Page 1


Student’s Book Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


The Callan ® Method was first developed and published in 1960 by R.K. T. Callan. This edition was published for the international market in 2012.

Copyright © R.K.T. Callan 2012

Student’s Book – Stage 9 eISBN 978-1-78229-008-7

CALLAN and the CALLAN logo are registered trade marks of Callan Works Limited, used under licence by Callan Publishing Limited

Conditions of sale All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

Published by CALLAN PUBLISHING LTD. Orchard House, 45-47 Mill Way, Grantchester, Cambridge CB3 9ND in association with CALLAN METHOD ORGANISATION LTD.

www.callan.co.uk


Ȅ1BSBPCUFOFSMBUSBEVDDJ³OEFFTUFQSFGBDJPFOFTQB¹PM WJTJUBS www.callan.co.uk/preface/es Ȅ1FSVOBUSBEV[JPOFEJRVFTUBQSFGB[JPOFJO*UBMJBOP WJTJUBSFJMTJUP www.callan.co.uk/preface/it Ȅ1BSBPCUFSVNBUSBEV§£PEFTUFQSFG¥DJPFNQPSUVHVªT WJTJUF www.callan.co.uk/preface/pt Ȅ;QPMTLJNUÝVNBD[FOJFNUFHPXTU×QVNPĪOB[BQP[OBÇTJ×OBTUSPOJF www.callan.co.uk/preface/pl Ȅ1PVSPCUFOJSMBUSBEVDUJPOEFDFUUFQSŠGBDFFOGSBO§BJT SFOEF[WPVTTVSMFTJUF www.callan.co.uk/preface/fr Ȅ#VœOTœ[ŸO5ŸSL§F§FWJSJTJJ§JOBĕB�ÍEBLJXFCBESFTJOJ[JZBSFUFEJO www.callan.co.uk/preface/tr Ȅ www.callan.co.uk/preface/ch Ȅ www.callan.co.uk/preface/jp Ȅ www.callan.co.uk/preface/ar

Welcome to the Callan Method Learning English with the Callan™ Method is fast and effective! The Callan Method is a teaching method created specifically to improve your English in an intensive atmosphere. The teacher is constantly asking questions, so you are hearing and using the language as much as possible. When you speak in the lesson, the teacher corrects your grammar and pronunciation mistakes, and you learn a lot from this correction. The Callan Method teaches English vocabulary and grammar in a carefully programmed way, with systematic revision and reinforcement. In the lesson, there is a lot of speaking and listening practice, but there is also reading and writing so that you revise and consolidate what you have learned. With the Callan Method, the teacher speaks quickly so that you learn to understand English when it is spoken at natural speed. This also means that everyone is concentrating hard all the time.


English in a quarter of the time The Callan Method can teach English in a quarter of the time taken by any other method on the market. Instead of the usual 350 hours necessary to get the average student to the level of the Cambridge Preliminary English Test (PET), the Callan Method can take as little as 80 hours, and only 160 hours for the Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE). The method is suitable for students of all nationalities, and ages. It requires no equipment (not even a whiteboard) or other books, and can be used for classes at private schools, state schools and universities. It is also possible for students to use the books to practise with each other when they are not at school. In addition to this, students can practise their English online using the interactive exercises, which are available to students who study at licensed schools. Ask your school for details.

The Callan Method in practice A Callan Method English lesson is probably very different from lessons you have done in the past. You do not sit in silence, doing a reading comprehension test or a grammar exercise from a book. You do not have ‘free conversation’, where you only use the English you already feel comfortable with. Of course, activities like this can help you, but you can do them at home with a book, or in a coffee bar. In a Callan Method lesson, you are busy with important activities that you cannot do outside the classroom. You are listening to English all the time. You are speaking English a lot, and all your mistakes are corrected. You learn quickly because you are always surrounded by English. There is no silence and no time to get bored or lose your concentration. And it is also fun! So, what exactly happens in a Callan Method lesson, and how does it work?

The teacher asks you questions The Callan Method books are full of questions. Each question practises a word, an expression, or a piece of grammar. The teacher is standing, and asks the questions to the students one by one. You never know when the teacher will ask you, so you are always concentrating. When one student finishes answering one question, the teacher immediately starts to ask the next question.

The teacher speaks quickly The teacher in a Callan Method lesson speaks quickly. This is because, in the real world, it is natural to speak quickly. If you want to understand normal English, you must practise listening to quick natural speech and become able to understand English without first translating into your language. This idea of not translating is at the centre of the Callan Method; this method helps you to start thinking in English.


Also, we do not want you to stop and think a lot about the grammar while you are speaking. We want you to speak as a reflex, instinctively. And do not worry about mistakes. You will, naturally, make a lot of mistakes in the lessons, but Callan Method teachers correct your mistakes, and you learn from the corrections. When you go home, of course it will help if you read your book, think about the grammar, study the vocabulary, and do all the things that language students do at home – but the lessons are times to practise your listening and speaking, with your books closed!

The teacher says every question twice, and helps you with the answer In the lesson, the teacher speaks quickly, so we say the questions twice. This way, you have another chance to listen if you did not understand everything the first time. The teacher then immediately says the beginning of the answer. This is to help you (and ‘push’ you) to start speaking immediately. So, for example: Teacher: “Are there two chairs in this room? Are there two chairs in this room? No, there aren’t ...” Student (immediately): “No, there aren’t two chairs in this room; there are twelve chairs in this room.” If the teacher does not ‘push’ you by giving you the beginning of the answer, you might start to think too much, and translate into your language. The teacher will speak along with you all the time while you are saying your answer. So, if you forget a word or you are not sure what to say, you will always hear the next word or two from the teacher. You should repeat after the teacher, but immediately try again to continue with the answer yourself. You must always try to continue speaking, and only copy the teacher when you cannot continue alone. That way, you will become more confident and learn more quickly. Never simply wait for help from the teacher and then copy – you will not improve so quickly.

Long answers, with the same grammar as the question We want you to practise your speaking as much as possible, so you always make complete sentences when you speak in the lesson, using the same grammatical structure as in the question. For example: Teacher: “About how many pages are there in this book?” Student: “There are about two hundred pages in that book.” In this way, you are not just answering a question; you are making full sentences with the vocabulary and the grammar that you need to learn.


Correction by imitation With the Callan Method, the teacher corrects all your mistakes the moment you make them. The teacher corrects you by imitating (copying) your mistake and then saying the correct pronunciation/form of the word. For example, if you say “He come from Spain”, the teacher quickly says “not come - comes”. This correction by imitation helps you to hear the difference between your mistake and the proper English form. You should immediately repeat the correct word and continue with your sentence. You learn a lot from this correction of your mistakes, and constant correction results in fast progress.

Contracted forms In the lesson, the teacher uses contractions (e.g. the teacher says “I don’t” instead of “I do not”). This is because it is natural to use contractions in spoken English and you must learn to understand them. Also, if you want to sound natural when you speak, you must learn to use contractions.

Lesson structure Every school is different, but a typical 50-minute Callan lesson will contain about 35 minutes of speaking, a 10-minute period for reading, and a 5-minute dictation. The reading practice and the dictation are often in the middle of the lesson. In the reading part, you read and speak while the teacher helps you and corrects your mistakes. In the dictation, you practise your writing, but you are also listening to the teacher. So, a 50-minute Callan lesson is 50 minutes of spoken English with no silence!

No chatting Although the Callan Method emphasises the importance of speaking practice, this does not mean chatting (free conversation). You learn English quickly with the Callan Method partly because the lessons are organised, efficient, fast and busy. There is no time wasted on chatting; this can be done before or after the lesson. Chatting is not a good way to spend your time in an English lesson. First, only some of the students speak. Second, in a chat, people only use the English that they already know. Third, it is difficult for a teacher to correct mistakes during a conversation. The Callan Method has none of these problems. All through the lesson, every student is listening and speaking, practising different vocabulary and structures, and learning from the correction of their mistakes. And nobody has time to get bored!


Repeat, repeat, repeat! Systematic revision In your native language, you sometimes read or hear a word that you do not already know. You usually need to read or hear this new word only once or twice in order to remember it and then use it yourself. However, when you are learning a foreign language, things are very different. You need to hear, see and use words and grammatical structures many times before you really know them properly. So your studies must involve a system of revision (repeating what you have studied before). This is absolutely essential. If there is no system of revision in your studies, you will forget what you have studied and will not be able to speak or understand better than before. In every Callan Method lesson, of course you learn new English, practise it, and progress through your book. However, you also do a lot of revision so that you can really learn what you have studied. Your teacher can decide how much revision your class needs, but it will always be an important part of your studies. Also, because there is a lot of revision, it is not important for you to understand everything the first time; it gets easier. The revision with Callan is automatic and systematic. Every day you do a lot of revision and then learn some new English.

Revision in reading and dictation too The reading and dictation practice in the lessons is part of Callan’s systematic revision as well. First, you learn a new word in the speaking part of the lesson; a few lessons later, you meet it again when you are reading; finally, the word appears in a dictation. This is all written into the Callan Method; it happens automatically.

Correcting your dictations With the Callan Method, there is little or no homework to do, but it is very important that you correct your dictations. These are printed in your book and so you can easily correct them at home, on the bus, or wherever. It is important to do this because it helps you to learn the written forms of the words you have already studied in earlier lessons.

Your first lessons with the Callan Method During your first lesson with the Callan Method, all of the questions and some of the vocabulary are new for you; you have not done any revision yet. For this reason, the teacher may not ask you many questions. You can sit and listen, and become more familiar with the method - the speed, the questions, the correction etc.


History of the Callan Method – Robin Callan Robin Callan is the creator of the Callan Method. He owns the Callan School in London’s Oxford Street. He also runs Callan Publishing Limited, which supplies Callan Method books to schools all over the world. Robin Callan grew up in Ely, Cambridgeshire, England. In his early twenties, he went to Italy to teach English in Salerno. Although he enjoyed teaching, Robin thought that the way in which teachers were expected to teach their lessons was inefficient and boring. He became very interested in the mechanisms of language learning, and was sure that he could radically improve the way English was taught. He remained in Italy and started to write his own books for teaching English. He used these in his own classes and, over the following ten years, gained an immense amount of practical experience and a reputation for teaching English quickly and effectively. When he returned to England, he opened his school in Oxford Street. As the method became more and more popular with students, the school grew and moved to larger premises. Robin continued to write his Callan Method books, and today the method is used by schools all over the world. Robin Callan has always been passionate about English literature, especially poetry. For this reason, he bought The Orchard Tea Garden in Grantchester, near Cambridge, which attracts thousands of tourists each year. Throughout the 20th century, it was a popular meeting place for many famous Cambridge University students and important figures from English literature, such as Rupert Brooke, Virginia Woolf and E.M. Forster. Today, it is also home to the Rupert Brooke Museum. Mr Callan now lives in Grantchester, but still plays an active role in the management of the Callan School in London.


The Callan School in London’s Oxford Street The largest private school in London The Callan School in Oxford Street is the largest private school in London teaching English as a foreign language. Depending on the time of year, the school employs between 60 and 100 teachers and has an average of 1600 students passing through its doors every day. This number rises to more than 2000 in the middle of summer, similar to a small university.

Websites Please visit the following websites for more information: Callan Method http://www.callan.co.uk Lots of information, including a list of schools around the world that use the method Callan School London http://www.callanschoollondon.com/en/callan-school All you need to know about the largest private English language school in London


How Callan Method Stages compare to CEFR* levels and University of Cambridge General English exams * Common European Framework of Reference

It is difficult to compare the Callan Method books directly with the CEFR levels and Cambridge exams, but below is an approximate guide.

Callan Method Stages CEFR

Levels

Cambridge Exams

C2

CPE

C2 C1

CAE

C2 B2

FCE

B1

PET

A2 B1

KET

B1 A1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12


STAGE 9


LESSON 127 697

social 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBQFSTPOǽTTPDJBMMJGF  By a person’s social life, we mean what they do with their friends etc. in their free time outside work

edge

little by little

intend

8IBUQBSUPGUIFUBCMFJTUIJT 

That part of … is the edge

$BOXFCBMBODFBDPJOPOJUTFEHF 

Yes, we can …

$BOXFDVUCSFBEXJUIUIFUIJDLFEHFPGBLOJGF 

No, we can’t ...

The verb “to edge“ means “to move slowly and carefully towards somewhere“. 8IBUEPFTUIFWFSCǿUPFEHFǿNFBO 



The verb ... “to move slowly and carefully towards somewhere“

8IZEPFTBDBSIBWFUPFEHFGPSXBSETMPXMZXIFOUVSOJOHGSPNBTJEF TUSFFUJOUPBNBJOTUSFFU  A car has to edge forward … so that the other cars have enough time to see what it intends doing

tin

preserve

8IZEPGBDUPSJFTQVUGPPEJOUJOT   8IBUNFUBMJTBUJONBEFPG  698

aluminium 



Factories put food in tins to preserve it A tin is made of tin or aluminium

on average 0OBWFSBHF IPXNBOZUJNFTBXFFLEPZPVHPPVUTPDJBMMZ  On average, I go out …


Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives, participles and adverbs Most adjectives of two syllables which have the stress on the first syllable form their comparatives and superlatives by adding “-erâ€? and “-estâ€?. For example, “clever – cleverer – cleverestâ€? and “simple – simpler – simplestâ€?. )PXEPNPTUBEKFDUJWFTPGUXPTZMMBCMFTXIJDIIBWFUIFTUSFTTPOUIFĘ?STU Most adjectives TZMMBCMFGPSNUIFJSDPNQBSBUJWFTBOETVQFSMBUJWFT  of ‌ by adding “-erâ€? and “-estâ€? (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

narrow – narrower – narrowest; happy – happier – happiest

However, adjectives ending in “-fulâ€? or “-lessâ€? form their comparatives and superlatives by using “more thanâ€? and “the mostâ€?. For example, “helpful – more helpful – the most helpfulâ€? and “careless – more careless – the most carelessâ€?. 8IJDIBEKFDUJWFTPGUXPTZMMBCMFTGPSNUIFJSDPNQBSBUJWFTBOE The adjectives TVQFSMBUJWFTCZVTJOHÇżNPSFUIBOČ€BOEÇżUIFNPTUČ€  of ‌ are those ending in “-fulâ€? or “-lessâ€? (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

careful – more careful – the most careful; useless – more useless – the most useless

Some adjectives are made from the participles of verbs. For example, “a surprising resultâ€? or “an interested childâ€?. These adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives by using “more thanâ€? and “the mostâ€?. For example, “boring – more boring – the most boringâ€? and “pleased – more pleased – the most pleasedâ€?. 699 )PXEPXFGPSNUIFDPNQBSBUJWFTBOETVQFSMBUJWFTPGBEKFDUJWFTNBEF We form the ‌ by using GSPNUIFQBSUJDJQMFTPGWFSCT  “more thanâ€? and “the mostâ€?

(JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

exciting – more exciting – the most exciting; tired – more tired – the most tired

There are some exceptions to these rules, but if you are not sure how to form the comparative and superlative of an adjective, it is best to use “more than� and “the most�.


*GZPVBSFOPUTVSFIPXUPGPSNUIFDPNQBSBUJWFBOETVQFSMBUJWFPGBO BEKFDUJWF XIBUJTJUCFTUUPEP  If you are not sure ‌, it’s best to use “more thanâ€? and “the mostâ€? Adverbs that are made by adding “-lyâ€? to an adjective form their comparatives and superlatives by using “more thanâ€? and “the mostâ€?. For example, “carefully – more carefully – the most carefullyâ€?. )PXEPXFGPSNUIFDPNQBSBUJWFTBOETVQFSMBUJWFTPGBEWFSCTUIBUBSF We form the ‌ of adverbs NBEFCZBEEJOHÇżMZČ€UPBOBEKFDUJWF  that are made by adding “-lyâ€? to an adjective by using “more thanâ€? and “the mostâ€? (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF  happily – more happily – the most happily; loudly – more loudly – the most loudly

sympathy 8IBULJOEPGQFPQMFEPZPVIBWFNPTUTZNQBUIZGPS   The kind of people I have most sympathy for are those who have a serious illness etc. 700

reckon

airline

%PZPVSFDLPOZPVDPVMEKVNQVQBOEUPVDIUIFDFJMJOH Yes, I reckon I could ‌ ~ No, I don’t reckon I could ‌ 8IJDIBJSMJOFEPZPVSFDLPOJTUIFCJHHFTUJOUIFXPSMEBUUIFNPNFOU I reckon ‌ is the ‌

horrible $BOUIFXFBUIFSTPNFUJNFTCFIPSSJCMFJOUIFNJEEMFPGXJOUFS Yes, the weather can ‌

anxiety

anxious

%PZPVGFFMBOZBOYJFUZBCPVUUIFGVUVSFPGUIFXPSME   Yes, I feel some ‌ ~ No, I don’t feel any ‌ 8IZJTBTIPQLFFQFSBMXBZTBOYJPVTUPQMFBTFIJTDVTUPNFST A shopkeeper is ‌ so that they will come back again


possession 8IBUǽTZPVSNPTUWBMVBCMFQFSTPOBMQPTTFTTJPO  701

My ‌ is/are my ‌

entertain Supposing you could entertain a famous person at your house, either a HSFBUĘ?HVSFJOIJTUPSZPSTPNFPOFBMJWFUPEBZ XIPXPVMEZPVDIPPTF Supposing I could entertain ‌, I’d choose ‌

background

apply

8IBUEPXFNFBOCZUIFCBDLHSPVOEPGBQJDUVSFPSBQIPUPHSBQI By the background ‌, we mean the part which is behind the main subject 8IFOTUVEFOUTBQQMZUPHPUPVOJWFSTJUZ BSFUIFZBTLFERVFTUJPOTBCPVU UIFJSQFSTPOBMCBDLHSPVOE  Yes, when students ‌, they’re asked ‌ ~ No, when students ‌, they aren’t asked ‌ 8IBULJOEPGBDUJWJUJFTEPZPVBQQMZZPVSFOFSHZUPNPTU   The kind of activities ‌ are ‌ %PFTUIFMBXPGUIFMBOEBQQMZUPFWFSZCPEZ 

Yes, the law ...

%PZPVLOPXXIBUZPVIBWFUPEPUPBQQMZGPSBOFXQBTTQPSU  Yes, I know what ‌ ~ No, I don’t know what ‌

highly

the Browns

(JWFNFBTFOUFODFXJUIUIFXPSEǿIJHIMZǿ    It’s highly probable that the Browns won’t come today. Name me a profession that is both highly respected and highly paid. A profession that is ‌ is ‌ 702

ancient

Egypt

8IJDIJTPOFPGUIFNPTUBODJFOUDJWJMJ[BUJPOTJOUIFIJTUPSZPGUIFXPSME One of the ‌ is the Egyptian civilization, the Babylonian civilization etc.


degree

angle

grade

centigrade

right angle

)PXNBOZEFHSFFTBSFUIFSFJOBSJHIUBOHMF  





There are 90 degrees in a right angle

8IBUEPZPVUIJOLUIFUFNQFSBUVSFJTUPEBZ  I think the temperature is about ‌ degrees centigrade today *GBTUVEFOUHFUTBO"HSBEFJOBOFYBN JTUIBUBHPPESFTVMUPSBCBE SFTVMU  If a student ‌, that’s a good result

somewhat (JWFNFBTFOUFODFXJUIUIFXPSEǿTPNFXIBUǿ  I’d say he was somewhat lacking in common sense 0OBWFSBHF BSF4DBOEJOBWJBOQFPQMFTPNFXIBUUBMMFSUIBOQFPQMFJOUIF SFTUPG&VSPQF  Yes, on average, Scandinavian people are somewhat ‌

at all (JWFNFBTFOUFODFXJUIUIFXPSETǿBUBMMǿ  It’s very strange; I’ve worked hard all day but don’t feel tired at all 703

Idiom 28 XIZPOFBSUIa very strong form of “why“ e.g. Why on earth didn’t you call me and ask for help?

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇżXIZPOFBSUIÇżNFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

The idiom ‌ “a very strong ‌â€?

I just can’t understand why on earth they got married if they don’t like each other very much


unity Dictation 84

There are various means of transport/ we can use these days,/ but in the old days,/ people only had the choice/ of going on foot/ or on horseback,/ or by some horsedrawn form of transport./ Being overweight/ is usually due to overeating./ One usually needs to be taught/ how to operate a factory machine./ Unity is essential for success/ in a battle./ Tom is the elder/ of the two children,/ though even he is not very old./ They just could not decide/ whether to rent a house/ for a fortnight/ or stay at a hotel./ Eventually, however,/ they chose to rent a house.


LESSON 128 704

Using nouns as adjectives We can often use a noun as an adjective in English simply by putting it immediately before another noun, as in the expression “train station“. When we do this, the word “train“ becomes an adjective to describe the noun “station“. For example, a shoe shop is a shop; the word “shoe“ tells us what it sells. A book cover is a cover for a book. Sometimes, these expressions are used so often that they eventually become one word. For example, “ashtray“, “bedroom“, “toothbrush“ etc. We can ‌ )PXDBOXFPGUFOVTFBOPVOBTBOBEKFDUJWFJO&OHMJTI    by putting it immediately before another noun

(JWFNFUISFFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF







window cleaner, cat basket, school bag

8IBUǽTBXBUFSCPUUMF 







A water bottle is a bottle that is made to carry water







8IBULJOEPGQMBUFEPXFFBUEJOOFSGSPN 

confident

We eat ‌ a dinner plate

now that

/PXUIBUZPVBSFBUUIJTTUBHFPGZPVS&OHMJTITUVEJFT EPZPVUIJOLZPVÇ˝E CFBCMFUPUSBWFMBCSPBEDPOĘ?EFOUPGNBLJOHZPVSTFMGVOEFSTUPPEJOUIF MBOHVBHF  Yes, now that I’m at ‌ ~ No, even though I’m at ‌ 705

agree about

agree that

agree to

agree with *GBGSJFOEPGZPVSTXBOUTUPHPUPPOFDJOFNBBOEZPVXBOUUPHPUP BOPUIFS BOEZPVDBOǽUBHSFFBCPVUXIJDIUPHPUP XIBUEPZPVEP If a friend of mine wants to ‌, we ‌


%PZPVBHSFFUIBUMJGFXBTCFUUFSJOUIFQBTUUIBOJUJTUPEBZ Yes, I agree that … ~ No, I don’t agree that … 8PVMEZPVBHSFFUPEPBOFYUSBUISFFIPVSTPG&OHMJTIUPEBZ Yes, I’d agree to … ~ No, I wouldn’t agree to … 8PVMEZPVBHSFFUPBQMBOUIBUNJHIUHFUZPVJOUPUSPVCMFXJUIUIF QPMJDF  Yes, I’d agree to … ~ No, I wouldn’t agree to … 8IFOZPVEPOǽUBHSFFXJUIPUIFSQFPQMF XIBUEPZPVEP When I don’t agree with …, I …

take care

run over

care for

8IBUEPZPVUIJOLPVHIUUPCFEPOFXJUIESJWFSTXIPEPOǽUUBLFDBSF XIJMTUESJWJOH BOEDPOTFRVFOUMZSVOQFPQMFPWFS  I think that drivers who don’t … ought to … 8IFOZPVXFSFBDIJME XIPUPPLDBSFPGZPVXIFOZPVXFSFJMM When I was …, … took care of me … *GZPVXFOUGPSEJOOFSBUBGSJFOEǽTIPVTFCVUEJEOǽUDBSFNVDIGPSUIF GPPE XPVMEZPVTUJMMUFMMUIFNJUXBTHPPE  Yes, if I went …, I’d still tell … ~ No, if I went …, I wouldn’t tell … 706

I dare say …

daring

require “I dare say you’re right“ means “I think you are probably right“. This expression is only used in the first person. 8IBUEPFTUIFFYQSFTTJPOǿ*EBSFTBZZPVǽSFSJHIUǿNFBO The expression “I dare say you’re right“ means “I think you’re probably right“ 8IBULJOEPGKPCTXPVMEZPVTBZSFRVJSFEUIFNPTUEBSJOH I’d say the kind of jobs which ... would be …

conserve *OESZDPVOUSJFT EPQFPQMFUSZUPDPOTFSWFXBUFSBTNVDIBTQPTTJCMF Yes, in dry countries, people …


eager 8IFOZPVFWFOUVBMMZĘ?OJTITUVEZJOH&OHMJTI EPZPVUIJOLZPVÇ˝MMCFFBHFS UPTUBSUMFBSOJOHBOPUIFSMBOHVBHFJNNFEJBUFMZ  Yes, when I eventually ‌, I think I’ll be ‌ ~ No, when I eventually ‌, I don’t think I’ll be ‌

rub

rub out

rubber

8IZEPXFSVCPVSIBOETUPHFUIFSJODPMEXFBUIFS   We rub ‌ because it makes them warmer )PXDBOXFSVCPVUBQFODJMNBSLPOBQJFDFPGQBQFS   We can rub out ‌ by using a rubber 707

face

face to face

8IFSFEPFTUIJTXJOEPXGBDFPOUP 

This window ‌ the street, a courtyard etc.

*GZPVGPVOEZPVSTFMGGBDFUPGBDFXJUIBLJMMFSXJUIBLOJGFJOIJTIBOE  XIBUǽEZPVEP  If I found myself ‌, I’d ‌

god %PBMMSFMJHJPOTJOUIFXPSMEIBWFBHPE 

No, not all religions ‌

thus The word “thusâ€? can mean “thereforeâ€?. For example, “He was busy with work, and thus could not go to the theatreâ€?. “Thusâ€? can also mean “in this wayâ€?, in which case it is followed by the “-ingâ€? form of a verb. For example, “The weather was cold and wet, thus spoiling our trip to the seasideâ€?. 8IBUDBOUIFXPSEÇżUIVTČ€NFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGFBDI QMFBTF

The word “thus� can mean “therefore� or “in this way�

She is ill, and thus will not be able to attend the meeting. The mother cut the sandwich into small pieces, thus making it easier for her young son to eat.


708

economize *GUIFDPTUPGMJWJOHTVEEFOMZSPTFBOEZPVOFFEFEUPFDPOPNJ[F XIBU DIBOHFTXPVMEZPVNBLFJOZPVSMJGF  If the cost ‌ to economize, I’d ‌

involve %PFTNZKPCJOWPMWFDPSSFDUJOHZPVSNJTUBLFT 

Yes, your job ‌

)BWFZPVFWFSCFFOJOWPMWFEJOPSHBOJ[JOHBTVSQSJTFQBSUZGPSBGSJFOEPS GBNJMZNFNCFS  Yes, I’ve been ‌ ~ No, I’ve never been ‌

attack %PJOOPDFOUQFPQMFFWFSHFUBUUBDLFEJOUIFTUSFFUTPGZPVSIPNFUPXO Yes, innocent people ‌ ~ No, innocent people ‌

scarcely 8IBUǽTBOPUIFSXPSEGPSǿIBSEMZǿ  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

scarce Another word for “hardly“ is “scarcely“ He scarcely knew anyone at the party so he went home early

8IBUEP*NFBOJG*TBZUIBU*IBWFTDBSDFMZBOZNPOFZ    If you say that ‌, you mean that you have almost no money 8IZEPFTGPPECFDPNFTDBSDFJOXBSUJNF  Food becomes scarce in war time because there aren’t enough people to work on the farms or in the factories 709

impression %PZPVUIJOLJUÇ˝TGBJSUPKVEHFQFPQMFPOĘ?STUJNQSFTTJPOT   Yes, I think it’s ‌ ~ No, I don’t think it’s ‌ *GZPVIFMEBEJOOFSQBSUZBOETFSWFEGPPEUIBUIBECFFODPPLFEJOB NJDSPXBWF XPVMEJUNBLFBHPPEJNQSFTTJPOPOZPVSHVFTUT No, if I held ‌, it wouldn’t make ‌


bury

cemetery

8IBUEPFTBEPHEPXJUIBCPOF 

A dog buries a bone in the ground

8IBUJTBDFNFUFSZ 

anger

A cemetery is a place where people are buried when they die

additional

8IBUBOHFSTZPVNPSFUIBOBOZUIJOHFMTF 

… angers me more than anything else

%PFTJUBOHFSZPVXIFOBOBJSMJOFNBLFTBOBEEJUJPOBMDIBSHFGPS MVHHBHF  Yes, it angers me when … ~ No, it doesn’t anger me when …

insult

insult

8IBUEPZPVUIJOLJTUIFCFTUXBZUPJOTVMUBQFSTPO  



I think the best ... is to ...

*GBGPSFJHOQFSTPOTBJETPNFUIJOHOFHBUJWFUPZPVBCPVUZPVSDPVOUSZ  XPVMEZPVDPOTJEFSJUBOJOTVMU  Yes, If a foreign person …, I’d consider … No, if a foreign person …, I wouldn’t consider … 710

Idiom 29 GPSIFBWFOǽTTBLFa very strong form of “please“ e.g. For heaven’s sake, be quiet and let me get some sleep!

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNǿGPSIFBWFOǽTTBLFǿNFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

The idiom ... “a very strong ...“

For heaven’s sake, don’t do that again, or I’ll be very angry!


madness Dictation 85

Football is played throughout the whole world./ He used to be a popular prime minister,/ but what he said last month/ about the strikes/ was political madness./ Provided you go straight home after school,/ you will be in time to see/ your uncle before he leaves./ Everyone was dressed/ in their very best clothes/ for the big wedding party,/ which commenced at 8 p.m./ The waiter placed the tray/ carefully on the table./ The meal he had brought us/ consisted of potatoes/ and a small piece of meat/ which appeared to be old and hard. Do Revision Exercise 57


LESSON 129 711

Verb + infinitive or “-ingâ€? Sometimes in English, a verb is immediately followed by another verb. For example, “I enjoy swimmingâ€? or “I want to swimâ€?. The second verb must be either an infinitive with “toâ€? or a gerund (“-ingâ€? form). Some verbs, such as “promiseâ€? and “failâ€?, are always followed by an infinitive. For example, “The children promised to behaveâ€?, or “I failed to notice the sign above the doorâ€?. Other verbs, such as “considerâ€? and “finishâ€?, are always followed by a gerund. For example, “Oliver considered taking the trainâ€?, or “Elizabeth finished reading the newspaperâ€?. There is no rule to tell you which verbs are followed by an infinitive and which ones are followed by a gerund; they need to be learnt one by one. *O&OHMJTI JGBWFSCJTGPMMPXFEJNNFEJBUFMZCZBOPUIFSWFSC XIBUGPSN NVTUUIFTFDPOEWFSCCF In English, if a verb ‌, the second verb must be either an infinitive or a gerund 5FMMNFTPNFWFSCTUIBUBSFGPMMPXFECZBOJOĘ?OJUJWF QMFBTF ask, agree, refuse, manage 5FMMNFTPNFWFSCTUIBUBSFGPMMPXFECZBHFSVOE QMFBTF deny, avoid, practise, miss *TUIFWFSCÇżQSPNJTFČ€GPMMPXFECZBOJOĘ?OJUJWFPSBHFSVOE The verb “promiseâ€? ‌ an infinitive (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

He promised to try harder next time

*TUIFWFSCÇżDPOTJEFSČ€GPMMPXFECZBOJOĘ?OJUJWFPSBHFSVOE The verb “considerâ€? ‌ a gerund 712 (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

You should consider buying a new car


afraid of

afraid that

afraid to

crash Why do you suppose some people, especially children, are afraid of the EBSL  I suppose some ‌ because they imagine things that are not there 8IZBSFTPNFQFPQMFNPSFBGSBJEUIBUUIFZNJHIUHFULJMMFEJGUIFZUSBWFM CZQMBOFUIBOCZPUIFSNFBOTPGUSBOTQPSU  Some people ‌ because a plane crash is front-page news We can also use “afraid“ for an apology. For example, a shopkeeper might say to a customer “I’m afraid we haven’t got the size you want, sir“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGUIFXPSEÇżBGSBJEÇżVTFEJOBOBQPMPHZ I’m afraid I can’t help you

whiskers

gap

fence

hedge

A cat’s whiskers are more or less the same width as its body. This means that, when it goes hunting for mice and birds, it can use its whiskers to measure the width of a gap in a fence or a hedge to see if it is possible to get through the gap without using force and making a lot of noise. 'PSXIBUQVSQPTFEPFTBDBUVTFJUTXIJTLFST  



A cat uses its whiskers to measure the width of ‌

%PZPVUIJOLJUÇ˝TBHPPEJEFBGPSTUVEFOUTUPIBWFBHBQZFBSCFUXFFO Ę?OJTIJOHTDIPPMBOETUBSUJOHVOJWFSTJUZ  Yes, I think it’s ‌ ~ No, I don’t think it’s ‌ 8IZ 713 %PXFIBWFUPNJOEUIFHBQCFUXFFOUIFUSBJOBOEUIFFEHFPGUIF QMBUGPSNBUTPNFTUBUJPOT  Yes, we have to ‌

hall

entrance

town hall

A hall is a large room. For example, a large house may have an entrance hall, and schools have dining halls. A town hall is a large building that is used for local government and public meetings.


8IBUǽTBIBMM 

A hall is a large room

(JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFTPGEJGGFSFOUUZQFTPGIBMM QMFBTF entrance hall etc.

8IBUǽTBUPXOIBMM 

A town hall is …

pool

liquid

indoor

indoors

outdoors

outdoor

out of doors

A pool is a small amount of liquid that has collected in one place. For example, a pool of water, a pool of blood etc. From the word “pool“, we also get the name “swimming pool“. 8IBUJTBQPPM

A pool is a small amount of …

(JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

a pool of water, a pool of blood etc.

8IBUBSFUIFBEWBOUBHFTPGBOJOEPPSTXJNNJOHQPPM  The advantages … are that the water can be heated more easily, and one can swim in it in any kind of weather 714 8IJDIEPZPVQSFGFSBOJOEPPSPSBOPVUEPPSTXJNNJOHQPPM 

I prefer …

%PZPVTQFOENPTUPGZPVSUJNFJOEPPSTPSPVUEPPST PSPVUPGEPPST

I spend most …

knee

kneel – knelt – knelt

8IBUEPXFDBMMUIJTKPJOUPGUIFMFH 

We call … a knee

0OXIBUPDDBTJPOTEPQFPQMFLOFFM 

The occasions on which people kneel are when they say their prayers etc.

late

lately

8IPXBTUIFMFBEFSPGUIFMBUFHPWFSONFOUJOZPVSDPVOUSZ The leader of … was … 8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTQFBLBCPVUUIFMBUF.S+PIOTPO When we speak …, we mean the Mr Johnson who has recently died


)BWFZPVTFFOBOZHPPEʝMNTBUUIFDJOFNBMBUFMZ     Yes, I’ve seen … ~ No, I haven’t seen …

match

judo

%PNBOZXPNFOMJLFUPNBUDIUIFJSIBOECBHTXJUIUIFJSTIPFT Yes, many women … 715 %PZPVUIJOLBTNBMMNBOXIPXBTHPPEBUKVEPXPVMECFBNBUDIGPSB CJHNBOXIPLOFXIPXUPCPY  Yes, I think … ~ No, I don’t think …

"SFGPPUCBMMNBUDIFTVTVBMMZIFMEBUUIFXFFLFOEPSEVSJOHUIFXFFL Football matches … at the weekend

funeral 8IBUDPMPVSDMPUIFTEP&VSPQFBOQFPQMFVTVBMMZXFBSGPSBGVOFSBM European people usually wear black for a funeral

mystery %PZPVMJLFSFBEJOHNZTUFSZTUPSJFT 

Yes, I like … ~ No, I don’t like …

path 8IZEPXFIBWFBQBUIJOBHBSEFO 

insure

insurance

We have … so that people don’t walk on the grass or on the flowers

theft

*TJUUIFMBXJOZPVSDPVOUSZUIBUFWFSZPOFIBTUPJOTVSFUIFJSDBSBHBJOTU BDDJEFOUT  Yes, It’s the law in … ~ No, it isn’t the law in … %PZPVIBWFBOZJOTVSBODFBHBJOTUMPTTPSUIFGUGPSZPVSQFSTPOBM QPTTFTTJPOT  Yes, I have … ~ No, I don’t have …


716

throne 8IBUEPXFDBMMUIFDIBJSBLJOHPSRVFFOTJUTPO 

annoy

fly

We call ‌ a throne

fall asleep

%PFTJUBOOPZZPVXIFOZPVÇ˝SFXBUDIJOHBĘ?MNBUUIFDJOFNBBOE TPNFPOFJOUIFBVEJFODFLFFQTUBMLJOH  Yes, it annoys me ‌ ~ No, it doesn’t annoy me ‌ *GBĘžZXBTĘžZJOHBSPVOEZPVSIFBEXIJMFZPVXFSFUSZJOHUPGBMMBTMFFQ  XPVMEZPVHFUBOOPZFEPSXPVMEZPVCFBCMFUPJHOPSFJU  If a fly ..., I’d ...

sore 8IBUEPZPVUIJOLJTUIFCFTUUIJOHUPEPGPSBTPSFUISPBU  



I think the best ...

*GZPVSVCCFEZPVSĘ?OHFSPOUIFFEHFPGUIFUBCMFMJLFUIJTGPSBMPOH UJNF XIBUÇ˝EIBQQFO  If I rubbed my finger ..., I’d get a sore finger

design Tell me the name of a company that's famous for making beautifully EFTJHOFEQSPEVDUT  The name of ‌ is ‌ 717

Idiom 30 LFFQZPVSĘ?OHFSTDSPTTFEwish for good luck e.g. Good luck with the exam; I’ll keep my fingers crossed for you.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇżLFFQZPVSĘ?OHFSTDSPTTFEÇżNFBO  The idiom ‌ “wish for good luck“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

It’s quite a cloudy day for a picnic, so we’ll just have to keep our fingers crossed it doesn’t rain


*TJUUIFDVTUPNJOZPVSDPVOUSZGPSQFPQMFUPDSPTTUIFJSʝOHFSTXIFOUIFZ XJTIGPSTPNFUIJOH *GOPU XIBUEPUIFZEPJOTUFBE  Yes, it’s the custom … ~ No, it isn’t the custom …; instead, they … Dictation 86

It looks as if/ we are in serious trouble./ Not only have we lost our money/ and return tickets home,/ but also the key to the front door./ I will have to look the word up/ in a modern dictionary;/ this one is too old./ Though there has been some delay,/ the goods will nonetheless/ arrive in time./ Walking in the forest,/ we came across a great lion,/ which did not seem at all fierce,/ lying lazily in the sun./ He was clearly the king of the forest, however,/ and did not need to do anything/ to show the other animals/ that this was his kingdom.


LESSON 130 718

Compound adjectives

compound

Sometimes, words can be put together to make compound adjectives. For example, a child that behaves well can be called “a well-behaved child“. The phrase “well-behaved“ is a compound adjective. One common way of making compound adjectives is by putting an adverb or adjective together with a participle. For example, a wedding that has been planned badly could be called “a badly planned weddingâ€?. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGBDPNQPVOEBEKFDUJWFNBEFCZQVUUJOHBOBEWFSC a beautifully PSBEKFDUJWFUPHFUIFSXJUIBQBSUJDJQMF designed jacket, a slow-moving train 8IJDIEPZPVUIJOLJTNPSFJNQPSUBOUGPSBMPOHMBTUJOHNBSSJBHFMPWFPS SFTQFDU  I think ‌ is more important than ‌ for a long-lasting marriage 8IJDIJTUIFNPTUXFMMLOPXOSFTUBVSBOUJOUIJTUPXO 

‌ is the most ‌

Sometimes, we make compound adjectives by putting an adjective together with a noun that has the letters “ed“ after it. For example, a girl with long hair can be called a long-haired girl. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGBDPNQPVOEBEKFDUJWFNBEFCZQVUUJOHBO BEKFDUJWFUPHFUIFSXJUIBOPVOUIBUIBTUIFMFUUFSTÇżFEÇżBGUFSJU a four-legged animal, a blue-eyed baby 719 %PZPVMJWFJOBCSJDLXBMMFECVJMEJOH 

Yes, I live ‌ ~ No, I don’t live ‌

%PZPVDPOTJEFSZPVSTFMGUPCFBOPQFONJOEFEQFSTPO    Yes, I consider ‌ ~ No, I don’t consider ‌


currency

unit

penny

pence

The currency of a country is the particular money that is used in that country. In the UK, the main unit of currency is the pound. The smaller unit of currency is the penny. A hundred pennies (or more commonly “pence“) make a pound. 8IBUǽTUIFNBJOVOJUPGDVSSFODZJOZPVSDPVOUSZ  *OUIF6, IPXNBOZQFODFNBLFBQPVOE 





The main … is the …



In the UK, a hundred pence make a pound

We use the word “penny“ to talk about the penny coin itself. The plural is “pennies“. If you are holding six pennies in your hand, you are holding six coins. However, we use the word “pence“ to talk about value. For example, we say “This cake cost ninety pence“. 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFXPSEǿQFOOZǿBOEXIFOEPXFVTFUIFXPSE ǿQFODFǿ  We use the word “penny“ to talk about the penny coin itself, whereas we use the word “pence“ to talk about value Instead of saying “pence“, people usually just say “p“. For example, “This pencil cost 70p“. 8IBUEPQFPQMFVTVBMMZTBZJOTUFBEPGǿQFODFǿ   (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF 720

slow down

speed up



People usually say “p“ instead of “pence“

Could you possibly lend me 60p, please?

in addition to

8IFOXFTQFBLBCPVUESJWJOHBDBS XIBUǽTUIFPQQPTJUFPGǿUPTMPX EPXOǿ  When we …, … “to speed up“ *GZPVTUVEZ&OHMJTIBUIPNFJOBEEJUJPOUPBUUFOEJOHMFTTPOTBUBTDIPPM  DBOZPVTQFFEVQZPVSQSPHSFTTJOMFBSOJOH  Yes, if you study …, you can …

forbid – forbade – forbidden 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGǿGPSCJEǿ  The three forms of “forbid“ are “forbid, forbade, forbidden“


8IFOZPVSQBSFOUTGPSCBEFZPVUPEPTPNFUIJOHXIFOZPVXFSFBTNBMM DIJME EJEUIFGBDUUIBUJUXBTGPSCJEEFOTPNFUJNFTKVTUNBLFZPVXBOUUP EPJUFWFONPSF  Yes, when my ‌, the fact ‌ made ‌ ~ No, when my ‌, the fact ‌ didn’t make ‌

peculiar

peculiarity

8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBQFDVMJBSTPVOE

By a peculiar sound, we mean a strange sound that may be difficult to identify

Tell me the name of a dish that’s peculiar to your country. %P&OHMJTIQSPOVODJBUJPOBOETQFMMJOHIBWFNBOZQFDVMJBSJUJFT 

721

Doubling consonants

The name of ‌ is ‌ Yes, English ‌

Suffix

Sometimes, we need to double the final consonant of a word before we can add a suffix beginning with a vowel. We do this when a word of one syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. For example, “big – bigger“, “hit – hitting“, “fit – fitted“ etc. 8IFOEPXFOFFEUPEPVCMFUIFĘ?OBMDPOTPOBOUPGBXPSECFGPSFXFDBO We need to ... BEEBTVGĘ?YCFHJOOJOHXJUIBWPXFM  when a word of one syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel (JWFNFUISFFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

either of them

sad – sadder, fat – fattest, run – running

neither of them

Notice the way in which we can answer the following: “Which of these books do you want?“ – “Either of them. It doesn’t matter; they are both equally interesting“, or “Neither of them; they are both very boring“. *G*BTLFEZPVXIJDIPGUXPUIJOHTZPVXBOUFE BOEUIFDIPJDFXBTPGOP If you asked ‌, JNQPSUBODFUPZPV XIBUXPVMEZPVSFQMZ  I’d reply “Either of them“ "OEJGZPVXFSFOÇ˝UJOUFSFTUFEJOFJUIFSPGUIFUXPUIJOHT XIBUXPVMEZPV SFQMZ  If I weren’t ‌, I’d reply “Neither of them“


screw

screwdriver

8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOBOBJMBOEBTDSFX   The difference … is that we hammer a nail into something with a hammer, whereas we screw a screw into something by turning it with a screwdriver 722

maximum

minimum

8IBUǽTUIFNBYJNVNOVNCFSPGQFPQMFZPVDPVMEJOWJUFUPBQBSUZJGZPV IFMEJUJOUIFCVJMEJOHXIFSFZPVMJWF  The maximum … 8IBUǽTUIFNJOJNVNOVNCFSPGQFPQMFOFDFTTBSZGPSBHBNFPGUFOOJT The minimum …

point

essay

paragraph

Do you think there’s any point in someone learning a foreign language if UIFZOFWFSJOUFOEUPVTFJU  Yes, I think there’s a point in … even if they never … ~ No, I don’t think there’s any point in … if they never … 8IFOBDPMMFHFTUVEFOUJTXSJUJOHBOFTTBZ TIPVMEUIFZQVUBMMUIFJSNBJO QPJOUTJOPOFCJHQBSBHSBQI  No, when a college student …, they shouldn’t …; they should divide the points between different paragraphs

pad

cotton wool

absorb

8IFOXFDVUPVSTFMWFT XIZNJHIUXFQVUBQBEPGDPUUPOXPPMPWFSUIF DVU  When we cut …, we might … to absorb the blood and protect the wound *TUIJTDIBJSQBEEFE 

Yes, this chair’s padded ~ No, this chair isn’t padded

reach out 8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re reaching out for me to give you something


723

scale 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZUIFTDBMFPOBUIFSNPNFUFS    By the scale …, we mean the marks on it showing the temperature 8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTBZUIBUBNBQJTESBXOUPBTDBMFPGPOFJODI UPBNJMF  When we say that …, we mean that one inch on the map equals one mile of actual land

Idiom 31 TPSFQPJOUa subject which makes somebody feel unhappy or angry when it is mentioned e.g. Don’t ask him why he had to sell his car last year; it’s a sore point with him.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇ¿TPSFQPJOUÇ¿NFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF 



The idiom … “a subject which makes …“

Don’t speak about what happened on holiday last summer; it’s a sore point

corner Dictation 87

The men arrived late at the factory/ so often that they lost their jobs./ It is said that/ when a rat is cornered/ by a man/ and has to fight for its life,/ it will fly/ at the man’s throat./ John did not realize/ what he was doing/ and consequently forgot/ to shut the door behind him./ They have led/ a very comfortable life till now./ I suppose we’ll reach/ the end of the book eventually/ if we keep working steadily./ The price of goods/ depends on supply and demand./ If the demand is great/ but the supply is small,/ the price will, of course, be high. Do Revision Exercise 58


LESSON 131 724

Unfinished sentences ending with “toâ€? Sometimes we leave a sentence unfinished, ending it with the word “to“. For example, instead of saying “She didn’t kiss him, but she wanted to kiss him“, we can say “She didn’t kiss him, but she wanted to“. We do this with verbs that are followed by the infinitive with “to“, including the auxiliaries “ought to“, “used to“ and “have to“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGBOVOĘ?OJTIFETFOUFODFFOEJOHXJUIÇżUPÇż QMFBTF He doesn’t know if he’ll see her at the party but he’s hoping to 'JOJTIUIJTTFOUFODF QMFBTFÇż*EPOÇ˝UXBOUUPEPJU CVU*TVQQPTF*PVHIU UPÇż I don’t want ... ought to do it

chance

by chance

8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTBZXFHJWFTPNFPOFBTFDPOEDIBODF When we say ‌, we mean they have failed at something or done something wrong, but we give them the opportunity to try again 8IZEPQFPQMFIBWFBNVDIHSFBUFSDIBODFPGMJWJOHUPBNVDIHSFBUFS BHFUIFTFEBZTUIBOUIFZEJEJOUIFPMEEBZT  People have ‌ because life today is easier and more comfortable, and medicine has improved a lot in recent times 8IJDIPGUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUFWFOUTJOZPVSMJGFIBWFIBQQFOFEUPZPVCZ DIBODF  Of the most important events in my life, the ones that have ‌ 725

take hold of second-hand

take by surprise

take a look


8IZEPQFPQMFUBLFIPMEPGTPNFUIJOHXIFOUIFZTVEEFOMZCFDPNF BGSBJE  People take ‌ in order to give themselves strength and support 8IBUEPQFPQMFPGUFOEPXIFOUIFZBSFUBLFOCZTVSQSJTF People often jump when ‌ 8PVMEJUCFXJTFUPCVZBTFDPOEIBOEDBSXJUIPVUUBLJOHBMPPLBUUIF FOHJOFĘ?STU  No, it wouldn’t be ‌ Some other uses of “take“ are “take a holiday“, “take a break“, “take an exam“ etc. (JWFNFTPNFPUIFSVTFTPGUIFWFSCÇżUBLFÇż QMFBTF 

temptation



take a chance , take a decision etc.

dishonest

%PZPVFWFSHFUUIFUFNQUBUJPOUPEPTPNFUIJOHBMJUUMFCJUEJTIPOFTU Yes, I sometimes ‌ ~ No, I never ‌

view 8IBULJOEPGWJFXXPVMEZPVMJLFUPIBWFGSPNZPVSCFESPPNXJOEPX I’d like ‌ a view of ‌

hide – hid – hidden 8IFSFǽECFUIFCFTUQMBDFUPIJEFGSPNUIFQPMJDFJOUIJTCVJMEJOH The best place ‌ in this building would be ‌ 726 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGǿIJEFǿ 

The three forms of “hide“ are “hide, hid, hidden“

liar 8IPǽTUIFCJHHFTUMJBSZPVǽWFFWFSNFU 

pay attention

‌ is the biggest ‌

detail

8IZEPZPVIBWFUPQBZBUUFOUJPOBMMUIFUJNFEVSJOHB$BMMBO.FUIPE MFTTPO  I have to ‌ because the teacher could suddenly ask me a question at any moment


8IFOUIFQPMJDFBSFTFBSDIJOHGPSFWJEFODFBUUIFTDFOFPGBDSJNF EP UIFZIBWFUPQBZBUUFOUJPOUPWFSZTNBMMEFUBJMT  Yes, when the police are … 8IFOZPVBTLBGSJFOEXIBUUIFZEJEMBTUXFFLFOE GPSFYBNQMF EPZPV FYQFDUUIFNUPHPJOUPHSFBUEFUBJMBCPVUFWFSZUIJOHUIBUIBQQFOFEPS KVTUHJWFZPVUIFCBTJDGBDUT  When I ask …, I …

“The” + adjective = noun Sometimes, we can use an adjective as a noun by putting the definite article “the” before the adjective. For example, instead of saying “young people”, we can say “the young”. A noun formed in this way is always plural and takes a plural verb. %PZPVUIJOLHPWFSONFOUTTIPVMEEPNPSFUPIFMQUIFQPPS 



 Yes, I think …

%PUIFWFSZPMEBOEUIFWFSZZPVOHTPNFUJNFTʝOEJUIBSEFSUPʝHIU JMMOFTTUIBOPUIFSQFPQMF  Yes, the very old … 727 We can do the same thing with certain nationalities. For example, instead

of “English people” we can talk about “the English”. This can be done with adjectives ending in “sh“, “ch“, “ese“ or “ss“. For example, “the Spanish“, “the French“, “the Chinese“, “the Swiss” etc. The French, 8IJDIOBUJPOBMJUJFTBSFQBSUJDVMBSMZGBNPVTGPSUIFJSGPPE  the Italians, the Chinese etc. are …

sweat 8IFOEPQFPQMFTXFBU 

nervous People sweat when they do exercise, when they are nervous, and when the weather is hot

%PZPVHFUWFSZOFSWPVTCFGPSFFYBNT 

Yes, I get … ~ No, I don’t get …


underneath

unlike

The difference between “under“ and “underneath“ is the same as that between “after“ and “afterwards“. “Underneath“ means “under that“ or “under it“, and, unlike the word “under“, it does not usually need to be followed by any other words. For example, instead of saying “I knelt down by the car and looked under it“, we can say “I knelt down by the car and looked underneath“. 8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOǿVOEFSǿBOEǿVOEFSOFBUIǿ The difference … “underneath“ means “under that“ or “under it“, and … it does not usually need to be followed by any other words (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF 

wander





I knelt down by the car and looked under it ‒ I knelt down ... underneath

distinguish

a while

$BOZPVEJTUJOHVJTIUIFEJGGFSFODFJOQSPOVODJBUJPOCFUXFFOUIFXPSET ǿXBOEFSǿBOEǿXPOEFSǿ  Yes, I can … ~ No, I can’t … 728 8IBUEPFTUIFXPSEǿXBOEFSǿNFBO 

(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

The word “wander“ means to walk around without any particular purpose or direction We had lots of time before our train was due to leave so we just wandered around the shops for a while

8IBUEPFTUIFXPSEÇ¿XPOEFSÇ¿NFBO   (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

  The word “wonder“ means to ask yourself questions

There are some peculiar smells coming from the kitchen; I wonder what John’s cooking in there.


