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VAŠ BREZPLAČNI IZVOD/YOUR PERSONAL COPY

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine oktober, november • October, November 2011

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Skrivnosti gozda Secrets of the Forest

Miša Tičar Amsterdam

Razkošje drevesnih vrst v Sloveniji • A Wealth of Tree Species in Slovenia Mala uharica • The Long-eared Owl Stoli Janeza Suhadolca• The Chairs of Janez Suhadolc

Balonarstvo • Ballooning Krasoslovje • Karstology Predjamski grad • Predjama Castle

Hribarjeva Ljubljana • Ivan Hribar’s Ljubljana Kamčatka • Kamchatka


PRAZNUJTE Z NAMI! CELEBRATE WITH US!

Svoj 50. rojstni dan želimo praznovati z vami. Poletimo skupaj v najlepše evropske prestolnice! We wish to celebrate our 50th birthday with you. Let us fly together to beautiful European capitals.

www.adria.si


{ Pismo } Spoštovane potnice, cenjeni potniki!

Dear Passenger,

Dobrodošli na letalu slovenskega letalskega prevoznika Adrie Airways!

Adria Airways, the Airline of Slovenia, welcomes you aboard!

S

S

September was a turning point for this company, and will no doubt stick in Adria’s history as a month of key decisions, in this, the fiftieth anniversary year of Slovenia’s biggest airline. It was a month that was all about rescuing the company. With help from the Slovene government and creditor banks, and with all the company’s employees doing their bit, Adria succeeded in carrying out the financial rehabilitation of the company, and in this way we laid the foundations for future commercial rehabilitation. For this we should thank all those involved, including owners, business partners and unions as well as all our employees, who saw the seriousness of the situation and through their great efforts contributed to us achieving our objective. All the management efforts are now geared towards current operations and carrying out the programme of corporate transformation. To ensure continued trouble-free operation, we must restructure Adria, and this will involve a re-scaling of the company. Only in this way can it become a competitive player in the market with its own financial resources. As such it will become an attractive potential strategic partner for a number of other companies in Europe and beyond. Economies of scale and cost effectiveness have become the primary conditions for success in the 21st century. Unfortunately, independent regional airlines have few options in the market today. In the global world that we inhabit, synergies are what enable the survival of numerous similar companies. And this is where Adria has some outstanding opportunities. Its high-tech human resources, intimate knowledge of the market of south-east Europe and its established brand are undoubtedly advantages that can offer future strategic partners major benefits and a competitive edge. With the introduction of the winter timetable, which begins on 30 October 2011, we are pursuing the trends detailed in our business plan. In order to optimise our flight network, we have decided to eliminate unprofitable services. Following a temporary and essential period of stabilisation, we have every faith in the renewed growth of the company in the future. Thanks to our solid membership of the Star Alliance, we remain open to the world and can offer passengers connections to all the major European hubs. We will continue our efforts to convince you of the quality of our services and our competitive advantages, so you will be happy to fly with us again and again. foto: Branko Čeak in Domen Pal

September je bil za naše podjetje prelomen mesec in se bo v jubilejnem petdesetem letu obstoja največje slovenske letalske družbe prav gotovo zapisal v Adrijino zgodovino kot mesec ključnih odločitev. Potekal je v znamenju reševanja podjetja. S pomočjo Vlade Republike Slovenije, bank upnic in vseh zaposlenih v družbi nam je v Adrii uspelo izpeljati finančno sanacijo družbe in s tem postaviti temelje bodoči poslovni sanaciji. Zahvala gre vsem sodelujočim, tako lastnikom, poslovnim partnerjem in sindikatom kot tudi vsem zaposlenim, ki so razumeli resnost situacije ter z velikimi delovnimi napori prispevali k uresničitvi zastavljenega cilja. Vsa prizadevanja vodstva so sedaj usmerjena v tekoče poslovanje in izvedbo programa podjetniškega preoblikovanja podjetja. Za nadaljnje nemoteno delovanje moramo Adrio prestrukturirati, kar pomeni, da bo potrebno spremeniti obseg družbe. Le tako bo lahko z lastno finančno močjo postala konkurenčna igralka na trgu in kot taka bo zanimiva možna strateška partnerica za številne druge družbe v Evropi in izven nje. Ekonomija obsega in stroškovna učinkovitost sta namreč postali osnovna pogoja uspešnosti v 21. stoletju. Samostojni regionalni prevozniki dandanes na trgu žal nimajo dosti možnosti. V globalnem svetu, v katerem živimo, so sinergije tiste, ki omogočajo preživetje številnim podobnim družbam. Adria ima pri tem zelo dobre možnosti. Njen visokotehnološko usposobljeni kader, dobro poznavanje jugovzhodnega trga in priznana blagovna znamka so prav gotovo tiste prednosti, ki lahko bodočemu strateškemu partnerju prinesejo veliko koristi in konkurenčno prednost. Z uvedbo zimskega voznega reda, ki bo začel veljati 30. oktobra 2011, sledimo trendom sprejetega poslovnega načrta. Zaradi optimizacije mreže poletov smo se odločili za ukinitev nedonosnih linij. Po začasnem in nujnem obdobju stabilizacije verjamemo v ponovno rast podjetja v prihodnosti. S pomočjo našega trdnega članstva v svetovnem globalnem združenju Star Alliance še vedno ostajamo odprti v svet in omogočamo potnikom povezave do vseh pomembnejših evropskih vozlišč. Še naprej se bomo trudili, da vas prepričamo s kakovostjo svojih storitev in konkurenčnimi pogoji, da boste tudi v prihodnje z zadovoljstvom leteli z nami. V imenu Adrie Airways vam želiva v prijeten let!

We wish you a very pleasant flight!

Robert Vuga,

Klemen Boštjančič,

Klemen Boštjančič,

Robert Vuga,

izvršni direktor

glavni izvršni direktor

CEO

Executive Director

(3)


Vsebina/Contents 32

Adrijina potnica/Adria Passenger

36

Adrijana Šelj • Domen Pal

Miša Tičar Miša Tičar

Amsterdam Amsterdam

David Šalamun • Chris de Bode

Matej Vranič

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine Revija Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine je namenjena potnikom na poletih z Adrio Airways. Adria In-flight Magazine is complimentary on Adria Airways flights.

(4)

Izdajatelj/Published: Adria Airways, Slovenski letalski prevoznik, d.d. Adria Airways, The Airline of Slovenia Zgornji Brnik 130h, 4210 Brnik - Aerodrom Uredništvo / Editorial: Barbara Mihevc Bukovec Tel. / Phone + 386 4 259 4541 E- mail: barbara.bukovec@adria.si Urednica / Edited by: Meta Krese Oglaševanje / Advertising: Alenka Dvoršak Tel. / Phone + 386 4 259 4526 E- mail: alenka.dvorsak@adria.si Oblikovanje in AD /Design and AD: LUKS Studio Prevod /Translated by: Amidas Lektorica/Language editing: Vera Samohod Fotoliti /Lithography: SET, d.o.o. Tisk /Printed by: Korotan – Ljubljana, d.o.o.

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Skrivnosti gozda/Secrets of the Forest

52 58

Staša Tome • Davorin Tome

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Robert Brus

70

Marjan Žiberna • Matej Vranič

Brezplačen izvod /Your personal copy

Our Lives Would Be Poorer Without Forests

Slovenija, tretja najbolj gozdnata dežela v Evropi The Third Most Forested Country in Europe Robert Brus

Razkošje drevesnih vrst A Wealth of Tree Species

Mala uharica

The Long-eared Owl

Stoli Janeza Suhadolca The Chairs of Janez Suhadolc

Sandra Jazbec • Dragan Arrigler

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Balonarstvo/Ballooning

Z Avijem Šornom nad Ljubljano With Avi Šorn in the Skies Above Ljubljana Meta Krese • Arne Hodalič

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Krasoslovje v Združenih arabskih emiratih/ Karstology in the United Arab Emirates

Legenda o razkriti, a še naprej skrivnostni kristalni jami The Legend of a Still-Mysterious Hidden Crystal Cave

ISSN 1318-0789

Mnenja, izražena v tej publikaciji, so zgolj mnenja avtorjev ali intervjuvancev in ne odsevajo nujno stališč Adrie Airways. Razmnoževanje brez pisnega dovoljenja je prepovedano. Izdajatelj ne prevzema nikakršne odgovornosti za nenaročeno gradivo. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors or persons interviewed only and do not necessarily reflect the views of Adria Airways. Reproduction without written permission is prohibited. The pub­l ish­er accepts no responsibility for unsolicit­ed material.

Brez gozdov bi slabo živeli

Dragica Bošnjak

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Predjamski grad/Predjama Castle

Sveže češnje iz obleganega gradu Fresh Cherries From a Besieged Castle Luka Dakskobler

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Ljubljana

Ivan Hribar, župan, ki je obnovil po potresu porušeno mesto

Ivan Hribar, the Mayor who Rebuilt from the Rubble of the Earthquake Alja Bukovec

102

Kamčatka/Kamchatka

Vijuganje po zasneženih deviških strminah Skiing Down Virgin Slopes Aleš Fevžer


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Adria Airways Novosti/News Zimski vozni red Adria Airways bo 30. oktobra 2011 prešla na zimski vozni red, ki bo veljal do 24. marca 2012. Urnik letenja se prilagaja potrebam potnikov in vsakodnevno povezuje Ljubljano z desetimi destinacijami ter tako skrbi za čim boljšo povezanost Slovenije s svetom. Adria Airways je v skladu s programom prestrukturiranja v zimskem voznem redu optimizirala mrežo poletov. Iz Ljubljane bo tako opravila 163 rednih tedenskih letov na 15 destinacij, večinoma po Evropi: štirikrat dnevno bo letela v Frankfurt, trikrat dnevno pa na Dunaj, v Muenchen in Zuerich. Ljubljano bo z Brusljem povezovala trinajstkrat, Skopje pa enajstkrat tedensko. Z namenom, da bi omogočila potnikom čim boljši vozni red, je dodala število tedenskih letov na liniji v Beograd, kamor bo pozimi letela osemkrat na teden. Devetkrat tedensko bo Ljubljano povezovala z Moskvo, sedem letov tedensko bo opravila v Istanbul, Prištino in Tirano, šest v Sarajevo in pet v Amsterdam. Trikrat tedensko bo letela v Podgorico, dvakrat na teden pa v Koebenhavn. Decembra 2010 je Adria Airways vzpostavila redne povezave iz Prištine, od koder bo pozimi sedemkrat tedensko letela v Muenchen in štirikrat tedensko v Frankfurt. S pomočjo trdnega članstva v svetovnem globalnem združenju Star Alliance ohranja Adria Airways svojo poslovno politiko mrežnega prevoznika, ki ponuja globalno storitev. S floto 4000 letal opravijo članice združenja Star Alliance dnevno več kot 21.200 letov na 1.185 letališč v 185 državah.

Winter timetable (6)

On 30 October 2011 Adria Airways moves over to its winter timetable, valid until 24 March 2012. The timetable is designed to meet passengers' needs, linking Ljubljana to ten destinations every day and in this way providing the best possible connections between Slovenia and the rest of the world. In line with its restructuring programme, Adria Airways has optimised its network of flights in the winter timetable. Each week we will operate 163 scheduled flights from Ljubljana to 15 destinations, mostly in Europe: four times daily to Frankfurt, and three times a day to Vienna, Munich and Zurich. We will also fly to Brussels 13 times a week and to Skopje 11 times a week. In order to offer passengers the best possible timetable, we have increased the number of weekly flights to Belgrade to eight. There will also be nine flights a week to Moscow, seven flights a week to Istanbul, Priština and Tirana, six to Sarajevo and five to Amsterdam. Adria will fly three times a week to Podgorica and twice a week to Copenhagen. In December 2010 Adria introduced scheduled services from Priština, and this winter we will fly seven times a week from there to Munich and four times a week to Frankfurt. Thanks to its solid membership of the Star Alliance, Adria Airways is able to maintain its commercial policy of being a network carrier offering global services. With a combined fleet of 4,000 aircraft, Star Alliance operates more than 21,200 flights each day to 1,185 airports in 185 countries.

Deset let uspešnega letenja v Podgorico Adria Airways je začela z leti iz Ljubljane v Podgorico v maju 2001. V začetku letošnjega septembra so v Podgorici slovesno obeležili ta jubilejni dogodek. Na liniji Ljubljana–Podgorica je v desetletnem obdobju letelo preko 110.000 potnikov. V poletnem voznem redu je Adria povezovala obe glavni mesti trikrat na teden, prav tako bo letela tudi v zimskem času. Leti se opravljajo v sodelovanju s črnogorsko letalsko družbo Montenegro Airlines, s katero letita izmenično. Adria leti na teh progah večinoma z letali tipa Canadair Regional Jet- 200 z 48 sedeži, let do Podgorice pa traja uro in petindvajset minut.

Ten Years of Successful Services to Podgorica Adria Airways started operating flights from Ljubljana to Podgorica in May 2001. At the beginning of September a special ten-year anniversary event was celebrated in Podgorica. Over the past decade the Ljubljana-Podgorica service has carried more than 110,000 passengers. In the summer timetable, Adria linked the two capital cities three times a week, and will continue this schedule in winter. Flights are operated in cooperation with the Montenegrin national carrier Montenegro Airlines, which alternates the service with Adria. On this route Adria operates mainly operates CRJ200, and the flight to Podgorica takes an hour and 25 minutes.

Adrijin prispevek Združenju bolnikov s cerebrovaskularno boleznijo V začetku oktobra je skupina slovenskih bolnikov s cerebrovaskularno boleznijo odpotovala v Makedonijo na srečanje s tamkajšnjim društvom kapistov. Ti se namreč v obdobju rehabilitacije povezujejo v posamezna društva, ta pa izmenjujejo svoje izkušnje tudi na meddržavni ravni. Član slovenskega društva kapistov je tudi Adrijin kapitan inštruktor Vladimir Nikitenko, ki je pred leti doživel možgansko kap. V obdobju rehabilitacije se je pridružil Združenju bolnikov s cerebrovaskularno boleznijo Slovenije, kjer še danes skupaj z ostalimi bolniki premaguje najrazličnejše ovire na poti do večje vključenosti posameznikov v aktivno življenje po bolezni. S svojim prispevkom v obliki letalskih vozovnic je Adria pomagala društvu, da je lažje uresničilo zastavljene cilje.

Adria contributes to Association of Cerebrovascular Disease Patients At the beginning of October, a group of Slovene cerebrovascular patients travelled to Macedonia for a meeting with the local stroke patient association. During their rehabilitation these patients join together to form individual associations, which then share their experiences on the international level. The members of the Slovene stroke patients' association include Adria pilot instructor Vladimir Nikitenko, who suffered a stroke several years ago. During his rehabilitation he joined the Association of Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Slovenia, where today along with other patients he is overcoming a range of obstacles on his path to greater involvement in active life after this illness. Through its contribution in the form of air tickets, Adria has helped the Association pursue its goals more easily.


Aktualne ponudbe/Latest Offers

© Corbis/IPAK Images

V vsaki številki revije vas bomo seznanjali z najnovejšimi ugodnimi ponudbami, ki jih za vas pripravljamo skozi vse leto. / We will keep you up to date with our latest special offers in each issue of the magazine. Special offers are available throughout the year.

Ujemi ugoden polet ...

Adria Airways Special Offers!

Na vseh Adrijinih rednih linijah imamo ugodne ponudbe po načelu »Kupi prej, potuj ceneje«. Da bi našo ponudbo še bolj približali vašim potrebam, imamo na voljo znižane cene potovanj tudi med tednom.

Special offers are available on all of Adria’s scheduled services on a “buy early, fly for less” basis. To make our services even more attractive, reduced fares are available for travel during the week.

... in prihrani pri najemu vozil!

Save on car hire!

Če planirate jesensko / zimske počitnice v oktobru, novembru ali decembru, rezervirajte vozilo pri BUDGET-u in prihranite 10% pri vseh najemih v Evropi (z izjemo Malte). Med postopkom on-line rezervacije preprosto vnesite promocijsko kodo L176700 za 10% popust pri najemih od 1. oktobra do 15. decembra 2011. Člani kluba Miles & More lahko pri vsakem najemu pridobijo 500 dodatnih milj. Ob prevzemu (ali vračilu) vozila in predložitvi članske izkaznice se bodo milje avtomatsko zabeležile na potnikov račun.

If you are planning a winter getaway, then book your hire car with Budget this October, November and December for 10% off at all locations in Europe (excluding Malta). Simply enter the discount code L176700 when booking online from 1st October – 15th December 2011. By booking Budget you can also earn 500 award miles with Miles and More. Simply show your membership card at the Budget counter for your miles to be automatically added.

Delujem ekonomično, potujem poslovno!

Work economically, travel in business!

Za nakup letalske vozovnice vsaj sedem dni pred začetkom vašega potovanja vam za ceno potovanja v ekonomskem razredu nudimo polet v poslovnem. Ponudba velja za nakup vozovnice v ekonomskem razredu po najvišji ceni. Edina omejitev je nakup vozovnice najmanj sedem dni pred odhodom; spremembe rezervacij so brezplačne.

