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We are proud to be members of: British Antique Dealers Association (BADA) The London and Provincial Antique Dealers Association (LAPADA) Confédération Internationale des Négociants en Oeuvres d’Art (CINOA) As such we abide by their very strict codes of practice, which assure clients the highest standards of professional conduct.
FRONT COVER: BACK COVER: ENDPAPERS:
Detail from An Important Pair of Louis Phillippe Gilt-Bronze Mounted Boulle Marquetry Inlaid Pedestals, by Béfort Jeune, pp 94-95 Detail from ‘A Declaration’ - An Unusual Specimen Marble Figural Group by Prof. Aristide Petrilli, pp 86-87 ‘Bacchante et l'Amour’- An Important Gilt and Patinated Bronze Sculpture by Jean-Léon Gérôme 'La Jeunesse' - A Fine Patinated Bronze Figure of Dancing Maiden by Felix-Maurice Charpentier
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LATEST ACQUISITIONS Catalogue IX
66-67 South Audley Street London England W1K 2QX Tel: + 44 (0)207 495 2324 Email: email@example.com Website: www.adrianalan.com
All items in this catalogue are for sale subject to availability and to our standard Terms & Conditions of Sale
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In changing times, both politically and economically there is something inherently reassuring in owning the very finest antiques, from magnificent furniture that is both a joy to use and to live with, to beautiful objects dâ€™art that bring pleasure to the eye. In the summer of 1964, when I opened my first antique shop in the English town of Brighton, the antique business was very different from today. In those days it was all about dealing in quantity if you could buy enough pieces you had a successful business - but today the business model has changed completely and only top quality pieces are desirable. We are committed to sourcing only the very finest items that come on the market and are uniquely placed to do this. In turn you, our clients, can select pieces from an enormous range of antiques, all special, many unique and all in superb condition. We believe in a very old fashioned idea but one that has great relevance in modern times, that of connoisseurship. In an increasingly online world, with a surfeit of websites and auctions offering everything from design to antiques, it can be challenging to determine the true value and quality of what is on offer. It is our role, through scholarship and experience to navigate this sea and offer a collection which is meticulously curated with an emphasis on quality, rarity and artistic taste. As a company we pride ourselves on the range and high level of service that we provide to all aspects of a sale, ensuring that items arrive in perfect condition worldwide - you can be confident that dealing with Adrian Alan Ltd will always be a pleasant and stress free experience. We hope you will enjoy this small selection of magnificent furniture and objects dâ€˜art, and we would very much like to welcome you to our gallery. As we are constantly adding to our collection we would encourage you to visit our website www.adrianalan.com, or contact us with your requirements. We look forward to answering any questions or enquiries you may have.
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MAISON MOTTHEAU ET FILS
A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Commode à Vantaux after a Model by Benneman and Stockel, the Mounts by Maison Mottheau et Fils
Height 100 cm / 39 in.
The gilt-bronze mounts stamped to the reverse ‘EM’ for Maison Mottheau et Fils. Inscribed in pencil to the carcass on the underside of the top with the date 1898.
Width 187 cm / 73 in. Depth 71 cm / 28 in. Ref: B59875
French, Dated 1898. The eighteenth century model this commode is based on was designed by Stockel and Benneman for Marie-Antoinette for the Salon des Jeux at Fontainebleau.
Guillaume Benneman, chief ébéniste to Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette from 1786 to 1792, was influential in introducing a more disciplined neo-classical approach to furniture design, with emphasis on pure outlines and architectural references that were to predominate under the Consulat and Empire. For a biography of Maison Mottheau see the Appendix. Literature: Kjellberg, Pierre (1998), Mobilier Français du XVIIIe Siècle, Les Editions De L’Amateur, Paris; p. 57. Nicolay, Jean (1982), L’Art et la Manière des Maîtres Ébénistes Français au XVIIIe Siècle, Éditions Pygmalion, Paris; p. 49.
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GOELZER & POUMAROUX
2 Height 230 cm / 91 in. Width 62 cm / 24 in. Depth 54 cm / 21 in. Ref: B72170
An Impressive Pair of Napoléon III GiltBronze Figural Torcheres by Goelzer & Poumaroux, Paris Signed to the plinths ‘A. GOELZER & POUMAROUX, PARIS’. French, Circa 1890.
These impressive chased and patinated bronze torcheres are each modelled as a child therm figure holding aloft a vase decorated with floral garlands, issuing a flambeau shade. For a biography of Goelzer & Poumaroux see the Appendix. Literature: Éditions du Génie Civil et de la Métallurgie Tour Palerme, 1880, Vol 1; p. 375.
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3 Height 150 cm / 59 in. Width 62 cm / 24 in. Depth 48 cm / 19 in. Ref: B71990
An Important Pair of Louis XVI Style GiltBronze Mounted Kingwood Centre Vitrines by Paul Sormani Signed to the locks ‘P. SORMANI, PARIS, 10, r. Charlot’. French, Circa 1870. In the catalogue of the 1867 Exposition Universelle it was said of Sormani’s work that toute sa production révèle une qualité d’exécution de tout premier ordre (all of his production reveals a quality of execution of the first order) and this is most evident in this exceptional pair of vitrines. With fine lines and elegant proportions, this very rare pair of centre vitrines, or vitrines de milieu, were designed to be viewed in the round and to display precious objects to every advantage. They are of the very highest quality,
typical of Sormani’s best work, with kingwood quarter veneers and superb gilt-bronze mounts. Each vitrine is fashioned with a stepped entablature, centred by a tablet with a ribbon tied floral garland and trophy above a glazed bombé door, enclosing an interior fitted with an adjustable glass shelf. The corresponding glazed sides and back are divided by fluted pilasters with finely cast gilt-bronze foliate and berried clasps. The apron of the vitrine is set to each side with a finely cast gilt-bronze plaque depicting putti at play and fronted by a single drawer. The vitrines are each raised on fluted tapering legs, united by an oval undertier and put down on acanthus sabots. It is very rare to find an example of this model of vitrine and almost impossible to find a pair in such superb condition. For a biography of Paul Somani see the Appendix.
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VEUVE PAUL SORMANI & FILS
A Very Fine Régence Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Bureau Plat by Veuve Paul Sormani & Fils, after the model by Charles Cressent
Height 81 cm / 32 in.
Signed ‘VVE P. SORMANI & FILS 10, r. Charlot Paris’ and ‘BJ 131’ to the lock.
Width 180 cm / 71 in.
French, Circa 1880.
Depth 97 cm / 38 in. Ref: B71770
Following the 1882 retrospective of Cressent’s work at the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs, many of the leading cabinet makers of the day, including Paul Sormani, rediscovered the sculptural designs of the eighteenth century Royal ébéniste Charles Cressent. Sormani produced a number of bureau plats in the 1880s based on Cressent’s work, often reinterpreting them with subtle elements of modernity. The distinctive figural espagnolettes to the head of each leg on the present bureau plat are based on a model by Cressent conserved at the Château de Versailles. Following Paul Sormani’s death in 1877, his wife and son took over the business and from this date onwards pieces are normally signed Veuve Sormani & Fils. For a biography of Veuve Paul Sormani & Fils see the Appendix. Literature: A. Pradère, Charles Cressent, sculpteur, ébéniste du Régent, Dijon, 2003.
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An Exceptional Gilt-Bronze Mounted Kingwood and Marquetry Bedroom Suite by Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener Stamped ‘E. ZWIENER’.
Bed Height 167 cm / 66 in. Width 174 cm / 69 in. Length 221 cm / 87 in. Armoire Height 250 cm / 98 in. Width 240 cm / 94 in. Depth 61 cm / 24 in. Dressing Table Height 193 cm / 76 in. Width 160 cm / 63 in. Depth 64 cm / 25 in. Ref: B66685
Paris, Circa 1889. This important bedroom suite comprising a dressing table, armoire and bed, exhibits distinct similarities to the Zwiener bedroom suite, commissioned circa 1898 for Kaiser Wilhelm II, and now in the permanent collection of Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. Zwiener’s work is remarkable for its organic, sculptural quality combining the traditional rococo style of the eighteenth century with the contemporary Art Nouveau, creating a careful balance between a decorative and compositional vocabulary.
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His innovations are readily apparent in the detailing of this magnificent suite with exceptional organic gilt-bronze mounts and endcut marquetry reserves. The sculptural bed is ornamented with lavish gilt-bronze mounts including a scallop-shaped cresting of two doves and foliate chutes of female espagnolettes; the armoire which stands grandly on six paw-footed legs displays a further scallopshaped cresting with a rose. On the dressing table it is interesting to note Léon Messagé’s signature ‘wing’ appears at the top of the swivelling mirror plate, identifying his work on the bronze designs of this suite, while foliate-scrolled candlearms emerge on each side and ram’s head chutes head each leg. In 1895, Zwiener was summoned to Berlin at the request of German emperor Wilhelm II (1859-1941) at Schloss Neues Palais, Sans Souci and Potsdam. Among the works the Kaiser would commission was a gilt-bronze mounted tulipwood marquetry kingwood bedstead, circa 1895, with gilt-bronze work attributed not to Messagé, but to Otto Rohloff. This piece was exhibited at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1900 [see: L’ Exposition de Paris, Encyclopédie du Siècle, Montgredien et Cie, (Paris), 1900; Vol III, p. 288]. The present bedroom suite is illustrated by by Jörg Meiner, Berliner Belle Époque, p. 70-71, Abb.76. For a biography of Zwiener see the Appendix. Literature: Jörg Meiner, Berliner Belle Époque: Der Ebenist Julius Zwiener und die Kunstmöbel für den Hof Kaiser Wilhelms II. (1888-1918), Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2014, p.70-71 for an illustration of this bedoom suite. ‘L’Exposition de Paris (1900), Encyclopedie du Siècle’, Vol III, Montgredien et Cie, (Paris), 1901; p. 288 and p. 300 for an engraving of a related double bed exhibited in the German pavilions at the Palais des Invalides. H. Kriesel, ‘Die Kunst des Deutschen Möbels, Möbel und Vertäfelungen des deutschen Sprachraums von den anfägen bis zum Jugendstil’, C.H. Beck, (Munchen), 1973; pl. 908 for an contemporary photograph showing the Wilhelm II bedroom suite taken circa 1904 at Schloss Charlottenburg. ‘Verwaltung der Staatlichen Schlösser und Gärten Berlin’, Eine Schlafzimmer-Ausstattung von Julius Zwiener. Ein Auftrag Kaiser Wilhelms II. fur das Berliner Schlösser 1895-1900, H. Heenemann & Co., Berlin, 1989. D. Ledoux-Lebard, ‘Le Mobilier Français du XIX Siècle’, pp. 645-648 for J. E. Zwiener. See also p. 645, where Ledoux-Lebard mentions under the Collection Particulière de Mr P. Lécoules, this bedroom suite. Dr. Jurgen Julier, ‘Kaiserlicher Kunnstbesitz aus dem Holländischen Exil Haus Doorn’, Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten, Berlin, 1991; p. 196. Camille Mestdagh, Pierre Lécoules, ‘L’Ameublement d’Art Français : 1850-1900’; Èditions de l’Amateur, 2010; pp. 301-305.
