Fall 12 - Spring 14
DS 1010 (01) 1A Studio Material Strategies
GS 7013 (01) Visual Rhetorics
Instructor: Jackilin Hah Bloom
GS 7010 (01) Intro to Design Cultures GS 7011 (01) Collegiate Writing GS 7015 (01) Intro to Calculus and Trigonometry
DS 1011 (01) 1B Studio Concept Strategies
CS 2012 (01) History of Architecture I GS 7014 (01) Humanities I
Instructor: Anna Neimark
VS 4011 (01) Fabrication and Delineations GS 7012 (01) Intro to Physical World
DS 1020 (01) 2A Studio Formworks Sites
CS 2024 (01) History of Arch II
Instructor: Todd Gannon
VS 4020 (01) Technology of Description I GS 7020 (01) Humanities II AS 3021 (01) Structures I - Forces and Vector
DS 1021 (01) 2B Studio Frameworks Programs
GS 7035 (01) Expand and Contract
Instructor: Betty Kassis
VS 4021 (01) Technology of Description II
WK 3011 (01) 2B Portfolio Workshop AS 3030 (01) Structures II GS 7021 (01) The History of Ideas
Contact T: (213)-309-2279 firstname.lastname@example.org ÂŠ ChunWing Adrian Wong 2014 All photographs, images, renderings and drawings are photographed and produced by the author unless otherwise specified.
Architecture is... Architecture, to the majority of architects-studyingto-be, is about rejecting the average cookie-cutter houses. It’s about enhancing the experience of a space, or the presence a building has to its neighboring community. And to Adolf Loos, it’s even about how well a man is dressed. But to me, architecture isn’t about all that. Architecture exists and behaves as a part of the design field. It has significant influence over the field, and the field responses and shapes it. Architecture’s existence in this form of intellectual exchange is crucial to the overall advancements in design. Therefore,
architecture should not be defined as what it is, but rather what it can become when put into context among others. Within the field, graphic design is perhaps one of the major influences on architecture as its presence can be found everywhere. The combination of architecture and graphic design would not only bring graphic design to a more sophisticated state, but the architecture would benefit from it as well. Three dimensional spaces in architecture would provide a graphic artist the wildest canvas he could
ever imagine, whereas two dimensional graphics would give life to spaces the architect creates. Architecture has a tendency to subtly change pre-existing norms that have long been present in a certain field. And the exchange of knowledge between architecture and other fields would often yield procreations that are more substantial than what these fields could cultivate alone. These are the changes architecture contributes to the field of design, and these changes will ultimately reflect in a forward, mutually beneficial paradigm shift.
The first studio in a sequence of four foundation studios introduces the student to spatial problemsolving. A sequence of increasingly complex problems charge the students with working within two opposing knowledge-based fields: analytical and intuitive operations are applied to the study of materials, their potential for transformation, their capacity to suggest ideas and intentions, organizational
concepts and abstract spaces. The interrelationship between the act of making and the process of execution are studied. The studio begins with an examination of two-dimensional problems, then focuses on problem-solving in three dimensions. Students are given the Emerging Professionals Companion along with updated IDP information.
1A Studio Final Fall 2012
This project aims to create a space custom tailored to the user. The site is 8’ by 19’ and 12’ tall. The process began with documenting the user’s body data. These pictures were turned into silhouettes and scaled down. The body dimensions were then used to develop a massing model that addresses different areas within the space, in relation to the user’s height.
Site Render / Adrian Wong / 2012
8 Fall 2012
The interior was first divided into seperate blocks to investigate the distrubution of space. A layer of skin was then wrapped around the blocks to form the exterior. Lounge is located in front, working area in the middle and sleeping in the back. The main aperture is located in the lounging area; the
middle section streches out to form gaps.These gaps work as hidden apertures as they are invisible from the sides. This provides more privacy and at the same time allows better lighting. The rear gap is expanded to form an entry.
Plan Level 1 (Scale: 1/4” = 1’-0”
The site was chosen at the intersection of West 3rd St and Hope St. The tubular nature of the space is enhanced by the one-way flow of traffic exiting through the 3rd street tunnel.
Site Photographs & Renders / 2012
Johnson Solid Study
1A Studio / Fall 2012
This project begins SCI-Arcâ€™s 5-year undergraduate course. A Johnson solid is assigned to every student on the first day of studio, and students are required to construct it 3-dimensionally without any prior knowledge of 3D modeling. Top
Augmented Tridiminished Icosahedron The shape is obtained by joining a tetrahedron to the tridiminished icosahedron. A tetrahedron was first set up and 3 pentagons were constructed around it. The pentagons were then rotated along the tetrahedron until their sides touch, and an equilateral triangle was automatically formed by connecting the lowest points of the pentagons.
Far Right: Axonometric 8â€?x 8â€? Study Model / White 2-ply Museum Board
Transformed Augmented Tridiminished Icosahedron The first transformation was thought to radically change the behavior of the augmented tridiminished icosahedron. The tip of the tetrahedron was pulled up, and the 3 corners were pulled down to different heights to produce an irregular shard-like shape. The result transformed the chubby original into a new shape that almost has the effect of a sculpture.
8”x 8” Study Model / Black 2-ply Museum Board
2xâ€™s Transformed Augmented Tridiminished Icosahedron
The second transformation aimed to push the changes undergone in the first transformation further. Emphasis was put on the spike in the first transformation. The spike was extended, expanded, contracted and folded back into itself to create an infinite loop.
12”x 12” Study Model / Black 2-ply Museum Board
Extended Primitive Study: Surface Manipulation The surface transformation is an extended study to investigate the transition from planar to curve surfaces. A surface was extracted from the first transformation and rebuilt into a curved block, then manipulated into multiple undulating new forms.