When you buy a ticket at least seven days in advance, you can travel in business class for the price of an economy-class fare. This offer applies to economy-class tickets purchased at the highest rate. The only restriction is that you must purchase your ticket at least seven days before you travel. Changes to the reservation can be made free of charge.

Varčujem, a ne na račun kakovosti!

Savings, no change in quality!

Več o ponudbi preberite na www.adria.si ali pa pokličite tel. št. 080 13 00.

For more information visit www.adria.si or call us on 080 13 00.

Adrijine E-novice

Adria E-news

Vabimo vas, da obiščete naše spletne strani www.adria.si in se prijavite na Adrijine E-novice. S tem boste enkrat mesečno obveščeni o naših novostih in posebnih ponudbah. E-novice bodo za vas vir dragocenih informacij in idej pri načrtovanju potovanja ali počitnic.

Why not visit our website www.adria.si and subscribe to Adria’s E-news service? Once a month you will receive updates on new services and special offers – straight to your inbox! This means that E-news will be a valuable source of information and ideas when you are planning a journey or holiday.

Naj bo obveščenost vaša prednost!

Let information be to your advantage!

Pridružite se nam na Facebooku Join us on Facebook

Sledite nam na Twitterju Follow us on Twitter

www.facebook.com/AdriaAirways

http://twitter.com/adria_airways

BEOGRAD– LJUBLJANA– BRUSELJ OD FROM

EUR 260

SKOPJE– LJUBLJANA– ZURICH OD FROM

EUR 291

MUNCHEN– PRISTINA OD FROM

EUR 275

(7)

LJUBLJANA– COPENHAGEN OD FROM

EUR 190

Zgoraj navedene cene so najnižje veljavne cene na Adrijinih poletih, vključujejo pa povratni prevoz in vse ostale dajatve, razen stroška rezervacije. Število ponujenih sedežev po tej ceni je omejeno. The prices given above are the lowest valid prices for Adria flights, and include return flight and all other taxes and fees, except for booking fees. There are limited seats available at this price.


{ Adria Airways }

Fotografski natečaj ob razstavi

»Adria 50,

dovoljenje imate za vzlet!« ( 10 )

V

letošnjem letu sta Muzej novejše zgodovine Slovenije in letalski prevoznik Adria Airways ob petdesetletnici

delovanja največje slovenske letalske družbe pripravila zanimivo razstavo Adria 50 – Dovoljenje imate za vzlet.

Razstava je odprla svoja vrata 20. aprila 2011 in jih zaprla 23. septembra. Ves čas razstave so v muzeju potekale različne dejavnosti: delavnice in posebni pedagoški programi za otroke ter fotografski natečaj, ki so se ga udeležili najrazličnejši amaterski in profesionalni fotografi. Na ta natečaj, ki je potekal od 1. julija do 26. avgusta 2011, je petnajst avtorjev poslalo po več svojih fotografij. Štiričlanska mešana komisija (predstavniki iz Muzeja novejše zgodovine in Adrie Airways) je izbrala zmagovalni fotografiji: »Neprecenljivi trenutek« avtorja Jana Kiklja in »Prizemljeni« avtorja Mitje Sagaja. Zmagovalca fotografskega natečaja sta prejela povratno vozovnico na izbranem letu Adrie Airways. Komisija se je odločila podeliti še posebno nagrado avtorici Naji Kikelj, ki je v sklopu štirih poslanih fotografij prikazala zanimivo fotografsko zgodbo na temo Adrie Airways. Najboljše fotografije vseh avtorjev so bile tudi razstavljene v prostorih Muzeja novejše zgodovine Slovenije.


Mirjan Drakulić, 2-DC-6B

Mitja Sagaj, Prizemljeni

( 11 )


Naja Kikelj, Dovoljenje imate za vzlet

( 12 )


Photography Competition as Part of the Exhibition

“Adria 50,

Cleared For Take Off!” ( 13 )

T

his year the National Museum of Contemporary History and Adria Airways held an interesting exhibition entitled “Adria 50, Cleared for Take-Off”, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of Slovenia’s biggest airline. The exhibition ran from 20 April to 23 September. A variety of activities took place at the museum to coincide with the exhibition, including workshops and special educational programmes for children, and a photography competition which attracted entries from amateur and professional photographers alike. Fifteen photographers submitted a selection of their photos to the competition, which ran from 1 July to 26 August. The four members of a mixed panel of judges (consisting of representatives of the National Museum of Contemporary History and Adria Airways) chose two winning photographs: “The Precious Moment” by Jan Kikelj and “The Grounded” by Mitja Sagaj.

The two winners received return flights with Adria Airways to a destination of their choice. The panel also decided to award a special prize to Naja Kikelj, whose sequence of four photographs told an engaging photo-story about Adria Airways. The best of the photographs submitted were also exhibited at the National Museum of Contemporary History.


{ Umetnost & kultura } Foto: Jaka Babnik

Ribnica, Galerija Miklova hiša, od 11. novembra do 11. decembra

Fotografija – vest slovenske družbe

Razstavljeni ciklusi Jake Adamiča, Primoža Bizjaka, Jureta Eržena, Jake Gasarja, Arneta Hodaliča, Mance Juvan, Boruta Krajnca, Boštjana Puclja, Matjaža Rušta in Igorja Škafarja umeščajo avtorje med tiste fotografe, ki uporabljajo fotografijo za kritično interpretiranje vsakodnevnega življenja. Čeprav se marsikdo med njimi zaradi svojega dela premika po svetu, je izbor omejen na tiste njihove zgodbe, ki so posnete v Sloveniji. Kontekst, v katerega so umestili razstavljene fotografije, dovoljuje gledalcu, da jih lahko dojema osebno, politično, ekonomsko, dramatično, vsakdanje ali pa zgodovinsko. V končni fazi pa lahko gledalcu, naveličanemu vrtanja v bistvo pomena teh fotografij, dajejo s svojo preciznostjo in domišljenostjo v likovnih elementih tudi dovolj estetskega veselja, da potešijo njegovo potrebo po umetniški lepoti.

Divača, stalna razstava

( 14 )

Muzej slovenskih filmskih igralcev

Ribnica, Miklova Hiša Gallery, 11 November to 11 December

V središču Divače, v čudovitem ambientu prenovljene Škrateljnove domačije, se nahaja nedavno odprt Muzej slovenskih filmskih igralcev, kompleks več arhitekturnih in vsebinskih sklopov. Muzej ponuja edinstveno doživetje slovenske filmske dediščine s poudarkom na igralski umetnosti. Na stalni razstavi, posvečeni Iti Rini, rojeni kot Ida Kravanja leta 1907 v Divači, se obiskovalci seznanijo z življenjem in delom filmske igralke, ki je v 30-ih letih prejšnjega stoletja zaslovela po Evropi in svetu. Osrednja stalna razstava, postavljena v največjem poslopju kompleksa in zasnovana po sodobnih muzeoloških načelih, pa obiskovalcem odstira skrivnosti filmske igre in jih seznanja z domačimi igralci in igralkami, ki so se zapisali v zgodovino slovenskega filma. Muzejski kompleks bogatita poleg dveh razstavnih prostorov še večnamenska dvorana, namenjena delavnicam, predavanjem, filmskim projekcijam…, in letni kino, kjer si lahko ljubitelji filma ogledajo v poletnih mesecih pod zvezdnatim nebom svoje priljubljene igralce in igralke. V sodelovanju s sorodnimi lokalnimi, nacionalnimi in medregijskimi ustanovami postaja muzej pomembno kulturno središče in prostor za ohranjanje in razvijanje filmske kulture.

Photography, the Conscience of Slovene Society These series of photographs by Jaka Adamič, Primož Bizjak, Jure

Eržen, Jaka Gasar, Arne Hodalič, Manca Juvan, Borut Krajnc, Boštjan Pucelj, Matjaž Rušt and Igor Škafar place the artists among those photographers who use photography for a critical interpretation of everyday life. Although in many cases their work takes them around the world, the selection here is limited to stories that they have photographed in Slovenia. The context into which the exhibited photographs have been placed allows the viewer to interpret them in a personal, political, economic, dramatic, everyday or historical sense, although ultimately their precision and the imaginativeness of their artistic elements means that they can also give the viewer who is tired of searching for the essence of their meaning sufficient aesthetic pleasure to satisfy his need for artistic beauty. www.miklovahisa.si

Divača, Permanent exhibition

Museum of Slovene Film Actors

In the centre of Divača, in the wonderful setting of the renovated Škrateljn Farm, is the recently opened Slovene Film Actors Museum, a complex consisting of several buildings and thematic units. The museum offers a unique experience of Slovenia's cinematic heritage, with an emphasis on the art of acting. At the permanent exhibition devoted to Ita Rina, born in Divača in 1907 (as Ida Kravanja), visitors can find out about the life and work of a film actress who became famous throughout Europe and the world in the 1930s. The main permanent exhibition, housed in the largest building of the complex and designed according to modern museological principles, reveals to visitors the secrets of film acting and introduces them to the actors and actresses who helped write the history of Slovene cinema. As well as the two exhibition spaces, the museum complex has a multipurpose hall used for workshops, lectures, film projections and so on, and an outdoor cinema, where in the summer months cinephiles can watch their favourite actors and actresses beneath the starry sky. In collaboration with related local, national and interregional institutions, the museum is becoming an important cultural centre and a place for the conservation and development of film culture. www.muzejdivaca.si Foto: Igor Škafar


{ Art & Culture } Kostanjevica na Krki, Galerija Božidar Jakac, do 27. novembra

Uroš Abram: Telo. Made in Me

Naslov razstave: Telo. Made in Me ironizira industrijsko proizvodnjo predmetov masovne potrošnje, označenih z znamko porekla. Poudarja enkratnost in neponovljivost podobe, hkrati pa se izogne avri umetniškosti in – kot pravi avtor – je podoba telesa tudi v mojem telesu samo produkt optike v kombinaciji s kemijo. Abram fotografira s camero obscuro, improvizirano v ustih. Posnetke karakterizirajo nenadzorovane ekspresivne deformacije, zaradi dolge ekspozicije povsem raztopljena risba in izguba detajla, prstni odtisi in kapljice sline, ki postanejo del estetske celote. Operator (avtor) v njih zabeleži udeležbo lastnega telesa. Sakralni prostor simbolično izkorišča za posvetitev človekovega telesa, njegove krhke lepote in minljivosti v eteričnih podobah fotografskih aktov. Kostanjevica ob Krki, Božidar Jakac Gallery, until 27 November

Uroš Abram: The Body. Made in Me

The exhibition title The Body. Made in Me is an ironic reference to the industrial production of items of mass consumption marked with a designation of origin. It emphasises the uniqueness and unrepeatable nature of the image, while at the same time avoiding the aura of artiness and, as the artist says, even in my body the image of the body is merely the product of optics combined with chemistry. Abram takes photographs using his mouth as an improvised camera obscura. His pictures are characterised by uncontrolled expressive deformations, dissolution of the image and loss of detail as a result of the long exposure, and fingerprints and droplets of saliva that become part of an aesthetic whole. In them, the operator (the artist) records the participation of his own body. He symbolically exploits the sacred space of the gallery to sanctify the human body, its fragile beauty and its impermanence in ethereal images of photographic nudes.

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www.galerija-bj.si

Ljubljana, Muzej novejše zgodovine, od 15. oktobra 2011 do 1. marca 2012

Slovenke v dobi moderne

Muzej pripravlja v okviru medinstitucionalnega projekta razstavo Slovenke v dobi moderne. Pri projektu sodeluje več strokovnjakov različnih področij in ustanov, med drugim s Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani, iz Muzeja in galerij mesta Ljubljana, Mestnega muzeja Krško, Mestnega muzeja Radovljica, Pokrajinskega muzeja Maribor, Slovenskega šolskega muzeja in drugih. Razstava bo z zgodbami iz privatnega življenja in z razstavljenimi predmeti (likovni portreti, fotografije, osebni predmeti, športni pripomočki, filmi ...) pokazala izjemne dosežke slovenskih žena v času od revolucionarnega leta 1848 do konca druge svetovne vojne. Predstavljene bodo zanimive vsebine, razmišljanja in delovanje takrat vidnejših posameznic na Slovenskem, idejne smernice ženskega gibanja, različne družbene in kulturno-umetniški dejavnosti žensk, društev in posameznic, ki so imele vidnejše mesto v emancipacijskem zavedanju žensk kot enakopravnih članic družbe. Ob tem velja omeniti, da bodo razstavo ves čas spremljale tedenske aktivnosti in dogodki, tematsko posvečeni ženskam in zgodovini žensk.

Ljubljana, Museum of Contemporary History, 15 October 2011 to 1 March 2012

Slovene Women in the Modern Age

The National Museum of Contemporary History is hosting the exhibition Slovene Women in the Modern Age as part of an inter-institutional project. The project involves the collaboration of experts from a variety of fields and institutions, including the Faculty of Arts of the University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana City Museum and Galleries, Krško Municipal Museum, Radovljica Municipal Museum, Maribor Regional Museum, the Slovenian School Museum and others. Through stories from private life and the items on display (portraits, photographs, personal items, sports equipment, films, etc.), the exhibition will illustrate the extraordinary achievements of Slovene women in the period from the revolutionary year of 1848 to the end of the Second World War. Among the interesting aspects covered by the exhibition will be the ideas and actions of women who occupied prominent positions in Slovenia during this period, the ideological foundations of the women's movement, and the variety of social and cultural/artistic activities involving women, either as members of organisations or as individuals, who played a prominent role in the emancipation of women as equal members of society. Throughout its run, the exhibition will be accompanied by weekly activities and events dedicated to women and women's history. www.muzej-nz.si


{ Umetnost & kultura } Ljubljana, Maribor, od 9. do 20. novembra

22. Ljubljanski mednarodni filmski festival – LIFFe

Pedro Almodovar: Koža, v kateri živim / The Skin I Live in

( 16 ) Nanni Moretti: Imamo papeža / Habemus Papam

Na klasičnih festivalskih lokacijah, v ljubljanskem Cankarjevem domu, Kinodvoru, Kinu Šiška, Slovenski kinoteki in letos ponovno obujenem Kinu Komuna ter v dvorani 5. mariborskega Koloseja si bodo filmofili lahko ogledali pregled najboljšega, kar sta v zadnjem obdobju ustvarili evropska in svetovna filmska produkcija. Filmi so razvrščeni po sklopih: Perspektive so uraden tekmovalni sklop mladih režiserjev, ki se potegujejo za Mobitelovo nagrado vodomec. V Predpremierah so filmski vrhunci, ki so tudi sicer odkupljeni za predvajanje po Sloveniji. Sekcija Kralji in kraljice nudi dela prepoznavnih in nagrajevanih mojstrov sodobnega filma, Panorama svetovnega filma pa festivalske favorite s petih celin. Ekstravaganca, t. i. polnočni kino, prinaša raznovrstne, drznejše in žgečkljive vsebine, Fokus pa vpogled v eno ali več »vročih« nacionalnih kinematografij, letos v mladi grški film. Retrospektiva je letos posvečena fenomenu t. i. meta-filma, filmom, ki se ukvarjajo sami s sabo, z ustvarjalnim procesom in predvsem brisanjem tanke meje med realnim in namišljenim. Posvečeno prinaša carte blanche, zdaj že znameniti avstrijsko-nemški kritiški skupni Ferronijeva brigada (The Ferroni Brigade), ki je pripravila programski sklop, posvečen klasičnemu finskemu filmu štiridesetih in petdesetih let. Kino-integral, sekcija, namenjena eksperimentalnemu filmu, prinaša letos pregled španske šole filmske avantgarde. Svet na kratko je tekmovalni program sodobnega kratkega filma. Na Liffu niso pozabili niti na najmlajše in tako so v sodelovanju s Kinodvorom v okviru Kinobalona že tretjič organizirali filme, primerne za otroke od 7. do 14. leta. In še nekaj vidnejših filmov, ki jih bo letos moč videti na Liffu: Melanholija (Lars von Trier); Koža, v kateri živim (Pedro Almodovar); Faust (Aleksandr Sokurov); Potiche (Francois Ozon); Polnoč v Parizu (Woody Allen); The Guard (John Michael McDonagh), irski film s Katarino Čas v stranski vlogi; Le Havre (Aki Kaurismaki); Fant na kolesu (brata Dardenne); Imamo papeža (Nanni Moretti); Torinski konj (Bela Tarr); Bilo je nekoč v Anatoliji (Nuri Bilge Ceylan). Ljubljana, Maribor, 9 to 20 November