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Dressing Table Ensuite with Bed and Armoire by Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener, pages 14-17
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6 A Monumental Alabaster Figural JardiniĂ¨re Italian, Circa 1930.
Height 125 cm / 49 in. Diameter 70 cm / 28 in. Ref: B72411
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7 Height 127 cm / 50 in. Width 208 cm / 82 in. Depth 46 cm / 18 in. Ref: B69070
A Fine Louis XV Style Gilt and Patinated Bronze Mounted Marble Fireplace with Mounts Depicting Flora and Zephyr, After the Model by Verberckt and Caffieri at Versailles French, Circa 1860. This impressive Breccia Pernice fireplace with superb bronze mounts depicting Flora, goddess of flowers and Zephyr, god of the West Wind, is based on an example by Jacques Verberckt, with gilt bronze mounts by Jacques Caffieri, supplied for the bedchamber of the Dauphin at Versailles in 1747. A very
similar example contemporary to this fireplace, also featuring gilt-bronze and dark patinated bronze figures of Flora and Zephyr to the jambs, is in the Wallace Collection, Hertford House, London. Another similar fire surround was also installed in the King’s Study at Ras alTin Palace in Egypt, the interiors furnished by François Linke. For biographies of Jacques Verberckt and Jacques Caffieri see the Appendix. Literature: Payne, Christopher, François Linke: The Belle Époque of French Furniture, Woodbridge, 2003, p. 289. Peter Hughes, The Wallace Collection: Catalogue of Furniture, London, 1996, pps. 1481-1482, pl. 320 (F459).
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8 Height 75 cm / 30 in. Width 79 cm / 31 in. Depth 52 cm / 20 in. Ref: B71821
An Important Exhibition Louis XVI Style GiltBronze Mounted Centre Table After a Model by Adam Weisweiler by François Linke with a Yellow Veined Breccia Marble Top
Linke Index No: 114, adapted as Index No. 1301 Linke Title: Table Marie-Antoinette dessus Marbre The gilt-bronze rim signed ‘Linke’ and stamped ‘FL’ & ‘4258’. The legs stamped ‘FL’, ‘2191’ & ‘089’.
Height 102 cm / 40 in.
The base of one reserve signed in gilt ‘K. Wildner’.
Diameter 28 cm / 11 in.
French, Circa 1910. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix.
A Fine Pair of Large Vienna Porcelain Vases
Austrian, Circa 1890. Each vase is finely painted with a continuous reserve of classical allegorical figures on a pale green lustre. For a biography of the Vienna Porcelain Factory see the Appendix.
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An Important Louis XV Style GiltBronze and Lacquer Veneered Commode, in the Manner of Bernard II Van Risenburgh (BVRB), by Maison Beurdeley
Height 90 cm / 35 in.
Stamped to the carcass ‘BEURDELEY’.
Width 151 cm / 59 in.
French, Circa 1850.
Depth 65 cm / 26 in. Ref: B72600
The elegant rococo curves and distinctive gilt-bronze mounts to this commode draw comparison with an important lacquer commode attributed to the master ébéniste Bernard II Van Risenburgh (BVRB), now in the Jones collection at the V&A. (V&A No. 1105 1882). The commode is veneered sans traverse with Japanese urushi lacquer panels decorated with mountainous landscape scenes, typical of export lacquer of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The lacquer consists of a black lacquer ground with gold hirimaki-e (low relief) and several shades of gold takamaki-e (high relief,) set within uprights of French black lacquer. For a biography of Maison Beurdeley see the Appendix.
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An Exceptional Pair of Finely Carved Chippendale ‘Director’ Style Chinoiserie Pier Glasses English, Circa 1860.
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Height: 240 cm / 94 in. Width: 185 cm / 73 in. Depth: 12 cm / 5 in. Ref: B64340
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An Unusual Boulle, Tortoiseshell and Brass Inlaid Marquetry Table by Henry Dasson Stamped to the top rail ‘HENRY DASSON’.
Height 77 cm / 30 in. Diameter 93 cm / 37 in. Ref: B71280
French, Circa 1880. This rare table has a finely inlaid boulle marquetry top centred by a cartouche depicting the birth of Venus, with four further cartouches representing figures from Greek Mythology: Diana as The Hunter with her bow and arrow,
Hercules battling with the Lernaean Hydra, Poseidon with his trident and the Goddess Hera in her chariot. The figures which sit within a complex arabesque background derived from the published designs of Jean Berain; in particular the central cartouche of the Birth of Venus, set beneath a canopy, is taken from Berain’s drawing for La Naissance de Vénus, published in Paris in 1696. For a biography of Henry Dasson see the Appendix.
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A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Five Drawer, Marble Top Chiffonier by Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener
French, Circa 1880. Height 150 cm / 59 in. Width 81 cm / 32 in. Depth 46 cm / 18 in. Ref: B70210
Stamped to the carcass and to the top of one drawer ‘E.ZWIENER’. This richly decorated chiffonier has five drawers and very fine gilt-bronze caryatid mounts. The cabinet also includes a concealed secret drawer. For a biography of Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener see the Appendix.
‘L’enfant Guerrier’ - An Important GiltBronze Figure by François Linke Sculpted by Léon Messagé Signed ‘F.Linke’.
Height 41 cm / 16 in. Width 32 cm / 13 in. Depth 27 cm / 11 in. Ref: B70720
French, Circa 1880. This iconic bronze figure sculpted by Léon Messagé, depicts a martial rendering of Cupid, allegorical of the power of France. For biographies of François Linke and Léon Messagé see the Appendix. Literature: Payne, Christopher, François Linke, (1855 - 1946), The Belle Époque of French Furniture, Antique Collectors’ Club, (Woodbridge) 2003. p. 337, pl 365.
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A Very Rare Louis XV Style Carved Giltwood Aubusson Salon Suite by François Linke Stamped beneath the seat rails ‘F. LINKE’.
Canape: Height 125 cm / 49 in. Width 170 cm / 67 in. Depth 79 cm / 31 in. Fauteuils: Height 125 cm / 46 in. Depth 79 cm / 31 in. Ref: B67731
French, Circa 1870. This fine Louis XV Style salon suite comprises four fauteuils à la reine and a canape. Finely carved with rocaille and scallop shells, on leaf carved cabriole legs and scrolled feet, the chairs and canape are upholstered in superb floral Aubusson tapestry. Giltwood furniture by Linke is not only rare, but can be difficult to identify as it tends to be unmarked. It is therefore both unusual and indicative of the high quality of this suite that Linke decided to stamp it with his name. Christopher Payne notes that the best intact single collection of giltwood furniture supplied by Linke is that made for the King of Egypt in the 1920s. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix. Literature: Christopher Payne, François Linke, 1855-1946, The Belle Époque of French Furniture, 2003., pp. 298-299.
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16 Height 101 cm / 40 in. Width 65 cm / 26 in. Depth 32 cm / 13 in. Ref: B72310
A Fine Louis XVI Style Parquetry, Gilt-Bronze and Lacquer Mounted Petit Secretaire Cabinet, Attributed to Maison Beurdeley French, Circa 1900. Stamped to the reverse of the bronze mounts to the bottom columns ‘H.B. 47’, stamped to the reverse of the bronze mounts to the top of the columns ‘PZ 42’. Stamped to the reverse of the bronze frames to the doors ‘38’. Combining elegance with useful dimensions, this petit secretaire cabinet has a parquetry inlaid case, inset with fine Japanese lacquer panels. The cabinet has a fall front opening to reveal a writing slope and a fitted interior with small drawers and compartments. For a biography of Maison Beurdeley see the Appendix.
A Fine Pair of Transitional Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Parquetry Commodes by Paul Sormani, After the Model by Charles Topino
Height 86 cm / 34 in.
Stamped beneath the marble top to one commode ‘SORMANI’ also signed to the lockplate ‘PAUL SORMANI, 10, r. Charlot, Paris’. Stamped on the back of both locks ‘B THEAU SERRURIER PARIS’, and also stamped on reverse of handle plate ‘H.P.R’.
Width 111 cm / 44 in. Depth 53 cm / 21 in. Ref: B70160
Paris, Circa 1870. This distinctive transitional model of commode is based on the designs of the famous eighteenth century ébéniste Charles Topino, (maître in 1773). The signature mounts of classical urns beneath swagged drapery can be found on many examples of Topino’s work. A related commode by Topino can be found in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, [1986.156.1 ab]. For a biography of Paul Sormani see the Appendix.
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A Pair of Sèvres-Style Biscuit Porcelain Vases and Covers in the Manner of Clodion
Blue interlaced ‘L’ Marks and incised letter ‘Z’ to the base. Height 69 cm / 27 in. Width 39 cm / 15 in. Depth 28 cm / 11 in. Ref: B70745
French, Circa 1880. Each vase has a domed cover above an ovoid body with finely modelled gilt ram’s head handles; the body is moulded in the style of Clodion (Claude Michel 1738-1814), with playful putti holding floral garlands. For a biography of Clodion see the Appendix.
Height 128cm / 50 in. Width 52cm / 20 in. Depth 35cm / 14 in. Ref: B72261
A Pair of Louis XIV Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Ebonised Pedestals, in the Manner of André-Charles Boulle Stamped ‘ARD’ to the reverse of the bronze rims to the base of pedestals. French, Circa 1880. Each pedestal is of tapering square section, with fine gilt-bronze foliate mounts to the frieze. The gilt-bronze framed body of each pedestal is centred by a finely cast gilt-bronze Apollo mask above acanthus C-scroll mounts and a shaped apron centred by a Satyr’s mask. The pedestals are raised on claw feet.
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A Large and Important Louis XV Style GiltBronze and Cut-Crystal Thirty-Light Cage Chandelier French, Circa 1870.
Height 223 cm / 88 in. Diameter 139 cm / 55 in. Weight 102 kg / 225 lbs Ref: B71920
This fine chandelier is of a grand scale at 223 cm high (88 inches). The chandelier has a central cut-crystal baluster stem surrounded by an open gilt-bronze cage frame issuing scrolling S and C-scrolled branches. The branches support baluster form nozzles with circular glass drip-pans. The chandelier is adorned all over with large facet-cut and flat pendalogue drop prisms, and terminates in a faceted hexagonal terminal. Provenance: Rudding Park, Harrogate, Yorkshire, England.
