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AA TUTOR PHASE I

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MARTA MALÉ - ALEMANY MATERIAL FOOTPRINTS KATHLEEN O´DONNELL PAOLA SALCEDO ADRIAN AGUIRRE


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MATERIAL FOOTPRINTS

DEVELOPMENT

ARDUINO WORKSHOP

SCANNING MACHINE I

ARDUINO EXPERIMENTATION

DRAWING MACHINE I

DEVICE DEVELOPMENT

SCANNING MACHINE I

TOOLS AND MATERIALS

DRAWING MACHINE I

MUTUAL INFLUENCE

COOPERATIVE SYSTEM

SWARM SYSTEM

SELF AWARENESS

SMOOTH SCANNER

GLOBAL INFLUENCE LOCAL INFLUENCE

COMPLETE SYSTEM FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

WIRELESS CONNECTION


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Material footprints Marta Malé - Alemany

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Brief e and developed e p and d inte iinterface f The aim of the workshop was to investigate paratuse paratus at e between environmental data and mechanical apparatuses, in this case, Arduino.* SELF AWARENESS

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ECTION

NIKE - LIVESTRONG CHALKBOT - Tour de France 2009

The context, as well as external variables such as temperature, light, air, sound, were part of the methods applied in order to react to the site.

Diller & Scofidio + Renfro - Mural 2003

Graffiti Research Lab - The eye writter *Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software.


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Device 000. Moving random Reference video. Folder / Introduction / 000.avi

Device 000. Pushing an empty box Reference video. Folder / Introduction / 001.avi

A two day intensive session the Arduino Workshop with Daniel Soltis from tinker was an introduction to the capabilities of the Arduino board and programing. Basic experiments such as turning LEDs on and off, moving motors as variable speeds and reading sensors were demonstrated. These experiments served as the base for all subsequent development. Initially, the device moved randomly, and inresponse to light conditions. The movement was further refined and translated to pushing an empty box. Following the workshop teams were given the brief of developing a drawing machine. As a trial, the machine developed in the workshop was given a pen, and whose movements were recorded on a notebook.

Device 001. Drawing over a notebook Reference video. Folder / Introduction / 002.avi


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Device 001. Drawing over a field + reacting to light average conditions Reference video. Folder / Introduction / 003.avi

Device 001. Follow a line Reference video. Folder / DevicesIntro/ 000.avi

Device 001. Follow curved lines Reference video. Folder / DevicesIntro/ 002.avi

The potential strength of the device developed in the workshop was to create a system in which the drawn lines could be read and fed back into the system. By creating a loop both local and global conditions could be read in the drawing outcome. Also, in order to create diversity of pattern, the device was made to turn both right a left.

scanning device


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Device 001. Drawing over a field + reacting to light average conditions Reference video. Folder / DevicesIntro / 002.avi

The catalogue of drawings depict a variety of autonomous performances of the drawing machine, prior to the integration of the scanning device. These were used as a calibration tool for the scanning device in subsequent tests. This drawing device successfully demonstrated a reaction to global light conditions, and diversity of pattern and movement across the whole page. It also produced ledgibile patterns as a record of the envrionmental conditions. Some challenges of system, which were addressed as the project developed, included integration of local conditions, operation of both devices in a single field, and the delicacy of the devices (ie wheel size and grip, exposure of wiring) Drawing catalogue


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Pivot

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Light global/local sensor

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Servo 2

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Servo 1 MUTUAL INFLUENCE

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Diagrams of the drawing and scanning devices

Global light (dim) Drawline//spin

Global light Drawline//goforward

Local light (dim) Drawline//gobackwards

Light Mini servo

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No line or clear lines Do nothing//spin Open light

Dark line Follow the line//go straight

Devices. Scanning machine + Drawing machine + field


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Logic: _Global light impacts behaviour of drawing device. _Setup and lines left by drawing device give direction to the scanning device and trigger its light to be turned off. _Light from the scanner changes the behaviour of the drawing device.