22nd Ljubljana International Film Festival – LIFFe

At the traditional festival locations – Cankarjev Dom, Kinodvor, Kino Šiška, Slovenska Kinoteka and Kino Komuna (newly reopened this year) in Ljubljana and Screen 5 of the Kolosej multiplex in Maribor – cinephiles can enjoy a selection of the best recent films from European and world cinema. The programme is divided into the following sections: Perspectives is the official competition section for young directors competing for the Mobitel Kingfisher award. The Avant-premières section consists of Woody Allen: Polnoč v Parizu / Midnight in Paris

major films that have already secured distribution in Slovenia. Kings and Queens includes works by awardwinning masters of modern cinema. World Film Panorama includes festival favourites from the five continents. Extravaganza or 'midnight cinema' serves up bolder and sometimes provocative content in a variety of genres, while Focus offers an insight into a currently "hot" national cinema, this year young Greek cinema. This year's Retrospective section is dedicated to the phenomenon of "meta-film", in other words films that deal with themselves, with the creative process and, above all, with blurring the thin border between the real and the imagined. The Tribute section offers carte blanche to celebrated Austrian/German critics the Ferroni Brigade, who have prepared a programme section dedicated to the classic Finnish cinema of the 1940s and 1950s. Kino-Integral, the section dedicated to experimental film, looks this year at the Spanish school of avant-garde cinema. The World in Brief is a competition section for contemporary short films. Even the youngest film-goers are catered for at LIFFe, and for the third year running Kinobalon, in conjunction with Kinodvor, will be showing films suitable for 7- to 14-year-olds. Some of the more notable films that you will be able to see at LIFFe this year: Melancholia (Lars von Trier);

Lars von Trier: Melanholija / Melancholia

The Skin I Live in (Pedro Almodóvar); Faust (Aleksandr Sokurov); Potiche (François Ozon); Midnight in Paris (Woody Allen); The Guard (John Michael McDonagh; this Irish film features Slovene actress Katarina Čas in a supporting role); Le Havre (Aki Kaurismäki); The Kid with a Bike (the Dardenne brothers); Habemus Papam (Nanni Moretti); The Turin Horse (Béla Tarr); Once Upon a Time in Anatolia (Nuri Bilge Ceylan). www.liffe.si


foto: Damjan Švarc, oblikovanje: Nenad Cizl

{ Art & Culture }

14. – 23. oktober 2011 Maribor www.borstnikovo.si

Maribor, osrednje prizorišče SNG Maribor, od 14. do 23. oktobra

46. Festival

Borštnikovo srečanje

Hrbtenico Festivala Borštnikovo srečanje – osrednje in najpomembnejše slovenske gledališke manifestacije – predstavlja tekmovalni program po izboru selektorja. Z dvanajstimi predstavami se bo pomerilo osem slovenskih gledališč: SNG Drama Ljubljana (V Damask in Beneški trgovec), Mestno gledališče ljubljansko (Hudič babji in Mačka na vroči pločevinasti strehi), Prešernovo gledališče Kranj (Jakob Ruda in Lovske scene iz Spodnje Bavarske), Slovensko mladinsko gledališče (Mefisto in Pohujšanje v dolini šentflorjanski), Gledališče Glej v koprodukciji s SNG Nova Gorica (Life®anti), SNG Drama Maribor (Goga, čudovito mesto), SSG Trst (Zlati zmaj) in Mini teater Ljubljana (Bartleby, pisar). Selektor je izbral tudi tri produkcije, ki sodijo v spremljevalni program festivala; vsaka od njih se skozi drugačno optiko in na svoj način ukvarja z vprašanjem umetnosti in umetniškega ustvarjanja. Močno razširjen in internacionaliziran je tudi dodatni festivalski program, ki obsega slovenski showcase, selekcijo predstav, zanimivih za mednarodna gostovanja, namenjen mednarodnim strokovnjakom, selektorjem festivalov, umetniškim direktorjem kulturnih centrov, kritikom in drugim pomembnim predstavnikom mednarodne gledališke javnosti. Sklop, poimenovan Generacije, predstavlja raznoliko in raznovrstno gledališko produkcijo, ki na svoj način obravnava problematiko sedanjosti. V mednarodnem programu Mostovi so zbrane na drugih festivalih nagrajene tuje predstave in najkakovostnejše predstave evropskih držav iz širše regije. Letošnja novost je programski sklop, poimenovan Fokus, ki je posvečen Slovaški. Znotraj njega se bodo zvrstile bralne uprizoritve treh sodobnih slovaških dram, pogovor o sodobnem slovaškem gledališču in dramatiki ter predstavitev Gledališkega inštituta iz Bratislave. V okviru letošnjega Festivala Borštnikovo srečanje bodo organizirani okrogla miza ter mednarodni simpozij in mednarodna delavnica.

Osrednje prizorišče Festivala bo SNG Maribor, sicer pa bo vse skupaj potekalo na različnih prizoriščih v mestu: na Prvi gimnaziji Maribor, II. gimnaziji Maribor, v Vetrinjskem dvoru, dvorani ŠTUK, Kibli, Lutkovnem gledališču, Univerzi v Mariboru ...

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Maribor, main venue SNG Maribor, 14 to 23 October

46th Maribor Theatre Festival

The backbone of the Maribor Theatre Festival – Slovenia's most important theatre festival – is the competition programme chosen by the festival selector. This year eight Slovene theatre companies will compete with twelve productions: SNG Drama Ljubljana (To Damascus and The Merchant of Venice), Ljubljana City Theatre (The She-Devil and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof), Prešeren Theatre Kranj (Jakob Ruda and Hunting Scenes from Bavaria), Mladinsko Theatre (Mephisto and Scandal in the Valley of St Florian), Glej Theatre in co-production with SNG Nova Gorica (Life®anti), SNG Drama Maribor (Goga, A Wonderful Town), SSG Trieste (The Golden Dragon) and MiniTeater Ljubljana (Bartleby the Scrivener). The selector has also chosen three productions that come under the festival's accompanying programme; each of them looks at the question of art and artistic creation from a different and unique point of view. The festival's additional programme is also very wide-ranging and international. Sections include Showcase, a selection of Slovene productions that are potentially interesting from the point of view of international touring productions, aimed at international experts, festival selectors, artistic directors of cultural centres, critics and other important representatives of the international theatre public. The Generations section offers a varied and diverse selection of productions addressing, each in its own way, the problems of the present day. The international programme Bridges brings together award-winning productions from other festivals and the best productions from other countries in the wider region. A new feature this year is the Focus section, which this year is dedicated to Slovakia. The section will include readings of three contemporary Slovak plays, a discussion of contemporary Slovak theatre and playwriting, and a presentation of the Bratislava Theatre Institute. This year's Maribor Theatre Festival will also include a round-table discussion, an international symposium and international workshop. SNG Maribor will be the main festival venue but events will also be taking place at other venues around the city: Prva Gimnazija Maribor, Druga Gimnazija Maribor, Vetrinjski Dvor, ŠTUK, Kibla, Maribor Puppet Theatre, Maribor University, etc. www.borstnikovo.si


{ Umetnost & kultura } Radovljica, Muzeji radovljiške občine, Radovljiška graščina, do 15. decembra

Letalstvo v modelih

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Začetki slovenskega letalstva segajo v čas prvega balonarja leta 1810 in prvega motornega letalca leta 1909. Letalsko modelarstvo pa je še zgodnejše, saj so na Slovenskem izdelali prvi model balona že leta 1784, prvi letalski modeli pa so nastajali še pred koncem 19. stoletja. Modeli nam zdaj omogočajo pogled v preteklost − ob njih se seznanjamo z letali, ki jih ni več; omogočajo nam pogled v prihodnost – seznanjajo nas z letali, ki jih še ni; lahko pa so zgolj modeli zaradi modelov, ki naj čim bolje letijo in so del pestre športne modelarske dejavnosti. Razstavo je spodbudila želja staroste slovenskih letalcev in modelarjev Albina Novaka, da se javnosti predstavijo modeli Rusjanovih in Bloudkovih letal ter letal drugih pomembnih slovenskih letalskih konstruktorjev. Ogledamo si pomanjšana letala: Edo 5, Rusjan-Merćepovo letalo, Apis, KB-3 Jadran,Tončka, Libis 520, Inko, Minimo, Trojko, KB-6 Matajurja, Aero 3, Libelo, Kavko in Štorkljo ter zbirko poustvarjenih maket iz časa slovenske tovarne Letov-Libis. Večina je last Albina Novaka, nekaj so jih prispevali drugi modelarji. Predstavljeni so nekateri najpomembnejši slovenski modelarji, med njimi

Stanko Bloudek, Pavel Podgornik, Zlatko Bisail in Marjan Mencinger.

have been contributed by other model-makers. The exhibition also includes a presentation of some of the most important Slovene model-makers, among them

Radovljica, Museums of the Municipality of Radovljica, Radovljiška Graščina, until 15 December

Stanko Bloudek, Pavel Podgornik, Zlatko Bisail and Marjan Mencinger. www.muzeji-radovljica.si

Aviation in Models

The beginnings of Slovene aviation date back to the time of the first balloon flight in 1810 and the first motorised flight in 1909. Model aviation dates back even further, since the first model balloon in Slovenia was built in 1784, while the first model aeroplanes appeared before the end of the 19th century. Today these models can offer us a glimpse of the past – allowing us to see aircraft that no longer exist – and a view of the future – introducing us to aircraft that are yet to be built, while at the same time they can be models simply for the sake of it, designed to fly as well as possible, and part of the varied pastime of model aviation. The exhibition has its origin in the desire of the doyen of Slovene aviators and model-makers, Albin Novak, to present models of the aircraft of the Rusjan brothers, Stanko Bloudek and other important Slovene aircraft builders to the public. Model aircraft at the exhibition: Eda 5, Rusjan-Merćep, Apis, KB-3 Jadran,Tonček, Libis 520, Inka, Minima, Trojka, KB-6 Matajur, Aero 3, Libela, Kavka, Štorklja and a collection of recreations of models dating from the time of the Letov-Libis aircraft factory in Slovenia. Most of the models are the property of Albin Novak, while some

Foto: Miran Kambič (iz dokumentacije Muzejev radovljiške občine)

je nekako polovica galerijskega časa namenjenega fotografom, polovica pa likovnim umetnikom; vsaka razstava traja en mesec in se menja prvo sredo v mesecu. Oktobra bodo na ogled porcelan Vesne Vidrih in fotografije Janga Mana, novembra skulpture Bojana Mavsarja in fotografije Emirja Sikirića, decembra pa bo slikarska razstava Tatjane Šarkadi. Vrhnika

Mala Mestna Galerija

The Mala Mestna Galerija or "Small Town Gallery" in Vrhnika opened its doors in May 2011. The first artistic event, marking the opening of the gallery, was an exhibition of photographs by members of the Okular photography club. The gallery, which opened in May of this year, is home to the Okular photography club of Vrhnika

Vrhnika

Mala mestna galerija

Foto: Rado Krasnik

Mala mestna galerija na Vrhniki deluje od maja 2011. Prvi umetniški dogodek ob otvoritvi galerije je bila fotografska razstava članov foto kluba Okular. V galeriji imata domicil Foto klub Okular Vrhnika in umetniško društvo FLU (Festival ljubezni in umetnosti). Namen galerije je nuditi razstavni prostor uveljavljenim in še neuveljavljenim fotografom in likovnim umetnikom ter popestritev kulturne in turistične ponudbe tako na Vrhniki kot tudi širše v regiji. Umetniški vodja galerije je mag. Bojan Mavsar, akademski kipar. Razstave v galeriji so zasnovane tako, da

and the art society FLU (the abbreviation stands for Festival of Love and Art). The purpose of the gallery is to offer an exhibition space to established and emerging photographers and fine artists while at the same time acting as a new cultural focus and tourist attraction for Vrhnika and the wider region. The artistic director of the gallery is the Academy-trained sculptor Bojan Mavsar. Exhibitions in the gallery are planned in such a way that roughly half of the exhibition time is reserved for photographers and half for fine artists. Each exhibition lasts one month, with new exhibitions starting on the first Wednesday in the month. October sees exhibitions of porcelain by Vesna Vidrih and photographs by Jang Man; November will see exhibitions of sculptures by Bojan Mavsar and photographs by Emir Sikirić; and December will feature an exhibition of paintings by Tatjana Šarkadi.


{ Art & Culture } Ljubljana, Cankarjev dom Ljubljana, slovenska premiera, 6. novembra

Kdo je naslednji? (Koncept in režija: Janez Janša)

Kdo je naslednji? je projekt (Produkcija: Maska, koproducenti: Tanzquartier Wien, Avstrija, Inkonst, Malmö, Švedska), v katerem se šest izkušenih performerjev spopade s ključnimi vprašanji sodobne umetnosti in performasa: kako misliti meje časa, v katerem živimo, in kako misliti prihodnost ter z njo pogojeno negotovosti in tveganosti? Združili so moči s provokativnim umetnikov Janezom Janšo, čigar polje zanimanj se razprostira od rekonstrukcije, dokumentiranja in konceptualnega performansa do politike imaginacije in razmišljanja o prihodnosti, s svojimi akcijami pa vedno znova buri tako slovensko kot mednarodno javnost. Ljubljana, Cankarjev Dom Ljubljana, Slovene premiere: 6 November

Who's Next? Conceived and directed by Janez Janša

Who's Next? (producer: Maska, co-producers: Tanzquartier Wien, Austria, Inkonst, Malmö, Sweden) is a project in which six experienced performers confront key issues of contemporary art and performance: how to conceive the boundaries of the time we live in, and how to imagine the future and the uncertainties and risks that go with it? They have joined forces with the provocative artist Janez Janša, whose field of interest extends from reconstruction, documentation and concep-

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tual performance to the politics of imagination and meditation on the future, and whose projects never fail to stir up both domestic and international audiences. www.cd-cc.si

Ljubljana, Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije, do 15. septembra 2012

Skrivnostna smrt mlade Leonore

Spomladi leta 2003 so v Piranskem zalivu opazili truplo mlade samice brazdastega kita. Okostje je pripadlo Prirodoslovnemu muzeju Slovenije. Ta največji eksponat, kar jih je muzej pridobil v svoji 190-letni zgodovini, so ljubkovalno poimenovali Leonora. Na razstavi si lahko ogledate, kako so strokovnjaki iz več kot desettonske gmote razpadajočega trupla pridobili čudovito belo okostje, ki se boči pod stropom dvorane. Ambientalna postavitev razstave, filmski posnetki in zvočni učinki, interaktivne predstavitve, bogato slikovno gradivo in zanimiva besedila popeljejo obiskovalca v morske globine, kjer izve, kdo je bila mlada Leonora, od kod je prišla, kdo so bili njeni sorodniki in kakšne so bile njene življenjske navade. Čeprav ostaja vzrok njene zgodnje smrti skrivnost, razstava opozarja na dejavnike, ki ogrožajo kite in so večinoma posledica človekovega delovanja.

Ljubljana, Natural History Museum of Slovenia, until 15 September 2012

The Mysterious Death of Young Leonora

In the spring of 2003 a young female fin whale was found floating dead in Piran Bay. The whale's skeleton was acquired by the Natural History Museum of Slovenia. This exhibit, the largest the museum has ever had in the course of its 190year history, is affectionately known as Leonora. At the exhibition you can see how the museum's experts turned more than ten tonnes of decomposing whale flesh into the marvellous white skeleton that now hangs from the ceiling of the exhibition hall. Using video footage, sound effects, interactive presentations, a wealth of images and interesting texts, the exhibition takes visitors down into the depths of the sea, where they can find out who young Leonora was, where she came from, who her relatives are and how she lived. Although the cause of the young whale's death remains a mystery, the exhibition draws attention to threats currently affecting whales, most of which are caused by human activities. www2.pms-lj.si


{ Umetnost & kultura / Art & Culture } KUNST HAUS WIEN. Muzej Hundertwasser Henri Cartier-Bresson: Indija – Amerika – Rusija Od 17. novembra 2011 do 26. februarja 2012 Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908–2004) je s svojim obsežnim fotografskim delom in knjigo z naslovom Odločilni trenutek, objavljeno leta 1952, vplival na več generacij fotografov. Na tej razstavi, posvečeni njegovim potovanjem v Indijo, ZDA in Rusijo, se KUNST HAUS WIEN osredotoča na manj znan vidik tega soustanovitelja fotografske agencije Magnum. Henri Cartier-Bresson je leta 1946 odpotoval s pisateljem Trumanom Capotejem v New Orleans, leta 1947 pa sta s pesnikom Johnom Malcolmom Brinninom tri mesece potovala po ZDA. Konec leta 1947, kmalu po razglasitvi neodvisnosti Indije, je Henri Cartier-Bresson odpotoval v Bombaj, kot se je mesto takrat imenovalo. Njegove fotografije iz Indije so žive priče njegovega silnega zanimanja za to deželo in njene ljudi. Leta 1954, leto po Stalinovi smrti, je Cartier-Bresson kot prvi tuji fotograf vstopil v Sovjetsko zvezo.