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21 Height 230 cm / 91 in. Width 56 cm / 22 in. Depth 49 cm / 19 in. Ref: B65840
A Fine Pair of Louis XVI Style Gilt-bronze and Vert d’Eau Enamelled Ten-Light Torchère Candelabra The bronze variously numbered to the reverse ‘2445’. French, Circa 1880. Reputedly forming part of the furnishings of the Hermes Villa in Vienna this sophisticated pair of torchères are of exceptional quality with superbly cast and gilded bronze figurative mounts. The Hermes Villa was commissioned by the Viennese Emperor Franz Joseph as a retreat for the Empress Elisabeth. Built between 1882 and
1886, it was considered one of the most outstanding examples of villa architecture of the late romantic period. The villa was to take its name from the statue of Hermes which stood in the grounds. Provenance: Hermes villa, Vienna.
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22 ‘Bureau Plat à Têtes de Guerriers Antiques’ - An Important Régence Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Kingwood and Tulipwood Bureau Plat After the Model by Charles Cressent, by Repute from the Collection of Emil Glückstadt, Denmark’s ‘Napoléon of Finance’ French, Circa 1890. This magnificent bureau plat à têtes de guerriers antiques is after the model by the celebrated Ancien Régime cabinetmaker and sculptor, Charles Cressent (1685-1768) and the quality of its construction and gilt-bronze mounts is indicative of the very best Parisian cabinetwork of the late nineteenth century. The bronze mounts of the warriors with Roman armour which elegantly defend the corners of this desk, known as bustes des guerriers antiques, were among Cressent’s most celebrated mounts. For a biography of Charles Cressent see the Appendix. Provenance: Distinguished Private Collection – Denmark. By Repute from the Collection of Emil Glückstadt Possibly acquired during the sales of his collections held by Winkel & Magnussens Kunstauktioner, 1924. Acquired from an important Private collection in Denmark. During restoration of this desk, an old newspaper clipping was found to the underside of one drawer illustrating Glückstadt seated at this desk. A number of further photographs showing Glückstadt in his office at the Landmandsbanken, sitting behind a desk of this ‘Cressent’ model are in the collection of the Royal Library, Copenhagen. Emil Glückstadt (1875 – 1923) was an important Danish financier, Councillor of State and a passionate art collector, referred to in his own time as the ‘Napoléon of Finance’ and Head of the Landmandsbanken. Height: 78 cm / 31 in. Width: 188 cm / 74 in. Depth: 105 cm / 41 in. Ref: B66621
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23 Height 252 cm / 99 in. Diameter 160 cm / 63 in. Weight 275 kg / 606 lbs Ref: B62152
A Monumental Louis XV Style GiltBronze and Cut-Glass Forty-Eight Light Chandelier The frame is variously stamped with numbers and ‘JL’. French, Circa 1885. This rare and exceptional chandelier has a central cut-glass baluster stem, surrounded by an undulating cage frame from which two tiers of acanthus cast scrolling arms extend. The chandelier is hung overall with extremely large shaped prisms and flower head drops, and terminates in a fabulous pear shaped glass finial.
An Exceptional Quality Pair of Napoléon III Gilt-Bronze and Enamel Four-Light Candelabra After the Model by Pierre Gouthière, by Beurdeley
Height 91 cm / 36 in.
Stamped underneath the bronze base ‘BY’ for Beurdeley.
Width 42 cm / 17 in.
French, Circa 1870.
Depth 38 cm / 15 in.
This very fine pair of candelabra is based on the model by Pierre Gouthière now conserved in the Petit-Trianon at Versailles. For a biography of Maison Beurdeley see the Appendix. Literature: Verlet, Pierre, Les Bronzes Dorés Français du XVIIIe Siècle, Picard, (Paris), 1987; p. 99, plate 11.
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A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Purpleheart and Lacquered Commode, after the Model by Joseph Stockel for Marie Antoinette
Height 94 cm / 37 in.
Stamped to the reverse of the escutcheons ‘WT & S *’. Stamped to the reverse of the gilt-bronze mounts ‘CD’.
Width 175 cm / 69 in. Depth 65 cm / 26 in. Ref: B68751
French, Circa 1890. This stately commode with its fluted columns and restrained Louis XVI style is inspired by the eighteenth century model supplied by Joseph Stockel for Marie Antoinette for the Salon des Jeux at the Palace of Fontainebleau. The model by Stockel is of similar form but features porcelain plaques rather than exotic lacquered decoration.
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A Large and Very Fine Carved Giltwood Rococo Mirror After Thomas Johnson
Signed and dated ‘henry Dasson et Cie. 1889’.
English, Circa 1820. Height 237 cm / 93 in. Width 124 cm / 49 in. Depth 22 cm / 9 in. Ref: B51000
Born in London in 1714, Thomas Johnson was a woodworker and carver known for his whimsical mixture of rococo, Chinese, and rustic motifs. He published several influential books of designs including: Twelve Girandoles in 1755, The Book of the Carver in 1758. For a biography of Thomas Johnson see the Appendix
An Exceptional Pair of Gilt-Bronze FourLight Figural Wall Appliques Depicting Flora and Zephyr, by Henry Dasson et Cie.
Height 80 cm / 31 in. Width 34 cm / 13 in. Depth 28 cm / 11 in. Ref: B65632
French, Dated 1889. Depicting Flora, the goddess of flowers and Zephyr, god of the West Wind, these unusual appliques are an adaption of a model which Dasson exhibited to widespread acclaim at the Paris Exposition des Beaux Arts à Industrie of 1880. For a biography of Henry Dasson see the Appendix. Literature: Camille Mestdagh, Pierre Lécoules: L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850-1900, Editions de l’Amateur, 2010, p. 159, fig. 179.
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A Very Fine Louis XV Style GiltBronze Mounted Side Cabinet with a Painted Panel and Brèche Marble Top, Attributed to Maison Krieger
Height 135 cm / 53 in.
The reverse of the bronze mount to the base of the door stamped ‘LAV’, 281, 8b.
Width 185 cm / 73 in. Depth 56 cm / 22 in. Ref: B72092
French, Circa 1890. Incorporating a finely painted panel depicting la Fête Galante and embellished with exceptional giltbronze mounts, this remarkable cabinet is an example of the very best meuble de luxe being produced by Maison Krieger in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The acanthus and foliate cast gilt-bronze mounts to the projecting uprights are particularly noteworthy for their quality of production and lively sculptural handling. For a biography of Maison Krieger see the Appendix. Fête galante was a term used to describe a type of painting which first came to prominence with Antoine Watteau, whose reception piece at the Academy of 1717, The Embarkation for the Island of Cythera, was described as representing une fête galante. Typically the scenes are characterised by elegantly attired young men and women at leisure in romantic pastoral settings.
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FONDERIES D’ART DU VAL D’OSNE
A Rare Pair of Cream-Painted and GiltDecorated Cast Iron Busts and Pedestals Allegorical of Spring and Winter by Fonderies d’Art du Val d’Osne
Height 203 cm / 80 in.
The pedestals with an engraved plaque inscribed ‘FONDERIES DU VAL D’OSNE 58 BD VOLTAIRE - PARIS’.
Width 40 cm / 16 in. Depth 40 cm / 16 in. Ref: B70751
French, Circa 1900. This important pair of allegorical busts and accompanying stands are illustrated in the Val d’Osne catalogue of 1900. A frequent participant at the international exhibitions during the second half of the nineteenth Century, the firm of Val d’Osne,
established by J.P.V. André in 1835, was known for its extensive inventory of architectural designs and ‘fancy castings’. Noted sculptors like Carrier-Belleuse, Mathurin Moreau, Pradier and Delaplanche created models exclusively for Victor André. The firm met with critical acclaim at the 1857 London Exhibition with a monumental bronze fountain cast with swans and Classical figures. Acquired by Barbezat & Cie in 1867, and allying with the fondeur J.J. Ducel towards 1870, the company was eventually renamed Société Anonyme des Hauts-Fourneaux & Fonderies du Val-D’Osne, Anciennes maison J.P.V. André et J.J. Ducel et Fils. The most celebrated works of art cast by the firm are irrefutably the Parisian subway entrances designed by Hector Guimard.
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30 Height 105 cm / 41 in. Width 68 cm / 27 in. Depth 68 cm / 27 in. Ref: B72570
A Pair Of Monumental Gilt-Bronze Mounted Sèvres-Style Porcelain Vases and Covers Signed ‘A. Maglin’, to the underside of each cover with pseudo Sèvres marks. The painted scenes signed ‘A. Maglin’. French, Circa 1890. A. Maglin was a renowned French studio ceramic painter working at the end of the nineteenth century. Celebrated for the superb quality of his painting, his works were exhibited at a number of the international exhibitions of
the period. His daughter also became an accomplished ceramic painter and her signature can be found on a number of fine Sèvres Style vases as ‘C. Rochette’ or ‘Claire Maglin Rochette’.
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31 A Unique and Monumental Louis XVI Style Giltwood Centre Table with a Brèche Violette Marble Top by François Linke Linke Index no. 2575 French, Circa 1914. Giltwood furniture by Linke is not only rare, but can be difficult to identify as it tends to be unmarked. This table can however be confidently attributed to Linke, as an early black and white photograph of the piece, Linke index no. 2575, survives in the Linke Archive (see page 428 pl. 501, in Christopher Payne - François Linke, 18551946, The Belle Époque of French Furniture). The only one of its kind known to have been produced, it was carved for Linke in May 1914 by Derivry. It formed part of the important commission of furniture ordered by the Italian born Argentinean banker Antonio Devoto. A wealthy and prolific patron, Devoto had hoped to establish his own private museum of furniture made exclusively by Linke in his Buenos Aires home, but unfortunately died before the project could be completed. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix. Provenance: Antonio Devoto Private Collection, Argentina. Collection of Mrs. Barbara Woodard Lips, San Antonio,Texas. Mayo Foundation. Hendershott Collection. Literature: Payne, Christopher (2003), François Linke, 1855 - 1946, The Belle Époque of French Furniture, Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge; p. 428, pl. 501. Height: 88 cm / 35 in. Width: 253 cm / 100 in. Depth: 145 cm / 57 in. Ref: B66500
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A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Mahogany Commode, with a Blue Turquin Marble Top, in the Manner of Jean-Henri Riesener
Height 93 cm / 37 in.
The gilt-bronze mounts stamped ‘T’. The carcass bearing a faux stamp for ‘RIESENER JME 1761’.
Height 169 cm / 67 in.
Width 151 cm / 59 in. Depth 65 cm / 26 in. Ref: B71615
French, Circa 1880. This fine, gilt-bronze mounted, mahogany veneered commode is of restrained neoclassical design in the manner of the important ébéniste du roi, Jean-Henri Riesener. The highly sculptural gilt-bronze figural mounts to the angles, feature on a number of important works by Riesener, including a commode made for Louis XVI’s Chambre du Roi at Versailles, now in the Royal Collection.