Devices. Drawing over a predetermined field + reacting to light average conditions + scanning the other trace Reference video. Folder / Devices / 000.avi


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These devices working together showed clear patterning in the resultant drawing, sucessful tracking of the lines and inproved mobility. However the impact of the light from the scanning device on the drawing machine required that the two devices be adjacent to one another, which often resulted in collisions. MUTUAL INFLUENCE

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Devices. Drawing over a predetermined field + reacting to light average conditions + scanning the other trace Reference video. Folder / Devices / 000.avi

Drawing catalogue

Detail catalogue

WIRELESS CONNECTION


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Swarm behaviour

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Attractor

Cooperative

Dispersing/Clumping

Follow the leader

In further exploring the concepts driving the developpment of the drawing system, capabilities of the two machines were combined into a single device which would operate in cooperation with others of the same species. Looking at precedent research of swarm robotics, several behaviours were noted. In particular, issues of coorperation and following anothers path were addressed as key to the performance of the drawing system.

WIRELESS CONNECTION


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In adition to swarms in nature, inspiration was drawn from exisiting intelligent machines. These machines respond to both local and global conditions, and create a record of those influences. The fist is SymbioticA - Silent Barrage, in which input from the machines’ environment is recorded a marks on a long pole. These marks are feb back into the brain of the system as a kind of memory and influence future behaviours.

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The second is the workl of FreeForm Construction, and in particular the research into the construction of termite mounds. In particular the research into how sound inpacts the material placement by the termite.

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Silent barrage- SymbioticA

Termite investigation - Free form

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Also crucial in the concept of a swarm based system is the shift from a top down to a bottom up appoach, and a goal of an architectural fabrication.

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In contrast to a bottom up approach the ROB Unit is directed to build something specific. What is interesting about this machine is the way in which it fabricates an architectural installation. In moving forward with the swarm system the team would draw inspiration from the mode of fabrication while integrating external influences.

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SADbot, on the other hand, is entirely driven by external forces, however, it does not fabricate.

GLOBAL INFLUENCE LOCAL INFLUENCE

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It is the intersection of these two machines that embodies the concept of the devices’ logic.

ROB Unit

SADbot

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

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Device 003. Drawing over a setup. Reference video. Folder / MutualInfluence / 000.avi

Black pen. Follows the red pen traces while avoiding own traces.

Black pen. Lifts pen when detects initial set-up black line.

Black pen. Travels in a large circle when looses the line and avoids own traces.

Red pen. Follow the initial set-up and creates a dotted line. Red pen. Travels in a large circle when looses the line.

Drawing catalogue

Catalogue explanation

In applying the concept of the swarm it was first necessary to develop a device which could draw, scan, and differentiate between lines. Device 003 was the first to combine these abilities. Two test were completed with this device on the same field. This first was a test was with the red pen to respond to an initial set up. The second was with a black pen to respond to both the initail set up and the traces of the red pen. Results are listed adjacent. This test simulated the potential responses, the logic, and the capacity of the mechanisms, should these devices operate in the same field.


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A + A = AA 2 individuals from a system

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A + A + A + A + ... = SWARM A system

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In a swarm the individual is secondary to the group as a whole, the logic of each individual is the same, and decisions are made on a local scale, impacting the whole through multiplicity.

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Devices A1 - A2


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To explore the potential of a swarm system two individuals with the same logic and the same tools were selected. This allowed for testing of the logic with clear results, and quick modifications. As in previous tests both devices were given a drawing implement which could be lifted. The original scanner with only a single sensor was replaced with a multi-sensor scanner for improved line tracking and colour differentiation. MUTUAL INFLUENCE

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Devices 002. Follow a trace, react to own trace Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 000.avi Self awareness Don´t bump into each other

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Drawing inspiration from the basic rules of a swarm system (as described in J. Hollands Hidden Order) the system logic is a follows.

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Avoid the other // prevent crash

Positive Feedback Attraction: follow the line of others Separation: recognition of others, inanimate objects and alien species Negative Feedback Potential to lose the line Amplification of Randomness Leave a trace for others to follow during search for other lines

Devices 002. Self awareness Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 001.avi

Multiple interactions Influence of global behaviour (movement) Those described above Recognition of difference between own line and lines of others.


A disturbance in the system

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normalize // back to work

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The addition of a proximity sensor greatly improved the performance of the devices in the same field. With simple logic of slow down as an object approaches and stop in close proximity, three types of major collisions were prevented: with others in the swarm; with inanimte objects; and with creatures of another species.

Devices 002. Disturbance Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 003.avi Obstacles in the system trayectory A

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What also emerged were ledgible adjustments of the pattern. At moments it was only a pause in the pattern, others were full shifts in the direction of the device. This is most clearly display when the device encounters a boundary condition, or static object.