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Bruselj, WIELS Alina Szapocznikow, Sculture Undone Do 8. januarja 2012 Ta obsežni pregled poljske kiparke Aline

KUNST HAUS WIEN. Museum Hundertwasser Henri Cartier-Bresson: India–America–Russia From 17 November 2011 until 26 February 2012 With his extensive photographic oeuvre and his book The Decisive Moment, published in 1952, Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908–2004) has influenced generations of photographers. In this exhibition, which is devoted to his journeys to India, the USA and Russia, KUNST HAUS WIEN focuses on a little known aspect of this co-founder of Magnum Photos. In 1946 he travelled to New Orleans with the author Truman Capote, and journeyed through the USA with the poet John Malcolm Brinnin for three months in 1947. At the end of 1947, shortly after India's declaration of independence, Henri Cartier-Bresson travelled to Bombay, as it was then called. Henri Cartier-Bresson's photographs from India bear vivid testimony to his intense interest in that country and its people. In 1954, the year following Stalin's death, Cartier-Bresson became the first foreign photographer to enter the Soviet Union. Brussels, WIELS Alina Szapocznikow, Sculpture Undone Until 8 January 2012 This expansive survey of Polish sculptor

Szapocznikowe (1926–1973) je ena prvih večjih samostojnih razstav, ki predstavlja dela te umetnice zunaj Poljske. Največji poudarek je na njenem najbolj eksperimentalnem obdobju od šestdesetih do sedemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja. Umetnica, ki je preživela holokavst in v povojnem obdobju začela ustvarjati na bolj klasičen, figurativen način, je s poznejšim eksperimentiranjem in novo koncepcijo kiparstva zapustila dediščino provokativnih predmetov, ki so hkrati seksualizirani, globoki, šaljivi in politični ter se lovijo nekje med nadrealizmom, novim realizmom in pop artom. Rahlo obarvani odlitki njenih ustnic in prsi iz poliestrske smole, preoblikovani v vsakdanje predmete, kot so svetilke ali pepelniki, njene gobaste poliuretanske oblike, pogosto vdelane v odlitke trebuhov ali živo travo, in njena konstrukcija smolnatih kipov, katerih sestavni deli so najdene fotografije, so še danes enako močno zbadljivi, vizionarski in izvirni kot ob svojem nastanku.

München, Stara pinakoteka Zakladi iz depojev Do 15. januarja 2012 V znamenje obletnice predstavlja ta razstava redko videne slike iz bogatih zalog zbirke Stare pinakoteke. Med njimi so neznane mojstrovine, kot so kopije Gentskega oltarja Jana van Eycka, ki jih

Alina Szapocznikow (1926–1973) coincides with the Polish presidency of the European Union and is one of the first major solo exhibitions of the artist's work outside of Poland. It concentrates on her most experimental period from the 1960s and 1970s, before her untimely death at the age of 47. As a Holocaust survivor who began working during the post-war period in a rather classical, figurative manner, her later experimentation and re-conception of sculpture left behind a legacy of provocative objects — at once sexualized, visceral, humorous, and political — that sit uneasily between Surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, and Pop Art. Her tinted polyester-resin casts of her lips and breasts transformed into quotidian objects like lamps or ashtrays, her spongy polyurethane forms often embedded with casts of bellies or live grass, and her construction of resin sculptures that incorporate found photographs remain as remarkably biting, visionary, and original today as when they were first made.

Munich, The Alte Pinakothek Treasures from the Depot Until 15 January 2012 To mark its anniversary year, rarely seen paintings from the rich holdings in the Alte Pinakothek collection are on show. Unknown masterpieces such as Michiel Coxcie's copies of Jan van Eyck's Ghent Al-

je izdelal Michiel Coxcie, in tudi primeri zgodnjega italijanskega slikarstva, na primer dela firenških umetnikov Agnola Gaddija in Fraja Angelica. Zgodovinske slike velikega formata antwerpenske šole iz obdobja od leta 1530 do 1570 razkrivajo močno razširjen vpliv manierizma. Nizozemska arhitekturna dela, ki so jim v 17. stoletju pravili »perspektive«, prikazujejo imaginarne in resnične stavbe. Razstavo zaokrožijo dela francoskih umetnikov, katerih pregled obsega vse: od zgodovinskih slik do portretov, nastalih od 17. stoletja do rokokoja.

Amsterdam, Huis Marseille Siebe Swart: Pokrajina zraka in vode Do 26. februarja 2012 Potem ko je bil leta 2007 objavljen njegov projekt Panorama Nederland, se je začel Siebe Swart posvečati nizozemskim vodam. Zadnjih nekaj let je iz helikopterja fotografiral boj Nizozemske z naraščajočo vodo. Dokumentiral je krepitev in naravne tokove rek v državi, nenehen razvoj velikanskih gradbenih projektov v delti Deltawerken ter vzdrževanje in upravljanje nizozemske obale. Nekaj, kar je s tal pogosto nevidno, je – gledano iz zraka – kot na dlani: večni boj z vodo je zapustil brazgotine po vsej Nizozemski. Razpoke starih jezov; ograjeni rečni rokavi, ponovno odprti, da bi se skladali z najnovejšimi pogledi na

tarpiece await discovery, as do examples of early Italian painting such as works by the Florentine artists Agnolo Gaddi and Fra Angelico. Large-format history paintings from the Antwerp school that date back to the 1530s to the 1570s show the widespread influence of Mannerism. Dutch architectural pieces, referred to as 'perspectives' in the 17th century, depict a series of imaginary and real buildings. The exhibition is rounded off with works by various French artists, on a spectrum ranging from history painting to portraits, and from the 17th century to the Rococo.

Amsterdam, Huis Marseille Siebe Swart / Land of Air and Water Until 26 February 2012 After his Panorama Nederland project was published in 2007, Siebe Swart turned his attention to the Netherlands' waterworks. As always, he chose the most appropriate photographic technique for this purpose. Over the past few years, he has been photographing the Netherlands' struggles with rising water from a helicopter. He has documented the reinforcement and streamlining of the country's rivers, the ongoing development of the huge Delta Works, and the maintenance and management of the Dutch coast. What is often invisible from the ground is laid bare from the air: the never-ending battle with water has left its mark all over the Nether-

upravljanje voda; nedavno in namerno poplavljena območja; umetni polotoki iz peska in gramoza – nizozemska krajina je vsepovsod vidno zabrazgotinjena.

London, Design Museum To je oblikovanje Do 22. januarja 2012 Razstava z naslovom To je oblikovanje je praznik muzejske zbirke, ki preučuje vpliv oblikovanja na sodobni svet in raziskuje posledice oblikovanja ter kako slednje oblikuje naša življenja in sodobno kulturo. Po petih letih katalogizacije, hrambe in dokumentiranja muzej spet razstavlja vrhunce iz zbirke Collection na povezavi http://designmuseum.org/collection. Zbirka vsebuje dela, med katerimi je vse: od prvih predmetov masovne proizvodnje do najnovejšega sodobnega oblikovanja, pohištva, mode in keramike. Razstava uporablja teme, kot so identiteta, proizvodne inovacije, digitalna revolucija in življenjska doba, ter na ta način raziskuje, kako nam oblikovanje ponuja vizualni jezik in s tem pomaga uporabljati predmete okoli nas.

lands. Old dyke breaches; enclosed river arms, reopened to accord with the latest water management insights; newly and purposefully inundated areas; artificial peninsulas of sand and rubble; the Dutch landscape is visibly scarred throughout.

London, Design Museum This is Design Until 22 January 2012 This is Design is a celebration of the Design Museum's collection; it examines the impact of design on the modern world, and explores the consequences of design and how it shapes our lives and contemporary culture. After over five years of cataloguing, conservation and documentation, some of the collection's highlights http://designmuseum.org/collection are once again on display in the museum. The collection contains pieces ranging from early items of mass manufacture through to cutting edge contemporary design, furniture, fashion and ceramics. Using themes such as identity, manufacturing innovations, the digital revolution and lifecycle, the exhibition looks at how design provides a visual language to help use the objects around us.


{ Adrijina potnica }

Miša Tičar Nekoč stevardesa, zdaj potnica Besedilo: Adrijana Šelj

Fotografije: Domen Pal

M

iša Tičar je bila ena prvih stevardes, ki so začele leteti na Adrijinih krilih v zgodnjih šestdesetih letih. Med prvimi se je izšolala

za člana kabinskega osebja, kot danes uradno imenujemo

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stevardese in stevarde. Čeprav že dolgo ne leti več »po dolžnosti«, se rada spominja dni, ko je bilo letalo njen drugi dom. Z Mišo se je prijetno pogovarjati, saj sogovornike navduši s svojo radoživostjo, njen pogled na svet pa priča o njeni svetovljanskosti.

V reviji Tovariš je v šestdesetih letih izšel tudi obširen članek o šolanju stevardes.

Najbolj smešen se mi je zdel naslov tega članka – Dekleta v modrem –, me pa smo imele zelene uniforme. V članku, ki je izzvenel kot nekakšna reklama za naš poklic, je bilo opisano, s čim vse smo se ukvarjale v okviru šolanja za stevardese. Poleg bolj splošnih zadev, kot npr. osnov gostinstva, nege bolnikov in dojenčkov, nekaj osnov iz turistične geografije in umetnostne zgodovine, smo največ poudarka seveda namenili opremi in postopkom v primeru izrednih dogodkov, torej varnosti, saj je primarna naloga stevardes skrb za varnost potnikov. Kakšni so bili začetki v Adrii Airways?

Na začetku smo bili vsi kot velika družina. Tudi ko je posadka odšla na pot za tri tedne, smo bili kot družina. Bilo pa je tudi naporno. Vstajali smo sredi noči, se odpeljali v Zagreb, odšli na tržnico po hrano, počistili letalo, se stuširali in preoblekli v uniforme. V Džakarto smo na primer leteli non-stop s tremi postanki po dve uri, v letalu pa sva bili le dve stevardesi. Za ta poklic moraš imeti pravi značaj, rad moraš imeti ljudi, saj je treba tudi po takem naporu ostati prijazen in profesionalen.

Vaša poklicna pot stevardese se je začela v JAT-u, kjer ste se leta 1958 tudi izšolali.

Kako so v začetku planirali delo stevardese? Koliko časa vnaprej ste

V tistem času je JAT razpisal natečaj za stevardese. Prijavilo se je okrog 100 kandidatk, sprejeli so nas šest. Po mesecu dni šolanja smo samostojno poletele in to delo se nam je zdelo sanjsko.

vedeli, kdaj boste leteli?

Kako se spominjate svojih začetkov v letalu? Leteli ste tudi na letalu DC 3.

Kar hitro sem bila ob vse iluzije. Poklic stevardese je bil izredno naporen. Ko smo z DC 3 leteli na notranjih progah, smo vstajali sredi noči in na dan opravili po pet, šest vzletov; to letalo ni imelo kabine pod pritiskom, seveda tudi klime ni bilo. Na zemlji je bilo lahko v kabini 50 stopinj, na potovalni višini 2000 m pa le 20. Od takrat dalje sploh več ne vem, kaj je prehlad. Leta 1961 je bila ustanovljena prva slovenska letalska družba Adria Aviopromet. V Adrii ste se zaposlili med prvimi.

Ko sem zvedela, da bodo v Sloveniji ustanovili letalsko družbo, sem se odločila, da se ji pridružim. Kolegica Ida Globočnik se je zaposlila kakšen mesec pred mano. Prva skupina stevardes se je začela šolati januarja 1962, na svojo dolžnost pa je poletela 2. aprila.

Štirinajstdnevni plan letenja je obstajal že od vsega začetka, vendar se je dogajalo, da so te včasih poklicali na let tudi nepričakovano. Za dolge lete si navadno vedel že vnaprej. Veliko smo takrat leteli za nemško agencijo Geisler. Potniki so bili večinoma Američani, ki so za veliko noč ali božič potovali po svetu. Agencija je vse zelo dobro organizirala, potniki so imeli s sabo tudi svojega zdravnika. Iz Nemčije smo iz Frankfurta leteli v Bagdad – naj kot zanimivost povem, da je bila vodja službe catering na letališču v Bagdadu Slovenka –, in naprej v Delhi, Agro, Bangkok, Hongkong in na Japonsko. To so bili krasni leti. Posadka je potovala s potniki. Vsi skupaj smo navezali prijateljske stike. Spomnim se, da sem imela nekoč problem s prtljago, izgubil se je moj kozmetični kovček. Potniki so z mano tako sočustvovali, da so mi nakupili kozmetiko. Ta njihova pozornost me je ganila do solz. Kako pa ste usklajevali letenje z zasebnim življenjem?

Težko. Na srečo so imeli domači dovolj posluha za moje delo in s skupnimi močmi je nekako šlo.


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Katere kraje ste še obiskali na službenih poteh?

Leta 1968 ste v Južnem Jemnu šolali stevardese.

Leteli smo v Kairo, od tam v Kenijo, spomnim se, da smo bili nekoč za božič na Viktorijinem jezeru; nato smo šli še v Nairobi, turisti so šli za teden dni na safari, posadka pa jih je čakala. To je bilo popolnoma drugačno letenje od današnjega.

Tam sem bila dva meseca. Letalska družba BASCO je v svoji floti že imela letala DC 3, s katerimi je letela na notranjih letih. Takrat je družba kupila od SAS-a in Adrie Airways letalo DC 6B, ki je bilo namenjeno letom na dolgih progah. Zato je bilo treba za ta tip letala izšolati tudi kabinsko osebje in v celoti poskrbeti za opremo letal (opremo za catering in potnike). Skupina dvajsetih stevardes in stevardov je bila različnih narodnosti. Najbolje so se odrezali fantje in študentka iz Etiopije. Moram reči, da so zame tam izredno dobro poskrbeli, le temperature so bile previsoke – preko 40 stopinj. Si predstavljate, kako je bilo med vajami iz evakuacije letala po zasilnem pristanku, ko si v tisti vročini iz potniške kabine sedel na krilo? Kar speklo je, ni kaj, ampak tudi to je bilo treba. Imam lepe spomine. Ob slovesu so učenci kar jokali ...

Veliko ste potovali v eksotične kraje, kako ste skrbeli za svoje zdravje?

Na Zavodu za varovanje zdravja so nas redno preskrbeli s koktajlom cepiv, tako da smo bili kar zdravi, samo enkrat mi je uspelo stakniti paratifus eksotične vrste, tako da sem z njim razveselile zdravnike na Infekcijski kliniki, saj sem bila četrti ali peti primer te vrste pri nas. Počutila sem se dobro, vendar sem morala kljub temu odležati na kliniki tri tedne. Kako pa je bilo s cateringom na bolj oddaljenih letališčih?

Na nekatere lete smo v začetku tovorili s seboj šunko v konzervah, ogrsko salamo in podobno. S tem smo pripravile obroke na letališčih, kjer ni bilo mogoče naročiti hrane. Nekoč se je v Indiji zgodilo, da je bila catering služba praktično brez vsega. Potnikom smo servirale majhna bedrca indijskih piščančkov, na srečo smo imele na zalogi tudi pakirane kekse … Znajti se je bilo pač treba.

Po Jemnu ste se od letenja poslovili. Ali ste ga pogrešali?

Še kar nekaj časa sem spremljala vsako letalo na nebu. Potem pa sem se potolažila s tem, da mi ni treba več vstajati sredi noči in na letala se vračam samo še kot potnica z lepimi spomini na svoje delo v uniformi.


{ Adria Passenger } foto: osebni arhiv

Your career as a stewardess began at JAT, which is also where you trained in 1958.

At that time JAT was advertising for stewardesses. Around 100 candidates applied, and six of us were chosen. After a month’s training we were ready to fly on our own. It seemed like the dream job. What memories do you have of your first flights? You even flew in DC-3s.

I was quickly brought back down to earth. The job of a stewardess was an extremely hard one. When we flew DC-3s on internal flights, we used to have to get up in the middle of the night and we did five or six takeoffs a day – and the DC-3 didn’t have a pressurised cabin, or air conditioning of course. On the ground the temperature in the cabin could be 50 degrees, while at a cruising altitude of 2,000 metres it would be just 20 degrees. Since then, I don’t think I have ever had a cold. In 1961 the first Slovene airline, Adria Aviopromet, was founded. You were among the first to be employed by Adria.

When I heard that they were going to set up an airline in Slovenia, I decided to join it. My colleague Ida Globočnik got the job a month or so before me. The first group of stewardesses began training in January. My first flight as an Adria stewardess was on 2 April 1962.

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A lengthy article about training stewardesses appeared in Tovariš magazine in the 1960s.

Miša Tičar Once a stewardess, now a passenger Text: Adrijana Šelj

Photography: Domen Pal

Miša Tičar was one of the first stewardesses to take wing with Adria in the early 1960s. She was one of the first to

train as a cabin crew member, as stewardesses and stewards are officially known today. Although she stopped flying “on

duty” a long time ago, she likes to remember the days when the aircraft was her second home. Talking to Miša is an

enjoyable experience: her cheerfulness is infectious and her view of the world reveals a cosmopolitan spirit.

The funniest thing about that article was that they called it “Girls in Blue”, but we had green uniforms! The article, which read like a kind of advertisement for the job of stewardess, described everything we had to do as part of our stewardess training. Besides more general things like the basics of catering, first aid and childcare, and a few basic facts about geography and art history for the benefit of tourists, the biggest emphasis was naturally on equipment and emergency procedures – safety, in other words. Passenger safety is the stewardess’s primary concern. What were the early days of Adria Airways like?

In the beginning we were like one big family. Even when setting off with the crew on a three-week trip, we were like a family. But it was also hard work. We used to get up in the middle of the night, drive to Zagreb, go to the market to buy food, clean the aircraft, shower and change into our uniforms. Jakarta, for example, used to be a direct flight, with three two-hour stops, but there were just two stewardesses in the cabin. You have to have the right character for this job. You have to like people, because even when you are exhausted you still have to be friendly and professional. How was the stewardess’s work planned in the early days? How long in advance did you know when you would be flying?