Width 90 cm / 35 in. Depth 43 cm / 17 in. Ref: B71820
A Fine Louis XV Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Kingwood Bombé Vitrine with Vernis Martin Panels, by François Linke Signed ‘F. Linke’ to one bronze mount. The reverse of the bronze mounts stamped ‘FL’. Variation of Index No. 103 - Vitrine Louis XV corniche cintrée 6 panneaux vernis Martin bois de violette. French, Circa 1900. A notable feature of this fine vitrine is the unusual crab-like scallop shell or coquille and acanthus mount, designed by Linke’s sculptor Léon Messagé. This impressive and individual bronze mount is perhaps even more of a guarantee of Linke’s work than a signature. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix.
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34 Height 102cm / 40in. Width 103cm / 41in. Depth 45cm / 18in. Ref: B72320
A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Mahogany and Coromandel Lacquer Demi-Lune Commode, by François Linke
An Important Napoléon III Gilt-Bronze ThirtyThree Light Chandelier
Signed ‘Linke’ to the gilt-bronze mounts.
Height 102 cm / 40 in.
This important Napoléon III gilt-bronze chandelier is finely cast and chiselled with exotic neo-gothic troubadour style decoration, with foliate arabesque and winged female terms.
French, Circa 1890. This elegant commode by François Linke incorporates sophisticated coromandel lacquer panels depicting palace scenes and stylised landscapes. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix.
Diameter 100 cm / 39 in. Weight 57 kg / 126 lbs Ref: B68911
French, Circa 1860. The Troubadour style emerged during the French Restauration and Second Empire, as an eclectic revival of gothic and Renaissance ornament. As a reaction against the strict confines of Neo-classicism and an attempt to return to the romanticised ideals of the Middle Ages, it was comparable to the Gothic revival that came to dominate much of the architectural and artistic design in Britain and the USA, during the early to mid-nineteenth century.
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36 A Fine Pair of George III Style, Neoclassical Pier Mirrors, in the Manner of Robert Adam English, Circa 1900. This sophisticated pair of pier glasses, with their mirrored frames, ornamented with trailing husk pendants sacred urns, griffins and painted roundels are designed in the neo-classical manner promoted by the architect Robert Adam (d.1792). The frames are carved with a confident, yet delicate, nineteenth century eclectic approach incorporating many of the characteristic elements of Robert Adamâ€™s designs from the 1770s. The crestings are conceived in the Etruscan style, with rails of palmette running pattern centred by oval plaques, each painted with neoclassical figures to resemble Jasperware. They are surmounted by delicately carved anthemion and flanked by griffins, guarding sacred flames. The griffin and vase motif which extends in front of the lower part of the mirror plate is derived from a pattern invented by Robert Adam in 1772 for the Earl of Bute at Luton Park, Bedfordshire and illustrated in The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam, vol.III, pl.XI, 1822, intended to convey the idea of sacrifice at loveâ€™s altar. An overmantel by Adam incorporating this device was commissioned by John Papillon Twisden for his Bradbourne estate in Kent in 1772 and is now in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. Similar griffins also appear in designs for decorative plasterwork by Robert Adam, for example on the ceilings of the Gallery and Hall at Harewood House, Yorkshire, and in the Long Gallery at Syon House, London. For a biography of Robert Adam see the Appendix. Literature: H.F. Schiffer, The Mirror Book: English, American & European, Pennsylvania: 1938 (figs 469 and 470).
Height: 183 cm / 72 in. Width: 91 cm / 36 in. Depth: 7 cm / 3 in. Ref: B72610
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37 Height 78 cm / 31 in. Diameter 80 cm / 31 in. Ref: B72620
An Exceptional Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Mahogany Centre Table by Henry Dasson Stamped ‘HD’ for Henry Dasson to the reverse of the gilt-bronze rim. French, Circa 1880. This elegant and very rare centre table or gueridon is designed in the goût Weisweiler and is of exhibition quality, with superb gilt-bronze mounts. An example of this model of table by Dasson, dated 1867, was formerly in the collection of Pierre Lecoules, and is illustrated by D. LedouxLebard. The exceptional quality of the giltbronze mounts epitomises the ‘goût Weisweiler’, much favoured by Dasson and based on the celebrated work of Louis XVI’s maître Adam Weisweiler and his marchand mercier Dominique Daguerre in the eighteenth century. For a biography of Henry Dasson see the Appendix. Literature: D. Ledoux-Lebard, Le mobilier français du XIXe siècle, Paris, 1989, p. 148.
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38 A Fine Pair of Louis XV Style Giltwood and Tapestry Upholstered Bergères à La Reine French, Circa 1880. Of generous proportions and with finely carved giltwood frames, this fine pair of bergères are upholstered in Aubusson tapestry depicting pastoral scenes of a youth with his flagon and a maid playing a lyre, within foliate framed cartouches.
Height 107 cm / 42 in. Width 76 cm / 30 in. Depth 61 cm / 24 in.
Ref: B71659 Info
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An Important Louis XV Style GiltBronze Mounted Coromandel Lacquer Commode, with a Shaped Brèche d’Alep Marble Top, by Sormani
Height 94 cm / 37 in.
Stamped twice to the carcass ‘SORMANI PARIS’. Engraved to the lock plate ‘SORMANI 134 bd Haussmann, Paris’. The reverse of the bronze mounts stamped ‘PS’.
Width 155 cm / 61 in. Depth 59 cm / 23 in. Ref: B71740
French, Circa 1880. This exceptional commode has two drawers mounted sans traverse, with panels of Coromandel lacquer depicting courtly scenes of stylised gardens and courtiers, set within richly cast gilt-bronze frames. For a biography of Paul Sormani see the Appendix.
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40 A Fine Pair of Louis XVI Style Carved Giltwood Console Tables French, Circa 1870. Supporting elegant BrĂ¨che Violette marble tops, these well-proportioned console tables are of exceptional quality with very fine carving and gilding. They display the influence of the style anglais that was fashionable in France in the second half of the nineteenth century; their superb quality construction however confirms that they were almost certainly made in one of the best Parisian workshops of the period. Height 92 cm / 36 in. Width 120 cm / 47 in. Depth 70 cm / 28 in. Ref: B71531
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41 LEROY ET FILS An Exceptional Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Champlevé Enamel Mantel Clock Stamped to the movement ‘LEROY & FILS A PARIS, 823’. French, Circa 1880. This fine gilt-bronze and champlevé enamel clock has an enamelled chapter ring with Roman numerals interspersed with anthemion devices and a twin barrelled, eight-day movement striking on a bell. For a biography of Leroy et Fils see the Appendix.
Height 51 cm / 20 in. Width 27 cm / 11 in. Depth 22 cm / 9 in. Ref: B71041
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42 LUCA MADRASSI ‘Puck’ - A Finely Cast ParcelGilt And Patinated Bronze Figural Group By Luca Madrassi Signed ‘L. MADRASSI, PARIS’. The Bronze Figure, French, Circa 1890. The Pedestal Italian, Circa 1890. This finely cast and patinated allegorical group depicting Puck and an owl is set on an octagonal stepped rouge griotte marble base and raised on a superb Algerian onyx column mounted with gilt-bronze foliate rosette bands and ribbon tied foliate swags. For a biography of Luca Madrassi see the Appendix
Height of the Figure 118 cm / 46 in. Height of Pedestal 85 cm / 33 in. Total Height 203 cm / 79 in. Ref: B71893
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A Monumental Louis XV Style Sculptural Gilt-Bronze Clock Garniture by Victor Paillard & Romain
The dial inscribed ‘VICTOR PAILLARD & ROMAIN / Fants. de Bronzes / PARIS’. The twin-barrel movement with a platform lever escapement and rack striking to a bell. The movement stamped ‘ND/1262’.
Height 100 cm / 39 in. Width 70 cm / 28 in. Depth 40 cm / 16 in.
Candelabra: Height 140 cm / 55 in. Diameter 59 cm / 23 in.
French, Circa 1870. This magnificent sculptural clock garniture is of truly massive proportions and of exceptional quality. It comprises a clock with a figure of a bacchante with attendant cherubs and a pair of figural candelabra en suite. The expressive bacchante figure is sculpted with garlands of vine leaves to her hair and a defeated Satyr term to her feet. The naturalistic base is embellished with further Bacchanalian attributes including a tambourine and thyrsus. It is very rare to find a clock garniture of such superb quality and grand proportions. For a biography of Victor Paillard please see the Appendix.
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44 A Rare Pair of Napoléon III Gilt-Bronze Mounted ‘Boulle’, Ebonised and Pietre Dure-Mounted Side Cabinets, by Befort Jeune The bronze stamped to the reverse of the egg and dart moulding ‘H’ and ‘HB’. Stamped to the reverse of the foliate mount ‘H’. French, Circa 1850. Of exceptional quality this fine pair of ebonised ‘Boulle’ side cabinets have finely cast giltbronze mounts and striking Florentine Pietre Dure hardstone panels of semiprecious stones, rare agates and marbles. For a biography of Befort Jeune see the Appendix. Height 120 cm / 47 in. Width 97 cm / 38 in. Depth 47 cm / 19 in. Ref: B71330
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45 Height 91 cm / 36 in. Width 189 cm / 74 in. Depth 71 cm / 28 in. Ref: B72590
An Exceptional Louis XV Style Kingwood and Gilt-Bronze Mounted Marquetry Inlaid Commode by François Linke, the Gilt-Bronze Mounts Designed by Léon Messagé French, Circa 1900. This fine and very rare commode is an example of the collaboration between Linke and the gifted sculptor Léon Messagé. The distinctive winged foliate handle is a design Messagé particularly favoured and seen on a number of pieces designed for Linke. It might be assumed that this motif is Messagé’s idea of an amusing play on his own family name, the wings being the attributes of Mercury the messenger. The use of mounts by Messagé was restricted by Linke to only his finest items of furniture. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix.