Interlocking Massing Model / Cardboard
1A Seminar Presentation / Fall 2012
This course is aimed at teaching students the ways and means of argumentation using visual and cultural techniques and strategies. Beginning with an overview of classical rhetoric: Plato, Aristotle and the Sophist logos, students will be introduced to the ways in which visual media communicate and
express through arrangement, emphasis, clarity, conciseness, tone and ethos. Students will examine and analyze the visual rhetorics of charts, paintings, sculpture, diagrams, films, ads and web pages. Students will particularly study the relationship of techniques as strategies for visual rhetoric, from
perspectival drawing to advanced computer software. The intent of this class is to expose students to the larger cultural history of visual media prior to the more applied sequence of Visual Studies classes.
Presentation Cover A cultural analysis of Siegfried Kracauer’s concept of “film palaces”, now known as movie theaters.
Kracauer states that the crowds would eventually want to be treated equally, “refusing to be thrown scraps, they demand instead to be served at laid-out tables” . “The so-called educated class” or middle class will eventually become part of the “masses”. Which creates the “homogeneous cosmopolitan audience” where the masses and middle class have the same responses. The reason why Berliners were addicted to distraction, was because in Berlin there was more tension for the workers, which made them prone to distraction.
Kracauer states that a theater is not merely a place to watch movies, but a “film palace”. According to Kracauer, theaters are “like hotel lobbies, they are shrines to the cultivation of pleasure”. Although theaters bring entertainment to the mass, they do not have to be overly designed. Instead, the architecture of film palaces has evolved into a form that avoids stylistic excesses.
Intro to Design Cultures
This course serves as an introduction to the immense variety of pathways available to students as they move ahead in the world as a designer and, possibly, as an architect. The aims of the class are to expose students to a broad range of design work in the fields of furniture, interior space, set design,
exhibition design, product design, and landscape, and to develop in them the eye and senses of the curious and critical observer of the products of design culture. Invited faculty and speakers augment the class, exposing students to alternative design practices, and a review of the overall undergraduate
curriculum serves to inform students of the relationship between the program and the broader design fields. This course is augmented by visiting lecturers and critics discussing their own design approaches and reasoning, as well as field trips to local museum and design exhibitions.
Personal Visual Sourcebook Pages
Live Life In Colors Nov 27, 2012 / Pantone Site
Lafayette Park: Living in Ordered Exhibition
Pantone swatches to artists are the equivalent of RGB/CMYK to web designers. I have always liked labeling colors because a slight, almost unnoticable tint over a color completely changes it to another. http://www.pantone.com/pages/pantone/index.aspx
Oct 4, 2012 / Design Observer
The graduate student that wrote this essay suggests that she’s seeing “confident nudists across the street”. Wide glass windows are like performing stages at night; it’s a live show in every house’s window. Windows are not only to look out from inside, but also works as a frame for viewers from the outside. This has a strong connection to the 1954 movie “rear window” by Alfred Hitchcock. http://places.designobserver.com/feature/mies-van-der-rohe-lafayette-park/36048/ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0047396/
June 9, 2012 / Adobe.com Blog
Nov 23, 2012 / Design Observer Blog
Oct 30, 2012 / deseen Magazine This project by 2 Finnish architects changed how I view the relationship between nature and constructed objects. The clear glass walls blur out the boundaries between interior and extrior. The fact that it has a traditional gabled roof (for the weather of course) is a plus.
The blogger tried to re-create famous artworks on bread. This is very inpsiring: Art does not have to be perfectly painted/designed. The creator has done a wonderful job to demonstrate how so many elements can be squeezed into a small surface yet it is still recognizable and successful. I especially liked Duchamp’s autograph “R.Mutt” written with mustard.
Dieter Rams: 10 Principles of Good Design Jan 9, 2012 / VITSOE
#10: Good design is as little design as possible. As a minimalist this is personally my favorite quote (for now). The fact that I learned Dieter Rams is Apple design’s godfather changed my perspective on “good design”. Jonathan Ive was inspired by Dieter Rams, and Rams by another. Good design is design that evolves. https://www.vitsoe.com/rw/about/good-design
The premise of the second studio in the foundation sequence is that ideas, when deliberately assembled, become intellectual structures for conceptual strategies that direct notions of spatial ordering systems and architectural form. The relationship between the conceptual and the circumstantial will be examined in a series of evolutionary and inter-
related projects which guide the student towards an under-standing of sophisticated notions of spatial structures and material considerations. Skills: Communication of spatial concepts / projection drawing / craft in model building and drawing. Concepts: Abstract programming / complex ordering systems / matrices.
Learning from the Maestros 1B Studio / Spring 2013
This assignment aims to develop a personal understanding with precedents through visual analysis. A series of extractions and transformations were derived from the plan of Toyo Itoâ€™s Sendai Mediatheque. These extractions carrying geometry directly from the precedent will then be used as primitive elements for a new building.
An area from the 3rd floor of Itoâ€™s Sendai Mediatheque is selected to create the extraction figure. The figure contains unaltered geometry from the plan. The figure is part of an extrusion of an area
between 2 columns, selected to emphasize the tension between their size differences.The extrusion is then trimmed by 2 other extrusions of the surrounding warped grid formed among the columns.
Primitives from the plan are used to trim the figure. Extrusions of the columns and the selected area are intersected by 2 crossing extrusions of the grid.
The figures, carrying information from the precedent are then made into a cluster to emphasize its geometry. When combining curvatures of the figures, a void is created.
The clusters are placed in a field to be densified. Each cluster is placed at an angle different from one another.
As each cluster clash into one another differently, all of the intersections are carefully overlooked. Figure removals are made at suitable intersections to form new clusters and larger voids.
New clusters are vertically stacked on top of each other to be further densified, and to create exclusive moments: caves are created when a dense cluster is placed on an open cluster; atriums are created if the order is reversed.
Blocks are formed by partial extractions from the field. Blocks are densified to create more volume. Close individual volumes are stacked and later booleaned to create floors.