Devices 002. Obstacles Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 004.avi


Information throgh the system Site - webcam - processing - arduino - device - drawing

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arduino receives data from processing

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site//location

devices receives data from arduino from processing

motion//movement sensor webcam

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Values and graphics from processing V1(0,0,0) - V2(activity) 400

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6 values Direction is not clear Quadrants too far 16 quadrants

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7 values Direction is more clear 25 quadrants

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These quadrants are used to track the areas of the video frames with the greatest degree of movement. When capturing the plan of a room this translates into the movement of a person through the space.

15 values Direction is clear Quadrants too close 64 quadrants

Logic in the field A strange entity/body/etc enters in the system Move slow

A vector returns values for distance - proximity

V2-1 (activity) A strange entity/body/etc is close to the system Avoid - stop

V2-2 (activity) V1(0,0,0)

A strange entity/body/etc leaves the system Back to normality

To reintroduce global input to the system, the idea of tracking movement through a webcam was explored. In these experiments a webcam feeds live video into processing, which divides the frames into quadrants.

Processing then translates this data into vectors which are relayed to Arduino as angle and distance. In other words, the devices are given the trajectory and distance of the foreign species which allows them to disperse to avoid prior to an encounter which would be picked up by the proximity sensor.


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Processing video Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 005.avi

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Tests of the video input to the device, resulted in the device changing its direction, velocity, and thus its position in relation to movement detected through the webcam. Device 003. Responding to external input. Processing video Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 005.avi

Device 003. Responding to external input. Processing video Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 006.avi

The way in which the arduino interpreted the data it recieved, meant that the present trajectory of the device correlated to the zero angle of the processing video. In developing this further either a GPS or magnetic positioning system would be required to aid the devices in always moving away from the approaching creatures. In order to inplement this logic into the total system it would be necessary to wirelessly communicate the data to the arduino. Test were conducted with the XBee wireless hardware, however full implementation exceeded the scope of this particular workshop. This is one of the avenues which would be further explored should the project continue.


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The final tests conducted within the scope of the workshop combined the line reading / following logic with the recognition of other objects in space. Two devices with the same logic and the same tools were placed into a blank field to operate by their governing rules. Initially the behaviour of the devices appeared random, however as time passed patterns began to emerge. These are listed on the following page. Some of the notable behaviours observed were: _device with balck pen was more easily trapped by own line _device with green pen took longer to read the black lines _trajectories of the two devices were slightly different

Device 003. Complete system working in an open field Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 007.avi


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Catalogue of patterning in final setup

Device 003. Complete system working in an open field Reference video. Folder / Swarm / 007.avi Green pen. Follows the black pen traces while avoiding own traces. Stability - boundaries + proximity + own trace . Black pen. Avoids own trace while lifts its pen - trace -, avoid the boundaries of the field, and reacts to proximity of the other device. Stability - boundaries + proximity + own trace .

Green pen. Follows the black trace, reaching new places in the field. Green pen. Start point. Black pen. Start point.

Green pen. Searching for a trace.

Black pen. Emergent behavior. boundaries + own trace.

Drawing catalogue

Catalogue explanation


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A. Scratching device

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- Responding to the environment. (global) Device scratching low density foam by the data received by a web cam scanning bodies in a specific site. - bodies - scratch + bodies + scratch

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1.3 Pouring material over scratched surface Scanning device reads voids in surface and pours (x) material over them

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B. Scanning device

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- Responding to the light. (local) Device pouring (x) material over the scratched surface. B A

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1.4 Non linear timeline Scanning device fills voids with different colors leaving a trace of time

1.1 General device diagram Setup.

1.5a Trace/footproint of the site A B

1.2 Scratching surface Webcam translates data in processing and translates

1.5b Trace/footproint of time

Site footprint receives data from arduino//processing

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site//location

The logic of the swarm system developed through the Material Footprints workshop has many applications in fabrication. For example, one of the options the team considered was scratching or drilling a surface with the depth being determined by the amount of activity on site. As the surface was being scratched the gaps would be filled with a material which would cure and would change colour throughout the time of operation. In this way the output would become a timeline of the activity on site.