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46 Height of Figures 194 cm / 76 in. Height of Pedestal 67 cm / 27 in. Total Height 261 cm / 103 in. Ref: B72021
A Large and Magnificent Pair of Gilt and Patinated Bronze Figural Candelabra, Cast by Ferdinand Barbedienne after the Models by Alexandre Falguière and Paul Dubois Signed ‘FALGUIERE’ and ‘P. DUBOIS’ respectively and inscribed ‘F. BARBEDIENNE. FONDEUR’. French, Circa 1870. Exhibited by Barbedienne at the 1867 Exposition Universelle and subsequently installed at the Château de Compiègne, as part of the refurbishment undertaken by Napoléon III and Empress Eugénie, this model of torchere was highly celebrated at the time. Barbedienne illustrates a drawing of this pair of torcheres on page 63 of his 1886 catalogue Bronzes D’ Art under the heading ‘Deux Femmes Debout’ and describes them as Porte-Lumières, style Renaissance, indicating that they were modelled by Paul Dubois and Falguière. Paul Dubois (1827-1905) entered L’Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1858. He exhibited at the 1865 Salon the Chanteur Florentin, inspired by his period of study in Italy and later exhibited this model at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867 (now preserved at the Musée d’Orsay). His success brought him many important public and private commissions including a portrait for the Duc d’Aumale and a statue of Joan of Arc at Reims. He was appointed curator at the Luxembourg Museum in 1873 and went on to become Director of the L’Ecole des BeauxArts in 1878. Alexandre Falguière studied under Jouffroy at L’Ecole des Beaux-Arts, exhibiting for the first time at the salon in 1857. He won the Prix de Rome in 1859 and continued to find extraordinary success at the International Exhibitions of the period including the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867 where he won a first class medal. He was awarded the Ordre National de la Légion d’Honneur in 1870. As well as private commissions he undertook a
number of important commissions for the French state. In 1878 he was asked by the state to realise the Triomphe de la République, placed in 1881 at the summit of the Arc de Triomphe (taken down in 1886). His most important international work was the Lafayette monument in Washington D.C. For a biography of Ferdinand Barbedienne see the Appendix. Literature: Pierre Kjellberg, Les Bronzes du XIX Siècle, dictionnaire des sculpteurs, pps.653-658. Jeremy Cooper, 19th Century Romantic Bronzes, pps. 25,41,149.
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47 A Magnificent Régence / Louis XV Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Ebonised Lacquer Bureau Plat after the Model by Jacques Dubois French, Circa 1870. Combining graceful curves with sinuous gilt-bronze mounts and exotic japanned lacquer panels, this refined bureau plat reflects the transition between the more reserved Régence style of the early eighteenth century and the more whimsical rocaille that emerged during the reign of Louis XV. The bureau is based on a model by the Royal ébéniste Jaques Dubois and formerly in the possession of the Duke of Orleans. The exceptional quality of the gilt-bronze mounts and the fine detail of the cabinet making, suggest that this bureau was made by one of the finest ébénistes of the day. Literature: Alcouffe Daniel, Dion-Tenenbaum Anne, Lefébure Amaury, Le mobilier du musée du Louvre, Dijon, Éditions Faton, 1993, pp. 158-161, for an illustration of the model by Jaques Dubois.
Height 81 cm / 32 in. Width 189 cm / 74 in. Depth 104 cm / 41 in. Ref: B71370
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A Large and Impressive NapolĂŠon III Gilt-Bronze and Cut-Glass Thirty-Six Light Chandelier
A Fine Louis XIV Style Carved Giltwood Marginal Frame Mirror
French, Circa 1870.
French, Circa 1890.
Height 140 cm / 55 in. Diameter 120 cm / 47 in. Weight 64 kg / 141 lbs Ref: B71670
Height 197 cm / 78 in. Width 150 cm / 59 in. Depth 12 cm / 5 in. Ref: B72050
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‘A Declaration’ - An Unusual Specimen Marble Figural Group by Prof. Aristide Petrilli Signed ‘PROF. APetrilli - FIRENZE’.
Height 146 cm / 57 in. Width 76 cm / 30 in. Depth 40 cm / 16 in. Ref: B72531
Italy, Circa 1900. In this remarkable neo-classical figural group Petrilli depicts a courting couple in conversation seated on a bench. He skilfully combines rare specimen marbles: red onyx, brèche violette, yellow sienna, lapis lazuli and malachite, with moulded glass and bronze, to create a harmonious and sophisticated composition; an intimate moment frozen in time, reminiscent of the neo-classical Greco-
Roman subjects of artists such as Lawrence Alama-Tadema and John William Godward. The reverse of the group is centred by an exquisite cameo roundel depicting Apollo and his chariot and the whole group is raised on a revolving verde antico marble pedestal. For a biography of Aristide Petrilli see the Appendix.
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51 Height 128 cm / 50 in. Width 182 cm / 72 in. Depth 66 cm / 26 in. Ref: B69531
A Very Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Mahogany Side Cabinet with a Brèche Violette Marble Top, by Henry Dasson Stamped to the top of the carcass ‘HENRY DASSON’. French, Circa 1880. Of grand proportions this fine side cabinet has a moulded brèche violette marble top above a frieze drawer with scrolling foliate running pattern centering on a mask. Below is a cupboard door with a gilt-bronze ribbon-tied foliate wreath with a pair of doves perched on a Cupid’s bow, an arrow-quiver and a flaming torch, the interior with two shelves. For a Biography of Henry Dasson see the Appendix.
An Impressive and Highly Important Pair of Empire Style Mahogany Side Cabinets, One with an Integral Clock the other a Barometer, by Fournier
Height 150 cm / 59 in.
Stamped ‘FOURNIER’ on the back of the lock plate.
Width 62 cm / 24 in.
French, Circa 1880.
Depth 48 cm / 19 in. Ref: B67411
This exceptional pair of Empire cabinets are constructed from the finest mahogany and embellished with lavish gilt-bronze mounts. Each cabinet is surmounted by a patinated bronze bust of Napoléon after the model by the French sculptor Antoine-Denis Chaudet (1763-1810). For a Biography of Fournier see the Appendix.
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53 A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted Mahogany and Lacquer Commode à Vantaux, after the Model by Weisweiler, by Hubert-Joseph Heubès The carcass stamped ‘HEUBES’ and bearing a pseudo ‘JACOB JME’ stamp. The bronze mounts stamped to the reverse ‘HB’. French, Circa 1870. This elegant mahogany commode is surmounted by a brocatelle jaune d’Espagne marble top and the central door inset with a striking Japanese gold hiramaki-e and takamaki-e lacquer panel, depicting buildings in a stylised landscape by the shore, with wading cranes. For a biography of Hubert-Joseph Heubès see the Appendix.
Height 114 cm / 45 in. Width 159 cm / 63 in. Depth 53 cm / 21 in. Ref: B72532
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A Fine Set of Four Louis XV Style Six-Light Gilt-Bronze and Rock Crystal Cage Chandeliers
Height 110 cm / 43 in.
French, Circa 1850.
Diameter 60 cm / 24 in. Ref: B66241
The etymology of the word ‘crystal’ has its origins in the Ancient Greek word for ice ‘krystallos’. Rock crystal, which is always cool to the touch, was considered to be ice permanently
frozen by the Gods. For thousands of years Rock crystal has been prized for its beauty and remarkable ability to refract light. When cut and polished the inherent striations and inclusions of the crystal create a refracted light, richer in luminosity than that of manmade crystal or glass. These properties have made rock crystal highly desirable throughout history; its scarcity ensuring its use was limited to all but the most luxurious of decorative items.
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55 An Important Pair of Louis Philippe Gilt-Bronze Mounted Boulle Marquetry Inlaid Pedestals, by Béfort Jeune Stamped to the reverse of the bronze mounts ‘BF 54’. French, Circa 1850. This exceptional pair of pedestals or gaines à tablier are based on the celebrated model created by Andre Charles Boulle at the end of the seventeenth century. The pedestals closely follow a design by André-Charles Boulle (1642-1732) , engraved and published after 1707 by Mariette on the title page of his ‘Nouveaux Deisseins de Meubles et Ouvrages de Bronze et de Marquetrie Inventés et gravés par André-Charles Boulle’. This model is likely to have originally been commissioned by Paul Poisson de Bourvalais (d. 6 February 1719) and is mentioned in the acte de délaissement of 1715, whereby Boulle made over his workshop to his sons and in the inventory taken following Boulle’s death in 1732. The design proved to be of enduring success and the ébénistes of the eighteenth century like Levasseur and the nineteenth century such as Béfort or Maison Grohé, reproduced this model with the same quality of execution and rigor in their choice of materials. For a biography of Mathieu Befort Jeune see the Appendix.
Height 125 cm / 49 in. Width 54 cm / 21 in. Depth 43 cm / 17 in. Ref: B72660
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56 A Rare Pair of Louis XV Style Gilt-Bronze Gueridons with Amethyst Quartz Tops, by Zwiener Jansen Successeur, the Mounts Designed by Léon Messagé Each gueridon stamped to the underside ‘ZJ’ and variously numbered 1691 and 2810. French, Circa 1890. Of striking sculptural form, this rare pair of gueridons with amethyst quartz tops display a delicate fusion of rococo and art nouveau. In particular the handling of the female espagnolettes, with their open bodices, reveals the exuberant hand of the gifted sculptor and designer Léon Messagé who collaborated with Zwiener for the 1882 Paris Exhibition and later worked with François Linke on his important stand for the 1900 Paris Exhibition. For biographies of Zwiener Jansen & Léon Messagé see the Appendix.
Height 74 cm / 29 in. Diameter 58 cm / 23 in. Ref: B71614
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57 Height 152 cm / 60 in. Width 76 cm / 30 in. Depth 42 cm / 17 in. Ref: B72650
An Exceptional and Very Rare Napoléon III Empire Revival Oak Cigar Cabinet-on-Stand with Silvered Bronze Mounts, by CharlesGuillaume Diehl French, Circa 1865. This sophisticated humidor or cigar cabinet is emblematic of the celebrated néo-grec furniture and objects, produced by Diehl, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Rejecting the historicist approach of many of his contemporaries, Diehl by the 1860s had developed a highly individual style, combining freely inspired neoclassical motifs with original compositions that were considered at the time to be at the forefront of the avant-garde. His medal-winning stand at the 1867 exhibition included a number of highly individual designs, including the ‘Triomphe de Mérovée’ cabinet à médailles (purchased by the Louvre in 1973 and now on display in the Musée d’Orsay, OA10440, and of which there is another example in the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and the Coffret Impérial à bijoux for
Princesse Mathilde (Château de Compiègne). He also included on his stand a number of pieces shown in the genre Grec: a bijouterie cabinet (Philadelphia Museum of Art), the Aurora cabinet (Musée d’Orsay Paris, OAO992) and a centre-table with chimères supports (private collection). Like the present cigar cabinet-on-stand, these pieces were a collaboration between Diehl, Kowalewski, his chief ébéniste, and the designer Jean Brandely. Diehl also worked on the exhibition pieces with the celebrated sculptors Emile Coriolan-Hippolyte Guillemin and Emmanuel Frémiet. This very rare cigar cabinet was conceived with the same innovative spirit as the exhibition pieces and belongs to a select group of furniture, which epitomises the grandeur and ambition of the period. For a biography of Charles-Guillaume Diehl see the Appendix. Literature: D. Ledeoux-Lebard, Le Mobilier Français du XIXe Siècle, Paris, 1989, p. 165
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A Very Fine Louis XVI Style GiltBronze Mounted Marquetry Commode after a Model by Jean-Henri Reisener, by François Linke
Height 94 cm / 37 in.