Idiom 32 HFUZPVEPXOmake you tired and unhappy e.g. This horrible weather we’re having is beginning to get me down.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇ¿HFUZPVEPXOÇ¿NFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

The idiom … “make you tired and unhappy“

He had to stop work because the problems and difficulties of the job got him down after a time


LESSON 132 729

still

yet

annoyance

As we already know, we use the word “still“ for something that is in progress at the moment, whereas we use “yet“ for something that has not begun or happened. This means that “still“ is generally used in positive sentences, whereas “yet“ is generally used in negative and interrogative sentences. However, it is possible to use “still“ in negative sentences. For example, instead of saying “He hasn’t done the work yet“, we can say “He still hasn’t done the work“. This communicates a feeling of surprise or annoyance, and the word “still“ is stressed in the sentence. 8IBUGFFMJOHEPFTUIFXPSEÇżTUJMMÇżDPNNVOJDBUFXIFOXFVTFJUJOB The word “still“ ‌ OFHBUJWFTFOUFODF  surprise or annoyance ‌ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

I’ve explained it a hundred times but he still doesn’t understand!

“Still“ can also be used in questions. For example, “Are you still living in London?“. This can also communicate a feeling of surprise or annoyance, but only if there is a heavy stress on the word “still“ in the question. For example, “Are you still in the bathroom, Jane? Please hurry up!“. $BOUIFXPSEÇżTUJMMÇżCFVTFEJORVFTUJPOT  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

Yes, the word “still“ can ‌ It’s nearly midnight. Are you still working?

Sometimes, we use the words “still“, or more commonly “even“, in a comparative structure in order to communicate that something is surprising. For example, “My brother is tall, but my uncle is still taller“, or “We’re driving fast but we need to drive even faster to avoid being late“.


730 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFXPSETǿTUJMMǿ PSNPSFDPNNPOMZǿFWFOǿ JOB DPNQBSBUJWFTUSVDUVSF  We use ‌ to communicate that something is surprising

(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

according to

My French is bad, and my English is still worse. Joe is fairly greedy, but his sister’s even greedier.

in my opinion

*G*TBJEUPZPVUIBU BDDPSEJOHUPUIFOFXTQBQFSTUIJTNPSOJOH MJGFIBE CFFOEJTDPWFSFEPOBOPUIFSQMBOFU XPVMEZPVCFMJFWFNF  Yes, if you said ‌, I’d believe you ~ No, if you said ‌, I wouldn’t believe you 8IBU BDDPSEJOHUPZPV JTUIFCFTUXBZUPEFBMXJUINVSEFSFST  In my opinion, the best way ‌ 8IFOUIJOHTEPOǽUHPBDDPSEJOHUPQMBO XIBUEPZPVEP When things don’t go ...

band

disturbance

military

*OUIJTUPXO EPZPVHFUCBOETPGZPVOHQFPQMFHPJOHBSPVOEUIFTUSFFUT BUOJHIUDBVTJOHEJTUVSCBODFT  Yes, in this town, we get ‌ ~ No, in this town, we don’t get ‌ /BNFBCBOEUIBUǽTWFSZQPQVMBSJOZPVSDPVOUSZ %PZPVMJLFUIFTPVOEPGBNJMJUBSZCBOE 

A band that’s ‌ is ‌

Yes, I like ... ~ No, I don’t like ‌

8IZEPUIFZQVUBCBOEPGNBUFSJBMJOTJEFBIBU     They put a ... to help the hat to keep its shape 8IZEPUFOOJTQMBZFSTTPNFUJNFTXFBSBCBOEPGNBUFSJBMBSPVOEUIFJS XSJTU  Tennis players ‌ to absorb the sweat 731

link

browse

*TUIFSFBEFĘ?OJUFMJOLCFUXFFODJHBSFUUFTNPLJOHBOETFSJPVTJMMOFTT  Yes, there’s a ‌ 8IFOCSPXTJOHPOUIFJOUFSOFU EPZPVFWFSGPMMPXTPNBOZMJOLTUIBU ZPVGPSHFUXIBUZPVXFSFPSJHJOBMMZEPJOH  Yes, when ‌, I sometimes ‌ ~ No, when ‌, I never ‌


%PZPVFOKPZCSPXTJOHSPVOETIPQTBUUIFXFFLFOE 

carriage

Yes, I enjoy … ~ No, I don’t enjoy …

invention

8IBUǽTUIFOPVOPGUIFWFSCǿUPDBSSZǿ 

The noun … “carriage“

)PXNBOZDBSSJBHFTEPFTUIFBWFSBHFUSBJODPOTJTUPG    The average train consists of about … carriages What caused people to stop using the horse and carriage as a form of FWFSZEBZUSBOTQPSU  The invention of the steam engine and the car caused … *OZPVSPQJOJPO XIBUǽTUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUJOWFOUJPOJOIJTUPSZ BQBSU GSPNUIFXIFFM  In my opinion, the most …

explanation *GZPVIBWFBDBSBDDJEFOUBOENBLFBDMBJNPOZPVSJOTVSBODF EPZPV IBWFUPHJWFBEFUBJMFEFYQMBOBUJPOPGXIBUIBQQFOFE  Yes, if you …, you have to … 732

about

for days and days

what about (you) We must now note some of the different uses of the word “about“. 8IBULJOEPGUIJOHTEPIPVTFNBUFTBSHVFBCPVU  

  The kind of … are cleaning, noise etc.

Do you think there’s anything bad about lying to someone in order not to IVSUUIFJSGFFMJOHT Yes, I think there’s something … ~ No, I don’t think there’s anything … %PQFPQMFTUBOEBCPVUPOUIFDPSOFSTPGUIFTUSFFUTJOZPVSUPXO Yes, people stand about … ~ No, people don’t stand about … "SFZPVJOUIFIBCJUPGMFBWJOHZPVSDMPUIFTMZJOHBCPVUPOZPVSCFESPPN ʞPPSGPSEBZTBOEEBZT  Yes, I’m in the habit of … ~ No, I’m not in the habit of …


*GZPVDBNFUPUIFDMBTTSPPNGPSZPVSMFTTPOPOFEBZCVUUIFSFXBT OPCPEZBCPVU XIBUXPVMEZPVEP If I came …, I’d … *EPOǽUUIJOLUIFSFǽTHPJOHUPCFBOPUIFSXPSMEXBSXIBUBCPVUZPV I agree. I don’t think there’s going to … ~ I don’t agree. I think there’s going to …

bitter

dissatisfaction

%PFTUFBXJUIPVUTVHBSUBTUFTXFFU 

No, tea …; it tastes bitter

8IZEPTPNFQFPQMFGFFMCJUUFS FTQFDJBMMZJOUIFJSPMEBHF Some people … because they feel that life has not been fair to them 733

neat 8IBUXPSEDBOXFVTFJOTUFBEPGUIFXPSEǿUJEZǿ   We can use the word “neat“ instead of the word “tidy“

poverty %PZPVUIJOLUIFSFǽMMBMXBZTCFIJHIMFWFMTPGQPWFSUZJOTPNFQBSUTPGUIF XPSME  Yes, I think … ~ No, I don’t think …

admire

admiration

8IPEPZPVBENJSFNPSFUIBOBOZPOFFMTF 

I admire … more than anyone else

8IZ 8IBUǽTUIFOPVOPGUIFWFSCǿUPBENJSFȀ  The noun of the verb “to admire” is “admiration”

generous %PZPVUIJOLUIFSJDIBSFNPSFHFOFSPVTUIBOUIFQPPS   Yes, I think … ~ No, I don’t think …


Idiom 33 UPVDIBOEHP very uncertain e.g. It was touch and go for a moment. I thought the piece of wood would break and we’d all fall into the sea. 734 8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNǿUPVDIBOEHPǿNFBO 

(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

The idiom ‌ “very uncertain“

The car was in very bad condition, and it was touch and go whether it would get us home or not

Dictation 88

The ship sank slowly/ to the ocean bed./ Some of the men on board drowned/ because they were unable to swim./ Others managed to save themselves/ by holding onto pieces of wood/ and were slowly carried to land/ by the tide./ In the past,/ some empires were built/ when one country conquered another/ and then demanded a tax,/ which then made it easier/ to conquer still more countries./ He was a great literary figure/ of his day,/ but today he is read very little. Do Revision Exercise 59


LESSON 133 735

Further uses of the verb “wishâ€? We use the verb “wishâ€? followed by the word “wouldâ€? when we are unhappy or irritated about something that is happening and we want the situation to change. For example, if somebody is irritating us by making a lot of noise and we want them to be quiet, we can say “I wish he would be quietâ€?. If we are unhappy because it is raining and we want it to stop, we can say “I wish it would stop rainingâ€?. 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFWFSCÇżXJTIČ€GPMMPXFECZUIFXPSEÇżXPVMEČ€ We use the verb “wishâ€? ‌ when we are unhappy or irritated about something that is happening and we want the situation to change (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

I wish they would hurry up and finish the job! I wish my dad would send me some money!

In formal written English, “wishâ€? can be followed by the infinitive with “toâ€?, with the meaning of “wantâ€? or “would likeâ€?. For example, “I wish to complainâ€? means “I would like to complainâ€?. 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFWFSCÇżXJTIČ€GPMMPXFECZUIFJOĘ?OJUJWFXJUIÇżUPČ€ We use the verb “wishâ€? ‌ in formal written English "OEXIBUEPFTJUNFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

It means “want� or “would like� We wish to inform you that your payment has been received

We can also use “wishâ€? to communicate the idea that we want something good to happen to somebody. For example, “I wished her good luck in her examâ€?, or “Don’t forget to wish them a pleasant journeyâ€?. 736 (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGÇżXJTIČ€VTFEUPDPNNVOJDBUFUIFJEFBUIBUXF He wished me XBOUTPNFUIJOHHPPEUPIBQQFOUPTPNFCPEZ a happy birthday


hitchhike )BWFZPVFWFSIJUDIIJLFE

Yes, I’ve hitchhiked ~ No, I’ve never hitchhiked

8PVMEZPVSFDPNNFOEIJUDIIJLJOHBTBHPPEXBZGPSWJTJUPSTUPUSBWFM BSPVOEZPVSDPVOUSZ  Yes, I’d recommend … ~ No, I wouldn’t recommend … 8IZPSXIZOPU

dear %PZPVUIJOLJUǽTQPTTJCMFGPSUXPQFPQMFUPSFNBJOEFBSGSJFOETGPSMJGF Yes, I think it’s … ~ No, I don’t think it’s … 0GBMMZPVSQFSTPOBMQPTTFTTJPOT XIJDIJTUIFNPTUEFBSUPZPV Of all my …, my … is/are … 8IBUǽTUIFEFBSFTUUIJOHZPVǽSFXFBSJOH 

easy

ease

at ease

8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBOFBTZMJGF  





My … is/are the dearest …

ill at ease By an easy life, we mean a comfortable life, free from stress

%PZPVGFFMBUFBTFJOTUSBOHFDPNQBOZ PSEPZPVGFFMJMMBUFBTF I feel … in strange company 737 "SFZPVBCMFUPEPBMMUIFEJDUBUJPOTJOUIJTCPPLXJUIFBTF Yes, I’m able to do … ~ No, I’m not able to do …

*GZPVIBWFBIFBEBDIF XIBUEPZPVUIJOLJTUIFCFTUXBZUPFBTFUIF QBJO  If I have …, I think ...

to be obliged )BWFZPVFWFSCFFOPCMJHFEUPBQQFBSJODPVSUGPSBOZSFBTPO Yes, I’ve been … ~ No, I’ve never been …


steal

rob

robbery

thief

mask

Although the verbs “steal“ and “rob“ are quite similar in meaning, there is a difference in grammar, as follows: “steal“ something “from“ somebody (or somewhere) “rob“ somebody (or somewhere) “of“ something For example, we can say “The thief stole my watch from me“ or “The thief robbed me of my watch“. 8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFJOHSBNNBSCFUXFFOUIFWFSCTǿTUFBMǿBOEǿSPCǿ The difference in grammar … is that we “steal“ something “from“ somebody (or somewhere), whereas we “rob“ somebody (or somewhere) “of“ something (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGFBDI QMFBTF

The thief stole the handbag from Mary. The thief robbed Mary of the handbag.

*GBUIJFGSPCCFEZPVPGTPNFUIJOHJOUIFTUSFFUBOESBOBXBZ XIBU XPVMEZPVEP  If a thief …, I’d … *OSFBMMJGF IBWFZPVFWFSTFFOBSPCCFSSVOOJOHBXBZGSPNUIFTDFOFPG UIFDSJNF  Yes, in real life, I’ve seen … ~ No, in real life, I’ve never seen … 738 Do bank robbers sometimes hide their identity during robberies by XFBSJOHNBTLT  Yes, bank robbers …

handle 8IBUǽTUIJT 

gentle It’s the door handle

8IBULJOEPGPCKFDUTNVTUCFIBOEMFEWFSZHFOUMZXIFOXFUPVDIUIFN The kind of objects that … are things such as wine glasses, eggs etc. 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBQFSTPOXJUIBHFOUMFOBUVSF   By a person …, we mean someone who behaves in a calm and kind manner with other people 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBHFOUMFXJOE 

By a …, we mean a wind that is not at all strong


%PZPVLOPXIPXUPIBOEMFBHVO 

Yes, I know how ‌ ~ No, I don’t know how ‌

8IBUǽTUIFCFTUXBZUPIBOEMFBIPSTF  The best way ‌ is gently, without moving quickly or suddenly

hand-in-hand

arm-in-arm

girlfriend

boyfriend

custom

8IBUEPXFNFBOCZÇżXBMLJOHIBOEJOIBOEÇż     By “walking hand-in-hand“, we mean two people holding each other’s hand as they walk 739 *TJUUIFDVTUPNJOZPVSDPVOUSZGPSQFPQMFUPXBMLBSNJOBSNXJUIUIFJS HJSMGSJFOEPSCPZGSJFOE  Yes, it’s the custom ‌ ~ No, it isn’t the custom ‌

enable

instruction

booklet

%PFTUIFBCJMJUZUPTQFBLTFWFSBMMBOHVBHFTFOBCMFBQFSTPOUPĘ?OEB HPPEKPCNPSFFBTJMZ  Yes, the ability to ‌ 8IZEPUIFZJODMVEFJOTUSVDUJPOCPPLMFUTXJUIOFXQSPEVDUTMJLF UFMFWJTJPOTBOENJDSPXBWFT  They include ‌ to enable users to understand how they work and what they can do

tender

tough

lovingly

8IJDIJTFBTJFSUPFBUUFOEFSNFBUPSUPVHINFBU  Name a tough metal, please.

Tender meat is ‌ Steel is a tough metal

*OUIFTFOUFODFÇż5IFNPUIFSQVUIFSIBOEUFOEFSMZPOIFSDIJMEÇ˝TIFBEÇż  XIBUEPFTUIFXPSEÇżUFOEFSMZÇżNFBO  In the sentence “The mother â€Śâ€œ, the word “tenderly“ means “gently and lovingly“


Idiom 34 DBOǽUNBLFIFBEPSUBJMPGJUcan’t understand it at all e.g. I can’t make head or tail of this email I got from John this morning. I don’t know whether he means he is coming tomorrow or not.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇżDBOÇ˝UNBLFIFBEPSUBJMPGJUÇżNFBO The idiom ‌ “can’t understand it at all“ 740 (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

These instructions that came with the machine are so complicated that I can’t make head or tail of them

Dictation 89

He used to be in control/ of the largest printing press in the country./ Another step/ and the child would have stepped/ right off the table/ and fallen onto the floor./ After a bill has been passed by parliament,/ it becomes an act./ My uncle was always talking with pride/ about his many adventures abroad/ as a young man./ I was introduced to the seller,/ gave the car a trial run,/ and found it was working all right./ Although he was a strong swimmer,/ he was carried out to sea/ by the tide./ He hunted for his wallet/ but couldn’t find it.


LESSON 134 741

Giving/asking for opinions in my view

from my point of view

if you ask me

as far as I’m concerned

There are various expressions we can use to give an opinion in English. We already know “I’d sayâ€?, but some other expressions are “in my opinionâ€?, “in my viewâ€?, “from my point of viewâ€?, “if you ask meâ€?, “as far as I’m concernedâ€? etc. Of course, we can also use these expressions to ask for opinions. 5FMMNFTPNFPGUIFFYQSFTTJPOTXFDBOVTFUPHJWFTPNFPOFPVSPQJOJPO Some of the expressions ‌ are in English. “in my opinionâ€?, “in my viewâ€?, “from my point of viewâ€?, “if you ask meâ€?, “as far as I’m concernedâ€? etc. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

If you ask me, he’s the best footballer in this country

*OZPVSWJFX TIPVMEDIJMESFOCFBMMPXFEUPHPUPCFEXIFOFWFSUIFZ XBOU  Yes, in my view, children ‌ ~ No, in my view, children ‌ 'SPNZPVSQPJOUPGWJFX JTJUCFUUFSUPMJWFJOBCJHDJUZPSJOUIF DPVOUSZTJEF  From my point of view, ‌ 8IBUXPVMEZPVTBZXBTUIFCFTUXBZUPMPTFXFJHIU  



I’d say the best way ‌

"TGBSBTZPVǽSFDPODFSOFE XIJDIDPVOUSZIBTUIFCFTUGPPEJOUIFXPSME As far as I’m concerned, ‌


742

clockwise

anticlockwise

@ = at

symbol

ɛ = dot

8IFOXFǽSFVTJOHBTDSFXUPIBOHBQJDUVSFPOBXBMM EPXFUVSOUIF TDSFXDMPDLXJTFPSBOUJDMPDLXJTF  When we’re …, … clockwise 8IBUEPXFDBMMUIFTZNCPMVTFEJOFNBJMBEESFTTFTUIBUMPPLTMJLFB MPXFSDBTFMFUUFSǿBǿXJUIBUBJMHPJOHBSPVOEJUBOUJDMPDLXJTF We call … the “at” sign 8IBUǽTUIFFNBJMBEESFTTGPSUIJTTDIPPM 

inquire (or enquire)

The email address …

inquiry (or enquiry)

8IFSFEPXFHPUPFORVJSFBCPVUUSBJOUJNFTBUUIFTUBUJPO We go to the enquiry office to … 8IFOBNFNCFSPGUIFQVCMJDJTLJMMFECZBQPMJDFPGʝDFS EPZPVUIJOL UIFSFPVHIUUPCFBOPGʝDJBMJORVJSZJOUPUIFEFBUI  Yes, when a …, I think … ~ No, when a …, I don’t think …

escape

prisoner

*GZPVIBECFFOBQSJTPOFSEVSJOHUIFMBTUXPSMEXBS XPVMEZPVIBWF USJFEUPFTDBQF  Yes, if I’d been …, I’d have tried … ~ No, if I’d been …, I wouldn’t have tried … 743

regret *TUIFSFBOZUIJOHZPVSFHSFUIBWJOHEPOFPSOPUIBWJOHEPOFJOZPVSMJGF Yes, there’s something … ~ No, there isn’t anything … 8IBU 8IZ

wipe 8IBUBN*EPJOH 

forehead

towel You’re wiping your forehead with the back of your hand


"GUFSXBTIJOH XIBUEPXFXJQFPVSIBOETBOEGBDFPO 

interest

After washing, we ‌ a towel

shares

8IFOXFCVZBOJOUFSFTUJOBCVTJOFTT XIBUBSFUIFEPDVNFOUTUIBUXF CVZDBMMFE  When we buy ‌, the documents that we buy are called “shares“ *TJUJOZPVSPXOJOUFSFTUUPXFBSBTFBUCFMUJOBDBS 

Changing the letter “y� to “i�



Yes, it’s in my own ‌

tidiness

One useful spelling rule to remember is that when a word ends in the letter “y“ with a consonant before it, we change the “y“ to “i“ when adding a suffix. For example, “study – studied“. The exception to this rule is when we add the suffix “-ing“. In this case, the “y“ does not change. For example, “study – studying“. 8IBUIBQQFOTXIFOXFBEEBTVGĘ?YUPBXPSEFOEJOHJOUIFMFUUFSÇżZÇż When we add ‌, XJUIBDPOTPOBOUCFGPSFJU  we change the “y“ to “i“ 744 4QFMMUIFXPSEÇżCBCJFTÇż QMFBTF

4QFMMUIFXPSEÇżUJEJOFTTÇż QMFBTF

b–a–b–i–e–s t–i–d–i–n–e–s–s

8IBUJTUIFFYDFQUJPOUPUIJTSVMF 

The exception ‌ the suffix “ing“

4QFMMUIFXPSEÇżDBSSZJOHÇż QMFBTF

c–a–r–r–y–i–n–g

If a word ends in the letter “y“ with a vowel before it, the “y“ does not change to “i“ when we add a suffix. For example, “delay – delays“. 8IBUIBQQFOTXIFOXFBEEBTVGĘ?YUPBXPSEFOEJOHJOUIFMFUUFSÇżZÇż XJUIBWPXFMCFGPSFJU  When we add ‌, we do not change the “y“ to “i“ 4QFMMUIFXPSEÇżKPVSOFZTÇż QMFBTF

j–o–u–r–n–e–y–s


preferable *OBCJHDJUZMJLF-POEPOPS1BSJT JTJUQSFGFSBCMFGPSNPTUQFPQMFUPESJWFB DBSFWFSZEBZPSVTFQVCMJDUSBOTQPSU  In a big …, it’s preferable for …

largely

quality

Do you think that success in life (like making a lot of money) is largely a NBUUFSPGMVDL PSEPZPVUIJOLDFSUBJORVBMJUJFTBSFSFRVJSFEXIJDIBSF NPSFJNQPSUBOUUIBOMVDL I think that ... ~ I don’t think that ...; I think ... 745

may as well

might as well

We use the expressions “may as well“ or “might as well“ when we are suggesting something, not because we think it is a great idea but because we cannot think of anything better to do. For example, if we say “We may as well go home now“, it means that we are suggesting going home only because we cannot think of a better alternative. 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFFYQSFTTJPOTǿNBZBTXFMMǿPSǿNJHIUBTXFMMǿ  We use the expressions “may as well“ or “might as well“ when we are suggesting something, not because we think it is a great idea but because we cannot think of anything better to do (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

It’s raining and cold outside. We may (or might) as well stay at home and watch a film on TV

on account of *GZPVIBECPVHIUBUJDLFUGPSBNVTJDGFTUJWBMCVUUIFOUIFFWFOUXBT DBODFMMFEBUUIFMBTUNPNFOUPOBDDPVOUPGCBEXFBUIFS EPZPVUIJOL ZPVǽECFBCMFUPHFUBSFGVOE  Yes, if I had bought…, I think I’d … ~ No, if I had bought…, I don’t think I’d …

energetic After eating your lunch each day, do you generally feel more energetic or MFTTFOFSHFUJD  After eating …, I generally …


breath

breathe

out of breath

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re breathing

746 "OEXIBUDPNFTPVUPGPVSNPVUITXIFOXFCSFBUIF 

)PXMPOHDBOZPVIPMEZPVSCSFBUIGPS  )PXEPQFPQMFHFUPVUPGCSFBUI  

through



Breath comes … I can hold my ...

People get out of breath through running, climbing the stairs etc.

Idiom 35 MVDLZCSFBLa piece of good luck, usually following a period of little or no success e.g. For several months I couldn’t find any work, but then I had a lucky break: a man I met at a party offered me a job.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇ¿MVDLZCSFBLÇ¿NFBO 

The idiom ... “a piece of ...“

(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF We had to hitchhike, but no one stopped for us all morning. Then we had a lucky break: someone picked us up and took us all the way to the city.

clothing Dictation 90

On the whole,/ we speak English rather well now./ My account is almost empty./ I’ve spent all my money/ on clothing for the holiday./ The eastern states of North America/ were settled by the Europeans/ before the western states./ If we need to draw out money/ when the banks are closed,/ it’s necessary to use a cash machine./ We had all expected/ the temple to be damaged/ by the violent storms./ I’m afraid that our opinions/ differ too greatly./ These shoes are not the same size./ Which navy has the best ships? Do Revision Exercise 60


LESSON 135 747

Present perfect continuous: evidence of recent activity As we already know, we can use the perfect continuous tenses to communicate the duration of an action up to a particular point. For example, “I have been working for one hour so far“. In addition, we can use the present perfect continuous when there is evidence now of a recent activity. For example, “Look at Lucy’s eyes; I think she’s been crying“ or “The road’s wet. It’s been raining“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGUIFQSFTFOUQFSGFDUDPOUJOVPVTVTFEXIFOUIFSFÇ˝T Look at David; he’s covered in mud. FWJEFODFOPXPGBSFDFOUBDUJWJUZ I think he’s been working in his garden. )PXDBOXFUFMMXIFOTPNFCPEZÇ˝TCFFOSVOOJOHBMPU  We can tell ‌ because they’re breathing heavily 8IFOXFBSSJWFBUTPNFPOFÇ˝TIPVTF IPXDBOXFUFMMJGUIFZÇ˝WFSFDFOUMZ CFFODPPLJOH  When we ‌, we can tell ‌ because we can smell the food We can use the past perfect continuous in the same way. For example, “When I arrived at David’s house last night, I could tell he had been cooking“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGUIFQBTUQFSGFDUDPOUJOVPVTVTFEJOUIFTBNFXBZ  When I walked into the living room, please. both the children looked really angry. It was clear they had been arguing.

748

to take into account

tip

When considering the price of a meal in a restaurant, do you take into BDDPVOUTVDIUIJOHTBTUIFTFSWJDFDIBSHFBOEUIFXBJUFSÇ˝TUJQ Yes, when considering ... ~ No, when considering ... 8IBUQBSUPGNZĘ?OHFSJTUIJT 

That’s the tip of your finger


When we are trying to think of a word or a name that we know well but we cannot remember it immediately, we say it’s on the tip of our tongue. 8IBUEPXFTBZXIFOXFBSFUSZJOHUPUIJOLPGBXPSEPSBOBNFUIBUXF LOPXXFMM CVUXFDBOOPUSFNFNCFSJUJNNFEJBUFMZ  When we are trying ... we say it’s on the tip of our tongue

make up your mind 8IFOZPVǽSFCVZJOHTPNFUIJOHMJLFBOFXQIPOFPSXBUDI EPZPVIBWF USPVCMFNBLJOHVQZPVSNJOEXIJDIPOFUPCVZ  Yes, when I’m buying …, I have … ~ No, when I’m buying …, I don’t have …

delicate 8IBUXPVMEIBQQFOJGZPVXBTIFETPNFEFMJDBUFDMPUIFTJOBXBTIJOH NBDIJOFBUBIJHIUFNQFSBUVSF If I …, they would get damaged or become smaller

observe

observation

%PQFPQMFCFIBWFEJGGFSFOUMZGSPNIPXUIFZOPSNBMMZEPXIFOUIFZ UIJOLUIFZǽSFOPUCFJOHPCTFSWFECZPUIFST  Yes, people behave … ~ No, people don’t behave … 749 8IZEPZPVUIJOLUIJTJT 

I think this is because …

%PFTBEFUFDUJWFOFFEUPIBWFHPPEQPXFSTPGPCTFSWBUJPO  Yes, a detective needs …

historic %PZPVUIJOLJUǽTSJHIUGPSHPWFSONFOUTUPTQFOEQVCMJDNPOFZPO QSFTFSWJOHIJTUPSJDCVJMEJOHT PSEPZPVUIJOLQVCMJDNPOFZTIPVMECF TQFOUJOPUIFSXBZT  I think …

paw 8IBUǽTBQBX 

claw A paw is the foot of an animal which has claws, like that of a cat, a dog, a lion etc ...


wooden

hut

woollen

silken

golden

A wooden hut is a hut made of wood; a woollen hat is a hat made of wool; a silk dress is a dress made of silk, whereas silken hair is hair which is soft and smooth like silk; a gold watch is a watch made of gold, whereas golden is hair that looks like gold in colour. 8IBUǽTBXPPEFOIVU 

A wooden … made of wood

8IBUǽTBXPPMMFOIBU 

A woollen … made of wool

8IBUǽTBTJMLESFTT 

A silk … made of silk

8IBUǽTTJMLFOIBJS 

Silken … like silk

8IBUǽTBHPMEXBUDI 

A gold … made of gold

8IBUǽTHPMEFOTLJO  750

Golden … looks like gold in colour

every other day %PZPVIBWF&OHMJTIMFTTPOTFWFSZEBZPSFWFSZPUIFSEBZ  

assist

assistant

I have English …

pushchair

*GZPVOPUJDFETPNFCPEZTUSVHHMJOHUPHFUBQVTIDIBJSPOUPBCVT XPVME ZPVBTTJTUUIFN  Yes, if I noticed …, I’d ... ~ No, if I noticed …, I wouldn’t ... 8PVMEZPVTBZUIFTIPQBTTJTUBOUTJOUIJTDPVOUSZXFSFSFBTPOBCMZQPMJUF BOEIFMQGVM  Yes, I’d say … ~ No, I wouldn’t say …

otherwise

engaged

*GTPNFPOFDBMMFEZPVPOZPVSNPCJMFBOEZPVXFSFPUIFSXJTFFOHBHFE XJUITPNFUIJOHJNQPSUBOU XPVMEZPVUBLFUIFDBMM Yes, if someone …, I’d … ~ No, if someone …, I wouldn’t … *GBDBSIBEPOFCSPLFOXJOEPXCVUPUIFSXJTFXBTJOHPPEDPOEJUJPO  XPVMEZPVCVZJU  Yes, if a car …, I’d ... ~ No, if a car …, I wouldn’t ...


perform

performance

trick

magic

*GZPVIBEUPQFSGPSNJOBQMBZ XIBULJOEPGQBSUXPVMEZPVMJLFUP QFSGPSN  If I had to perform ‌, I’d like to ‌ $BOZPVQFSGPSNBOZNBHJDUSJDLT 

Yes, I can ‌ ~ No, I can’t ‌

751 /BNFBOBDUPSXIPZPVUIJOLBMXBZTHJWFTHPPEQFSGPSNBODFTJOĘ?MNT An actor who I think ‌ is ‌

envy

envious

celebrity

fame

8IBULJOEPGQFPQMFEPZPVFOWZ 

I envy ‌

"SFZPVFOWJPVTPGUIFGBNFUIBUDFMFCSJUJFTIBWF  Yes, I’m envious of ‌ ~ No, I’m not envious of ‌

advice (n)

advise (v)

practice (n)

practise (v)

licence (n)

license (v)

8IBUÇ˝TUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOÇżBEWJDFÇżBOEÇżBEWJTFÇż The difference ‌ “advice“ is a noun, whereas “advise“ is a verb 8IBUÇ˝TUIFEJGGFSFODFJOTQFMMJOHCFUXFFOUIFOPVOÇżQSBDUJDFÇżBOEUIF WFSCÇżQSBDUJTFÇż  The difference ‌ the noun is spelt “-ce“, whereas the verb is spelt “-se“ "OEXIBUÇ˝TUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFOPVOÇżMJDFODFÇżBOEUIFWFSC ÇżMJDFOTFÇż  The difference ‌ the same; the noun is spelt “-ce“, whereas the verb is spelt “-se“

record (n)

record (v)

8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFXPSETǿSFDPSEǿ O BOEǿSFDPSEǿ W

The difference ‌ is that “record“ is a noun, whereas “record“ is a verb


752 $BOZPVUIJOLPGBOZTQPSUJOHSFDPSEUIBUIBTCFFOCSPLFOSFDFOUMZ Yes, I can think … ~ No, I can’t think …

8IJDI )BWFZPVFWFSSFDPSEFEZPVSPXOWPJDF 



8IBUEJEJUTPVOEMJLF 

scatter

plant



Yes, I’ve recorded … ~ No, I’ve never recorded … It sounded …

row

disorderly

8IZEPGBSNFSTTPNFUJNFTQMBOUTFFETDBSFGVMMZJOUIFHSPVOEJOSPXT SBUIFSUIBOKVTUTDBUUFSUIFNPOUIFMBOE  Farmers sometimes … to prevent birds from eating them, or the wind from blowing them away 8IZEPFTBEJTPSEFSMZDSPXEPGQFPQMFTDBUUFSXIFOUIFQPMJDFBSSJWF A disorderly crowd of people scatters when the police arrive because the people are afraid of being arrested or hit by the police etc.

tap 8IBUBN*EPJOH 

turn on You’re tapping your fingers on the table

*OXIJDIEJSFDUJPOEPFTPOFOPSNBMMZUVSOBXBUFSUBQPO One normally turns a water tap on in an anticlockwise direction

pollution

polluted

*TQPMMVUJPOBNPSFTFSJPVTQSPCMFNOPXUIBOJUXBTBIVOESFEZFBSTBHP Yes, pollution is … 753 "SFNPTUPGUIFSJWFSTJOUIJTDPVOUSZIFBWJMZQPMMVUFE    Yes, most of the rivers … ~ No, most of the rivers …


Idiom 36 HFU IPMEPG UIFXSPOHFOEPGUIFTUJDLunderstand something wrongly e.g. No, you’ve got (hold of) the wrong end of the stick. I meant next Wednesday, not this Wednesday!

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇżHFU IPMEPG UIFXSPOHFOEPGUIFTUJDLÇżNFBO The idiom ‌ “understand something wrongly“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

Every time you explain anything to him, he always seems to get (hold of) the wrong end of the stick

Dictation 91

It doesn’t matter/ if we occasionally make a mistake./ We were suddenly forced to stop/ by the appearance of men/ standing in front of us/ with bows and arrows./ Some of them/ had drawn back their bows/ ready to shoot at us./ The youth claimed/ that he had not stolen the goods/ but the shopkeeper would not believe him./ Last year, I paid a visit/ to the Holy Land,/ an important region/ for millions of religious believers/ around the world./ We stood on the shore/ and watched the sun go down over the lake.


LESSON136 754

Was + infinitive with “toâ€? “Was“ (or “were“) followed by an infinitive with “to“ expresses a future event in relation to a point in the past. For example, “I did not realize when we first started this job that it was to be so difficult“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGÇżXBTÇżPSÇżXFSFÇżGPMMPXFECZBOJOĘ?OJUJWFXJUI We trusted him completely, ÇżUPÇż but we were to find out later that he had been lying all the time

slight 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBÇżTMJHIUIFBEBDIFÇż    By a “slight headache“, we mean aheadache which is not very strong 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBÇżTMJHIUEFMBZÇż 

By a “slight delay“, we mean a delay which is very short

8IBU UIFO EPFTUIFXPSEÇżTMJHIUÇżNFBO    The word “slight“ means small, and usually unimportant

upside down

755

right way up

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re turning your book upside down

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re turning your book the right way up

feather *TJUUSVFUIBUCJSETBSFUIFPOMZBOJNBMTJOUIFXPSMEUIBUIBWFGFBUIFST Yes, it’s true that ‌

wear

sleeve

worn out

exhausted

mend


8IBUǽEIBQQFOJG*LFQUSVCCJOHNZTMFFWFPOUIFFEHFPGUIFUBCMF MJLF UIJT  If you kept rubbing your sleeve, you’d wear a hole in your sleeve 8IBUEPXFEPXJUIDMPUIFTUIBUBSFXPSOPVU   We mend or throw away clothes that are worn out *G*UPMEZPV*XBTGFFMJOHXPSOPVU XIBUXPVME*NFBO    If you ‌, you’d mean you were exhausted

qualification 8IJDIEPZPVUIJOLÇ˝TNPSFJNQPSUBOUGPSĘ?OEJOHBOFXKPCFYQFSJFODFPS RVBMJĘ?DBUJPOT  I think ...

debt 8IBUEPFTJUNFBOÇżUPCFJOEFCUÇż

“To be in debt“ means that we owe somebody something, usually money

*GZPVEPOǽUNBOBHFZPVSDSFEJUDBSEBDDPVOUQSPQFSMZ JTJUFBTZUPHFU JOUPEFCU  Yes, if you don’t ‌, it’s ‌ 756

interrupt

interruption

8IBUEPXFTBZXIFOXFJOUFSSVQUTPNFPOFXIPÇ˝TTQFBLJOH When we ‌, we say “Excuse me“ 8IBUEPUIFZTBZPOUFMFWJTJPOXIFOUIFSFÇ˝TBOJOUFSSVQUJPO When there’s an interruption on television, they say “We apologize for the interruption“

if only ‌! When we want to be emphatic, we can say “if only ‌!“ instead of “I wish â€Śâ€œ. For example, instead of saying “I wish I could take a holiday“, we can say “If only I could take a holiday!“ Instead of “I wish I had gone to bed earlier last night“, we can say “If only I had gone to bed earlier last night!“ 8IBUDBOXFTBZJOTUFBEPGÇż*XJTIÇżXIFOXFXBOUUPCFFNQIBUJD We can say “if only ‌!“ instead of “I wish â€Śâ€œ when we want to be emphatic


(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

act

I hate this job. If only I hadn’t accepted it!

capable

%PZPVCFMJFWFBMMIVNBOTBSFDBQBCMFPGBDUTPGHSFBULJOEOFTT   Yes, I believe ‌ ~ No, I don’t believe ‌ 8IBUǽTUIFCFTUXBZUPKVEHFBQFSTPOCZXIBUIFTBZTPSIPXIFBDUT The best way to ... is by ...

bar

lock

8IJDIJTIFBWJFSBCBSPGHPMEPSBCBSPGJSPO JG PGDPVSTF UIFZBSFUIF TBNFTJ[F  A bar of gold is ‌ 757 8PVMEJUCFIFBMUIZUPFBUBXIPMFCBSPGDIPDPMBUFFWFSZEBZ No, it wouldn’t ‌

*TJUGBJSMZDPNNPOUPĘ?OECBSTPOUIFHSPVOEĘžPPSXJOEPXTPGIPVTFTJO UIJTDPVOUSZ  Yes, it’s fairly common ‌ ~ No, it isn’t common ‌ 8IBUEPXFNFBOJGXFTBZUIBUUIFQPMJDFIBWFCBSSFEBSPBE   If we say ‌, we mean they have put something across the road to prevent cars from going along it 8IZEPDMVCTBOEQVCTTPNFUJNFTCBSQBSUJDVMBSQFPQMFGSPNFOUFSJOH Clubs and ‌ because they have behaved very badly on a previous occasion

cart 8IBUEPFTUIFFYQSFTTJPOÇżUPQVUUIFDBSUCFGPSFUIFIPSTFÇżNFBO The expression “to put the ...“ means to do things in the wrong order (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

Learning to read and write a language before learning to speak and understand it is like putting the cart before the horse, as a language should be listened to first, then spoken, then read, and then finally written


deceive

complain

complaint

*GBOBSUEFBMFSTPMEZPVBQBJOUJOHBOEUIFOZPVSFBMJ[FEUIBUZPVǽE CFFOEFDFJWFEBCPVUUIFWBMVFPGUIFQBJOUJOH XPVMEZPVHPCBDLUPUIF EFBMFSBOEDPNQMBJO  Yes, if an art dealer ‌, I’d go ‌ ~ No, if an art dealer ‌, I wouldn’t go ‌ 758 Would you get complaints from your neighbours if you turned up your TV WFSZMPVE  Yes, I’d get ‌ ~ No, I wouldn’t get ‌

)BWFZPVFWFSNBEFBOPGĘ?DJBMDPNQMBJOU 

Yes, I’ve ‌ ~ No, I’ve never ‌

8IPUP 8IBUBCPVU

either side "SFUIFSFTUVEFOUTTJUUJOHPOFJUIFSTJEFPGZPV 

Yes, there are ‌ ~ No, there aren’t ‌

“Whatâ€? and “whichâ€? We generally use “which“ when we are considering a limited number of alternatives, whereas we use “what“ in a more unlimited sense. For example, we say “What’s your phone number?“ because there is an almost unlimited number of possibilities. However, if we have a piece of paper with some phone numbers written on it, we say “Which of these is your phone number?“ because there is a limited number of possibilities. 8IBUÇ˝TUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFXPSETÇżXIBUÇżBOEÇżXIJDIÇż The difference ‌ is that ‌ “which“ ‌ limited number of alternatives, whereas ‌ “what“ ‌ unlimited sense (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGFBDI QMFBTF What’s your address? Which address should I send the letter to: your home address or your work address?

faint

excitement

fear

8IBUEPQFPQMFEPXIFOBGBJOUTNFMMPGCVSOJOHSFBDIFTUIFJSOPTFT When a faint ‌ reaches people’s noses, they try to find out where it’s coming from


759 8IZEPQFPQMFGBJOU 

People faint because of excessive heat, excitement, fear, pain etc.

happen to (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGǿIBQQFOUPǿ QMFBTF   I happen to know several people who work for that company 8IFOZPVIBQQFOUPTFFTPNFPOFZPVLOPXPOUIFTUSFFUCVUJUǽT TPNFPOFUIBUZPVEPOǽUQBSUJDVMBSMZXBOUUPTQFBLUP XIBUEPZPVEP When I happen to see … want to speak to, I ...

outwards

inwards

%PFTZPVSGSPOUEPPSPQFOPVUXBSETPSJOXBSET 

lean

beneath





My front door opens …

give way

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re leaning on the table

8IZEPFTUIF-FBOJOH5PXFSPG1JTBMFBO 

The Leaning Tower of Pisa leans because the ground beneath one side has given way

mankind 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZNBOLJOE 







By mankind, we mean all the people in the world in general

mate 8IBUǽTBOJOGPSNBMXPSEXFDBOVTFJOTUFBEPGǿGSJFOEǿ An informal … “mate“ 760

zoo

cage

8IBUXPVMEZPVEPJGZPVXFSFMPPLJOHBUBUJHFSJOB[PPBOETVEEFOMZ OPUJDFEUIBUJUTDBHFXBTTMJHIUMZPQFO  If I was …, I’d …


monkey

ape

closely

8IJDIBSFNPSFDMPTFMZSFMBUFEUPIVNBOTBQFTPSNPOLFZT 

Apes are …

Idiom 37 TOBQEFDJTJPOa quick decision – fast, like the snap of one’s fingers e.g. There wasn’t time to think carefully; I had to make a snap decision.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇ¿TOBQEFDJTJPOÇ¿NFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

Do Revision Exercise 61

The idiom … “a quick …“

Although it was a snap decision, it was the right one


LESSON 137 761

“So” – and its many uses (continued) it is not so

so, you have come!

I told you so

it so happens

just (exactly)

Here are some more expressions in English that contain the word “so”: 1) “He said the train had left, but it was not so.“ Here, the word “so“ means “true“. 2) “So, you’ve got a new job, I hear!“ Here, the word “so“ is used to start a conversation on a particular subject. 3) “It so happens I have just the thing you are looking for.“ Here, the expression “it so happens“ means “by chance“. 4) “I told you so! We spent too long in the restaurant, and now we’ve missed the last bus home!“ Here, the expression “I told you so“ means “This is exactly what I predicted“. $BOZPVHJWFNFTPNFGVSUIFSFYBNQMFTPGUIFXPSEǿTPǿ Some further … are 1) He said the train had … etc.

melt 8IBUEPXFHFUXIFOJDFNFMUT 

We get water when ice melts

have something to do with … )BTNZKPCHPUBOZUIJOHUPEPXJUIBSU 

No, your job …


762 *GZPVJOUFSGFSFEJOBQSJWBUFNBUUFSUIBUIBEOPUIJOHUPEPXJUIZPV  XIBUNJHIUTPNFCPEZTBZUPZPV  If I …, … “Mind your own business!“

pick at

pick out

8IZEPQFPQMFTPNFUJNFTQJDLBUUIFJSGPPE    People sometimes … because they aren’t very hungry, or they don’t like the food very much %PZPVʝOEJUIBSEUPQJDLPVUUIFSJHIUDMPUIFTUPXFBSXIFOZPVǽSF HPJOHUPBQBSUZ  Yes, I find it … ~ No, I don’t find it …

regard

regards

greet

greetings

bye-bye

see you

Do you think most people in this country regard pollution as a serious QSPCMFN  Yes, I think most ... ~ No, I don’t think most … 8IFOXFXBOUUPTFOEPVSHSFFUJOHTUPTPNFCPEZUISPVHIBUIJSE QFSTPO XIBUEPXFTBZ  When we want …, we say “Give my regards to …“ 8IBUEPXFTBZXIFOXFHSFFUTPNFPOFJOUIFTUSFFU When we greet …, we say “Hello!“, “Good evening!“ etc. "OEXIBUEPXFTBZXIFOXFMFBWFTPNFPOF When we leave someone, we say “Goodbye“, “Bye-bye“, “See you“, “Cheers“ etc.

scent

give off

8IJDIʞPXFSEPZPVUIJOLHJWFTPGGUIFOJDFTUTDFOU    I think the … gives off the nicest scent 763

welcome 8IBUEPFTTPNFCPEZNFBOXIFOUIFZPQFOUIFJSGSPOUEPPSBOETBZ ǿ8FMDPNFǿUPBWJTJUPS  When somebody …, they mean that they are happy to invite the visitor into their home


8IFOXBTUIFMBTUUJNFZPVXFOUUPBOBJSQPSUUPXFMDPNFBGSJFOEPS SFMBUJWF  The last time I … was …

go right

temper

thoughtful

lose one’s temper go bad

8IFOUIJOHTEPOǽUHPSJHIU XIBUEPZPVEPMPTFZPVSUFNQFS PSKVTU CFDPNFWFSZRVJFUBOEUIPVHIUGVM  When things don’t go right, I … 8IBUEPXFEPXJUIGPPEUIBUIBTHPOFCBE 

We throw away food that has gone bad

8IBULJOEPGUIJOHTQVUZPVJOBCBEUFNQFS 

The kind of … temper are …

8PVMEZPVTBZUIBU HFOFSBMMZTQFBLJOH XPNFOXFSFNPSFTXFFU UFNQFSFEUIBONFO  Yes, I’d say that … ~ No, I wouldn’t say that …

by now *GZPVIBEMFGUGPS4DPUMBOEUFOIPVSTBHP XPVMEZPVIBWFBSSJWFEUIFSF CZOPX  Yes, if I’d left …, I’d … ~ No, if I’d left …, I wouldn’t … 764

warn

ahead

triangle

8IBULJOEPGTJHOEPXFTFFPOUIFTJEFPGUIFSPBEUIBUXBSOTVTUIBU UIFSFǽTEBOHFSBIFBE  The kind of sign we … ahead is usually a red triangle with a picture of the danger in the middle. If, for example, there is a dangerous bend ahead, there will be a line in the shape of a dangerous bend inside the triangle.

mercy *OBODJFOUIJTUPSZ EJEUIFDPORVFSPSTPGBDPVOUSZVTVBMMZTIPXNFSDZUP UIFQFPQMFPGUIFDPVOUSZUIFZIBEDPORVFSFE No, in ancient history, the conquerors …


desire 8IBUǽTBTJNJMBSXPSEUPǿXJTIǿ 

A similar word to “wish“ is “desire“

%PZPVIBWFBOZHSFBUEFTJSFUPUSBWFMBSPVOEUIFXPSMEBUTPNFQPJOUJO ZPVSMJGF  Yes, I have a great … ~ No, I don’t have any great …

ignore *GZPVEFWFMPQFEBOBDIFJOZPVSMPXFSCBDLUIBUXPVMEOPUHPBXBZ  XPVMEZPVJHOPSFJUPSHPUPUIFEPDUPS  If I developed …, I’d … 765

upright

lung

organ

8IZJTJUIFBMUIJFSUPTJUBOEXBMLVQSJHIUSBUIFSUIBOXJUIPOFǽTIFBEBOE TIPVMEFSTCFOUGPSXBSE  The reason it’s healthier … is that the lungs and other organs of the body are not pressed against each other, and, with an upright back, the blood moves more freely in the body and the person feels less tired

seldom 8IBUǽTBOPUIFSXPSEGPSǿSBSFMZǿ 

Another word …

8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOǿTFMEPNǿBOEǿSBSFMZǿ  The difference between “seldom“ and “rarely“ is that “seldom“ is a more formal word than “rarely“ %PFTJUPGUFOSBJOJOUIFTPVUIPG4QBJO 

No, it doesn’t …; it seldom rains ...

work out 8PSLPVUUIJTQSPCMFN QMFBTFXIBUHFUTXFUUFSXIJMFJUǽTESZJOH The answer is “a towel“ 8IBUBSFZPVEPJOH 

I’m working out a problem


confusion

electrical

%PZPVBHSFFUIBUUIFJOTUSVDUJPOCPPLMFUTUIBUDPNFXJUIFMFDUSJDBM products sometimes contain so much detail that they simply cause DPOGVTJPO  Yes, I agree that … ~ No, I don’t agree that … 766

advance

step by step

in advance

progress

in arrears

8IZJTJUCFUUFSUPBEWBODFTUFQCZTUFQXIFOMFBSOJOHBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHF SBUIFSUIBOUSZUPQSPHSFTTUPPRVJDLMZ  The reason it’s better to advance … too quickly is that it’s impossible to absorb high-level language unless you can use language from lower levels easily and without thinking %PBEWBODFTJOTDJFODFNFBOUIBUNPSFQFPQMFBSFMJWJOHMPOHFSUIFTF EBZTUIBOFWFSCFGPSF  Yes, advances in … 8IFOQFPQMFXPSL BSFUIFZOPSNBMMZQBJEJOBEWBODFPSJOBSSFBST When people work, … in arrears

cuff

preparation

Idiom 38 PGGUIFDVGGwithout preparation e.g. In answer to my question about prices, he was only able to give me a rough idea off the cuff, but said he would email me a full and proper answer the following day.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇ¿PGGUIFDVGGÇ¿NFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

The idiom … “without preparation“

He gave his wedding speech off the cuff because he hadn’t had any time to prepare properly


767 )BWFZPVFWFSIBEUPNBLFBTQFFDIPGGUIFDVGG 

valley

  Yes, I’ve had to … ~ No, I’ve never had to …

injustice Dictation 92

The chickens/ have not laid a single egg/ for an entire week./ The soldiers behaved with great courage/ and fought well,/ but still they lost the battle./ He had the choice/ of either entering the government/ and becoming some kind of official/ or of entering the church/ and becoming a priest./ The village looked very pretty/ lying in the valley/ in the morning sunshine./ It is not uncommon/ in big cities/ to find people on the street/ preaching against social injustices./ Some people find travelling/ a stressful experience.


