand more relevant to more people, which is very critical. But the reverse is also true, yes. You do find examples of products that don’t take hold of the market even though they’re really good products. I find the example of TiVo really fascinating. It was clearly a great service, launched in 1999, with which you could record TV shows to watch them later at your leisure. But they had a terrible time explaining what they did, and they didn’t build as strong a brand as they could have. Even the palm pilots suffered the same thing, and I think they would’ve been more successful if they’d been marketed more effectively. So yes, I think good marketing is crucial to a product, especially one that is new to the world.
As opposed to large multinational companies that have huge resources and large marketing budgets, how should SMEs and non-profits go about marketing their products or services? Also, what advice would you have for a start-up in this regard?
As far as a start-up goes, the most important thing is, of course, to make sure that you have a good product. That’s step one, necessary but not sufficient. In case of a small company, with limited resources and marketing budgets, instead of doing a lot of things to market the product, the wiser move would be to do fewer things, but do them really well. And to do that, you have to be creative with messages and strategies, to really allow you to make up for any lack in budget by sheer quality. Today, there are so many options to market your product online creatively in various forms, as well as innovative campaigns or events or contests, and you have to take advantage of that to create awareness about your product (which is step one for any new product), and then also create an image around that. Actually, a lot of people skip that step to create awareness about the product as much as possible, even though it’s the most crucial, since people have to know the brand and the product. Speaking about non-profits, I think it is crucial that they market themselves properly. In fact, I myself am on the board of a few non-profits. Here too, the advantage of the internet is there and the ability to create awareness about their causes and reach out to donors, to publicise what you’re doing, online or offline, are really important. Unfortunately, even though you’re a non-profit, you’re still competing with other non-profits, so letting people know what you’re doing, why it’s important and what benefits there are if people support you — all of that is vital.
In today’s economic crisis in the world, given the low investor sentiment, companies are tightening their purse strings and slashing marketing budgets. Do you think there is a danger for the marketing sector in this regard? Well, you worry a little about it, I guess. The thing with marketing is that people have to look at it as not an expense — it’s always an investment, in customer loyalty, in building strong brands, in employee morale and retention. So yes, I do worry that people don’t see it as an investment. But that said, www.advancedge.com
I do think a potential advantage when you go through a crisis like this is that it actually gives you a change to re-evaluate what you’re doing — things you can play up, you can cut down, et al. And that’s not a bad thing, it’s actually the classic Stop, Start and Continue exercise companies do.
Any interesting anecdote you would like to share?
Can’t think of any off the top of my head! (laughs) But I think that when I’m teaching, with students from different backgrounds and countries, with all their different interpretations, the discussions are always fascinating, especially when they find out the different concepts of how companies brand, market and advertise their products, and where these companies came from and how they became successful. I will tell you something though, from my studying days. I was taking an Accounting course under a professor named Katherine Schipper, a pretty famous lady now. And back then, she was really tough in class! Now I didn’t know accounting at all, as I was into marketing. I had blondish hair and was quiet looking, and there was this other kid who looked a lot like me. So, when she asked me something, she would always call, “Mr Keller!” and then look right at this other guy! And I was never going to correct her! But this other guy knew more accounting than I did, and he always knew the answer!
You are the brand manager of the Australian rock band The Church. How did that happen?
It was a funny coincidence really, it was around sixteen years ago. I just happened to be in San Francisco, where the band was playing as a part of their world tour. I went to the concert and met the band, and we just started talking about their situation. I realised they could benefit from various forms of help that I could give. So, I just started working with them, marketing them, and it’s been a lot of fun. It’s a kind of hobby, a very expensive one, I guess! (chuckles) It’s not a whole lot of return, because the music business is brutal, but I’ve loved rock and roll since I was nine, and I wanted to give something back. After all, the world’s a better place because of rock and roll!
Why would you recommend a career in marketing?
Actually, what I would say to any business student is that he or she should figure out what part of the business they really love. Like me, I was studying finance, but I didn’t love it, I loved marketing. So, trying to find out what you enjoy is important. The nice thing about getting an MBA is that in the first year of the programme, you take introductory courses in all the fields, and then once you have sampled them all, you know which one you want. As far as recommending a career in marketing is concerned, I would say that this field is very interpersonal, there are many cultural and social aspects to it, you really have to stay on top of the marketplace and it is all very, very dynamic. There’s also a strong competitive angle, and a bunch of other smaller things that are characteristic of a career in marketing and make it fascinating. Marketing is something you learn and then get to practise for real! For those who love such challenges, marketing would be the perfect career choice. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
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Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
Understanding, Managing Time
A discourse on time and its management, and how to realistically balance all that work you have and your life, with the time that you have on hand.
David Allen is an author, consultant and international lecturer. He is widely recognised as an authority on personal and organisational productivity and has been named one of the “Top 100 thought leaders” by Leadership Magazine. He is best known as the creator of “Getting Things Done”. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
ou can’t manage time. Time just is. You don’t mismanage five minutes and wind up with four, or six. So what is this thing that has been mislabelled for so many years, and why did it get an inappropriate name? Time management is really managing what we do, during a particular time. But it’s easier for people to say that time is what needs to be managed, rather than themselves. It’s easier to make time the enemy and parade our worthiness (I have so many big, important things to get done), rather than to say “I don’t keep my agreements.” Time management is really agreement management. At the end of the day, how good you feel about what you did (and what you didn’t do) is proportional to how well you think you kept agreements with yourself. Did you do what you told yourself to do? Did you accomplish what you think should have been accomplished? Wasting time only means that you think you should have been doing something other than what you were doing. Sleep is not a waste of time if you think you need it. Taking a walk instead of rewriting your strategic plan is not a waste of time as long as you think taking a walk is the thing to do at that moment. It’s when you wind up not doing which you agreed to, that the trouble begins. In order to be clear, you must first know what all your agreements are — and there are very few
people who have them all defined and contained. The most basic agreement is to show up at a designated location at a speciﬁc time (appointment). The most subtle and sophisticated agreement is to be doing what you think you should be doing with your life (are you fulﬁlling your purpose, living according to your values?) And there are all kinds of agreements lying in-between. Most people have between forty and one hundred projects, a “project” being deﬁned as something they want to ﬁnish that requires more than one action step (get a new car, hire an assistant, take the family skiing, launch the new product line, restructure their board, get a new set of golf clubs, etc). Those projects are driven by ten to ﬁfteen key areas of responsibility in their job (strategic planning, asset management, staff development, liaison with the board, etc) and in their life (health, relationships, career, money, etc). Next, the actions (allocation of personal resources) required to execute all of those commitments — emails to send, phone calls to make, conversations to have, documents to draft, proposals to read — number often in the hundreds.
Caught In The Busy Trap
Recently while coaching a leader, I discovered another level of the busy trap — the syndrome: “If I can just do something that feels like I’m working with focus, I don’t have to deal with the angst about all the other stuff I should be doing.” www.advancedge.com
SUCCESS STREET Just like in a computer, where the RAM does all the work based on when it is given that work and how big it is, psychic RAM tends to bring to awareness items based on criteria of latest (most recent in time) and loudest (emotionally); unfortunately, unlike a computer, this is hardly the most effective file-and-retrieval system. Similarly, if your system of action reminders are haphazard (postits on the screen, phone slips on the desk, notes on your chair, people interruptions), your busy energy momentum will glom onto the easiest thing to maintain itself. Do what you need to do to feel as good as you can about what you’re doing. You can never be busy enough to dispel the need to be busy. “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler,” said Albert Einstein.