1B Studio Final / Spring 2013 The unwieldy nature of the figure is kept during the transition from the precedent study to the design of the building, thus creating aggregated forms in such peculiar scale. This is done to preserve the scale of primitives obtained from Itoâ€™s Sendai Mediatheque. The ground floor is a large open space used for exhibitions and a cafe, completely accessible to the public. Stairs near the back of the build-
ing lead to lecture halls and private archives by appointment only. Because of the unique nature of the aggregate, hidden pockets are created between ground floor and second floor. These pockets are extremely private and only accessible from the second floor. They are used as bathrooms, storage and a special reading room for the archives. Voids are mainly occupied on the ground floor. As
it gets denser, the hidden floor in between has just enough space to be used. The mass on the second floor became dense enough to be fully occupied, while still leaving cracks that allow a controlled amount of indirect light into the exhibition space on the ground floor.
Lobby / Exhibition / Office / Bookshop / Cafe + Kitchen
WC / Archive Reading / Storage
Archives / Lecture Hall
History of Architecture I
This course introduces students to the history of world architecture by examining the origins and elaboration of human settlements and architecture from prehistory to the modern era. Particular attention is given to the evolving status and role of the
architect and the discipline of architecture as well as to the development of architecture as an autonomous category of cultural artifact. Particular emphasis is placed on global and western traditions in architecture. This course is a lecture survey course.
1B Seminar Presentation Layout / 2013
Ando Was a professional boxer, activist, and eventually chose to express himself through architecture. â€œTo change the dwelling is to change the city and to reform societyâ€?.
Design Intentions + Architect Backgr
Known for creative use of natural light.
by Adrian Wong
Complex three-dimensional circulation paths. Heavily influenced by the Japanese way of living and philosophy.
Palladio’s intention was to create a building that integrates itself into its surroundings. According to Palladio, “there are loggias made on all four fronts so it enjoys from every part the most beautiful views, some of which are limited, some extended, and others which terminate with the horizon”.
Site Analysis Villa Rotonda in Vicenza, Italy and Row House in Sumiyoshi, Japan
The Azuma House is Ando’s masterpiece.
Andrea Gondola was born 1508 and trained as a stonemason.
Aimed to give privacy and self-sufficiency.
Later renamed by his mentor to Andrea Palladio.
Made of concrete, glass and slate that reflects light and causes complex shadows.
Palladio collected information on classical proportions by measuring the buildings of ancient Rome.
Creates a poetic, haiku-like effect.
Concerned with practical convenience as an essential part of good design.
Haiku (俳句) is a very concise form of Japanese poetry.
His influence on Western architecture originated from his book, "The Four Books of Architecture". Published in 1570.
Shadow projections made the space appear larger than its actual size.
Projects in second yearâ€™s first studio work within the variable conditions that determine the characteristics of a site, whether conceptual (e.g. musical score, text, painting, idea) or physical (e.g. location, geometrically described piece of property, legal
boundary condition). Students explore the various conditional relationships that affect the reading and description of sites, and understand circumstance and environment as complex systems of information.
Miralles’ Meditation 2A Studio / Fall 2013
Formal analysis of Enric Miralles’ meditation pavilion in Unazuki, Japan. From derivations of every tiny detail found in this project, an argument is made to deduce a subtle message the architect tries to convey.
Miralles’ sketch of the pavilion’s circulation
Meditation Pavilion in Unazuki by Enric Miralles / El Croquis / 1983
48 Fall 2013
What is intriguing about the pavilion is the bent metal tubes hovering above the meditation path. If one walks down the path in the direction Miralles illustrates in his sketches, the tubes almost seem to be guiding one through the path by suggesting
a direction. The path contains multiple turns. Each turn presents a distinctive view either towards or away from the pavilion, challenging oneâ€™s ability to percept space and evoking oneâ€™s understanding of perspective.
Cast shadow of the overhanging tubes
Implied movement of the meditation path / Radial Views (Tangent to path)
Tubes suggest restraints of vision / Redirection of the eye
The studio begins with a phase of rigorous analysis of contemporary projects in order to cultivate expert comprehension and graphic communication of the systems germane to their respective organizational approaches. This approach will expand on the rigorous geometric studies from the previous year and expand each studentâ€™s analytical and transformative design aptitudes. In situating the studio project
in an urban context, students will also engage with urban planning and design issues. Over the course of the semester students will demonstrate cultural and methodological evidence of historical and contemporary disciplinary terminology and theoretical expansions including Diagram, Emergence, Morphogenesis, Parti, Topology, Typology, and Representation.
Derivation of diagrammatic grid
Experimental grid configurations
Base Grid / Pillar Construction
Programmatic Shift of Pillars
Resulting Program Parts
Hollywood-Argyle Site Panorama / Adrian Wong / 2013
Roof Passage Formation
Having a site in the heart of Hollywood, the first thing that comes to mind is that it needs an open public space (other than shopping malls). Something green. A Park. As an immediate neighbour to the pantages theater, this boys and girls club will be an oasis for those who wants a break from the Hollywood glamour. The building presents itself
as a plantation to the Hollywood side, and has a building front towards the less populated backside. One is able to walk through the building without entering it; but that same path penetrates through most of the programs, forcing the user to engage with ongoing events. The path cuts through different areas at an angle, providing users with unique
Underground Level Front -10’
-10’ Kitchen Multi-purpose
Dance Arts Career
views as they walk. The occupiable roof provides large playfields for kids; railings on the edge of these fields are customized into trenches to provide extra resting spaces and circulation. Skylights are morphed from pieces of the diamond grid into slit apertures to provide controlled light into the interior while still keeping the roof accessible.
Ground Level Front / Underground Level Back ±0’
Workshop+ Woodshop ±0’
Office ±0’ +10.29’
Staff Apts ±0’
Ground Level Front / Underground Level Back ±0’
Gorund Level +13’
+11.26’ +10’ ±0’
Oudoor Classrooms +10’ +10’
Gorund Level +13’
+11.26’ +18’ ±0’
History of Architecture II
This course tracks the development of architecture and urban culture from the rise of modern institutions and practices, through the era of industrialization, to the current day. This course pays particular interest to the influence of modern materials, methods and tectonics, as well as concomitant cultural changes in theory and discourse. This course is a lecture survey course. Proceeding through a chron-
ological review of major movements in global architecture from the Enlightenment to the present, this course will analyze key works to develop an understanding of specific relationships between the organization, configuration, and articulation of buildings and the historical, conceptual, and cultural contexts with which they are associated.