LESSON 138 768

bite – bit – bitten 8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re biting your finger

8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGǿCJUFǿ

bare

The three forms of “bite“ are “bite, bit, bitten“

weapon

barely

"SFNZIBOETDPWFSFE 

No, your hands ...; they’re bare

*TJUQPTTJCMFUPLJMMBNBOXJUIPOFǽTCBSFIBOETUIBUJT XJUIPVUVTJOHB XFBQPOPGBOZLJOE  Yes, it’s possible to ... 8IFOZPVHPPOIPMJEBZ EPZPVUBLFBMPUPGDMPUIFTXJUIZPV PSKVTUUIF CBSFNJOJNVN  When I go …, I … 8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTBZǿ8FCBSFMZIBEUJNFUPFBUǿ When we say “We barely …“, we mean we only just had time to eat

go back

come back

return

enter

go down

come down

go in descend

come in overcome

769 Sometimes it can be difficult to know when to use the verb “go back“ and

when to use “come back“, or when to use “go in“ and when to use “come in“. Some students have a similar confusion with the words “bring“ and “take“. The problem exists because, with these verbs, the correct choice depends mainly on where the speaker is at the time. For example, if, at the time of speaking, I was at the school, I would say “After the lesson tomorrow, I’ll go back home“, whereas if I were at home, I would say “After the lesson tomorrow, I’ll come back home“.


If you really cannot decide which verb to use, one way to overcome the problem is to use the verb “return“ instead of “go back“ or “come back“, and the verb “enter“ instead of “go in“ or “come in“. However, “return“ and “enter“ are quite formal words in English, so only do this if you feel you have to. 8IBUÇ˝TUIFEJGĘ?DVMUZXJUIUIFXPSETÇżHPCBDLÇżBOEÇżDPNFCBDLÇż BOEÇżHP The difficulty with ‌ JOÇżBOEÇżDPNFJOÇż  is that the correct choice of verb depends mainly on ‌ 8IBUÇ˝TPOFXBZUPPWFSDPNFUIFQSPCMFN  One way ‌ is by using “return“ instead of “go back“ or “come back“, and “enter“ instead of “go in“ or “come in“ The same difficulty exists with the verbs “go down“ and “come down“, so you can use “descend“ instead. However, remember that using the word “descend“ sounds quite formal in English. 8IBUXPSEDBOXFVTFJOTUFBEPGÇżHPEPXOÇżPSÇżDPNFEPXOÇż We can use the word “descend“ instead of ‌

case

barrister

8IBUEPXFDBMMUIFUZQFPGMBXZFSXIPĘ?HIUTDBTFTJOBMBXDPVSU  We call ‌ a barrister 770

(just) in case

risk

run a risk

The expression “in case“, or “just in case“, means “in preparation for the possibility that â€Śâ€œ. For example, if we say “Here is my phone number in case you need to call me“, we mean “in preparation for the possibility that you need to call me“. If you need to call, you will already be prepared because you will have my number. The expression “in case“ 8IBUEPFTUIFFYQSFTTJPOÇżJODBTFÇżNFBO  means “in preparation for the possibility that â€Śâ€œ

(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

I left home early in case there were any transport problems


Do you carry an umbrella in case it rains, or are you the kind of person XIPQSFGFSTUPSVOUIFSJTLPGJUSBJOJOH  I carry … ~ No, I don’t carry …; I’m the kind of … The expression “just in case“ can be used at the end of a sentence if it is obvious what we mean. For example, “Here’s my mobile number, just in case“ obviously means “Here’s my mobile number in case you need to call me“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGǿKVTUJODBTFǿVTFEBUUIFFOEPGBTFOUFODF  I was sure there was enough please. petrol in the car but I put in some more, just in case Do not confuse the expression “in case“ with the expression “in case of“. We use “in case of“ with the meaning of “if and when something happens“. For example, “In case of fire, leave the building immediately“ means “If and when there is a fire, leave the building immediately“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGUIFFYQSFTTJPOǿJODBTFPGǿ QMFBTF In case of any problems, please contact me immediately

excuse (v)

excuse (n)

8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOǿFYDVTFǿ W BOEǿFYDVTFǿ O

The difference … is that “excuse“ is the verb, whilst “excuse“ is the noun 771

waist 8IBUQBSUPGUIFCPEZJTUIJT 

waistcoat That part of the body is the waist

8IBUEPFTBUISFFQJFDFTVJUDPOTJTUPG  A three-piece suit consists of trousers, a jacket and a waistcoat

fancy 8IBUEPFTTPNFCPEZNFBOJGUIFZTBZUIBUUIFZEPOǽUMJLFGBODZGPPE If somebody says that they don’t like fancy food, they mean that they don’t like complicated food; they prefer simple food


8IBUEPZPVGBODZGPSZPVSEJOOFSUIJTFWFOJOHUIBUJT XIBUǽEZPVMJLFUP IBWF  I fancy … for my dinner this evening 5FMMNFUIFOBNFPGTPNFCPEZGBNPVTXIPZPVGBODZ

pint

gallon

0.5683 litres = 1 pint

litre 8 pints = 1 gallon

)PXNBOZMJUSFTNBLFBQJOU 

0.5683 litres make a pint

)PXNBOZQJOUTNBLFBHBMMPO  772

jealous

I fancy …

8 pints make a gallon

jealousy

go out with

*GTPNFCPEZZPVGBODJFETUBSUFEHPJOHPVUXJUIBGSJFOEPGZPVST XPVME ZPVGFFMKFBMPVT PSXPVMEZPVKVTUCFIBQQZGPSZPVSGSJFOE  If somebody …, I’d … 8IBUǽTUIFOPVOPGUIFBEKFDUJWFǿKFBMPVTǿ

fortune

fortunate

The noun ... is “jealousy“

international

%PUPQJOUFSOBUJPOBMTQPSUTNFOFBSOBGPSUVOF 

Yes, top international sportsmen earn …

8IBUǽTBOPUIFSNFBOJOHPGUIFXPSEǿGPSUVOFǿ 



Another meaning … is “luck“

*GZPVXFSFGPSUVOBUFFOPVHIUPXJOcNJMMJPOJOUIFMPUUFSZ IPXNVDI PGJUXPVMEZPVHJWFUPUIFPUIFSNFNCFSTPGZPVSGBNJMZ  If I were …, I’d give …

mine

miner

8IBUEPXFDBMMBNBOXIPXPSLTJOBNJOF  



We call a man who works in a mine a miner

tend %PZPVUFOEUPFBUUPPNVDIXIFOZPVHPPOIPMJEBZ     Yes, I tend … ~ No, I don’t tend …


773

content (n)

content (v or adj)

8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFXPSETǿconUFOUǿ O BOEǿDPOtentǿ W PSBEK

The difference … “content“ is a noun, whereas content“ is a verb or adjective *TJUOPSNBMGPSQBTTFOHFSTUPIBWFUIFcontents of their bags checked at BJSQPSUT  Yes, it’s normal for … Are you contentXJUIZPVSMJGFBUUIFNPNFOU

Yes, I’m … ~ No, I’m not …

witness )BWFZPVFWFSXJUOFTTFEBOBDDJEFOUPSBDSJNF  Yes, I’ve witnessed … ~ No, I’ve never witnessed …

Idiom 39 JOBOVUTIFMMbriefly; in a few words e.g. I won’t give you a long, detailed explanation but, in a nutshell, I couldn’t do the job.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇ¿JOBOVUTIFMMÇ¿NFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

774

The idiom … “briefly …“ To put it in a nutshell, the answer is “no“

Dictation 93

As a rule,/ I do not waste a lot of time/ worrying about unimportant details./ Last night,/ there was a terrible storm/ and the surface of the sea/ looked like/ a mass of hills and valleys./ There has been a wonderful improvement/ in his health/ and he is now beginning/ to enjoy life again./ Wisdom usually comes with experience./ Although he objected,/ he was still defeated./ I do not mind you smoking/ while I am eating./ We switched on the light/ and found that all the Christmas gifts/ had been stolen from under the tree. Do Revision Exercise 62


LESSON 139 775

rid

get rid of

8IBUǽTUIFCFTUXBZUPSJEPVSTFMWFTPGTPNFPOFXIPǽTDBVTJOHVT USPVCMF  The best way to ‌ is ‌ 8IBUǽE*FYQFDUZPVUPEPJG*UPMEZPVUPHFUSJEPGUIBUQFO If you told me ‌, you’d expect me to throw it away

above all (JWFNFBTFOUFODFXJUIUIFXPSETǿBCPWFBMMǿJOJU QMFBTF Don’t forget we need plenty of paper, pencils and rulers for the exam, but above all, we need pens

sharp

blunt

grind – ground – ground

sharpen flour

wheat

8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBTIBSQLOJGF  By a sharp knife, we mean one which has an edge that cuts well 8IBUǽTUIFPQQPTJUFPGǿTIBSQȀ 

The opposite ‌ “bluntâ€?

)PXEPXFTIBSQFOBCMVOUBYF 

We sharpen ‌ by grinding it on a stone

8IBUJTĘžPVS 

776

harm

Flour is wheat or corn that has been ground into a powder

harmful

harmless

creature %PZPVUIJOLZPVTIPVMECFBMMPXFEUPEPXIBUFWFSZPVXBOUJGJUEPFTOǽU IBSNBOZCPEZFMTF  Yes, I think ‌ 8IJDIEPZPVUIJOLǽTUIFNPTUIBSNGVMDSFBUVSFPOFBSUI I think ‌ is the most ‌


"OEXIJDIEPZPVUIJOLǽTUIFNPTUIBSNMFTT 

I think ‌ is the most ‌

*GZPVBUFTPNFWFHFUBCMFTTUSBJHIUGSPNUIFHBSEFOXJUIPVUXBTIJOH UIFNĘ?STU EPZPVUIJOLJUXPVMEEPZPVBOZIBSN  Yes, if I ate ‌, I think ‌ ~ No, if I ate ‌, I don’t think ‌

Questions without the question form Who helped you? When asking a question in English, we do not always use the question form. However, this is only when a question word, such as “who“, “what“ or “which“, is the subject in the sentence. For example, the sentence “Who did you help?“ uses the question form because the subject is the word “you“. However, the question “Who helped you?“ doesn’t use the question form because the subject is the word “who“. %PXFBMXBZTVTFUIFRVFTUJPOGPSNXIFOBTLJOHBRVFTUJPOJO&OHMJTI No, we don’t always ‌ 8IFOEPOÇ˝UXFVTFUIFRVFTUJPOGPSN  

 We don’t ‌ when a question word, such as “who“, “what“ or “which“, is the subject of the verb

777 (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

“Who is going to pay the gas bill?“; “What is making that horrible noise?“; “Which pen writes best?�

iron 8IBUEPXFVTFUPJSPOPVSDMPUIFT 

We use an iron to iron our clothes

Do you iron your clothes yourself or does someone else iron them for ZPV  I iron ‌ ~ Someone else irons ‌

extreme /BNFBSFHJPOPGUIFXPSMEUIBUFYQFSJFODFTFYUSFNFXFBUIFS conditions. ‌ is a region ‌


reduce 8IBUEPZPVUIJOLǽTUIFCFTUXBZUPSFEVDFPOFǽTXFJHIU I think the best …

likely

unlikely

"SFZPVMJLFMZUPCFIFSFOFYUXFFL 

Yes, I’m likely to … ~ No, I’m not likely to …

%PZPVUIJOLJUǽTMJLFMZUPSBJOJOUIFOFYUIPVST    Yes, I think it’s … ~ No, I don’t think it’s … %PZPVUIJOLJUǽTIJHIMZVOMJLFMZUIBUZPVXJMMHPUISPVHIUIFFOUJSFXJOUFS OFYUZFBSXJUIPVUDBUDIJOHBTJOHMFDPME  Yes, I think it’s highly … ~ No, I don’t think it’s highly … 778

do someone a favour

That’s all right

Not at all

It’s nothing

You’re welcome

Don’t mention it

No problem When we give something to someone or do someone a favour, and they say “Thank you“, there are many ways in which we can reply. Some common expressions we can use are “That’s all right“, “That’s OK“, “Not at all“, “It’s nothing“, “You’re welcome“, “Don’t mention it“, or “No problem“. 8IFOXFHJWFTPNFUIJOHUPTPNFPOF PSEPTPNFPOFBGBWPVS BOEUIFZ When we …, we can reply TBZǿ5IBOLZPVǿ XIBUDBOXFSFQMZ  “That’s all right“, “That’s OK“, “Not at all“, “It’s nothing“, “You’re welcome“, “Don’t mention it“, or “No problem“

up

tear – tore – torn

When we add the word “up“ to a verb, it sometimes gives it the meaning of doing the action more completely. For example, the sentence “I broke the piece of wood“ could mean that I broke it only once, but “I broke up the piece of wood“ means that I broke it into many smaller pieces.


8IFOXFBEEUIFXPSEǿVQǿUPBWFSC XIBUNFBOJOHEPFTJUTPNFUJNFT HJWFUIFWFSC  When we add …, it sometimes gives the verb the meaning of doing the action more completely 779 (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

“I’m cutting a loaf of bread into two halves“ means that I’m cutting the loaf once, whereas “I’m cutting the loaf of bread up“ means I’m cutting it many times

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re tearing a piece of paper

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re tearing a piece of paper up

8IFOBMMUIFGPPEJTVTFEVQBUIPNF XIBUEPZPVIBWFUPEP When all …, I have to do the shopping

cheek

cheeky

8IBUǽTUIJT 

It’s your cheek

8IFOZPVXFSFBDIJME XFSFZPVBMXBZTQPMJUFXJUIBEVMUTPSXFSFZPV TPNFUJNFTBCJUDIFFLZXJUIUIFN  When I was a child, I …

pile

one on top of the other

8IBUBN*EPJOH 

heap

You’re piling your books one on top of the other

8IBUǽTBIFBQ 

A heap is an untidy pile

8IFOZPVHPUPCFEBUOJHIU EPZPVFWFSKVTUMFBWFZPVSDMPUIFTJOB IFBQPOUIFʞPPSJOTUFBEPGQVUUJOHUIFNBXBZ  Yes, when I …, I sometimes … ~ No, when I …, I never … 780

point

freeze – froze – frozen

nought

zero

Fahrenheit

8IBUEPXFVTFUPTIBSQFOUIFQPJOUPGBQFODJM  We use a pencil sharpener or knife to sharpen … 8IBUǽTUIFCPJMJOHQPJOUPGXBUFS 



 The boiling … 100 degrees centigrade or 212 degrees Fahrenheit


"OEBUXIBUUFNQFSBUVSFEPFTXBUFSGSFF[F  Water freezes at nought (or zero) degrees centigrade, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit %PFTUIFGSFF[JOHQPJOUPGXBUFSSJTFPSGBMMJGTBMUJTBEEFEUPJU The freezing … falls if …

insect

itch

scratch

scrape

8IFOZPVIBWFBOJOTFDUCJUFUIBUǽTJUDIJOHBMPU EPZPVTDSBUDIJUPSUSZ UPMFBWFJUBMPOF  When I have …, I … 8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re scratching your cheek with your finger

%PXFVTVBMMZIBWFUPTDSBQFPGGUIFPMEQBJOUGSPNBXPPEFOEPPS CFGPSFQBJOUJOHJUBHBJO  Yes, we usually have to scrape off … 8IFOZPVOHDIJMESFOBSFSVOOJOHBSPVOE EPUIFZPGUFOGBMMPWFSBOE TDSBQFUIFJSLOFFT  Yes, when young …

781

Idiom 40 JUOFWFSSBJOTCVUJUQPVSTwhen one bad thing happens, a lot of other bad things also happen e.g. Our car had broken down, there were no trains or buses until the next morning, and there was only one hotel, which was full. Well, you know what they say: it never rains but it pours.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNǿJUOFWFSSBJOTCVUJUQPVSTǿNFBO  The idiom … “when one bad thing …“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF 



One thing went wrong after another. It’s always the same: it never rains but it pours.


opposition Dictation 94

Some people find it sad/ that the steam engine/ isn’t used any longer/ on the railways./ Although he strongly opposed the bill,/ he knew it would be passed/ all the same/ and so, after replying to the opposition,/ he returned sadly to his seat./ The guards were given orders/ to shoot the enemy on sight./ I am an early bird,/ which means that I feel very bright/ in the morning/ and tired in the evening./ Find out if he is fit/ to do the job first.


LESSON 140 782

“Theâ€? + comparative ‌, “theâ€? + comparative ‌ the sooner ..., the better This structure is used to communicate that there is a relationship between two things. For example, “The colder it is, the more clothes I wear“ means that I wear light clothes when it’s hot, more clothes when it’s cool, and a lot of clothes when it’s cold. 8PVMEZPVTBZUIBUUIFNPSFXFMFBSO UIFIBQQJFSXFCFDPNF   Yes, I’d say that ‌ ~ No, I wouldn’t say that ‌ (JWFNFBTFOUFODFXJUIUIFXPSETÇżUIFTPPOFSČ… UIFCFUUFSÇż The sooner we get the job finished, the better

responsible

council

"UBCPVUXIBUBHFEPZPVGFFMUIBUBQFSTPOTIPVMECFDPOTJEFSFECZMBX UPCFSFTQPOTJCMFGPSUIFJSPXOBDUJPOT  I feel that ‌ 8IBUǽTBMPDBMUPXODPVODJMSFTQPOTJCMFGPS  A local town council is responsible for keeping the streets clean, looking after public buildings and land etc.

scream

fright

frighten

horror

%PTPNFQFPQMFTDSFBNXJUIGSJHIUEVSJOHIPSSPSĘ?MNT     Yes, some people ‌ 783 )BWFZPVFWFSCFFOGSJHIUFOFECZTUSBOHFOPJTFTEVSJOHUIFOJHIU  Yes, I’ve been ‌ ~ No, I’ve never been ‌

mean %PZPVLOPXBOZCPEZXIPǽTTPNFBOUIBUUIFZOFWFSFWFOCVZQSFTFOUT GPSUIFJSGBNJMZ  Yes, I know somebody ‌ ~ No, I don’t know anybody ‌


"SFZPVOHDIJMESFOTPNFUJNFTWFSZNFBOUPPOFBOPUIFSBUTDIPPM  Yes, young children ‌

thoughtless 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZBUIPVHIUMFTTQFSTPO    By a thoughtless person, we usually mean someone who acts without considering how other people might feel

pale

sickness

8IBUDBONBLFBQFSTPOǽTGBDFUVSOQBMF 

 Fright, fear, sickness etc. can make a person’s face turn pale

-ish When we add the suffix “-ish“ to an adjective, it means “rather“ or “more or less“. For example, “France is not exactly a big country, like Russia or the USA, but it’s biggish compared with countries like England and Scotland“. 8IBUNFBOJOHEPFTUIFTVGĘ?YÇżJTIÇżHJWFXIFOXFBEEJUUPBOBEKFDUJWF The suffix “-ish“ gives the meaning of “rather“ or “more or less“ when we add it to an adjective 784 (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF 









The door is not exactly green, but it’s greenish

We can also use the suffix “-ish“ to mean “about“ when we say a time of day. For example, if someone says that they will come to your house at “eightish“, they mean “about eight“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGUIFTVGĘ?YÇżJTIÇżVTFEUPTQFBLBCPVUBUJNFPG He woke up at sixish and went for a run day, please.

light – lit – lit

candle

8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGÇżMJHIUÇż  

failure 

The three forms of “light“ are “light, lit, lit“

Do you keep any candles at home in case there’s a failure in the electricity TVQQMZ  Yes, I keep some ‌ ~ No, I don’t keep any ‌


8IBULJOEPGUIJOHTEPZPVUIJOLNBLFBQBSUZBGBJMVSF I think the kind of things that … are …

upset

feel upset

terribly

8IBUXPVME*NFBOJG*TBJEǿ.ZQMBOTGPSUIFGVUVSFIBWFBMMCFFOVQTFU CZUIFJOUFSGFSFODFPGNZGBUIFSǿ  If you said …, you’d mean that he had not agreed with your plans, and had made you change them *GZPVVQTFUBHMBTTPGSFEXJOFPWFSTPNFPOF XIBUǽEZPVTBZBOEEP  If I upset a …, I’d say “I’m terribly sorry“ and would offer to pay for the clothes to be cleaned *G*TBJEUIBU*XBTGFFMJOHWFSZVQTFUUPEBZ XIBUXPVME*NFBO If you said that you were feeling very upset today, you’d mean that you were not happy because something unpleasant had happened 785

wreck

misfortune

shipwreck

)PXXPVMEZPVGFFM BOEXIBUXPVMEZPVEP JGBMMZPVSQMBOTGPS UIFGVUVSFXFSFXSFDLFEUISPVHITPNFBDDJEFOUPSTPNFQJFDFPG NJTGPSUVOF  If all my plans for the future were wrecked …, I’d feel … and I’d … %FTDSJCFXIBUIBQQFOTJOBTIJQXSFDL In a shipwreck, a ship sinks as a result of being attacked, hitting rocks, or being damaged in severe weather

sale

for sale

sales

advertisement

%PZPVUIJOLUIFTBMFPGXFBQPOTCZPOFDPVOUSZUPBOPUIFSJTXSPOH Yes, I think … ~ No, I don’t think … 8IBUDBOUIFPXOFSPGBTIPQEPJOPSEFSUPJODSFBTFTBMFT In order to …, the owner … reduce prices, advertise in the press or online etc. *GZPVIBEBDBSGPSTBMF XIFSFXPVMEZPVQMBDFBOBEWFSUJTFNFOU If I had …, I’d place … "SFUIFSFBOZQBSUJDVMBSUJNFTPGZFBSJOUIJTDPVOUSZXIFOBMMUIFTIPQT IBWFTBMFT  Yes, there are … ~ No, there aren’t … 8IFO


commercial

rival

%PZPVHFUBOOPZFECZDPNNFSDJBMCSFBLTPO57  





Yes, I get ‌ ~ No, I don’t get ‌

786 /BNFNFUXPDPNQBOJFTUIBUBSFCJHDPNNFSDJBMSJWBMT QMFBTF ‌ and ‌ are big commercial rivals

“Someâ€? in questions We sometimes use the words “some“, “somebody“ and “something“ in questions instead of the usual “any“, “anybody“ and “anything“. We generally do this when we expect a positive answer, and especially when we offer something to somebody. For example, “Would you like some more tea?“; “Is there somebody here you’re looking for?“; “Would you like me to buy you something nice for Christmas?“ etc. 8IFOEPXFVTFÇżTPNFÇż ÇżTPNFCPEZÇżBOEÇżTPNFUIJOHÇżJORVFTUJPOT JOTUFBEPGUIFVTVBMÇżBOZÇż ÇżBOZCPEZÇżBOEÇżBOZUIJOHÇż  We use “some“ ‌ when we expect a positive answer, and especially when we offer something to somebody (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGFBDI QMFBTF

“Would you like some wine with your meal?“; “Did somebody just ring the doorbell?“; “Would you like something nice for dinner?“

over 8IBUEP*NFBOJG*TBZUIBUNZCSPUIFSJTPWFSUXPNFUSFTUBMM If you ‌, you mean that he is more than two metres tall

basement %PFTUIFCVJMEJOHXIFSFZPVMJWFIBWFBCBTFNFOU  

 Yes, the building ‌ ~ No, the building ‌


787

bargain *TJUQPTTJCMFUPĘ?OETPNFSFBMMZHPPECBSHBJOTJOUIFTBMFT Yes, it’s possible to ‌ 8IFOZPVHPUPBNBSLFU EPZPVCBSHBJOPWFSUIFQSJDFT Yes, when I ‌ ~ No, when I ‌

caution

cautiously

*OXIBULJOEPGTJUVBUJPOTEPQFPQMFIBWFUPBDUWFSZDBVUJPVTMZ People have to ‌ in dangerous situations )PXNBOZUJNFTEPUIFQPMJDFDBVUJPOZPVBCPVUCBEESJWJOHCFGPSFUIFZ UBLFBXBZZPVSMJDFODF  The police caution you ‌ about bad driving before ‌

Idiom 41 IBSEVQwith very little money e.g. I can’t let you have any money this week; I’m really hard up.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇżIBSEVQÇżNFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

788

The idiom ‌ “with very â€Śâ€œ

We were so hard up that we couldn’t even afford a newspaper

rapid Dictation 95

We spent the whole afternoon/ gathering up the apples/ that had fallen on the ground./ A railway line/ does not have to be level,/ but it should not climb too rapidly,/ otherwise a train cannot run on it./ When we weighed the cake,/ my father was very surprised./ He had not realized/ it would weigh so much./ The theatre seats were well made,/ so the audience/ were able to relax/ and watch the play in comfort./ For one brief moment,/ I was certain he would succeed. Do Revision Exercise 63


LESSON 141 789

Double contractions Although it is not common, we sometimes use double contractions in spoken English. For example, instead of saying “I will have gone by tomorrow“, we can say “I’ll’ve gone by tomorrow“. Also, instead of saying “I would have done it“, we can say “I’d’ve done it“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGBEPVCMFDPOUSBDUJPO QMFBTF She’ll’ve gone home before you arrive. She’d’ve come later if she’d known.

deliver

mail

beforehand

"UXIBUUJNFEPUIFZEFMJWFSUIFNBJMBUZPVSIPVTF They deliver … at about …

*GZPVIBEUPEFMJWFSBTQFFDI XPVMEZPVDBSFGVMMZQSFQBSFOPUFT CFGPSFIBOEPSXPVMEZPVHJWFJUPGGUIFDVGG If I had to deliver a speech, I’d …

critic *GZPVDPVMEDIPPTFCFUXFFOXPSLJOHBTBSFTUBVSBOUDSJUJDPSBUIFBUSF DSJUJD XIJDIXPVMEZPVQSFGFS  If I could choose between working …, I’d prefer …

expect

rely on

"SFZPVFYQFDUJOHBMFUUFSGSPNBOZPOFJOUIFOFYUGFXEBZT Yes, I’m expecting … ~ No, I’m not expecting … 790 %PZPVUIJOLZPVOHDIJMESFODBOCFFYQFDUFEUPEPIPNFXPSLXJUIPVU

CFJOHGPSDFEUPEPTP FJUIFSCZUIFJSUFBDIFSTPSCZUIFJSQBSFOUT Yes, I think … ~ No, I don’t think … *FYQFDUCZOPXUIBUZPVVOEFSTUBOEFWFSZUIJOH*TBZXJUIFBTFJTUIBU SJHIU  Yes, that’s right; I understand … ~ No, that isn’t right; I don’t understand …


$BOZPVBMXBZTCFSFMJFEPOUPEPUIJOHTUIBUZPVIBWFQSPNJTFEUPEP Yes, I can always be relied on to … ~ No, I can’t always be relied on to ...

fast

fasten

8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTBZUIBUTPNFPOFǽTGBTUBTMFFQ When we …, we mean that they’re completely asleep, and would be difficult to wake up %PBFSPQMBOFQBTTFOHFSTIBWFUPGBTUFOUIFJSTFBUCFMUTCFGPSFUIFQMBOF UBLFTPGGPSMBOET  Yes, aeroplane passengers have to …

porter *GZPVBSSJWFEBUBSBJMXBZTUBUJPOXJUIBIFBWZTVJUDBTF XPVMEZPVBTLB QPSUFSUPIFMQZPVXJUIJUPSXPVMEZPVTUSVHHMFXJUIJUZPVSTFMG If I arrived …, I’d … 791

Compound adjectives (continued) a fifty-minute lesson

a four-door car

jog

Another common type of compound adjective in English is when, instead of saying “The lesson lasted for fifty minutes“, we say “It was a fiftyminute lesson“, or instead of saying “This car has four doors“, we say “This is a four-door car“. In these examples, “fifty-minute“ and “fourdoor“ are compound adjectives. 8IBUDBOXFTBZJOTUFBEPGǿ)FIBEBIPMJEBZUIBUMBTUFEUXPXFFLTǿ Instead of …, we can say “He had a two-week holiday“ 8IBUDBOXFTBZJOTUFBEPGǿ-FUǽTKPHGPSUFOLJMPNFUSFTǿ Instead of …, we can say “Let’s go for a ten-kilometre jog“ With these adjectives, notice that the word after the number is singular, not plural. For example, we say “a twenty-page document“, not “a twenty-pages document“. This is because the word “page“ is being used as an adjective in this phrase, and adjectives in English do not have plural forms.


*OUIFQISBTFǿBUFOLJMPNFUSFKPHǿ XIZJTUIFXPSEǿLJMPNFUSFǿTJOHVMBS BOEOPUQMVSBM  In the phrase …, the word “kilometre“ … because it is being used as an adjective, and adjectives in English do not have plural forms (JWFNFTPNFPUIFSFYBNQMFTPGUIJTUZQFPGDPNQPVOEBEKFDUJWF QMFBTF An eleven-man team, a two-litre bottle, a six-bedroom house

overnight

lifestyle

%PQFPQMFXIPCFDPNFSJDIPSGBNPVTPWFSOJHIUPGUFOIBWFQSPCMFNT NBOBHJOHUIFJSOFXMJGFTUZMF  Yes, people who … 792

mere *TUIFSFBOZKPCZPVDPVMEUIJOLPGUIBUZPVXPVMEMJLFUPEP OPUGPSUIF NPOFZ CVUGPSUIFNFSFIPOPVSUIBUHPFTXJUIUIFKPC  Yes, there’s a job I can think of that I’d like … ~ No, there isn’t any job I can think of that I’d like … 8IJDIKPC

nuisance 8IBUEPZPVUIJOLǽTUIFCFTUUIJOHUPEPXJUIDIJMESFOXIPBSFNBLJOHB OVJTBODFPGUIFNTFMWFT  I think the best … is to …

post

doorpost

dig – dug – dug 8IBUBSFUIFTF 

goal postage These are doorposts

8IBUEPXFIBWFUPEPXIFOXFXBOUUPQVUQPTUTJOUIFHSPVOEUP NBLFUIFHPBMTGPSBHBNFPGGPPUCBMMPSSVHCZ  When we want to put …, we must dig fairly deep holes in the ground 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGǿEJHǿ 

The three forms of “dig“ are “dig, dug, dug“


8IBUXPVMEZPVTBZXBTZPVSNBJOHPBMJOMJGFBUUIFNPNFOU I’d say my … was to … %PCJHDPNQBOJFTPGUFOBEWFSUJTFOFXQPTUTJOOBUJPOBMOFXTQBQFST Yes, big companies … 793 )PXNVDIJTUIFQPTUBHFGPSBMFUUFSGSPNZPVSDPVOUSZUP&OHMBOE The postage for … is …

naughty

punish

8IFOZPVXFSFOBVHIUZBTBDIJME IPXEJEZPVSQBSFOUTVTFUPQVOJTI ZPV When I was …, my parents…

fold 8IBUBN*EPJOH 

You’re folding a page of your book

native 8IBUǽTZPVSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF 

My native language is …

treasure *TUIFSFTUJMMBOZMPTUUSFBTVSFJOUIFXPSME 

Yes, there’s still …, especially at the bottom of the sea where ships sank in the old days

receipt

prove

8IBUQSPCMFNNJHIUZPVIBWFJGZPVUPPLBGBVMUZQSPEVDUCBDLUPBTIPQ CVUEJEOǽUIBWFUIFSFDFJQUUPQSPWFXIFSFZPVCPVHIUJUBOZNPSF  If I took …, the shop might not agree to change the product or give me a refund


794

Idiom 42 QVUPOFǽTGPPUEPXOto be determined and insist on something e.g. My daughter kept asking me if she could go to the party but I had to put my foot down and say no.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNǿUPQVUPOFǽTGPPUEPXOǿNFBO   The idiom … “to be determined and …“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

If I hadn’t put my foot down and got angry with them, they would have done nothing and the work would never have got finished


LESSON 142 795

Two meanings of “quiteâ€? In front of some extreme adjectives, such as “wonderful“ or “terrible“, the word “quite“ means “completely“. In this situation, we say the word “quite“ with a heavy stress, because we are being emphatic. For example, we can say “The weather is quite wonderful!“. In this sentence, the words “quite wonderful“ mean “completely wonderful“. (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGUIFXPSEÇżRVJUFÇżXJUIUIFNFBOJOHPG ÇżDPNQMFUFMZÇż QMFBTF This wine is quite excellent! I’m sorry, but what you’re asking me to do is quite impossible!

excuse me

I’m sorry

We generally use “Excuse me“ for something that is not very important and “I’m sorry“ for a more important apology. 8IBUÇ˝TUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOÇż&YDVTFNFÇżBOEÇż*Ç˝NTPSSZÇż The difference ‌ is that we generally use “Excuse me“ for something that is not very important, and “I’m sorry“ for a more important apology 8IBUEPZPVTBZXIFOZPVXBOUUPQBTTCFUXFFOUXPQFPQMFXIPBSF TQFBLJOHUPFBDIPUIFS  When I want to ..., I say “Excuse me“ "OEXIBUEPZPVTBZJG JOQBTTJOH ZPVBDDJEFOUBMMZTUFQPOUIFGPPUPG POFPGUIFUXPQFPQMFXIPBSFTQFBLJOH  If, in passing, I accidentally step ‌, I say “I’m sorry!“ 796

wealthy 8IJDIJTUIFXFBMUIJFTUSFHJPOPGUIJTDPVOUSZ 

‌ is the wealthiest ‌


disaster

flood

)PXDBOBMPOHQFSJPEPGIFBWZSBJOSFTVMUJOBEJTBTUFS A long period … because it can lead to floods that cause death, terrible damage to farms and buildings etc.

then The word “then“ has three meanings: 1) At that time – e.g. I’m going to see him on Thursday, so I can give him the news then. 2) Next – e.g. We’ll have dinner first, and then watch TV. 3) In that case – e.g. If you don’t understand, then ask. 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFNFBOJOHTPGUIFXPSEǿUIFOǿ     The three … are “at that time“, “next“ and “in that case“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGFBDI QMFBTF 1) I began studying English last year. Before then (i.e. before that time) I did not know a single word. 2) I’ll study first, then go to the cinema. 3) The door might be locked; what will you do then?

urge 8IBUǽTUIFCFTUXBZUPVSHFTPNFPOFUPEPTPNFUIJOHUIFZEPOPUXBOU UPEP  The best way to urge someone to … is to tell them how much better everything will be after they have done it 797

affair

love affair

*TJUXJTFUPTQFBLBCPVUPOFǽTQSJWBUFBGGBJSTJOQVCMJD No, it isn’t wise to …

"SFMPWFBGGBJSTBMXBZTIBQQZ 

No, love affairs aren’t …


Strong and weak pronunciation forms strong form

weak form

can than but some your to are was In English, many common words have a “strong“ pronunciation form and a “weak“ pronunciation form. For example, the strong form of the word “can“ is /kĂŚn/, whereas the weak form is /kÉ™n/. With the weak form, the vowel in the word is usually the sound /É™/, which is the most common sound in the English language. We use the weak pronunciation form of a word when we say the word normally in a sentence without any special stress. For example, we say “I /kÉ™n/ speak three languagesâ€?. 798 We use the strong pronunciation form when we say the word on its

own, or when we put stress on the word for some reason. For example, if someone says “You can’t speak three languages“, we might reply emphatically and say “Yes, I /kĂŚn/!“ 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFXFBLQSPOVODJBUJPOGPSNPGBXPSEJO&OHMJTI We use ‌ when we say the word normally in a sentence without any special stress (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

I’m taller you. I’m going /tə/ the shops now. I didn’t know she here.

8IFOEPXFVTFUIFTUSPOHQSPOVODJBUJPOGPSNPGBXPSE We use ‌ when we say the word on its own, or when we put stress on the word for some reason


(JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

charm

charming

adults are married, and are single The letters “y – o – u – r“ spell the word

musical

snake charmer

snake

instrument

8IPǽTUIFNPTUDIBSNJOHQFSTPOZPVLOPX   8IBUǽTBTOBLFDIBSNFS  



   The most charming person I know is …

  A snake charmer is a person who charms a snake by playing a musical instrument

%PZPVCFMJFWFUIBUUIFSFBSFQFPQMFJOUIFXPSMEXIPDBOQVUBNBHJD DIBSNPOPUIFSQFPQMF  Yes, I believe that … ~ No, I don’t believe that … 799

latest

last

last but one

One important difference between “latest“ and “last“ is that, if I say “John Brown’s latest book is excellent“, it means John Brown’s newest book. However, if I say “John Brown’s last book was excellent“, it probably means the book he wrote before his new one, or it means his final book ever, because he has now retired or died. 8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOǿMBUFTUǿBOEǿMBTUǿ The difference … is that if I say “John Brown’s latest …“, it means … newest book, whereas if I say “John Brown’s last…“, it probably means … before his new one, or … final book ever, because … 8IJDIǽTUIFMBTUMFUUFSCVUPOFJOUIF&OHMJTIBMQIBCFU 

blackboard

whiteboard



Y’s the last letter but one …

chalk

8IBUEPXFXSJUFPOBCMBDLCPBSEXJUI 

We write on a blackboard with a piece of chalk

8IBUEPXFXSJUFPOBXIJUFCPBSEXJUI 

We write on a whiteboard with a special pen


eyebrow

eyelash

lid

pan

eyelid

8IBUǽTUIJT 

It’s an eyebrow

8IBUBSFUIFTF 

Those are eyelashes

8IBUǽTUIJT 

It’s an eyelid

%PFTXBUFSJOBQBOCPJMNPSFRVJDLMZXJUIUIFMJEPOPSXJUIUIFMJEPGG Water in a pan … with the lid on 800 8IZ 

favour

Because, with the lid on, the steam and the heat are kept in

yacht

hinder

*TJUXSPOHGPSQBSFOUTUPGBWPVSPOFDIJMEPWFSBOPUIFS Yes, it’s wrong for …

%PFTCBEXFBUIFSGBWPVSBZBDIUJOBSBDFBUTFB 



No, bad weather doesn’t …; it hinders it

8IBUEPZPVEPXIFOZPVEPOǽUBQQSPWFPGTPNFCPEZǽTCFIBWJPVS  When I don’t …, I tell the person, do nothing etc.

clothe $BOBXPNBODMPUIFIFSTFMGNPSFDIFBQMZUIBOBNBO  Yes, a woman can ... ~ No, a woman can’t …

endless .BLFBTFOUFODFDPOUBJOJOHUIFXPSEÇ¿FOEMFTTÇ¿ QMFBTF There was an endless stream of traffic on the road

bunch

grape

8IJDIǽEZPVSBUIFSCFHJWFOBCVODIPGʞPXFSTPSBCVODIPGHSBQFT I’d rather be given a bunch of …


801

Idiom 43 HJWFTPNFCPEZUIFDPMETIPVMEFSmake somebody feel unwelcome, usually by ignoring them e.g. I didn’t know what I had done wrong, but everyone seemed to give me the cold shoulder.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNÇżHJWFTPNFCPEZUIFDPMETIPVMEFSÇżNFBO The idiom ‌ “make somebody feel â€Śâ€œ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF 



Instead of a friendly welcome, we were given the cold shoulder

revolution Dictation 96

Lacking central heating,/ we managed to keep the room/ sufficiently warm with an oil heater/ which our next-door neighbour/ had lent us./ The military leaders behaved so wickedly/ that the people marched against them,/ and a bloody revolution soon broke out./ The Greeks in the old days/ believed in many gods,/ whereas many modern religions/ only have one god./ The accident was not really the soldier’s fault;/ he simply did/ what the captain commanded him to do./ It was quite plain/ that he was a policeman,/ even though he was not in uniform. Do Revision Exercise 64


LESSON 143 802

Uses of the passive voice Although the passive voice is less common than the active voice, it is very useful in certain situations. Four common situations in which we often use the passive voice are: 1) when we don’t know who does the action: for example, “My car has been stolen!“; 2) when we don’t want to say who does the action: for example, “You were seen entering the office without permission“; 3) when it is not important who does the action: for example, “The Eiffel Tower was built in 1889“; 4) when it is obvious who does the action: for example, “He was arrested for stealing“. 5FMMNFGPVSDPNNPOTJUVBUJPOTJOXIJDIXFPGUFOVTFUIFQBTTJWFWPJDF  Four common situations … are please. 1) when we don’t know …; 2) when we don’t want to say …; 3) when it is not important …; 4) when it is obvious … (JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGFBDI QMFBTF 1) All the wine has been drunk. 2) A complaint has been made against you. 3) The doors were designed to close by themselves. 4) I was given some extra homework.

resist

resistance

*TUIFSFBOZUIJOHUIBUZPVDBOOPUSFTJTUFBUJOHFWFOUIPVHIZPVLOPXJUǽT OPUWFSZHPPEGPSUIFIFBMUI  Yes, there’s something … ~ No, there isn’t anything …


803 8PVMEZPVTIPXBOZSFTJTUBODFJGBQPMJDFNBOUSJFEUPBSSFTUZPVGPSB DSJNFUIBUZPVEJEOPUDPNNJU  Yes, I’d show some … ~ No, I wouldn’t show any …

substantial

bacon

toast

fry – fried – fried Do you prefer to eat a substantial breakfast like bacon and eggs in the NPSOJOH PSEPZPVQSFGFSTPNFUIJOHMJHIUTVDIBTDFSFBMBOEUPBTU I prefer to eat … *TJUHPPEGPSUIFIFBMUIUPFBUGSJFEGPPEFWFSZEBZ 

No, it isn’t …

approximate 8IBUǽTUIFBQQSPYJNBUFQPQVMBUJPOPGUIFXPSME 

course

starter

main course

The approximate population … is …

dessert

*GZPVǽSFJOBSFTUBVSBOUCVUZPVPOMZXBOUBUXPDPVSTFNFBM XIJDI EPZPVOPSNBMMZIBWFBTUBSUFSBOENBJODPVSTF PSBNBJODPVSTFBOE EFTTFSU  If I’m in …, I normally have …

dine 8IBUǽTUIFOBNFPGUIFSPPNJOXIJDIPOFEJOFT 

804

marmalade

jam

 The name of the room ... is the dining room

pear

plum

The difference between marmalade and jam is that marmalade is generally made from oranges, whereas jam is made from other fruits, such as pears, apples, plums etc. 8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFONBSNBMBEFBOEKBN  

The difference … is that marmalade … oranges, whereas jam … other fruits …


the country

rejoice

victory

When we say “the country“, we often mean “the countryside“. However, another meaning of “the country“ is “the people of a nation“. For example, we can say “The country rejoiced at the news of the victory“, or “The country voted to change the government“. 8IBUǽTBOPUIFSNFBOJOHPGǿUIFDPVOUSZǿCFTJEFTǿUIFDPVOUSZTJEFǿ Another meaning ... is “the people of a nation“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

shave

Most of the country was in favour of his election

razor

heal

8IBUEPXFTIBWFXJUI 

We shave with a razor

"CPVUIPXMPOHEPFTJUUBLFGPSBTIBWJOHDVUUPIFBM    It takes about … for a shaving cut to heal 805

live (v)

live (adj)

musician

8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOMJWF W BOEMJWF BEK   The difference … is that “live“ is a verb, whereas … %PZPVUIJOLJUǽTBMMSJHIUUPQFSGPSNFYQFSJNFOUTPOMJWFBOJNBMT Yes, I think it’s all right to ... ~ No, I don’t think it’s all right to ... )BWFZPVFWFSCFFOUPTFFBGBNPVTNVTJDJBOPSCBOEMJWFBOEGFMUSFBMMZ MFUEPXOCZUIFQFSGPSNBODF  Yes, I’ve been to see … ~ No, I’ve never been to see …

mild

remark

look

stormy

8IBULJOEPGSFNBSLXPVMETPNFPOFIBWFUPNBLFUPCSJOHBNJMEMPPL PGTVSQSJTFUPZPVSGBDF  The kind of remark someone would … would be that they have the same surname as me, or that they used to live in the same town as me etc.


8IBUEPXFNFBOCZNJMEXFBUIFS 

By mild weather, we mean weather that is not stormy, or very hot, or very cold. In other words, we mean weather that is not extreme.

8IZJTTPBQEFTJHOFEGPSXBTIJOHUIFGBDFNJMEFSUIBOTPBQEFTJHOFEGPS XBTIJOHUIFSFTUPGUIFCPEZ  Soap designed for washing the face is … because the skin on the face is very sensitive and can easily become irritated and itchy

proof *OZPVSDPVOUSZ EPZPVIBWFUPDBSSZEPDVNFOUTBTQSPPGPGZPVS JEFOUJUZ  Yes, in my country, we have to … ~ No, in my country, we don’t have to ... 806

saying 8IBUEPFTUIJTTBZJOHNFBOǿ)PNFJTXIFSFUIFIFBSUJTǿ The saying “Home is …“ means that your real home is not always the house or flat where you live; it is the place where you feel most comfortable or where you feel that you belong

trap 8IBUDBOXFQVUJOBUSBQUPDBUDIBNPVTF  We can put many different types of food, such as chocolate or cheese, in a trap to catch a mouse

pot coffee pot

cooking pot

flowerpot teapot

Name me some different kinds of pots, please.

Some different kinds of pots are cooking pots, flowerpots, coffee pots, teapots etc.


in relation to

relationship

relative

overweight %PZPVUIJOLNPTUQFPQMFJOZPVSDPVOUSZBSFPWFSXFJHIUPSVOEFSXFJHIU JOSFMBUJPOUPUIFJSIFJHIU  I think most people … in relation to their height %PFTZPVSDPVOUSZIBWFBHPPESFMBUJPOTIJQXJUINPTUPGJUT OFJHICPVSJOHDPVOUSJFT  Yes, my country has … ~ No, my country doesn’t have … 807 8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTBZUIBUFWFSZUIJOHJTSFMBUJWF When we say that everything is relative, we mean that what we think of something often depends on what we are comparing it to

(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

A man is only considered tall if the people around him are shorter than he is. If he were surrounded by people who were taller than him, he would be considered short. It’s all relative.

at sea

by sea

)PXMPOHBSFZPVBUTFBGPSXIFOZPVUSBWFMCZTFBGSPN&VSPQFUP "NFSJDB  How long you are at sea for when you travel by ... depends on the ship, but I reckon about ...

Idiom 44 UPVDIXPPEwhat people say when they touch something that is made of wood in the hope of preventing bad luck e.g. We’ve been very lucky and everything’s gone very well so far; touch wood.

8IBUEPQFPQMFEPBOETBZXIFOUIFZIPQFUPQSFWFOUCBEMVDL When people …, they touch something that is made of wood and say “Touch wood!“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

I’ve been driving now for ten years without an accident; touch wood!


808

Dictation 97

She picked up her wedding ring/ from the floor/ and put it back on her finger./ A bird has a pair of wings/ and a tail./ The value of goods/ depends a great deal/ on how much they are in demand./ The ball rolled straight towards me./ Unless the sea is extremely rough,/ I never feel seasick./ Please stop rocking the chair/ backwards and forwards./ Most people like to live a quiet life,/ but often find their lives/ are interfered with/ by those who like to stir up trouble./ A chicken is not a very brave bird.