The Levels Of Your Work
Aside from the fact that the volume of what people need to organise is often light years beyond what they imagine, there is much more to getting a grip on your work, with respect to the time on hand, than most realise. Managing the flow of work can be approached from many altitudes, as there are many different levels of defining what your work really is. While we may have some lower levels in control, there are often incomplete and unclear issues at higher levels that need to be addressed. And often there are issues about the nature and volume of work that cannot be resolved viewing it from an inappropriate level. We have roughly categorised work into six levels, or horizons of focus, using an airplane model. Runway This is the ground floor — the huge volume of actions and information you currently have to do and organise, including emails, calls, memos, errands, stuff to read, stuff to file, things to talk to staff, etc. If you got no further input in your life, this www.advancedge.com
would likely take you 300-500 hours to finish. Just getting a complete and current inventory of the next actions required at this level is quite a feat. 10,000 Level This is the inventory of your projects — all the things you have to finish, that take more than one action step to complete. These projects include anything from “look into having a birthday party for Susan” to “buy Acme Brick Co.” Most people have between 30 and 100 of these. If you were to fully and accurately define this list, it would undoubtedly generate many more and different actions than you currently have identified. 20,000 Level What’s your job? Driving the creation of a lot of your projects are the four to seven major areas of responsibility that you at least implicitly are going to be held accountable to have done well, at the end of some time period, by yourself if not by someone else (e.g. boss.) With a clear and current evaluation of what those areas or responsibility are, and what you are (and are not) doing about them, there are likely new projects to be created, and old ones to be eliminated. 30,000 Level Where is your job going? What will the role you’re in right now look like 12-18 months from now, based on your goals and on the directions of the changes at that level? We’ve met very few people who are doing only what they were hired to do. These days, job descriptions are about moving targets. You may be personally changing what you’re doing, given personal goals; and the job itself may need to look different, given the shifting nature of the work at the departmental or divisional level. Getting this level clear always creates some new projects and actions. 40,000 Level The goals and direction of the larger entity within which you operate,
heavily influence your job and your professional direction. Where is your company going to be, one to three years from now? How will that be affecting the scope and scale of your job, your department, and your division? What external factors (like technology) are influencing the changes? How is the definition and relationship with your customers going to be changing, etc? Thinking at this level invariably surfaces some projects that need to be defined and new action steps to move them forward. 50,000 Level What is the work you are here to do on the planet, with your life? This is the ultimate bigger picture discussion. Is this the job you want? Is this the lifestyle you want? Are you operating within the context of your real values, etc? From an organisational perspective, this is the Purpose and Vision discussion. Why does it exist? No matter how organised you may get, if you are not spending enough time with your family, health, spiritual life, etc, you will still have “incompletes” to deal with, make decisions about, and have projects and actions about, to get completely clear.
The Threefold Nature Of Work
Why do people complain that there’s no time to get their work done? Because there is more work to do than the work they think they have to do. Many times, people we work with express frustration that they “can’t get any of their work done” because of the overwhelming amount of interruptions, email, and other inputs that show up during the course of a normal day. “I can’t get my work done, because there is so much (other) work to do!” If you are ever in that frustrated state, it might help to understand the threefold nature of what constitutes your “work.” You have a choice of doing three very different things when you work — pre-defined work, ad hoc work, and defining your work. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
SUCCESS STREET Pre-defined Work This is what you would be doing all day if you’ve got no new input or interruptions of any sort. You would probably be working off the inventory of actions and projects that you came in with — work that you have already determined needs doing. There are the phone calls you need to make, the documents you need to draft, the ideas you need to outline on the project, etc. That list of things to be completed, when you have some discretionary time, would be challenging enough to sift through, given your volume (most professionals have 150-200 of these discrete actions). But what you are very often faced with is the necessity (and opportunity) to do...
Work As It Appears The phone rings. It’s not on your lists or your calendar. But you take the call, nonetheless, and consequently spend twenty minutes talking to a client of yours about a potentially important, or at least an interesting, topic. Before you’re off that call, your boss sends
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Do what you need to do to feel as good as you can about what you’re doing. You can never be busy. “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler,” said Albert Einstein. you an instant message to schedule a half-hour meeting in the afternoon to update you on a new development and get your input on it. You acknowledge back “OK” while you’re still talking to the client. For that meeting, though, you know immediately that you are going to need to update two spreadsheets and surf the web about a company
that’s been on your radar pertaining to this project, before you walk in. That means do it now, or not eat lunch. In this scenario you are doing the work as it shows up to be done. You are actually defining your work rapidly in this case, and choosing to do the new stuff instead of any of the pre-determined potential activities. Many of us have such days. We can’t get to anything on our action lists because the ad-hoc nature of the day wound up defining and requiring our total focus, non-stop. That, added to our inventory of pre-defined work, creates a substantial volume of on-deck options for things to be doing. But then there are emails constantly filling up your in-basket. And meeting notes from last night still on the legal pad on the corner of your desk. And the fourteen voicemails that you keep saving because they mean something you might need to do, but you don’t know exactly what yet. And more voicemails coming in during the day. So, in addition to all the stuff on your lists and all the stuff coming at you during the day that you have to engage with as it shows up, you know there’s still the on-going requirement to be. Defining Work This is processing and emptying your in-basket, your email, your meeting notes, etc — assessing the new inputs and making decisions about what needs to be done about them. You may do some quick actions as you define them, delegate things to others (to be tracked on your “Waiting For...” list), and you will probably be adding more action items and projects to your inventory of defined work, as you review and think about the meaning of the content of those notes. “Oh yeah, I told Raphael I would call him back about possible times to meet next week...” This activity of defining work, based upon the constant flow of new incoming information and communication, requires an average of one hour per day, for the typical professional. That’s just to stay current — not to clean up www.advancedge.com
SUCCESS STREET and process any backlog that may have accumulated prior to today. So what? Everything I have described so far is common sense, or at least a common awareness about the way things really are. Here’s the rub: I have noticed that many people act as if it is some sort of burden to endure, and is some irrelevant activity aside from their work. “I have my list of things to do. Why am I being burdened with things that aren’t on my lists, and why am I now in addition having to deal with all of these emails, voicemails, conversation notes, business cards, receipts, and tons of other inputs coming at me from my outside world?” I don’t get it. It’s all your work. Some is done when it appears, and some is done when you choose to do it instead of what’s showing up. And processing input is required to trust that the inventory of your pre-defined work is complete enough to evaluate its contents against your new options of things to do. Are you truly pretending that your boss doesn’t have the authority to
reallocate your focus toward a new and unexpected priority? Get real. Are you honestly saying that now the world is at fault for reconfiguring itself to present you with things you weren’t aware of twelve hours ago? Get a grip. And how long can you honestly say you are comfortable doing anything, without checking your voicemail or email? The key is how efficiently and effectively you know how to process new stuff, and how functional your system is for maintaining and reviewing your inventory of commitments. Then you accept and manage the input processing as a critical component, you review the whole game frequently enough to know (in your gut) how to evaluate the surprises and unexpected work, and you have a sufficiently functional system for capturing and managing all the various rivers and streams of this complex environment, to feel at least OK about what you’re not doing. Master key to life. How much of which kind of work to do and when is the eternal dance of
the workday. You can’t really do more than one of them at a time, though you can get really fast with processing work while you’re on hold on the phone, and waiting for meetings to start. There may be interruptions that are allowed that are not functional or valuable, but managing those is just tactical to your definition of your job. It’s an eternal challenge of allocating limited resources (the definition of “management”) – it’s not an inherent problem. How much of your day and week do you need to assume is going to be ad hoc and unexpected? How much of your day really is required for cleaning up your in-baskets so that you can trust your backlog doesn’t have landmines and unseen priorities lurking? When are you dedicating critical executive time for updating your contents and maybe improving your own process for capturing, clarifying, organising, and reviewing your work? Get your habits and your systems up to handling it. And get used to it.
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Be A Sport
Combining work and play would be a dream for most people. To get the best of both worlds, explore a career in Sports Management. Puja Shah
ll work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. But, what if Jack can combine work with play? Most of us, at some point in our lives, are guilty of overdoing the work or play, but what if there exists a career that mixes a bit of both? That career would be Sports Management. Sports Management is, speciﬁcally, the application of management skills to the sports ﬁeld. You either manage a player or team or you plan and supervise a sporting event. If you are a sports buff, this is the career for you. The sports industry has grown dramatically in the past decade and promises to expand. With sports revenues reaching new heights, there continues to be an increasing demand for professionals trained in the managerial, administrative and business aspects of sports. In India, sports is growing beyond
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
cricket. The Olympics and Formula One are proof of this rage. Getting one billion people to believe in a game and instilling their faith in a team and its players is nothing short of a miracle, and it does not happen just by having pretty cheerleaders and mascots. It takes vision and perseverance to strategically market, manage and promote the game and its players, to make it a religion of sorts, beyond any differences to celebrate the true spirit of sportsmanship. Mehak Chowdhary, Director, Blue Apple Sportsperson and Image Consultants, says, “Given the combination of a renewed enthusiasm for all sports, and the nascent stage at which these sports are in India, sports management becomes crucial in developing as well as protecting both the sports and the athletes.” The
advent of a variety of sporting ventures in India and better mass media reach are producing remarkable talents from many seemingly backward regions. The popularisation of sports has created an escalating demand for leaders who can manage various international competitions and organisations, professional sports teams and major international sponsors involved in these events. In such a scenario, sports management as a career option shows great promise.