Recollecting Innovation Historians Johann Winckelmann and Francois Blondel are inclined toward the idea that the existing systems designed by the ancients are more than sufficient for the world. They both argue that instead of innovations, conventions should be appreciated and more widely recognized. While Wincklemann and Blondel made very convincing arguments, modernist architects such as Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier begged to differ. They believed that innovation is absolutely necessary, and have devoted their entire lives doing so. Masters like Loos and Le Corbusier were innovators of their times, but this does not mean they do not look back. Innovation to them would not be possible if there were not pre-existing precedents to innovate from. In order for one to move forward, one must first take a step backwards. In other words, new advancements must be built on existing grounds shaped by people before us. In many of these existing systems created by the ancients, the golden ratio is perhaps one of the systems that remained most prominent. Since its discovery by the Greeks, the golden ratio had been the mathematical formula for beauty. Built by the Athens when they were at the height of their power, the Parthenon is one of the most important buildings that survived from the past. It has since served as a symbol that reminded past generations and generations to come what their ancestors were able to achieve with limited resources and knowledge. The Parthenon set a new standard when it was built, and their descendants are required to learn from it and excel it in every aspect. The Parthenon was also among one of the earliest buildings that embodied the golden ratio. Whether the Greeks purposefully implemented the golden ratio in the Parthenon is still under debate, but solid evidence have shown that the golden section governs the entire building; from the composition of the entablature to the spacing of each column. The Parthenon, to Francois Blondel, was “good and magnificent” because it came from mathematics, and mathematics is basis of all sciences. He states that “much would be gained if architects studied mathematics and mathematicians studied architecture. (Gomez 42) ” Blondel also made it clear that “External ornaments do not constitute beauty. Beauty cannot exist when the proportions are missing. (Gomez 45) ” Of all architects that subscribed to Blondel’s belief in absence of ornamentation, Adolf Loos is perhaps the architect that fully articulated the belief in
his buildings. “Ornament is no longer a natural product of our culture” (Loos 22) Loos believes the absence of ornament is the style of his age. He thinks ornaments are types of excessive decoration and they are characteristics of older societies. Ornamentation, according to Loos, is a luxury that is slowing down the human evolution because men are wrongly focused on things they do not need. Loos also mentions “the modern man uses his clothes as a mask.” (Loos 24) Combining his theory on excessive ornamentation and how he portrays the modern man should dress, Loos creates the exterior of his Muller house as a simple white box that presents itself as merely a mask – refusing to communicate or show itself to the outer world. The interior of the Muller house, however, is very elaborately articulated comparing to the exterior. While considering himself as a modern man, Loos creates the interior of the Muller House very carefully with the use of preexisting geometric systems and proportions, and among them the golden ratio. The golden section can be found in both the inside and outside of the building where “the diagonal of the half of the original squares on the facade is resulting from certain harmonic bisections of the overall shape that is in proportion with the golden section (Besser et al.).” While Loos is extremely careful with his minimal exterior façade, he implemented the golden ratio in both the exterior and interior of the Muller house. This proves that Loos understands the ancient geometric system’s timeless qualities, and that the golden proportion is above the qualities he considered “modern” at the time. The implementation of the golden ratio is Loos’ way of acknowledging the importance of knowledge from the past. Similar to Loos, Johann Winckelmann also deeply believed the authority of the golden section and where it stemmed from: the human body. As portrayed by the ancient Greek, the human body is the perfect form - both aesthetically and historically: “For example, the bilateral symmetry in any building provided a positive delight precisely because it was an imitation of the disposition of a beautiful face or human body (Gomez 45).” Just as Wincklemann, Le Corbusier acknowledges the close relation between the human body and the golden section. The Modulor Man – created by Le Corbusier – is a system that uses the golden ratio to form a scale system of architectural proportion. The creation of the Modulor man is an attempt to reinvent the Vitruvian man - which interesting enough - was Da Vinci’s attempt to reinvent the golden
section. The Vitruvian man aimed to improve the image and function of an object through imposing proportions of the human body. Le Corbusier was clearly acknowledging the importance of the older system of Vitruvius. The system was however outdated, Le Corbusier therefore updated it with the implementation of new standards including the Anglo Saxon foot and inch system, and the French metric system. Le Corbusier writes “rhythms apparent to the eye and clear in their relations with one another. And these rhythms are at the very root of human activities. They resound in man by an organic inevitability, the same fine inevitability which causes the tracing out of the Golden Section by children, old men, savages, and the learned. (Le Corbusier 3) ” System Modulor is applied in many of his buildings including the Unite d’habitation of Marseille and the Sainte Marie da La Tourette. The modulor and the golden ratio, to Le Corbusier, is a sacred system that will aid the complex problem of building design in ways perfected for the human body. The Modulor also served as a symbol of Le Corbusier’s realization of the importance to recollect from the ancients, and it remains prominent in his works. Blondel and Wincklemann are correct in the sense that conventions and tradition should be celebrated, but it is impossible for the society to not look for ways to advance. Adolf Loos acknowledges that, and allowed the ancient system a place in his modern buildings. Le Corbusier understood that, and developed new systems based on that very belief. Progress and tradition are built from each other. In order for one to innovate, it is absolutely necessary for one to recognize the importance of the wisdom from the past. Just as Lebbeus Woods puts it, “if ideas were immortal, we wouldn’t have anything to do. Because we die, and because knowledge can’t be transferred directly, each person has to reinvent the form of ideas all over again. Our social existence is about helping each other to do just that. (Woods 2)”
1. Gomez, Alberto Perez. “Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science.” The MIT Press, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. 2. “Ornament and Crime Excerpt” Adolf Loos. Ornament and Crime. 1908 3. Besser, Joern, and Stephan Liebscher. “THE THEORIES .ANALYSIS OF THE VILLA MUELLER.” Adolf Loos-The Life-The Theories4. Villa Mueller. University of Bath 2005, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. Le Corbusier. The Modulor. Paris: Birkuser – Publishers for Architecture. 2000. Print. 5. Moss, Eric Owen. Lebbeus Woods Is an Archetype. SCI-Arc Gallery: 2013. Los Angeles: SCI-Arc, 2010. Print.