LESSON 144 809

“By� and its many uses go past

nearby

There are many expressions in English that contain the word “by“. Here are some examples: 1) “The traffic passed by my house“ means that the traffic went past my house. 2) “Mr Williams lives by himself“ means that nobody lives with him, whereas “Mr Williams did the job by himself“ means that he did it without any help. 3) “He worked by night and slept by day“ means that he worked during the night and slept during the day. 4) “This play was written by Shakespeare“ means that Shakespeare was the writer of this play. 5) “He worked in the town and lived in a nearby village“ means that he lived in a village that was near the town. Notice that we cannot say “a near town“; we must say “a nearby town“. /PX *XJMMTBZBTFOUFODFBOE*XBOUZPVUPNBLFBTJNJMBSTFOUFODFXJUI UIFXPSEÇżCZČ€ *TBXIJNHPJOHQBTUNZIPVTFZFTUFSEBZ Henry sat alone in the room. )FOSZEJEUIFUSBOTMBUJPOXJUIPVUIFMQ  810 Cats prefer to hunt during the night.

I saw him passing by my house yesterday Henry sat in the room by himself



Henry did the translation by himself Cats prefer to hunt by night


.ZTJTUFSXBTUIFQBJOUFSPGUIJTQJDUVSF



This picture was painted by my sister

*TJUDPSSFDUUPTBZÇ¿5IFNBOMJWFEJOBOFBSUPXOÇ¿  8IBUNVTUXFTBZJOTUFBE 

No, it isn’t correct to …

We must say “The man lived in a nearby town“ instead

in season

out of season

"SFBQQMFTJOTFBTPOPSPVUPGTFBTPOBUUIFNPNFOU   Apples are … season at the moment

thread

needle

sew

8IBUBN*QSFUFOEJOHUPEP 

compass

injection

You’re pretending to thread a piece of cotton through the eye of a needle

"CPVUIPXMPOHEPFTBUISFBEPGDPUUPOIBWFUPCFUPTFXBCVUUPOPOB TIJSU  A thread of cotton has to be about … cm long to sew a button on a shirt 8IBUPUIFSLJOETPGOFFEMFTBSFUIFSFCFTJEFTTFXJOHOFFEMFT Besides sewing needles, there are compass needles, injection needles etc.

agent

agency

8IZEPQSPGFTTJPOBMBDUPSTIBWFBHFOUT  Professional actors have agents to help them find suitable work 811 8IFOZPVHPPOIPMJEBZ EPZPVQSFGFSUPMFUBUSBWFMBHFODZEFBMXJUI

FWFSZUIJOHGPSZPV PSEPZPVQSFGFSUPNBLFBMMZPVSBSSBOHFNFOUT ZPVSTFMG  When I go on holiday, I prefer to …

title

champion

8IBUXBTUIFUJUMFPGUIFMBTUCPPLZPVSFBE

boxer The title of the last book I read was …

8IP BUQSFTFOU IPMETUIFUJUMFPGXPSMEIFBWZXFJHIUDIBNQJPOCPYFS  At present, … holds the title of …


enormous 8PVMEJUDBVTFFOPSNPVTQSPCMFNTJGBMMUIFUSBGʝDMJHIUTJOUIJTUPXO TVEEFOMZTUPQQFEXPSLJOH  Yes, it’d cause … ~ No, it wouldn’t cause

belief %PZPVUIJOLUIBUSFMJHJPVTCFMJFGJTJODSFBTJOHJOUIFXPSMEHFOFSBMMZ PS CFDPNJOHMFTTJNQPSUBOU  I think that religious belief is …

effort

stay in touch with

*TJUBOFGGPSUGPSZPVUPHFUVQJOUIFNPSOJOH  Yes, it’s an effort … ~ No, it isn’t an effort … %PZPVNBLFBOFGGPSUUPTUBZJOUPVDIXJUIBOZPGUIFQFPQMFZPVVTFEUP HPUPTDIPPMXJUI  Yes, I make … ~ No, I don’t make … 812

tolerate *GZPVMJWFEOFYUUPBOBJSQPSU EPZPVUIJOLZPVǽECFBCMFUPUPMFSBUFUIF OPJTFPGUIFQMBOFT  Yes, if I lived …, I think I’d … ~ No, if I lived …, I don’t think I’d …

go ahead

just the same

8IFOZPVXFSFBDIJMEBOEZPVSQBSFOUTGPSCBEFZPVUPEPTPNFUIJOH  EJEZPVVTFUPHPBIFBEBOEEPJUKVTUUIFTBNF  Yes, when I was a child and …, I used to … ~ No, when I was a child and …, I didn’t use to … 8IBUXFSFUIFDPOTFRVFODFT 

bath

bathe

The consequences were that ...

sunbathe

The difference between “bath“ and “bathe“ is that “bath“ is generally used as a noun, whereas “bathe“ is generally used as a verb. We have (or take) a bath in a bathroom, whereas we bathe in the sea, in a river, in a swimming pool etc.


8IBUÇ˝TUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOÇżCBUIÇżBOEÇżCBUIFÇż The difference between ‌ Other uses of the word “bathe“ are, for example, “to sunbathe“, “to bathe a wound with water“ etc. People sometimes ‌ because 8IZEPQFPQMFTPNFUJNFTCBUIFUIFJSFZFT  they have something in their eyes that is causing irritation, or because their eyes feel tired 813 %PZPVFOKPZTVOCBUIJOH 

Yes, I enjoy sunbathing ~ No, I don’t enjoy sunbathing

cheat 8IBUEPZPVUIJOLPVHIUUPIBQQFOXIFOBTUVEFOUJTDBVHIUDIFBUJOHJO BOFYBN  When a student is caught cheating in an exam, I think they should be sent out of the room etc. $BOZPVOBNFNFBXFMMLOPXODIFBUGSPNUIFXPSMEPGTQPSUPSQPMJUJDT  Yes, I can ‌ ~ No, I can’t ‌ 8IP

dip

horizon

horizontal

%PZPVUIJOLJUǽTCBENBOOFSTUPEJQCJTDVJUTJOUPBDVQPGUFBPSDPGGFF Yes, I think ‌ ~ No, I don’t think ‌ 8IBUǽTNZIBOEEPJOH 

You’re hand’s moving in a horizontal direction, then suddenly dipping and coming up again

%PFTUIFTVOSJTFPWFSUIFIPSJ[POJOUIFFBTUPSUIFXFTU   The sun rises over the horizon in the east

feed – fed – fed *GBEPHTJUTMPPLJOHBUZPVXIJMFZPVÇ˝SFFBUJOHBNFBM EPZPVGFFEJU XIJMFZPVÇ˝SFFBUJOH PSEPZPVMFBWFBMJUUMFCJUPGGPPEPOZPVSQMBUFBOE GFFEJUUPUIFEPHBGUFSZPVÇ˝WFĘ?OJTIFE  If a dog sits ‌, I ‌


814

hay

straw

stem

The difference between hay and straw is that hay is dried grass, whereas straw is the stems of wheat or other types of corn after it has been cut. 8IBUǽTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOIBZBOETUSBX  



The difference … is that hay is …

The possessive apostrophe For people and animals, we almost always use the apostrophe to communicate possession. For example, we say “Mr Johnson’s tie“, “my uncle’s house“, “the horse’s tail“ etc. We sometimes use it for things as well. For example, we can say “The book’s main purpose is to teach“, which is the same as saying “The main purpose of the book is to teach“. However, for things, we generally communicate possession by using the word “of“, and we say, for example, “the door of the house“, or “the smell of the food“. 8IFOEPXFVTFUIFBQPTUSPQIFUPDPNNVOJDBUFQPTTFTTJPO We generally use the apostrophe to communicate possession for people or animals (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

Steven’s house, the dog’s nose

)PXEPXFHFOFSBMMZDPNNVOJDBUFQPTTFTTJPOGPSUIJOHT We generally communicate possession for things by using the word “of“ (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

the streets of London, the peace of the countryside

Idiom 45 UIFMBTUTUSBXthe last of several bad things that have happened, which makes you realize you cannot stand a situation anymore e.g. I’ve tried very hard to tolerate the noise from our neighbours but this is the last straw. I’m going to say something to them. 815 8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNǿUIFMBTUTUSBXǿNFBO 

The idiom … “the last of several …“


(JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

After all the other difficulties we’d had with the house, the problem with the heating system was the last straw

development Dictation 98

The storm had caused/ a lot of damage on the beach,/ which took a lot of tidying up./ It was the first time/ he had ever spoken in public,/ and it was clear/ that the poor man/ was suffering from stage fright./ Our plans were at/ a very advanced stage of development/ when we suddenly had to change them entirely,/ and in doing so received/ a stream of emails/ protesting about our decision./ They all went to the railway station/ to wave goodbye to their guest. Do Revision Exercise 65


LESSON 145 816

preference

cuisine

%PZPVIBWFBTUSPOHQSFGFSFODFGPSBOZQBSUJDVMBSOBUJPOBMDVJTJOF  Yes, I have … ~ No, I don’t have … 8IJDI

style )BWFZPVFWFSIBEBIBJSTUZMFUIBUXBTDPNQMFUFMZEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIFPOF ZPVIBWFOPX  Yes, I’ve had … ~ No, I’ve never had …

help yourself

can’t help

"UBQBSUZ EPZPVUIJOLJUǽTCFUUFSUPMFUFWFSZPOFIFMQUIFNTFMWFTUPUIF GPPE PSEPZPVUIJOLJUǽTCFUUFSGPSUIFNUPCFTFSWFECZTPNFPOF At a party, I think it’s better … *TUIFSFBOZNJTUBLFJO&OHMJTIUIBUZPVDBOǽUIFMQNBLJOHXIFOZPVXSJUF PSTQFBL  Yes, there’s a mistake in … ~ No, there isn’t any mistake in … 8IJDI

load

barrel

lead

rod

8IJDIBOJNBMEPZPVUIJOLDBOQVMMUIFIFBWJFTUMPBE  

I think the elephant can …

817 )PXEJEUIFZVTFUPMPBEBHVOJOUIFPMEEBZT They used to load a gun in the old days by pouring gunpowder down the barrel of the gun, then dropping a lead ball down the barrel onto the powder, and then, finally, pushing everything down with a metal rod

%PZPVLOPXIPXUPVTFBʝTIJOHSPE 

Yes, I know … ~ No, I don’t know …


voyage 8IBUJTBWPZBHF 

tour

space A voyage is a long journey on water or in space

tourist

)BWFZPVFWFSCFFOPOBUPVSPGBDJUZPOBOPQFOUPQQFECVT   Yes, I’ve been on ... ~ No, I’ve never been on ... 8IFSF /BNFNFTPNFXIFSFJOUIJTDPVOUSZUIBUǽTWJTJUFECZUPVSJTUTUISPVHIPVU the year. … is somewhere in …

pet

rabbit

*TJUDIFBQFSUPLFFQBSBCCJUBTBQFUUIBOBEPH 

run on

Yes, it’s cheaper …

create

8IZBSFDBSTUIBUSVOPOFMFDUSJDJUZCFDPNJOHNPSFQPQVMBSUIFTFEBZT Cars that … because they don’t create any pollution 818 8PVMEJUDSFBUFCJHQSPCMFNTGPSZPVJGZPVMPTUZPVSNPCJMFQIPOF Yes, it’d create … ~ No, it wouldn’t create …

8IZPSXIZOPU

situated 8IZBSFDBTUMFTPGUFOTJUVBUFEPOIJHIHSPVOE 

Castles are often situated on high ground because, in the past, this made it more difficult for enemies to attack

cloth 8IBULJOEPGDMPUIJTNPTUDPNNPOMZVTFEUPNBLFNFOǽTTVJUT  Wool is most commonly used …


convince

try

set free

8IFOBNBODPNNJUTNVSEFSBOEUIFMBXDBOOPUQSPWFIFEJEJU FWFO UIPVHIFWFSZPOFJTDPOWJODFEIFEJE XIBUIBQQFOT  When a man ‌, even though ‌, the man is set free "OEJGOFXFWJEFODFJTEJTDPWFSFEBGUFSUIFNBOIBTCFFOTFUGSFF DBOIF CFUSJFEBHBJO  Yes, in some countries, if new evidence ‌

relieve

relief

pill

painkiller

8IBUEPXFDBMMUIFQJMMTUIBUXFUBLFUPSFMJFWFBIFBEBDIF We call ‌ painkillers 819 )PXMPOHJTBTPMEJFSHFOFSBMMZPOHVBSEGPSCFGPSFIFǽTSFMJFWFE  A soldier is generally on guard for maybe two to four hours before he’s relieved

8IBUǽTUIFOPVOPGǿSFMJFWFǿ 

The noun ... is “relief“

%VSJOHBXBS XIBUEPXFNFBOCZ3FE$SPTTSFMJFG During a war, by Red Cross relief, we mean the food, medicine and protection that the Red Cross provide to people whose lives are being affected by the war

self

selfish

self-control

control 8IZJTJUUIBUXFTFMEPNLOPXBOPUIFSQFSTPOÇ˝TSFBMTFMG The reason we seldom ... is that most people keep some of their true character and feelings hidden from others %PQFPQMFXIPBSFTQPJMUBTDIJMESFOPGUFOHSPXVQUPCFTFMĘ?TIBT BEVMUT  Yes, people who are ‌ 8IBUEPXFNFBOCZTFMGDPOUSPM

By self-control, we mean control over our own feelings, desires and emotions without discipline coming from others


lie – lay – lain

lie – lied – lied

lay – laid – laid Three verbs which sometimes get confused with one another are: 1) the irregular verb “to lie“, meaning “to be in a horizontal position“, its three forms being “lie, lay, lain“; 820

2) the regular verb “to lie“, meaning “not to tell the truth“, its three forms being “lie, lied, lied“; and 3) the verb “to lay“, meaning “to put carefully on a surface“, its three forms being “lay, laid, laid“. 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGUIFJSSFHVMBSWFSCÇżUPMJFÇżBOEXIBUEPFTJU NFBO  The three forms ‌ “lie, lay, lain“, and it means “to be in a horizontal position“ 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGUIFSFHVMBSWFSCÇżUPMJFÇż BOEXIBUEPFTJU NFBO  The three forms ‌ “lie, lied, lied“, and it means “not to tell the truth“ 8IBUBSFUIFUISFFGPSNTPGUIFWFSCÇżUPMBZÇżBOEXIBUEPFTJUNFBO The three forms ‌ “lay, laid, laid“, and it means “to put carefully on a surface“

tight

tight-fitting

loose-fitting

airtight

watertight

container

8IBUBN*EPJOH  8IBUǽTUIFDPOUSBSZPGǿUJHIUǿ 

You’re holding on tightly to the arm (or side) of the chair The contrary ‌ “loose“

8IJDIBSFNPSFDPNGPSUBCMFUJHIUĘ?UUJOHPSMPPTFĘ?UUJOHDMPUIFT Loose-fitting clothes ‌ 8IBUEPXFNFBOXIFOXFTBZBDPOUBJOFSJTBJSUJHIUBOEXBUFSUJHIU When we say a ‌, we mean that no air or water can pass into it from outside, or vice versa


aim

take aim

8IBUBN*QSFUFOEJOHUPEP 

You’re pretending to take aim at the window with a gun

821 )BWFZPVHPUBOZQBSUJDVMBSBJNJOMJGF 

Yes, I’ve got a … ~ No, I haven’t got any ...

8IBU

damp *TJUIFBMUIZUPMJWFJOBEBNQIPVTF 

No, it isn’t healthy to …

8IZOPU 

Because it can make us ill

indeed

emphasis

8IBUEPFTUIFXPSEǿJOEFFEǿNFBO BOEXIFOEPXFVTFJU The word “indeed“ means “really“, and we often add it for emphasis when we use the word “very“ (JWFNFTPNFFYBNQMFT QMFBTF

It’s very cold today indeed. She sings very beautifully indeed. Tigers are very dangerous animals indeed.

jaw 8IBUQBSUPGUIFCPEZǽTUIJT 

ladder Describe a ladder, please.

It’s the jaw

vertical A ladder consists of two long vertical pieces of wood or metal, connected together by several short horizontal pieces of wood or metal

8IBUEPXFVTFBMBEEFSGPS 

We use a ladder for climbing up walls, trees etc.


822

admit

take place

punishment

8IBUNVTUZPVCVZJOPSEFSUPCFBENJUUFEUPUIFDJOFNB You must buy a ticket in order to ... *GBDSJNJOBMBENJUTUIFJSHVJMUCFGPSFBOZUSJBMUBLFTQMBDF JTUIFJS QVOJTINFOUPGUFOSFEVDFECZUIFKVEHF  Yes, if a criminal …, their punishment …

Idiom 46 BMPBEPGGPOFǽTNJOEa relief from worry e.g. Now that I know the results at last, it’s a load off my mind.

8IBUEPFTUIFJEJPNǿBMPBEPGGPOFǽTNJOEǿNFBO  (JWFNFBOFYBNQMF QMFBTF

  The idiom … “a relief from worry“

I’m glad you’ve arrived safely; it’s a great load off my mind

Dictation 99

I am afraid/ I cannot recommend him for the job./ The soldier was wounded during the battle./ They decided to separate/ and sit at separate tables./ We generally finish a business letter/ with “Yours faithfully“ or “Yours sincerely“./ When we apply for a job,/ the manager, or whoever it might be,/ usually asks for a reference./ The corn stood shoulder high/ but was, unfortunately,/ full of weeds./ There is still a chance/ that the envelope containing the money/ might be found./ It was only a slight injury,/ so there was no need/ to visit the hospital.


Revision Exercise 57 (Lessons 118 – 119) 1

When we use countable nouns in the general sense, what do we do with them?

2

Is it correct to say “the water is necessary for the life“?

3

What are the articles in English?



What kind of worms are there?



Do you think some people deserve more of the good things in life than others?

6

Do you pay frequent visits to your doctor?

7

What are the main attractions of the place where you live?

8

Do you think most people these days are too busy with their own lives to care about the rest of the people in the world?

9

What do we mean by “miserable weather“?

10

Do you ever get very emotional when you watch a sad film?

11

What are two common uses of the structure “to be“ + infinitive with “to“?

12

How old must you be before you can vote in elections in this country?

13

What is unemployment?



Is it always possible to put theory into practice?



If you decided to set up a business in the place where you lived, what kind of business would you choose?

16

When don't we use “could“ as the past of “can“?

17

Is it in your nature to worry about things too much?

18

Are the cars that people drive today more efficient than the cars of fifty years ago?

19

What colour clothes do you think suit you best?

20

Do you think regular physical exercise can have any effect on how happy someone feels? "OTXFST

1

When we use countable nouns in the general sense, we put them in the plural and we do not put an article in front of them.

2

No, it isn't correct to say “the water is necessary for the life“; we say “water is necessary for life”.

3

The articles in English are “the“, “a“ and “an“.




There are earthworms, silkworms, woodworms etc.



Yes, I think some people deserve more of the good things in life than others. ~ No, I don't think some people deserve more of the good things in life than others.

6

Yes, I pay frequent visits to my doctor. ~ No, I don't pay frequent visits to my doctor.

7

The main attractions of the place where I live are …

8

Yes, I think most people these days are too busy with their own lives to care about the rest of the people in the world. ~ No, I don't think most people these days are too busy with their own lives to care about the rest of the people in the world.

9

By “miserable weather“ we mean cold and rainy weather.

10

Yes, I sometimes get very emotional when I watch a sad film. ~ No, I never get very emotional when I watch a sad film.

11

Two common uses of the structure “to be“ + infinitive with “to“ are to communicate an arrangement or an obligation.

12

You must be … before you can vote in elections in this country.

13

Unemployment is when there's not enough work for everyone.



No, it isn't always possible to put theory into practice.



If I decided to set up a business in the place where I lived, the kind of business I’d choose would be ...

16

We don't use “could“ as the past of “can“ if we talk about a particular occasion when somebody managed to do something.

17

Yes, it’s in my nature to worry about things too much. ~ No, it isn’t in my nature to worry about things too much.

18

Yes, the cars that people drive today are more efficient than the cars of fifty years ago.

19

I think … clothes suit me best.

20

Yes, I think regular physical exercise can have some effect on how happy someone feels. ~ No, I don't think regular physical exercise can have any effect on how happy someone feels.

Revision Exercise 58 (Lessons 120 – 121) 1

Is there anything you should have done yesterday but didn't do?

2

What's the biggest expense in your daily life?


3

What does it mean to postpone a game of football?



Name some situations that people normally find stressful.



When we're painting a room, what is it important to do first of all?

6

Why should shopkeepers always try to be polite when they attend to customers?

7

What kind of things move people to tears?

8

What'd you do if you wanted to spoil someone's pleasure in eating their lunch?

9

If you were dying of hunger, would you share your last piece of food with another dying person?

10

What does the idiom “I don't know if I'm coming or going” mean?

11

What does somebody mean if they say that they needn’t have done something?

12

Why is courage considered by some people the greatest of all the virtues?

13

Which animal is man's most loyal companion?



What's the right spirit to adopt when learning a language?



Does traffic flow smoothly during the rush hour?

16

Would you dare to swim in the sea in the middle of winter?

17

Where were you brought up?

18

What'd you have to do in order to fix a picture up on a wall?

19

If you went to a dinner party at somebody's house and criticized their cooking, would you expect to be invited back again?

20

What does the idiom “fall to pieces” mean? "OTXFST

1

Yes, there's something I should have done yesterday but didn't do. ~ No, there isn't anything I should have done yesterday but didn't do.

2

The biggest expense in my daily life is ...

3

To postpone a game of football means to delay the game until a better time.



Some situations that people normally find stressful are arguments, examinations, job interviews etc.



When we're painting a room, first of all it's important to cover the furniture so that it doesn't get paint on it.


6

Shopkeepers should always try to be polite when they attend to customers because they want the customers to come back again.

7

The kind of things that move people to tears are music, sad films, weddings etc.

8

If I wanted to spoil someone's pleasure in eating their lunch, I'd talk about something unpleasant.

9

Yes, if I were dying of hunger, I'd share my last piece of food with another dying person. ~ No, if I were dying of hunger, I wouldn't share my last piece of food with another dying person.

10

The idiom “I don't know if I'm coming or going” means “I am confused”.

11

If somebody says that they needn’t have done something, it means that they did it, but it was, in fact, not necessary.

12

Courage is considered by some people the greatest of all the virtues because one needs it to be able to practise the other virtues.

13

The dog is man's most loyal companion.



The right spirit to adopt when learning a language is that it's better to speak and make a mistake than not to speak because of being afraid of making a mistake.



No, traffic doesn’t flow smoothly during the rush hour.

16

Yes, I would dare to swim in the sea in the middle of winter. ~ No, I wouldn’t dare to swim in the sea in the middle of winter.

17

I was brought up in …

18

In order to fix a picture up on a wall, I'd need to hammer a nail into the wall and hang the picture on the nail.

19

No, if I went to a dinner party at somebody's house and criticized their cooking, I wouldn't expect to be invited back again.

20

The idiom “fall to pieces” means “lose control of yourself and your emotions after something bad has happened”.

Revision Exercise 59 (Lessons 122 – 123) 1

Apart from being a measure of distance, what can the word “yard” mean?

2

What kind of amusements are there in your home town?

3

Can photography be an expensive hobby?



Can most people afford to eat in restaurants every day?




Where could you find information regarding concerts and other events in your area?

6

Why is leather a good material for making bags from?

7

Are your eyes sensitive to bright light?

8

Are you sensible with money?

9

Is it sensible to run across the road without looking?

10

If you add up figures in an accounts book and find they don't balance, what must you do?

11

In which situation do we use the definite article “the“ when we use a noun for the first time?

12

Do we use the indefinite article when we talk about people's jobs?

13

Do you note down all the new English words you hear?



What colour are the banknotes of your country?



Why did soldiers wear armour in the old days?

16

Can a court find someone guilty of a crime if there is no evidence?

17

What are the letters “i.e.“ the abbreviation of?

18

What does it mean if we say that we are used to something?

19

Why do we put the gerund after the expression “to be used to“?

20

Do you think you could ever get used to living in a country where your language wasn't spoken? "OTXFST

1

Apart from being a measure of distance, the word “yard” can mean an open space outside a building, enclosed by walls, but with no roof.

2

In my home town, there are amusements such as cinemas, theatres etc.

3

Yes, photography can be an expensive hobby.



No, most people can’t afford to eat in restaurants every day.



You could find information regarding concerts and other events in your area by looking in local newspapers, visiting websites etc.

6

Leather is a good material for making bags from because it’s soft but also very strong.

7

Yes, my eyes are sensitive to bright light. ~ No, my eyes aren't sensitive to bright light.

8

Yes, I'm sensible with money. ~ No, I'm not sensible with money.


9

No, it isn't sensible to run across the road without looking.

10

If you add up figures in an accounts book and find they don't balance, you must add them up again.

11

We use the definite article “the“ when we use a noun for the first time only when the speaker and the listener both know who or what is being talked about.

12

Yes, we use the indefinite article when we talk about people's jobs.

13

Yes, I note down all the new English words I hear. ~ No, I don't note down all the new English words I hear.



The banknotes of my country are …



Soldiers wore armour in the old days to protect themselves in battle.

16

No, a court can't find someone guilty of a crime if there is no evidence.

17

The letters “i.e.“ are the abbreviation of “id est“, which is Latin for “that is“.

18

If we say that we are used to something, it means that it is not strange or uncomfortable for us anymore because we have experience of it.

19

We put the gerund after the expression “to be used to“ because the word “to“ is a preposition.

20

Yes, I think I could get used to living in a country where my language wasn't spoken. ~ No, I don't think I could ever get used to living in a country where my language wasn't spoken.

Revision Exercise 60 (Lessons 124 – 125) 1

When arguing with someone, do you ever suddenly agree with them just for the sake of peace and quiet?

2

Do you think a sense of humour is one of the most important parts of a person’s character?

3

When discussing painting, who do we mean by the old masters?



Now, I will give you a sentence and I want you to make a similar sentence with the word “so”: “We wore very light clothes in order not to suffer from the heat”.



What's the danger of giving children too much praise?

6

Do sensitive people sometimes take criticism too personally?

7

What do they give a hospital patient to make them unconscious before an operation?


8

What do we use to split wood?

9

When you eat in a restaurant with a group of friends, do you think the bill should be split equally among everyone or do you think each person should pay for what they personally ordered?

10

What does the idiom “kill two birds with one stone” mean?

11

When was the mobile phone invented?

12

Give me some examples of mountain chains.

13

When a person retires from work after many years of employment in the same company, are they usually presented with a gift?



When do people swear?



If you parked a car outside your house and left it idle for a few months, would it get very dirty?

16

Why do we always remember certain scenes in a film better than we remember others?

17

What do we call a part of a song that is repeated more than once: a verse or a chorus?

18

How do people pray, and what do they usually say in their prayers?

19

Tell me the name of a job that you think combines work and pleasure.

20

What does the idiom “go in one ear and out the other“ mean? "OTXFST

1

Yes, when arguing with someone, I sometimes suddenly agree with them just for the sake of peace and quiet. ~ No, when arguing with someone, I never suddenly agree with them just for the sake of peace and quiet.

2

Yes, I think a sense of humour is one of the most important parts of a person’s character. ~ No, I don’t think a sense of humour is one of the most important parts of a person’s character.

3

When discussing painting, by the old masters we mean painters such as Rembrandt, Michelangelo etc.



“We wore very light clothes so as not to suffer from the heat”.



The danger of giving children too much praise is that they might think they are better than they really are and start to become careless in their work.

6

Yes, sensitive people sometimes take criticism too personally.

7

They usually give a hospital patient a special kind of gas or an injection to make them unconscious before an operation.


8

We use an axe to split wood.

9

When I eat in a restaurant with a group of friends, I think the bill should be split equally among everyone/each person should pay for what they personally ordered.

10

The idiom “kill two birds with one stone” means “do two things at the same time and, therefore, save time and energy”.

11

The mobile phone was invented in 1973.

12

Some examples of mountain chains are the Andes, the Himalayas, the Alps etc.

13

Yes, when a person retires from work after many years of employment in the same company, they are usually presented with a gift.



People swear when they hurt themselves or when they’re very angry.



Yes, if I parked a car outside my house and left it idle for a few months, it'd get very dirty.

16

We always remember certain scenes in a film better than we remember others because they are very emotional or full of action.

17

We call a part of a song that is repeated more than once a chorus.

18

People often pray with their eyes closed, and they usually ask for something in their prayers.

19

The name of a job that I think combines work and pleasure is …

20

The idiom “go in one ear and out the other“ means “be heard but then immediately forgotten”.

Revision Exercise 61 (Lessons 126 – 127) 1

Extend your arms towards the ceiling, please. What are you doing?

2

When did the United States of America become independent from Britain?

3

When you were a young child, were you completely dependent on your parents for everything?



Why is it important to be punctual when you have an appointment with your doctor or dentist?



What does the verb “wish” communicate?

6

Do you wish you were relaxing on a beach at the moment?


7

Are you the kind of person who enjoys talking about the ideal, theoretical state of things, or do you consider such things a waste of time and prefer to talk about the actual state of things?

8

When you pay for something in a shop, do you always check to see that they have given you the right change?

9

Which tool would you need if you wanted to hit a nail into a piece of wood?

10

What do we mean when we say that someone's full of beans?

11

Why does a car have to edge forward slowly when turning from a side street into a main street?

12

How do most adjectives of two syllables which have the stress on the first syllable form their comparatives and superlatives?

13

How do we form the comparatives and superlatives of adverbs that are made by adding “-ly” to an adjective?



Do you feel any anxiety about the future of the world?



Supposing you could entertain a famous person at your house, either a great figure in history or someone alive today, who would you choose?

16

What do we mean by the background of a picture or a photograph?

17

What kind of activities do you apply your energy to most?

18

Name me a profession that is both highly respected and highly paid.

19

Which is one of the most ancient civilizations in the history of the world?

20

If a student gets an “A“ grade in an exam, is that a good result or a bad result? "OTXFST

1

I’m extending my arm towards the ceiling.

2

The United States of America became independent from Britain on the 4th of July, 1776.

3

Yes, when I was a young child, I was completely dependent on my parents for everything.



It's important to be punctual when you have an appointment with your doctor or dentist because they might not be able to see you if you arrive late.



The verb “wish” communicates the idea that we would like things to be different from the way they in fact are now, or were in the past.

6

Yes, I wish I was relaxing on a beach at the moment. ~ No, I don’t wish I was relaxing on a beach at the moment.


7

I'm the kind of person who enjoys talking about the ideal, theoretical state of things. ~ I'm not the kind of person who enjoys talking about the ideal, theoretical state of things; I consider such things a waste of time and prefer to talk about the actual state of things.

8

Yes, when I pay for something in a shop, I always check to see that they have given me the right change. ~ No, when I pay for something in a shop, I don’t always check to see that they have given me the right change.

9

I'd need a hammer if I wanted to hit a nail into a piece of wood.

10

When we say that someone's full of beans, we mean they’re full of life and energy.

11

A car has to edge forward slowly when turning from a side street into a main street so that the other cars have enough time to see what it intends doing.

12

Most adjectives of two syllables which have the stress on the first syllable form their comparatives and superlatives by adding “-er” and “-est”.

13

We form the comparatives and superlatives of adverbs that are made by adding “-ly” to an adjective by using “more than” and “the most”.



Yes, I feel some anxiety about the future of the world. ~ No, I don't feel any anxiety about the future of the world.



Supposing I could entertain a famous person at my house, either a great figure in history or someone alive today, I'd choose …

16

By the background of a picture or a photograph, we mean the part which is behind the main subject.

17

The kind of activities I apply my energy to most are …

18

A profession that is both highly respected and highly paid is …

19

One of the most ancient civilizations in the history of the world is the Egyptian civilization, or the Babylonian.

20

If a student gets an “A“ grade in an exam, that's a good result.

Revision Exercise 62 (Lessons 128 – 129) 1

Now that you are at this stage of your English studies, do you think you'd be able to travel abroad confident of making yourself understood in the language?

2

If a friend of yours wants to go to one cinema and you want to go to another, and you can't agree about which to go to, what do you do?


3

What do you think ought to be done with drivers who don't take care whilst driving, and consequently run people over?



If you went for dinner at a friend's house but didn't care much for the food, would you still tell them it was good?



What does the expression “I dare say you're right“ mean?

6

Why do we rub our hands together in cold weather?

7

If you found yourself face to face with a killer with a knife in his hand, what'd you do?

8

What can the word “thus” mean?

9

If the cost of living suddenly rose and you needed to economize, what changes would you make in your life?

10

Why does food become scarce in war time?

11

If you held a dinner party and served food that had been cooked in a microwave, would it make a good impression on your guests?

12

Does it anger you when an airline makes an additional charge for luggage?

13

Do you feel insulted if a foreign person says negative things about your country?



Why are some people more afraid that they might get killed if they travel by plane than by other means of transport?



For what purpose does a cat use its whiskers?

16

What are the advantages of an indoor swimming pool?

17

Do you think a small man who was good at judo would be a match for a big man who knew how to box?

18

Why do we have a path in a garden?

19

What do you think is the best thing to do for a sore throat?

20

Is it the custom in your country for people to cross their fingers when they wish for something? If not, what do they do instead? "OTXFST

1

Yes, now that I'm at this stage of my English studies, I think I’d be able to travel abroad confident of making myself understood in the language. ~ No, even though I'm at this stage of my English studies, I don’t think I'd be able to travel abroad confident of making myself understood in the language.

2

If a friend of mine wants to go to one cinema and I want to go to another, and we can't agree about which to go to, we …


3

I think that drivers who don't take care whilst driving, and consequently run people over ought to …



Yes, if I went for dinner at a friend's house but didn't care much for the food, I'd still tell them it was good. ~ No, if I went for dinner at a friend's house but didn't care much for the food, I wouldn't tell them it was good.



The expression “I dare say you're right“ means “I think you're probably right“.

6

We rub our hands together in cold weather because it makes them warmer.

7

If I found myself face to face with a killer with a knife in his hand, I'd …

8

The word “thus” can mean “therefore” or “in this way”.

9

If the cost of living suddenly rose and I needed to economize, I'd …

10

Food becomes scarce in war time because there aren't enough people to work on the farms or in the factories.

11

No, if I held a dinner party and served food that had been cooked in a microwave, it wouldn't make a good impression on my guests.

12

Yes, it angers me when an airline makes an additional charge for luggage. ~ No, it doesn't anger me when an airline makes an additional charge for luggage.

13

Yes, I feel insulted if a foreign person says negative things about my country. ~ No, I don't feel insulted if a foreign person says negative things about my country.



Some people are more afraid that they might get killed if they travel by plane than by other means of transport because a plane crash is front-page news.



A cat uses its whiskers to measure the width of a gap in a fence or a hedge to see if it is possible to get through the gap without using force and making a lot of noise.

16

The advantages of an indoor swimming pool are that the water can be heated more easily, and one can swim in it in any kind of weather.

17

Yes, I think a small man who was good at judo would be a match for a big man who knew how to box. ~ No, I don't think a small man who was good at judo would be a match for a big man who knew how to box.

18

We have a path in a garden so that people don't walk on the grass or on the flowers.

19

I think the best thing to do for a sore throat is …

20

Yes, it's the custom in my country for people to cross their fingers when they wish for something. ~ No, it isn't the custom in my country for people to cross their fingers when they wish for something; instead, they …


Revision Exercise 63 (Lessons 130 – 131) 1

Give an example of a compound adjective made by putting an adverb or adjective together with a participle.

2

Give an example of a compound adjective made by putting an adjective together with a noun that has the letters “ed“ after it.

3

What's the main unit of currency in your country?



When we speak about driving a car, what's the opposite of “to slow down“?



Give the name of a dish that's peculiar to your country.

6

What's the difference between a nail and a screw?

7

What's the minimum number of people necessary for a game of tennis?

8

When a college student is writing an essay, should they put all their main points in one big paragraph?

9

When we cut ourselves, why might we put a pad of cotton wool over the cut?

10

What do we mean when we say that a map is drawn to a scale of one inch to a mile?

11

What does the idiom “sore point“ mean?

12

Give me an example of an unfinished sentence ending with “to“, please.

13

Why do people have a much greater chance of living to a much greater age these days than they did in the old days?



Why do people take hold of something when they suddenly become afraid?



Where'd be the best place to hide from the police in this building?

16

Why do you have to pay attention all the time during a Callan Method lesson?

17

Which nationalities are particularly famous for their food?

18

When do people sweat?

19

What's the difference between “under“ and “underneath“?

20

What does the idiom “get you down“ mean? "OTXFST

1

A beautifully designed jacket, a slow-moving train.

2

A four-legged animal, a blue-eyed baby.

3

The main unit of currency in my country is …



When we speak about driving a car, the opposite of “to slow down” is “to speed up“.




The name of a dish that’s peculiar to my country is …

6

The difference between a nail and a screw is that we hammer a nail into something with a hammer, whereas we screw a screw into something by turning it with a screwdriver.

7

The minimum number of people necessary for a game of tennis is two.

8

No, when a college student is writing an essay, they shouldn’t put all their main points in one big paragraph; they should divide the points between different paragraphs.

9

When we cut ourselves, we might put a pad of cotton wool over the cut to absorb the blood and protect the wound.

10

When we say that a map is drawn to a scale of one inch to a mile, we mean that one inch on the map represents one mile of actual land.

11

The idiom “sore point” means “a subject which makes somebody feel unhappy or angry when it is mentioned“.

12

He doesn't know if he'll see her at the party but he's hoping to.

13

People have a much greater chance of living to a much greater age these days than they did in the old days because life today is easier and more comfortable, and medicine has improved a lot in recent times.



People take hold of something when they suddenly become afraid in order to give themselves strength and support.



The best place to hide from the police in this building would be …

16

I have to pay attention all the time during a Callan Method lesson because the teacher could suddenly ask me a question at any moment.

17

The French, the Italians, the Chinese etc are particularly famous for their food.

18

People sweat when they do exercise, when they are nervous, and when the weather is hot.

19

The difference between “under“ and “underneath“ is that “underneath“ means “under that“ or “under it“, and unlike “under“, it does not usually need to be followed by any other words.

20

The idiom “get you down“ means “make you tired and unhappy“.

Revision Exercise 64 (Lessons 132 – 133) 1

What, according to you, is the best way to deal with murderers?

2

In this town, do you get bands of young people going around the streets at night causing disturbances?


3

When browsing on the internet, do you ever follow so many links that you forget what you were originally doing?



How many carriages does the average train consist of?



If you have a car accident and make a claim on your insurance, do you have to give a detailed explanation of what happened?

6

What kind of things do housemates argue about?

7

If you came to the classroom for your lesson one day but there was nobody about, what would you do?

8

Does tea without sugar taste sweet?

9

Do you think there'll always be high levels of poverty in some parts of the world?

10

What does the idiom “touch and go“ mean?

11

When do we use the verb “wish” followed by the word “would”?

12

Would you recommend hitchhiking as a good way for visitors to travel around your country?

13

Of all your personal possessions, which is the most dear to you?



If you have a headache, what do you think is the best way to ease the pain?



Have you ever been obliged to appear in court for any reason?

16

If a thief robbed you of something in the street and ran away, what would you do?

17

What kind of objects must be handled very gently when we touch them?

18

Why do they include instruction booklets with new products like televisions and microwaves?

19

Name a tough metal, please.

20

What does the idiom “can't make head or tail of it“ mean? "OTXFST

1

In my opinion, the best way to deal with murderers is to …

2

Yes, in this town, we get bands of young people going around the streets at night causing disturbances. ~ No, in this town, we don't get bands of young people going around the streets at night causing disturbances.

3

Yes, when browsing on the internet, I sometimes follow so many links that I forget what I was originally doing. ~ No, when browsing on the internet, I never follow so many links that I forget what I was originally doing.



The average train consists of about … carriages.




Yes, if I have a car accident and make a claim on my insurance, I have to give a detailed explanation of what happened.

6

The kind of things that housemates argue about are cleaning, noise etc.

7

If I came to the classroom for my lesson one day but there was nobody about, I’d …

8

No, tea without sugar doesn’t taste sweet; it tastes bitter.

9

Yes, I think there’ll always be high levels of poverty in some parts of the world. ~ No, I don't think there’ll always be high levels of poverty in some parts of the world.

10

The idiom “touch and go“ means “very uncertain“.

11

We use the verb “wish” followed by the word “would” when we are unhappy or irritated about something that is happening and we want the situation to change.

12

Yes, I'd recommend hitchhiking as a good way for visitors to travel around my country. ~ No, I wouldn't recommend hitchhiking as a good way for visitors to travel around my country.

13

Of all my personal possessions, my … is/are the most dear to me.



If I have a headache, I think the best way to ease the pain is …



Yes, I've been obliged to appear in court for a particular reason. ~ No, I've never been obliged to appear in court for any reason.

16

If a thief robbed me of something in the street and ran away, I'd …

17

The kind of objects that must be handled very gently when we touch them are things such as wine glasses, eggs etc.

18

They include instruction booklets with new products like televisions and microwaves to enable users to understand how they work and what they can do.

19

Steel is a tough metal.

20

The idiom “can't make head or tail of it“ means “can't understand it at all“.

Revision Exercise 65 (Lessons 134 – 135) 1

From your point of view, is it better to live in a big city or in the countryside?

2

As far as you’re concerned, which country has the best food in the world?

3

When we're using a screw to hang a picture on a wall, do we turn the screw clockwise or anti-clockwise?




When a member of the public is killed by a police officer, do you think there ought to be an official inquiry into the death?



If you had been a prisoner during the last world war, would you have tried to escape?

6

After washing, what do we wipe our hands and face on?

7

When we buy an interest in a business, what are the documents that we buy called?

8

In a big city like London or Paris, is it preferable for most people to drive a car every day or use public transport?

9

When do we use the expressions “may as well“ or “might as well“?

10

How do people get out of breath?

11

What does the idiom “lucky break“ mean?

12

When we arrive at someone's house, how can we tell if they've recently been cooking?

13

What do we say when we are trying to think of a word or a name that we know well, but we cannot remember it immediately?



What would happen if you washed some delicate clothes in a washing machine at a high temperature?



What's a paw?

16

If you noticed somebody struggling to get a pushchair onto a bus, would you assist them?

17

If someone called you on your mobile but you were otherwise engaged with something important, would you take the call?

18

If you had to perform in a play, what kind of part would you like to perform?

19

Why do farmers sometimes plant seeds carefully in the ground in rows rather than just scatter them on the land?

20

What does the idiom “get (hold of) the wrong end of the stick“ mean? "OTXFST

1

From my point of view, it’s better to live in …

2

As far as I’m concerned, the country which has the best food in the world is …

3

When we're using a screw to hang a picture on a wall, we turn the screw clockwise.



Yes, when a member of the public is killed by a police officer, I think there ought to be an official enquiry into the death. ~ No, when a member of the public is killed by a police officer, I don't think there ought to be an official enquiry into the death.




Yes, if I'd been a prisoner during the last world war, I'd have tried to escape. ~ No, if I'd been prisoner during the last world war, I wouldn't have tried to escape.

6

After washing, we wipe our hands and face on a towel.

7

When we buy an interest in a business, the documents that we buy are called “shares“.

8

In a big city like London or Paris, it's preferable for most people to use public transport.

9

We use the expressions “may as well“ or “might as well“ when we are suggesting something, not because we think it is a great idea but because we cannot think of anything better to do.

10

People get out of breath through running, climbing the stairs etc.

11

The idiom “lucky break“ means “a piece of good luck, usually following a period of little or no success“.

12

When we arrive at someone’s house, we can tell if they’ve recently been cooking because we can smell the food.

13

When we are trying to think of a word or a name that we know well, but we cannot remember it immediately, we say it's on the tip of our tongue.



If I washed some delicate clothes in a washing machine at a high temperature, they would get damaged or become smaller.



A paw is the foot of an animal which has claws, like that of a cat, a dog, a lion etc.

16

Yes, if I noticed somebody struggling to get a pushchair onto a bus, I’d assist them. ~ No, if I noticed somebody struggling to get a pushchair onto a bus, I wouldn’t assist them.

17

Yes, if someone called me on my mobile and I was otherwise engaged with something important, I'd take the call. ~ No, if someone called me on my mobile but I was otherwise engaged with something important, I wouldn't take the call.

18

If I had to perform in a play, I'd like to perform the part of …

19

Farmers sometimes plant seeds carefully in the ground in rows rather than just scatter them on the land to prevent birds from eating them, or the wind from blowing them away.

20

The idiom “get (hold of) the wrong end of the stick“ means “understand something wrongly“.