While for many, getting into sports may sound more like fun rather than a serious career, Professor Rob Wilson, Principal Lecturer, Sport Business Management, www.advancedge.com
CAREER WATCH Sheffield Hallam University, thinks differently, “Sport represents an important component of economic activity in nearly every country across the world. While most attention is usually focused on elite and professional sports e.g. the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and English Premier League football, considering the money involved in sponsorship, broadcasting rights and players’ salaries, it is consumer expenditure on the participation in sport that can drive a country’s economy,” he says. This view certainly holds true when you think of the business any sporting tournament brings in, making a career in sports a popular and a lucrative choice. More and more students from the general MBA field are opting to get into sports, which is why the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, has decided to offer a sports elective in their PGPM from 2012-13. To get into the sports industry it is beneficial to have a degree in sports management since it trains an individual to deal with sport management theory, sport marketing, fundraising, promotions, public relations, ethics in sport management, legal aspects of sport, facility planning and management, computer applications to sport, research methods, sport management problems, and issues and risk management. The course is specially designed to intertwine the fields of physical education, sport, business, computers,
and communications. It includes detailed study of communications, interpersonal relations, business, accounting, finance, economics, statistics, and also includes the historical, sociological, psychological and philosophical perspectives of sport. According to Prof. Wilson, the difference between a general MBA and sports management is that “a general MBA requires students to have some background knowledge of the industry, whereas studying sport management will provide the framework to learn about the components of industry while still applying them in a practical context.”
Sports management can be a very interesting career choice. “Sports Management is interesting because it allows you to exercise management/ MBA-related skills within the thrilling and ever-changing scenario of sports. If sports or people are your passion and you can couple that with sound business/ management sense, then this job keeps you on your toes (and away from a desk-based position) and is financially rewarding too. There’s a constant amount of innovation, instant developments and situations requiring immediate inputs – all of which provide an excitement that very few professions can boast about,” says Ms. Chowdhary. Graduates in sports management can try for varied jobs. Some popular career choices are:
Sports Agent - A sports agent is a professional who helps athletes manage their careers. He or she may work with a single player or provide services to several clients at a time. Agents handle accounting and legal duties, negotiate contracts and provide advice about signing deals. They also market their clients to potential sponsors to increase player awareness and profits. Many sports agents are self-employed, while some work for consulting and management firms that cater to athletes in specific sports leagues. Sports Team Manager - Sports managers spend their time behind the scenes, coordinating all business-related activities for the team that employs them. They work closely with the coach and scouts to determine the schedule of players. They make financial arrangements for travel, equipment and uniform purchases. Sports managers also travel with the team and talk to the press. Sports Public Relations - Sports PR experts coordinate the flow of information from teams to the press and feed the public hunger for sports news, team data and player information. They also play an important promotional role in generating public interest, increasing teams’ visibility and thus filling stadiums with fans. Sports Journalism – Sports journalists report on any topic related to sports and sporting events. They are essential in a media organisation.
Sports Marketing - Sports marketing is a branch of the marketing industry that involves promotion and arrangement of sponsorship deals for sporting events, venues, teams and individual athletes. Those who work in the field are often employed by a specialty agency, a sports franchise or by the marketing division of a corporation that promotes its products through athletic sponsorship.
Sports Event Management – A sports event manager makes, arranges and manages athletic events. This includes event execution, getting sponsorship sales and promotional campaigns. Sports Finance – Sports finance is a very niche area. A sports finance director looks at the financial structure of the team and finds ways to further the revenues generated. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
CAREER WATCH A graduate in sports management can also get into Sports retail, anchoring, law and broadcasting.
Good knowledge of various sports, networking skills, innovativeness, convincing power and leadership skills are some of the must-haves for a sports manager. Certain situations, such as the current crisis with Kevin Pieterson or the Tiger Woods scandal, warrant well-thought decisions. There could be situations when quick and timely action is needed to avoid a crisis. Humility, mental strength and multi-tasking are also necessary skills for sports managers.
The starting salary for a sports management graduate is not very high but there is a lot of scope for growth. Ms. Chowdhary states, “Since sports management is presently at a very young stage in the country, starting salaries are not as high as established fields. However, with experience the salaries can shoot up to astronomical figures.” Internationally, a UK graduate in Sports Management can earn roughly £25,000 initially, with enhanced opportunities for career progression and development, according to Prof. Wilson.
Some Companies Hiring Sports Managers l
Percept D’Mark Western India Football Association l Cricket India Academy l Edusports l Mumbai Football Club l Tennis Excellence l All India Football Federation l BCCI l Indian Football Association l Globosport l ESPN- Star Sports l Nimbus Sports l Zee Sports l Leisure Sports Management Pvt. Ltd. l Puma Sports India Pvt. Ltd. l
Institutes Offering Sports Management IIM Shillong
Certificate Course in Sports Management Overview Sport has a global appeal and India does not lag behind, with events being organised in golf, tennis, soccer and others, like the Marathon. Therefore, the certification from a globally renowned IIM brand provides the ideal launch pad for a career in Sports Management. The six-month certificate course is designed to equip students with the basic concepts and practices, to enable them to gain a foothold in the emerging Indian sports market. It aims at providing detailed information in the areas of sports event management, sports marketing and sponsorship sales. From a practical standpoint, the students will also be exposed to case studies of celebrity management, sports event organisation and learnings from international sport properties in India. Fee The fee for this certificate course is Rs. 10,000/-. Admission Procedure Candidates desiring to apply for the six-month certificate programme in Sports Management should be graduates. The programme is non-residential, part time and 3 days in a week from 6 pm to 8 pm at the IIM-Shillong campus.
Team.i , The Entertainment and Media Institute MBA Events & Sports Management
Overview MBA in Event and Sports Management is a two-year full-time course developed in consultation with Network18. Developed to impart event management strategies and techniques that will help students plan and execute sporting events while promoting players, teams, and brands through sports. Emphasis is on various aspects of marketing, communication, business, and best industry practices that
University of Technology and Management PGDM (Sports Management)
Overview Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) in Sports Management, the one year programme offered by UTM, is designed to impart training to students in sports marketing, management, advertising, ethics, and media relations. The curriculum of this programme is designed to help students attain managerial positions in sports and allied disciplines.
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
are relevant to the programme. The course also includes an internship, projects and boot camps mentored by industry experts. Eligibility Criteria A student should be a graduate or in their final year for eligibility. Admission Procedure A student has to attempt an eligibility test. Once the test is cleared successfully, an interview is scheduled with the director. Eligibility Criteria Minimum 50% marks at higher and senior secondary level (10th and 12th) and graduation with minimum 50% marks from a recognised university. Admission Procedure A national-level test (UPES-MET 1/UPES-MET 2/MAT/ CAT/AICTE/ CMAT) score along with group discussion and personal interview will be considered before final selection. Fee The fee for the PGDM course in Sports Management is Rs. 60,000 per semester. www.advancedge.com
CAREER WATCH International Institute of Sports Management
Post Graduate Diploma in Sports Management/Sports Business
implementation of the evidence-based sports-specific training interventions. Its curriculum is a blend of classroom learning and field exposure.
Overview The one-year full-time course provides students and young professionals an in-depth understanding of the design and
Admission Procedure Written test, group discussion and personal interview are required.