A+B=C The reaction of the two chemical create a different chemic MDI + CnH2(n+n-g) = Polyurethane resin

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MDI

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As a starting strategy in exploring alternative mediums for the swarm system several tools were tested for the patterns they created when scratching floral foam. Tools ranged from forks, to spoons and screws attached to a servo motor. Further development. Reference video. Folder / Future / 000.avi

1 screw

plastic fork

The speed and / or frequency of the motor was determined by the amount of movement detected through a webcam. This was very similar to the process used for global video input to the drawing swarm.

Fork + screw

Fork + screw diagonal arrangement

Spoon

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Foam experimentation


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correct trajectory

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DEVELOPMENT

ARDUINO WORKSHOP

SCANNING MACHINE I

ARDUINO EXPERIMENTATION

22

A

A

A

A

DRAWING MACHINE I

DEVICE DEVELOPMENT

A A

A

correct trajectory

A

TOOLS AND MATERIALS

DRAWING MACHINE I

MUTUAL INFLUENCE

COOPERATIVE SYSTEM

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

origin

A

A

A

A A

SCANNING MACHINE I

goal SELF AWARENESS

SWARM SYSTEM

SMOOTH SCANNER

GLOBAL INFLUENCE

A A

LOCAL INFLUENCE

A

A

A

correct trajectory

correct trajectory

COMPLETE SYSTEM FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

A

Creation of voids according to trajectory/Create path

In conjunction to the experimentation with alternative tools which the devices could operate, the team projected potential additional behaviours which could easily piggyback the current system. The first is the potential for the swarm to find and trace the safest route through a hazardous site. This tracing could be as simple as flagging the route for humans or larger, heavier, or more delicate machines to follow and / or build upon; Or a more complex task such as injecting a stabilization material into the ground creating the path. The second is the potential for the system to track the paths of people moving through a site. because of the devices’ ability to sense global movement and move away from it, the swarm could build with openings where movement is most frequent, or alternatively control the flow of traffic through a construction site

WIRELESS CONNECTION


AA - DRL

PHASE I - WORKSHOP II

Below are images of potential mediums and processes which could be accomodated through the adaptation of the swarm system. These include: sprayed material; surface scratching; mixing of materials; liquid materials; piling; stones or pebbles; sand; and digging.

MATERIAL FOOTPRINTS

DEVELOPMENT

ARDUINO WORKSHOP

SCANNING MACHINE I

ARDUINO EXPERIMENTATION

DRAWING MACHINE I

23

DEVICE DEVELOPMENT

SCANNING MACHINE I

TOOLS AND MATERIALS

DRAWING MACHINE I

MUTUAL INFLUENCE

COOPERATIVE SYSTEM

SWARM SYSTEM

SELF AWARENESS

SMOOTH SCANNER

GLOBAL INFLUENCE LOCAL INFLUENCE

COMPLETE SYSTEM FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

Further development.

WIRELESS CONNECTION


IN CONCLUSION In a swarm the individual is secondary to the group as a whole, the logic of each individual is the same, and decisions are made on a local scale, impacting the whole through multiplicity. In dealing with fabrication the team saw the potential strength in the development of a device which would operate in cooperation with others of the same species. This Bottom Up approach meant that the devices we given a set of rules to operate by, rather than a directive of the final outcome, or specific instructions of which way to go. The logic and coding developed for these devices drew inspiration from the basic rules of a swarm system including Positive Feedback Negative Feedback, Amplification of Randomness, and Multiple Interactions. In order to accomplish this, within the brief of a drawing device, it was necessary to create a system in which the drawn lines could be read and fed back into the system. Also it was fundamental for the devices to recognize others in the swarm, inanimate objects, and creatures of other species. By creating a loop both local and global conditions could be read in the drawing outcome and the output would become a timeline of the activity on site.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team would like the thank the following people for their support in conceptualization, mechanical development and programming: MARTA MALE-ALEMANY // Workshop Tutor CATHALINA POLLACK // Assistant Tutor MICHAEL GRAU // External Advisor DANIEL SOLTIS // Arduino Specialist JOSE SANCHEZ // Processing Specialist KENSUKE HATTA // Emtech PhD Student and Electrical Consultant CHRIS, DREW, JOHANNA, JORGE, LISA, MYA, NADA, WANDY // Material footprints workshop peers and problem solving think tank


Profile for Adrian Aguirre

MATERIAL FOOTPRINTS  

AADRL 2010, Phase I, Workshop II

MATERIAL FOOTPRINTS  

AADRL 2010, Phase I, Workshop II

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