Index EPU .................... !BU..................... BĘ?GUZNJOVUF lesson ....................791 BGPVSEPPSDBS......791 a load off one’s NJOE JEJPN .....822 BXIJMF ...................727 about.....................732 BCPWFBMM ................ absorb ...................722 according to ..........730 act.......................... additional ..............709 admiration ............733 admire ...................733 admit .....................822 BEWBODF .................766 BEWFSUJTFNFOU ....... BEWJDF O ............... BEWJTF W ............... affair ......................797 afraid of ................712 afraid that .............712 afraid to ................712 agency ...................810 agent .....................810 agree about .......... agree that ............. agree to................. BHSFFXJUI ............. ahead .................... aim ........................820 airline ....................700 airtight ..................820 aluminium .............697 ancient ..................702 anger .....................709 angle .....................702 annoy ....................716 annoyance.............729 BOUJDMPDLXJTF ........ BOYJFUZ...................700 BOYJPVT ..................700 ape ........................760 apply .....................701 BQQSPYJNBUF .........803 BSNJOBSN ...........738 BTGBSBT*Ç˝N concerned ............. assist ...................... assistant ................ at all.......................702 at ease ...................736 at sea .....................807

attack ....................708 background...........701 bacon ....................803 band ......................730 bar ......................... bare .......................768 barely ....................768 bargain ..................787 barrel .....................816 barrister.................769 basement ..............786 bath .......................812 bathe .....................812 beforehand ...........789 belief .....................811 beneath ................. bite – bit – bitten..768 bitter .....................732 blackboard ............799 blunt ...................... booklet ..................739 CPYFS .....................811 boyfriend ..............738 breath.................... breathe.................. CSPXTF ..................731 bunch ....................800 bury .......................709 by chance .............. CZOPX ..................763 by sea ....................807 Č€CZČ€BOEJUTNBOZ uses .......................809 CZFCZF .................762 cage .......................760 candle .................... can’t help ..............816 can’t make head or tail of it JEJPN ..............739 capable .................. care for .................. carriage .................731 cart ........................ case........................769 caution ..................787 cautiously ..............787 celebrity ................ cemetery ...............709 centigrade .............702 chalk ......................799 champion ..............811 chance ................... changing the letter Č€ZČ€UPČ€JČ€ ...............

charm ....................798 charming ...............798 cheat......................813 cheek .....................779 cheeky ...................779 DMBX ....................... DMPDLXJTF ............... closely ....................760 cloth ......................818 clothe ....................800 clothing ................. coffee pot ..............806 come back .............768 DPNFEPXO ...........768 come in ..................768 commercial ............ DPNQBSBUJWFTBOE TVQFSMBUJWFTPG BEKFDUJWFT QBSUJDJQMFT BOEBEWFSCT ..........698 compass ................810 complain ............... complaint .............. compound .............718 compound BEKFDUJWFT ..............718 DPNQPVOEBEKFDUJWFT (continued) ...........791 DPOĘ?EFOU............... confusion .............. DPOTFSWF ................706 container ...............820 content (n) ............773 DPOUFOU WPSBEK ..773 control ...................819 DPOWJODF ................818 cooking pot ...........806 corner ....................723 DPUUPOXPPM ...........722 council ...................782 course ....................803 crash ......................712 create ....................817 creature .................776 critic .......................789 cuff ........................766 cuisine ...................816 currency.................719 custom...................738 damp .....................821 daring ....................706 dear .......................736 debt ....................... EFDFJWF .................. degree ...................702

delicate .................. EFMJWFS ...................789 descend .................768 design....................716 desire ..................... dessert ...................803 detail .....................726 EFWFMPQNFOU......... dig – dug – dug ....792 dine .......................803 dip .........................813 disaster ..................796 dishonest............... disorderly .............. dissatisfaction .......732 distinguish.............727 disturbance ...........730 do someone a GBWPVS ....................778 Don’t mention it ...778 doorpost ...............792 double contractions ..........789 doubling consonants ............721 eager .....................706 ease .......................736 easy .......................736 FDPOPNJ[F.............708 edge ......................697 effort .....................811 Egypt .....................702 either of them .......721 either side ............. electrical ................ emphasis ...............821 enable ...................739 endless ..................800 energetic ............... engaged ................ enormous ..............811 enter ......................768 entertain ...............701 entrance ................713 FOWJPVT .................. FOWZ ....................... escape ................... essay ......................722 FWFSZPUIFSEBZ ..... FYDJUFNFOU ............ FYDVTF O ..............770 FYDVTF W ..............770 FYDVTFNF ............. FYIBVTUFE ............. FYQFDU....................789


FYQMBOBUJPO ...........731 FYUSFNF .................777 FZFCSPX ................799 eyelash ..................799 eyelid .....................799 face........................707 face to face ...........707 Fahrenheit .............780 failure .................... faint ....................... fall asleep ..............716 fame ...................... fancy ......................771 fast ........................790 fasten ....................790 GBWPVS ....................800 fear ........................ feather .................. feed – fed – fed ....813 feel upset .............. fence .....................712 ʞPPE ......................796 ʞPVS....................... ʞPXFSQPU ..............806 ʞZ ..........................716 fold ........................793 for days and days ..732 GPSIFBWFOǽTTBLF (idiom 29) ..............710 for sale................... forbid – forbade – forbidden ..............720 forehead ............... fortunate ...............772 fortune ..................772 GSFF[FǚGSP[Fǚ GSP[FO ....................780 fright .....................782 frighten .................782 from my point PGWJFX................... fry – fried – fried .......................803 funeral ................... further uses of the WFSCǿXJTIȀ ........... gallon ....................771 gap ........................712 generous ...............733 gentle ....................738 get (hold of) the XSPOHFOEPGUIF stick (idiom 36) ...... get rid of ............... HFUZPVEPXO (idiom 32) ..............728 girlfriend ...............738 HJWFPGG ..................762

HJWFTPNFCPEZUIF cold shoulder JEJPN ..............801 HJWFXBZ ................ HJWJOHBTLJOHGPS opinions ................ go ahead ...............812 go back..................768 go bad ...................763 HPEPXO ................768 go in ......................768 HPPVUXJUI ...........772 go past ..................809 go right .................763 goal .......................792 god ........................707 golden ................... grade .....................702 grape .....................800 greet ......................762 greetings ...............762 grind – ground – ground .................. hall.........................713 IBOEJOIBOE .......738 handle ...................738 happen to ............. hard up JEJPN ..............787 harm ......................776 harmful .................776 harmless ................776 IBWFTPNFUIJOH UPEPXJUIČ… .........761 hay ......................... heal ....................... heap ......................779 hedge ....................712 help yourself .........816 hide – hid – hidden ................... highly ....................701 hinder ....................800 historic................... hitchhike ...............736 IPSJ[PO ..................813 IPSJ[POUBM..............813 horrible .................700 horror ....................782 hut ......................... *EBSFTBZ ...............706 *UPMEZPVTP...........761 *Ç˝NTPSSZ ................ JGPOMZČ… .............. if you ask me ......... ignore .................... ill at ease ...............736 impression .............709

in a nutshell (idiom 39) ..............773 in addition to ........720 JOBEWBODF .............766 in arrears ...............766 in my opinion ........730 JONZWJFX ............. in relation to .........806 in season ...............810 indeed ...................821 indoor....................713 indoors ..................713 JOKFDUJPO ................810 JOKVTUJDF .................767 JORVJSF PSFORVJSF ........... JORVJSZ PSFORVJSZ ........... insect .....................780 instruction .............739 instrument ............798 insult (n) ................709 JOTVMU W .................709 insurance ............... insure..................... intend ....................697 interest .................. international .........772 interrupt ................ interruption .......... JOWFOUJPO ...............731 JOWPMWF ...................708 JOXBSET.................. iron ........................777 JTI ........................783 it is not so ..............761 JUOFWFSSBJOTCVUJU QPVST JEJPN ....781 it so happens .........761 *UÇ˝TOPUIJOH ............778 itch.........................780 KBN ........................ KBX.........................821 KFBMPVT ...................772 KFBMPVTZ .................772 KPH .........................791 KVEP ....................... KVTU FYBDUMZ ..........761 KVTUUIFTBNF .........812 KVTU JODBTF ..........770 LFFQZPVSĘ?OHFST crossed (idiom 30 ) .............717 knee ...................... kneel – knelt – knelt ...................... ladder ....................821 largely ...................

last .........................799 last but one ...........799 late ........................ lately ...................... latest......................799 lay – laid – laid ......819 lead .......................816 lean ....................... liar .........................726 licence (n) .............. MJDFOTF W .............. lid...........................799 lie – lay – lain ........819 lie – lied – lied.......819 lifestyle ..................791 light – lit – lit......... likely ......................777 link.........................731 MJRVJE .....................713 litre ........................771 little by little ..........697 MJWF BEK ................. MJWF W .................... load .......................816 lock ........................ look ....................... MPPTFĘ?UUJOH ..........820 lose one’s temper ..................763 MPWFBGGBJS ..............797 MPWJOHMZ ..................739 lucky break JEJPN .............. lung ....................... madness ................710 magic ..................... mail........................789 main course ...........803 make up your mind ...................... mankind ................ marmalade ............ mask ......................737 match .................... mate ...................... NBYJNVN ..............722 NBZBTXFMM ............ mean .....................783 melt .......................761 mend ..................... mercy ..................... mere ......................792 NJHIUBTXFMM ......... mild ....................... military ..................730 mine ......................772 miner .....................772 minimum ...............722


misfortune............. monkey .................760 musical ..................798 musician ................ mystery .................. OBUJWF ....................793 naughty .................793 nearby ...................809 neat .......................733 needle ...................810 neither of them .....721 OFSWPVT .................727 No problem ...........778 Not at all ................778 nought ..................780 OPXUIBU................ nuisance ................792 PCTFSWBUJPO ........... PCTFSWF.................. off the cuff (idiom 38) ..............766 on account of ........ POBWFSBHF ............698 one on top of the other ...............779 opposition .............781 organ ..................... PUIFSXJTF .............. out of breath ......... out of doors ..........713 out of season ........810 outdoor .................713 outdoors................713 PVUXBSET ............... PWFS .......................786 PWFSDPNF ..............768 PWFSOJHIU ..............791 PWFSXFJHIU ............806 pad ........................722 painkiller ...............818 pale .......................783 pan ........................799 paragraph .............722 path ....................... QBX ....................... pay attention ........726 pear ....................... peculiar .................720 peculiarity .............720 pence.....................719 penny ....................719 perform ................. performance ......... pet .........................817 pick at ....................762 pick out .................762 pile.........................779 pill..........................818

pint ........................771 plant ...................... plum ...................... point ......................722 point ......................780 polluted................. pollution................ pool .......................713 porter ....................790 possession .............700 post .......................792 postage .................792 pot .........................806 QPWFSUZ ..................733 practice (n) ............ QSBDUJTF W ............. preferable ............. preference .............816 preparation ...........766 present perfect DPOUJOVPVTFWJEFODF PGSFDFOUBDUJWJUZ ... QSFTFSWF ................697 prisoner ................. progress ................766 proof ..................... QSPWF .....................793 punish ...................793 punishment ...........822 pushchair .............. put one’s foot EPXO JEJPN .... RVBMJĘ?DBUJPO .......... RVBMJUZ ................... RVFTUJPOTXJUIPVUUIF RVFTUJPOGPSN .......776 rabbit.....................817 rapid ......................788 SB[PS ...................... reach out ...............722 receipt ...................793 reckon ...................700 record (n)............... SFDPSE W ............... reduce ...................777 regard....................762 regards ..................762 regret .................... SFKPJDF.................... relationship ...........806 SFMBUJWF ..................806 relief ......................818 SFMJFWF ....................818 rely on ...................789 remark ................... SFRVJSF...................706 resist ......................802 resistance ..............802

responsible ............782 return ....................768 SFWPMVUJPO..............801 rid .......................... right angle ............702 SJHIUXBZVQ .......... risk .........................770 SJWBM........................ rob .........................737 robbery..................737 rod .........................816 SPX ........................ rub .........................706 rub out ..................706 rubber ...................706 run a risk ...............770 run on....................817 SVOPWFS ................. sale ........................ sales ....................... saying ....................806 scale.......................723 scarce .....................708 scarcely ..................708 scatter.................... scent ......................762 scrape ....................780 scratch ...................780 scream ...................782 TDSFX .....................721 TDSFXESJWFS ............721 TFDPOEIBOE ......... see you ..................762 seldom................... self .........................819 TFMGDPOUSPM............819 TFMĘ?TI ....................819 set free ..................818 TFX ........................810 shares .................... sharp ..................... sharpen ................. TIBWF ..................... TIJQXSFDL .............. sickness..................783 silken ..................... situated .................818 TMFFWF .................... slight...................... TMPXEPXO .............720 snake .....................798 snake charmer.......798 snap decision (idiom 37) ..............760 TP ZPVIBWF DPNF ....................761 Č€TPȀǚBOEJUTNBOZ uses (continued) ...761

social .....................697 ÇżTPNFČ€JO RVFTUJPOT...............786 TPNFXIBU .............702 sore........................716 sore point (idiom 31) ..............723 space .....................817 speed up ...............720 starter ....................803 TUBZJOUPVDIXJUI..811 steal .......................737 stem....................... step by step ...........766 still .........................729 stormy ................... TUSBX ..................... TUSPOHBOEXFBL pronunciation forms .....................797 style .......................816 substantial.............803 TVGĘ?Y .....................721 sunbathe ...............812 TXFBU .....................727 symbol ................... sympathy ...............699 take a look ............ take aim ................820 take by surprise ..... take care ................ take hold of ........... take place ..............822 tap ......................... teapot ...................806 tear – tore – torn ..778 temper ..................763 temptation ............ tend .......................772 tender ...................739 terribly ................... That’s all right .......778 UIF#SPXOT ............701 the country............ UIFMBTUTUSBX JEJPN .............. UIFQPTTFTTJWF apostrophe ........... the sooner ..., the better ....................782 ÇżUIFČ€ BEKFDUJWF OPVO ...................726 ÇżUIFČ€  DPNQBSBUJWFČ…  ....782 theft ...................... then .......................796 thief .......................737 thoughtful.............763


thoughtless ...........783 thread....................810 throne ...................716 through ................. thus .......................707 tidiness .................. tight.......................820 UJHIUĘ?UUJOH ...........820 tin ..........................697 tip .......................... title ........................811 to be obliged.........737 to take into account ................. toast ......................803 tolerate..................812 touch and go (idiom 33) ..............733 UPVDIXPPE JEJPN ..............807 tough ....................739 tour .......................817 tourist ....................817 UPXFM ..................... UPXOIBMM ...............713 trap ........................806 treasure .................793 triangle.................. trick ....................... try ..........................818 turn on .................. UXPNFBOJOHTPG ÇżRVJUFČ€ .................. underneath ...........727 VOĘ?OJTIFETFOUFODFT FOEJOHXJUIČ€UPČ€ .. unit ........................719 unity ......................703 unlike ....................727 unlikely ..................777 up ..........................778 upright .................. upset ..................... VQTJEFEPXO ......... urge .......................796 VTFTPGUIFQBTTJWF WPJDF ......................802 using nouns as BEKFDUJWFT .............. WBMMFZ .....................767 WFSCBOEJOĘ?OJUJWF PSČ€JOHČ€ ...............711 WFSUJDBM ...................821 WJDUPSZ.................... WJFX ....................... WPZBHF ...................817 XBJTU ......................771 XBJTUDPBU ...............771

XBOEFS ..................727 XBSO ...................... XBT JOĘ?OJUJWF XJUIČ€UPČ€ ............... XBUFSUJHIU .............820 XFBMUIZ .................796 XFBQPO .................768 XFBS ...................... XFMDPNF ................763 XIBUBCPVU (you) ......................732 Č€XIBUČ€BOE ÇżXIJDIČ€ ................. XIFBU .................... XIJTLFST ................712 XIJUFCPBSE ...........799 XIZPOFBSUI (idiom 28) ..............703 XJQF ...................... XJUOFTT W .............773 XPPEFO ................. XPPMMFO ................. XPSLPVU................ XPSOPVU ............... XSFDL ..................... yacht ......................800 yet .........................729 :PVÇ˝SFXFMDPNF ....778 [FSP .......................780 [PP ........................760


English–Czech Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Czech vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social................................. společenský 697 edge ....... roh/hrana/pomalu směřovat 697 little by little ......................... postupně 697 intend ...................mít v úmyslu/hodlat 697 tin ..........................................konzerva 697 preserve...................................uchovat 697 aluminium ...................................hliník 698 on average .......................... průměrně 699 sympathy ........... náklonnost/sympatie 700 reckon ..........domnívat se/spoléhat na 700 airline .....................letecká společnost 700 horrible .................................... hrozný 700 anxiety.......................................úzkost 700 anxious ................................... dychtivý 700 possession .............................. majetek 701 entertain ......................................bavit 701 background............... pozadí/minulost 701 apply................................... ucházet se 701 highly ........................................ vysoce 701 the Browns ........................... Brownovi 702 ancient ................................. starověký 702 Egypt .......................................... Egypt 702 degree ...................................... stupeň 702 angle .............................................úhel 702 right angle ..........................pravý úhel 702 grade .......................................známka 702 centigrade .................................Celsius 702 somewhat ............................. poněkud 702 at all ............................................ vůbec 703 unity ..................... jednota/jednotnost LESSON 128 704 confident......................... přesvědčený 704 now that .......................... “nyní, když” 705 agree about .............dohodnout se na 705 agree that ............... souhlasit s tím, že 705 agree to ....................... dohodnout, že 705 agree with ...........................souhlasit s 705 take care ........................... dávat pozor 705 run over ...................... přejet (někoho) 705 care for .................................pečovat o 706 I dare say ........................dovoluji si říci

706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

daring ......................................... smělý require ................................. vyžadovat conserve ................................ zachovat eager .........................................horlivý rub ...................................................třít rub out ................................... vymazat rubber ........................................ guma face ................................................ tvář face to face..........................tváří v tvář god ................................................ bůh thus ....................................... tak/tudíž economize................................... šetřit involve .................zahrnovat/zapojit se attack................................. napadnout scarcely ........................................ sotva scarce .........................................vzácný impression ................................. dojem bury ......................................... pohřbít cemetery ..................................hřbitov anger .........................................rozčílit additional ......... dodatečný/doplňkový insult (v)...................................... urazit insult (n) ....................................urážka madness ..................................šílenství

LESSON 129 712 afraid of...................................... bát se 712 afraid that .......................obávat se, že 712 afraid to................................ obávat se 712 crash ......................................... narazit 712 whiskers ...................................... fousy 712 gap ...........................................mezera 712 fence................................. ohrada/plot 712 hedge ..................................... živý plot 713 hall.................................................hala 713 entrance ...................................vstupní 713 town hall ..................................radnice 713 pool .............................................louže 713 liquid ......................................kapalina 713 indoor...........................................krytý 713 outdoor .................................venkovní 713 indoors .....................................interiér 713 outdoors.....................................venku


713 out of doors ...............................venku 714 knee ......................................... koleno 714 kneel – knelt – knelt ................. klečet: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé 714 late ............................poslední/zesnulý 714 lately ...................................... nedávno 714 match ......................................... zápas 714 judo ........................................... džudo 715 funeral ......................................pohřeb 715 mystery ...................................záhadný 715 path ......................................... cestička 715 insure........................................ pojistit 715 insurance ................................pojištění 715 theft ..........................................krádež 716 throne ...........................................trůn 716 annoy .................................. obtěžovat 716 fly....................................moucha/letět 716 fall asleep ................................. usnout 716 sore........................................ bolestivý 716 design (v)....................... vytvořit návrh LESSON 130 718 compound ................................složený 719 currency...................................... měna 719 unit ........................................ jednotka 719 penny .........................................pence 719 pence..........................................pence 720 slow down ............................. zpomalit 720 speed up................................... zrychlit 720 in addition to ............................ kromě 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. .......................... zakázat: přítomný čas ..............– minulý čas – příčestí minulé 720 peculiar ................................... zvláštní 720 peculiarity ........................... zvláštnost 721 suffix .......................................přípona 721 either of them ............. kterýkoli z nich 721 neither of them ................žádný z nich 721 screw .......................................... šroub 721 screwdriver ..........................šroubovák 722 maximum ............................maximální 722 minimum ............................. minimální 722 point ............................................ smysl 722 essay .............................................. esej 722 paragraph ............................. odstavec 722 pad ..........................................tampón 722 cotton wool ................................... vata 722 absorb ............................... absorbovat 722 reach out ........................ natáhnout se 723 scale ........................................ stupnice

723 corner .........................žít na rohu ulice LESSON 131 724 chance .........................................šance 724 by chance ..............................náhodou 725 take hold of ............................. uchopit 725 take by surprise .................... překvapit 725 take a look........................... podívat se 725 second-hand ........................... použitý 725 temptation ............................pokušení 725 dishonest ............................... nečestný 725 view ................................náhled/názor 725 hide – hid – hidden ....................skrýt: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé 726 liar ................................................. lhář 726 pay attention ................... dávat pozor 726 detail .......................................... detail 727 sweat ........................................potit se 727 nervous ................................. nervózní 727 underneath ................................... pod 727 unlike..........................................oproti 727 wander ...................................toulat se 727 distinguish ............................ rozlišovat 727 a while ....................................okamžik LESSON 132 729 still ..................................... dosud/stále 729 yet..........................................ještě (ne) 729 annoyance......................nepříjemnost 730 according to ............................... podle 730 in my opinion ...... podle mého názoru 730 band .............................. skupina/tlupa 730 disturbance ............................výržnost 730 military ...................................vojenský 731 link.................................odkaz/spojení 731 browse................................... prohlížet 731 carriage ..............................náklad/vůz 731 invention ................................. vynález 731 explanation ..........................vysvětlení 732 about ....................................... o/okolo 732 for days and days ................... celé dny 732 what about (you) ....................a co (ty) 732 bitter .......................................... hořký 732 dissatisfaction ..............nespokojenost 733 neat ........................................ úhledný 733 poverty .................................. chudoba 733 admire ................................. obdivovat 733 admiration.................................. obdiv 733 generous ....................................štědrý LESSON 133 736 hitchhike ............................... stopovat


736 736 736 736 736 737 737 737 737 737 737 738 738 738 738 738 738 738 739 739 739 739 739 739

dear .....................................drahý/milý easy ............................................. lehký ease .......................... snadnost/zmírnit at ease ..................................pohodlně ill at ease ..........................nepohodlně to be obliged.................... být povinen steal ............................................ukrást rob ..............................................okrást robbery......................................loupež thief ............................................zloděj mask .......................................... maska handle ...................... rukojeť/nakládat gentle .........................................jemný hand-in-hand ....................ruku v ruce arm-in-arm ..............................v objetí custom .......................................... zvyk girlfriend ............................. přítelkyně boyfriend .................................... přítel enable .................................... umožnit instruction ..................................pokyn booklet ....................................brožura tender.........................................jemný tough........................................... tvrdý lovingly ....................................s láskou

LESSON 134 741 in my view ................. z mého pohledu 741 from my point of view ............... podle ........................................mého názoru 741 if you ask me ............když se mne ptáš 741 as far as I’m concerned .cose mne týče 742 clockwise .............................. po směru .............................. hodinových ručiček 742 anticlockwise................................proti ................... směru hodinových ručiček 742 symbol ...................................... symbol 742 @ = at............................... @ = zavináč 742 . = dot .................................... . = tečka 742 inquire (or enquire)............informovat .......................................se (dotazovat) 742 inquiry (or enquiry) .............. zjišťování ........................................ (dotazování) 742 escape ..........................................utéci 742 prisoner ...................................... vězeň 743 regret .........................................litovat 743 wipe...............................................utřít 743 forehead........................................ čelo 743 towel ..........................................ručník 743 interest ........................................ podíl 743 shares .......................................... akcie 743 tidiness ................................... pořádek

744 744 744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 746

preferable ..........................přednostní largely............................... z velké části quality ................................... vlastnost may as well ...........................smět také might as well ...................mohl by také on account of ............................... kvůli energetic .............................. energický breath ...........................................dech breathe ......................................dýchat out of breath .......................bez dechu through .............................. v důsledku clothing ......................................oděvy

LESSON 135 748 to take into account ......... vzít v úvahu 748 tip ......................................... spropitné 748 make up your mind ...........rozhodni se 748 delicate .......................................jemný 748 observe................................ pozorovat 748 observation .......................... sledování 749 historic.................................. historický 749 paw ............................................. tlapa 749 claw .............................................. dráp 749 wooden ...................................dřevěný 749 hut ...............................................chata 749 woollen ..................................... vlněný 749 silken ....................................hedvábný 749 golden .......................................... zlatý 750 every other day ........ každý druhý den 750 assist .........................................pomoci 750 assistant................................... asistent 750 pushchair.................................kočárek 750 otherwise .....................................jinak 750 engaged ..................... zaneprázdněný 750 perform ....................... hrát/předvádět 750 performance .............................. výkon 750 trick ................................................ trik 750 magic ................................ kouzelnický 751 envy ..........................................závidět 751 envious ................................... závistivý 751 celebrity..... celebrita/známá osobnost 751 fame .............................................sláva 751 advice (n) ...................................... rada 751 advise (v) ..................................poradit 751 practice (n) ................................cvičení 751 practise (v) ....................................cvičit 751 licence (n) .............................. povolení 751 license (v).................................. povolit 751 record (n).................................záznam 751 record (v) ......................... zaznamenat 752 scatter ..................... rozhodit/rozejít se


752 752 752 752 752 752 752

plant ......................................... zasadit row ............................................. řádek disorderly ..................nedisciplinovaný tap .......... klepat/vodovodní kohoutek turn on ....................................... otočit pollution.............................. znečištění polluted ...............................znečištěný

LESSON 136 754 slight............................................ slabý 754 upside down ..............vzhůru nohama 754 right way up ............správná orientace 755 feather........................................... peří 755 wear ................................ opotřebovat 755 sleeve...........................................rukáv 755 mend .........................................spravit 755 worn out ............ obnošený/vyčerpaný 755 exhausted ........................... vyčerpaný 755 qualification ....................... kvalifikace 755 debt .............................................. dluh 756 interrupt .................................. přerušit 756 interruption .......... přerušení/výpadek 756 if only …!............................... kéž by...! 756 act .........................................čin/jednat 756 capable ................................... schopný 756 bar ...................... cihlička/tabulka/mříž 756 lock ....................................uzamknout 757 cart .............................................. vozík 757 deceive ................................... oklamat 757 complain ............................. stěžovat si 757 complaint ................................ stížnost 758 either side ...........................obě strany 758 faint ..................................slabý/omdlít 758 excitement ............................. vzrušení 758 fear ............................................. strach 759 happen to ................................. stát se 759 outwards ..........................směrem ven 759 inwards.......................směrem dovnitř 759 lean.....................................naklonit se 759 beneath ......................................... pod 759 give way ..............................sesednout 759 mankind .................................... lidstvo 759 mate ...................................... kamarád 760 zoo..................................................zoo 760 cage ............................................... klec 760 monkey .......................................opice 760 ape ............................................ lidoop 760 closely .........................................blízko LESSON 137 761 it is not so ........................... tak to není 761 so, you have come! ...............tak jsi tu!

761 761 761 761 761 762 762 762 762 762 762 762 762 762 762 763 763 763 763 763 763 763 764 764 764 764 764 764 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 766 766 766 766 766 766 766 767 767

it so happens ....... náhodou se to stalo I told you so....................řekl jsem ti to just (exactly) ..............................přesně melt .................................... roztopit se have something to do with … ....... mít ............................ něco společného s... pick at ................................. přebírat se pick out ......................................vybrat regard............................. považovat za regards ..................................pozdravy greet ..................................... pozdravit greetings ...............................pozdravy bye-bye .......................... nashledanou see you .............................. na viděnou scent .............................................vůně give off ............................. šířit/vydávat welcome ...........................vítat/přivítat go right ......................... dařit se dobře temper......................................povaha lose one’s temper ......................ztratit ........................................ sebeovládání thoughtful.......... hloubavý/přemýšlivý go bad ................................nezdařit se by now........................................dosud warn .........................................varovat ahead ................................ před sebou triangle ...............................trojúhelník mercy ..........................................milost desire ..........................................touha ignore .................................nevšímat si upright ............................... vzpřímeně lung .............................................. plíce organ .......................................... orgán seldom ........................................zřídka work out.................................... vyřešit confusion .................................zmatek electrical ............................... elektrický advance ................ pokrok/postupovat step by step ................ krok za krokem progress ................................zlepšit se in advance ...............................předem in arrears .................................. zpětně cuff ........................................ manžeta preparation ............................ příprava valley ........................................... údolí injustice .......................nespravedlnost

LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten .....................kousat: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé


768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 769 769 770 770 770 770 770 771 771 771 771 771 771 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 773 773 773

bare ...............................................holý weapon ...................................... zbraň barely .......................................... sotva go back.................................. vracet se come back ............................... vrátit se go in .....................................jít dovnitř come in .......................vstoupit dovnitř return .......................................... vrátit enter ....................................... vstoupit descend .................................sestoupit overcome...............................překonat go down ................................sejít dolů come down ..........................přijít dolů case............................................ případ barrister...................................advokát (just) in case...........(pouze) pro případ risk ...............................................riziko run a risk...................podstoupit riziko excuse (v)................................. omluvit excuse (n) .................................omluva waist ............................................... pas waistcoat ..................................... vesta fancy ............................zvláštní/efektní pint .............................................. pinta gallon ......................................... galón litre .................................................. litr jealous ....................................... žárlivý jealousy .................................. žárlivost go out with ................. chodit s někým fortune ............................ šťastný osud fortunate .................................. šťastný international ................... mezinárodní mine ............................................... důl miner ......................................... horník tend .......................................mít sklon content (n) .................................obsah content (v or adj) .. vyhovět/spokojený witness (v) .................................svědčit

LESSON 139 775 rid ...........................................zbavit se 775 get rid of ...................zbavit se něčeho 775 above all ..............................především 775 sharp ............................................ostrý 775 blunt ............................................. tupý 775 sharpen .................. nabrousit/naostřit 775 grind – ground – ground ....... brousit: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé 775 flour.......................................... mouka 775 wheat ...................................... pšenice

776 776 776 776 777 777 777 777 777 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 779 779 779 779 779 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 781

harm ...........................................ublížit harmful ...................................škodlivý harmless ............................... neškodný creature ......................................... tvor iron ..............................................žehlit extreme ................................. extrémní reduce ......................................... snížit likely .......................... pravděpodobně unlikely .................. nepravděpodobně do someone a favour ............ prokázat ............................................... někomu ...............................................laskavost That’s all right ............. to je v pořádku Not at all ................................. není zač It’s nothing ............... to byla maličkost You’re welcome ........................prosím Don’t mention it ........ to nestojí za řeč No problem ................. žádný problém up ...................... (váže se ke slovesům, ..................kde dokončí jejich význam) tear – tore – torn ........................trhat: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé cheek .............................................. líce cheeky ...........................................drzý pile................................................ klást one on top of the other ............. jeden ............................................... na druhý heap ............................................ kupa point ...........................................špička freeze – froze – frozen .......zmrznout: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé nought ..........................................nula zero ...............................................nula Fahrenheit ............ stupeň Fahrenheita insect ........................................... hmyz itch.............................................. svědit scratch ......................................škrábat scrape ...........................................odřít opposition ...............................opozice

LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better...... čím dříve, ................................................ tím lépe 782 responsible ........................ odpovědný 782 council .......................................... rada 782 scream .........................................křičet 782 fright .......................................... strach 782 frighten ...............................vystrašený 782 horror ..........................................horor


783 783 783 783 784 784 784 784 784 784 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 786 786 787 787 787 788

mean ........................................lakomý thoughtless .............................sobecký pale .............................................bledý sickness......................................nemoc light – lit – lit ............................zapálit: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé candle ......................................... svíčka failure ................................... neúspěch upset ...................................... překazit feel upset ............... cítit se rozzlobený terribly ...................................... strašně wreck .......................................... zhatit misfortune............................... neštěstí shipwreck ............................ ztroskotat sale ............................................ prodej for sale .................................. na prodej sales ..................................... výprodeje advertisement ............ reklama/inzerát commercial ............................komerční rival ......................................konkurent over ...............................................přes basement ................................ suterén bargain ....................... výhodná koupě caution ........................... napomenout cautiously ................................opatrně rapid ........................................... rychlý

LESSON 141 789 deliver ...................................... doručit 789 mail..............................................pošta 789 beforehand .............................předem 789 critic ............................................. kritik 789 expect .................................... očekávat 789 rely on .......................... spoléhat se na 790 fast ............................................. rychle 790 fasten ...................................... upevnit 790 porter .......................................... nosič 791 a fifty-minute lesson............................ ... padesátiminutová vyučovací hodina 791 a four-door car ......... čtyřdvéřové auto 791 jog .............................................. běhat 791 overnight................................ přes noc 791 lifestyle ............................... životní styl 792 mere .......................................... pouhý 792 nuisance .........................nepříjemnost 792 post .................................................kůl 792 doorpost ................................ zárubeň 792 goal .......................................... branka 792 dig – dug – dug ........................ kopat: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas

792 793 793 793 793 793 793 793

...................................– příčestí minulé postage ................................ poštovné naughty ................................nezbedný punish....................................potrestat fold ...........................................ohnout native..................................... mateřský treasure .................................... poklad receipt ...................pokladní stvrzenka prove ..................................... prokázat

LESSON 142 795 excuse me............................. promiňte 795 I’m sorry .................................je mi líto 796 wealthy .................................... bohatý 796 disaster ................pohroma/katastrofa 796 flood ...................................... povodeň 796 then ................................................pak 796 urge ......................................... spěchat 797 affair ..................................... záležitost 797 love affair ................... milostný poměr 798 charm ........................................kouzlo 798 charming ............................ okouzlující 798 musical ................................... hudební 798 snake ............................................. had 798 snake charmer............... zaklínač hadů 798 instrument ............................... nástroj 799 latest.................................... nejnovější 799 last ..........................................poslední 799 last but one .................... předposlední 799 blackboard ......................školní tabule 799 whiteboard ........................ bílá tabule 799 chalk ............................................ křída 799 eyebrow ......................................obočí 799 eyelash .......................................... řasa 799 eyelid ....................................oční víčko 799 lid................................................... víko 799 pan .............................................pánev 800 favour ............................. upřednostnit 800 yacht ...........................................jachta 800 hinder .................................... překážet 800 clothe .................................. oblékat se 800 endless ...............................nekonečný 800 bunch ......................................... kytice 800 grape ............................ hroznové víno 801 revolution ...............................revoluce LESSON 143 802 resist ...................................... odolávat 802 resistance ................... odolnost/odpor 803 substantial ...............................vydatný 803 bacon ....................................... slanina 803 toast ........................................ topinka


803 fry – fried – fried ..................... smažit: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé 803 approximate...........................přibližný 803 course ...........................................chod 803 starter .....................................předkrm 803 main course .......................hlavní chod 803 dessert .....................................zákusek 803 dine .........................................stolovat 804 marmalade ........................ marmeláda 804 jam...............................................džem 804 pear ...........................................hruška 804 plum .........................................švestka 804 the country ................................krajina 804 rejoice ....................................... těšit se 804 victory..................................... vítězství 804 shave ........................................ holit se 804 razor .......................................... žiletka 804 heal........................................ vyléčit se 805 live (v) ...............................................žít 805 live (adj) ..........................................živý 805 musician ............................... hudebník 805 mild ............................................ mírný 805 remark ................................ poznámka 805 look ............................................. výraz 805 stormy .................................... bouřlivý 805 proof ..........................................důkaz 806 saying ....................................... přísloví 806 trap ................................................past 806 pot ........................................... nádoba 806 cooking pot ................................ hrnec 806 flowerpot ............................... květináč 806 coffee pot .................... kávová konvice 806 teapot........................... čajová konvice 806 in relation to................... v souvislosti s 806 relationship .................................vztah 806 relative ....................................relativní 806 overweight ................................obézní 807 at sea ........................................ u moře 807 by sea ...................................... po moři LESSON 144 809 go past ........................................ míjet 809 nearby ........................................ blízký 810 in season ................................v sezóně 810 out of season .................mimo sezónu 810 thread................................... navéci/nit 810 needle ..........................................jehla 810 sew ................................................... šít 810 compass...................................kompas 810 injection ................................... injekce

810 810 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 812 812 812 812 812 812 813 813 813 813 813 814 814 814 815

agent .......................................... agent agency ...................................agentura title ................................................ titul champion ..................................... vítěz boxer .......................................... boxer enormous ...............................enormní belief ..............................................víra effort ............................................. úsilí stay in touch with.... zůstat v kontaktu tolerate........................................ snést go ahead ...................................jít dále just the same .....................zcela stejně bath .............................................. vana bathe ....................................koupat se sunbathe ........................... opalovat se cheat..................................... podvádět dip .......................................... namočit horizon ...................................horizont horizontal .........................horizontální feed – fed – fed ......................... krmit: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé hay ................................................ seno straw........................................... sláma stem...........................................stonek development ............................... vývoj

LESSON 145 816 preference .......................... preference 816 cuisine .................................... kuchyně 816 style ................................................ styl 816 help yourself ..................samoobsluha 816 can’t help ................ nemoci si pomoci 816 load ................................. náklad/nabít 816 barrel .........................................hlaveň 816 lead ............................... olověná kulka 816 rod ................................................. drát 817 voyage ...... plavba/výprava do vesmíru 817 space ......................................... vesmír 817 tour..................................okružní jízda 817 tourist ........................................ turista 817 pet ................................... domácí zvíře 817 rabbit ...........................................králík 817 run on ...............................fungovat na 817 create ....................................... vyvolat 818 situated .................................umístěný 818 cloth .............................................látka 818 convince .............................. přesvědčit 818 try .............................................. soudit 818 set free ................................ osvobodit 818 relieve ....................................propustit


818 818 818 819 819 819 819 819 819 819 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 821 821 821 821 821 821 822 822 822

relief ............................................ úleva pill ........................................... tabletka painkiller ......................... analgetikum self ............................................... jáství selfish ......................................sobecký self-control ..................... sebekontrola control ....................................kontrola lie – lay – lain ..............................ležet: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé lie – lied – lied .............................. lhát: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé lay – laid – laid ........................ položit: .................... přítomný čas – minulý čas ...................................– příčestí minulé tight............................................ pevný tight-fitting ...........................přiléhavý loose-fitting ................................ volný airtight .......................... vzduchotěsný watertight ...........................vodotěsný container ................................. nádoba aim.................................................... cíl take aim........................................ mířit damp ........................................... vlhký indeed ................................... skutečně emphasis .................................... důraz jaw ................................................čelist ladder .........................................žebřík vertical ...................................vertikální admit ......................................připustit take place ............................... konat se punishment .................................. trest


English–Italian Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Italian vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social..........................................sociale 697 edge ..............bordo, muoversi adagio 697 little by little .................. a poco a poco 697 intend ....................... avere intenzione 697 tin ................lattina, barattolo, stagno 697 preserve.............................. conservare 697 aluminium ............................ alluminio 698 on average .............................in media 699 sympathy ..................... comprensione, ........................................ compassione 700 reckon .... calcolare, credere, supporre 700 airline .................................linea aerea 700 horrible .................................... orribile 700 anxiety..........ansietà, preoccupazione 700 anxious ..............ansioso, preoccupato 700 possession ................... possedimento, .................................... proprietà, bene 701 entertain .......... intrattenere, divertire 701 background................ sfondo, passato 701 apply....applicare(si), fare domanda di 701 highly ...................... molto, altamente 701 the Browns ............. la famiglia Brown, ................................................. i Brown 702 ancient .......................................antico 702 Egypt ..........................................Egitto 702 degree ........................................ grado 702 angle ........................................ angolo 702 right angle ...................... angolo retto 702 grade ............categoria, classe, qualità 702 centigrade ..........................centigrado 702 somewhat ............piuttosto, alquanto 702 at all .......................................... affatto 703 unity ............................................ unità LESSON 128 704 confident..........fiducioso, confidente, .............................................. ottimista 704 now that .............................adesso che 705 agree about ..... essere d’accordo su… 705 agree that ...... essere d’accordo che… 705 agree to ........................ acconsentire a 705 agree with ...... essere d’accordo con… 705 take care .............avere, prendersi cura

705 705 706 706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

run over .................................. investire care for ........prendersi cura di, piacere I dare say .........suppongo, credo (che) daring .......................................audace require ................................. richiedere conserve ............................. conservare eager .......desideroso, avido, bramoso rub .......... strofinare, fregare, sfregare rub out ................................ cancellare rubber ............. gomma per cancellare face .......... essere rivolto, fronteggiare face to face.................... faccia a faccia god ................................................. dio thus .......................... in tal modo, così, .................................... di conseguenza economize................... fare economia, ........................................... risparmiare involve ..............implicare, comportare attack........................................assalire scarcely ............................. a malapena scarce ....................scarso, insufficiente impression ........................ impressione bury ......................................seppellire cemetery ................................ cimitero anger ........................... fare arrabbiare additional ...........................aggiuntivo insult (v)..................................insultare insult (n) ....................................insulto madness .................................... pazzia

LESSON 129 712 afraid of.................................. paura di 712 afraid that ............................paura che 712 afraid to...........................paura di fare 712 crash ........ incidente, scontro, fracasso 712 whiskers .........................baffi, basette 712 gap ..........................apertura, carenza 712 fence......................................... recinto 712 hedge ........................... siepe, barriera 713 hall.................................sala, vestibolo 713 entrance ...................................entrata 713 town hall ..............................municipio 713 pool ...............................pozza, stagno 713 liquid ........................................ liquido


713 indoor.................................all’interno, ............................. al coperto, al chiuso 713 outdoor .............all’aperto, in esterno, ..................................................di fuori 713 indoors ................... in casa, all’interno 713 outdoors............. fuori casa, all’aperto 713 out of doors .................................fuori 714 knee .....................................ginocchio 714 kneel – knelt – knelt ..... inginocchiarsi 714 late .............................ultimo, defunto 714 lately ............. di recente, ultimamente 714 match .......... eguagliare, intonarsi con 714 judo .............................................. judo 715 funeral .................................... funerale 715 mystery .................................... mistero 715 path ........................................ sentiero 715 insure....................................assicurare 715 insurance ........................assicurazione 715 theft ............................................ furto 716 throne .........................................trono 716 annoy .................... seccare, infastidire 716 fly............................................... mosca 716 fall asleep .....................addormentarsi 716 sore....................dolente, infiammato, ........................................... che fa male 716 design (v)................ disegnare, ideare, ............................................ progettare LESSON 130 718 compound ........................... composto 719 currency......................................valuta 719 unit .............................................. unità 719 penny .........................................penny 719 pence..........................................pence 720 slow down ............................ rallentare 720 speed up.............................. accelerare 720 in addition to ............................ oltre a 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. .................................................proibire 720 peculiar ................peculiare, singolare 720 peculiarity .......................... peculiarità 721 suffix ....................................... suffisso 721 either of them ................l’uno o l’altro 721 neither of them ...... né l’uno né l’altro 721 screw ..............................................vite 721 screwdriver ........................... cacciavite 722 maximum .............................. massimo 722 minimum ................................. minimo 722 point ...........................................punto 722 essay ...............saggio, componimento 722 paragraph ........................... paragrafo 722 pad ................. imbottitura, cuscinetto

722 cotton wool .......... batuffolo di cotone 722 absorb ...................................assorbire 722 reach out ........................... stender(si), ....................... sforzarsi di raggiungere 723 scale ..............................................scala 723 corner ....................................... angolo LESSON 131 724 chance ............opportunità, occasione 724 by chance ............................... per caso 725 take hold of .......... prendere, afferrare 725 take by surprise .....................prendere ............................................di sorpresa 725 take a look............... dare un’occhiata, ...................................................vedere 725 second-hand ................seconda mano 725 temptation ......................... tentazione 725 dishonest ..............................disonesto 725 view .......................................... veduta 725 hide – hid – hidden ..........nascondere 726 liar .........................................bugiardo 726 pay attention ............. fare attenzione 726 detail .....................................dettaglio 727 sweat ........................................ sudore 727 nervous ......nervoso, teso, apprensivo 727 underneath ........... al di sotto, di sotto 727 unlike............................ a differenza di 727 wander .....................................vagare, ........................ camminare senza meta 727 distinguish ......................... distinguere 727 a while ............................(per) un poco LESSON 132 729 still .............................................ancora 729 yet..............................................ancora 729 annoyance.............fastidio, irritazione 730 according to .......................... secondo, ................................ conformemente a 730 in my opinion ................... secondo me 730 band ............ orchestra, gruppo, fascia 730 disturbance ...........disturbo, disordine 730 military .................................... militare 731 link................... legame, collegamento 731 browse......dare un’occhiata, curiosare 731 carriage ....................vagone, carrozza 731 invention ............................invenzione 731 explanation ...................... spiegazione 732 about ....... in giro , attorno, intorno, di 732 for days and days ..... per lungo tempo 732 what about (you) ............ che ne pensi 732 bitter ......................................... amaro 732 dissatisfaction ............insoddisfazione 733 neat ............................. ordinato, lindo


733 733 733 733

poverty .................................... povertà admire .................................. ammirare admiration...................... ammirazione generous .............................. generoso

LESSON 133 736 hitchhike ...............................autostop 736 dear ................................ caro, costoso 736 easy ............................................. facile 736 ease ......................facilità, disinvoltura 736 at ease .......................... a proprio agio 736 ill at ease ............................... a disagio 737 to be obliged.............essere obbligato 737 steal ...........................................rubare 737 rob ............................derubare, rubare 737 robbery...................................... rapina 737 thief ............................................. ladro 737 mask ..................................... maschera 738 handle ..............................maneggiare 738 gentle ............................ gentile, dolce 738 hand-in-hand ......... mano nella mano 738 arm-in-arm ......................sottobraccio 738 custom ............................ uso, costume 738 girlfriend ..............ragazza (fidanzata) 738 boyfriend ............ ragazzo (fidanzato) 739 enable ............. mettere in grado di…, .......................................... permettere 739 instruction ........................... istruzione 739 booklet ....................libretto, opuscolo 739 tender........................................tenero 739 tough............................................ duro 739 lovingly .................... affettuosamente, ....................................amorevolmente LESSON 134 741 in my view ........................ secondo me 741 from my point of view .............dal mio ....................................... punto di vista 741 if you ask me ................... per quel che ...........................................mi riguarda 741 as far as I’m concerned ..... per quanto ...........................................mi riguarda 742 clockwise ......................in senso orario 742 anticlockwise......... in senso antiorario 742 symbol .....................................simbolo 742 @ = at....................................chiocciola 742 . = dot .........................................punto 742 inquire (or enquire)............ informarsi, ......................................... fare ricerche 742 inquiry (or enquiry) ............ informarsi, ......................................... fare ricerche 742 escape .......................fuggire, evadere 742 prisoner ............................. prigioniero

743 743 743 743 743 743 743 744 744 744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 746

regret ...............................rimpiangere wipe..................asciugare strofinando forehead.................................... fronte towel ..............................asciugamano interest .................................. interesse shares .........................................azioni tidiness ...................... ordine, lindezza preferable ...........................preferibile largely................................largamente quality ...................................... qualità may as well ...................tanto vale fare ......................qualcosa in mancanza di ...............................alternative migliori might as well ................tanto vale fare ......................qualcosa in mancanza di ...............................alternative migliori on account of ......................a causa di, ...................................... per conto di… energetic ............................ energetico breath ....................................... respiro breathe .................................. respirare out of breath ......................senza fiato through ........................attraverso, per clothing ........vestiario, abbigliamento

LESSON 135 748 to take into account ..........prendere in ..................................... considerazione 748 tip ................................. punta, mancia 748 make up your mind ............... decidersi 748 delicate ....................................delicato 748 observe................................. osservare 748 observation .....................osservazione 749 historic.......................................storico 749 paw ...........................................zampa 749 claw .......................................... artiglio 749 wooden .................................. di legno 749 hut .............................capanna, rifugio 749 woollen .....................................di lana 749 silken ......................................... di seta 749 golden .........................................d’oro 750 every other day ...........a giorni alterni, ..........................un giorno se e uno no 750 assist ......................... assistere, aiutare 750 assistant................................assistente 750 pushchair........................... passeggino 750 otherwise ..................... in altro modo, ..................... altrimenti, diversamente 750 engaged ................................occupato 750 perform ............... fare, rappresentare, ................................................eseguire 750 performance ...........rappresentazione


750 750 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 752 752 752 752 752 752 752 752

trick ............................................trucco magic ........................................magico envy ........................................invidiare envious .................................. invidioso celebrity..................................celebrità fame ............................................ fama advice (n) ............................... consiglio advise (v) ............................ consigliare practice (n) ................................pratica practise (v) ............................. praticare licence (n) ................................. licenza license (v)......... concedere una licenza record (n).......... record, primato, disco record (v) .............................. registrare scatter .............................. sparpagliare plant .......................................... pianta row ....................................... fila, solco disorderly ................disordinatamente tap ............. tambureggiare, rubinetto turn on ....................................... aprire pollution....................... inquinamento polluted ................................inquinato

LESSON 136 754 slight...............................leggero, lieve 754 upside down ........ capovolto, rovescio 754 right way up .... diritto, non al rovescio 755 feather....................................... piuma 755 wear ...................logorare, consumare 755 sleeve........................................ manica 755 mend ................... riparare, aggiustare 755 worn out .............. spossato, distrutto, ............................. consumato, usurato 755 exhausted ............................... esausto 755 qualification ..................qualificazione 755 debt ........................................... debito 756 interrupt .........................interrompere 756 interruption .................... interruzione 756 if only …!........................... magari ….! 756 act ........................................agire; atto 756 capable ..................................... capace 756 bar ............................................. sbarra 756 lock ..........serratura, chiudere a chiave 757 cart ..........................................carretto 757 deceive ................................ingannare 757 complain .............................lamentarsi 757 complaint ............. lamentela, reclamo 758 either side .................... ambedue i lati 758 faint ............................svenire, leggero 758 excitement ........................ eccitazione 758 fear ............................................. paura 759 happen to .............. accadere, capitare

759 outwards ......................verso l’esterno 759 inwards......................... verso l’interno 759 lean.................. pendere, appoggiarsi, ...............................................sporgersi 759 beneath ................................al di sotto 759 give way ..........cedere sotto pressione 759 mankind ................................. umanità 759 mate ................................... compagno 760 zoo..................................................zoo 760 cage .......................................... gabbia 760 monkey ...................................scimmia 760 ape ..........................................scimmia 760 closely ............................. strettamente LESSON 137 761 it is not so ............................ non è cosí 761 so, you have come! ................... allora, ............................................sei venuto! 761 it so happens .... guarda caso, per caso 761 I told you so...............te l’avevo detto! 761 just (exactly) .................... esattamente 761 melt .....................sciogliersi, liquefarsi 761 have something to do with … ............. .............. qualcosa a che vedere con…. 762 pick at ..................................spiluccare, ....................... mangiare di malavoglia 762 pick out ................................. scegliere 762 regard................................considerare 762 regards ........................................ saluti 762 greet ........................................salutare 762 greetings ..................................... saluti 762 bye-bye .............................. arrivederci 762 see you ............................... arrivederci 762 scent ...................................... profumo 762 give off ............................dare, esalare 763 welcome ................. prego, benvenuto 763 go right ...........................andare bene 763 temper....................................... collera 763 lose one’s temper .... andare in collera 763 thoughtful..........................pensieroso 763 go bad ..........andare a male, guastarsi 763 by now.......adesso, a quest’ora, ormai 764 warn ....................avvertire, ammonire 764 ahead .........................................avanti 764 triangle ................................. triangolo 764 mercy ........................................... pietà 764 desire .................................. desiderare 764 ignore .....................................ignorare 765 upright .......................................eretto 765 lung ....................................... polmone 765 organ ........................................organo 765 seldom ......................................organo


765 work out................calcolare, risolvere, ...................................... esercizio fisico 765 confusion ...........................confusione 765 electrical ................................. elettrico 766 advance ................................. avanzare 766 step by step ...........un passo alla volta, ...................................... gradualmente 766 progress ................................ avanzare 766 in advance ...........................in anticipo 766 in arrears ........................... in arretrato 766 cuff ...........................................polsino 766 preparation ....................preparazione 767 valley ............................................ valle 767 injustice ...............................Ingiustizia LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten ...................mordere 768 bare .............................nudo, scoperto 768 weapon ....................................... arma 768 barely ................ appena, a mala pena 768 go back.................................. ritornare 768 come back ............................. ritornare 768 go in .........................................entrare 768 come in .....................................entrare 768 return .................................... ritornare 768 enter .........................................entrare 768 descend ................................. scendere 768 overcome............................... superare 768 go down ................................ scendere 768 come down ........................... scendere 769 case.....................................caso, causa 769 barrister........... avvocato patrocinante 770 (just) in case............................casomai, ......................................nel caso che … 770 risk ............................................. rischio 770 run a risk.................. correre un rischio 770 excuse (v)..................................scusare 770 excuse (n) .................................... scusa 771 waist ...............................................vita 771 waistcoat ...................... panciotto, gilè 771 fancy ........................... immaginare(si), ................................... figurarsi, vedere 771 pint .............................................. pinta 771 gallon ...................................... gallone 771 litre ................................................ litro 772 jealous .......................................geloso 772 jealousy .................................... gelosia 772 go out with ...........stare con qualcuno ...........................(relazione romantica) 772 fortune .................................... fortuna 772 fortunate .............................. fortunato 772 international ................internazionale

772 772 772 773 773

mine ........................................ miniera miner .....................................minatore tend .........................avere la tendenza content (n) ..........................contenuto content (v or adj) .......... accontentare, ............................. appagare, contento 773 witness (v) ........................... testimone LESSON 139 775 rid .........................liberare, sbarazzare 775 get rid of .............liberarsi, sbarazzarsi 775 above all ............................ soprattutto 775 sharp ........................................affilato 775 blunt ................non affilato, senza filo 775 sharpen ....................................affilare 775 grind – ground – ground .................... ...............macinare, macinai, macinato 775 flour............................................ farina 775 wheat ....................... grano, frumento 776 harm ................ danneggiare, nuocere 776 harmful ................................. dannoso 776 harmless ................................. innocuo 776 creature .................................. creatura 777 iron ..................... stirare, ferro da stiro 777 extreme .................................. estremo 777 reduce ...................................... ridurre 777 likely .....................................probabile 777 unlikely .............................improbabile 778 do someone a favour ....fare un favore 778 That’s all right ............. prego, va bene 778 Not at all ............. prego, non del tutto 778 It’s nothing .................................prego 778 You’re welcome ................ non è nulla 778 Don’t mention it ........................prego 778 No problem ..............nessun problema 778 up ............... (suffisso) completamente 778 tear – tore – torn ................. strappare 779 cheek .......................................guancia 779 cheeky ................................... sfacciato 779 pile................. mucchio, ammucchiare, ................................................ impilare 779 one on top of the other ...... uno sopra ................................................... l’altro 779 heap .........................mucchio, cumulo 780 point ...........................................punto 780 freeze – froze – frozen ....... congelare 780 nought ............................. zero, niente 780 zero ...............................................zero 780 Fahrenheit .......................... Fahrenheit 780 insect ........................................ insetto 780 itch............................. prudere, prurito 780 scratch ..................... grattare, grattarsi