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management
Sheffield Hallam University, UK
Post Graduate Diploma Course in Sports Management (PGDSM) Overview This one-year Post Graduate Diploma Programme has been designed to cater to the demand of various institutions and industries for managing sports -related jobs. The programme will assist the students in gaining a thorough understanding of the multi-dimensional importance and value of sport. It will expose students to the tools and techniques of sports administration including those of event management. The sports science section covers sports medicine, psychology, physiology, therapy and health promotion. Eligibility Criteria The candidate should have a bachelors degree in any discipline from a recognised university. Admission Procedure The selection will be based on a written test, GD and PI. Fee This course costs Rs.1,10,000.
Masters in Sports Business Management Overview Sheffield Hallam University offers a one-year full-time Masters degree in Sports Business Management. It includes modules as well as an industry-based research project to help the student gain theoretical and practical knowledge. The focus of this course is to match employability skills and academic theory, to ensure students are equipped for the fastpaced sporting environment. SHU is one of the best universities in the UK to study sports since Sheffield houses the English Sports Institute and has many international sports venues. Fee The fee for international students for the year 2013 is ÂŁ12,060. Admission Procedure Admission to this course depends on your academic grades. Graduation with minimum 60% or more from a recognised university is required. Also, recommendation letters from your organisation or lecturers, an IELTS score of more than 6.5, a statement of purpose, and sometimes an interview, are necessary to be admitted into the university.
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
CAREER WATCH DIRECTOR SPEAK
“IRMA Aiming For Accreditation” Professor Jeemol Unni Director, IRMA
What are the factors that contribute to IRMA’s performance across the spectrum of management education?
IRMA has been a pioneer in the field of Rural Management. The IRMA graduates occupy a special position in the rural management sector, wherein they apply their professional techno-managerial skills to unique organisations, whether it is a small primary production unit, democratic governance, or cooperation and collective institutions, in rural India. At IRMA the participants go through a tough curriculum which has the unique feature of placing them with development organisations in rural areas during the two year programme. This is a phase of ‘active learning’ and the young minds are moulded accordingly. As in any teaching and research institution, an academically strong faculty is the backbone. The faculty engages in teaching and training to create a generation of professional managers committed to rural development.
What according to you are the tips to crack the IRMA test?
Intelligent, honest and dedicated students with average intelligence can crack the IRMA test.
Why should students aspire to do rural management? Does it match the pay packages offered by conventional courses at top institutes?
In recent times, the concept of ‘rural’ has changed in terms of the nature of economic activities and associated issues. The
inequalities in education and health have increased, regional imbalances have grown, issues relating to exclusion of tribal and other segments, environment and governance remain a challenge. Moreover, the classic break of the rural and urban has disappeared. Given this changing context and the greater integration of the rural-urban within the global context, the challenges faced are many. Therefore, only students committed to rural development are expected to aspire to study at IRMA. Pay packages offered by conventional courses in other institutions cannot be a criterion to apply at IRMA.
A few institutes have replaced Group Discussion with Written Analysis Test; what are your views on the move? Will IRMA consider doing the same?
Group Discussion is an important component of evaluation at IRMA as it helps to understand the perspectives of the aspiring students. It will not be replaced in the near future.
The programmes at IRMA are currently not accredited; how does it affect the brand?
IRMA has developed its own brand over the last three decades and more. We are working towards accreditation, but currently its brand image is not affected.
How would you evaluate an Indian MBA degree and a foreign MBA degree? There is a general bias towards a foreign education; do you think a foreign MBA degree still holds the same charm? Indian MBA from good institutions is excellent and better suited for jobs in India. Foreign MBA may hold its charm for some students, but with global recession, such students find it difficult to get a job in the Western market. So, many MBAs from lesser-known foreign institutions are left high and dry without a job after an expensive education.
There is a dearth of good research and correspondingly a lack of faculty with solid research background. How is IRMA contributing towards fixing this anomaly?
IRMA is planning to set up Centers of Excellence in research and teaching. These will help to build good research and blend it with teaching to create knowledge about issues that are crucial to rural development. IRMA’s Fellow Program in Rural Management (FPRM) is a doctoral programme which is contributing to creating good faculty resources.
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
What is IRMA’s vision and path for the future?
IRMA’s vision is to promote sustainable, ecologically friendly, and equitable socio-economic development of rural people. It will continue to do work for the betterment of the rural areas and will strive to be the institute that creates truly transformative knowledge. www.advancedge.com
Scholarship Crusaders A list of students who have garnered scholarships from top management institutes because of the assistance and mentorship of IMS Consulting. Abhay Gandhi
Recipient of TOEFL scholarship 2012, worth USD 5000. Abhay also secured offers of 20,000 Euros from ESSEC and 5000 Euros from HEC Paris. Programme: MS in Management Program at HEC Paris GMAT score: 690
Name Balaji Prabakaran
GMAT Qualification Score 690 BE (Electronics and Telecommunication)
University/College Career Span Finolex Academy 4 of Management yrs and Technology
Present Career Calls Profile Marketing MBA programmes Manager at Hult, Thundebird, HSBC University of Rochester: Simon, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Northwestern University: Kellogg, ISB PGP (Mohali) Service ISB PGP (Hyderabad), Manager - Shell INSEAD India Markets Pvt Limited,
Sumeeta Chugh 740
Integrated BTech - Indian Insitute of MTech (Chemical Technology - Delhi Engineering)
BTech(Computer Science and Engineering)
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Senior Marketing Analyst - JP Morgan Chase
BE (Computer Science)
BE (Computer Science)
Systems Administrator, Finacle UBS - Infosys Systems Engineer Infosys
Scholarship/ Bursaries USD 20,000 Simon, USD 17,000 from Chinese University of Hong Kong
75 % of the scholarship from ISB, Hyderabad ~ USD 28,000 MBA programmes at USD 24,000 Australian Graduate from Simon, School of Management, USD 35,000 University of North from ANU Carolina: Kenan Flagler, University of Rochester: Simon, Richard Ivey, Indiana University at Bloomington: Kelley and ISB PGP(Hyderabad) MBA programmes at USD 8000 HULT, University of from HULT Toronto: Rotman MBA programmes at USD 8000 Georgetown University: from HULT McDonough, York University: Schulich, HULT, Asian Institute of Management (Manila)
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
BE (Electrical Engineering)
South Gujarat University
Senior Software HULT MBA Program Engineer Infosys
BE (Electronics Engineering)
QAD MBA programmes at USD 14000 Consultants Pvt Michigan State from Purdue Ltd, Consultant University-Eli Broad, University Purdue University: Krannert, Pennsylvania State University: Smeal, University of North Carolina: Kenan Flagler, Ohio State University: Fisher
BE (Computer Science)
Application Consultant IBM
BA, MA (English Literature)
Vikram University, Ujjain
Independant Tax Consultant
Financial Analyst TresVista Financial Services
Chinmaya 710 Dharamadhikari
BE (Mechanical Engineering), PGDM
BE (Mechanical Engineering) Pune University, PGM - IIM Kozhikode
Divisional Manager - Tata Motors
Entrepreneur - Vishal Corrugators
Kuldeep Yadav 650
BE (Electronics Engineering)
Visvesvaraya Technological University
BE (Mechanical Engineering)
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
MBA programmes at York University: Schulich, University of Toronto: Rotman. S.P.Jain Dubai/Singapore Global MBA. Masters in Information Systems program at Carnegie Mellon University. HULT MBA Program
USD 5000 from York University: Schulich
USD 4000 from HULT
Chinese University of Hong Kong MBA
USD 12000 from Chinese University of Hong Kong MIT Systems Design and USD Management Program, 50,000 from University of Southern Marshall: California: Marshall IBEAR IBEAR program, MBA Programs at Cranfield University and Manchester Business School
MBA programmes at Ohio State University: Fisher, York University: Schulich, Babson , Indiana University at Bloomington: Kelley, Emory University: Goizueta, Boston University Senior Analyst - MBA programmes at eClarx University of Florida: Gainsville, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, George Mason University, University of California at Irvibe, Wake Forest University: Babcock MD - Ehasas Wefare (NGO)
USD 6000 from HULT
MBA programmes at Babson, National University of Singapore, University of Chicago Boooth, ISB PGP
USD 30,000 from Babson
USD 36,000 from University of Illinois at Urbana Chapaign, USD 14,000 from University of California at Irvine USD 65,000 from Babson
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
To enjoy a dynamic working life that promises various roles, consider a career in the FMCG industry, one of the fastest growing sectors today.