Compare and Contrast:
Wright meets Loos The young apprentice and the Austrian acquaintance of Louis Sullivan’s never crossed paths. Adolf Loos and Frank Lloyd Wright became very different architects, but there is a certain affinity in Loos’ Muller house and Wright’s Darwin D. Martin house. Adolf Loos believes modern buildings should be free of ornaments, and that its soul should be contained within. Frank Lloyd Wright argues that a house should enhance its surrounding landscape and together they should combine into one unified composition. Although Loos opposes excessive ornamentation, his elaborately detailed interior of the Muller house vaguely resembles the interior of Wright’s Martin house. Both Loos and Wright recognize the importance of a well-articulated interior and a hierarchical system behind it. They also jointly admitted and succumbed to the then growing power of women, making them the center to both of their houses. “Ornament is no longer a natural product of our culture” (Loos 22) Loos believes the absence of ornament is the style of his age. He thinks ornaments are types of excessive decoration and they are characteristics of older societies. As ornaments are relatively costly to make and maintain, Loos argues that without ornaments, one is able to accumulate savings while the opposite creates debt. If there was no ornament at all, “men would only have to work four hours instead of eight, because half of the work done today is devoted to ornament. Ornament is wasted labor power and hence wasted health. It has always been so.” Ornamentation, according to Loos, is a luxury that is slowing down the human evolution because men are wrongly focused on things they do not need. Loos also mentions “the modern man uses his clothes as a mask.” (Loos 24) Combining his theory on excessive ornamentation and how he portrays the modern man should dress, Loos creates the exterior of the Muller house as a simple white box that presents itself as merely a mask – refusing to communicate or even show itself to the outer world. Wright, on the contrary, is not only interested in designing very open houses but often also the surrounding environment. Wright believes that “the good building is not one that hurts the landscape, but one which makes the landscape more beautiful than it was before.” (Wright 2) Wright’s Martin house complex considers the houses and cottages within the lot as one unified composition. The Martin house carries Wright’s prairies style’s distinctive features: Low, horizontal lines that aims to level with the flat landscape around it, expansive roofs that often overhang beyond its walls and large, free spaces that are constructed around a central chimney. Wright designs the Martin house as “one unified composition that reflects the landscape” by purposefully redirecting the traffic flow between both inside and outside. The Martin house complex, at first glance, is a several
buildings scattered across the site; but slowly one would discover that the complex is made up of buildings that are carefully linked by outdoor paths between them. This is what Wright calls “one great thing instead of a quarrelling collection of so many little things.” (Wright 25) One interacts with the Martin house very differently than one would interact with the Muller house. In contrary to the Martin house, the Muller house appears extremely unified on the outside; it in fact resembles a large enclosed box. The site of the Muller house allows spaces for a more open and interactive building, but Loos intentionally separated the house from the site - opposing Wright’s theory of a unified environment. The Muller house is broken up into an interior that is separated into so many levels that one would think it wants to be counter-unified. It is completely self-contained and aimed to redirect the guests within the building and shoot them onto various levels. The Martin house celebrates natural interaction with its surroundings, while the Muller house encourages movement through its exquisite artificial interior. The interior of Wright’s Martin house promotes openness and horizontality. Wright believes the interior of a house should be expressive, wellarticulated and in essence, be viewed as art. Loos believes that “the work of art shows people new direction and thinks of the future. The house thinks of the present.” (Loos 24) And what was present to him was the era without ornamentation; therefore the house should not be articulated on the outside. Loos’ architecture, including the Muller house, “is not conceived in plans, but in spaces (cubes). [He] does not design floor plans, facades, sections. I design spaces. For [him], there is no ground floor, first floor etc...“ (Loos 3) Loos considers interior spaces openly, similar to Wright, but executes it differently with a focus on the shifting elevations. There is a clear hierarchy in Loos’ buildings. Although he claimed ornament is crime on the outside, the interior of the Muller house is strangely elaborate. This likely stemmed from Loos’ argument that “the inner life of the soul should be contained.” While Wright writes “the reality of a building is not the container but the space within.” Loos, on the other hand, believes the house is a container and designs it so. However, what is contained in the Muller house almost gets spilled out because it is so rich and vibrant. Loos envisioned the rooms in the Muller house to be distinguished in a variety of colors and materiality according to its use. As he puts it: “every space requires a different height: the dining room is surely higher than the pantry – thus the ceilings are set at different levels.” (Loos 3) Loos firmly believes that rooms with different purposes should be differentiated in height and arrangement. But despite the distinction of spaces, Loos made every effort to make sure his building floors “are only contiguous, continual spaces. Stories merge and spaces relate to each
other.” Loos aimed to ”join these spaces in such a way that the rise and fall are not only unobservable but also practical”. This adds a layer of sophistication to the Muller house. The invisible separation in the detailed interior presents a subtle connection to the masking quality used on the Muller house‘s emotionless exterior. Very similar to Loos, Wright recognizes the importance of having the interior rooms cater to the different needs of the usage of each room. Wright and Loos therefore share somewhat similarly elaborately garnished interiors that reflect each other’s style within the buildings. Wright says “to thus make of a human dwelling-place a complete work of art, in itself expressive and beautiful, intimately related to modern life and fit to live in, lending itself more freely and suitably to the individual needs of the dwellers as itself an harmonious entity, fitting in color, pattern and nature the utilities and be really an expression of them in character.” (Wright 25) Although Loos and Wright both took considerably different approaches in design, there is one thing that prevails in the two projects: their appeal to women. The Muller house is designed in a way that is fully operated by Muller’s Wife Milada Müllerová. She sits in an area that is designed to view and not be viewed. That specific area possesses the power of the Panopticon, where the watchman (Mrs. Muller) is able to observe the inmates (guests) without them being able to tell that they are being watched. Loos gives power to Mrs. Muller and allows her to take full control of the house. Unlike Loos, Wright approached women quite differently. Wright skipped the husbands and targeted directly at housewives. He published in 1901 “A Home in a Prairie Town”, a catalogue of prairie houses he designed for the Ladies’ Home Journal. He recognized the power of women, and designed these large open houses that appealed to this newly formed yet extremely influential group of consumers. To conclude, Frank Lloyd Wright’s Martin house and Adolf Loos’ Muller house share a somewhat similar definition on the interior, but distinguish themselves quite clearly on the exterior. The two architects, however, did put an emphasis on addressing and targeting female consumers. Both Wright and Loos developed distinctive archetypes that will radically change the world’s understanding of architecture.