A fortnightly flying schedule has existed since the very beginning, but it would sometimes happen that you would be called for a flight unexpectedly. For long-distance flights you usually knew in advance. In those days we used to operate a lot of flights for the German travel agency Geisler. The passengers were mainly Americans travelling around the world for the Easter or Christmas holidays. The agency organised eve-


How did you coordinate flying with your home life?

It wasn’t easy. Fortunately my family were sufficiently understanding about my work and somehow we managed to work things out. What other places did you visit as a stewardess?

We flew to Cairo, and from there to Kenya. I remember one Christmas we were at Lake Victoria, and then we went on to Nairobi. The tourists set off for a week’s safari, and the crew waited for them. That was a completely different way of flying from today. You did a lot of travelling to exotic places. How did you look after your health?

The Health Insurance Institute kept us supplied with a regular cocktail of vaccinations, so we were pretty healthy. Once, though, I did come down with an exotic strain of paratyphoid fever. The doctors at the infectious diseases clinic were happy, because I was only the fourth or fifth case they had seen in the country. I felt fine, but I still had to stay in hospital for three weeks. What about problems with catering at more remote airports?

In the early days, for certain flights, we used to load the aircraft with tinned ham, salami, and so on. We used these provisions to prepare meals where it wasn’t possible to order food at the airport. I remember one time in India when the catering service had practically no supplies at all. We served the passengers these little drumsticks from tiny Indian chickens, but fortunately we also had a stock of biscuits aboard... You simply had to make do. In 1968 you trained stewardesses in South Yemen.

I was there for two months. The Yemeni airline BASCO already had DC-3s in its fleet, which it used for internal flights. At that time the company was in the process of buying a DC-6B from SAS and Adria Airways for long-distance flights, so they also needed to train cabin crew for that aircraft, and provide all the necessary equipment (catering equipment, passenger equipment, and so on). There was a group of 20 stewards and stewardesses of different nationalities. The best ones were the boys and a girl student from Ethiopia. I should say that they looked after me extremely well there, although the temperatures were a bit high for me – over 40 degrees. You can imagine what it was like when it came to practising evacuations after a forced landing, leaving the passenger cabin in that heat to sit on the baking-hot wing. We had to do it, though. Happy memories. Our pupils cried when the time came to say goodbye. rything extremely well, and the passengers even had their own doctor with them. We used to fly from Germany – from Frankfurt – to Baghdad (where, interestingly, the head of the catering service at the airport was a lady from Slovenia!), Delhi, Agra, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Japan. Those were wonderful years. The crew travelled with the passengers. We all used to become friends. I remember one time that I had a problem with my luggage. My beauty case had somehow gone astray. The passengers felt so sorry for me that they went out and bought me some new cosmetic products. I was so touched that I started crying.

After Yemen you bid farewell to flying. Did you miss it?

For quite a long time, I would follow every aeroplane I saw in the sky. After that I used to console myself with the fact that I no longer had to get up in the middle of the night. Now when I go aboard an aircraft, it is simply as a passenger with fond memories of my time in uniform.

A

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Amsterdam

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Am ster dam V

Amsterdamu, mestu brez gričev, kolesarjenje zagotovo še dolgo ne bo izumrlo. Življenje brez koles si še turisti težko predstavljajo. In kar je najlepše: kolesarji v tem delu Evrope imajo pogosto na

voljo tako široke ceste kot drugje avtomobili.

Besedilo: David Šalamun

Fotografije: Chris de Bode

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{ Amsterdam }

P

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redvsem pa ima Amsterdam dolgo kolesarsko tradicijo. Ravnine severa so od nekdaj kar same klicale k temu. Pravijo, da je Amsterdam kolesarjem eno izmed najprijaznejših mest. Ima približno štiristo kilometrov kolesarskih stez in skoraj pol milijona koles. Bojda jih tudi veliko izgine. Prijateljica je imela že trikrat čast kupiti nazaj svoje kolo. Nekje sem zasledil, da jih vsako leto izgine približno petdeset do šestdeset tisoč. Nihče ne ve, kam. Ampak zgolj v Amsterdamu je v šestdesetih letih lahko obstajala anarhistična skupina Provo, ki se je med drugim borila za legalizacijo marihuane in politično krilo Provosov je naredilo tako imenovane socialne »bele načrte«. In ni slučaj, da je bila del teh načrtov uvedba belih koles »Witte fiesten«. Glavna pobudnica projekta – Maria Hendrikus Schimmelpennink – si je za cilj zastavila boj proti prometnemu terorju (razbremenitev javnega prevoza) in zaprtje mestnega jedra za promet. Skupina je predlagala nakup dvajset tisoč koles, ki bi si jih meščani lahko brezplačno izposojali, toda mesto Amsterdam denarja za projekt ni odobrilo. Provosi so sami kupili približno petdeset koles in jih prebarvali z belo barvo. Zakon je takrat veleval, da so morala biti parkirana kolesa zaklenjena. To je skupina Provo rešila tako, da je kupila ključavnice na številčni sistem in na vsako kolo napisala njeno številko. Projekt se ni dolgo obnesel. Sledilo je še mnogo podobnih poskusov, pa so zmeraj vsa kolesa pokradli ali jih uničili. Sčasoma se je to spremenilo. Danes si je mogoče sposoditi kolo skoraj povsod, na enem mestu ga vzameš, na drugem pa pustiš. Kakorkoli, projekt gospe Schimmelpennink je bil predhodnik modelov, ki danes obstajajo v mnogih mestih. Spomnim se, kako smo kot mulci hodili ob amsterdamskih kanalih in se veselili, še bolj pa čudili, ko so se stara in mlada dekleta, ki so visela na oknih, spogledovala z nami. Nekoliko nenavadno smo se počutili, ko smo se usedli v kakšno prijetno kavarno, kjer je bilo na meniju poleg pijač

Včasih se z enim kolesom s prikolico cela družina.

pelje


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navedenih še nešteto različnih vrst hašiša in trave. Na majhnem meniju je bilo mogoče izbirati travo s skoraj vseh kontinentov. Amsterdam je bil pisan in nenavaden, poln barv in najrazličnejših, a vedno zanimivih ljudi. In to je še danes. Morda pa je tudi to eden od razlogov, da je mesto polno nenavadnih koles in prav tako pisanih stojal. Tudi takih koles, ki jih je mogoče poganjati z rokami, medtem ko noge počivajo. Včasih se z enim kolesom s prikolico pelje cela družina. Tricikli, tandem kolesa, kolesa z dvema sedežema in pokrito streho ..., kolesa vseh možnih odtenkov in oblik. Kolesarji ali kolesa na en ali drug način privlačijo pozornost mimoidočih. In kolesarske steze, ki so ponekod tako široke, da bi še avtobus lahko peljal po njih. Detajli, zaradi katerih si vedno znova presenečen, koliko prostora zavzame kolo v vsakdanjem življenju Amsterdama. Pomislim na Amsterdam, prepreden z neštetimi kanali. Na njegove raznolike predele, strogo meščanske ali zanemarjene, a privlačne v svojih kontrastih. Pomislim na kolesarje. Množice kolesarjev v nenavadnih oblekah ali čisto običajnih, na zelo posebnih kolesih ali popolnoma vsakdanjih. Pred očmi imam slike otrok na kolesih, varnih v svojih sedežih ob starših ali v prikolicah. Srečni, ker jim veter piha skozi lase in ker lahko nemoteno opazujejo dogajanje mesta. Bolj ko mislim na Amsterdam, bolj si ga želim spet obiskati.

{ Amsterdam }


{ Amsterdam }

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Am ster dam Text: David Šalamun

I

Photography: Chris de Bode

n Amsterdam, a city with no hills, bicycling will definitely be around for a long time. Even for tourists, life without bikes would be hard to imagine. And the best part is, in this part of Europe the cycle lanes are as wide as those for other vehicles. Amsterdam in particular has a long cycling tradition. It’s as if the northern plains were simply made for it. Amsterdam has a reputation for being one of the world’s most bike-friendly cities. It has almost four hundred kilometres of cycle paths and nearly half a million bikes. Apparently, a lot of them disappear. A girlfriend of mine had the honour of buying her own bike back three times. I heard somewhere that between fifty to sixty thousand bikes disappear every year. Nobody knows where they go. But only a city like Amsterdam could have produced, in the 1960s, an anarchist group like Provo, which among other things fought for the legalisation of marijuana, while its political wing drew up social “White Plans”. Not surprisingly, one of these plans involved “witte fietsen” (white bikes). The main advocate of the project was Maria Hendrikus Schimmelpennink, whose mission was to fight against traffic terrorism (i.e. reduce the burden on public transport) and to close the city centre to traffic. The group planned to purchase twenty thousand bikes, which people would be able to borrow for free. But the City of Amsterdam did not approve the funds for the project. The Provo members bought around fifty bikes with their own money and painted them white. At that time there was a law that all parked bicycles had to be locked. Provo solved this problem by buying locks with number codes and painting the code on each bike. The project didn’t last long. It was followed by numerous similar attempts, but each time the bikes were either stolen or destroyed.

Sometimes an entire family will on one bike with a trailer.

go by


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{ Amsterdam }

( 42 )


( 43 ) Over time, though, the situation has changed. Today you can borrow a bike almost anywhere and return it in a different place. In the end, Ms Schimmelpennink’s project was the forerunner of the schemes now in place in many cities. I remember, when we were kids, how we walked along the Amsterdam canals and how we were delighted and more specifically surprised

at how the old and young ladies in the windows were flirting with us. We felt a little strange sitting down in some pleasant coffee shop, and on the menu besides the usual drinks were countless different types of hash and pot. From the tiny menu you could order grass from almost every continent. Amsterdam was vibrant and unusual, full of colours and extremely diverse but always interesting people. And it still is today. Perhaps this is also one of the reasons that it is a city full of unusual bikes and just as colourful bike stands. There are even bikes that you pedal with your hands while your legs take a breather. Sometimes an entire family will go by on one bike with a trailer. Tricycles, tandems, bicycles with two seats and a canopy... bikes of every possible stripe and shape. In one way or another, the bikes and riders attract the attention of passers-by. And bike lanes which in some places are so wide that a bus could drive on them. Details that keep you constantly amazed at how much space bikes take up in Amsterdam’s everyday life. I’m thinking of Amsterdam, criss-crossed with countless canals. Its various districts, austerely bourgeois or neglected yet attractive in their contrasts. I’m thinking of cyclists. Crowds of cyclists in unusual clothing or completely ordinary garb, on highly unconventional bikes or totally normal ones. Before me I have photos of children on bikes, safe in their seats by their parents or in trailers. Happy with the wind blowing in their faces and because they can watch the life of the city undisturbed. The more I think about Amsterdam, the more I want to go back.

A

Adria Airways leti na liniji Ljubljana–Amsterdam petkrat tedensko. Adria Airways flies between Ljubljana and Amsterdam five times a week.


Skrivnosti gozda

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Secrets of the Forest

Fotografija: Davorin Tome


( 45 )


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

Brez gozdov bi slabo živeli M

orda se ljudje premalo zavedamo, da je

( 46 )

kvaliteta našega življenja zelo odvisna od gozdov, ne glede na to, kje na Zemlji

živimo. Gozdovi poraščajo tretjino Zemljine površine in predstavljajo največji kopenski ekosistem. In čeprav več kot polovica svetovnih gozdov leži v samo petih državah, v Rusiji, Braziliji, Kanadi, ZDA in na Kitajskem, je skrb za gozd naloga vsega človeštva. Organizacija združenih narodov je zato leto 2011 razglasila za »mednarodno leto gozdov 2011«. Svetovni gozdovi namreč izginjajo z zaskrbljujočo hitrostjo. Odkar je človek pred približno 11.000 leti pričel kmetovati, je izkrčil približno 40% prvotnih gozdnih površin. Od tega tri četrtine po industrijski revoluciji, ki je omogočila hitro rast prebivalstva in povzročila vse večje potrebe po hrani in energiji. V desetih letih, med letoma 1990 in 2000, je na našem planetu izginilo 94 milijonov ha gozda – to je 470-kratna velikost Slovenije.

Besedilo: Staša Tome

Fotografije: Davorin Tome

G

ozdove pogosto imenujemo »pljuča Zemlje«. Izraz se je uveljavil zaradi pomembne funkcije gozdov pri kroženju plinov. V tropskem deževnem pragozdu nastane več kot 40% kisika, ki ga na našem planetu proizvedejo rastline. Vendar organizmi tega ekosistema skoraj enako količino kisika tudi porabijo. Vse pomembnejša je vloga gozda pri odvzemanju ogljikovega dioksida iz ozračja. Ta plin, ki v velikih količinah nastaja pri izgorevanju fosilnih goriv (nafte, plina, premoga) in lesa, se kopiči v Zemljinem ozračju in povzroča učinek tople grede ter klimatske spremembe. Drevesa in druge rastline ga ob fotosintezi črpajo iz ozračja in uporabijo za svojo rast in razvoj. Ogljik se tako kopiči v lesu, listju in opadu, preko prehranjevalnega spleta se v obliki organskih spojin »ujame« tudi v heterotrofnih prebivalcih gozda (živalih, glivah, bakterijah). Obsežni gozdovi imajo pomembno vlogo tudi pri kroženju vode na Zemlji. Drevesa in druga gozdna vegetacija delujejo kot nekakšni »živi vodnjaki«: vodo, ki bi sicer ostala ujeta globoko v tleh, črpajo


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{ Skrivnosti gozda }


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

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proti površini in jo v obliki vodnih hlapov izločajo v ozračje. Črpanje vode iz podzemnega zbiralnika poteka počasi in enakomerno in tako pomaga preprečevati sezonske poplave in suše. Ob padavinah zadržijo gozdna tla veliko vode, saj ostanki listja, lesa in humus sestavljajo vpojno plast, ki lahko vpije do štirikrat več vode kot travnik in osemnajstkrat več kot gola, neporasla tla. S to zadrževalno sposobnostjo vplivajo gozdovi na stanje voda daleč naokoli. Delež gozdov in njihova zgradba pomembno vplivata tudi na količino in kakovost pitne vode, saj se ob pronicanju vode skozi gozdna tla, ki delujejo kot filter, voda prečisti. Tako gozd zagotavlja čisto pitno vodo ljudem in živalim. Gozd preprečuje erozijo. Krošnje dreves blažijo močne nalive in zadržijo dežne kaplje, da počasi spolzijo do tal. Podrast, odpadlo listje, drobne vejice in prst z mnogo organskih snovi pomagajo k počasnemu prenikanju vode v globino. Preplet korenin zadržuje prst, gozdna vegetacija pa omili tudi vpliv vetra. Posegi v gozd, kakršni so steljarjenje, pretirano sekanje, požiganje ali celo goloseki, močno pospešijo erozijo. V pestri združbi različnih biotopov tropskih in borealnih gozdov ter gozdov zmernega pasu živi več kot devetdeset odstotkov kopenskih vrst rastlin, živali in mikroorganizmov. Biotska raznolikost je med vsemi kopenskimi ekosistemi največja v tropskih gozdovih: čeprav pokrivajo le 7% kopnega, živi v njih več kot polovica vseh doslej znanih vrst na planetu. Strokovnjaki ocenjujejo, da živi na Zemlji od 10 do 30 milijonov različnih vrst, a opisanih in taksonomsko uvrščenih jih je šele približno 1,7 milijona. Večina še neodkritih vrst živi verjetno v tropskem deževnem pragozdu, ki je zelo slabo raziskan. Prav ta pa izginja najhitreje.

Gozdovi poraščajo tretjino Zemljine površine in predstavljajo največji kopenski ekosistem. Gozdovi so za človeka že od nekdaj tudi dragocen vir naravnih surovin. Zagotavljajo mu les za gradnjo in kurjavo, pa tudi hrano – divjad in razne sadeže. Za preživetje sodobnega človeka je to sicer vedno manj pomembno, zato pa vse več ljudi razvitega sveta išče v gozdu mir, sprostitev in okolje za rekreacijo. V Evropi je čas hitrega izsekovanja gozdov že minil. Kljub hitri urbanizaciji zaradi opuščanja kmetovanja in paše na težje dostopnih območjih gozd marsikje ponovno zarašča predele, ki jih je nekoč že poraščal. Tako v Sloveniji površina gozda narašča. Vendar pa je intenzivno gospodarjenje z gozdom tudi na tem delu planeta pustilo močan pečat. Danes se vse bolj uveljavlja potreba po trajnostnem gospodarjenju z gozdom. Evropski gozdarji marsikje dajejo prednost naravni obnovi pred umetno in se vse bolj zavedajo, da je za ohranitev gozdov izjemnega pomena tudi njegova raznolikost.