Aditya Prakash Iengar
fast-paced working style, dynamic market conditions, huge competition, staying on your toes constantly and coming up with newer and more exciting ideas, and a huge potential for career growth if you’ve what it takes. Think you can handle it? If so, welcome to the world of the FMCG sector. The fast-moving consumer goods, or FMCG industry, primarily deals with the production, distribution and marketing of consumer packaged goods, i.e., those categories of products that are consumed at regular intervals, such as food and beverage, personal care, pharmaceuticals, plastic goods, paper and stationery and household products, etc. The industry is vast and offers a wide range of job opportunities in functions such as sales, supply chain, ﬁnance, marketing, operations, purchasing, human resources, product
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
development and general management. In India, the FMCG market growth over the past ﬁve years has been phenomenal, primarily due to consumers’ growing disposable income, which is directly linked to an increased
demand for FMCG and services. At a time when the economy and other large industrial sectors such as automobiles, aviation and ﬁnancial services are reeling from the global downturn, the consumer goods sector in India
Growth of FMCG Sector
AC Nielsen www.advancedge.com
SECTOR SCOPE has managed to defy the trend, and is currently one of the key drivers for the country’s economic development. The sector had a total market size of Rs. 1,425 billion in 2010, and is expected to expand to Rs. 1,800 billion by 2015. Furthermore, enthused by robust financial performance and attractive valuations, foreign investors increased their interest to fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies such as Britannia, Hindustan Unilever and Godrej Consumers Products in AprilJune this year. This naturally comes as a great boost to the sector. Interestingly, sales growth in value terms in this year’s April-June quarter of some of India’s biggest FMCG companies is higher than market research firm AC Nielsen’s growth estimate for the overall FMCG market. Seven listed domestic companies, which control over 70 per cent of the FMCG market, have posted an average value sales growth of 19.28 per cent, which is actually quite greater than Nielsen’s figure of 17.6 per cent.
What Students Prefer
So is it worth it? Is it worth spending several lakhs of rupees and a couple of years, to get into this sector? If a study by consultancy major Nielsen is to be believed, it most certainly is. The study, called Campus Track and conducted by Nielsen every year, shows that last year 36 per cent of management students from the top B-schools in the country preferred the FMCG sector the most, followed by consulting (29 per cent) and IT/ITes (20 per cent). Students have been cited as stating that they expect the growth potential to be maximum in the FMCG sector as compared to the other sectors. In the report, Dinesh Kapoor, Executive Director of Nielsen confirms, “With the FMCG growth in the country being driven by consumption, the sector continues to find favour with students who see it as a sector with huge growth potential.” www.advancedge.com
Last year, 36 % of management students from the top B-schools in the country preferred the FMCG sector the most, followed by consulting (29 %) and IT/ITes (20 %) Major FMCG Segments In India
Food And Beverages: This segment is by far the largest in the sector, comprising the food processing industry, health beverage industry, mineral waters, bread, biscuits, chocolate and confectionary. In India, among the largest categories of packaged food are soft drinks, biscuits, and, interestingly, tea, although unorganised players take up most of the tea market share. The major companies in this sector are HUL, ITC, Tata Tea, Godrej, Nestle and Amul. Personal Care: This segment includes wash products such as soaps and shampoos, oral care products such as toothpaste and toothbrush, cosmetics, etc. With the swelling disposable incomes and a greater number of products and brands to
choose from, people are giving more and more importance to personal grooming, which is why the Indian skin care/cosmetics market, although currently at a more nascent stage than others, is valued at $274 million as of 2011. (To put things in perspective, the US skin care market is estimated to touch $4.97 billion in 2013!) The primary players in this segment are HUL, Proctor & Gamble, Dabur, and Colgate-Palmolive. Household Care: Although it is an open secret that local, unorganised players have a major market share here, it is still noteworthy that this segment is growing at a rate of around ten per cent in the last half a decade. With urban boundaries constantly increasing, as well as the rising trend of small packs and sachets, the demand for varied choices of household care products is really looking up. Products in this segment include detergents, soaps, cleaners, etc. Major players include HUL, Godrej, Proctor & Gamble, Henkel and others. Interestingly, another large segment of the FMCG sector is the tobacco industry, where the biggest player in the Indian market is ITC.
The Pros And Cons
Some Of The Pros: } Operational costs are usually lower than in other sectors. } Huge potential given the expanding urban boundaries and the largely untapped rural market. } The upward trending changing lifestyle of today’s consumers and their increase in income levels mean an enormous opportunity for newer and more varied products to succeed on the market. } The government has announced various policy and fiscal measures, including FDI to the extent of 100 per cent, in the food processing segment, the largest FMCG segment. This entails a growth of at least 10 per cent by 2015. } The retailing sector is also a burgeoning one, and since it is intricately linked to the FMCG Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
SECTOR SCOPE sector, it means that the relative growth potential of the latter is also very high. } There are already well-known brands in the sector, both international and domestic, which creates competition and therefore increases investment potential. Some Of The Cons: } The world today largely relies on emerging technology. However, in the FMCG sector, there is less scope of investing in this technology and achieving economies of scale. } The export potential in this sector is not high. } If import restrictions are removed, the domestic brands may face tough competition from international, more securely placed brands.
A Career In The FMCG Sector
Traditionally, sales and marketing jobs have always been the most preferred roles in the FMCG sector as compared to other sectors. According to a consultant in ABC Consultants, initially, career opportunities in the FMCG sector are not as numerous to come by as in other sectors such as consulting or banking. However, this shouldn’t discourage candidates from opting for a career in the FMCG sector, as in the long run, remaining in the industry is quite worthwhile. “Once you make an entry into the FMCG industry, there are thousands of opportunities to take advantage
If the student has had some relevant experience before his management degree, it counts for even more. In such a case, if the student is from the top 10 B-schools, he or she can easily secure a Rs. 14 lakh plus package.
Consultant, ACH Consultants
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Executive Vice-President & Head –HR Marico Limited
What kind of a profile would be best suited for a career in the FMCG sector?
FMCG companies typically look out for smart profiles with the right balance of academics and extra-curricular activities. A consistently good academic record indicates the candidate’s learning patterns, knowledge, achievement orientation and stability. An active participation or representation in school and college extra-curricular activities such as sports, cultural activities, students associations, social service wings, etc give an idea about the candidate’s interpersonal skills, team work and leadership qualities.
What kinds of attributes are absolutely essential to be able to succeed in a sector such as FMCG?
Three key attributes (the 3Es) help a person succeed in an FMCG company. The person should be: a) Enterprising: Resourceful, innovative and constantly seeking opportunities to make a difference to the business. b) Enthusiastic: Self-motivated, passionate about winning, open to challenges, eager to learn and adapt to a dynamic environment. c) Energetic: High energy levels coupled with high bias for action.
If you recommend a career in this sector to anyone, what would you tell them?
FMCG is an exciting sector. It is a dynamic industry that succeeds when it caters to the ever-changing needs of the consumers, by constantly anticipating the future needs and creating innovative solutions that help the company to win in a highly competitive marketplace. We have great companies in this sector, MNCs as well as Indian companies, which have the best people practices and policies, offering excellent career prospects. The FMCG sector is known to be a hotbed of talent. Other sectors, including Telecom, Pharma, Retail, Banking and many more, actively seek out FMCG talent for their business needs. If you are someone who is motivated by challenge, dynamic environment and a sense of achievement, this is an industry to be in and win! of, and the pay packages too tend to skyrocket. In a very short period of time, with careful planning, one can easily outmatch the pay in corresponding roles in other sectors,” she said, adding that moving from roles such as sales to advertising or the like is quite common in this industry, which helps create a very diverse experience set for the candidate. With an MBA from a reputed institution, the starting role for a candidate in this sector would be that of, or equivalent to, an Area Manager. The focus in this role is on the productivity of the working capital, and a thorough knowledge of the product and its pricings, related regulations and basic understanding of sales and branding are required.