780 scrape ..................... grattare, raschiare 781 opposition ........................opposizione LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better...................... ................................. prima è, meglio è 782 responsible ...................... responsabile 782 council .............. consiglio (municipale) 782 scream ........................................... urlo 782 fright .....................................spavento 782 frighten ..............................spaventare 782 horror ........................................ orrore 783 mean ........................cattivo, malvagio 783 thoughtless ........................ irriflessivo, ..................................... senza riguardo 783 pale .......................................... pallido 783 sickness................................... malattia 784 light – lit – lit ...................... accendere, ........................................accesi, acceso 784 candle ...................................... candela 784 failure ..insuccesso, mancanza, guasto 784 upset ................sconvolto, addolorato 784 feel upset ...sentirsi sconvolto, agitato 784 terribly ............................ terribilmente 785 wreck ...........provocare il naufragio di, .............distruggere; naufragio, relitto 785 misfortune..............................sventura 785 shipwreck .............................naufragio 785 sale .......................................... vendita 785 for sale ..................................in vendita 785 sales ......................................... vendite 785 advertisement ...................... annuncio ......................................... pubblicitario 785 commercial ...................... commerciale 785 rival ..............................................rivale 786 over ................................... più di, oltre 786 basement ....... interrato, seminterrato 787 bargain .... mercanteggiare, negoziare 787 caution ................... cautela, prudenza 787 cautiously ..................prudentemente, ....................................... con prudenza 788 rapid .......................................... rapido LESSON 141 789 deliver ............ recapitare, consegnare 789 mail............................. corrispondenza 789 beforehand .........................in anticipo 789 critic ............................................critico 789 expect ................. aspettare, attendere 789 rely on ................. fare affidamento su 790 fast ....................................saldamente 790 fasten ....................... allacciare, legare 790 take off ..................................decollare

790 porter ..................................... portiere 791 a fifty-minute lesson.....una lezione di ..................................cinquanta minuti 791 a four-door car .....................un’auto a ....................................... quattro porte 791 jog ................................... fare jogging 791 overnight................... tutt’ad un tratto 791 lifestyle ............................... stile di vita 792 mere .............................semplice, puro 792 nuisance ................. fastidio, seccatura 792 post .............................. pilastro, posto 792 doorpost .................stipite della porta 792 goal ....................porta meta obiettivo 792 dig – dug – dug .......................scavare 792 postage ............................affrancatura 793 naughty .....................cattivo, birichino 793 punish........................................ punire 793 fold .......................................... piegare 793 native......................................... nativo 793 treasure ..................................... tesoro 793 receipt .....................................ricevuta 793 prove ....................................... provare LESSON 142 795 excuse me.............. mi scusi, scusatemi 795 I’m sorry .........scusi, scusa, mi dispiace 796 wealthy ....................ricco, benestante 796 disaster ....................................disastro 796 flood ......................................alluvione 796 then ................ allora, poi, in quel caso 796 urge ......................... incitare, spingere 797 affair .......................... affare, faccenda 797 love affair .............. relazione amorosa 798 charm ................................affascinare, .........................incantare, incantesimo 798 charming ..........................affascinante 798 musical ...................................musicale 798 snake ..................................... serpente 798 snake charmer................... incantatore ............................................ di serpenti 798 instrument ..........................strumento 799 latest................................il più recente 799 last ............................................. ultimo 799 last but one .........................penultimo 799 blackboard ..............................lavagna 799 whiteboard ................. lavagna bianca 799 chalk ........................................... gesso 799 eyebrow ........................... sopracciglio 799 eyelash ........................................ ciglio 799 eyelid ..................................... palpebra 799 lid..........................................coperchio 799 pan .......................................... pentola


800 800 800 800 800 800 800 801

favour ...................................... favorire yacht ............................................ yacht hinder .................intralciare, rallentare clothe ..................... vestire, abbigliarsi endless ........ interminabile, senza fine bunch ............fascio, mazzo, grappolo grape .............................................. uva revolution .......................... rivoluzione

LESSON 143 802 resist ....................................... resistere 802 resistance ............................ resistenza 803 substantial ..........................sostanziale 803 bacon .................................... pancetta 803 toast ................................pane tostato 803 fry – fried – fried ................... friggere 803 approximate................approssimativo 803 course ...........................portata, piatto 803 starter ................................... antipasto 803 main course ...............piatto principale 803 dessert .........................................dolce 803 dine .......................... pranzare, cenare 804 marmalade ....... marmellata di agrumi 804 jam..................................... marmellata 804 pear .............................................. pera 804 plum .........................................prugna 804 the country ............il paese, la nazione 804 rejoice ........................gioire, fare festa 804 victory....................................... vittoria 804 shave ......................................... radere 804 razor ...........................................rasoio 804 heal.......................guarire, cicatrizzare 805 live (v) ........................... vivere, abitare 805 live (adj) ........................... vivo, vivente 805 musician ................................musicista 805 mild ............. mite, delicato, moderato 805 remark .........commento, osservazione 805 look .........................sguardo, occhiata 805 stormy ................................ burrascoso 805 proof .......................................... prova 806 saying ........detto, massima, proverbio 806 trap .........................................trappola 806 pot ..................................vaso, tegame 806 cooking pot ............................. pentola 806 flowerpot .........................vaso da fiori 806 coffee pot ............................caffettiera 806 teapot......................................... teiera 806 in relation to...................in relazione a 806 relationship ........................... rapporto 806 relative .................................... relativo 806 overweight ........................ sovrappeso 807 at sea ....................................... in mare

807 by sea ....................................per mare LESSON 144 809 go past .................................... passare 809 nearby ..................... vicino, nella zona 810 in season ............................di stagione 810 out of season ................fuori stagione 810 thread................................infilare, filo 810 needle ........................................... ago 810 sew ............................................. cucire 810 compass................................... bussola 810 injection ................................iniezione 810 agent ........................................ agente 810 agency .....................................agenzia 811 title ..............................................titolo 811 champion .............................campione 811 boxer ......................................... pugile 811 enormous ................................enorme 811 belief .......................... fede, credenza, ..........................................convinzione 811 effort ..........................................sforzo 811 stay in touch with..................tenersi in ......................................... contatto con 812 tolerate...................................tollerare 812 go ahead .procedere col fare qualcosa 812 just the same .................... in ogni caso 812 bath ........................................... bagno 812 bathe ......................................bagnarsi 812 sunbathe .....................prendere il sole 813 cheat................. ingannare; imbroglio, ........... inganno, tranello, truffa, frode 813 dip ................... immergere, abbassare 813 horizon ................................. orizzonte 813 horizontal .......................... orizzontale 813 feed – fed – fed ....................... nutrire 814 hay ............................................... fieno 814 straw...........................................paglia 814 stem..............................................stelo 815 development .......................... sviluppo LESSON 145 816 preference ..........................preferenza 816 cuisine ....................................... cucina 816 style ............................................... stile 816 help yourself ............... servirsi, aiutare 816 can’t help ............... poter fare a meno 816 load .................... carico, peso, caricare 816 barrel ...............................barile, canna 816 lead ......................................... piombo 816 rod ................... sbarra, bacchetta asta, .....................................canna da pesca 817 voyage ......................................viaggio 817 space ......................................... spazio


817 817 817 817 817 817 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 819 819 819 819 819 819 819 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 821 821 821 821 821 821 822 822 822

tour................................................ giro tourist ........................................ turista pet .........................animale domestico rabbit .......................................coniglio run on .............................. andare a … , .......................... essere alimentato con create .........................................creare situated .................................... situato cloth ............................ tessuto, stoffa, .............................. panno, strofinaccio convince ............................. convincere try ............. giudicare, provare, tentare set free .................................... liberare relieve ................. alleviare, soccorrere, ...............................................sostituire relief ........................................ sollievo pill ...............................................pillola painkiller ....................... antidolorifico self ..............................stesso, se stesso selfish .......................................egoista self-control .................... autocontrollo control ................................... controllo lie – lay – lain ............ sdraiare, sdraiai, ................................................ sdraiato lie – lied – lied ........... mentire, mentii, .................................................mentito lay – laid – laid .............. posare, posai, .................................................. posato tight...........................................stretto tight-fitting ...........................aderente loose-fitting ................................ largo airtight .........................a tenuta d’aria watertight ................ a tenuta d’acqua container ...........................contenitore aim.......... scopo, fine, mirare, puntare take aim.....................prendere la mira damp ......................................... umido indeed .................... infatti, veramente emphasis ....................................enfasi jaw ..........................................mascella ladder ................................ scala a pioli vertical .................................... verticale admit .............. ammettere, far entrare take place ..........avere luogo, avvenire punishment ......................... punizione


English–Japanese Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Japanese vocabulary LESSON 127 697 697 697 697 697 697 697 698 699 700 700 700 700 700 700 701 701 701 701 701 702 702 702 702 702 702 702 702 702 703

social.............................................. edge .............. little by little .................................. intend ............................................ tin ....................................... preserve......................................... aluminium .............................. on average .................................... sympathy .............................................. reckon .................................... airline ............................................ horrible................................... anxiety.................................................. anxious ....................................... possession ......................................... entertain ....................................... background.......................................... apply............................ .................................. highly ................................................ the Browns ...................... ancient .............................................. Egypt ............................................. degree .............. angle .................................................... right angle............................................ grade .................................................... centigrade ............................................ somewhat ..................................... at all ........................................ unity .....................................................

LESSON 128 704 704 705 705 705 705 705 705 705 706

confident................................ now that ................................. agree about ................ agree that .......... agree to ....................... agree with ......................... take care ................... run over ......................................... care for .......................................... I dare say ............................

706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

daring ..................................... require ........................................ conserve ..................................... eager ................................................. rub .......................................... rub out ........................ rubber ........................................... face ..................................... face to face............................. god ........................................................... thus .......................... economize..................................... involve ................................ attack............................................. scarcely ............................... scarce ................................................. impression .................................. bury ................................................... cemetery .............................................. anger .................................................... additional .......................................... insult (v)......................................... insult (n) ..................................... madness ...............................................

LESSON 129 712 afraid of............................................. 712 afraid that ............ .................................. 712 afraid to........................... 712 crash ..................................................... 712 whiskers ............................................... 712 gap ........................... 712 fence......................................................... 712 hedge ................................................... 713 hall.......................................... 713 entrance ............................................ 713 town hall ........................................... 713 pool ........................................ 713 liquid .................................................... 713 indoor................................................ 713 outdoor ............................................. 713 indoors .............................................. 713 outdoors............................................


713 714 714 714 714 714 714 715 715 715 715 715 715 716 716 716 716 716 716

out of doors ...................................... knee ..................................................... kneel - knelt - knelt ........ late ............................................. lately ..................................................... match ................... judo ...................................................... funeral .................................................. mystery ....................................... path ...................................................... insure...................................... insurance .............................................. theft ..................................................... throne .................................................. annoy ................................. fly.......................................................... fall asleep ................................... sore ..................................... design (v)................................

LESSON 130 718 719 719 719 719 720 720 720 720 720 720 721 721 721 721 721 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 723 723

compound ......................................... currency................................................ unit ....................................................... penny ................................................ pence ................................................. slow down .............................. speed up........................................ in addition to .................................... forbid – forbade – forbidden ........... peculiar .............................. peculiarity .................................. suffix.................................................. either of them .................... neither of them ............... screw .................................................... screwdriver .................................... maximum ...................................... minimum ....................................... point .............................................. essay .................................................. paragraph ............................................ pad ........................... cotton wool ................................... absorb ........................................... reach out .................................... scale .................................... corner ..............................

LESSON 131 724 chance ............................. 724 by chance .......................................... 725 take hold of .......................................

725 725 725 725 725 725 725 726 726 726 727 727 727 727 727 727 727

take by surprise .......................... take a look.................................. second-hand ..................................... temptation ........................................... dishonest ....................................... view ...................................................... hide – hid – hidden .......................... liar ................................................. pay attention ................................ detail .................................................... sweat ............................................. nervous ......................................... underneath ................................... unlike...................................... wander ........................ distinguish ..................................... a while ...........................................

LESSON 132 729 still ................. ................................................ 729 yet......................................................... 729 annoyance..................................... 730 according to ........................... .......................... 730 in my opinion ......................... 730 band .......... 730 disturbance .......................................... 730 military .............................................. 731 link ...................................... 731 browse...................... ............................................ 731 carriage ........................... 731 invention .............................................. 731 explanation .......................................... 732 about .................................. 732 for days and days .............................. 732 what about (you) ............... 732 bitter .......................................... 732 dissatisfaction ...................................... 733 neat ............................................ 733 poverty ................................................. 733 admire ........................................... 733 admiration............................................ 733 generous ............................

LESSON 133 736 736 736 736 736 736

hitchhike ..................... dear .................. easy ...................................................... ease ................................. at ease ............................................... ill at ease ................................


737 737 737 737 737 737 738 738 738 738 738 738 738 739 739 739 739 739 739

to be obliged...................... steal ...................................................... rob ........................................................ robbery................................................. thief ...................................................... mask ..................................................... handle .................................... gentle .............................. hand-in-hand .................... arm-in-arm ................................ custom .................................................. girlfriend ............................ boyfriend ........................... enable ................................ instruction .................................. booklet ................................................. tender............ tough.................................................... lovingly ...................................

LESSON 134 741 741 741 741 742 742 742 742 742 742 742 742 742 743 743 743 743 743 743 743 744 744 744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745

in my view .............................. from my point of view .... if you ask me ...................... as far as I’m concerned ................................ .............................. clockwise ......................... anticlockwise............... symbol .................................................. @ = at ...................................... . = dot ................................................ inquire (or enquire)........................... inquiry (or enquiry) ....................... escape ........................................... prisoner ................................................ regret ................................................... wipe...................................................... forehead................................................... towel ................................................. interest ....................................... shares ....................................................... tidiness ........................ preferable ..................................... largely............................................ quality .................................................. may as well ...................... might as well ................... on account of ............................. energetic ......................... breath ....................................................... breathe .......................................... out of breath ..........................

745 through ...................................... 746 clothing ................................................

LESSON 135 748 748 748 748 748 748 749 749 749 749 749 749 749 749 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 751 752 752 752 752 752 752 752 752

to take into account ........ tip .................................... make up your mind ....................... delicate ....................................... observe .......................................... observation .......................................... historic .................................... paw ............................................... claw ............................................... wooden ............................................. hut ........................................................ woollen ............................................. silken .......................................... golden ............................................... every other day .......................... assist .................................................. assistant................................................ pushchair.................................... otherwise ...... engaged ...................... perform .................................. performance ........................................ trick ...................................................... magic .................................................... envy .................................... envious ................................... celebrity............................................. fame ..................................................... advice (n) .................................... advise (v) ............................ practice (n) ........................................... practise (v) ..................................... licence (n) ................................... license (v).................. record (n) ............................ record (v) ..................... scatter ............ plant .................................................. row ........................................................... disorderly ........................ tap ................................... turn on ................... pollution............................................... polluted ......................................

LESSON 136 754 slight....... 754 upside down ................................. 754 right way up ...........................


755 755 755 755 755 755 755 755 756 756 756 756 756 756 756 757 757 757 757 758 758 758 758 759 759 759 759 759 759 759 759 760 760 760 760 760

feather...................................................... wear ........................................... sleeve........................................................ mend ............................................. worn out .................. exhausted .............................. qualification ......................................... debt ...................................................... interrupt ............................. interruption ......................................... if only …! ................... act ....................................... capable ........................ bar .................... ................ lock ......................................... cart .................................................... deceive .............................................. complain .................................... complaint ........................ either side ......................................... faint ............................. excitement ........................................... fear ....................................................... happen to............................... outwards ........................................... inwards.............................................. lean.................................. beneath ............................................. give way ............................................ mankind ............................................... mate ..................................................... zoo..................................................... cage ...................................................... monkey ................................................ ape .................................................... closely ................................................

LESSON 137 761 it is not so ............................... 761 so, you have come! .................... ................................................ 761 it so happens ................................. 761 I told you so .......... 761 just (exactly) .................................. 761 melt ................................................... 761 have something to do with … ................... ............................................ 762 pick at .......................... 762 pick out ......................................... 762 regard................................................ 762 regards .....................

762 762 762 762 762 762 763 763 763 763 763 763 763 764 764 764 764 764 764 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 766 766 766 766 766 766 766 767 767

greet .............................................. greetings .............................................. bye-bye ......................................... see you .............................................. scent ..................................................... give off ................................................. welcome ...................... go right ...................................... temper........................................ lose one’s temper ......................... thoughtful.................................. go bad ...................... by now........................................ warn .............................................. ahead ..................................... triangle .............................................. mercy .................................................... desire .......................................... ignore ............................................ upright .............................................. lung .......................................................... organ .................................................... seldom ................................ work out................................. confusion ............................................. electrical ............................................ advance ...................................... step by step ........................ progress ............................................... in advance ..................................... in arrears ....................................... cuff ....................................................... preparation .......................................... valley .................................................... injustice .............................................

LESSON 138 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 769

bite - bit - bitten .................................. bare ............... weapon ................................................ barely ................................. go back....................................... come back .................................. go in ........................................... come in ....................................... return ................................................... enter ..................................................... descend ............................................. overcome....................................... go down ........................................ come down ................................... case.......................................................


769 770 770 770 770 770 771 771 771 771 771 771 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 773 773 773

barrister...................................... (just) in case................................... risk ........................................................ run a risk..................................... excuse (v)..................... excuse (n) ............................... waist .............................................. waistcoat ....................................... fancy .............. pint ............................... gallon ............................. litre ................................................ jealous ........................................... jealousy ............................................. go out with ............................ fortune ....................................... fortunate ........................................... international ................................. mine ..................................................... miner .......................................... tend .................................... content (n) ........................................... content (v or adj) ........ witness (v) .....................................

LESSON 139 775 775 775 775 775 775 775 775 775 776 776 776 776 777 777 777 777 777 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778

rid .................................................. get rid of ................................ above all ........................................ sharp .................................................... blunt ....................................... sharpen ......................................... grind – ground – ground .................... flour................................................... wheat ................................................... harm ................................... harmful ............................................. harmless ............................................ creature ............................................. iron .................................. extreme ............................................. reduce ............................................... likely ............................ unlikely ............................... do someone a favour ......... That’s all right ............................ Not at all ............................. It’s nothing ...................... You’re welcome ................. Don’t mention it ................ No problem ... up .........................

778 779 779 779 779 779 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 781

tear – tore – torn .......................... cheek ........................................................ cheeky ........................................... pile.............................................. one on top of the other ............. heap ................................ point .............................................. freeze – froze – frozen ........................ nought ................................................. zero ...................................................... Fahrenheit ............................................ insect .................................................... itch..................................................... scratch ........................................... scrape ................... opposition ..............................

LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better.............................. .................................. 782 responsible ........... 782 council ........................................... 782 scream ................................ 782 fright .................................................... 782 frighten ............................................. 782 horror ............................................ 783 mean ............................... 783 thoughtless ........................ 783 pale................................................ 783 sickness................................................. 784 light – lit – lit ............ 784 candle ............................................ 784 failure ......................................... 784 upset .................................. .......................... 784 feel upset ........................ 784 terribly ............................................... 785 wreck .......................................... 785 misfortune............................................ 785 shipwreck ............................................. 785 sale ....................................................... 785 for sale ............................. 785 sales ................................. 785 advertisement ...................................... 785 commercial ............................. 785 rival ................................................ 786 over ............................................... 786 basement .......................................... 787 bargain .......... 787 caution .......................................... 787 cautiously ...................................... 788 rapid .....................................................


LESSON 141 789 789 789 789 789 789 790 790 790 791 791 791 791 791 792 792 792 792 792 792 792 793 793 793 793 793 793 793

deliver .............. mail.................................................... beforehand ....................................... critic ................................................... expect ............... .................................................... rely on ........................................ fast ............................................. fasten ................................................ porter ............................................ a fifty-minute lesson .............. a four-door car ................................ jog ...................................... overnight.................................... lifestyle ............................... mere .................................................. nuisance ........................................ post ............................................... doorpost..................................... goal ............................. dig – dug – dug ............................ postage ......................................... naughty ...................................... punish................................................ fold ............................................. native................................................. treasure ................................................ receipt ............................................... prove .............................................

LESSON 142 795 795 796 796 796 796 796 797 797 798 798 798 798 798 798 799 799 799 799 799

excuse me......... I’m sorry ........... wealthy.............................................. disaster ................................................. flood ..................................................... then ........ urge ...................................................... affair ..................................................... love affair ...................................... charm ................... charming ....................................... musical ................................... snake .................................................... snake charmer............................... instrument ................................. latest.................................................. last ...................................... last but one ...................... blackboard ........................................... whiteboard ........................

799 799 799 799 799 799 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 801

chalk ..................................................... eyebrow ............................................... eyelash .............................................. eyelid ................................................. lid.......................................................... pan ....................................................... favour ........ yacht .................................................. hinder ................................................ clothe ................................. endless ....................................... bunch ................................................ grape ................................................. revolution .............................................

LESSON 143 802 802 803 803 803 803 803 803 803 803 803 803 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 806 806 806 806 806 806

resist .............................................. resistance ............................................. substantial ......................................... bacon ............................................ toast .............................................. fry – fried – fried...... approximate.................................. course ......................................... starter ............ main course ................................ dessert ........................................... dine ............................................ marmalade ............................. jam..................................................... pear ............................................... plum ........................................... the country ................................. rejoice ................................. victory................................................... shave .......................................... razor .............................................. heal....................................................... live (v) ................................................ live (adj) .................... musician ............................. mild ........... remark .................................................. look ................................................... stormy .................................................. proof .................................................... saying ............................................ trap .................................. pot ...................................... cooking pot ................................ flowerpot .......................................... coffee pot ...........................


806 806 806 806 806 807 807

teapot..................................... in relation to............................... relationship .......................................... relative .......................................... overweight .................................... at sea ............................... by sea ...................................................

LESSON 144 809 809 810 810 810 810 810 810 810 810 810 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 812 812 812 812 812 812 813 813 813 813 813 814 814 814 815

go past ....................................... nearby ........................................ in season .............................................. out of season ............................. thread....................................................... needle ...................................................... sew .................................. compass......................................... injection ............................................ agent ...................................... agency ............................................... title ..................................... champion ............................... boxer ............................................. enormous ............................... belief .................................................... effort .......................................... stay in touch with ............... tolerate.............................................. go ahead .................. just the same ...................... bath ...................................................... bathe ...................................... sunbathe .................................... cheat.............. dip .......................................... horizon .............................................. horizontal .......................................... feed – fed – fed ......................... hay ..................................................... straw..................................................... stem.......................................................... development ........................................

LESSON 145 816 816 816 816 816 816 816 816

preference ............................................ cuisine .................................................. style ............................................... help yourself ............ ................................................ can’t help ............. load .................................... barrel .................................................... lead...........................................................

816 817 817 817 817 817 817 817 817 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 819 819 819 819 819 819 819 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 821 821 821 821 821 821 822 822 822

rod ..................................................... voyage ................................ space ................................................. tour.................................................... tourist ................................................ pet ..................................................... rabbit ................................................. run on ............................................ create ......................................... situated .................................. cloth ..................................................... convince ................................. try ........................................... set free ....................................... relieve ............ relief ................................... pill ......................................................... painkiller ....................................... self ................................................. selfish ............... .................................................... self-control ........................................... control ............................. lie – lay – lain ................................ lie – lied – lied ............................ lay – laid – laid ................... tight............................................ tight-fitting ................. loose-fitting ........................... airtight .......................................... watertight .............................. container .............................................. aim........................................................ take aim.................................. damp ................................................. indeed ............................................... emphasis ....................................... jaw ........................................................ ladder ................................................ vertical ............................................... admit ................ take place ...................................... punishment ..........................................


English–Polish Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Polish vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social................................... towarzyski 697 edge ......................................krawędź, ....................... poruszać się stopniowo 697 little by little .........................po trochu 697 intend .................................. zamierzać 697 tin .................................... puszka, cyna 697 preserve......................... konserwować 697 aluminium .......................... aluminium 698 on average ...............................średnio 699 sympathy ..........................współczucie 700 reckon ................ sądzić, przypuszczać 700 airline .............................. linie lotnicze 700 horrible .................................. okropny 700 anxiety..................... trwoga, niepokój 700 anxious ................pragnący coś zrobić, ............................................ zatroskany 700 possession ................. własność (rzecz) 701 entertain .............................. zabawiać 701 background...................tło, przeszłość 701 apply......................... składać podanie, ...........................................zastosować 701 highly .......................................wysoce 701 the Browns ........................ Brownowie 702 ancient ................................starożytny 702 Egypt ........................................... Egipt 702 degree ..................................... stopień 702 angle ...............................................kąt 702 right angle ...........................kąt prosty 702 grade ..........................................ocena 702 centigrade ....................skala Celsjusza 702 somewhat ................................... nieco 702 at all ........................................ w ogóle 703 unity ........................................ jedność LESSON 128 704 confident...................................pewny 704 now that ........................... teraz, skoro 705 agree about ..........................uzgodnić 705 agree that ................. zgodzić się, że... 705 agree to .........................zgodzić się na 705 agree with ...................zgadzać się z ... 705 take care ......... uważać, opiekować się 705 run over .......... przejechać (coś, kogoś)

705 706 706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

care for ............................... przepadać I dare say ...................Śmiem twierdzić daring ......................śmiałość, odwaga require .................................. wymagać conserve ............................ oszczędzać eager ...................................... ochoczy rub ................................................trzeć rub out ..................................wymazać rubber .................. gumka do mazania face ................. wychodzić na (o oknie) face to face................. twarzą w twarz god ................................................ bóg thus ................................ więc, takowo economize......................... oszczędzać involve ............wiazać z, zaangażować attack.................................... atakować scarcely .................................. zaledwie scarce ....................rzadki, ograniczony impression .............................wrażenie bury .....................zakopać, pogrzebać cemetery .............................. cmentarz anger ......................................... złościć additional .......................... dodatkowy insult (v)....................................obrazić insult (n) ................................... obraza madness .............................szaleństwo

LESSON 129 712 afraid of............. przestraszony czegoś 712 afraid that ................przestraszony, że 712 afraid to........ przestraszony coś zrobić 712 crash ..... katastrofa lotnicza, wypadek 712 whiskers ............................ wąsy (kota) 712 gap ................................... szpara, luka 712 fence.............................................. płot 712 hedge ................................... żywopłot 713 hall........................................... hol/sala 713 entrance ................................... wejście 713 town hall ....................................ratusz 713 pool ............................... kałuża, basen 713 liquid ............................................ciecz 713 indoor.............................. wewnętrzny 713 outdoor .............................zewnętrzny 713 indoors ................................ wewnątrz


713 713 714 714 714 714 714 714 715 715 715 715 715 715 716 716 716 716 716 716

outdoors...........................na zewnątrz out of doors .....................na zewnątrz knee ......................................... kolano kneel – knelt – knelt ............. uklęknąć late ................. poprzedni, św. pamięci lately ....................................... ostatnio match ............................... dopasować, ...................... godny przeciwnik, mecz judo ........................................... dżudo funeral ....................................pogrzeb mystery .................................tajemnica path .......................................... ścieżka insure................................ubezpieczyć insurance ...................... ubezpieczenie theft .......................................kradzieź throne ...........................................tron annoy ............................. denerwować fly...............................................mucha fall asleep .................................. zasnąć sore............................................ bolący design .............................. projektować

LESSON 130 718 compound ............................... złożony 719 currency.................................... waluta 719 unit .......................................jednostka 719 penny ........................................... pens 719 pence............................................ pens 720 slow down ............................... zwolnić 720 speed up...........................przyspieszyć 720 in addition to ........................... oprócz 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. ................................................zabronić 720 peculiar ....................dziwny, osobliwy 720 peculiarity ..........................osobliwość 721 suffix .................................. przyrostek 721 either of them ...... którykolwiek z nich 721 neither of them ............... żaden z nich 721 screw ...........................................śruba 721 screwdriver ...........................śrubokręt 722 maximum ...........................maksimum 722 minimum .............................. minimum 722 point .................................. sens, punkt 722 essay .............................................. esej 722 paragraph ................................. akapit 722 pad ...........................kłębek, wyścielać 722 cotton wool ..................................wata 722 absorb ................................. wchłaniać 722 reach out ....................................sięgać 723 scale ..............................................skala 723 corner ...................................... osaczyć

LESSON 131 724 chance ....................................... szansa 724 by chance ...................... przypadkiem, ....................................... przypadkowo 725 take hold of ............ chwycić się czegoś 725 take by surprise ......... zaskoczyć kogoś 725 take a look............................... zerknąć 725 second-hand ......................... używany 725 temptation ...............................pokusa 725 dishonest ............................nieuczciwy 725 view ............................................widok 725 hide – hid – hidden .........chować (się) 726 liar ............................................ kłamca 726 pay attention ......................... uważać, .................................... zwracać uwagę 726 detail ............................detal, szczegół 727 sweat ...................................... pocić się 727 nervous ...................... zdenerwowany 727 underneath ....... pod spodem, poniżej 727 unlike...................................inaczej niż 727 wander ...........wędrować, spacerować 727 distinguish ............................ rozróżnić 727 a while ....................................... chwila LESSON 132 729 still ................................. jeszcze, wciąż 729 yet.......................................jeszcze, już 729 annoyance............................... irytacja, .................................. zniecierpliwienie 730 according to ............................ według 730 in my opinion .............. moim zdaniem 730 band .................. banda, zespół, pasek 730 disturbance ........................ zakłócenie 730 military ................................ wojskowa 731 link............................... powiąznie, link 731 browse................................przeglądać 731 carriage ........................wagon, karoca 731 invention ....................... wynalezienie, ............................................ wynalazek 731 explanation .................wytłumaczenie 732 about ............... o, na, dookoła, wokół, ............................ po całym (i tak dalej) 732 for days and days ......... całymi dniami, .................................................... długo 732 what about (you) ....co (ty) na to, a ty? 732 bitter ......................................... gorzki 732 dissatisfaction ........... niezadowolenie 733 neat ....................................... schludny 733 poverty .................................. ubóstwo 733 admire ................................. podziwiać 733 admiration............................... podziw 733 generous .....................................hojny


LESSON 133 736 hitchhike ..................... jeździć stopem 736 dear ............................................. drogi 736 easy ............................ łatwy, wygodny 736 ease ........................łatwość, złagodzić 736 at ease ............................... swobodnie 736 ill at ease ............................... nieswojo 737 to be obliged.........być zobowiązanym 737 steal ............................................. kraść 737 rob ............................................. okraść 737 robbery...................................kradzież 737 thief ......................................... złodziej 737 mask .......................................... maska 738 handle .....klamka, uchwyt, operować, ........................................obchodzić się 738 gentle ....................................delikatny 738 hand-in-hand ...................ręka w rękę 738 arm-in-arm ........................... pod rękę 738 custom ..................................... zwyczaj 738 girlfriend ...........................dziewczyna 738 boyfriend ................................chłopak 739 enable ............. umożliwić, upoważnić 739 instruction ............................instrukcja 739 booklet ................................książeczka 739 tender..............................miękki, czuły 739 tough............................twardy, mocny 739 lovingly .......................czule, z miłością LESSON 134 741 in my view .........w moim przekonaniu 741 from my point of view ......... z mojego .................................. punktu widzenia 741 if you ask me .................. według mnie 741 as far as I’m concerned .......jak o mnie .................................................. chodzi 742 clockwise ............................zgodnie ze ...........................wskazówkami zegara 742 anticlockwise...................... odwrotnie ......................... do wskazówek zegara 742 symbol ...................................... symbol 742 @ = at ........................................ małpa 742 . = dot ....................................... kropka 742 inquire (or enquire)................ zapytać, ................................... dowiadywać się 742 inquiry (or enquiry) .............zapytanie, ........................................ dochodzenie 742 escape ..........................................uciec 742 prisoner ................................... więzień 743 regret ..................................... żałować 743 wipe........................................wycierać 743 forehead...................................... czoło 743 towel ........................................ ręcznik

743 743 743 744 744 744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 746

interest ..........................udział, interes shares ..............................akcja (giełd.) tidiness .......................... ład, porządek preferable ..................................lepszy largely.......................w dużym stopniu quality ........................................jakość may as well ....................................móc might as well .................................móc on account of ......... ze względu, przez energetic ............................ energiczny breath ...................................... oddech breathe ................................. oddychać out of breath ..........................bez tchu through .......................................przez clothing .....................................odzież

LESSON 135 748 to take into account ......................brać ........................................... pod uwagę 748 tip ........................ napiwek, koniuszek 748 make up your mind .... zdecydować się 748 delicate ..................................delikatny 748 observe............................ obserwować 748 observation ...................... obserwacja, ................................ spostrzegawczość 749 historic............................... historyczny 749 paw ...............................................łapa 749 claw ............................................ pazur 749 wooden .............................. drewniany 749 hut ...............................................chata 749 woollen .................................wełniany 749 silken ....................................jedwabny 749 golden ..........................................złoty 750 every other day ............ co drugi dzień 750 assist .......................pomóc, asystować 750 assistant..............................ekspedient 750 pushchair................................... wózek 750 otherwise ................ inaczej, poza tym 750 engaged ..................................... zajęty 750 perform ...........odegrać rolę, wykonać 750 trick ........................................sztuczka 750 performance ...............przedstawienie 750 magic .................................... magiczny 751 envy ..................................... zazdrościć 751 envious ................................ zazdrosny 751 celebrity.................................celebryta 751 fame ........................................... sława 751 advice (n) .................................. porada 751 advise (v) .................................... radzić 751 practice (n) ............................ praktyka 751 practise (v) .........ćwiczyć, praktykować 751 licence (n) .................................licencja


751 751 751 752 752 752 752 752 752 752 752

license (v)............. udzielić pozwolenia record (n)...................................rekord record (v) ..............................nagrywać scatter ....................rozrzucić, rozsypać plant ...........................................sadzić row ................................... szereg, rząd disorderly ..............................bezładny tap .................................. stukać, kurek turn on .................................... włączyć pollution................... zanieczyszczenie polluted ..................... zanieczyszczony

LESSON 136 754 slight........... drobny, lekki, nieznaczny 754 upside down ..............do góry nogami 754 right way up ..................... prawidłowe ............................................. położenie 755 feather......................................... pióro 755 wear ................................. wycierać się 755 sleeve..........................................rękaw 755 mend .....................................naprawić 755 worn out .................. wytarty, wypruty 755 exhausted ....................... wykończony 755 qualification ..................... kwalifikacje 755 debt .............................................. dług 756 interrupt ................................przerwać 756 interruption ........przerwa, zakłócenie 756 if only …!...........................gdyby tylko 756 act ..................... czyn, zachowywać się 756 capable ......................................zdolny 756 bar .....................sztaba, tabliczka, bar, ......................... barykadować, zakazać 756 lock ...................... zamknąć na zamek, .............................zamek (w drzwiach) 757 cart ..............................wóz, furmanka 757 deceive ................ oszukiwać, zwodzić 757 complain ............ skarżyć się, narzekać 757 complaint .................pretensja, skarga 758 either side .................. obydwie strony 758 faint ...............................nikły, zemdleć 758 excitement ...................... podniecenie 758 fear ............................................. strach 759 happen to ..................... przypadkowo ........................................... (coś zrobić) 759 outwards ..........................na zewnątrz 759 inwards........................... do wewnątrz 759 lean....................... oprzeć się, pochylić 759 beneath ....................................poniżej 759 give way ............................. ustępować 759 mankind .................................ludzkość 759 mate ........................................ kumpel 760 zoo..................................................zoo

760 cage ............................................klatka 760 monkey ................małpa szerokonosa ...................................... i makakowata 760 ape .................. małpa człekokształtna 760 closely ......................................... blisko LESSON 137 761 it is not so .......................to nie jest tak .................................... (to nie prawda) 761 so, you have come! ................. no więc ......................................... przyszedłeś! 761 it so happens ..................tak się składa 761 I told you so..................a nie mówiłem 761 just (exactly) ..........właśnie, dokładnie 761 melt ......................................... topnieć 761 have something to do with … ............. ......................mieć coś wspólnego z … 762 pick at ....................................... skubać 762 pick out .................................... wybrać 762 regard...................................... uważać 762 regards .............pozdrowienia, ukłony 762 greet ............................................ witać 762 greetings ....................... pozdrowienia 762 bye-bye .......................................pa pa 762 see you ......................... do zobaczenia 762 scent ......................................... zapach 762 give off .................................wydzielać 763 welcome ........................witaj, powitać 763 go right ................. układać się dobrze 763 temper...............opanowanie, nastrój, ....................................... usposobienie 763 lose one’s temper ......................stracić ........................... panowanie nad sobą 763 thoughtful...........................zamyślony 763 go bad ................................. zepsuć się 763 by now................................ do tej pory 764 warn .....................................ostrzegać 764 ahead .................................... z przodu 764 triangle ...................................... trójkąt 764 mercy ........................................... litość 764 desire .................................. pragnienie 764 ignore ................................. ignorować 765 upright .........................wyprostowany 765 lung .............................................płuco 765 organ .............................organ, narząd 765 seldom ...................................... rzadko 765 work out.............................. rozwiązać 765 confusion ..........................zmieszanie, ....................................... dezorientacja 765 electrical ............................ elektryczne 766 advance .......... posuwać się do przodu 766 step by step ...................krok po kroku


766 766 766 766 766 767 767

progress ...........................postępować in advance ..................................z góry in arrears ....................................z dołu cuff ......................................... mankiet preparation .................przygotowanie valley ......................................... dolina injustice ..................niesprawiedliwość

LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten ........................ gryźć 768 bare ...............................................goły 768 weapon ........................................ broń 768 barely ........................................ledwie 768 go back..........................wracać (pójść) 768 come back .................. wracać (przyjść) 768 go in ............................................wejść 768 come in ........................................wejść 768 return ....................................... wracać 768 enter ............................................wejść 768 descend ........................ zejść, schodzić 768 overcome...................... przezwyciężyć 768 go down .................................schodzić 768 come down ............................schodzić 769 case............................................ proces 769 barrister..................adwokat, obrońca 770 (just) in case.......... na wypadek gdyby, .............................na wszelki wypadek 770 risk ............................................. ryzyko 770 run a risk..............podejmować ryzyko 770 excuse (v).................. usprawiedliwiać, ..............................................wybaczać 770 excuse (n) ............................wymówka 771 waist ...................................... pas, talia 771 waistcoat ............................. kamizelka 771 fancy ............... fantazyjny, wykwintny, ................................ mieć ochotę, lubić 771 pint .............................................. pinta 771 gallon ......................................... galon 771 litre .................................................. litr 772 jealous ................................. zazdrosny 772 jealousy ................................. zazdrość 772 go out with ....................spotykać się z 772 fortune ..............fortuna, los, szczęście 772 fortunate ............. szczęśliwy, fortunny 772 international ........... międzynarodowy 772 mine ...................................... kopalnia 772 miner ......................................... górnik 772 tend ............................. mieć skłonność 773 content (n) .......................... zawartość 773 content (v or adj) ............zadowolony, ............................................ zadowalać 773 witness (v) ....................być świadkiem

LESSON 139 775 rid ....................pozbyć się, uwolnić się 775 get rid of .............................pozbyć się 775 above all .................... ponad wszystko 775 sharp ............................................ostry 775 blunt ............................................. tępy 775 sharpen .................................... ostrzyć 775 grind – ground – ground .................... ..................................... szlifować, mleć 775 flour.............................................mąka 775 wheat .....................................pszenica 776 harm .....................krzywdzić, krzywda 776 harmful ................................szkodliwy 776 harmless ..........................nieszkodliwy 776 creature ...................stworzenie, istota 777 iron ....................................... prasować 777 extreme ............................ekstremalny 777 reduce ............................... redukować 777 likely ........................ prawdopodobny, ................................................ możliwy 777 unlikely ................ nieprawdopodobny 778 do someone a favour .................zrobić ..............................................przysługę 778 That’s all right ................ nie ma za co, .......................................... w porządku 778 Not at all ............................nic takiego, ..................................... proszę, bardzo 778 It’s nothing .........................nic takiego 778 You’re welcome ........... proszę bardzo 778 Don’t mention it .........nie wspominaj, ............................................... drobiazg 778 No problem ..............nie ma problemu 778 up ......................................................... 778 tear – tore – torn ........................drzeć 779 cheek ...................................... policzek 779 cheeky .................zuchwały, bezczelny 779 pile....................................... stos, kupa 779 one on top of the other ............. jeden .............................................na drugim 779 heap .................................... stos, kupa 780 point ........................................... punkt 780 freeze – froze – frozen ........ zamarzać 780 nought ..........................................zero 780 zero ...............................................zero 780 Fahrenheit .......................... Fahrenheit 780 insect ...............................insekt, owad 780 itch.........................................swędzieć 780 scratch ................................. drapać się 780 scrape ..........................zdrapać, otrzeć 781 opposition ............................. opozycja


LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better...................... ......................im szybciej …, tym lepiej 782 responsible ................ odpowiedzialny 782 council .......................................... rada 782 scream ................krzyczeć, wrzeszczeć 782 fright .....................przerażenie, strach 782 frighten ..........przerażać, przestraszać 782 horror ........................................ horror 783 mean .............................skąpy, wredny 783 thoughtless ........................bezmyślny, .........................................nierozważny 783 pale .............................................blady 783 sickness................................... choroba 784 light – lit – lit ........... zaświecić, zapalić 784 candle ........................................świeca 784 failure ...........awaria, klęska, niewypał 784 upset ........................dezorganizować, ................................przewrócić, wylać, .......................................... zmartwiony 784 feel upset ..........być zdenerwowanym 784 terribly ................................... strasznie 785 wreck ..................... popsuć, zrujnować 785 misfortune........................ nieszczęście 785 shipwreck ............... katastrofa morska 785 sale ........................................ sprzedaż 785 for sale .............................. na sprzedaż 785 sales ...........................................obroty 785 advertisement ....................... reklama, ............................................ogłoszenie 785 commercial ........................reklamowy, ............................................. handlowy 785 rival ..............................................rywal 786 over ........................................... ponad 786 basement ................................ piwnica 787 bargain ..................... okazja (cenowa), ......................................... targować się 787 caution .................................ostrzegać 787 cautiously ............................. ostrożnie 788 rapid .............................. szybki, wartki LESSON 141 789 deliver ................................ dostarczać 789 mail............................................poczta 789 beforehand ..........................przedtem 789 critic ............................................krytyk 789 expect ....... spodziewać się, oczekiwać 789 rely on ................................polegać na 790 fast ........................................... mocno 790 fasten .....................umocować, zapiąć 790 porter ....................................... portier

791 a fifty-minute lesson............................ ........... pięćdziedięciominutowa lekcja 791 a four-door car ....................samochód ................................... czterodrzwiowy 791 jog ....................................biegać, bieg 791 overnight..............................przez noc 791 lifestyle .................................. styl życia 792 mere ....................... zwykły, zwyczajny 792 nuisance ................. utrapienie, kłopot 792 post .................................. filar, słupek, ............................. posada, stanowisko 792 doorpost ........................słup od drzwi 792 goal ................................... bramka, cel 792 dig – dug – dug .................... wykopać 792 postage .................... opłata pocztowa 793 naughty ............................ niegrzeczny 793 punish.......................................... karać 793 fold ...........................................składać 793 native....................................... ojczysty 793 treasure ....................................... skarb 793 receipt .................................. rachunek 793 prove ................................. udowodnić LESSON 142 795 excuse me........................przepraszam 795 I’m sorry ..........................przepraszam 796 wealthy ................................. zamożny 796 disaster ................................ katastrofa 796 flood ....................................... powódź 796 then .........................wtedy, następnie, .................................w takim wypadku 796 urge .....................................przekonać 797 affair ......................................... sprawa 797 love affair ................................ romans 798 charm ................urok, czar, oczarować 798 charming .................. uroczy, czarujący 798 musical .................................muzyczny 798 snake ............................................. wąż 798 snake charmer............. zaklinacz węży 798 instrument .........................instrument 799 latest...................... ostatni, najnowszy 799 last .............................................ostatni 799 last but one ..................... przedostatni 799 blackboard ................................ tablica 799 whiteboard ............................... tablica 799 chalk ........................................... kreda 799 eyebrow ...................................... brew 799 eyelash ........................................ rzęsa 799 eyelid ......................................powieka 799 lid......................................... pokrywka 799 pan ............................................ rondel 800 favour ..............faworyzować, sprzyjać


800 800 800 800 800 800 801

yacht .............................................jacht hinder ...................................utrudniać clothe ............................. ubrać, odziać endless ................................ bez końca bunch ....................... grono, wiązanka grape ................................. winogrono revolution .............................rewolucja

LESSON 143 802 resist ................................... opierać się 802 resistance .....................................opór 803 substantial ...............solidny, odżywczy 803 bacon ....................................... boczek 803 toast .............................................. tost 803 fry – fried – fried ..................... smażyć 803 approximate......................przybliżony 803 course ......................................... danie 803 starter ................................ przystawka 803 main course ................... danie główne 803 dessert .........................................deser 803 dine ..................................... jeść obiad 804 marmalade ........................marmolada 804 jam...............................................dżem 804 pear ......................................... gruszka 804 plum ...........................................śliwka 804 the country ................................. naród 804 rejoice ............................... radować się 804 victory................................zwycięstwo 804 shave .......................................golić się 804 razor ....................................... brzytwa 804 heal........................................ wyleczyć 805 live (v) ..............................................żyć 805 live (adj) ....................................... żywy 805 musician .................................... muzyk 805 mild ........................................ łagodny 805 remark .............. uwaga, spostrzeżenie 805 look ................................ wyraz twarzy 805 stormy ....................................burzliwy 805 proof ........................................ dowód 806 saying ............................. powiedzenie 806 trap ......................................... pułapka 806 pot ......................................... naczynie 806 cooking pot .............................. garnek 806 flowerpot .............................. doniczka 806 coffee pot .............................. dzbanek 806 teapot.................................... dzbanek 806 in relation to.................w stosunku do 806 relationship ............................ związek 806 relative .................................względny 806 overweight .........................z nadwagą 807 at sea .................................... na morzu 807 by sea ...................................po morzu

LESSON 144 809 go past ............................ przejść obok 809 nearby ..................................... pobliski 810 in season ............................. w sezonie 810 out of season ..................... po sezonie 810 thread.............................nić, nawlekać 810 needle ............................................igła 810 sew ................................................ szyć 810 compass...................................kompas 810 injection ................................. zastrzyk 810 agent .......................................... agent 810 agency ..................................... agencja 811 title ............................................... tytuł 811 champion ............................ zwycięzca 811 boxer .........................................bokser 811 enormous ..............................ogromny 811 belief ...........................................wiara 811 effort ........................................wysiłek 811 stay in touch with............. otrzymywać .............................................. kontakt z 812 tolerate................................ tolerować 812 go ahead ........................... iść naprzód 812 just the same ..................... tak czy siak 812 bath ............................................ kąpiel 812 bathe ................ kąpać się, przemywać 812 sunbathe ..............................opalać się 813 cheat....................... oszukiwać, oszust 813 dip ......................................... zanurzać 813 horizon ..................................horyzont 813 horizontal ...............................poziomy 813 feed – fed – fed ........................karmić 814 hay ............................................... siano 814 straw........................................... słoma 814 stem.......................................... łodyga 815 development ............................ rozwój LESSON 145 816 preference ........................upodobanie 816 cuisine .....................................kuchnia 816 style ................................................ styl 816 help yourself ............. poczęstować się 816 can’t help ......... nie móc powstrzymać 816 load .........................ładunek, ładować 816 barrel ............................................. lufa 816 lead ............................................. ołów 816 rod ................................................. pręt 817 voyage ......................................podróż 817 space .............przestrzeń (kosmiczna), ................................................. kosmos 817 tour...................................... wycieczka 817 tourist ....................................... turysta 817 pet ........................... zwierzę domowe


817 817 817 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 818 819 819 819 819 819 819 819 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 821 821 821 821 821 821 822 822 822

rabbit ...........................................królik run on .................................. działać na create ................................. wytwarzać situated ........................ zlokalizowane cloth ....................................... materiał convince ..............................przekonać try ............................................... sądzić set free ....................................uwolnić relieve ............................ ulżyć, zwolnić relief ............................................. ulga pill ............................. pigułka, tabletka painkiller .........środek przeciwbólowy self ................................jaźń, własne ja selfish .................................samolubny self-control ....................samokontrola control ............................. kontrolować lie – lay – lain ...............................leżeć lie – lied – lied .......................... kłamać lay – laid – laid ........................ położyć tight............................... obcisły, ciasny tight-fitting ...............................obcisły loose-fitting ................................ luźny airtight ............................hermetyczny watertight .....................wodoszczelny container ................................ zbiornik aim.................................... cel, celować take aim.............................. nacelować damp ..................................... wilgotny indeed ........... rzeczywiście, naprawdę emphasis .............nacisk, podkreślenie jaw ........................................... szczęka ladder ...................................... drabina vertical ................................... pionowy admit .............wpuszczać, przyznać się take place ........................ mieć miejsce punishment ...................................kara


English–Portuguese Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Portuguese vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social............................................social 697 edge ...................................... beirada / ....................... mover cuidadosamente 697 little by little ................ pouco a pouco 697 intend .................................. pretender 697 tin ...................................................lata 697 preserve............. preservar (conservar) 697 aluminium ............................. alumínio 698 on average .......................... em média 699 sympathy ............................compaixão 700 reckon .................................considerar 700 airline ...................... companhia aérea 700 horrible ................................... horrível 700 anxiety.................................ansiedade 700 anxious .................................... ansioso 700 possession .................................. posse 701 entertain ................................ entreter 701 background............. fundo / formação 701 apply.........................inscrever / aplicar 701 highly ..................................altamente 701 the Browns ................. a família brown 702 ancient ...................................... antigo 702 Egypt ........................................... Egito 702 degree .......................................... grau 702 angle ........................................ ângulo 702 right angle ....................... ângulo reto 702 grade ............................................ nota 702 centigrade ........................ centígrados 702 somewhat ................de alguma forma 702 at all .................de maneira nenhuma / .................................... absolutamente 703 unity ....................................... unidade LESSON 128 704 confident.............................. confiante 704 now that .............................. agora que 705 agree about .............. concordar sobre 705 agree that .................... concordar que 705 agree to ............................ concordar a 705 agree with ................... concordar com 705 take care .......................tomar cuidado 705 run over .................................atropelar