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{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Secrets of the Forest }

Our Lives

Would Be Poorer Without Forests Text: Staša Tome

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Photography: Davorin Tome

W

e human beings are perhaps too little aware that the quality of our lives depends greatly on forests, regardless of where we live on the planet. Forests cover a third of the Earth’s surface and represent the largest land ecosystem. And although over half of the world’s forests lie in just five countries – Russia, Brazil, Canada, the USA and China – looking after forests is a task for the whole of humanity. That is why the United Nations has declared 2011 “International Year of Forests”. The world’s forests are in fact disappearing at an alarming rate. In the roughly 11,000 years since human beings discovered agriculture, approximately 40% of the world’s originally forested areas have been cleared. Three quarters of this deforestation has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which led to a rapid growth in population and an ever-increasing demand for food and energy. Between 1990 and 2000, a period of just 10 years, 94 million hectares of forest – an area 470 times the size of Slovenia – disappeared from the planet. Forests are often called the “lungs of the Earth”. This expression derives from the important role played by forests in the circulation of gases. Over 40% of the oxygen produced on our planet by plants comes from tropical rainforests. At the same time, however, the organisms of this ecosystem consume an almost identical quantity of oxygen. The role of forests in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is becoming increasingly important. This gas, produced in large quantities by the combustion of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) and the burning of wood, accumulates in the Earth’s atmosphere and causes the greenhouse effect and climate change. Trees and other plants draw it from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and use it for their own growth and development. Carbon accumulates in wood, leaves and leaf litter and, via the food web, is also ‘trapped’ in the form of organic compounds in the heterotrophic inhabitants of the forest (animals, fungi, bacteria). Extensive forests also play an important role in the circulation of water on Earth. Trees and other forest vegetation act as a kind of ‘living wells’, drawing water towards the surface – water which would otherwise remain trapped deep in the ground – and releasing it into the atmosphere in the form of water vapour. Drawing water from un-

derground reservoirs is a slow and steady process that helps prevent seasonal floods and droughts. During rainfall, the forest floor retains a large quantity of water, because leaf litter, wood residues and humus form an absorptive layer that can absorb up to four times more water than grassland and 18 times more than bare soil. Because of their capacity to retain water, forests have an impact on the state of waters across a wide area. The percentage and structure of forest areas also has a significant influence on the quantity and quality of drinking water, since water is purified as it percolates through the forest floor, which acts as a filter. In this way, the forest provides clean drinking water for human beings and animals. Forests prevent erosion. Treetops mitigate the effect of heavy downpours and retain raindrops so that they slide slowly down to the ground. Undergrowth, fallen leaves, twigs and soil containing a wealth of organic substances help the slow percolation of water underground. The roots of plants hold the soil together, and forest vegetation also mitigates the effect of the wind. Interventions in forests such as litter removal, excessive felling, burning or even clear-cutting greatly accelerate erosion.


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Forests cover a third of the Earth’s surface and represent the largest land ecosystem. Over 90% of the world’s land-dwelling species of plants, animals and microorganisms live in the different biotopes of tropical and boreal forests and the forests of the temperate zone. Biodiversity is greater in tropical forests than in any other land ecosystem: although they cover just 7% of the Earth’s surface, they are home to more than half of all the known species on the planet. Experts estimate that there are between 10 and 30 million different species on Earth, although only around 1.7 million of them have been described and classified taxonomically. The majority of as yet undiscovered species probably live in virgin rainfor-

est, which is still largely unexplored. And yet, this is the forest that is disappearing most quickly. Forests have long been a valuable source of natural raw materials for human beings. They provide wood for building and heating, and also food – game and various fruits. This aspect is becoming less important for inhabitants of the modern world, but an increasing number of people visit forests for peace, relaxation and recreation. In Europe, the dramatic clearance of forests is a thing of the past. Despite rapid urbanisation, the abandoning of farming and pasturing in remote areas means that in many places forests are reclaiming the areas that once belonged to them. In Slovenia, the total forested area is increasing. Even so, intensive forestry has also left its mark in this part of the world. Today the need for sustainable forest management is increasingly recognised. In many parts of Europe, foresters give precedence to natural renewal over artificial renewal, and awareness is growing that diversity is a vitally important aspect of forest preservation.

A

{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

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Slovenija, tretja najbolj gozdnata dežela v Evropi M

arsikdo, ki prvič prihaja v Slovenijo, že med pogledovanjem skozi letalsko okno postane pozoren na nepregledne gozdove, ki strnjeno pokrivajo velik del njene površine. Zeleno morje dreves prekinjajo samo večji ali manjši otoki obdelanih polj, travnikov, pašnikov, vasic in mest. Popotniku že pogled iz zraka jasno pokaže, da je pod njim ena najbolj gozdnatih dežel v Evropi, in mednarodno leto gozdov 2011, ki ga je razglasila generalna skupščina OZN, je lepa priložnost, da njene gozdove kratko predstavimo.

S

lovenci smo že od poselitve dalje kar najtesneje povezani z gozdom. Z njegovim krčenjem so naši predniki pridobivali obdelovalne površine, iz njega so dobili surovino za graditev bivališč, kmetom je gozd vedno pomenil pomemben vir zaslužka ali rezervo za težke čase, ko ni bilo drugega dohodka, in ne nazadnje, v stoletjih smo razvili izjemen način gospodarjenja z našim gozdom. Za Slovenijo, ki nima veliko drugih naravnih bogastev, gozdovi tudi danes predstavljajo izjemno pomemben obnovljiv naravni vir, obenem pa opravljajo številne ekološke, varovalne in socialne funkcije. Slovenci smo na svoj gozd ponosni in upravičeno ga imamo za enega od simbolov svoje dežele. Slovenija je za Finsko, kjer pokriva gozd 73%, in Švedsko, kjer pokriva 67% kopne površine, tretja najbolj gozdnata dežela v Evropi. Po podatkih z začetka leta 2011 porašča gozd 59,8% njene površine, v njem je več kot 330 milijonov kubičnih metrov lesa in vsako leto ga priraste še 8 milijonov kubičnih metrov. Pri tem je izredno zanimivo dejstvo, da v

Besedilo in fotografije: Robert Brus

nasprotju z globalnim trendom, kjer izginja z alarmantno hitrostjo več kot 7 milijonov hektarjev gozdov letno, njihova površina v Sloveniji vztrajno narašča že več kot 130 let. Leta 1875 je bila gozdnatost 36%, 1947. leta 43%, leta 1970 pa je že presegla 50%. Vzrokov za tako intenzivno zaraščanje nekdaj obdelanih kmetijskih površin je več, med glavnimi pa je nedvomno opuščanje kmetijstva v težje dostopnih predelih in izseljevanje prebivalstva s podeželja. Ob vse večji potrebi po bolj intenzivni pridelavi domače hrane in ponovnem aktiviranju nekdaj opuščenih kmetijskih površin je po svoje razveseljiv podatek, da se je zaraščanje vsaj v zadnjih dveh letih vendarle ustavilo. Danes marsikdo opazi razliko med podobo gozdov tostran in onstran Karavank, vendar le malokdo ve, da sklenjen gozdni pokrov na naši strani ni naključje, pač pa posledica zavestne odločitve o načinu gospodarjenja z gozdom. Slovenija je namreč že leta 1949 kot prva dežela sledila švicarskemu zgledu in se popolnoma odpovedala golosečnemu sistemu gospodarjenja. To pomeni, da gozd sekamo samo na zelo majhnih površinah, in še to postopoma. S sonaravnim in večnamenskim gozdarstvom, ki upošteva načela varstva narave in omogoča trajno delovanje gozda kot ekosistema, si je Slovenija pridobila ugled pa tudi posnemovalce ne samo v Evropi, ampak tudi drugod po svetu.


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{ Skrivnosti gozda }


{ Skrivnosti gozda } Tradicija načrtnega gospodarjenja z gozdom na Slovenskem je izredno stara, prvi znani predpis o gozdovih je Ortenburški gozdni red iz leta 1406. Načrtno urejanje gozdov na slovenskih tleh se je začelo v idrijskih rudniških gozdovih, saj je bil rudnik živega srebra nenasiten porabnik lesa. Za te gozdove so donose lesa prvič uredili že leta 1724, leta 1771 so izdelali prvi načrt za Trnovski gozd. Gozdarski strokovnjak Josef Ressel, v svetu najbolj znan kot izumitelj ladijskega vijaka, je v začetku 19. stoletja izdeloval načrte za gojenje kakovostne hrastovine za gradnjo avstrijskih vojnih ladij in za pogozdovanje golih kamnitih površin na Krasu in v Istri. Prelomna je bila 2. polovica 19. stoletja, ko so začeli gozdarji na velikih gozdnih posestih na Kočevskem in Notranjskem

Med posebnosti slovenskih gozdov vsekakor lahko štejemo tudi njihovo bogato zgodovino. ( 54 ) uvajati nov način gospodarjenja z gozdom, ki je pomenil povsem svojo, izvirno pot in bistven odmik od tedaj prevladujočega nemškega načina gospodarjenja. Leopold Hufnagl se je že leta 1892 uprl golosečnemu gospodarjenju in uvedel za kraški svet primernejše in varnejše prebiralno gospodarjenje. Na Kočevskem je zavaroval več pragozdnih ostankov, zaradi česar ga štejemo celo med pionirje slovenskega naravovarstva. Med posebnosti slovenskih gozdov vsekakor lahko štejemo tudi njihovo bogato zgodovino. Splošno znano je, da se je med pleistocenskimi poledenitvami podnebje v velikem delu Evrope, tudi v Sloveniji, tako ohladilo, da so postale razmere neprimerne za uspevanje številnih rastlinskih vrst, tudi drevesnih. Mnoge so izumrle ali se umaknile in strnjeni gozdovi, kakršnih smo vajeni danes, so izginili. Pred 15.000 leti je v vsej Sloveniji še prevladovala tundra, v njej so verjetno rasla samo posamezna drevesca rdečega bora, smreke in breze; takšna vegetacija je prevladovala vse do okrog 10.000 let pred sedanjostjo. Tedaj, v holocenu, se je začelo ozračje segrevati in rastlinstvo se je iz ledenodobnih zatočišč, tako imenovanih refugijev, hitro razraščalo po neposeljenih območjih. Najprej so se pojavili mešani hrastovi gozdovi, pred približno 8.000 leti se je močno razširila bukev in kmalu še jelka. Izjemno zanimivo je odkritje ledenodobnih zatočišč mnogih drevesnih vrst prav na območju današnje Slovenije. Najlepši primer je bukev. Za območja njenih ledenodobnih zatočišč so dolgo veljala predvsem gorovja južnega Balkanskega in južnega Apeninskega polotoka, genetske in palinološke raziskave zadnjih let in do 80.000 let stari ostanki oglja iz paleolitskih jam pa so nedvoumno pokazali, da so majhne skupine bukve zanesljivo preživele ledeno dobo tudi na nekaj zavarovanih toplih mestih v Sloveniji. Raziskave kažejo, da se je bukev v velik del srednje in zahodne Evrope morda razširila prav iz teh refugijev. Kdo ve, če to ne velja tudi za druge drevesne vrste?


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{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Secrets of the Forest }

Third

The Most Forested Country in Europe Text and photography: Robert Brus

M

( 56 )

any people arriving for the first time in Slovenia notice, just looking out of the plane window, the seemingly impenetrable forests below, which provide dense cover for much of the country. The green sea of trees is broken only by the larger and smaller islands of cultivated fields, meadows, pastures, villages and towns. The traveller can see clearly from the air how the land below is one of the most forested in Europe, and the International Year of Forests 2011, declared by the UN General Assembly, is a fine opportunity to offer a brief presentation of Slovenia’s forests. Ever since settling here, the Slovenians have been very closely tied to the forests. By cutting into them, our ancestors gained cultivable land, while also acquiring raw materials to construct dwellings. Meanwhile, for peasants the forests always represented an important source of income or a fall-back for hard times when there was no other income, and

The rich history of Slovenia’s forests is of course something we can regard as a special feature. at the same time, over the centuries we developed an exceptional way of managing our forests. For Slovenia, which does not have a lot of other natural wealth, the forests still represent today an extremely important renewable natural resource, while also performing numerous ecological, protective and social functions. We Slovenians are proud of our forests and regard them understandably as one of the symbols of our land. After Finland, where forests cover 73%, and Sweden, where they cover 67% of the land area, Slovenia is the third most forested country in Europe. According to data from the beginning of 2011, forests grow on 59.8% of the country’s surface, and contain more than 330 million cubic metres of timber, with additional growth of 8 million cubic metres each year. One very noteworthy fact here is that, contrary to global trends,

where forests are disappearing at an alarming rate of more than 7 million hectares a year, the surface area of forests in Slovenia has been expanding consistently for more than 130 years. In 1875 the level of forestation was 36%, in 1947 it was 43% and by 1970 it was already over 50%. There are several reasons for such intensive forest growth on once cultivated farmland, with two of the main reasons undoubtedly being the abandoning of farming in less accessible areas and the migration of people from the countryside. With the increasing need for more intensive production of domestic food, and the renewed activation of once abandoned farmland, it is in its own way encouraging to note that the process of land being overgrown has finally been halted, at least in the last two years. Today many people notice the difference between the look of the forests on this side and on the other side of the Karavanke mountain range, but few know that the contiguous forest cover on the Slovenian side is no coincidence, and in fact the result of a conscious decision about how to manage the forests. Back in 1949, Slovenia was the first to follow the Swiss example and completely abandon clear-cutting as a system of management. This means that we only fell forests in very small areas, and even this is done gradually. Through close-to-nature and multi-purpose forestry, which observes the principle of nature protection and allows the sustainable functioning of the forest as an ecosystem, Slovenia has earned itself distinction, along with imitators, not just in Europe but also elsewhere in the world. The tradition of methodical forest management in Slovenia is extremely old, and the oldest known regulation governing forests is the Ortenburg Forest Ordinance of 1406. The concerted management of forests in the Slovenian lands began in the forests around the Idrija mine, since mercury mining involved an insatiable need for timber. Yields of wood from these forests were first regulated in 1724, and in 1771 the first plan was drawn up for the forest of Trnovski gozd. At the beginning of the 19th century the forestry expert Josef Ressel, best known around the world as the inventor of the ship’s screw propeller, formulated plans for growing high-quality oak for the construction of Austrian naval vessels, and for the afforestation of bare rocky areas in the Karst and Istria. The second half of the 19th century marked a turning point, as foresters started implementing a new method of forest management on large forested estates in the regions of Kočevje and Notranjska. This method involved a unique and original approach, as well as a significant departure from the then prevalent German system of management. As far back as 1892, Leopold Hufnagl opposed the clear-cutting approach and introduced selective management, which was more suitable and safer for the Karst terrain. In the Kočevje area he secured the protection of several remnants of virgin forest, for which reason we actually rank him among the pioneers of Slovenian nature protection. The rich history of Slovenia’s forests is of course something we can regard as a special feature. It is generally known that during the Pleistocene Ice Age, the climate in a major part of Europe, including Slovenia, cooled down to such an extent that conditions became no longer viable for numerous plant and tree species. Many died out or retreated, and the dense forests we are used to now, disappeared. Slovenia was still covered in tundra 15,000 years ago, and probably the only trees growing were the


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odd little red pine, spruce and birch. This kind of vegetation predominated right up until around 10,000 years before the present day. At that time, during the Holocene, the climate started warming, and plant life rapidly emerged from its Ice Age refuges and spread over the sparsely covered areas. First to appear were mixed oak forests, and around 8,000 years ago there was a major expansion of beech, followed closely by fir trees. There have been some fascinating finds of Ice Age refuges of numerous tree species right in the territory of present-day Slovenia. The most outstanding example is the beech. For a long time the mountain

ranges of the southern Balkans and southern Apennine peninsula were regarded as the zones of its Ice Age refuge, while genetic and palynological research of recent years, along with remnants of charcoal up to 80,000 years old from Palaeolithic caves, have shown beyond a doubt that small groups of beech trees certainly survived the Ice Age in certain protected warm spots in Slovenia. Research indicates that beeches perhaps spread to a large part of central and western Europe from these very refuges. And who knows, this might be true of other tree species, too.

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{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

Razkošje drevesnih vrst ( 58 )

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a Slovenijo radi poudarjamo, da spada med biološko najbolj pestra območja Evrope. K temu brez dvoma odločilno prispeva njeno močno raznoliko rastlinstvo. Njegovo bogastvo je po eni strani posledica razgibanega reliefa ter pestrih geoloških in vremenskih razmer, po drugi strani pa posledica dejstva, da se na območju Slovenije srečujejo, prepletajo in mešajo rastlinske vrste iz kar štirih velikih geografskih enot: iz alpskega, sredozemskega, dinarskega in panonskega sveta. Zato raste v slovenskih gozdovih veliko število različnih drevesnih vrst.