Usually, the area manager has to constantly keep improving cost control and services, as well as marketing and retailing initiatives. Another starting role for a candidate in this sector would be that of Brand Manager, or its equivalent. In this case, the focus is more on branding, advertising and marketing, and on developing the perfect blend of marketing initiatives, branding communication and monitoring systems. As the candidate treads his or her career path, if they are capable, then promotions are doled out quick and fast, more than in any other sector, the consultant said. After area or brand manager, the next levels are regional manager and/or group brand www.advancedge.com
manager, then higher into divisional and/or marketing manager, further to general manager (sales) or general manager (marketing), and finally vice-president of sales and marketing of that particular company.
Usually, the size of the pay package depends on the candidate’s B-school. According to Blazio Mascarenhas, a consultant with ACH Consultants, a competent student who has been recruited into the FMCG sector from any one of the top management institutes in the country can easily expect to draw upwards of Rs. 10 lakh per annum. “If the student has had some relevant experience before his management degree, it counts for even more. In such a case, if the student is from the top 10 B-schools, he or she can easily secure a Rs. 14 lakh plus package,” Mascarenhas said. However, a student recruited from a middle-tier institute can expect a salary of around Rs. 6-8 lakh per annum. “In both cases, after a few years and by making the right choices like shifting to a different role or
FMCG companies are best known for their evolved and exciting marketing careers. The candidate would need to have the right blend of creativity and analytical skills.
Dr Keyoor Purani
Associate Professor, IIM-K performing exceedingly well, the salary will shoot up to Rs. 15-17 lakh per annum easily,” Mascarenhas said.
What You Need To Succeed
Within the many roles in the FMCG sector, such as the various verticals in marketing, branding, sales, etc, a common factor is the need to be on your toes constantly, especially as the sector is highly dynamic. Depending on the role, the requirements vary from possessing knowledge of sales, branding, marketing and advertising,
to a working knowledge of the information systems that are involved in these roles. As an entry level manager, the best move would be to embrace more than one role along with the abovementioned verticals. Dr Keyoor Purani, a professor at IIM-Kozhikode, sheds some more light on what to expect if a student is looking at a career in the FMCG sector. According to him, like any business organisation, even in FMCG companies, a fresh MBA can join as a management trainee in functions such as manufacturing/operations, corporate finance, human resources and marketing. However, FMCG companies are best known for their evolved and exciting marketing careers. In the marketing function, a student can aspire to be in brand management/product management or sales management. “Brand management function allows an executive to develop and implement annual marketing plans and be responsible for the brands sales and market share objectives. An executive can look forward to working on advertising and promotion campaigns and deal with product development as well. The candidate would need to have the right blend of creativity and analytical skills. On the one hand, he is expected to explore innovative and creative ways to meet consumer requirements, while on the other hand, he or she would also need to analyse tonnes and tonnes of market research reports — both qualitatively and quantitatively,” Dr Purani said. On the other spectrum, in a sales function, one can begin as a territory manager and grow up in the sales force managing larger areas or zones or regions. “This does demand very aggressive travel schedules, and a lot of people and team management, leadership and social skills,” said Dr Purani. He added that many FMCG companies in fact expect even a brand manager to have exposure in sales, as only if an executive has worked in the field can he or she have a better understanding in developing national marketing strategies for a brand. Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
SECTOR SCOPE Some Of The Top Management Institutes That See The Most Recruitment From Companies In The FMCG Sector
IIM-Bangalore: Although traditionally known for high recruitment statistics in the finance sector, this year, IIM-B also enjoyed a lot of interest from the FMCG sector, with as much as 21 per cent of its student batch of 2012 being lapped up by recruiters. Big names among them include Proctor & Gamble, Hindustan Unilever, Pepsi, Heinz and Johnson & Johnson.
SP Jain Institute of Management and Research: Here too, FMCG firms recruited in large numbers, with 27 per cent of the entire batch of 2012 getting placed in this sector. HUL, P&G, Kraft, PepsiCo, Nestle, GSK, Johnson & Johnson Consumer and Medical Groups, Asian Paints, Britannia, Marico, HCCB, L’Oreal, Reckitt Benckiser, Nivea, Nokia,Wipro Consumer, etc were some of the big names.
IIM-Ahmedabad: Like IIM-B, IIM-A too is known for being the preferred destination for BFSI sector companies. Although that didn’t change this time, interestingly, the highest number of offer acceptances (14) among the students was from first-time recruiter Supermax, with others such as Proctor & Gamble, Hindustan Unilever and Nestle following close behind.
Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies: A long time stronghold of NMIMS, this sector had the presence of ITC, Reckitt Benckiser, HCCB, Red Bull, Adidas, Dabur, Wrigley’s, L’Oreal, Nivea, Kelloggs, Wipro CCL, Emami, Philip Morris, Whirlpool, Videocon, Usha International, et al.
Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Pune: Traditionally known for attracting the most FMCG companies, SIBM didn’t disappoint this time round either. As much as 31 per cent of the 2012 batch was placed in the FMCG sector, with the major players being Coca-Cola India, GSK, I TC, Marico, Pepsico India, Castrol, Asian Paints, Dabur, Titan, et al.
Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management and Research: Jamnalal Bajaj has also always been a stronghold for the FMCG sector as far as recruitment is concerned. This year too, as much as 25 per cent of the 2012 batch was picked up by FMCG firms such as HUL, P&G, Colgate Palmolive, J&J Consumer, ITC, Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages, Britannia and Pidilite.
Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi: This time, the secondhighest recruitment in the batch was from the FMCG sector, with 19 per cent of the batch being placed in companies such as Asian Paints, Britannia, Dabur, Godfrey Phillips, Godrej Consumer, GSK Consumer, HCCB, Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, Nestle, Procter & Gamble, Reckitt Benckiser and Wrigley’s. ITC made the maximum number of offers with 7 in total, followed by HUL’s 5 offers.
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
“Online Professional Proﬁle Opens Up Opportunities” Yogesh Bansal, CEO, ApnaCircle.com, created India’s first networking website for professionals in 2006. ApnaCircle.com initiated the youth of Tier II, III and IV cities into the professional networking culture. In an interview with Puja Shah, he talks about his education, dreams, visions and leadership. Tell us about your journey from masters to Founder & CEO, ApnaCircle.com.
The journey began in 1997 after I completed my Masters in IT and Finance from the University of North Carolina and started working with Mckesson Inc. There, I developed a software called Paragon for a hospital information system and worked on the technology during the Y2K problems. In 1998, a colleague and I conceptualised and developed an online social network just for fun. Post that, I founded GeoRapid Inc. With GeoRapid I realised the credibility and the need for email marketing tools, which subsequently led me to my next big innovations in the dotcom business. With hands-on experience gathered in the US, I moved to India in 2006 with a vision to generate a unique and innovative platform for Indian consumers; I observed the Indian population, especially the chunk of youth that was vividly expanding the horizon of dotcom industry in the country.
During my research, I found various users’ insights, out of which the most highlighted fact was the Indian youth’s inclination towards career and friends. Having considered the potential of the fact, combined with the rise of social networking in the country, my desire was to create something which caters to both — friends and career. This ﬁnally laid the foundation of ApnaCircle.com.
Tell our readers something about ApnaCircle.com and the work you are involved in.
Founded in 2006, ApnaCircle is India’s ﬁrst business and career networking site. It is the only local professional network the country has. We have over 3 million users in India and globally, the group (ApnaCircle-ViadeoTianji) has over 40 million members. The site connects professionals across India and gives them a platform to brand themselves and build the right contacts.
How important is social networking in today’s world? Do you think it is necessary for every professional or a brand to be on a social networking site?
Any individual today is required to brand
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
CORPORATE SPEAK themselves, and it should be his/her professional obligation to do so. Having an online professional proﬁle not only gives control on what others view but also opens up opportunities. Being available and active online means increasing your ‘google-bility’ or searchability, which is directly related to the opinion others form about you. Today, networking sites are a job and career (networking) assembly for young and aspiring professionals across verticals and industries. They act as catalysts in providing global/international career opportunities and that is one more reason for you to be online.
To what extent would you ascribe your professional rise and success to formal education?