1. “Ornament and Crime Excerpt” Adolf Loos. Ornament and Crime. 1908 2. “Wright on the Web: Prairie Style.” Wright on the Web: Prairie Style. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, 1998. Web. 08 Nov. 2013. 3. “The Villa Müller.” RAUMPLAN. The Villa Muller, n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2013. 4. Class Readings: Week 07: 1908 Adolf Loos. Ornament and Crime. Frank Lloyd Wright. Organic Architecture.
Tech of Description I
Techniques of representation, beginning with Albertiâ€™s advancement of the drawing as the authoritative work of the architect, have seemingly relied on graphic means to communicate. From the Renaissance forward the drawing was deployed as a copy, either re-presenting the morphology of the real world or as representation of an architectâ€™s vision, meant to be copied into building by a surrogate in the real world. This distancing the architect from the real has inscribed techniques of representation as
an essential element of the discipline. This class will draw from recent advances in computation to challenge conventional graphic notation as the translational medium of the architect. It will reference specific examples of scripted means of formal and organizational description. The digital paradigm shift has extended and augmented a critique of authorship originating in mid-20th century post-structuralist theory ushered into architecture through the writing and work of Peter Eisenman. His interest in
arriving at formal conclusions that are the result of a sequence of geometric operations intentionally displaced agency from the page as the site of creation, where pencil meets paper, to authoring the processes that generate these forms. This algorithmic way of working folds in well with recent development of software that uses scripting languages to organize form and space while also providing a theoretical ground by which to connect these techniques to the architecture discipline.
Grasshopper Generated / ABS Printed Proposal 1. Hybrid of Configurations 2+3 Ryonna Chuo / Johan Wijesinghe / Adrian Wong
2A Seminar / Fall 2013 Sanctus. The Sanctuary beckons those needed to come within. To seek solace and comfort – the Sanctuary will provide. The Sanctuary does not reject, it does not choose. When take refuge in the Sanctary’s welcoming embrace, you depend on her. Sometimes, you depend on her too much – as she is so willing to give, that you start to realize you are almost becoming one. Almost. Ever so slowly, you take on her traits and she takes on yours. Her skin erodes and a crystalline structure arise – your contribution. Parasitae. The aim was to use Grasshopper in place of Rhino as a modeling tool, where the capabilities of Grasshopper as a parametric design tool is exploited. We were fascinated by curvature and the soft curves that could be produced and chose to produce a form with a large curve, and two smaller curves, where it would ‘nestle’ another form. The result is a curvature with a dramatic dip to form a fold – the object appears to fold into itself and creates a subtle groove. It is a breathtaking moment where the folds appear to meet, but alas, it is just an illusion – it is just a result of great control and fine craft. The object, Sanctus Parasitae possesses extrusions on the skin surface of the object. This was featured due an interest in the Voronoi tessellations. Despite being a pattern, the cells each possess individuality. Each cell dilates and aggregate in places. The skin, with the Voronoi patterns, wraps around the object and Sanctus Parasitae is formed.
Tech of Description I
Studio 2B will work as a research laboratory for exploring programming as a means of generating organization models and conceptual narratives that shift basic morphologies into new spatial realms. This demands an understanding of how what we do see and determine as architects affects what we donâ€™t see or donâ€™t determine as architects and vice versa. Simply put, the formal choices an architect
makes impacts the range of behavioral outcomes a building affords. Primary to this study is an investigation into the gradient of space between architectural form and cultural action. Cultural action should be understood as the flows of people and the distribution of functional uses. By focusing on methods of organization, the students will engage in processes that can affect traditional systems of
order and transform them into renewed models of spatial interaction. In exploring the role of programming in architecture, the studio will propose formal organizations and their corresponding material form for the new Southern California Institute of Fashion (SCI-Fa) to be located in Los Angeles.
6. Bridged Envelope
2B Studio / Spring 2014 The studio began with exploring different configurations of 4 primitive geometrical shapes: the bar, the L-shape, the slab, and the donut. I became fascinated in configurations that contained a void within itself, and focused on developing mostly with the bar primitive, as it is the primitive of all 4 primitives. A series of study models led
the project from (2) to the very first massing (4); where a void still remains dominant, and the form contains enough room allow the overhanging bars to breathe. This configuration enabled the building to have exquisite framed views and very distinct parts, while still allowing users to flow naturally flow from one part to another.
Hybrid Programmtic Perforation
Multiple Site Panoramas taken Aerially, on-site, and on Olympic Blvd / Adrian Wong / 2014
To further develop the massing, intersecting parts that seemed forced and fragmented are liquefied to become a flowy surface that bridges between bars, creating a silk-like transition that ties to its programs. The smooth curvature on one side contrasts the angularity on the other, combining to form an envelope that mimics a stitched fabric pattern. The curved facade is then panelized and perforated to
further enhance its curvature and directionality. The building contains an underground compartment that contains labs and printmaking presses (production), 2 vertical cores that incorporate studios (conceptual) and they connect to the top that features libraries, the auditorium and the runway (presentation).