Besedilo in fotografije: Robert Brus

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lovenski gozdovi veljajo za dobro ohranjene. Goratost dežele, slaba prehodnost kraškega sveta, velik delež težko dostopnih gozdov in seveda skrbno gospodarjenje so pripomogli k temu, da so slovenski gozdovi danes bistveno manj spremenjeni kot v večini dežel srednje Evrope. O tem priča tudi podatek, da imamo v Sloveniji strogo zavarovanih več kot 170 gozdnih rezervatov s skupno površino 9.600 hektarjev; med njimi je več pragozdnih ostankov. V gozdovih, s katerimi gospodarimo, je današnje razmerje med iglavci in listavci 46% : 54%; v njih rastejo skoraj samo avtohtone drevesne vrste. Tujih vrst, kot so duglazija, robinija, zeleni bor ali rdeči hrast, smo v preteklosti sadili zelo malo, do danes pa smo njihovo sajenje skoraj povsem opustili. Marsikdo se vpraša, zakaj. Odgovor je preprost: za to ni prave potrebe, pravo obilje drevesnih vrst imamo že doma. V slovenskih gozdovih avtohtono uspeva vključno z grmi in polgrmi nekaj več kot 300 lesnatih rastlin. Domačih drevesnih vrst je kar 70, med njimi je 10 iglavcev in 60 listavcev. Za tako majhno območje, kot ga zavzema Slovenija, je takšna vrstna pestrost izjemna. V vsej severni Evropi, po površini seveda neprimerljivo večji od Slovenije, bi skupaj komaj našteli 20 drevesnih vrst. Pestrost, podobno slovenski, dosega le nekaj območij v Evropi, na primer Balkanski in Apeninski polotok. Po podatkih Zavoda za gozdove Slovenije so bile v letu 2010 naše najpogostejše drevesne vrste (računano po deležu v skupni lesni zalogi): bukev (31,8%), smreka (31,5%), jelka (7,6%), hrasti (skupaj 7%), bori (skupaj 5,9%) in plemeniti listavci (skupaj 4,9%). V nadaljevanju bomo na kratko predstavili nekatere med njimi. Bukev je brez dvoma najbolj značilna drevesna vrsta slovenskih gozdov, radi ji rečemo kar »mati gozda«. Pred naselitvijo je predstavljala krepko čez polovico lesne zaloge naših gozdov. Najbolje uspeva na globokih tleh in zelo dobro celo v senci. Razširjena je v večjem delu Evrope, v Sloveniji raste praktično povsod, od nižin do zgornje gozdne meje. To je do 40 m visoko listopadno drevo z gladko sivo skorjo; zlahka jo prepoznamo po ostro zašiljenih brstih, eliptičnih listih in značilnih plodovih, t. i. žiru. Ima trd, težek in elastičen les z veliko ogrevalno močjo, uporaben za izdelavo pohištva, parketa in drugih izdelkov.


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{ Skrivnosti gozda }


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

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Smreka je drevo, katerega delež se je v zadnjih 200 letih v Sloveniji najbolj povečal. Kot značilna borealno-alpska vrsta potrebuje le malo toplote in prenese nizke temperature. V Sloveniji so jo iz prvotnih hladnih gorskih rastišč močno razširili v sredogorje in gričevje, včasih celo v nižine. Smreka je vednozeleno, do 50 m visoko drevo s plitvimi koreninami in ravnim deblom z rdečkasto skorjo. Njen les je mehek in elastičen, uporabljamo ga v gradbeništvu, pohištveni in papirni industriji ter za izdelavo glasbil. Resonančna smrekovina z Jelovice in Pokljuke je surovina za izdelavo najboljših violin. Jelko bi zaradi mogočne in elegantne rasti lahko razglasili za kraljico naših gozdov. Značilna gorska vrsta v Sloveniji gradi v dinarskem in predalpskem svetu najlepše in najmogočnejše gozdove, največkrat skupaj z bukvijo. Sušenje jelke, ki je bilo najbolj pereče pred nekaj desetletji, je na srečo mimo in njena vitalnost se je precej popravila. Dosega izjemne mere in pogosto preseže 50 m višine. Prepoznavna je po gladki sivi skorji, ploščatih iglicah z belima progama in pokončnih storžih. Njen les je mehek, elastičen, lahek in široko uporaben. Hrast je med našimi najbogatejšimi drevesnimi rodovi, saj vsebuje kar šest vrst. Najpogostejši je po gričevjih razširjeni graden, najbolj znan, a precej redkejši je bolj nižinski dob, po svetu znan tudi kot slavonski hrast. Na toplejših sredozemskih območjih pa rastejo še puhasti hrast, cer, oplutnik in vednozelena črnika.

Bori so skromna drevesa in pogosto naselijo najbolj revna ali izčrpana rastišča. Rdeči bor, prepoznamo ga po rdečkasti skorji in sivkastih iglicah, je najpogostejši po rečnih naplavinah po vsej Sloveniji. V naravnih združbah je redek, saj raste le po težko dostopnih apnenčastih pečevjih; na Krasu, kjer ga je danes največ, pa je umetno vnesen in nasajen. Rušje gradi goste in težko prehodne sestoje v visokogorju in opravlja predvsem pomembno varovalno vlogo. Plemeniti listavci so drevesa s posebno kakovostnim in visoko vrednim lesom, zato se v njihovo gojenje in nego splača vložiti veliko dela. Med najbolj znanimi so gorski javor, oreh, veliki jesen, divja češnja, lipa, gorski brest, skorš in brek. Njihov delež v slovenskih gozdovih v zadnjih desetletjih vztrajno narašča. Za konec omenjamo še izjemno drevesno dediščino slovenskih gozdov. Najvišje slovensko drevo je kar 62 m visoka Sgermova smreka. Pohorska velikanka ni le daleč najvišje slovensko, ampak tudi eno najvišjih evropskih dreves. Izjemne višine dosega tudi bukev; 46 m visoka bukev pri Dvoru nad Krko je sploh eno najvišjih tovrstnih dreves, kar so jih kdaj izmerili v Evropi. Najdebelejše drevo pri nas je Najevska lipa (pravzaprav lipovec) nad Črno na Koroškem; obseg njenega debla v prsni višini je kar 1080 cm. Seveda pa je Najevska lipa več kot samo naše najdebelejše drevo. Je tudi pomemben simbol, v senci katerega vsako leto od osamosvojitve naprej poteka srečanje slovenskih državnikov.


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{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Secrets of the Forest }

A Wealth

of Tree Species Text and photography: Robert Brus

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e often like to make the point about Slovenia that it is one of the most biologically diverse areas of Europe. A definite contributing factor here is the country’s highly diverse plant life. Its wealth is on the one hand a result of the varied elevation and the diversity of both geology and weather conditions, and on the other hand a result of the fact that Slovenia is a meeting, mingling and mixing zone for plant species from four major geographic units – the Alpine, Mediterranean, Dinaric and Pannonian areas. This also means that there is a great variety of tree species growing in Slovenia’s forests. Slovenian forests are regarded as well-preserved. The mountainous terrain, the difficulty of traversing the karstic areas, the high proportion of fairly inaccessible forests and of course careful management have all contributed to Slovenia’s forests today being much less changed than in most other central European countries. This can also be seen in the fact that the country has a strict protection regime in place for more than 170 forest reserves, covering a total area of 9,600 hectares and including several remnants of virgin forest. In the forests we manage, the current ratio of conifers to deciduous trees is 46% : 54%, and they comprise almost exclusively native tree species. Exotic species such as Douglas fir, black locust, eastern white pine or red oak were planted very rarely here, and now their planting has been almost entirely abandoned. Many people are asking, why? The answer is easy: there is no real need for them, and we already have a veritable abundance of tree species here in Slovenia. The country’s forests – and this includes bush and shrub thickets – offer terrain for a little over 300 woody plant species to thrive. There are a full 70 domestic tree species, comprising 10 conifers and 60 deciduous. For such a small area as Slovenia’s territory, this diversity of species is exceptional. In the whole of northern Europe, which of course is incomparably bigger than Slovenia’s area, it would be hard to count a total of 20 tree species. Few areas in Europe – for instance the Balkan and Apennine peninsulas – can claim the kind of diversity you can find in Slovenia. According to Slovenian Forest Service data for 2010, the country’s most common tree species are (calculated by their proportion of the entire growing stock) beech (31.8%), spruce (31.5%), fir (7.6%), oaks (total 7%), pines (total 5.9%) and noble hardwoods (total 4.9%). Some of these species are presented briefly below. Beech is without doubt the most typical tree species in Slovenia’s forests, and we even like to call it the mother of the forest. Before the colo-

nisation of other species, it represented well over half the growing stock of Slovenia’s forests. It thrives best in deep soil, and does very well even in the shade. It is spread over the major portion of Europe, and in Slovenia it grows practically everywhere, from the lowlands to the upper tree line. It is a deciduous tree that grows up to 40 m high, with smooth grey bark, and can easily be recognised by its sharply pointed buds, elliptical leaves and characteristic fruit of beech nuts. It has hard, heavy and elastic wood with great heating capacity, and it is suitable for making furniture, parquet and other products. Spruce is a tree whose share in Slovenia has increased most over the last 200 years. A typical boreal-Alpine species, it requires little warmth and can withstand low temperatures. In Slovenia it has expanded dramatically from its original cold mountain areas to the lower slopes and hills, and sometimes even to the lowlands. Spruce is an evergreen tree that can grow to 50 m, with shallow roots and a straight, reddish-barked trunk. Its wood is soft and elastic, and is used in construction, furniture and papermaking, as well as for making musical instruments. The resonant spruce wood of Jelovica and Pokljuka is the raw material for the finest violins. Given its imposing and elegant growth, the fir could be pronounced the queen of our forests. This typical mountain species makes up Slov-


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enia’s most beautiful and majestic forests, usually in a combination with beech, in the Dinaric and sub-Alpine areas. The dying of fir trees, which was at its most acute a few decades ago, is fortunately a thing of the past, and their vitality has considerably improved. These trees attain exceptional dimensions, and often exceed 50 m in height. It is recognised by its smooth grey bark, flat needles with white strips and upright cones. Its wood is soft, elastic, light and widely used. Oak is one of Slovenia’s richest tree genera, with a full complement of six different species. The most widespread variety is the sessile oak, which grows on low hills, while the best known, but much rarer tree is the more lowland dob, known around the world as the Slavonian oak. In the warmer Mediterranean areas you can also find the downy oak, turkey oak, Lucombe oak and Holm oak. Pines are humble trees and often colonise the poorest and most exhausted growing areas. The Scots pine can be identified by its reddish bark and greyish needles, and is most widespread along alluvial ground throughout Slovenia. The black pine is rare in natural communities, since it grows only in fairly inaccessible, rocky limestone terrain, while in the Karst, where it is most abundant today, it has been brought in and planted artificially.

Dwarf pines make up dense and impassable stands in the high mountains, and perform primarily an important protective function. Noble hardwoods are trees with especially high-quality and high-value wood, so it pays to invest a lot of work in their cultivation and care. The most attractive of them are the sycamore maple, walnut, European ash, wild cherry, linden, Wych elm, service tree and wild service tree. Their share of Slovenia’s forests has been consistently growing in recent decades. Finally we should mention the exceptional arboreal heritage of Slovenia’s forests. The highest tree in Slovenia is the 62-metre-tall Sgerm spruce. This giant of the Pohorje range is not just by far the tallest tree in Slovenia, but also one of the tallest in Europe. Beech trees can also attain exceptional heights; the 46 m beech at Dvor nad Krko is easily one of the tallest trees of the species to have ever been measured in Europe. The thickest tree in Slovenia is the Najevska linden (actually a littleleaf linden) growing up above Črna na Koroškem; at breast height the circumference of the trunk measures a full 1,080 cm. But the Najevska linden is of course more than just our thickest tree. It is also an important symbol, and every year since independence it has provided shade for a meeting of Slovenia’s national leaders.

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Mala uharica O ( 64 )

bičajni smrtniki smo imeli včasih kar pogosto priložnost videti malo uharico. Sicer ni bila nič kaj poskočna, še manj pa živa. Zato pa si jo je bilo mogoče dodobra in od blizu ogledati: v danes ne več modnih lovskih sobah, ki so bile nekdaj v podeželskih gostilnah precej običajna stvar, je bila med vsakovrstnimi trofejami in nagačenimi ptiči mala uharica precej vsakdanja. Odkar so v gostilnah lovske sobe vse večja posebnost, jo lahko le še redko vidimo. Morda v živalskem vrtu ali kakšnem muzeju, sicer pa ljudem neslišna nočna plenilka ne zaide prav pogosto pred oči. Pravzaprav se, če smo natančnejši, pred nami včasih le znajde, le da je tako srečanje zelo bežno. Morda jo za kratek hip zagledamo med nočnim sprehodom, ne da bi, če nismo ravno dobri poznavalci ptičev, sploh vedeli, da gre prav za to od skupno devetih vrst sov, kolikor jih gnezdi pri nas. Včasih pa jo je mogoče bežno videti tudi podnevi, in to od blizu, saj se zanaša na to, da jo je težko opaziti, zato pusti negibno čepeča na veji človeka zelo blizu; odleti šele, ko je že v njeni neposredni bližini ali če jo pogleda v oči.

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a razliko od nekaterih drugih predstavnikov sovje žlahte mala uharica nikoli ne lovi podnevi. »Le ko so mladiči že veliki in potrebujejo veliko hrane, gre na lov tudi v mraku,« pravi dr. Davorin Tome z Nacionalnega inštituta za biologijo v Ljubljani, ki je preučevanju male uharice posvetil dve desetletji. »Med dvorjenjem samec prinaša samici hrano, ji razkazuje mesta za gnezdenje in se tudi šopiri, a pri tem 'ušesa' nimajo nobene vloge,« odgovarja na vprašanje, ali imajo 'ušesa' kakšen pomen v ljubezenskem življenju sove. 'Ušesa' na sovji glavi, ki so botrovala njenemu imenu (podobno kot tudi pri njeni večji sorodnici veliki uharici), so le pernati čopki z varovalno vlogo. Mala uharica navadno prebije dan (predanjuje, kot pravijo ornitologi) spotegnjeno čepeča na drevesni veji, pri čemer jo čopki z navpičnimi temnejšimi črtami na videz 'podaljšajo' in tako prispevajo k njeni neopaznosti. Mala uharica ni prav velika ptica. Samica, ki je podobno kot še pri drugih vrstah sov večja od samca, je dolga do približno 40 centimetrov in le izjemoma težja od 300 gramov. Vendar pa ima zelo velik razpon peruti; ta lahko znaša celo en meter. Na stegnjenih perutih ponoči tiho drsi nizko nad tlemi, oprezujoč za plenom, predvsem za voluharicami

Besedilo: Marjan Žiberna

Fotografije: Matej Vranič

in mišmi. Pri tem ji prideta prav tako odličen vid kot izjemno razvit sluh. Slednji je močno povezan s pernato 'masko', ki obroblja sovji 'obraz' – le-ta namreč okrepi zvoke iz okolice. Podobno kot še nekatere druge vrste sov ima mala uharica tudi izjemno sposobnost določiti, od kod natančno prihaja zvok. Pri tem ji pomaga položaj njenih pravih ušes, odprtin ob straneh glave, ki se ne nahajata v isti višini – ena je malce nižje od druge. Tako s tal prihajajoče mišje cviljenje doseže najprej sovino spodnje uho in ji pove, da je na dobri poti do hrane. Bodoča sovja malica je v precej slabem položaju – sova namreč zaradi oblike peres, peruti in načina leta leti izredno tiho, tako rekoč neslišno. Poleg tega ima izjemno močne kremplje, v katerih borno mišje življenje v trenutku ugasne. Od miši ostane čez dan ali dva le še izbljuvek. Sova namreč plen pogoltne v enem samem zalogaju, s kostmi in z dlako vred, neprebavljene ostanke pa kasneje izbljuva. S hrano je zelo povezano njeno razmnoževanje. Če je dovolj hrane, gnezdi že februarja; samica se hitro zredi in zaradi s tem povezane zvišane aktivnosti hormonov začnejo v njenem telesu nastajati jajca. »A če pride zatem do pomanjkanja hrane, na primer zaradi novega snega, ki ji oteži lov, lahko sovje telo nastajajoča jajca razgradi, včasih pa sova celo zapusti že izležena jajca. Kasneje namreč lahko poskuša gnezditi še enkrat,« pravi dr. Tome. Mala uharica se z gradnjo gnezda ne ukvarja, običajno zasede staro gnezdo srake, vrane ali kakšne podobno velike ptice. Če začne gnezditi


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{ Skrivnosti gozda }


{ Skrivnosti gozda } že pozimi, si zaradi varnosti poišče gnezdo na zimzelenih iglavcih. Jajca vali samica, v tem času pa za njeno hrano skrbi samec. A tudi ko se mladiči izležejo, samec ne more na počitnice. Za majhne male uharice namreč skrbita oba starša. Največja posebnost male uharice je predanjevanje – pozimi pogosto tiho zamišljena v kdove kakšne sovje misli prebije dan v družbi pripadnic svoje vrste, česar med drugimi sovami ni zaslediti. Največ sov na enem drevesu, okrog 200, so pri nas opazili v 70. letih minulega stoletja pri Veržeju. »Tudi drugod v panonskem svetu in v Padski nižini so opazili veliko sov na enem drevesu,« pravi dr. Tome. »Zakaj se jih tam, drugače kot v osrednji Sloveniji, zbere toliko, težko z gotovostjo rečem. Morda jih je na drevesih sredi ravnic le laže opaziti.« Včasih se sove na enem drevesu, preden ga zamenjajo za drugega, zbirajo več let zapored.