Formal education in any subject is deﬁnitely very important to succeed. It gives you a ﬁrm footing when you take the initial steps towards your career. My education taught me the basics of management and gave me an exposure. However, rising in your profession is a combination of hard work, innovation, passion and education and for me all of them have been equally important. Absence of one will not fetch you dividends.
In your opinion, what are the most critical attributes of effective leadership in the business world?
As I led my company I realised the foremost attribute required was self-belief. I had to have faith in myself and had to believe in my ideas. It was only then that I could make my team believe in me. I had to identify the problems and ﬁnd a solution to those problems. Other important qualities are enthusiasm and passion. As a leader you need to keep your team motivated. This enthusiasm trickles down through the work environment to others. Innovation is another attribute that leads to effective leadership. An effective leader will develop new ideas and ways to ﬁx things. A leader should also be an effective communicator.
Where there is no communication, problems arise. Effective communication is important to those who are leading and following. An effective leader will make sure that his team understands what their tasks are and will follow through with them.
What, according to you, are the most challenging and rewarding aspects of your job?
The most challenging aspect of the social media business is its pace of innovation. It is very rewarding to see the numbers and scope increasing daily.
What level of growth do you foresee in social networking in the coming years?
Innumerable professionals are getting attracted towards the innovation called social networking. It is spreading like wildﬁre amongst the young and old, students and professionals for various reasons. The affordability and the networking power are provoking this generation to indulge in this addiction. Talking from an Indian point of view, Indians are culturally and mentally inclined towards education and career. Families go out of the way and support them in this. Given an appropriate return on investment the educated professional today would not mind spending on himself. So the future looks bright.
Do you intend to branch out into another business in future?
We are looking at adding and innovating on ApnaCircle but not on something different right now. No plans as such.
What are the lessons you have learnt from your journey that you would like to share with young MBA aspirants or graduates? The only thing I would want to tell the youth is that, right now, both time and opportunity are right for them. They should just go for it. They should not only choose ﬁelds/areas that interest them but also keep themselves updated and keep their online presence strong and professional.
What is your success mantra?
The key to being successful is not one thing alone. There is a recipe, with a lot of ingredients. They need to be mixed and matched in the right proportion. Any one foul ingredient can spoil the whole dish. So it’s not one thing, but a mix of ingredients.
What keeps you occupied other than work? How do you strike a balance between your work and personal life? I am into sports, indoor as well as outdoor. It not only refreshes me but keeps my spirit alive. www.advancedge.com
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
STUDY HOUR Word Dose
WORD DOSE Gaurav Sharma
Atlas Shrugged Ayn Rand’s magnum opus explores a dystopia where the productive class repudiates to be subjugated any further by society. As the government takes more and more control over industry, the most productive citizens simply retreat to follow a cult leader (John Galt). Their point is that any society will stop functioning if its most rational and industrious are not free to pursue their own self interest. The book closely emulates Rand’s philosophy of Objectivism, which stressed primacy of reason, individual rights, and laissez-faire economics. Liberals hated the outright rejection of socialism, while conservatives deplored the implicit atheism, though, ironically, the book can be seen as a treatise favouring Aristotelean philosophy and the concept of the existence of a God figure. The seminal novel shows the man, his mind and his body, celebrated in the purest form. Stripped of all collectivist obligations that drag him down, he stands in this world, upright and proud, in love with his ability, his mind and with respect to what he does.
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
STUDY HOUR Word Dose
WORD MEANINGS Magnum (n)
Unusually great in
A literary work or composition,
A society characterised by
power or size.
as a book.
human misery, as squalor, oppression, disease, and overcrowding.
To reject as having no authority
To make submissive
or binding force.
or subservient; enslave.
and devotedly; hard-working; diligent.
Emulates (v) (em-yuh-leyt) To try to equal or excel; imitate with effort to equal or surpass.
Laissez-faire (n) (les-ey fair) The theory or system of government that upholds the autonomous character of the economic order, believing that government should intervene as little as possible in the direction of economic affairs.
Outright (adj) (out-rahyt) Complete or total.
To regret deeply or strongly;
A formal and systematic exposition
rather than expressly stated.
in writing of the principles of a subject, generally longer and more detailed than an essay.
Having possibilities of
Subscribing to the socialistic
doctrine of giving a group priority over each individual in it.
Advancâ€™edge MBA September 2012
Obligations (n) (ob-li-gey-shuhn) Something by which a person is bound or obliged to do certain things, and which arises out of a sense of duty or results from custom, law, etc.
1. When was the National Olympic Committee for India – the Indian Olympic Association – created? a. 1900 b. 1927 c. 1950 d. 1957 2. Name the Indian politician who died on August 14, 2012. He served as Minister of Science and Technology and Minister of Earth Sciences. He was a member of Rajya Sabha representing Maharashtra. He was two-time Chief Minister of Maharashtra, from 1999 to 2003 and from 2004 to 2008. He was a member of the Indian National Congress and originally belonged to Latur district in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra. a. Vilasrao Dagadojirao Deshmukh b. Pawan Kumar Bansal c. Vayalar Ravi d. Virbhadra Singh 3. Name the fifth and current President of Egypt, who assumed office 30 June 2012. He became Chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), a political party, founded by the Muslim Brotherhood in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. He stood as the FJP’s candidate for the May–June 2012 presidential election. a. Hosni Mubarak b. Ahmed Shafiq c. Hesham Qandil d. Mohamed Morsi El-Ayyat
a. International Space Radio Organisation b. Indian Space Research Organisation c. Indian Silicon and Radium Organisation d. International Rodeo and Seller Organisation 7. The Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (MDONER) is a Government of India ministry, established in September 2001, which functions as the nodal Department of the Central Government to deal with matters related to the socio-economic development of the eight States of Northeast India, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. When was it set up? a. 2011 b. 1980 c. 1955 d. 2001 8. John Key, the Prime Minister of ..., announces that his government will withdraw forces from Afghanistan early in 2013. Name the country. a. New Zealand b. Australia c. Iraq d. India
4. Where is the bi-weekly business magazine, Forbes – The Capitalist Tool, published from? a. China b. America c. Sri Lanka d. Russia
9. What is the full form of BBC – a British public service broadcaster headquartered at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London? a. Britain and Beach Corporate b. Bulls and Bear Companies Act c. British Broadcasters’ Corporation d. British Broadcasting Corporation
5. Who directed Vertigo, a 1958 psychological thriller film, based on the 1954 novel D’entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac? a. James Stewart b. Kim Novak c. Alfred Hitchcock d. Barbara Bel Geddes 6. What is the full form of ISRO?