705 706 706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

care for ................................. ligar para I dare say ........................Eu ouso dizer daring .......................................ousado require ................................... requerer conserve ............................... conservar eager ....................................... ansioso rub .......................................... esfregar rub out ..................................... apagar rubber ................................... borracha face .............................. fica de frente à face to face......................... face a face god ...............................................Deus thus .................deste modo / portanto economize........................ economizar involve .................envolver / envolvido attack..........................................atacar scarcely .......................... escassamente scarce ........................................escasso impression ........................... impressão bury ........................................ enterrar cemetery .............................. cemitério anger ....................................enfurecer additional ..............................adicional insult (v)....................................insultar insult (n) ....................................insulto madness .................................. loucura

LESSON 129 712 afraid of................................. medo de 712 afraid that ........................... medo que 712 afraid to................................. medo de 712 crash ...........................................colidir 712 whiskers ......................bigode de gato 712 gap ................. vão (buraco) / intervalo 712 fence......................... cerca de madeira 712 hedge ........................ cerca de plantas 713 hall............................................... salão 713 entrance ..................................entrada 713 town hall ............................. prefeitura 713 pool ................................ poça / piscina 713 liquid ........................................ líquido 713 indoor.......................................interno 713 outdoor ................................... externo


713 713 713 714 714 714 714 714 714 715 715 715 715 715 715 716 716 716 716 716 716

indoors .........................dentro de casa outdoors...............................ao ar livre out of doors ..................... fora de casa knee .......................................... joelho kneel – knelt – knelt .............. ajoelhar late ............................ último / falecido lately ..............................recentemente match ................ combinar / equiparar ........................... / partida de (esporte) judo .............................................. judô funeral ...................................... funeral mystery ................................... mistério path ........................................caminho insure............... segurar (fazer seguro) insurance .................................. seguro theft ...........................................roubo throne .........................................trono annoy ..........................................irritar fly............................................... mosca fall asleep ...........................adormecer sore.........................................dolorido design (v)......................desenhar, criar

LESSON 130 718 compound ........................... composto 719 currency.................................... moeda 719 unit ......................................... unidade 719 penny ....................... moeda de 1 pêni 719 pence............................. plural de pêni 720 slow down ......................... desacelerar 720 speed up..................................acelerar 720 in addition to ..........................além de 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. ...................................................proibir 720 peculiar ................ peculiar / particular 720 peculiarity ..................... peculiaridade 721 suffix .......................................... sufixo 721 either of them ....... qualquer um deles 721 neither of them .............nenhum deles 721 screw ....................parafuso, parafusar 721 screwdriver ..................chave de fenda 722 maximum ................................máximo 722 minimum ................................. mínimo 722 point .............................razão (motivo) 722 essay .......................................... ensaio 722 paragraph ........................... parágrafo 722 pad ................. almofada / acolchoado 722 cotton wool ............................ algodão 722 absorb ................................... absorver 722 reach out ................................ alcançar 723 scale ............................................escala

723 corner ........... encurralar / encurralado LESSON 131 724 chance ...................................... chance 724 by chance ............................. por acaso 725 take hold of ..............................agarrar 725 take by surprise ...... pegar de surpresa 725 take a look................................... olhar 725 second-hand .................segunda-mão 725 temptation ............................ tentação 725 dishonest .............................desonesto 725 view .............................................. vista 725 hide – hid – hidden ..............esconder 726 liar ....................................... mentiroso 726 pay attention ............. prestar atenção 726 detail ....................................... detalhe 727 sweat .................................. suar (suor) 727 nervous ...................................nervoso 727 underneath .......................embaixo de 727 unlike................................ao contrário 727 wander .................. andar sem destino 727 distinguish ............................ distinguir 727 a while ..................... por pouco tempo LESSON 132 729 still .............................................. ainda 729 yet............................................... ainda 729 annoyance................... aborrecimento 730 according to .................de acordo com 730 in my opinion .......... na minha opinião 730 band ...................banda / faixa / grupo 730 disturbance ........................... distúrbio 730 military ...................................... militar 731 link................................. conexão / link 731 browse........................ procurar / olhar 731 carriage ..................... vagão / carroça / ............................................ transporte 731 invention ............................... invenção 731 explanation .........................explicação 732 about ......... próximo de / a respeito de 732 for days and days ......... por dias e dias 732 what about (you) ...... o que você acha 732 bitter ....................................... amargo 732 dissatisfaction ...................insatisfação 733 neat ..................................... arrumado 733 poverty ................................... pobreza 733 admire .....................................admirar 733 admiration...........................admiração 733 generous .............................. generoso LESSON 133 736 hitchhike ......................... pedir carona


736 736 736 736 736 737 737 737 737 737 737 738 738 738 738 738 738 738 739 739 739 739 739 739

dear ...............caro (querido, precioso) easy ......................... fácil (confortável) ease ......................... facilidade / aliviar at ease ............................... confortável ill at ease ......................desconfortável to be obliged................ ser obrigado a steal ...........................................roubar rob .............................................roubar robbery.......................................roubo thief ........................................... ladrão mask ....................................... máscara handle .................puxador / manusear gentle ........................... suave / amável hand-in-hand ............. de mãos dadas arm-in-arm ............... de braços dados custom ....................................costume girlfriend .............................namorada boyfriend ............................namorado enable ................................ possibilitar instruction .............................instrução booklet .....................................folheto tender........................ macio / delicado tough............................................ duro lovingly ........................amorosamente

LESSON 134 741 in my view ....... no meu ponto de vista 741 from my point of view ............ do meu ...................................... ponto de vista 741 if you ask me ...................... se você me ............................................. perguntar 741 as far as I’m concerned ........ na minha ................................................ opinião 742 clockwise .....................sentido horário 742 anticlockwise....................anti-horário 742 symbol .....................................símbolo 742 @ = at.........................................arroba 742 . = dot .........................................ponto 742 inquire (or enquire).............consultar / ............................................ perguntar 742 inquiry (or enquiry) .............. consulta / ..........................................averiguação 742 escape ..................................... escapar 742 prisoner .............................. prisioneiro 743 regret ........................... arrepender-se 743 wipe............................................. secar 743 forehead.......................................testa 743 towel ......................................... toalha 743 interest ....................... juros / interesse 743 shares ..........................................ações 743 tidiness ............................... arrumação

744 744 744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 746

preferable ............................ preferível largely..............................amplamente quality ................................. qualidade may as well ................ sim, porque não might as well ............. sim, porque não on account of .................. por causa de energetic ............................ energético breath .................................. respiração breathe .................................... respirar out of breath ......................sem fôlego through .......................... por, devido a clothing .................. roupa, vestimenta

LESSON 135 748 to take into account ...............levar em ....................................... consideração 748 tip .........................gorjeta, dica, ponta 748 make up your mind .............. decida-se 748 delicate ...................................delicado 748 observe...................................observar 748 observation ....................... observação 749 historic....................................histórico 749 paw .............................................. pata 749 claw ............................................. garra 749 wooden ............................. de madeira 749 hut ............................................cabana 749 woollen ........................................de lã 749 silken ....................................... de seda 749 golden .................... dourado / de ouro 750 every other day .......... dia sim, dia não 750 assist .........................................auxiliar 750 assistant................................assistente 750 pushchair..................carrinho de bêbe 750 otherwise ......... caso contrário / senão 750 engaged ................................ ocupado 750 perform .............................representar 750 performance ...........................atuação 750 trick ...........................................truque 750 magic ........................................mágico 751 envy ...........................................invejar 751 envious ................................... invejoso 751 celebrity............................ celebridade 751 fame ............................................ fama 751 advice (n) ............................... conselho 751 advise (v) ............................ aconselhar 751 practice (n) ................................prática 751 practise (v) ............................... praticar 751 licence (n) ..................................licença 751 license (v)................................ licenciar 751 record (n).......................registro, disco 751 record (v) ................................... gravar


752 752 752 752 752 752 752 752

scatter .....................................espalhar plant .........................................plantar row ............................................. fileira disorderly ............ desordenadamente tap ................................ bater, torneira turn on ......................................... abrir pollution.................................poluição polluted ................................... poluído

LESSON 136 754 slight.............................................. leve 754 upside down .............de ponta cabeça 754 right way up ........................ jeito certo 755 feather......................................... pena 755 wear .................................. usar, gastar 755 sleeve........................................ manga 755 mend .................................... consertar 755 worn out ..................... gasto / exausto 755 exhausted ...............................exausto 755 qualification ..................... qualificação 755 debt ........................................... débito 756 interrupt ...........................interromper 756 interruption ......................interrupção 756 if only …!................... Desejo enfático! 756 act ................................................. ação 756 capable ....................................... capaz 756 bar ................................... barra, barrar 756 lock ........................................... trancar 757 cart ...........................................carroça 757 deceive ...................................enganar 757 complain ............................... reclamar 757 complaint .......................... reclamação 758 either side ...................ambos os lados 758 faint ............................. leve / desmaiar 758 excitement ........................... excitação 758 fear ............................................. medo 759 happen to .......................acontecer de 759 outwards ...............................para fora 759 inwards............................. para dentro 759 lean............................. apoiar / inclinar 759 beneath .....................................abaixo 759 give way ......................................ceder 759 mankind ......................... raça humana 759 mate ...............................companheiro 760 zoo........................................zoológico 760 cage ..............................................jaula 760 monkey ................................... macaco 760 ape .......................................... macaco 760 closely ... proximamente, intimamente LESSON 137 761 it is not so ..................... não é verdade

761 so, you have come! .........................ah, ...................................então você veio! 761 it so happens ............. por coincidência 761 I told you so.........................eu te disse 761 just (exactly) ..................... exatamente 761 melt ........................................ derreter 761 have something to do with … ............. .................................. tem haver com... 762 pick at ............................pegar (pinçar) 762 pick out .................................. escolher 762 regard..................................considerar 762 regards ......................... cumprimentos 762 greet ..........................................saudar 762 greetings .............................saudações 762 bye-bye ...................................... tchau 762 see you ................................... até mais 762 scent ......................... cheiro (perfume) 762 give off .......................................exalar 763 welcome ................................. de nada 763 go right .................................dar certo 763 temper.........................temperamento 763 lose one’s temper .................. perder a .............................................. paciência 763 thoughtful............................pensativo 763 go bad ................................ dar errado 763 by now.................................. até agora 764 warn ........................... prevenir / avisar 764 ahead ......................................a frente 764 triangle ..................................triângulo 764 mercy ...................................... piedade 764 desire .......................... desejar / desejo 764 ignore .......................................ignorar 765 upright ........................................ ereto 765 lung ......................................... pulmão 765 organ .......................................... órgão 765 seldom .................................raramente 765 work out..................................resolver 765 confusion ..............................confusão 765 electrical .................................. elétrico 766 advance ................................... avançar 766 step by step ................... passo a passo 766 progress ............................... progredir 766 in advance ...........................adiantado 766 in arrears ............................... atrasado 766 cuff ............................................punho 766 preparation ....................... preparação 767 valley ............................................. vale 767 injustice .................................. injustiça LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten .....................morder


768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 769 769 770 770 770 770 770 771 771 771 771 771 771 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 773 773

bare .................................... nu / básico weapon ....................................... arma weapon ....................................... arma go back................................ ir de volta come back ..........................vir de volta go in ...........................................entrar come in .......................................entrar return ......................................... voltar enter ...........................................entrar descend ..................................... descer overcome................................. superar go down .................................... descer come down ............................... descer case................................................caso barrister............................... advogado (just) in case.......................apenas se... risk ................................................ risco run a risk.............................correr risco excuse (v)..............................desculpar excuse (n) .............................. desculpa waist ......................................... cintura waistcoat ....................................colete fancy ................ extravagante / desejar pint .................................... 0.5679 litro gallon ......................................... galão litre ................................................ litro jealous .................................. ciumento jealousy ...................................... ciúme go out with ............................ sair com fortune .................................... fortuna fortunate ............................. fortunado international .................. internacional mine .............................................mina miner ....................................... mineiro tend ...........................................tender content (n) ........................... conteúdo content (v or adj) ...............contentar / ............................................... contente 773 witness (v) .......................testemunhar LESSON 139 775 rid ............................................livrar-se 775 get rid of .................................livrar-se 775 above all ....................... acima de tudo 775 sharp ......................................... afiado 775 blunt ...................................cego (faca) 775 sharpen ......................... amolar (afiar) 775 grind – ground – ground ........... moer 775 flour..........................................farinha 775 wheat ...........................................trigo 776 harm .....................................machucar

776 776 776 777 777 777 777 777 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 779 779 779 779 779 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 781

harmful ..................................... nocivo harmless ..............................inofensivo creature ................................... criatura iron ......................passar à ferro / ferro extreme .................................. extremo reduce ...................................... reduzir likely .......................................provável unlikely ...............................improvável do someone a favour .................. fazer ...............................um favor à alguém That’s all right ......................tudo bem Not at all ....................... não ha de que It’s nothing ........................ não é nada You’re welcome ..................... de nada Don’t mention it .......não se preocupe No problem .................. sem problema up ...............................completamente tear – tore – torn ...................... rasgar cheek ....................................bochecha cheeky .................................... atrevido pile.............................. empilhar / pilha one on top of the other ........... um em .......................................cima do outro heap .............................................pilha point .............................. ponto / ponta freeze – froze – frozen ......... congelar nought ......................................... nulo zero ...............................................zero Fahrenheit .......................... Fahrenheit insect ..........................................inseto itch............................................ coceira scratch ......................................... coçar scrape ........................................ raspar opposition ............................. oposição

LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better.............. mais ................................. rápido...., melhor 782 responsible ....................... responsável 782 council ................................. prefeitura 782 scream .........................................gritar 782 fright ........................................... susto 782 frighten ...................................assustar 782 horror ........................................ horror 783 mean ................ mesquinho / malvado 783 thoughtless .............sem consideração 783 pale ........................................... pálido 783 sickness.....................................doença 784 light – lit – lit .......................... acender 784 candle ............................................ vela 784 failure .......................... falha / fracasso


784 784 784 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 786 786 787 787 787 788

upset ......................... prejudicar / virar feel upset .............. sentir-se chateado terribly .............. terrivelmente (muito) wreck .....................destruir / destroços misfortune.....................................azar shipwreck .............................naufrágio sale .............................................venda for sale .....................................à venda sales .......................................... vendas advertisement .........................anúncio commercial ........................... comercial rival ................................................rival over ......................................... mais de basement ................................... porão bargain ................barganha / negociar caution ....................................advertir cautiously .................. cautelosamente rapid .......................................... rápido

LESSON 141 789 deliver .................entregar / transmitir 789 mail........................... correspondência 789 beforehand .................... de ante-mão 789 critic ............................................crítico 789 expect ...................................... esperar 789 rely on ................................ confiar em 790 fast .............................completamente 790 fasten ........................................ fechar 790 porter ..................................... porteiro 791 a fifty-minute lesson................aula de ............................................50 minutos 791 a four-door car ......... carro de 4 portas 791 jog ................................correr / corrida 791 overnight...............da noite para o dia 791 lifestyle ........................... estilo de vida 792 mere ............................................ mero 792 nuisance ...................... aborrecimento 792 post .............................. posto / correio 792 doorpost .................................batente 792 goal ................................ gol / objetivo 792 dig – dug – dug .......................... cavar 792 postage ............................... postagem 793 naughty ......................... desobediente 793 punish.......................................... punir 793 fold ............................................dobrar 793 native......................................... nativo 793 treasure ................................... tesouro 793 receipt ........................................recibo 793 prove ......................................... provar LESSON 142 795 excuse me........................desculpe-me

795 796 796 796 796 796 797 797 798 798 798 798 798 798 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 801

I’m sorry ..........................desculpe-me wealthy ..........................................rico disaster ................................... desastre flood ..................................... enchente then ...................... então (em seguida, ............................................neste caso) urge ....................................... pesuadir affair ..............................................caso love affair ...................... caso amoroso charm .................................... encantar charming ........ encantador / charmoso musical .....................................musical snake ...........................................cobra snake charmer...................encantador ................................................de cobra instrument ...................... instrumento latest................................ mais recente last ............................................. último last but one .........................penúltimo blackboard .................................. lousa whiteboard ..................... lousa branca chalk ................................................giz eyebrow ...........................sobrancelha eyelash .......................................... cílio eyelid ..................................... pálpebra lid............................................... tampa pan ........................................... panela favour ................................... favorecer yacht ...............................................iate hinder ...................................... impedir clothe ..................................... vestir-se endless ....................................sem fim bunch ......................cacho / ramalhete grape .............................................. uva revolution .............................revolução

LESSON 143 802 resist .......................................... resistir 802 resistance ............................resistência 803 substantial ..........................substancial 803 bacon .........................................bacon 803 toast ........................................ torrada 803 fry – fried – fried .........................fritar ........................................ – frito – frito 803 approximate.....................aproximado 803 course ..........................................prato 803 starter ........................... primeiro prato 803 main course ..................prato principal 803 dessert ................................ sobremesa 803 dine ............................................ jantar 804 marmalade ........... compota de laranja


804 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 807 807

jam..............................................geléia pear .............................................. pera plum ......................................... ameixa the country ............................... o povo rejoice ....................................... alegrar victory........................................ vitória shave ..................................barbear-se razor ..........................................lâmina heal...............................................sarar live (v) ........................................... viver live (adj) ......................................... vivo musician ................................... músico mild ....................................leve (fraco) remark ............................... comentário look ............................................. olhar stormy ............................ tempestuoso proof .......................................... prova saying .......................... ditado popular trap ...................................... armadilha pot ................................................ pote cooking pot .............................. panela flowerpot ..................................... vaso coffee pot .........................bule de café teapot................................bule de chá in relation to.................... em relação a relationship ................relacionamento relative .................................... relativo overweight .................................obeso at sea ........................................ no mar by sea .................................... pelo mar

LESSON 144 809 go past ...................................... passar 809 nearby .........................................perto 810 in season ............................ da estação 810 out of season ..............fora da estação 810 thread.............enfiar linha na agulha / ......................................................linha 810 needle ...................................... agulha 810 sew ......................................... costurar 810 compass................................... bússola 810 injection ................................... injeção 810 agent ........................................ agente 810 agency ..................................... agência 811 title ..............................................título 811 champion ..............................campeão 811 boxer ....................................boxeador 811 enormous ................................enorme 811 belief ......................................... crença 811 effort ........................................ esforço

811 stay in touch with..........................ficar ................................... em contato com 812 tolerate......................................tolerar 812 go ahead ..............................continuar 812 just the same ............ da mesma forma 812 bath ........................................... banho 812 bathe ................................... banhar-se 812 sunbathe .........................banho de sol 813 cheat.............. trapacear / trapaceador 813 dip ............................................ imergir 813 horizon .................................horizonte 813 horizontal ............................horizontal 813 feed – fed – fed ................... alimentar 814 hay ................................................ feno 814 straw........................................... palha 814 stem....................................talo / haste 815 development ........... desenvolvimento LESSON 145 816 preference ......................... preferência 816 cuisine ..................................... cozinha 816 style ............................................. estilo 816 help yourself ........................... sirva-se 816 can’t help ........... não conseguir evitar 816 load ............................ carga / carregar 816 barrel ........................................... barril 816 lead ........................................ chumbo 816 rod .................................................vara 816 voyage ......................................viagem 817 space ........................................ espaço 817 tour.........................passeio (excursão) 817 tourist ........................................ turista 817 pet ........................ bicho de estimação 817 rabbit .........................................coelho 817 run on ................................. funciona à 817 create ............................................criar 817 situated ................................... situado 818 cloth ...........................................tecido 818 convince .............................. convencer 818 try ............................................... julgar 818 set free .....................................libertar 818 relieve .........................................aliviar 818 relief ............................................ alívio 818 pill ................................................pílula 818 painkiller ............................ analgésico 818 self ........................................... próprio 819 selfish .......................................egoísta 819 self-control ....................auto-controle 819 control ...................................controlar 819 lie – lay – lain ............................. deitar ............................... – deitou – deitado


819 lie – lied – lied ...........................mentir .............................– mentiu – mentido 819 lay – laid – laid ......................... colocar ........................... – colocou – colocado 819 tight..............................................justo 820 tight-fitting ..................................justo 820 loose-fitting ............................ folgado 820 airtight ................................ hermético 820 watertight ................... à prova d´água 820 container ............................. recipiente 820 aim.......................................... objetivo 820 take aim....................................... mirar 820 damp ......................................... úmido 821 indeed ................... realmente, de fato 821 emphasis ...................................ênfase 821 jaw ...................................... mandíbula 821 ladder ........................................escada 821 vertical ...................................... vertical 821 admit .................... permitir / confessar 822 take place .............................acontecer 822 punishment .............................punição


English–Slovak Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Slovak vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social................................. spoločenský 697 edge ...................................roh, hrana, ........................... pomaly sa približovať 697 little by little ......................... postupne 697 intend ............. mať v úmysle, zamýšľať 697 tin ..........................................konzerva 697 preserve.................. zachovať, uchovať 697 aluminium ...................................hliník 698 on average ..........................priemerne 699 sympathy ... náklonnosť, kladný postoj 700 reckon ............................ domnievať sa 700 airline .....................letecká spoločnosť 700 horrible .................................... hrozný 700 anxiety.......................................úzkosť 700 anxious ..........úzkostlivý, znepokojený 700 possession .............................. majetok 701 entertain .......................hostiť, zabaviť 701 background............ pozadie, minulosť 701 apply................................. uchádzať sa 701 highly ....................................... vysoko 701 the Browns ..........................Brownovci 702 ancient ................................. staroveký 702 Egypt .......................................... Egypt 702 degree ...................................... stupeň 702 angle ............................................ uhol 702 right angle ..........................pravý uhol 702 grade .......................................známka 702 centigrade ................................ Celzius 702 somewhat ................................. trochu 702 at all ............................................ vôbec 703 unity ...................... jednota, súdržnosť LESSON 128 704 confident......................... presvedčený 704 now that ............................... teraz keď 705 agree about ................. zhodnúť sa na 705 agree that ..........................súhlasiť, že 705 agree to .............................pristúpiť na 705 agree with ............................. súhlasiť s 705 take care ............ dávať pozor, starať sa 705 run over ............................prejsť, zraziť 705 care for ............................ nezáležať na 706 I dare say ..................... Trúfam si tvrdiť

706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

daring ..................................... odvážny require .............. vyžadovať, požadovať conserve ...................... šetriť, zachovať eager ..........................horlivý, dychtivý rub ....................................trieť, drhnúť rub out ................................... vymazať rubber ........................................ guma face ................................................ tvár face to face............................ zoči-voči god ................................................ boh thus .................................................tak economize................................... šetriť involve ...............zahŕňať, byť súčasťou attack....................................napadnúť scarcely ............................. sotva, ťažko scarce ........................vzácny, zriedkavý impression ................................. dojem bury ...................... zahrabať, pochovať cemetery ................................. cintorín anger .........................................hnevať additional ........ dodatočný, doplnkový insult (v)...................................... uraziť insult (n) ....................................urážka madness ...............................šialenstvo

LESSON 129 712 afraid of........................ báť sa niečoho 712 afraid that ............................ báť sa, že 712 afraid to................. báť sa niečo urobiť 712 crash ......................................... naraziť 712 whiskers ........................................fúzy 712 gap .............................................. diera 712 fence.............................................. plot 712 hedge ..................................... živý plot 713 hall.................................................hala 713 entrance ......................................vstup 713 town hall ..................................radnica 713 pool ............................................mláka 713 liquid ...................................... tekutina 713 indoor....................................vnútorný 713 outdoor .................................. vonkajší 713 indoors ....................................... vnútri 713 outdoors.....................................vonku 713 out of doors ...............................vonku


714 knee ......................................... koleno 714 kneel – knelt – knelt .................. kľačať ..................................... (základný tvar) .............................– kľačať (minulý čas) ....................– kľačať (minulé príčastie) 714 late ..................bývalý, predchádzajúci 714 lately ...................................... nedávno 714 match .............................. zladiť, zápas 714 judo ........................................... džudo 715 funeral ......................................pohreb 715 mystery ............. záhadný, mysteriózny 715 path .......................... chodník, cestička 715 insure......................................... poistiť 715 insurance ...............................poistenie 715 theft ..........................................krádež 716 throne ...........................................trón 716 annoy ..................... obťažovať, hnevať 716 fly.................................... mucha, letieť 716 fall asleep .................................. zaspať 716 sore............................................boľavý 716 design (v)...............................navrhnúť LESSON 130 718 compound ............................... zložený 719 currency...................................... mena 719 unit ........................................ jednotka 719 penny .........................................penca 719 pence..........................................penca 720 slow down ..............................spomaliť 720 speed up................................... zrýchliť 720 in addition to .................okrem, mimo 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. ....................... zakázať (základný tvar) ..........................– zakázať (minulý čas) .................– zakázať (minulé príčastie) 720 peculiar ..................... zvláštny, osobitý 720 peculiarity .......... zvláštnosť, špecialita 721 suffix .......................................prípona 721 either of them ............ hociktorý z nich 721 neither of them .......... ani jeden z nich 721 screw ........................................skrutka 721 screwdriver ......................... skrutkovač 722 maximum ...........................maximálny 722 minimum .............................minimálny 722 point ........................... význam, zmysel 722 essay .............................................. esej 722 paragraph .................................. odsek 722 pad ..........................................tampón 722 cotton wool ................................... vata 722 absorb ............................... absorbovať 722 reach out ......................... načiahnuť sa

723 scale .............................. stupnica, škála 723 corner ...............................byť v úzkych LESSON 131 724 chance .........................................šanca 724 by chance ..............................náhodou 725 take hold of .........chytiť, uchopiť niečo 725 take by surprise ................... zľaknúť sa 725 take a look............................pozrieť sa 725 second-hand .................. z druhej ruky 725 temptation ..........................pokušenie 725 dishonest ............................... nečestný 725 view ...........................................výhľad 725 hide – hid – hidden .....................skryť ..................................... (základný tvar) ...............................– skryť (minulý čas) ......................– skryť (minulé príčastie) 726 liar ............................................ klamár 726 pay attention ................... dávať pozor 726 detail .......................................... detail 727 sweat ........................................potiť sa 727 nervous .................................nervózny 727 underneath ................. naspodku, pod 727 unlike.............................. na rozdiel od 727 wander ............ ponevierať sa, túlať sa, ................................. pýtať sa sám seba 727 distinguish ................................. rozlíšiť 727 a while ........................................ chvíľa LESSON 132 729 still ...................... stále, ešte (v zápore) 729 yet..................ešte (v otázke a zápore) 729 annoyance.............zlosť, nahnevanosť 730 according to ............................... podľa 730 in my opinion ..... podľa môjho názoru 730 band ................. skupina, pejor. banda 730 disturbance ...........................výtržnosť 730 military ...................................vojenský 731 link..............................spojitosť, odkaz 731 browse.................................... prezerať 731 carriage ............................. náklad, koč 731 invention .....................................objav 731 explanation ........................vysvetlenie 732 about .................o niečom, na niečom, ............................ pri (blízko), nablízku 732 for days and days .................... celé dni 732 what about (you) ....................a čo (ty) 732 bitter .......................................... horký 732 dissatisfaction ................nespokojnosť 733 neat ....................................... uprataný 733 poverty .................................. chudoba 733 admire ................................. obdivovať


733 admiration.................................. obdiv 733 generous ....................................štedrý LESSON 133 736 hitchhike ............................... stopovať 736 dear ....................... drahý, milý, vzácny 736 easy .............................................ľahký 736 ease ................................ľahkosť, utíšiť 736 at ease ..................................pohodlne 736 ill at ease ..........................nepohodlne 737 to be obliged...................... byť nútený 737 steal ............. ukradnúť niečo niekomu .................................... alebo odniekiaľ 737 rob ............................okradnúť, vylúpiť ............................ niekoho alebo niečo 737 robbery........................................lúpež 737 thief ............................................zlodej 737 mask .......................................... maska 738 handle ................ kľučka, zaobchádzať 738 gentle .........................................jemný 738 hand-in-hand ................... ruka v ruke 738 arm-in-arm ....................... ruka v ruke 738 custom .......................................... zvyk 738 girlfriend ............................... priateľka 738 boyfriend .................................. priateľ 739 enable .................................... umožniť 739 instruction ..................... návod, pokyn 739 booklet ....................................brožúra 739 tender.........................................jemný 739 tough........................................... tvrdý 739 lovingly ....................................s láskou LESSON 134 741 in my view .......... podľa môjho názoru 741 from my point of view ........... z môjho ............................................... hľadiska 741 if you ask me ..............keď sa ma pýtaš 741 as far as I’m concerned ................čo sa ...............................................mňa týka 742 clockwise ................................. v smere ............................. hodinových ručičiek 742 anticlockwise................... v protismere ............................. hodinových ručičiek 742 symbol ...................................... symbol 742 @ = at................................ @ = zavináč 742 . = dot ................................... . = bodka 742 inquire (or enquire)....... informovať sa 742 inquiry (or enquiry) ..dopyt, pýtanie sa 742 escape ........................................ utiecť 742 prisoner ...................................... väzeň 743 regret ....................................... ľutovať 743 wipe.............................................utrieť

743 743 743 743 743 744 744 744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 746

forehead........................................ čelo towel ......................................... uterák interest ...................................... podiel shares .......................................... akcie tidiness ..................................poriadok preferable .................výhodnejší, lepší largely.............................. z veľkej časti quality ................................... vlastnosť may as well ...............................môcť aj might as well ............................môcť aj on account of ............................... kvôli energetic .............................. energický breath ........................................... dych breathe ......................................dýchať out of breath .... bez dychu, zadýchaný through .......................................... cez clothing ................................oblečenie

LESSON 135 748 to take into account ..... vziať do úvahy 748 tip ...........................................prepitné 748 make up your mind ........ rozhodnúť sa 748 delicate .......................................jemný 748 observe................................ pozorovať 748 observation ..................... pozorovanie 749 historic.................................. historický 749 paw ...............................................laba 749 claw ............................................ pazúr 749 wooden ...................................drevený 749 hut ................................... chata, chatrč 749 woollen ..................................... vlnený 749 silken ................................... hodvábny 749 golden .......................................... zlatý 750 every other day ........ každý druhý deň 750 assist ........................ pomôcť, asistovať 750 assistant................................... asistent 750 pushchair..................................... kočík 750 otherwise ......................................inak 750 engaged ..................... zaneprázdnený 750 perform ........................ hrať, predviesť 750 performance .............................. výkon 750 trick ................................................ trik 750 magic ...................................kúzelnícky 751 envy ......................................... závidieť 751 envious .................................. závistlivý 751 celebrity.....................známa osobnosť 751 fame .............................................sláva 751 advice (n) ...................................... rada 751 advise (v) ..................................poradiť 751 practice (n) ..............................cvičenie 751 practise (v) ....................................cvičiť


751 751 751 751 752 752 752 752 752

licence (n) ............. preukaz, povolenie license (v).................................. povoliť record (n)................záznam, nahrávka record (v) .............zaznamenať, nahrať scatter ............. rozísť sa, rozpŕchnuť sa plant .............................................sadiť row .....................................rad, riadok disorderly ..................nedisciplinovaný tap ...............................klopať, kohútik ......................................... (vodovodný) 752 turn on ....................................... otočiť 752 pollution............................ znečistenie 752 polluted ...............................znečistený LESSON 136 754 slight................................mierny, slabý 754 upside down .......................... naopak, .........................................hore nohami 754 right way up ........................... správne, ..................................... tak ako má byť 755 feather......................................... perie 755 wear ..................opotrebovať, ošúchať 755 sleeve...........................................rukáv 755 mend ...............................zašiť, opraviť 755 worn out ............obnosený, vyčerpaný 755 exhausted ........................... vyčerpaný 755 qualification ..... kvalifikácia, vzdelanie 755 debt ................................................ dlh 756 interrupt .................................. prerušiť 756 interruption ....... prerušenie, výpadok 756 if only …!.............................. kiežby ...! 756 act .................................. čin, správať sa 756 capable ................................... schopný 756 bar ............... tehlička, tabuľka, mreža, ............................................... blokovať 756 lock ...................................... uzamknúť 757 cart ..................................... kára, vozík 757 deceive .................................... sklamať 757 complain ............................ sťažovať sa 757 complaint ............................... sťažnosť 758 either side ......................obidve strany 758 faint ............................... slabý, omdlieť 758 excitement ........................... vzrušenie 758 fear ............................................. strach 759 happen to .............. prihodiť sa, stať sa 759 outwards ......................... smerom von 759 inwards............................ smerom dnu 759 lean.....................oprieť sa, nakloniť sa 759 beneath ......................................... pod 759 give way ................................... povoliť 759 mankind ...................................ľudstvo

759 760 760 760 760 760

mate ...........................kamarát, kamoš zoo..................................................zoo cage ...........................................klietka monkey ....................................... opica ape ...........................................ľudoop closely .........................................blízko

LESSON 137 761 it is not so ......................... nie je to tak 761 so, you have come! ......... tak si prišiel! 761 it so happens .........................náhodou 761 I told you so...............Hovoril som ti to 761 just (exactly) ..............................presne 761 melt ......................................... topiť sa 761 have something to do with … ...... mať ............................... niečo spoločné s ... 762 pick at ....... ďobať (preberať sa v jedle) 762 pick out ......................................vybrať 762 regard.................................. považovať 762 regards ..................................pozdravy 762 greet ..................................... pozdraviť 762 greetings ...............................pozdravy 762 bye-bye ............................... dovidenia 762 see you ................. do skorého videnia 762 scent .............................................vôňa 762 give off ............................ šíriť, vydávať 763 welcome .......................... vítať, privítať 763 go right ................... dariť sa, ísť dobre 763 temper........ sebaovládanie, charakter 763 lose one’s temper ................ prestať sa ................................................. ovládať 763 thoughtful.............. hĺbavý, zamyslený 763 go bad ................................. pokaziť sa 763 by now....................................už, teraz 764 warn .........................................varovať 764 ahead ................................ pred sebou 764 triangle ...............................trojuholník 764 mercy .................................. zľutovanie 764 desire .......................................... túžba 764 ignore .................................nevšímať si 765 upright ............................. vzpriamene 765 lung ................................. pomn. pľúca 765 organ .......................................... orgán 765 seldom ................zriedkavo, málokedy 765 work out......................... riešiť, vyriešiť 765 confusion ................................ zmätok 765 electrical ...........................elektronický 766 advance ............ pokročiť, napredovať, .................................................. pokrok 766 step by step ......................... postupne, .................................... krok za krokom


766 766 766 766 766 767 767

progress ................................zlepšiť sa in advance ................ vopred, popredu in arrears ................................. pozadu cuff ............................. manžeta, rukáv preparation ............................ príprava valley ............................. údolie, dolina injustice ...................... nespravodlivosť

LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten ........................ hrýzť ..................................... (základný tvar) .............................. – hrýzť (minulý čas) ..................... – hrýzť (minulé príčastie) 768 bare ...............................................holý 768 weapon ...................................... zbraň 768 barely .......................................... sotva 768 go back.................................... vrátiť sa ...................... (na miesto, kde sa práve ................................... nenachádzame) 768 come back ............................... vrátiť sa ...................... (na miesto, kde sa práve ....................................... nachádzame) 768 go in ..........................................vstúpiť ...................... (na miesto, kde sa práve ................................... nenachádzame) 768 come in ......................................vstúpiť ...................... (na miesto, kde sa práve ........................................nachádzame) 768 return ...................................... vrátiť sa 768 enter ..........................................vstúpiť 768 descend ...................zostúpiť, zísť dolu 768 overcome...............................prekonať 768 go down ................................. zísť dolu ...................... (na miesto, kde sa práve ................................... nenachádzame) 768 come down ............................ zísť dolu ...................... (na miesto, kde sa práve ........................................nachádzame) 769 case............................................ prípad 769 barrister...................................advokát 770 (just) in case................ (len) pre prípad 770 risk ...............................................riziko 770 run a risk.....................podstúpiť riziko 770 excuse (v)......................... ospravedlniť 770 excuse (n) ....................ospravedlnenie 771 waist .....................................pás, driek 771 waistcoat ..................................... vesta 771 fancy ................................. prepychový, .................. mať na niečo chuť, páčiť sa 771 pint ...............pinta (jednotka objemu) 771 gallon .......... galón (jednotka objemu)

771 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 773 773 773

litre ................................................ liter jealous ...................................... žiarlivý jealousy ................................. žiarlivosť go out with ................ chodiť s niekým fortune ..............veľa peňazí, majetok, ............................................. bohatstvo fortunate .................................. šťastný international ................ medzinárodný mine ............................................ baňa miner ...........................................baník tend ............... zvyknúť, mať tendenciu content (n) .................................obsah content (v or adj) ................ uspokojiť, ............................................... spokojný witness (v) ................................svedčiť, ......................................... byť svedkom

LESSON 139 775 rid ...............................................zbaviť 775 get rid of ................. zbaviť sa niečoho 775 above all ........... predovšetkým, najmä 775 sharp ............................................ostrý 775 blunt ............................................. tupý 775 sharpen .......................brúsiť, nabrúsiť 775 grind – ground – ground .......... brúsiť ..................................... (základný tvar) ............................. – brúsiť (minulý čas) .................... – brúsiť (minulé príčastie) 775 flour.............................................múka 775 wheat .......................................pšenica 776 harm ...........................................ublížiť 776 harmful ...................................škodlivý 776 harmless ............................... neškodný 776 creature ......................................... tvor 777 iron ..............................................žehliť 777 extreme ................................ extrémny 777 reduce .........................................znížiť 777 likely .......................... pravdepodobne 777 unlikely .................. nepravdepodobne 778 do someone a favour .................urobiť ............................... niekomu láskavosť 778 That’s all right ................... To je dobré 778 Not at all ...............................Niet za čo 778 It’s nothing ................................. Za nič 778 You’re welcome ........................Prosím 778 Don’t mention it ........To nestojí za reč 778 No problem ................ Žiadny problém 778 up .......................so slovesom v zmysle ....................... urobiť niečo kompletne ........................... (break up – nalámať)


778 tear – tore – torn .........................trhať ..................................... (základný tvar) .............................. – trhať (minulý čas) ..................... – trhať (príčastie minulé) 779 cheek .............................................. líce 779 cheeky ...........................................drzý 779 pile................................................ klásť 779 one on top of the other ........ jeden na ................................................... druhý 779 heap ............................................ kopa 780 point ...........................................špička 780 freeze – froze – frozen .......... zmrznúť ..................................... (základný tvar) .........................– zmrznúť (minulý čas) ................– zmrznúť (minulé príčastie) 780 nought ..........................................nula 780 zero ...............................................nula 780 Fahrenheit ............ stupeň Fahrenheita 780 insect ........................................... hmyz 780 itch.............................................svrbieť 780 scratch ................................ škriabať sa 780 scrape .........................................odrieť 781 opposition .............................. opozícia LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better...................... ......................... čím skôr ...., tým lepšie 782 responsible ...................... zodpovedný 782 council .......................................... rada 782 scream .......................... kričať, vrieskať 782 fright .......................................... strach 782 frighten ...............................vystrašený 782 horror ..........................................horor 783 mean ........................................lakomý 783 thoughtless .............................sebecký 783 pale .............................................bledý 783 sickness.................choroba, nevoľnosť 784 light – lit – lit .............................zapáliť ..................................... (základný tvar) ........................... – zapáliť (minulý čas) .................. – zapáliť (minulé príčastie) 784 candle ....................................... sviečka 784 failure ................................... neúspech 784 upset ...................... prekaziť, prevrátiť 784 feel upset .....................byť nahnevaný 784 terribly .................. veľmi, expr. strašne 785 wreck ........................................... zničiť 785 misfortune............................. nešťastie 785 shipwreck ............................ stroskotať 785 sale ............................................ predaj 785 for sale .................................. na predaj

785 785 785 785 786 786 787

sales ......................................výpredaje advertisement .......................... inzerát commercial ...........................komerčný rival ........................... súper, konkurent over .........................................viac ako basement ................................ suterén bargain ........................ výhodná kúpa, .................................... zjednávať cenu 787 caution ............................. napomenúť 787 cautiously ................................opatrne 788 rapid ........................................... rýchly LESSON 141 789 deliver ...................................... doručiť 789 mail..............................................pošta 789 beforehand .................. pred, predtým 789 critic ............................................. kritik 789 expect ............ predpokladať, očakávať 789 rely on ........................spoľahnúť sa na 790 fast .............................................rýchlo 790 fasten .................................... pripevniť 790 porter .......................................... nosič 791 a fifty-minute lesson............................ .................. päťdesiatminútová hodina 791 a four-door car ....... štvordverové auto 791 jog .............................................. behať 791 overnight......................cez noc, rýchlo 791 lifestyle ...............................životný štýl 792 mere ...............................čistý, ozajstný 792 nuisance ...............ťažko zvládnuteľný, ........................................nepríjemnosť 792 post .................................................kôl 792 doorpost ................................ zárubňa 792 goal .......................................... bránka 792 dig – dug – dug ......................... kopať ..................................... (základný tvar) .............................– kopať (minulý čas) ....................– kopať (minulé príčastie) 792 postage ................................ poštovné 793 naughty ........... nezbedný, neposlušný 793 punish....................................potrestať 793 fold ......................................... prehnúť 793 native..................................materinský 793 treasure .................................... poklad 793 receipt ................. pokladničný doklad 793 prove .......................................dokázať LESSON 142 795 excuse me..................prepáč/prepáčte 795 I’m sorry ............Je mi ľúto/Mrzí ma to 796 wealthy .................................... bohatý 796 disaster ................. pohroma, nešťastie


796 796 796 797 797 798 798 798 798 798 798 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 801

flood ........................................ záplava then ....................................potom, tak urge ...............................................súriť affair ..................................... záležitosť love affair ...................ľúbostný pomer charm ................................. kúzlo, čaro charming ............................... očarujúci musical .................................. hudobný snake ............................................. had snake charmer............. zaklínač hadov instrument ............................... nástroj latest....................................... najnovší last ......................................... posledný last but one ................... predposledný blackboard ......... tabuľa (píše sa na ňu ............................................... kriedou) whiteboard ............................... tabuľa .........(píše sa na ňu špeciálnou fixkou) chalk .......................................... krieda eyebrow ....................................obočie eyelash ................................. mihalnica eyelid .................................očné viečko lid................................. veko, pokrývka pan ...............................panvica, pekáč favour ........................ uprednostňovať yacht ...........................................jachta hinder .................................... prekážať clothe ................................. obliekať sa endless ...............................nekonečný bunch ............................kytica, strapec grape ........................................ hrozno revolution .............................. revolúcia

LESSON 143 802 resist .......................................... odolať 802 resistance ...................................odpor 803 substantial ...............................výdatný 803 bacon ....................................... slanina 803 toast ........................................ hrianka 803 fry – fried – fried ....................... pražiť ..................................... (základný tvar) ............................. – pražiť (minulý čas) .................... – pražiť (minulé príčastie) 803 approximate...........................približný 803 course ...........................................chod 803 starter ...................................predjedlo 803 main course ......................hlavné jedlo 803 dessert ....................................... dezert 803 dine .........................................stolovať 804 marmalade ........................ marmeláda 804 jam...............................................džem

804 804 804 804 804 804 804 804 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 807 807

pear ...........................................hruška plum ............................................slivka the country ................................krajina rejoice ....................................... tešiť sa victory.................................... víťazstvo shave ........................................ holiť sa razor .......................................... žiletka heal....................................... vyliečiť sa live (v) ...............................................žiť live (adj) ............................. živý, naživo musician ...............................hudobník mild .................................mierny, slabý remark ................................ poznámka look ............................................. výraz stormy .......................................búrlivý proof ..........................................dôkaz saying ..................................... príslovie trap ..............................................pasca pot ........................................... nádoba cooking pot ................................hrniec flowerpot ............................... kvetináč coffee pot ................... kanvica na kávu teapot......................................... čajník in relation to...................... vo vzťahu k relationship .................................vzťah relative ...................................relatívny overweight ...............................obézny at sea .......................................pri mori by sea ...................................... po mori

LESSON 144 809 go past ...................................ísť okolo 809 nearby ........................blízky, neďaleký 810 in season ................................v sezóne 810 out of season ................. mimo sezóny 810 thread................................navliecť, niť 810 needle ............................................ihla 810 sew ................................................... šiť 810 compass...................................kompas 810 injection .................................. injekcia 810 agent .......................................... agent 810 agency ...................................agentúra 811 title .....................................názov, titul 811 champion ..................................... víťaz 811 boxer .......................................... boxer 811 enormous .............................. obrovský 811 belief ............................................viera 811 effort ............................ námaha, úsilie 811 stay in touch with.................... zostať v ................................kontakte s niekým 812 tolerate......................... zniesť, vydržať


812 812 812 812 812 813 813 813 813 813

814 814 814 815

go ahead ................................. ísť ďalej just the same ............... aj tak, rovnako bath ...................................vaňa, kúpeľ bathe ............... kúpať sa (napr. v mori) sunbathe ...........................opaľovať sa cheat................................... podvádzať dip .......................................... namočiť horizon ...................................horizont horizontal ........................ horizontálny feed – fed – fed .......................... kŕmiť ..................................... (základný tvar) ..............................– kŕmiť (minulý čas) .....................– kŕmiť (minulé príčastie) hay ................................................ seno straw........................................... slama stem...........................................stonka development ............................... vývoj

LESSON 145 816 preference ..................obľuba, priazeň 816 cuisine .................................... kuchyňa 816 style ................................................ štýl 816 help yourself ............... obslúžiť sa sám 816 can’t help .................... nemôcť prestať 816 load ................... náklad, nabiť (zbraň) 816 barrel .........................................hlaveň 816 lead .............................. olovená guľka 816 rod .................................................drôt 817 voyage ..............plavba, let do vesmíru 817 space ......................................... vesmír 817 tour............................... okružná jazda 817 tourist ........................................ turista 817 pet ................................ domáce zviera 817 rabbit ...........................................králik 817 run on ...............................fungovať na 817 create .........................spôsobiť, urobiť 818 situated .............................umiestnený 818 cloth .............................................látka 818 convince .............................. presvedčiť 818 try .................................................súdiť 818 set free ................ prepustiť, oslobodiť 818 relieve ....................zmierniť, oslobodiť 818 relief ............................................úľava 818 pill ........................................... tabletka 818 painkiller ............tabletka proti bolesti 819 self ....................... vlastné ja, osobnosť 819 selfish ......................................sebecký 819 self-control ..................... sebakontrola 819 control ....................................kontrola

819 lie – lay – lain ......ležať (základný tvar) ...............................– ležať (minulý čas) ......................– ležať (minulé príčastie) 819 lie – lied – lied . klamať (základný tvar) ........................... – klamať (minulý čas) .................. – klamať (minulé príčastie) 819 lay – laid – laid .............položiť, zniesť, .......................prestrieť (základný tvar) – položiť, zniesť, prestrieť (minulý čas) ....................– položiť, zniesť, prestrieť ................................. (príčastie minulé) 820 tight............................................ pevný 820 tight-fitting ..........................priliehavý 820 loose-fitting ................................voľný 820 airtight .......................... vzduchotesný 820 watertight ...........................vodotesný 820 container ................................. nádoba 820 aim.................................................. cieľ 820 take aim...................................... mieriť 821 damp ........................................... vlhký 821 indeed ........................ naozaj, vskutku 821 emphasis .................................... dôraz 821 jaw .............................................. čeľusť 821 ladder ......................................... rebrík 821 vertical ..................................vertikálny 822 admit ......................................pripustiť 822 take place ....................... uskutočniť sa 822 punishment .................................. trest


English–Spanish Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Spanish vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social............................................social 697 edge .............. filo, borde; acercar(se) / ............................ avanzar poco a poco 697 little by little .....................lentamente, ..........................................poco a poco 697 intend .........tener la intención, pensar ..................................... (en hacer algo) 697 tin .......................lata, estaño, hojalata 697 preserve................................ conservar 697 aluminium ............................. aluminio 698 on average .......................... de media, .......... como promedio/término medio 699 sympathy .............. compasión, lástima 700 reckon .......... creer, considerar, pensar 700 airline ................................... aerolínea 700 horrible ................................ horrible/s 700 anxiety...................................ansiedad 700 anxious ........................ ansioso/a/os/as 700 possession ............................. posesión 701 entertain ..........................recibir como .................................... invitado/a/os/as 701 background...............................fondo, ..........................segundo plano (cosa), .......... historial, experiencia (persona) 701 apply...................... solicitar, aplicar(se) 701 highly ......................... altamente, muy 701 the Browns ......................... los Browns 702 ancient ........................antiguo/a/os/as 702 Egypt ......................................... Egipto 702 degree ........................................ grado 702 angle ........................................ ángulo 702 right angle ......................ángulo recto 702 grade ........................ nota, calificación 702 centigrade ..........................centígrado 702 somewhat .................... algo, un tanto 702 at all ................................. en absoluto, ................................... nada, para nada 703 unity ......................................... unidad LESSON 128 704 confident.......................................con/ .........que tiene confianza o seguridad

704 now that .............................. ahora que 705 agree about ............................estar de ...................................... acuerdo sobre 705 agree that ...............................estar de .................................... acuerdo en que 705 agree to ............... estar de acuerdo en 705 agree with ..........estar de acuerdo con 705 take care .......................tener cuidado, ..............................................cuidar(se) 705 run over ................................atropellar 705 care for ...................................... gustar 706 I dare say .............................. creo que, ................................... me imagino que 706 daring .......................... audacia, coraje 706 require ..........................requerir, exigir 706 conserve ................. ahorrar, conservar 706 eager .......................... ansioso/a/os/as, ...........................................entusiasta/s 706 rub .............................................. frotar 706 rub out ...................................... borrar 706 rubber ........................................ goma 707 face ............................ dar a (un lugar), ........................ estar orientado/a/os/as 707 face to face..........................cara a cara 707 god ................................................ dios 707 thus ........... por lo tanto, de ese modo 708 economize...........economizar, ahorrar 708 involve .....................suponer, consistir, ............................... involucrar, implicar 708 attack..........................................atacar 708 scarcely ..................................... apenas 708 scarce ............................. escaso/a/os/as 709 impression ........................... impresión 709 bury ........................................ enterrar 709 cemetery ........................... cementerio 709 anger .......................................enfadar 709 additional ......................... adicional/es 709 insult (v)....................................insultar 709 insult (n) ....................................insulto 710 madness .....................................locura LESSON 129 712 afraid of................................ miedo de