Program / Building Parts Unfolded
6.2 6.1 G1 1.1 G1
1.2 1.3 1.3 5.3
3.1.2 3.1.1 4.2
C1 C2 3.1.1
3.1.2 C2 D1
Fashion as in Architecture, plays an important role in establishing culture and expressing a political voice. In the work of Hussein Chalayan, his interest plays with political and cultural concepts within fashion. As in the table-skirt, where one can expand it from being a table into a wearable skirt. Here the
Interior Render / Runway / Southwest facing Main St
garment becomes a portable private space. As a shield, a protective gear, Chalayan having experienced political tension during his childhood, the garment is a way of establishing an identity when undergoing complications such as migration. In the 2B Studio, students will be working on the design
of the Southern California Institute of Fashion (SCIFa) to be located in Downtownâ€™s Fashion District is a school for fashion design. A school focused on fashion design, students are taught the skills of the discipline in classrooms, and specialized studios.
Exterior Render / Ground Entry / South
Interior Render / Runway / North Facing Downtown Los Angeles
Underground Production Rooms / Utilities
Ground Entry / Lobby
Auditorium Level 1 / Runway
Auditorium Level 2 / Roof Cafe / Library
Expand and Contract
2B Seminar This course examines how radical art practices in the United States from 1960-2000 defied disciplinary conventions and produced the new frameworks of installation, performance, and conceptual art. While modern art challenged academic traditions in the first half of the twentieth century, postwar art eroded even modernist conventions by integrating landscape, text, architecture, and the body into art practices. In this “expanded field,” described by
Rosalind Krauss, the practitioners of Land Art, Body Art, Conceptual Art and Happenings had to create their own systems of rules and constraints to structure their work. The course will involve close visual analysis of projects by artists such as Sol le Witt, Bruce Nauman, Yoko Ono, Marina Abramovic, and Matthew Barney to examine the construction of constraint within the expanded field. Close textual analysis of writings by Michael Fried, Rosalind Krauss,
and Yve-Alain Bois will address how discourses on medium specificity and cultural critique structured the work of this period. Class time will be devoted to the visual analysis of artworks and textual analysis of readings, with three or four meetings including field trips to museums such as MOCA and LACMA and local contemporary art galleries. In addition to weekly readings, course assignments will include a midterm visual project and a final paper.
ing. For this specific area, Krauss describes it “in every case of these axiomatic structures, there is some kind of intervention into the real space of architecture (Krauss 41).” Many artists have worked in this manner to evoke one’s attention to their immediate surroundings. And among them, Sarah Oppenheimer, an installation artist that is known for perceptual interventions into architectural space.
one’s understanding to interior space.
Definition of Progression Up until the late 19 century, art was partially a form of documentation to record historical events. After the industrial revolution, artists have started looking for a new way for producing art. There have been many technological advances, and they have changed, shifted, and even derailed art into many directions. This first major shift in the purpose of art happened at around 1839 where “light pictures” – or photography - was invented by LouisJacques-Mandé Daguerre. Just as the French history painter Paul Delaroche exclaimed when he saw Daguerre’s earliest light pictures: “From today, painting is dead! (Page W. 7843)” Since then, numerous categories that spawned in art have come and gone, until it finally arrived to a point in history where “categories like sculpture and painting have been kneaded and stretched and twisted in an extraordinary demonstration of elasticity, a display of the way a cultural term can be extended to include just about anything. (Krauss 30)” In Rosalind Krauss’ essay “sculpture in the expanded field”, she explores the newfound frontiers of the sculptural field which was once considered narrow, and attempts to define these new frontiers. Krauss felt that sculptures in her era were somewhat detached from its conventional idea. As Krauss puts it, “it was what was on or in front of a building that was not the building, or what was in the landscape that was not the landscape. (Krauss 36)” Sculptures were monuments standing in front and apart from buildings, but they were not considered part of the site’s original landscape; therefore they should be defined as “not-landscape and notarchitecture”. Having this defined for sculptures, Krauss felt naturally the call for a counterpart of itself, and thus a rectangular diagram of interrelated connections between landscape, not-landscape, architecture and not-architecture was established. Among the four quadrants of the expanded field diagram, the quadrant where “architecture and not-architecture” lies is perhaps the most intrigu-
To explore in this section of the expanded field, Oppenheimer creates thought-provoking installation pieces that forces spectators to confront them. By having viewers going through angular walls, slanted paths or climbing over pieces, Oppenheimer leads viewers through carefully positioned spaces and let them experience spaces as familiar as a gallery exhibition space differently. Her D-17 that is featured in the Rice gallery “cuts through the exterior glazing and seemingly passes through an interior wall of glass that acts as a filter, subtly changing the lighting and color of the structure. (Rice et al)” Oppenheimer understands how to relate and react to the architectural environment, and creates her pieces accordingly. Oppenheimer’s piece 610-3556 is perhaps a piece of work hers closest to Gordon Matta-Clark’s conical intersect building. This piece is very similar to how Matta-Clark used the cone as a frame – but with its polarity reversed. Matta-Clark’s conical intersect presents a view through a hole in a house, making the house merely a medium that delivers his message. Matta-Clark’s conical intersect relies heavily on its site-specificity: revealing the soon-tofinish center Pompidou behind it. Oppenheimer’s works are often similarly custom-tailored to a museum or gallery space, making her work very site specific. However, her “site” could virtually be any building in any city. Oppenheimer also inverts the conical relationship and makes the conical intersect visible from within the house, making it seem like it’s almost funneling the room from inside out. This again contributes to her urge to evoke