10. Julian Paul Assange is an Australian-born editor, activist, political talk show host, computer programmer, publisher and journalist. He is best known as the editor-in-chief and founder of which media website? a. BBC Worldwide b. Forbes International
c. Wikileaks d. New York Times
11. Delhi became the capital of British India after the seat of power was shifted from Calcutta in which year? a. 1920 b. 1918 c. 1911 d. 1850 12. The Edinburgh Festival is a collective term for many arts and cultural festivals that take place in Edinburgh, Scotland, each summer, mostly in August in a post-war effort to “provide a platform for the flowering of the human spirit”. When was it established? a. 1847 b. 1947 c. 1700 d. 2000 13. Name the author of Gitanjali. He was the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. a. Rabindranath Tagore b. Bankin Chandra Chaterjee c. Nandalal Bose d. Salman Rushdie 14. Which Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, even as the other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties? a. Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye b. Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine c. Treaty of Sèvres d. Treaty of Versailles 15. What was the full form of Nazism, the ideology propogated by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany? It is a variety of fascism that incorporates biological racism and antisemitism. a. National Socialism b. National Communism c. National Semitism d. Biological Semitism 16. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures Corporation and Louis B. Mayer Pictures. What is the full form of MGM? a. Major-Golden-Movies b. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer c. Metro-Golden-Mayer d. Major-Goldwyn-Movies
17. The Emu is the largest bird native to which country? a. Siberia b. China c. Australia d. India 18. Life of Pi is a fantasy adventure novel published in 2001. The protagonist, Piscine Molitor “Pi” Patel, an Indian boy from Pondicherry, explores issues of spirituality and practicality from an early age. He survives 227 days after a shipwreck, while stranded on a boat in the Pacific Ocean with a Bengal tiger. Name the author. a. Moacyr Scliar b. Brian Bethune c. Tomislav Torjanac d. Yann Martel
provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. a. 1934 b. 1935 c. 1940 d. 1950
22. The government comprises three branches: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. The executive branch is headed by the ..., who is the Head of State and exercises his or her power directly or through officers subordinate to him. a. Prime Minister b. President c. Speaker d. Supreme Court 23. KV Kamath is the chairman of which bank in India that was established in 1994? a. HDFC b. Punjab National Bank
c. State Bank of India d. ICICI
24. Name the former residence of the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru in Delhi, India, who stayed here for 16 years until his death on May 27, 1964. The place was built in 1930 as part of the new imperial capital of India, New Delhi, as the residence of the Commander-in-Chief of the British Indian Army. a. Teen Murti Bhavan b. Viceroy House c. 10 Janpath d. Rashtrapati Bhavan 25. The Argumentative Indian is a book written by which Nobel Prize winning Indian economist? a. Montek Singh Ahluwalia b. D Subbarao c. Amartya Sen d. Manmohan Singh
19. Name the winner of the Miss World 2012 beauty pageant, which took place at the Ordos Stadium Arena in inner Mongolia, China on August 18, 2012. a. Yu Wenxia b. Vanya Mishra c. Jessica Kahawaty d. Sophie Moulds 20. Mercedes-Benz is a multinational division of the auto manufacturer Daimler AG, and the brand is used for automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is headquartered in which country? a. Korea b. Japan c. Italy d. Germany 21. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. It was established in... during the British Raj in accordance with the
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
How to Play Fill in the grid so that every horizontal row, every vertical column and every 3x3 box contains the digits 1-9, without repeating the numbers in the same row, column or box. You can’t change the digits already given in the grid. Every puzzle has one solution. Hint: Don’t fill in numbers at random. While filling a particular square, write numbers 1-9 on a pad and start eliminating those numbers that already appear in the same row, column or 3x3 box. www.advancedge.com
26. Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, was 13 years old when he ascended the Mughal throne in Delhi (February 1556), following the death of his father. Who was his father? a. Kamran Mirza b. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur c. Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun d. Genghis Khan 27. Name the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. a. John Fitzgerald Kennedy b. Richard Nixon c. Theodore Roosevelt d. Joseph McCarthy 28. Name the mountain range along the western side of India, which has been recently declared as an UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight hottest hotspots of biological diversity in the world. This range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau,
ANSWERS 1.b 2.a 3.d 4.b 5.c 6.b 7.d 8.a 9.d 10.c 11.c 12.b 13.a 14.d 15.a 16.b 17.c 18.d 19.a 20.d 21.b 22.b 23.d 24.a 25.c 26.c 27.a 28.d 29.b 30.a 31.c 32.d 33.a 34.c 35.b 36.d 37.a 38.c Answer to the Sudoku
Solution, tips and computer programme at www.sudoku.com www.advancedge.com
and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. a. Karakoram Range b. Pamir c. Deccan Plateau d. Western Ghats
29. How many countries does Asia have? a. 90 b. 48 c. 60 d. 38
30. The Wright brothers, Orville and ..., were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited with inventing and building the world’s first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. a. Wilbur b. William c. Bill d. Oliver 31. Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective created by an author and physician. Name him. a. Shakespeare b. Ian Fleming c. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle d. Nicholas Meyer 32. Who is the current Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), elected for a five-year term starting on July 5, 2011? a. Jacques de Larosière b. Horst Köhler c. Dominique Strauss-Kahn d. Christine Lagarde 33. He was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, he helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. Name him.
a. Plato b. Xenophon c. Aristophanes d. Justinian I
34. When was the Bharat Ratna, the Republic of India’s highest civilian award for performance of highest order in any field of human endeavour, instituted? a. 1951 b. 1960 c. 1954 d. 1965 35. Who created Twitter, an online social networking service and microblogging service, in March 2006? a. Larry Bird b. Jack Dorsey c. Alwaleed bin Talal d. Ryan Giggs 36. Name the English-American film director, screenwriter and producer who successfully revived the Batman film franchise for Warner Bros, a trilogy consisting of Batman Begins (2005), The Dark Knight (2008), and The Dark Knight Rises (2012). a.Hans Zimmer b.Terrence Malick c. Ridley Scott d. Christopher Jonathan James Nolan 37. Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. When was it formed? a. 1976 b. 1886 c. 1975 d. 1980 38. Michael Fred Phelps II (born June 30, 1985) is the most decorated Olympian of all time with 22 medals. Phelps also holds the alltime records for Olympic gold medals. Which country does he belong to? a. Jamaica b. France c. America d. Spain Advanc’edge MBA September 2012
STUDY HOUR Events Calendar
Workshop for Women Entrepreneurs Venue: ISB, Hyderabad Date: September 14-15, 2012
Wadhwani Centre for Entrepreneurship Development (WCED) at the Indian School of Business, in association with the US Consulate, is organising a two-day workshop for Women Entrepreneurs on September 14-15, 2012. This workshop will provide an insight on subjects essential for running a successful venture, such as strategic growth, negotiations, marketing, accounting and finance. Website: http://www.isb.edu/WCED/Upcoming%20 Events.Shtml ILLUMINATIX Online Event Date: September 23, 2012 Public Relations Committee of NMIMS, Bangalore, will hold ILLUMINATIX, an online national-level business quiz with an aim to test the business knowledge of undergraduate and post-graduate students. This is an opportunity not only to test your awareness but also bring pride to the institution you belong to.
6th International Conference on Challenges in Human Resource Management Venue: Desh Bhagat Institute of Management and Computer Sciences, Chandigarh Date: September 21 – 22, 2012 Gain a deeper understanding of effective, evidencebased HR practices, and how to adapt them into your organisations. Salient, ethical and legal issues in managing the employee-employer relationship will be discussed along with ways to improve HR systems and practices. Website: http://www.deshbhagatinstitutes.com/html/ seminar.pdf
Register at: http://www.nmimsbangalore.org/quiz/quiz.htm
Project Management Conference
Last Date to Register: September 10
Venue: Hilton Mumbai International Airport Hotel, Mumbai
Website: http://www.nmimsbangalore.org/quiz/quiz.htm Techniche 2012 National-Level Techno Management Fest Venue: IIT Guwahati Date: August 30 – September 2, 2012 Techniche is a non-profit organisation run by the student community of IIT Guwahati. It promotes the development and honing of scientific and entrepreneurial skills in the academia, and is socially responsible with its initiatives. There are events such as National Robotics Championship, Paper Presentation Contest, Brain Child - B-Plan writing, Product Launch, Start-up Showcase and Industrial Conclave. Website: http://www.techniche.org/landing/
Date: September 6-7, 2012 Troubled projects are often identified from the outside. By the time a project is troubled, it is often necessary to have an external intervention. Why? Because, if the project manager and the team had been able to address problems and issues facing the project, the project would probably not be troubled in the way that the organisers have defined the term - chronic problems. Eminent speakers from the industry will talk on effective project management. Website: http://www.biztradeshows.com/project-management/ London Business School’s WAC 2012 Connecting For Impact Venue: TBC, Mumbai
Date: September 4-6, 2012
Date: September 27, 2012 WAC is all about connecting for impact, as once again thousands of alumni will take part in the celebration in over 90 cities around the world. Please join the community in Mumbai in celebrating the School’s eighth Worldwide Alumni Celebration.
International Conference Governance – 2012 Venue: IISc, Bangalore
39th National Management Convention Theme: “Re-thinking the enterprise: Igniting growth with responsibility”. Venue: Hotel Trident, Mumbai Date: September 25-26, 2012 AIMA’s NMC is a flagship event in the national annual calendar. The NMC focuses on the challenges faced by India Inc.and their impact on business, industry and the country. The global economy is pacing towards an entirely new phase characterised by slower growth and economic volatility amidst changing power equations between the East and West. The convention will put forth a “Re-think”, “Re-ignite” and “Re-fresh” proposition to the leaders, not only from the industry but also from the government, academia and social sector. Website: http://www.aima-ind.org/National-ManagementConvention.html
Advanc’edge MBA September 2012