712 712 712 712 712

712 712 713 713 713 713 713 713 713 713 713 713 714 714 714 714 714 714 715 715 715 715 715 715 716 716 716 716 716 716

afraid that ......... miedo de que + frase afraid to................... miedo de + verbo crash .......................accidente, choque whiskers ............ bigotes de un animal gap ............................. espacio, hueco, .....................‘gap year’ = año sabático ....................................... que se toman .............................algunos estudiantes fence............................................. valla hedge ............................................seto hall.......................... salón, sala grande entrance .............‘entrance hall’ = hall, ................................ vestíbulo, entrada town hall .......................ayuntamiento pool .................. charca/charco; piscina liquid ........................................ líquido indoor.................................. interior/es outdoor .............................. exterior/es indoors ......................................dentro outdoors.................. fuera, al aire libre out of doors ............ fuera, al aire libre knee .......................................... rodilla kneel – knelt – knelt ......... arrodillarse late ........... último/a/os/as, anterior/es, ................................difunto/a, antiguo lately ................................últimamente match ............. combinar, hacer juego, ............................medirse con, partido judo .............................................. judo funeral ...................................... funeral mystery ................................... misterio path ............... camino, senda, sendero insure..................................... asegurar insurance .................................. seguro theft .............................................robo throne .........................................trono annoy ...........molestar, irritar, fastidiar fly............................................... mosca fall asleep ............................. quedarse ................................... dormido/a/os/as sore........................... dolorido/a/os/as, ..................................... irritado/a/os/as design (v)..................................diseñar

LESSON 130 718 compound ............. compuesto/a/os/as 719 currency....................... divisa, moneda 719 unit ........................................... unidad 719 penny ..................................... penique 719 pence....... plural de ‘penny’ (penique) .. cuando se habla del valor del dinero

720 slow down ...............reducir velocidad, .............................................. ralentizar 720 speed up..................................acelerar 720 in addition to ..................... además de 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. .................................................prohibir 720 peculiar .............................. peculiar/es 720 peculiarity ....................... peculiaridad 721 suffix ...........................................sufijo 721 either of them .....................cualquiera .............................................de ellos/as 721 neither of them ......................ninguno .............................................de ellos/as 721 screw ........................................tornillo 721 screwdriver ....................destornillador 722 maximum ................................máximo 722 minimum ................................. mínimo 722 point ......................sentido, propósito, .................................... punto, cuestión 722 essay ............. redacción, composición, .....................................trabajo, ensayo 722 paragraph ................................párrafo 722 pad ................. acolchar, tener relleno, .......................................... almohadilla 722 cotton wool .................algodón, guata 722 absorb ................................... absorber 722 reach out .................extender la mano 723 scale ............................................escala 723 corner ......... acorralar; esquina, rincón LESSON 131 724 chance .............................oportunidad 724 by chance .....................por casualidad 725 take hold of ....................... agarrarse a 725 take by surprise ...... pillar por sorpresa 725 take a look............... echar una ojeada 725 second-hand ............... segunda mano 725 temptation ........................... tentación 725 dishonest ............. deshonesto/a/os/as, ..............................fraudulento/a/os/as 725 view .............................................. vista 725 hide – hid – hidden ..............esconder 726 liar .................................... mentiroso/a 726 pay attention ............ prestar atención 726 detail ........................................ detalle 727 sweat ...........................................sudar 727 nervous ......................nervioso/a/os/as 727 underneath .............................. debajo 727 unlike............................a diferencia de 727 wander ......................................pasear 727 distinguish ............................ distinguir


727 a while ......................................un rato LESSON 132 729 still ........................................... todavía 729 yet.......................................todavía, ya 729 annoyance................molestia, fastidio 730 according to ...............................según 730 in my opinion ............... en mi opinión, ..........................................a mi parecer 730 band ............. pandilla, grupo musical, ................................. banda de música, .................................. banda (material) 730 disturbance ...........alboroto, disturbio 730 military ..................................militar/es 731 link...............vínculo, conexión, enlace 731 browse...............navegar por internet, ...................curiosear, echar un ojeada 731 carriage ........................vagón de tren, ...................................... carro, carruaje 731 invention ..............................invención 731 explanation ........................explicación 732 about ....................... sobre, en, por ahí 732 for days and days ................. (durante) ...............................un montón de días 732 what about (you) ....................... ¿y tú? 732 bitter ..........................amargo/a/os/as, ................................. resentido/a/os/as, .................................amargado/a/os/as 732 dissatisfaction ................ descontento, ........................................insatisfacción 733 neat ........................ ordenado/a/os/as, ................................. arreglado/a/os/as 733 poverty ................................... pobreza 733 admire .....................................admirar 733 admiration......................... admiración 733 generous .................. generoso/a/os/as LESSON 133 736 hitchhike .......................... hacer dedo, .....................................hacer autostop 736 dear ............................querido/a/os/as, ................. valioso/a/os/as, caro/a/os/as 736 easy ............... cómodo/a/os/as, fácil/es 736 ease ............................ aliviar, facilidad 736 at ease ......................................a gusto 736 ill at ease ................. incómodo/a/os/as 737 to be obliged............................... verse ...................................obligado/a/os/as 737 steal .............................................robar 737 rob ...............................................robar 737 robbery.........................................robo 737 thief ............................. ladrón/ladrona

737 mask ........................... máscara, careta 738 handle ......................... manejar, tratar, .................................. picaporte, pomo 738 gentle ...................................... suave/s, ....................................delicado/a/os/as 738 hand-in-hand ................... de la mano 738 arm-in-arm .......................... del brazo 738 custom ................................ costumbre 738 girlfriend .....................................novia 738 boyfriend ....................................novio 739 enable .................... capacitar, permitir 739 instruction ..........................instrucción 739 booklet ...................................... folleto 739 tender.......................... blando/a/os/as, ........................................tierno/a/os/as 739 tough................................duro/a/os/as 739 lovingly .............................con ternura, ..................................... cariñosamente LESSON 134 741 in my view ..................... en mi opinión 741 from my point of view ......................... .......................desde mi punto de vista 741 if you ask me ..........si quieres saber mi ...................................opinión, para mí 741 as far as I’m concerned ................en lo ...................que a mí respecta, para mí 742 clockwise ....................en el sentido de ................................las agujas del reloj 742 anticlockwise...................... en sentido ............. contrario a las agujas del reloj 742 symbol .....................................símbolo 742 @ = at ................................ @ = arroba 742 . = dot ................................... . = punto 742 inquire (or enquire)............ preguntar, ............................... pedir información, ............................................ informarse 742 inquiry (or enquiry) ............. pregunta, ........................................ investigación 742 escape ..................................... escapar 742 prisoner ............................ prisionero/a 743 regret .............. arrepentirse, lamentar 743 wipe............................................. secar 743 forehead.....................................frente 743 towel .......................................... toalla 743 interest ......................................interés 743 shares .....................................acciones 743 tidiness ....................................... orden 744 preferable ......................... preferible/s 744 largely........ en gran o en buena parte, .........................................mayormente


744 quality ...................................... calidad 745 may as well .............................. mejor + ............................. hacer/no hacer algo 745 might as well ........................... mejor + ............................. hacer/no hacer algo 745 on account of ......................a causa de 745 energetic ................ energético/a/os/as 745 breath ................... aliento, respiración 745 breathe .................................... respirar 745 out of breath ......................sin aliento, ...................................... sin respiración 745 through .........................por medio de, ................................. por causa de, por 746 clothing ........................................ ropa LESSON 135 748 to take into account ....................tener ..............................................en cuenta 748 tip ................................ punta, propina 748 make up your mind ............... decidirse 748 delicate .......................delicado/a/os/as 748 observe...................................observar 748 observation ...................... observación 749 historic........................histórico/a/os/as 749 paw ........................... pata (de animal) 749 claw ..................................garra, zarpa 749 wooden .............................. de madera 749 hut ................................ cabaña, choza 749 woollen ....................................de lana 749 silken ........................... sedoso/a/os/as, ........................................ como la seda 749 golden ..........................dorado/a/os/as 750 every other day ............. cada dos días, ..................................(en) días alternos 750 assist .............................. ayudar, asistir 750 assistant........................dependiente/a .................................. (de un comercio) 750 pushchair........... silla/sillita (de niño/a) 750 otherwise ...................... por lo demás, ....................................... aparte de eso 750 engaged .................... ocupado/a/os/as 750 perform .......................actuar, ejecutar 750 performance ........................actuación 750 trick ............................................. truco 750 magic ............................mágico/a/os/as 751 envy ..........................................envidia 751 envious .....................envidioso/a/os/as 751 celebrity.............................. celebridad 751 fame ............................................ fama 751 advice (n) ................................. consejo 751 advise (v) .............................. aconsejar

751 751 751 751 751 751 752 752 752 752 752 752 752 752

practice (n) .............................. práctica practise (v) ..............................practicar licence (n) .................................licencia license (v)...........conceder una licencia record (n)................................... récord record (v) ...................... anotar, grabar scatter ................esparcir, dispersar(se) plant .........................................plantar row ...................................... fila, hilera disorderly ..........desordenado/a/os/as, ............................... alborotado/a/os/as tap .................dar un toque/golpecito, ................................(water) tap = grifo turn on .........................abrir (un grifo) pollution...... contaminación, polución polluted ..............contaminado/a/os/as

LESSON 136 754 slight.................... leve/s, ligero/a/os/as 754 upside down ........al revés, boca abajo 754 right way up ......... la posición correcta 755 feather....................................... pluma 755 wear ................ desgastar, wear a hole ......= hacer un agujero (por desgaste) 755 sleeve........................................ manga 755 mend ..........................coser, remendar 755 worn out ..................exhausto/a/os/as, ............................ muy cansado/a/os/as 755 exhausted .................exhausto/a/os/as 755 qualification ................................título 755 debt ........................................... deuda 756 interrupt ............................interrumpir 756 interruption .................... interrupción 756 if only …!........................¡ojalá! ¡si por ................................ lo menos + verbo! 756 act ........................................ actuar, act 756 capable ......................... capaz/capaces 756 bar ..............................prohibir, excluir, ...................... bloquear, barrote, barra 756 lock ............................. cerrar con llave, ....................................cerrar bajo llave 757 cart ................................. carro, carreta 757 deceive ...................................engañar 757 complain ................................quejarse 757 complaint ................................... queja 758 either side ....................... ambos lados 758 faint .......................desmayarse, leve/s, ........................................ ligero/a/os/as 758 excitement ......................... excitación, ...........................................entusiasmo 758 fear ............................................ miedo


759 happen to ................ dar la casualidad ..................................... de que + verbo 759 outwards ........................ hacia afuera, ....................................hacia el exterior 759 inwards......................... hacia adentro, .................................... hacia el interior 759 lean.......................inclinarse, apoyarse 759 beneath ........................................ bajo 759 give way ......................................ceder 759 mankind ............................humanidad 759 mate ...........................amigo/a, colega 760 zoo..................................................zoo 760 cage ..............................................jaula 760 monkey ...................................... mono 760 ape .............................................. simio 760 closely .......................... estrechamente LESSON 137 761 it is not so ........ no es así, no es verdad 761 so, you have come! ...................¡o sea, ................................... que has venido! 761 it so happens ..............da la casualidad .................................................. de que 761 I told you so.................. ya te lo dije yo 761 just (exactly) ........... justamente, justo, ........................................ exactamente 761 melt ................................... derretir(se) 761 have something to do with … .... tener ........................................ algo que ver, ...........................estar relacionado con 762 pick at ...............comer con poca gana, ................................................ picotear 762 pick out ...................elegir, seleccionar 762 regard..................................considerar 762 regards .................................... saludos 762 greet .........................................saludar 762 greetings ................................. saludos 762 bye-bye ....................................... adiós 762 see you ..............................hasta luego 762 scent .................................. olor, aroma 762 give off .............con ‘scent’ = despedir, ................................. soltar aroma/olor 763 welcome .....dar la bienvenida (verbo), ...............bienvenido/a/os/as (adjetivo) 763 go right ..................................... ir bien 763 temper.............carácter, genio, humor 763 lose one’s temper .......perder la calma ........................................ o los estribos 763 thoughtful................pensativo/a/os/as 763 go bad .................. con ‘food’ (comida) .....................................= ponerse mala

763 by now...................... para estas horas, .................................. para estas fechas 764 warn ........................................advertir 764 ahead .................................... adelante 764 triangle ..................................triángulo 764 mercy ..............clemencia, misericordia 764 desire .......................................... deseo 764 ignore .......................................ignorar 765 upright .......................erguido/a/os/as, .................................... derecho/a/os/as 765 lung ......................................... pulmón 765 organ ........................................órgano 765 seldom ....................................rara vez, ........................ pocas veces, casi nunca 765 work out..............................solucionar 765 confusion .............................confusión 765 electrical .....................eléctrico/a/os/as 766 advance ...................... avanzar, avance 766 step by step ...................... paso a paso 766 progress ................ avanzar, progresar 766 in advance .................. por adelantado 766 in arrears ........... cobrar a mes vencido 766 cuff ..................... puño de una manga 766 preparation ...................... preparación 767 valley ............................................ valle 767 injustice ................................. injusticia LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten .....................morder 768 bare ...................................... desnudo, ......................... descubierto, descalzo; ....................................‘bare minimum’ ...................... = justo lo imprescindible 768 weapon ....................................... arma 768 barely ....................................... apenas 768 go back........................ volver/regresar ............................................... a un sitio 768 come back ................... volver/regresar .............................................de un sitio 768 go in ...........................................entrar 768 come in .......................................entrar 768 return ..................................... regresar 768 enter ...........................................entrar 768 descend ...............................descender 768 overcome..................... superar, vencer 768 go down ....................bajar, descender 768 come down ...............bajar, descender 769 case................................................caso 769 barrister..............................abogado/a 770 (just) in case.......................por si acaso 770 risk ..............................................riesgo


770 770 770 771 771 771 771 771 771 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 773 773 773

run a risk.....................correr un riesgo excuse (v).............. disculpar, perdonar excuse (n) ..................excusa, pretexto waist ......................................... cintura waistcoat ................................. chaleco fancy ......................................apetecer, ..................... gustar alguien a alguien, ..................................... muy elaborada pint .............................................. pinta gallon ......................................... galón litre ................................................ litro jealous .......................... celoso/a/os/as, ..................................envidioso/a/os/as jealousy ..........................celos, envidia go out with .............salir con (alguien) fortune .................................... fortuna fortunate ...............afortunado/a/os/as international ..............internacional/es mine .............................................mina miner ..................................... minero/a tend .......................................... tender, .................................tener tendencia a content (n) .......................... contenido content (v or adj) ......contento/a/os/as witness (v) .....................ser testigo de, .............................................presenciar

LESSON 139 775 rid ..................................deshacerse de 775 get rid of .......................deshacerse de 775 above all .............................sobre todo 775 sharp ............................ afilado/a/os/as 775 blunt ....................... desafilado/a/os/as 775 sharpen ....................................... afilar 775 grind – ground – ground ..........moler, ..................................................... afilar 775 flour........................................... harina 775 wheat ...........................................trigo 776 harm ........................hacer daño, daño 776 harmful ........................nocivo/a/os/as, ........................................ perjudicial/es 776 harmless ..................inofensivo/a/os/as 776 creature ................................... criatura 777 iron ........................................ planchar 777 extreme .....................extremo/a/os/as, ............................. muy intenso/a/os/as 777 reduce ...................................... reducir 777 likely ......................................probable 777 unlikely ..............................improbable 778 do someone a favour ...............hacerle ................................ un favor a alguien

778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 779 779 779 779 779 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 781

That’s all right ........................ de nada Not at all ................................. de nada It’s nothing ............................. de nada You’re welcome ..................... de nada Don’t mention it .................... de nada No problem ............................ de nada up ..............................completamente, ........................................muchas veces tear – tore – torn .........romper, rasgar cheek ......................................... mejilla cheeky ....................descarado/a/os/as, .................................... atrevido/a/os/as pile..........................amontonar, apilar, .........................................montón, pila one on top of the other ....................... ........................uno/a encima de otro/a heap ................................montón, pila point ............................... punta, punto freeze – froze – frozen ........ helar(se), ..........................................congelar(se) nought ..........................................cero zero ...............................................cero Fahrenheit .......................... Fahrenheit insect ........................................ insecto itch............................ picar, tener picor scratch .................................. rascar(se) scrape ........................ raspar, restregar opposition ............................ oposición

LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better...................... .............................. cuanto antes mejor 782 responsible ..................... responsible/s 782 council ...........................ayuntamiento 782 scream ............................. gritar, chillar 782 fright ...............................miedo, susto 782 frighten .............................. asustar(se) 782 horror ........................................ horror 783 mean ........................... tacaño/a/os/as, ................................ mezquino/a/os/as, ......................................... malo/a/os/as 783 thoughtless .......................................... ........................desconsiderado/a/os/as 783 pale ............................... pálido/a/os/as 783 sickness............................ enfermedad 784 light – lit – lit ......... encender, iluminar 784 candle ............................................ vela 784 failure ............................apagón, corte ............(de luz, agua,…), fallo, fracaso 784 upset ........... alterar, afectar, derramar 784 feel upset . sentirse disgustado/a/os/as


784 terribly .......................... terriblemente, .......................................................muy 785 wreck .....................arruinar, destrozar, ................................... echar por tierra 785 misfortune............................ desgracia 785 shipwreck .............................naufragio 785 sale ..............................................venta 785 for sale .................. a la venta, en venta 785 sales ..........................................rebajas 785 advertisement .........................anuncio 785 commercial .......................comercial/es 785 rival ................................................rival 786 over .......................................... más de 786 basement ..................................sótano 787 bargain ...........regatear, ganga, oferta 787 caution ................................... advertir, ................................llamar la atención, ............................................ amonestar 787 cautiously ......................... con cautela, ................................... cautelosamente 788 rapid ............................. rápido/a/os/as, ....................................... veloz/veloces LESSON 141 789 deliver .....................entregar, repartir, ............................................pronunciar 789 mail............................................ correo 789 beforehand ...................de antemano, .................................. con anticipación, ......................................con antelación 789 critic ............................................crítico 789 expect ...................................... esperar 789 rely on .............. contar con, confiar en 790 fast ............................ profundamente 790 fasten .............................. abrochar(se) 790 porter ....................................maletero 791 a fifty-minute lesson.......... clase de 50 ................................................ minutos 791 a four-door car ...................... coche de ...................................... cuatro puertas 791 jog ..................................hacer footing 791 overnight...........................de la noche ..........................................a la mañana 791 lifestyle .......................... estilo de vida, .......................................... tren de vida 792 mere ................. simple/s, mero/a/os/as 792 nuisance ................... fastidio, incordio 792 post ................. poste, empleo, puesto 792 doorpost ................ jamba (de puerta) 792 goal .......................gol, meta, objetivo 792 dig – dug – dug ............ cavar, excavar

792 793 793 793 793 793 793 793

postage ................................ franqueo naughty .......................travieso/a/os/as punish...................................... castigar fold ............................................ doblar native...................................materno/a treasure ..................................... tesoro receipt ........................................recibo prove ...................... demostrar, probar

LESSON 142 795 excuse me....... ¡perdón!, ¡perdona/e!, ...........................................¡disculpa/e! 795 I’m sorry ............ ¡lo siento!, ¡perdón!, .....................¡perdona/e!, ¡disculpa/e! 796 wealthy ..............................rico/a/os/as 796 disaster ................................... desastre 796 flood ........................ inundación, riada 796 then .......................entonces, después, ........................................... en ese caso 796 urge .................. instar, animar, alentar 797 affair ......................................... asunto 797 love affair ......... aventura amorosa, lío 798 charm ..................................... encanto 798 charming ...............encantador/a/os/as 798 musical ................................ musical/es 798 snake .................................... serpiente 798 snake charmer...........encantador/a de .............................................serpientes 798 instrument ...................... instrumento 799 latest.......... anterior/es, último/a/os/as 799 last ................................. último/a/os/as 799 last but one .............penúltimo/a/os/as 799 blackboard .............. pizarra, encerado ................................... (de color negro) 799 whiteboard ...................pizarra blanca 799 chalk ...............................................tiza 799 eyebrow ........................................ ceja 799 eyelash ....................................pestaña 799 eyelid ......................................párpado 799 lid..................................tapa, tapadera 799 pan ........................... cazuela, cacerola 800 favour ...................................favorecer, .......................... tratar con favoritismo 800 yacht ..................................yate, velero 800 hinder ................ dificultar, entorpecer 800 clothe .................................... vestir(se) 800 endless ......................... interminable/s 800 bunch ............................. ramo, racimo 800 grape .............................................. uva 801 revolution ............................revolución


LESSON 143 802 resist .......................................... resistir 802 resistance ............................resistencia 803 substantial ............sustancioso/a/os/as, ...................................... considerable/s 803 bacon ............................ bacon, tocino 803 toast ........................................ tostada 803 fry – fried – fried ..........................freír 803 approximate.........aproximado/a/os/as 803 course .......................................... plato 803 starter .............. entrante, primer plato 803 main course .................. plato principal 803 dessert ....................................... postre 803 dine .............................................cenar 804 marmalade ......mermelada de naranja 804 jam..................................... mermelada 804 pear .............................................. pera 804 plum ..........................................ciruela 804 the country ........................... el campo, .......................... el pueblo (de un país) 804 rejoice ...................... alegrarse mucho, ............................................regocijarse 804 victory.......................................victoria 804 shave ................................... afeitar(se) 804 razor ........................................cuchilla, .............................maquinillade afeitar 804 heal.............................. cicatrizar, curar 805 live (v) ............................................ vivir 805 live (adj) ............... vivo/a/os/as, en vivo 805 musician ................................ músico/a 805 mild .................... leve/s, ligero/a/os/as, .................... templado/a/os/as, suave/s 805 remark ......... comentario, observación 805 look ..............................expresión, aire 805 stormy .................. tormentoso/a/os/as 805 proof ........................................prueba 806 saying ..............................refrán, dicho 806 trap ...........................................trampa 806 pot ........nombre genérico de distintos ................ tipos de vasijas y recipientes 806 cooking pot ....................................olla 806 flowerpot ......................maceta, tiesto 806 coffee pot ............................... cafetera 806 teapot.........................................tetera 806 in relation to................en relación con 806 relationship .............................relación 806 relative ........................ relativo/a/os/as 806 overweight .........................demasiado ........................................gordo/a/os/as 807 at sea ....................................en el mar, ............................... embarcado/a/os/as

807 by sea ....................................en barco, .............................................por el mar LESSON 144 809 go past ................................. pasar por 809 nearby ......................................... cerca 810 in season ............................ del tiempo 810 out of season ......fuera de temporada 810 thread................ enhebrar, hebra, hilo 810 needle ........................................ aguja 810 sew .............................................. coser 810 compass......................compás, brújula 810 injection ................................inyección 810 agent ........................................ agente 810 agency ..................................... agencia 811 title ..............................................título 811 champion ...................... campeón/ona 811 boxer .................................boxeador/a 811 enormous ............................. enorme/s 811 belief ...................................... creencia 811 effort ......................................esfuerzo 811 stay in touch with............. mantenerse ....................................en contacto con 812 tolerate......................................tolerar 812 go ahead .................... seguir adelante ................................................con algo 812 just the same ......... exactamente igual 812 bath ................................baño, bañera 812 bathe .......................... bañar(se), lavar 812 sunbathe ...........................tomar el sol 813 cheat................. copiar en un examen, .......................................hacer trampa, ................................ tramposo/a/os/as, ................................embustero/a/os/as 813 dip ...............mojar algo en algo, bajar 813 horizon .................................horizonte 813 horizontal ....................... horizontal/es 813 feed – fed – fed ............. alimentar(se) 814 hay ............................................... heno 814 straw..............................................paja 814 stem.............................................. tallo 815 development ....................... desarrollo LESSON 145 816 preference ......................... preferencia 816 cuisine ........................ cocina (tipo de) 816 style ............................................. estilo 816 help yourself ................... servirse algo 816 can’t help ................... no poder evitar 816 load ................................. cargar, carga 816 barrel ..........................................cañón .........................(de un arma de fuego)


816 lead ........................................... plomo 816 rod ..............varilla, barra, ‘fishing rod’ ...................................= caña de pescar 817 voyage .......................................... viaje .......................(por el mar o el espacio) 817 space ....................................... espacio 817 tour...................................... gira, visita 817 tourist ........................................ turista 817 pet ............................. mascota, animal ....................doméstico o de compañía 817 rabbit .........................................conejo 817 run on ............................ funcionar con 817 create ............................ crear, generar 818 situated ....................... situado/a/os/as 818 cloth ..................... tejido, género, tela 818 convince .............................. convencer 818 try .............................................. juzgar 818 set free ........dejar o poner en libertad 818 relieve ............................ aliviar, relevar 818 relief ....... alivio, relevo, ayuda, auxilio 818 pill ................................pastilla, píldora 818 painkiller ........... calmante, analgésico 819 self ............. personalidad, el sí mismo, .......................................... el propio yo 819 selfish .................................... egoista/s 819 self-control ..... dominio de sí mismo/a, .......................................... autocontrol 819 control ...................................... control 819 lie – lay – lain ..............................yacer, ......................... estar tumbado/a/os/as 819 lie – lied – lied ...........................mentir 819 lay – laid – laid ............colocar, tender, ............................... poner con cuidado 820 tight.......................... ajustado/a/os/as, .................................. apretado/a/os/as 820 tight-fitting ..................ceñido/a/os/as, ................................... ajustado/a/os/as 820 loose-fitting ..................suelto/a/os/as, ......................................... flojo/a/os/as, ....................................holgado/a/os/as 820 airtight .................... hermético/a/os/as 820 watertight ............... hermético/a/os/as 820 container ................ recipiente, envase 820 aim........................ objetivo, propósito 820 take aim......... apuntar, hacer puntería 821 damp ..........................húmedo/a/os/as 821 indeed ................................realmente, .................................. verdaderamente 821 emphasis .................................. énfasis 821 jaw ...................................... mandíbula 821 ladder ...................... escalera de mano

821 822 822 822

vertical ...................................... vertical admit ........................................admitir take place ............ tener lugar, suceder punishment .............................. castigo


English–Turkish Vocabulary Book

Stage 9

English in a quarter of the time!


STAGE 9 Turkish vocabulary LESSON 127 697 social........................................... sosyal 697 edge ........................................... kenar 697 little by little ..........................azar azar 697 intend .............................. niyetlenmek 697 tin ............................................. teneke 697 preserve................................. korumak 697 aluminium ......................... alüminyum 698 on average ............................ortalama 699 sympathy .................................sempati 700 reckon .........................hesaba katmak 700 airline ................................... hava yolu 700 horrible ........................... dehşet verici 700 anxiety....................................... merak 700 anxious .....................................meraklı 700 possession .......................... sahip olma 701 entertain ............................. ağırlamak 701 background.......................... arka plan 701 apply.................................. uygulamak 701 highly ....................................yüksekçe 701 the Browns ...................... Brown Ailesi 702 ancient .......................................... eski 702 Egypt ............................................Mısır 702 degree .......................................derece 702 angle ............................................... açı 702 right angle ........................... doğru açı 702 grade .........................................derece 702 centigrade ............................. santigrat 702 somewhat ............................bir miktar 702 at all ...................................... tamamen 703 unity .............................................birlik LESSON 128 704 confident....................................... gizli 704 now that ...............................madem ki 705 agree about .............. mutabık kalmak 705 agree that ....................... kabul etmek 705 agree to .............yapmayı kabul etmek 705 agree with .............. ile mutabık olmak 705 take care ........................dikkatli olmak 705 run over ...................... arabayla ezmek 705 care for ................................ilgilenmek 706 I dare say .............................. sanırım ki

706 706 706 706 706 706 706 707 707 707 707 708 708 708 708 708 709 709 709 709 709 709 709 710

daring ..................................... cüretkar require .......................... gerek duymak conserve ................................ korumak eager .......................................... istekli rub .............................................ovmak rub out ...................................... silmek rubber ........................................... silgi face ................................................. yüz face to face.............................yüz yüze god ...............................................Tanrı thus .....................................dolayısıyla economize............... idareli kullanmak involve .....................................içermek attack....................................saldırmak scarcely ...................................güç bela scarce ........................................... nadir impression ................................izlenim bury ....................................... gömmek cemetery ................................... mezar anger ............................................ öfke additional ................................ilaveten insult (v)............................. aşağılamak insult (n) .................................. hakaret madness .................................. çılgınlık

LESSON 129 712 afraid of...................... ...’den korkmak 712 afraid that ......................... korkarım ki 712 afraid to...................’maktan korkmak 712 crash .................................... çarpışmak 712 whiskers .......................................sakal 712 gap ............................................boşluk 712 fence................................................. çit 712 hedge ............................................... çit 713 hall.................................... büyük salon 713 entrance ........................................ giriş 713 town hall ..................... belediye binası 713 pool ............................................ havuz 713 liquid ...............................................sıvı 713 indoor.................................... iç mekan 713 outdoor ............................... dış mekan 713 indoors ......................................içeride 713 outdoors..................................dışarıda


713 714 714 714 714 714 714 715 715 715 715 715 715 716 716 716 716 716 716

out of doors ..................... açık havada knee ................................................diz kneel – knelt – knelt ......... diz çökmek late ................................................. geç lately ...........................son zamanlarda match ............................................ maç judo .............................................. judo funeral ...................................... cenaze mystery .......................................gizem path .....................................yol, patika insure............................. sigorta etmek insurance .................................. sigorta theft ........................................ hırsızlık throne ........................................... taht annoy ..................... rahatsızlık vermek fly...............................................uçmak fall asleep ................................uyumak sore.............................................. ağrılı design (v)............................tasarlamak

LESSON 130 718 compound ................................. bileşik 719 currency.............................. para birimi 719 unit .............................................. birim 719 penny ........................................... peni 719 pence............................................ pens 720 slow down ......................... yavaşlamak 720 speed up..............................hızlanmak 720 in addition to ............. ...’e ilave olarak 720 forbid – forbade – forbidden .............. ...........................................yasaklamak 720 peculiar ...............................olağandışı 720 peculiarity ...................... alışılmamışlık 721 suffix ......................................... son ek 721 either of them .......................... onların .........................................herhangi biri 721 neither of them ............ onların hiç biri 721 screw .............................................vida 721 screwdriver ...........................tornavida 722 maximum ................................... azami 722 minimum ....................................asgari 722 point ........................................... nokta 722 essay .........................................makale 722 paragraph ..............................paragraf 722 pad ................................................ ped 722 cotton wool ...................... ham pamuk 722 absorb ..................................... emmek 722 reach out ................................ ulaşmak 723 scale ...........................................derece 723 corner ........................................... köşe

LESSON 131 724 chance ...........................................şans 724 by chance ............................. şans eseri 725 take hold of ..........................kavramak 725 take by surprise ..................... şaşırmak 725 take a look......................... bir bakmak 725 second-hand ............................ikinci el 725 temptation ................................ cazibe 725 dishonest .................... dürüst olmayan 725 view ....................................... manzara 725 hide – hid – hidden ............. saklamak 726 liar .............................................yalancı 726 pay attention ................. dikkat etmek 726 detail ...........................................detay 727 sweat ..................................... terlemek 727 nervous ....................................... sinirli 727 underneath ............................ alt kısım 727 unlike...............................benzemeyen 727 wander .................................dolaşmak 727 distinguish ......................... ayırdetmek 727 a while ......................................bir süre LESSON 132 729 still .................................................hala 729 yet.............................................. henüz 729 annoyance........................... rahatsızlık 730 according to ........................buna göre 730 in my opinion ............................ benim .................................. düşünceme göre 730 band ................................... grup /bant 730 disturbance ......................... rahatsızlık 730 military ....................................... askeri 731 link.......................................... bağlantı 731 browse................................ göz atmak 731 carriage .........................................taşıt 731 invention .....................................buluş 731 explanation ........................... açıklama 732 about .................................... hakkında 732 for days and days ....... günler boyunca 732 what about (you) .................. (senden) ............................................... ne haber 732 bitter ............................... acı (çikolata) 732 dissatisfaction ......... memnuniyetsizlik 733 neat ..........................................düzenli 733 poverty ..................................... fakirlik 733 admire ........................... hayran olmak 733 admiration.............................hayranlık 733 generous .................................. cömert LESSON 133 736 hitchhike .................................otostop 736 dear ............................................sevgili


736 736 736 736 737 737 737 737 737 737 738 738 738 738 738 738 738 739 739 739 739 739 739

easy ............................................. kolay ease ..............................kolaylaştırmak at ease ..................................... huzurlu ill at ease ...............................huzursuz to be obliged................ zorunlu olmak steal ............................ çalmak (bir şey) rob ............................. soymak (birisini) robbery.....................................soygun thief ............................................. hırsız mask .......................................... maske handle .................................. ele almak gentle .......................................... nazik hand-in-hand ............................. el ele arm-in-arm .............................kol kola custom ........................... gelenek, adet girlfriend ........................... kız arkadaş boyfriend ......................erkek arkadaş enable ......................... olanak vermek instruction ................................ talimat booklet .................................... kitapçık tender............................................taze tough..........................................pişmiş lovingly ....................................sevgi ile

LESSON 134 741 in my view ................................. benim .................................... görüşüme göre 741 from my point of view .............. benim ...................................... bakış açımdan 741 if you ask me ............................... bana ..................................soracak olursanız 741 as far as I’m concerned ............. bilgim .................................. olduğu kadarıyla 742 clockwise ........................saat yönünde 742 anticlockwise..... saat yönünün tersine 742 symbol ......................................sembol 742 @ = at...........................................@= et 742 . = dot .................................... . = nokta 742 inquire (or enquire)......... soruşturmak 742 inquiry (or enquiry) ........... soruşturma 742 escape ..................................... kaçmak 742 prisoner ................................. mahkum 743 regret ............................pişman olmak 743 wipe........................................... silmek 743 forehead.........................................alın 743 towel ...........................................havlu 743 interest .............................ortaklık payı 743 shares ...........................................hisse 743 tidiness .................................düzenlilik 744 preferable ................... tercih edilebilir 744 largely..................................... büyükçe

744 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 745 746

quality .........................................kalite may as well .................................... bari might as well ................................. bari on account of ......................dolayısıyla energetic .................................. enerjik breath ..........................................nefes breathe ............................. nefes almak out of breath .............. nefessiz kalmak through .................................... yoluyla clothing .........................................giysi

LESSON 135 748 to take into account ......dikkate almak 748 tip .............................hafifçe dokunma 748 make up your mind ........ karar vermek 748 delicate ...................................... hassas 748 observe.......................... gözlemlemek 748 observation ............................. gözlem 749 historic......................................... tarihi 749 paw .............................hayvan pençesi 749 claw .............................. hayvan tırmığı 749 wooden ...................................... ahşap 749 hut ............................................ kulübe 749 woollen ................................... yünden 749 silken ....................................... ipekten 749 golden .................................... altından 750 every other day ............... iki günde bir 750 assist ............................ yardımcı olmak 750 assistant.................................. yardımcı 750 pushchair............... tekerlekli sandalye 750 otherwise ............................ aksi halde 750 engaged ............................dahil olmuş 750 perform ......................gerçekleştirmek 750 performance .....................performans 750 trick ................................................hile 750 magic ............................................. sihir 751 envy .................................... kıskanmak 751 envious .....................................kıskanç 751 celebrity.................................. ünlü kişi 751 fame ................................................ ün 751 advice (n) ...................................tavsiye 751 advise (v) .............tavsiyede bulunmak 751 practice (n) .............................alıştırma 751 practise (v) .................... pratik yapmak 751 licence (n) .................................. ruhsat 751 license (v)...................... ruhsat vermek 751 record (n)...................................... kayıt 751 record (v) ............................kaydetmek 752 scatter ................................... dağıtmak 752 plant ..........................................ekmek 752 row ................................................. sıra


752 752 752 752 752

disorderly .............düzensiz bir şekilde tap ............................... hafifçe vurmak turn on ...................................... açmak pollution..................................... kirlilik polluted ................................. kirlenmiş

LESSON 136 754 slight............................................. hafif 754 upside down .........................baş aşağı 754 right way up .................. doğru şekilde 755 feather.............................................tüy 755 wear .........................................giymek 755 sleeve.................................... kol (giysi) 755 mend ................................tamir etmek 755 worn out ..................................aşınmış 755 exhausted .................................. bitkin 755 qualification ...............................nitelik 755 debt ...............................................borç 756 interrupt ............................ ara vermek 756 interruption .............................. kesinti 756 if only …!................... şayet sadece …! 756 act ............................................... eylem 756 capable ..................................muktedir 756 bar ................................................kalıp 756 lock .................................................kilit 757 cart .................................... yük arabası 757 deceive ............................... kandırmak 757 complain ....................... şikayet etmek 757 complaint ..................................şikayet 758 either side ........................ her bir taraf 758 faint .................................. az miktarda 758 excitement ............................. heyecan 758 fear ............................................. korku 759 happen to .................... başına gelmek 759 outwards ...................... dışarıya doğru 759 inwards........................... içeriye doğru 759 lean......................................dayanmak 759 beneath ................................... aşağıda 759 give way ..................................kırılmak 759 mankind ................................ insaniyet 759 mate ........................................ arkadaş 760 zoo............................hayvanat bahçesi 760 cage ............................................. kafes 760 monkey ................................. maymun 760 ape ........................................ maymun 760 closely ........................ yakın bir şekilde LESSON 137 761 it is not so ................... bu şekilde değil 761 so, you have come! ..........ve, geldiniz! 761 it so happens ....................... bu şekilde .................................. meydana geliyor

761 I told you so.........................bunu sana .......................................... söylemiştim 761 just (exactly) .........sadece (tam olarak) 761 melt .......................................... erimek 761 have something to do with … ............. ........................................alakası olmak 762 pick at .............................çok az yemek 762 pick out ....................................seçmek 762 regard.......................................... saygı 762 regards ............................. saygılarımla 762 greet ................................... karşılamak 762 greetings ................................ selamlar 762 bye-bye .....................allahaısmarladık 762 see you ...................... görüşmek üzere 762 scent .............................................koku 762 give off .................................... yaymak 763 welcome ........................... hoş geldiniz 763 go right ......................... doğru gitmek 763 temper..................................... sinirlilik 763 lose one’s temper ............ öfkelenmek 763 thoughtful............................ düşünceli 763 go bad .......................... kötüye gitmek 763 by now.......................... şu an itibariyle 764 warn ...................................... uyarmak 764 ahead ........................................ ileride 764 triangle .......................................üçgen 764 mercy ...................................merhamet 764 desire ....................................... istemek 764 ignore .......................... göz ardı etmek 765 upright ..................................... dimdik 765 lung ..........................................akciğer 765 organ .......................................... organ 765 seldom ..................................... nadiren 765 work out..........................çözümlemek 765 confusion ...............................karışıklık 765 electrical ................................ elektrikli 766 advance .................................. ilerleme 766 step by step ........................ adım adım 766 progress ................................. ilerleme 766 in advance .................................baştan 766 in arrears ................................ borcunu ......................zamanında ödeyememiş 766 cuff .......................gömlek kol manşeti 766 preparation ..............................hazırlık 767 valley ............................................. vadi 767 injustice ..................................... haksız LESSON 138 768 bite – bit – bitten ..................... ısırmak 768 bare ............................................ çıplak 768 weapon ........................................ silah


768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 769 769 770 770 770 770 770 771 771 771 771 771 771 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 772 773 773 773

barely ......................................zorlukla go back..............................geri gitmek come back ........................ geri gelmek go in ..................................içeri girmek come in ............................. içeri gelmek return ............................... geri gelmek enter ......................................... girmek descend ......................................inmek overcome...............üstesinden gelmek go down ....................... aşağıya inmek come down ................................inmek case............................................... dava barrister.....................................avukat (just) in case.......................hani olur ya risk .................................................. risk run a risk...........................riske girmek excuse (v)........................ özür dilemek excuse (n) ..................................... özür waist ................................................bel waistcoat ..................................... yelek fancy ...................................... karmaşık pint ................................................ pint gallon ......................................... galon litre ................................................ litre jealous ......................................kıskanç jealousy ................................ kıskançlık go out with ................ile dışarı çıkmak fortune .......................................servet fortunate .....................................talihli international ..................... uluslararası mine ......................................... maden miner ......................................madenci tend ............................................eğilim content (n) .................................. içerik content (v or adj) .......memnun olmak witness (v) .....................şahitlik etmek

LESSON 139 775 rid .............................. başından atmak 775 get rid of .............................kurtulmak 775 above all ..................hepsinin ötesinde 775 sharp ......................................... keskin 775 blunt ................................... kör (bıçak) 775 sharpen ...................................bilemek 775 grind – ground – ground .....öğütmek 775 flour................................................. un 775 wheat ...................................... buğday 776 harm ............................................ zarar 776 harmful ......................................zararlı 776 harmless .................................. zararsız 776 creature .....................................yaratık

777 777 777 777 777 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 779 779 779 779 779 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 780 781

iron ............................................. demir extreme ......................................... aşırı reduce ...................................azaltmak likely ................................muhtemelen unlikely ....................... çok az ihtimalle do someone a favour ................. birine ................................... bir iyilik yapmak That’s all right ..................... Tamamdır Not at all ..........................Önemli değil It’s nothing ....................... Bir şey değil You’re welcome ................Rica ederim Don’t mention it ..............Bahsetmeye ................................................ değmez No problem ................... Problem değil up ...............................................yukarı tear – tore – torn .................... yırtmak cheek .......................................... yanak cheeky .......................................yüzsüz pile........................................istiflemek one on top of the other ........birbirinin ................................................. üzerine heap .............................................yığın point ........................................... nokta freeze – froze – frozen .... dondurmak nought ..................................hiçbir şey zero ................................................sıfır Fahrenheit .......................... Fahrenheit insect ..........................................böcek itch........................................ kaşınmak scratch .................................... kaşımak scrape ..................................... sürtmek opposition ............................karşı taraf

LESSON 140 782 the sooner ..., the better....... ne kadar ............................. erken…., o kadar iyi 782 responsible ............................. sorumlu 782 council ...................................... konsey 782 scream ......................................... çığlık 782 fright .......................................... korku 782 frighten ..............................korkutmak 782 horror ........................................dehşet 783 mean .............................. cimri; huysuz 783 thoughtless ........................düşüncesiz 783 pale ...........................................solgun 783 sickness.................................... hastalık 784 light – lit – lit .....................ışık yapmak 784 candle .......................................... mum 784 failure ................................... bozukluk 784 upset ........................................ üzüntü 784 feel upset ...............................üzülmek


784 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 785 786 786 787 787 787 788

terribly ...................korkunç bir şekilde wreck ............................... harap olmak misfortune............................ kötü şans shipwreck ......................... gemi enkazı sale ........................................... satmak for sale ........................................ satılık sales ...............................................satış advertisement .......................... reklam commercial ...................................ticari rival .............................................. rakip over ....................................... üzerinde basement .........................bodrum katı bargain ...............................kelepir mal caution .......................................dikkat cautiously ............... dikkatli bir şekilde rapid .............................................. hızlı

LESSON 141 789 deliver .............................teslim etmek 789 mail..............................................posta 789 beforehand .............................peşinen 789 critic .................................... eleştirmen 789 expect ...................................... ummak 789 rely on .................................dayanmak 790 fast ................................................ hızlı 790 fasten .................................. bağlamak 790 porter ......................................... kapıcı 791 a fifty-minute lesson....................... elli ....................................... dakikalık ders 791 a four-door car ..........dört kapılı araba 791 jog ............................ ağır ağır koşmak 791 overnight.................................. gecelik 791 lifestyle ................................hayat tarzı 792 mere ..........................................sadece 792 nuisance ..................................... sıkıntı 792 post ...................................postalamak 792 doorpost ......................... kapı dikmesi 792 goal ............................................ hedef 792 dig – dug – dug ...................... kazmak 792 postage ............................ posta ücreti 793 naughty ..................................yaramaz 793 punish...........................cezalandırmak 793 fold ........................................katlamak 793 native.............................................yerli 793 treasure .....................................hazine 793 receipt .................................... makbuz 793 prove ................................. kanıtlamak LESSON 142 795 excuse me......................... özür dilerim 795 I’m sorry ............................... üzgünüm 796 wealthy .....................................zengin

796 796 796 796 797 797 798 798 798 798 798 798 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 799 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 801

disaster ..................................... felaket flood ................................................ sel then ................................... daha sonra urge ................................. teşvik etmek affair .............................................. olay love affair ........................ aşk macerası charm ........................................ cazibe charming ..................................... cazip musical ..................................... müzikli snake ............................................ yılan snake charmer.............. yılan oynatıcısı instrument ......................... enstrüman latest.......................................... en geç last .................................................. son last but one .............sondan bir önceki blackboard .......................... kara tahta whiteboard .......................beyaz tahta chalk ......................................... tebeşir eyebrow ......................................... kaş eyelash ....................................... kirpik eyelid ..................................göz kapağı lid................................................kapak pan .................................................kap favour .........................................lehine yacht ................................................yat hinder ............................... engellemek clothe ....................................giyinmek endless ......................................sonsuz bunch ........................................ demet grape ................................üzüm tanesi revolution ................................. devrim

LESSON 143 802 resist ..................................... direnmek 802 resistance ...................................direnç 803 substantial ................................ağırlıklı 803 bacon ...................................... jambon 803 toast .............................................. tost 803 fry – fried – fried ................ kızartmak 803 approximate............................yaklaşık 803 course ......................................... tabak 803 starter ................................... başlangıç 803 main course ........................ana yemek 803 dessert ........................................... tatlı 803 dine ...................akşam yemeği yemek 804 marmalade ...........................marmelat 804 jam................................................ reçel 804 pear ............................................armut 804 plum ...............................................erik 804 the country ............... kırsal bölge; ülke 804 rejoice ...............................sevindirmek


804 804 804 804 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 805 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 806 807 807

victory.......................................... zafer shave ..................................tıraş olmak razor .............................. tıraş makinesi heal........................................iyileşmek live (v) .................................... yaşamak live (adj) ........................................ canlı musician ............................... müzisyen mild .............................................. ılımlı remark .................................. belirtmek look ........................................ bakmak stormy ...................................... fırtınalı proof ........................................... kanıt saying .......................................... ifade trap ..............................................tuzak pot ..................................................kap cooking pot ...................... pişirme kabı flowerpot ..................................... saksı coffee pot ....................................cezve teapot........................................demlik in relation to............................. ile ilgili relationship ...................................ilişki relative ..................................... akraba overweight .........................fazla kilolu at sea .......................................denizde by sea ............................. deniz yoluyla

LESSON 144 809 go past ....................yanından geçmek 809 nearby ........................ hemen yanında 810 in season .......................... mevsiminde 810 out of season .................... mevsim dışı 810 thread............................iplik geçirmek 810 needle ................................dikiş iğnesi 810 sew ...........................................dikmek 810 compass.....................................pusula 810 injection ............................. enjeksiyon 810 agent .........................................acente 810 agency ...................................acentelik 811 title ................................. başlık /ünvan 811 champion ............................. şampiyon 811 boxer ........................................ boksör 811 enormous .............................muazzam 811 belief ........................................... inanç 811 effort ............................................ çaba 811 stay in touch with...............ile temasta ..................................................kalmak 812 tolerate....................tahammül etmek, ............................................ katlanmak 812 go ahead ....................... devam etmek 812 just the same ........................aynısı gibi 812 bath ............................................banyo

812 812 813 813 813 813 813 814 814 814 815

bathe ............................banyo yapmak sunbathe ..................... güneş banyosu cheat................................. hile yapmak dip ......................................bandırmak horizon ......................................... ufuk horizontal .................................... yatay feed – fed – fed ................... beslemek hay ............................................kuru ot straw.......................................... saman stem................................................ sap development ............................ gelişim

LESSON 145 816 preference .................................. tercih 816 cuisine ......................................mutfak 816 style ................................................. stil 816 help yourself ............................ kendin ..................................istediğin kadar al 816 can’t help ....................yardım edemez 816 load ................................................yük 816 barrel ......................................... namlu 816 lead ...........................................kurşun 816 rod ..............................................çubuk 817 voyage .......................... deniz seyahati 817 space ...............................................yer 817 tour..................................................tur 817 tourist .......................................... turist 817 pet .................................... evcil hayvan 817 rabbit ......................................... tavşan 817 run on ................................ ile çalışmak 817 create ................................ oluşturmak 818 situated ................................... yerleşik 818 cloth .......................................... kumaş 818 convince ............................ ikna etmek 818 try ......................................... denemek 818 set free .....................serbest bırakmak 818 relieve ..................................kurtulmak 818 relief ....................................... kurtuluş 818 pill .................................................. hap 818 painkiller ..............................ağrı kesici 819 self ............................................ kendisi 819 selfish ......................................... bencil 819 self-control ...... kendini kontrol etmek 819 control .................... kumanda, kontrol 819 lie – lay – lain ........................uzanmak 819 lie – lied – lied .............yalan söylemek 819 lay – laid – laid ......................uzanmak 820 tight.................................................sıkı 820 tight-fitting .....................bedeni saran 820 loose-fitting ......................... bol elbise 820 airtight ......................... hava geçirmez


820 820 820 820 821 821 821 821 821 821 822 822 822

watertight ........................ su geçirmez container .............................. konteynır aim............................................... amaç take aim............................ nişan almak damp ...........................................nemli indeed ............................ gerçekten de emphasis .................................... vurgu jaw ........................................... alt çene ladder ................................... merdiven vertical ......................................... dikey admit ............................... kabul etmek take place .............................yer almak punishment .................................. ceza

Callan method 9  

Callan Method Book 9

Callan method 9  

Callan Method Book 9

Advertisement