What Sarah Oppenheimer does cannot be defined as architecture, because most of her work is not design to fit the building code, nor they are comfortably accessible in the conventional sense. Yet her work does a good enough job to evoke one’s understanding of space, which is what architects do. Therefore, her work cannot be deemed as entirely “not-architecture” either. It may seem confusing that Oppenheimer’s work struggles in the space between architecture and non-architecture, but this just simply denotes that her work needs not to be clearly defined and explained. To the spectators, “sorting all this out is immensely pleasurable, and happily there is no resolution. (Smith 1)” Ultimately, Oppenheimer is an artist. And artists leave room for their viewers to breathe, and to come up with their own understanding of an art piece. Fifty years have passed since Krauss first attempted to predict where art was headed, and the expanded field still continues to define artists’ work in the modern day. However radical and detached an artists’ work it may seem, “the new is made comfortable by being made familiar, since it is seen as having gradually evolved from the forms of the past. And we are comforted by this perception of sameness, this strategy for reducing anything foreign in either time or space, to what we already know and are. (Krauss 30)”
1. Page, Walter Hines, and Arthur W. Page. The World’s Work. Vol. 12. N.p.: Doubleday, Page &, January 1, 1906. Print. 2. Krauss, Rosalind. Sculptures in the Expanded Field. Spring 1979 ed. Vol. 8. N.p.: MIT, 1979. P.30-44. JSTOR Archive. JSTOR, 6 June 2006. Web. 21 Apr. 2014. 3. “Sarah Oppenheimer D-1716 September - 5 December 2010.” D-17. Rice Gallery, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014. 4. Smith, Roberta. “Sarah Oppenheimer’s D-33 at P.P.O.W.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 11 Oct. 2012. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
Expand and Contract: Radical Art Practices 1960-2000 GS 7035 01 Spring 2014 Instructor: Bryony Roberts Student: Adrian Wong
Final Presentation Layout / 2014
Expand and Contract: Radical Art Practices 1960-2000
Expand and Contract: Radical Art Practices 1960-2000
GS 7035 01 Spring 2014 Instructor: Bryony Roberts Student: Adrian Wong
GS 7035 01 Spring 2014
Sarah Oppenheimer is an artist that is known producing work that spans across fields of sculpture and architecture. Her installation pieces are often alterations of the gallery space itself. She often demolishes the gallery walls and rebuilds them slanted, or, in this case, her installation cantilevers 26 feet from the walls, blocks the path to the exit and frames a view for an art piece in the background. Daniel Libeskind is an architect that is known for his dramatic, angular designs in his buildings. On
Bryony Roberts the expansion wing of the RoyalInstructor: Ontario Museum, Student: Adrian Wong his design becomes almost deconstructed shard that is sliced multiple times. Pieces and fragments present on the shards create a strong contrast to the original museum it is infesting.
A cutting technique is prominent in both Oppenheimer and Libskind’s work. They both share a similar approach when a cut is performed: when surfaces are cut, the edges are visually emphasized
through color. It’s almost like they used a laser to precisely cut out pieces from the form, and the burnt marks are left on the cuts. Both artists’ work challenges the viewer’s perception of the environment they occupy. These two projects both contain a part that already exists; another part was them added to complete the art piece. Oppenheimer does it by altering a known pattern or space, while Libeskind does it by introducing a sort of a theatrical foreign object to the viewer.
Expand and Contract: Radical Art Practices 1960-2000 GS 7035 01 Spring 2014 Instructor: Bryony Roberts Student: Adrian Wong
A Typical Entryway
Original Wing of the Royal Ontario Museum
Variations of the application of highlighted lines (redirected attention)
Tech of Description II
This course examines and extends the analytical techniques and strategies for the study of architecture evolving from programmatic and structural systems to external factors affecting site or building. Work is centered on advanced digital 3D drawing and modeling techniques for the construction and evaluation of spatial conditions. Students develop
techniques for manipulating 3D data that include rapid modeling, texture mapping, lighting and rendering, and analog drawing. Our goal is to explore innovative, potential architectural expressions of the current discourse around form through technique elaboration, material intelligence, formal logic efficiencies and precision assemblies as an ultimate
condition of design. The seminar will develop and investigate the notion of proficient geometric variations in digital design at a level of complexity, so that questions towards geometrical effectiveness, accuracy and performance can begin to be understood in a contemporary setting.
VS Grasshopper Assignment / 2014
Tech of Description II
Patient Zero and Funky Boy Grasshopper and Maya Generated / ABS and Powder Printed / 2138 Dowel Pieces Hand-cut
Johan Wijesinghe / Dennis Huynh / Adrian Wong
The most complex project yet. Our group looked into the Japanese concept “Wabi-Sabi” (侘寂), and came up with a 3-part story that narrates the development of our project.
Final Presentation Layout / Adrian Wong / 2014
Ornamentism // VS Spring 2014 Instructors: Erick Carcamo // Teaching Assistants:Freesia Torres, Dale Strong Johan Wijesinghe, Dennis Huynh, Adrian Wong
“What is special about the Azuma House is that a corner of the house is carved out in the back of the building. Ando released drawings showing the house as a perfect rectangular block; yet he added an indentation right before its construction - and the plan he released never showed this missing part. It is unclear whether this alteration was intended or a required fix. Some argue that Ando honored the Japanese concept of WabiSabi (侘寂), where beauty should be imperfect, impermanent and incomplete. Ando had a perfect concrete brick, but that was not good enough
for him. He had to cut a corner out. Just like the Japanese would clean up all the fallen leaves in the courtyard, but once the courtyard is spotless, they would return and shake the tree that the leaves had fallen from, so that a few newly fallen leaves would subtlely remain on the ground. This is said to be the highest and purest form of Japanese aesthetics.” -Excerpt from History of Arch I Analysis Essay
Colored Powder Print / Adrian Wong / 2014
White ABS Print Close-Up / Adrian Wong / 2014
Tech of Description II
The concept of Wabi-Sabi, however, is too vaguely defined. In order to provide premise for our project, Wabi-Sabi is refined to become “naturally occurring wear and tear done to an object” so that it would fit within the boundaries of our project. Our group work is evenly divided into 3 parts among 3 members. We each had a slightly different idea to work with, and these separate ideas would later come together to tell a story.
Animation Stills Healthy Cell and infected Cell Emitting Pathogens
My part, in particular, is the “shroud” of the project. The shroud was originally part of a health membrane of cell, until pathogens from a virus invaded the cell, infected it and turned the whole membrane into this colorfully toxic pattern. The infection weakened the molecular structure of the cell membrane, allowing the pathogen tear apart its skin which then becomes shrouded, and continues its journey until it hits a ground.
On the shroud, there is no clear ornamentation that fits into the conventional sense of attachment to an object. The patterning and coloration mapped on the shroud becomes the only ornamentation that is foreign to the object. And through visual alterations and camouflaging, the purpose of ornamentation is achieved.
Animation Stills Pathogen Infects Healthy Cell and Cell Membrane hardens and detaches