Linke Index No. 10. Signed ‘F. Linke’ and the lock-plate stamped ‘CT LINKE SERRURERIE/PARIS’.
Width 170 cm / 67 in. Depth 65 cm / 26 in. Ref: B72541
French, Circa 1905. The origin of the design for this commode is derived from the cabinet work of the renowned eighteenth century ébéniste de Roi, Jean-Henri Riesener. A popular model in Linke’s oeuvre, he produced a number of variations in different sizes, under index numbers 10, 104, 886, 1036 and 1437. Index no. 10 at 170 cm wide being identical to the original Reisener model. Linke purchased a set of patterns for this commode from the sale of the ébéniste Cueunières workshop in November 1902 for 209 francs (See C. Payne, p. 205-206). For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix. Literature: Payne, Christopher, François Linke: The Belle Époque of French Furniture, Woodbridge, 2003, p. 205-206.
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59 A Highly Important Pair of Large Patinated Bronze Figural Torchères by Émile Guillemin, Cast by Ferdinand Barbedienne Barbedienne Title: ‘Deux Femmes, Indienne et Persane’. Incised ‘Ele. Guillemin 1872’ and bearing the cachet for ‘F. BARBEDIENNE FONDEUR’. French, Dated 1872. Standing over two metres tall, this grand and imposing pair of figural torchères are of exceptional quality, the figures finely cast with wonderful detail and finely patinated. Barbedienne made a number of editions of this model in different sizes, the present examples being the largest and rarest. The models are listed in Ferdinand Barbedienne’s 1886 catalogue as Deux Femmes, Indienne et Persane. For a biography of Ferdinand Barbedienne & Emile Guillemin see the Appendix. Literature: Barbedienne, Ferdinand, Catalogue des Bronzes d’art 1886.
Height 226 cm / 89 in. Width 50 cm / 20 in. Depth 74 cm / 29 in. Weight 175 kg / 386 lbs Ref: B72180
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60 Height 77 cm / 30 in. Width 94 cm / 37 in. Depth 57 cm / 22 in. Length of table when extended 187 cm / 74 in. Ref: B71860
A Fine Louis XVI Style Gilt-Bronze Mounted and Parquetry Inlaid Games Table by François Linke Signed to the gilt-bronze border ‘LINKE’. Variant of index number 1464. French, Circa 1890. This rare extending games table is a variant of index number 1464, incorporating a distinctive extending mechanism that perfectly illustrates Linke’s ability to design furniture inspired by the aesthetics of the Ancien Régime, whilst adapting them to modern use. The top opens to reveal an interior fitted with a backgammon board, a removable roulette wheel, counters and a games box. For a biography of François Linke see the Appendix
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Appendix. Biographies Barbedienne Ferdinand Barbedienne (1810–1892) was the inspiration and driving force behind one of the most important French art foundries. The Barbedienne foundry handled the casting of numerous national monuments and architectural schemes. Ferdinand Barbedienne also took an active part in the promotion of contemporary sculpture and became one of the founders for David d’Angers’ medallions and much of François Rude’s sculpture. In 1850 Barbedienne was commissioned to furnish the Paris Town Hall for which he was awarded with the Médaille d’Honneur at the 1855 Paris Exposition Universelle. Bibliography Barbedienne, Ferdinand, Catalogue des Bronzes d’art 1886 (Paris), 1886. Mestdagh, Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 2010, pp. 23, 120, 155, 161 and 179. Kjellberg, Pierre, Les Bronzes du XIX siècle: dictionnaire des sculpteurs, Editions de l’Amateur, (Paris), 2005. Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006. Mathieu Befort Mathieu Befort (Befort Jeune) (1813-1880) is recorded as having worked in Paris from 1836 until 1880. He was descended from a family of renowned ébénistes and was the son of the renowned cabinetmaker Jean-Baptiste Befort, known as Befort Père, who was of Belgian origin and renowned for having supplied furniture for the apartments of the Duc d’Orléans. Father and son are noted for their interpretations of furniture by André-Charles Boulle and the creation of vernis matin and porcelain mounted furniture, often in the manner of Riesener. The firm received a medal at the 1844 Exposition de l’Industrie Française, and Befort built a reputation for the high quality of his work. As a result he became a supplier to Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie. Bilbliography Ledoux-Lebard, Denise Les Ébénistes du XIX Siècle, Editions de l’Amateur, (Paris) 1984, pps. 48-50. Beurdeley The Beurdeley family were a flourishing dynasty of three generations of fine quality cabinetmakers working from 1818 to 1895. The firm was particularly well known for its exceptional metalwork, most commonly basing their designs on important eighteenth-century examples. Their mercurial gilding and hand chasing are often of such a high standard that it is difficult to distinguish it from eighteenthcentury work. The founder of the dynasty Jean Beurdeley (1772–1853) was a Burgundian craftsman conscripted into the Napoleonic army. After hostilities ended in 1815 Beurdeley settled in Paris, opening a shop for curiosités and working as a latter day marchand-mercier. Initially based on the rue Saint-Honoré, in 1840 Beurdeley
moved to the famous Hanover Pavilion, situated on the corner of Rue Louis-le-Grand and boulevard des Italiens, where the business was run by his only surviving son, LouisAuguste-Alfred (1808–1882). The success of the business – which had numerous official commissions, including in 1853 the marriage coffer for the Empress Eugénie – was continued by Louis’ son, Alfred-Emmanuel-Louis (1847–1919). The business continued in its traditional style with very few variations until 1895. Alfred, along with the most famous artists of the period, took part in the 1878 Paris Exposition Universelle, where he won the gold medal. Following on from this glory, he went on to open a shop in New York. His participation in the 1883 Amsterdam Universal Exhibition drew even further attention to his work, and possibly as a result, he was awarded the Ordre National de la Légion d’honneur, France’s highest official mark of recognition. The incredible quality of each generation’s work ranked the firm of Beurdeley as preeminent amongst Parisian makers of meubles de luxe. Bibliography Ledoux-Lebard, Denise, Les Ébénistes du XIXe siècle, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 1984, pp. 75–82. Mestdagh, Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de L’Amateur (Paris), 2010, pp. 262–76. Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006, pp. 175, 247, 269, 270, 290, 298. Henry Dasson Henry Dasson (1825 – 1896) was one of the finest makers of gilt-bronze mounted furniture in the nineteenth century. With a workshop established in Paris at 106 rue Vieille-du-Temple, he specialised predominantly in the production of Louis XIV, XV and XVI style furniture using the very finest quality gilt-bronze mounts. In 1871, he purchased the flourishing business and remaining stock of CharlesGuillaume Winckelsen, who had established a reputation for furniture of the highest quality. Dasson almost certainly inherited the craft of ciseleur from Winckelsen. At the 1878 and 1889 Paris Expositions Universelles Dasson exhibited a number of pieces in the Louis XV and XVI styles, as well as pieces of his own modified eighteenthcentury design. The exhibits in 1878 included a table entirely in gilt-bronze, purchased by Lord Dudley. His copy of the celebrated Bureau du Roi sold at the same exhibition to Lady Ashburton. Jonathan Meyer illustrates a number of exceptional items exhibited by Dasson in 1889 in his book on the Great Exhibitions. Bibliography Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006, pp. 269–70. Mestdagh Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 2010. Ledoux-Lebard, Denise, Les Ébénistes du XIXe
siècle, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 1984, pp. 146–51. Diehl Charles-Guillaume Diehl (1811-1885) was one of the most flamboyant Paris makers of ‘meubles de luxe’ between 1840 and around 1880, specialising in extravagant pieces, including porcelain mounted, boulle and ‘pietre-dure’ furniture. He had a unique exotic style of a Gallo-Roman nature, incorporating lavish, full relief mounts on to rectangular items of furniture, profusely inlaid. He established a large atelier at 38, rue Saint-Sebastien, and maintained a retail premises in rue Michel le Comte between 1853 and 1885. Diehl manufactured all kinds of coffrets - liqueur cabinets, games boxes, humidors, jewellery casket, as well as furnishings. He participated in all the major international exhibitions during the middle of the 19th century, commencing with the Great Exhibition in 1851. Various pieces by Diehl are in the Musée d’Orsay, the Musée de l’Ecole de Nancy and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. A notable example, with Gothic references, is now in the Musée d’Orsay and illustrated in Ledoux-Lebard Les Ebénistes du XIXe Siècle, p.165. Diehl’s signature is usually found on the lockplate in an almost Gothic script Diehl A Michel-le-Compt 19 Paris. Bibliography Denise Ledoux-Lebard, Les Ebénistes du XIX Siècle, Les Editions de l’Amateur, Paris, 1984, pp. 164-7. Emilio Fiaschi Emilio P Fiaschi (1858 - 1941) was one of a group of highly skilled marble sculptors working in Florence in the late 19th century. Born in Volterra in 1858, he studied at the Accademia di belle Arti in Florence from 18831885. His work concentrated on genre themes, allegorical works and the nude and followed in the great tradition of Florentine sculptors working with Carrara marble. Awarded a medal in his home town of Volterra in 1890, his work displays exceptional skill and finesse; his editions of consistently high quality. Bibliography Alfonso Panzetta, Il Nuovo dizionario degli scultori italiani dell’Ottocento e del primo Novecento, Adarte, 2003, vol. I, pp. 368-369, fig. 743. A.M.E Fournier A.M.E Fournier was established by 1850 at 109 boulevard Beaumarchais, and later at boulevard des Capucines. As well as exceptional case furniture, Fournier was famed for his upholstered work, exhibiting at many of the great exhibitions of the period, including l’Exposition Universelle of 1867. His most famous creation was a wonderfully naturalistic giltwood rope twist stool, which was as highly sought after in his own period as it is today. Maison Giroux Maison Giroux was founded by François-SimonAlphonse Giroux in 1799, at 7 rue du CoqSaint-Honoré, Paris. The store, specialising in
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Adrian Alan small luxury goods and curiosities, expanded rapidly in the first half of the nineteenth century, François oversaw the manufacture and design of small items of furniture until his death in 1848. He won the Prix de Rome in 1825, and a silver medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1834. Under the direction of Giroux’s sons, Alphonse-Gustave and André, the company became by the late 1860’s one of the most preeminent Parisian Maison de Haute Luxe (luxury stores). In 1867, Ferdinand Duvinage, a cousin of Alphonse-Gustave and André, took over the management of the business alongside a Mr Harinkouck. Bibliography Denise Ledoux-Lebard, Les Ébénistes du XIX Siècle, Editions de l’Amateur, (Paris) 1984, pps. 223-30. D. Kisluk - Grosheide, Maison Giroux and its ‘Oriental’ Marquetry Technique, The journal of the furniture history society, vol. XXXV, 1999, p. 147-172. Goelzer & Poumaroux Maison Goelzer was founded by Phillipe Goelzer (1816-1881), in Paris in the first half of the 19th century and specialised in light fixtures and gas engineering. Goelzer was almost certainly joined in the business in the last quarter of the century by his nephew Achille Henri Goelzer (b.1850) and his son Albert Goelzer (b.1857). Achille Henri was recorded in 1878 as a manufacturer of gas appliances at 182, rue Lafayette while Albert was recorded in 1885 as a sculptor also at the same address. Éditions du Génie Civil, Vol. 1 published in 1880, records the formation of the partnership of A. Goelzer and Poumaroux, fabricators of lighting fixtures, bronzes and gas engineers at the same address. Goelzer & Poumaroux amongst other important commissions are recorded as supplying the grand chandelier for L’Opéra d’Alger, inaugurated in 1883. Bibliography Éditions du Génie Civil et de la Métallurgie Tour Palerme, 1880, Vol 1; p. 375. Maison Grimard G. Grimard Fabricants Ébénistes d’Art produced fine Meubles d’Art, from premises at 5 Rue de Charonne, Paris, in the second half of the 19th century. Grimard exhibited at many of the major international exhibitions of the period with great distinction. His work is comparatively rare but always of the very highest quality. Much of his recorded work is in the Louis XVI and neo-classical style often incorporating vernis martin panels. Émile Guillemin Émile-Coriolan-Hippolyte Guillemin (18411907) was born in Paris and studied under his father, the painter Emile-Marie Guillemin, and under the sculptor Jean Jules Salmson. He made his debut at the Salon in 1870 with a pair of Roman gladiators, later winning an Honourable Mention in 1897. Guillemin covered a wide range of subjects, but normally figurative; specialising in
ethnographic works he was particularly renowned as a proponent of the Orientalist movement. Bibliography Pierre Kjellberg, Les Bronzes du XIX Siecle, dictionnaire des sculpteurs, Les Editions de L’ Amateur, Paris, 1987; pp. 369-370. Hubert-Joseph Heubès Working in Paris in the second half of the 19th century Hubert-Joseph Heubès (1826 - c.1895), was established at 12, rue du Parc-Royal by 1854 and then at 3, rue de la Perle between 1860 and 1876. Participating in many of the major international exhibitions of the period including the Exposition Universelle of 1867, he was known for the high quality of his work which was often informed by 18th century models, including those by Adam Weisweiler. His furniture was often of a grand scale and mounted with lacquer panels and porcelain plaques, successfully combining an 18th century aesthetic, with the ambition and opulence demanded by his own time. Bibliography Denise Ledoux-Lebard, Le Mobilier Français du XIX Siècle, Les Éditions de l’Amateur, Paris, 2000; p. 259. Thomas Johnson Born in London in 1714 Thomas Johnson was a woodworker and carver particularly known for his whimsical mixture of rococo, Chinese, and rustic motifs. He was one of the most successful exponents of the rococo style in England, giving it a vitality not seen in the work of other designers. In the 1750s he published several books of designs which were widely influential. These books included Twelve Girandoles in 1755 and The Book of the Carver in 1758, One hundred and fifty New Designs. A notable feature of Johnson’s designs was the inclusion of carved animal figures often based on Francis Barlow’s illustrations of Aesop’s Fables, first published in 1687. Krieger Antoine Krieger together with his brother Nicolas launched Maison Krieger in 1826 at 17 rue Saint-Nicolas, Paris, producing and retailing fine quality furniture. In 1850 the firm was re-formed as Antoine Krieger et Cie. When Antoine Krieger died in 1856, his son-in-law began running the company and decided to change the name to Cosse-Racault et Cie. Finally, in 1880 the name was changed again to Krieger, Damon et Cie when the firm merged with Damon et Colin, and was then located at 74 rue du FaubourgSaint-Antoine. Maison Krieger exhibited at the 1849 Exposition des Produits de l’Industrie in Paris and at the Universal Exhibitions of 1851 in London and 1855, again in Paris. At the 1851 Great Exhibition in London Kreiger were awarded a medal for an exhibition oak sideboard made for a client from the Ottoman Empire. Maison Krieger created numerous furniture styles, and the firm exhibited at all the major exhibitions of the nineteenth century up to, and including, the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle. Maison Krieger is recorded as being a very
active client of François Linke and occasionally the firm’s label can be found on Linke pieces. Bibliography Ledoux-Lebard, Denise, Les Ébénistes du XIXe siècle, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 1984, pp. 396. Mestdagh, Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 2010. Leroy et Fils The firm of Leroy et Fils was founded by Bazile Charles Leroy in 1789. He was a clockmaker to the Emperor Napoléon, The Duke of Orleans, The Duke of Bourbon and Princess Pauline. In 1823, he filed a patent for self-winding atmospheric clock operated by weathervane and in 1840 a patent for wind clocks. When Charles Louis died in 1865 his son Louis Leroy took over the running of the business. François Linke François Linke was the most important Parisian cabinetmaker of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and possibly the most sought after cabinetmaker of his period. He was born in 1855 in the small village of Pankraz, in what is now the Czech Republic. Records show that Linke served an apprenticeship with the master cabinetmaker Neumann, then in 1875 at the age of 20 he arrived in Paris where he lived until he died in 1946. It is known that the fledgling Linke workshops were active in the Faubourg SaintAntoine as early as 1881, and during this time he supplied furniture for other more established makers such as Jansen and Krieger. The quality of Linke’s craftsmanship was unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries and reached its peak with his spectacular stand at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900, where his Grand Bureau (see Adrian Alan Catalogue VII) took a gold medal. Determined to outshine the competition at the exhibition, Linke had set about creating the most ambitious pieces he could envisage, furniture more extravagant than had ever been displayed before. The items he exhibited marked a transition from the historicist interpretation of Louis XV and Louis XVI styles (an interpretation that was the mainstay of his nearest rivals), to something startlingly new and vital in its immediacy. Together with Léon Messagé he developed a new style for the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, one that paid homage to the Louis XV rococo in the fluidity of its approach, but an approach fused with the lively flowing lines of the contemporary and progressive art nouveau. The Art Journal reported in 1900 on Linke’s stand: The work of M. Linke ... was an example of what can be done by seeking inspiration amongst the classic examples of Louis XV and XVI without in any great sense copying these great works. M. Linke’s work was original in the true sense of the word, and as such commended itself to the intelligent seeker after the really artistic things of the Exhibition. Wonderful talent was employed in producing the magnificent pieces of furniture displayed.... Linke’s stand would have appeared refreshingly
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Adrian Alan new to contemporary onlookers, the traditional designs of the eighteenth century melting seamlessly into an exuberant naturalism. The Revue described Linke’s style as entièrement nouveau and noted: ‘this opinion is universally accepted. Linke’s stand is the biggest show in the history of art furniture in the year 1900.’ The most extraordinary and remarkable aspect of Linke’s personal history is that he produced such expensive and luxurious furniture of exquisite quality for the 1900 exhibition without any commission or any potential buyer in mind. At a time when other more established furniture businesses such as those of Beurdeley and Dasson were closing down, he made a huge investment in his stand and the furniture he supplied for it. Linke recognised that to move his business forward he needed to appeal to a more international clientele and the new emerging rich who were at this time amassing fortunes on an unprecedented scale. For this reason he gambled everything he had on his display for the 1900 exhibition. Had this not succeeded he would almost certainly have succumbed to bankruptcy. In this sense he was the greatest furniture entrepreneur of the belle époque and perhaps of any time. Linke’s notebook records visitors to his 1900 stand from England, Europe, the Americas, Egypt and Japan. These included the King of Sweden, three visits from the King of Belgium, Prince Radziwill, the Prince d’Arenberg, the Comte Alberic du Chastel, Miss Anna May Gould (the American heiress), distinguished furniture makers and the president of France, Emile Loubert. This risky endeavour was a resounding success, and with his reputation established La Maison Linke became the pre-eminent furniture house until the outset of the Second World War. His showrooms expanded into prestigious premises in Paris, in the Place Vendôme as well as the Faubourg St. Antoine where his workshop had been established. He embarked on many important commissions in the years up to the outbreak of the First World War, making and designing furniture for leading international industrialists and bankers. He is reputed to have also supplied furniture to the Kaiser. After the 1914–1918 World War, Linke undertook the extraordinary commission to furnish the Ras al-Tin Palace in Alexandria for King Fuad of Egypt, possibly the largest single furniture commission ever conceived, eclipsing even Versailles. Linke flourished and remained active until the middle years of the 1930s and died in 1946. Today Linke is best known for the exceptionally high quality of his work and his individualism and inventiveness. All of his work has the finest, most lavish mounts, very often applied to comparatively simple carcasses of quarter-veneered kingwood or tulipwood. The technical brilliance of his work and the artistic change that it represented were never to be repeated. Bibliography Croal Thomson, D (ed), ‘The Paris Exhibition 1900’, The Art Journal, 1901, p. 341. LedouxLebard, Denise, Les Ébénistes du XIXe siècle, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 1984, pp. 439–3. Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006, pp. 298–300.
Payne, Christopher, François Linke, (1855–1946): The Belle Époque of French Furniture, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2003. Revue Artistique & Industrielle, (Paris), July–August 1900. Luca Madrassi (1848-1916) Born in Tricesimo, Italy in 1848, Madrassi began his art studies in Rome before studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, under the famous master Pierre-Jules Cavelier. Madrassi joined the studio of the famous sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse's (18241887) and later Antoine Bourdelle (1861-1929); both of which had great influence on the playful romantic quality of his work. He also assisted the Scottish sculptor Lord Ronald Gower (1845-1916). Known primarily for busts and statuettes his work is typically defined by an imaginative and sensitive interpretation of allegorical themes. Bibliography Berman, Harold. Bronzes, Sculptors and Founders 1800-1930, Abage, (Chicago), 1980; Vols. 1-4. Kjellberg, Pierre. Les Bronzes du XIX siècle, Dictionnaire des Sculpteurs, Les Editions de l’Amateur, (Paris), 1989. Léon Messagé Little is known about the life of the sculptural genius Léon Messagé (d.1901), and his brilliant, but short-lived career. He is best known for his incredible sculptural collaboration with François Linke for the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle. A gifted sculptor, Messagé was also responsible for much of the design and creative work for Roux et Brunet and Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener. Messagé enjoyed great success as a designer/sculptor before his collaboration with Linke. Indeed he was mentioned as a gold medal winner at the 1889 International Exhibition and was especially praised for his work on a cabinet by Zwiener. He came in to contact with Linke in 1885 and it appears that from then on Linke employed him on a regular basis. Messagé was primarily influenced by rococo ornament but he strove to re-interpret it. He did not produce slavish copies, and his original approach can be appreciated in Linke’s celebrated Grande Bibliothèque and Grand Bureau (See Adrian Alan Catalogue VII), exhibited at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle. A number of drawings by Messagé are recorded and after his success at the exhibition of 1889 he was encouraged to publish his designs. Cahier de dessins & croquis, style Louis XV: bronzes, orfèvrérie, decoration, meubles was first published by the sculptor himself, from his Paris address of 40, rue Sedaine. There were five sections with an elaborate title page surmounted by the sculptor’s cipher or talisman of a wing, a pun on his own name as the messenger to the Gods, a motif he used many times on the handles of furniture designed for Linke. As a sculptor Messagé was trained to produce a wax maquette or model prior to working on a piece. It is especially interesting that his maquettes were of the piece of furniture in its entirety, a rare and exacting task only occasionally seen for eighteenth-century
French royal commissions. For Messagé it was not just a matter of producing decorative mounts; the piece was conceived as one – the sculpture, bronze, timber and marquetry as a combined piece. Many of his most important maquettes are preserved today in the Linke archive, including the one for the Grand Bureau. Messagé died the year after the 1900 exhibition – making the Grand Bureau his last great work. Bibliography Mestdagh, Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 2010, pp. 173–6. Payne, Christopher, François Linke (1855–1946): The Belle Époque of French Furniture, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2003, pp. 71–95. Maison Mottheau The bronzier Maison Mottheau & Fils is perhaps best known for their torchère lumineuse exhibited at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle; an ambitious and monumental tour de force executed in gilt-bronze and onyx from a design by Eugène-Frédéric Piat. Specialising primarily in lighting fixtures, the firm took full advantage of the advent of electricity, incorporating it with their decorative designs, combining function with elaborate decoration. Commenting on the introduction of electricity, the Art Journal wrote of Mottheau’s display at the Paris 1900 Exposition Universelle: The French Section shows many examples of fine work applied under the new conditions, but we doubt if a more complete success is to be recorded to the credit of any exhibitor than can be conceded to Messieurs Mottheau et fils. Bibliography The Art Journal, The Paris Exhibition 1900 - An Illustrated Record of its Art, Architecture and Industrie, London, 1900; pp. 86-7. Jonathan Meyer, Great Exhibitions - London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851-1900, Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge, 2006; pps. 290, 318 pl. J72. Victor Paillard Victor Paillard (1805 -1886) established himself as a maker of ‘bronzes of art and furnishing’ in 1830 at 105 Boulevard Beaumarchais , Paris, and later 6 Rue Saint-Clarde. He initially specialised in producing small objects, including candelabra and statuettes and exhibited at the exposition des produits de l’industrie in 1839 and at many of the international exhibitions held during the 19th century. Notable exhibition pieces included a Louis XV style gilt bronze clock and a group of tableware and sculptures shown at the Great Exhibition held in London in 1851. He had been experimenting with gilt and silvered bronze since 1839, and by 1851 his mastery of the technique caused great admiration at the London exhibition, a contemporary commentator stating that ‘Mr. V. Paillard excels in the novel art of oxydising bronze. His silver hues are perfect and on, at first glance, deceive even an expert eye...’. It is however for his work at one of the French Republic’s most prestigious edifices the
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Adrian Alan Quai d’ Orsay, the French Foreign Ministry, that Paillard is most renowned. As well as undertaking his own commissions Paillard undertook the casting for a number of the most important sculptors of the day including Feuchere, Pradier, Bayre, CarrierBelleuse, Preault and Klaggmann. He was to run one of the most successful and admired foundry’s in France. Bibliography Pierre Kjellberg, Les Bronzes du XIX Siecle, dictionnaire des sculpteurs, p.662 Prof. Aristide Petrilli Petrilli was born in Tivoli, Lazio and studied at the Art Institute of Florence and then at the Academy from 1889-90. He subdequently worked with Raffaello Romanelli before setting up his own studio at Via Dei Serragli in Florence. Petrilli, like his contemporaries Caradossi and Frilli, is best known for his romanticised depictions of Renaissance and Neo-Classical themes often employing different coloured marbles, or gilt highlights. He exhibited a bust of Joan of Arc at the Paris International Exhibition of 1900 and Wrestling Bacchantes at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis World’s Fair). Bibliography Alfonso Panzetta, Nuovo Dizionario degli Scultori Italiani Dell ‘Ottocento e del Primo Novecento, Adarte 2003, page 690. Sèvres The Sèvres Porcelain manufactory was founded to the east of Paris in the disused royal château of Vincennes, late in 1739–40. It was not until 1756 that it moved to the village of Sèvres, west of Paris, strategically placed en route to King Louis XV’s palace at Versailles. Here it was also adjacent to Louis’ mistress Madame de Pompadour’s own château at Bellevue. A great lover of Sèvres porcelain, she was delighted with the factory’s new location, as she knew she could entice Louis to take a greater interest in it when it was so near to their own residences. Indeed, the king became such a keen patron of the factory that when it ran into financial difficulties, he bought out the shareholders and became the sole proprietor. The factory remained a royal enterprise until the French Revolution, when it was nationalised. Important designers and influential artistic directors have always been at the forefront of Sèvres’s innovation. Famous artists who designed for the factory include Louis-Simon Boizot, Théophile Fragonard, Hector Guimard, Serge Poliakoff, Auguste Rodin and Louise Bourgeois. One of the most influential artists was Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse who became artistic director in 1876 and was famed for his designs. Bibliography Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006. Paredes, Liana, Sèvres Then and Now: Tradition and Innovation in Porcelain, 1750–2000, D Giles Ltd (London), 2009. Savill, Rosalind, The Wallace Collection: Catalogue of Sèvres Porcelain, 3 Volumes, Paul Holberton (London), 1988.
Sormani Born in Venice in 1817, Paul Sormani was a Paris-based maker of fine meubles de luxe, whose work was described in the 1867 Exposition Universelle catalogue as: ‘toute sa production révèle une qualité d’exécution de tout premier ordre’ (‘all of his production reveals a quality of execution all of the first order’). Sormani exhibited at the International Exhibitions in Paris in 1849, 1855, 1867, 1878 and 1900, and in London in 1862, winning numerous medals. In 1867 he set up his workshop at 10 rue de Charlot, Paris. After Sormani’s death in 1877 his son Paul-Charles took over the business that later moved to 134 boulevard Haussmann. The Sormani stamp is usually an engraved signature on the lock plate, incorporating the address. Bibliography Ledoux-Lebard, Denise, Les Ébénistes du XIXe siècle, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 1984, pp. 583–8. Mestdagh, Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de l’Amateur, 2010. Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006. Vienna Porcelain The Vienna Porcelain Manufactory was founded in 1718 only eight years after Johann Friedrich Bottger and Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus had succeeded in unearthing the secret of Porcelain Manufacture for August the Strong, Elector of Saxony. On May 25, 1718, Emperor Karl VI signed a “special privilege” awarding Claudius Innocentius du Paquier the exclusive right to produce porcelain in the Austrian crown lands. Production being almost exclusively for the imperial household and the court nobility. During the rococo era, Empress Maria Theresia placed the company under imperial ownership and it was during this period that the manufactory began to produce the famous rococo genre scenes after Watteau. Under the management of Conrad Sorgel von Sorgenthal, the Vienna Porcelain Manufactory achieved an international reputation for its sophisticated neo-classical style. After the wars with France brought the manufactory to the brink of ruin, the Vienna Congress at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century gave porcelain from Vienna a renewed upswing. Many important personalities of the time, including Czar Alexander I of Russia and the King of Prussia, were guests of the manufactory and porcelain from Vienna became highly regarded once again. Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener was an important Paris cabinetmaker of German extraction who was born in Silesia around 1848. He produced the very finest furniture, often inspired by public collections in France. He employed as his sculptor Leon Messagé, the genius Parisian sculptor. Zwiener’s pieces were acquired by many of the leading collectors of the nineteenth century. In particular he supplied his interpretation of the famous Bureau de Roi to Ludwig II at
Herrenchiemsee, which was placed in the king’s study in 1884. Zwiener exhibited at the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle, where he was awarded a gold medal, for a stand that included an exceptional cabinet designed by Messagé. In 1898, Zwiener received an extensive royal commission from the King of Prussia, and was recalled to Berlin because the king would not order furniture from overseas makers when furnishing his palaces, preferring to order work only from native Germans. The Berlin sculptor Otto Rohloff, whose bronze work is very similar to that of Messagé, may well have been hired by Zwiener for this royal commission. In 1895 his Paris workshop was taken over by the important émigré and ébéniste François Linke. Christopher Payne, in his book on Linke, speculates that Linke may have worked for Zwiener when he first arrived in Paris in 1875. Linke is known to have also taken on Zwiener’s sculptor Leon Messagé. For this reason, many of Zwiener’s pieces have often been mistakenly attributed to Linke. In order to differentiate between Messagés commissions, the gilt-bronze mounts were often marked to the reverse with the maker’s initials. Several of Zwiener’s mounts have been found to have a ‘Z’, ‘Zw’, an ‘IZ’, ‘NZ’, ‘ZN’ or ‘ZJ’ on the reverse. This was primarily for the purpose of differentiation, rather than an artist’s signature. Some of Zwiener’s work was stamped but not exclusively, and only a few pieces have been found with a full signature and /or date. It can be speculated that Zwiener continued to work in Germany after giving up his Paris workshop in 1895, as in 1900 he participated in the German section of the Paris Exhibition, where he exhibited the famous bedroom suite made for the Kaiser. Bibliography Mestdagh, Camille and Pierre Lécoules, L’Ameublement d’art français: 1850–1900, Editions de l’Amateur (Paris), 2010, pp. 301–9. Meyer, Jonathan, Great Exhibitions: London, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, 1851–1900, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2006. Payne, Christopher, François Linke (1855–1946): The Belle Epoque of French Furniture, Antique Collectors’ Club (Woodbridge, UK), 2003. Zwiener Jansen Successeur Zwiener Jansen Successeur was part of the celebrated firm of Maison Jansen. Founded in Paris in 1880 by Jean-Henri Jansen (1854-1929) Maison Jansen was the first truly global interior design house. Around 1895-1900 Jansen bought some of the master models of the celebrated furniture maker Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener, who had left Paris to return to Germany, and renamed the business ‘Zwiener Jansen Successeur’. Jansen continued to faithfully produce Zwiener’s creations, using the original models and lavishing the utmost care on these meubles de luxe. Bibliography Mestdagh, Camille & Lécoules, Peter (2010), L’Ameublement d’Art Français, 1850-1900, Editions de L’Amateur, Paris; pp. 301-309.
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