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Največja posebnost male uharice je predanjevanje. Mala uharica, ki ima rada manjše gozdičke, na lov pa se odpravlja na odprte travnike, ne spada med redke in ogrožene vrste. Na srečo je tudi človek več ne ogroža, saj že kar dolgo spada med zakonsko zavarovane živali, na katere je lov prepovedan. Pozimi se zaradi hrane včasih celo približa človeškim bivališčem. Topli hlevi in polne shrambe so tedaj pogosto zatočišče za poljske miši, v bližini bivališč pa se zaradi toplote tudi hitreje stali sneg, kar ji olajšuje lov. Ljudje danes obnemoglim ali v prometu in še kako drugače poškodovanim sovam celo rešujejo življenja; v azilu za divje živali na Muti, kamor jih lahko prinesejo, zanje strokovno poskrbijo. Tu se imajo z njimi včasih priložnost seznaniti tudi najmlajši, ki so nad očarljivimi, debelookimi pticami običajno navdušeni. Kar je seveda lahko samo dobro, tako za malčke kot tudi za sove.


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{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Secrets of the Forest }

The Longeared Owl Text: Marjan Žiberna

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Photography: Matej Vranič

t one time, we common mortals had ample opportunity to see the long-eared owl. They were not exactly lively, let alone alive, and for that reason we could actually get a good look from close up – in what are today the no longer fashionable hunting rooms, which in earlier times were quite commonplace in rural inns, and where the long-eared owl was very commonly among the various trophies and stuffed birds. Ever since those hunting rooms started becoming more of a rarity, we have seen it less often. Perhaps in a zoo or some museum, otherwise people do not very often catch a glimpse of this silent nocturnal raptor. Or to put it more accurately, we do actually encounter it sometimes, but such encounters are very fleeting. You might spy it briefly on a night walk, without even knowing – if you’re not exactly an ornithologist – that you have seen precisely this one, out of a total of nine owl species that nest in Slovenia. Sometimes

you can also catch a fleeting, even close-up, glimpse in the daytime, since it relies on being hard to notice, so it will remain immobile, perched on a branch very close to humans; it only flies off when you come very close up to it or look it in the eye. In contrast to certain other of its relatives, the long-eared owl never hunts by day. “It’s only when the young have become big and they need a lot of food that they also hunt at dusk,” says Dr. Davorin Tome of the National Institute of Biology in Ljubljana. He has devoted two decades to studying the long-eared owl. “During courtship, the male brings food to the female, shows her nesting places and also struts around, but in all this the ‘ears’ play no part,” he replies in answer to the question whether the “ears” have some significance in the owl’s love-life. The “ears” on its head, which have prompted its name, are simply feather tufts with a protective function (as with their larger cousin the Eurasian Eagle-Owl). The long-eared owl spends the day stretched upright at its roost on a tree branch, and its tufts, with their darker vertical lines, seem to “extend” and thereby contribute to its camouflage. The long-eared owl is not a very big bird. The female, which like other species of owl, is bigger than the male, grows up to around 40 cm, and only exceptionally weighs more than 300 grams. But it has a very large wingspan, which can reach up to one metre. By night it glides on fully extended wings low over the ground, preying chiefly on voles and mice. Here it has the advantage of excellent vision and extremely well-developed hearing. Its hearing is closely connected to the feathery “mask” that borders its “face”; this amplifies the sounds from the surrounding area. And like some other species of owl, the long-eared owl also has an

The main distinguishing feature of the long-eared owl is its daytime roosting.


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outstanding capacity to pinpoint the exact location of the sound. It is helped here by the positioning of its real ears, openings on the side of the head that are not situated at the same height, with one being slightly lower than the other. In this way, the squeaking of a mouse on the ground first reaches the owl’s lower ear and indicates that it is on the right track for a meal. The impending owl snack is in a distinctly precarious situation – the shape of the feathers and wings and its style of flying mean that the owl flies very quietly, pretty much inaudibly. Furthermore, it has enormously strong talons, in which the mouse’s paltry life ends in an instant. In a day or two, the only trace of the mouse will be what is regurgitated. Indeed the owl swallows its prey whole, complete with bones and fur, and the undigested parts are later regurgitated. The owl’s reproduction is very closely tied to food. If there is sufficient food, it nests as early as February; the female quickly fattens up, and the associated increase in hormonal activity spurs her production of eggs. “But if there is then a lack of food, for instance because of new snowfall, which hinders hunting, its body can break down the forming eggs, and sometimes the owl will even abandon eggs it has already laid. Later on it can try to nest once again,” says Dr. Tome. The long-eared owl does not bother making a nest, since it usually occupies the old nests of magpies, crows or other similar large birds. If it starts nesting in winter, for safety it will seek out a nest in an evergreen conifer. The female incubates the eggs, during which time the male provides her food. But even when the young are hatched, the male is not off the hook. Both parents take care of young long-eared owls.

The main distinguishing feature of the long-eared owl is its daytime roosting – in winter it frequently spends the day, lost in whatever silent thoughts it has, in the company of others of its species, something that is not observed among other owls. The most owls on a single tree – around 200 – were observed in the 1970s in Slovenia near Veržej. “Elsewhere in the Pannonian area and in the Po Valley, many owls have been observed on a single tree,” says Dr. Tome. “Why so many gather together there, and not in central Slovenia, is hard to say with any certainty. Perhaps it is just easier to spot them on trees in the middle of the plains.” Sometimes owls gather together on one tree for several years in a row before exchanging it for another. The long-eared owl, which prefers small patches of woodland and hunts over open meadows, is not a rare or endangered species. Nor is it, thankfully, threatened any more by humans, since it has long been a legally protected species that may not be hunted. In winter, it will occasionally even approach human dwellings in search of food. At that time, warm barns and full store houses are a common refuge for field mice, and close to dwellings the warmth means that snow melts more rapidly, aiding their hunt. Today people are even saving the lives of owls that have been incapacitated or injured by cars or in some other way; expert care is provided for them in the animal shelter at Muta, where they can be taken. The shelter also offers a chance for young children to visit the owls, and they are usually thrilled to see these enchanting, big-eyed birds. And this of course can only be a good thing, both for the kids and for the owls.

A

{ Secrets of the Forest }


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

Stoli

Janeza Suhadolca N

ajprej je bil gozd … Nato je bil les… Nato je bil stol… Nato je (bil) Janez Suhadolc. Po mnenju slednjega so drevesa najimenitnejši predstavniki

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botaničnega sveta. Les, lesna tvarina in leseni izdelki so posmrtni ostanki nekdanjih živih bitij. Kdor ima rad drevesa in les, izkazuje ljubezen do živega in preminulega hkrati.

Besedilo: Sandra Jazbec

Fotografije: Dragan Arrigler

Š

irokogrudno naštevanje izdelkov arhitekta Janeza Suhadolca (začenši z letom 1987, v katerem korenini »tišlerska zgodba«) bi se ustavilo okrog številke 250, mogoče celo več – natančno število je težko določiti, saj je razlika med novim modelom in inačicami precej nejasna. Poleg stolov so v njegov izdelovalski repertoar zapisani tudi: gugalnik, pručka, miza, šahovska garnitura, postelja, omara, knjižne police, zibelka, notno stojalo, stojalo za cvetje, oltarna miza, kelih, nagrobnik, tempietto, ptičja krmilnica, klečalnik, dekanska in županska veriga in še kaj. Najbolj ceni orehov, češnjev in javorjev les. Je pa naredil že marsikaj tudi iz drugih slovenskih vrst lesa. Tujih ne uporablja. Morda ali pa predvsem zaradi ljubezni do »Plečnikovih časov« (v kontekstu svojih navdihov in ustvarjanja načelno poudarja genialno osebnost Jožeta Plečnika) izžarevajo njegova dela brezpogojno lojalno slovensko kulturno tradicijo; pomislimo le na zibelko, ob kateri se ne moremo izogniti aluziji na slovenski kozolec. Skratka, gre za umetnika, ki skuša ustvarjati v razpoznavno narodnem slogu. Ob boku dolgoletne predanosti tradiciji zaznamujejo srčiko njegovih del tudi etika, erotika in estetika, kar izpostavlja Jaroslav Skrušny v prvi izmed trojice knjig Stoli (1997). Tem močnim pojmom bi pritaknili še edinstvenost, minimalizem, klasično eleganco, poetičnost, funkcionalnost in močan simbolni naboj. Ameriški oblikovalec George Nelson je nekoč predvidel, da bo sodobni stol na seznamu, ko bo potomstvo izbiralo najbolj tipične predmete za zahodno kulturo prve polovice dvajsetega stoletja. Hugh Aldersey–Williams zgodbo nadgradi, rekoč, da stol ni na seznamu le za prvo polovico tega stoletja, temveč pravzaprav za katerokoli obdobje znotraj njega in prav gotovo za zadnjih nekaj desetletij. Zakaj prav stol? Skladatelji so si edini, da prvovrstno sredstvo samoizrazitve ni simfonija, kot bi si kdo mislil, ker je pač najdaljša in najglasnejša. Pač pa je to godalni kvartet. Kakor za glasbo, tako za oblikovanje. Dati obliko avtomobilu ali vlaku, pomeni uigrano delo mnogih igralcev. To so oblikovalske simfonije. Stol pa je dosti bolj osebna stvar, izdelek zasebne introspekcije. Stol ni simfonija, je godalni kvartet. In kot godalni kvartet je tudi stol navadno namenjen doživljanju znotraj domačega okolja, je tako rekoč sobno delo.


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{ Skrivnosti gozda }


{ Skrivnosti gozda }

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Če je taka analogija za koga nepričakovana, potem je to žalosten odsev dejstva, da se glasba in oblikovanje le redko vzajemno navdihujeta. Žal, saj bi se lahko oblikovalci marsičesa naučili iz izkušenj nacionalno usmerjenih skladateljev. Najboljše pri tem je, da se ni treba omejevati le na lastno nacijo: Debussyjeva Iberia in Mendelssohnova Škotska sta na primer znatna tovrstna glasbena primera. Oblikovalci si le redko prisvojijo podobno svobodnost; mogoče se bojijo, da bi zapadli kiču. Sama v svobodnem milozvočju »godalnega kvarteta« Suhadolčevih »Stolov« slišim Vivaldijeve Letne čase – vse štiri ... Ali drugače povedano: Janez Suhadolc ima svojo umetniško muzo. Ime ji je Narava. Pa ne tista grandiozna, neskončna in mogočna. Njegova Narava je narava tankočutnih nians, ki so človeškim očem povečini skrite – čuti jo v tihem melanholičnem plesu snežink pozimi, sončnem žarku, ki se v lenem poletnem večeru nerad poslavlja od svojega zlatega odseva na vodi, nagajivem igranju češnjevih cvetov v vetru pravkar rojene pomladi in starem hrastu, ki pozno jeseni ovit v meglice sramežljivo skriva svojo pusto krošnjo. Janez Suhadolc potrjuje pravilo, da se velike stvari rojevajo iz preprostih in malih reči. Njih lepote ne gledamo ljudje z očmi, ampak jih čutimo, ko nam radostijo dušo in srce. Zaradi tega njegove arhitekturne miniature postanejo in ostanejo večne. In četudi se včasih počuti kot don Kihot, je njegovo vračanje k ljudskemu in kulturnemu izročilu – slovenskemu in evropskemu – ustoličeno na srečnem koncu: na uspešnem ohranjanju tradicije, ki jo zna sam kot poslednji romantik s tisočero talenti ceniti v vsej njeni (po)polnosti. Pa še to. Goethe je nekoč zapisal: »Talent se oblikuje v tišini, karakter v viharju sveta.« Suhadolčev talent govori sam zase, karakter pa »izkušenosti« navkljub ostaja otroško hudomušen, živahen in očarljiv.


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{ Skrivnosti gozda }


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The Chairs O of Janez Suhadolc Text: Sandra Jazbec

Photography: Dragan Arrigler

nce there was a forest. Then there was wood. Then there was a chair. And then Janez Suhadolc. Trees are the most outstanding representatives of the botanical world, Suhadolc believes. Wood, timber and wooden products are the mortal remains of once living beings. Whoever loves trees and wood also shows a love of the living and the deceased. A generous tally of products made by architect Janez Suhadolc (starting in 1987, which marks the beginning of the “Tišler story”) would end up at around 250, perhaps even more – a precise number would be hard to determine, since the difference between a new model and various other versions is quite unclear. In addition to chairs, his product range covers rocking chairs, footstools, tables, chess sets, beds, cupboards, bookshelves, music stands, flower stands, altars, chalices, gravestones, a tempietto, bird feeders, lacemaker’s arm rests, chains for a dean and priest and more. He prizes walnut, cherry and maple wood above all, although he has also worked extensively with other species of Slovenian wood. He does not use any exotic wood.


Possibly – or even chiefly – through a love of ‘’Plečnik’s times’’ (in the context of his inspirations and creations he makes a point of emphasising the genius of Jože Plečnik), his work radiates the Slovenian cultural tradition with unconditional loyalty; for instance just take his cradle, where we cannot ignore the allusion to the Slovenian hayrack or kozolec. In short, this is an artist who attempts to work in a recognisably Slovenian style. Alongside a long dedication to tradition, the essence of his work is marked by its ethic, as well as its erotic quality and aesthetic, as highlighted by Jaroslav Skrušny in the first book of his trilogy Stoli/Chairs (1997). To these powerful concepts we may also append uniqueness, minimalism, classical elegance, poetics, functionalism and a strong symbolic force. The American designer George Nelson once foresaw the modern-day chair being on the list, when generations to come select the most typical objects of Western culture in the first half of the 20th century. Hugh Aldersey-Williams has fleshed out the story, saying that the chair is

on the list not just for the first half of that century, but in fact for any period within it, and most certainly for the last few decades. But why the chair, exactly? Composers are united in believing that the most superlative medium of expression is not the symphony, as one might expect, since after all it is the longest and loudest form. It is in fact the string quartet. The same thing is true of design. Giving form to a car or train involves the harmonised work of many players. These are design symphonies. But a chair is a rather more personal thing, a product of private introspection. A chair is not a symphony, but a string quartet. And like a string quartet, a chair is also usually intended for experiencing within a home environment, so it is in effect a chamber piece. If this kind of analogy seems unexpected, that is a sad reflection of the fact that music and design very rarely provide each other with mutual inspiration. Sad, because designers could learn many things from the experiences of nationally-oriented composers. The best thing here is that you do not have to limit yourself to your own nation. Debussy’s Iberia and Mendelssohn’s Scottish Symphony, for instance, are outstanding examples of such music. Designers rarely acquire any similar freedom; perhaps they fear a descent into kitsch. For myself, in the free, sweet “string quartet” harmonies of Suhadolc’s Chairs, I hear Vivaldi’s Four Seasons – all of them. Or put another way: Janez Suhadolc has his own artistic muse. Its name is Nature. But not that grandiose, infinite and mighty Nature. His Nature is a nature of refined nuances that are for the most part hidden from human eyes. You can sense it in the quiet melancholic dance of snowflakes in winter, in the sun’s rays taking reluctant leave of their golden reflection in water on a languid summer evening, in the teasing play of cherry blossoms in the wind of a newborn spring, and in an ancient oak, swathed in a late autumn mist, coyly shielding its denuded crown. Janez Suhadolc confirms the rule that greatness is born of simple and small things. We do not view their beauty with our eyes, but sense them when they spread joy to our hearts and souls. For this reason his architectural miniatures have become and remain eternal. And even though he sometimes feels like Don Quixote, his regular return to the folk and cultural tradition – both of Slovenia and Europe – is enshrined in a happy ending: the successful preservation of tradition, which as the last romantic with a thousand talents, he himself is able to appreciate in all its fullness and perfection. Moreover, Goethe once wrote: “Talent is developed in tranquillity, character in the full current of human life.” Suhadolc’s talent speaks for itself, while his character of “experience” nevertheless remains childishly mischievous, lively and enchanting.

A

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Balonarstvo

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ZAvijem

Šornom

nad Ljubljano

»L

etenje z balonom je zanimivejše kot z letali, saj moraš bolj razumeti vreme in se bolj prepustiti vetrovom. Bolj moraš poznati samo letenju in njegovo dinami-

ko. V letalo se zgolj usedeš, daš gas, potuješ in pristaneš. Govorim seveda o neki nadgradnji. Pri preprostih letih izbereš velik travnik, napihneš balon, se dvigneš, spustiš, ne potrebuješ bog ve koliko znanja. Ampak to, da letiš po dolinah čim dalj, da izkoristiš vetrove sebi v prid, to pa ni lahko … Zato sem ostal pri balonih ...« pripoveduje Avi Šorn, pilot toplega zračnega balona, medtem ko poletimo visoko v nebo (vsaj meni se je zdela višina izjemna). Besedilo: Meta Krese

Fotografije: Arne Hodalič

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{ Balonarstvo }

K

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o ga poslušam, mi sicer postane jasno, zakaj kdo danes sploh še leti z balonom, se pa vseeno ves čas sprašujem, kaj delam jaz v pleteni košari nekaj sto metrov nad Ljubljano. A je bilo to res nujno? si mislim. Res je, da sem si želela leteti z balonom vse od petega leta, ko mi je sestra kupila knjigo Nikolaja Nosova Neznalčkove dogodivščine in ena izmed najbolj razburljivih prigod je bila prav gotovo potovanje z balonom; ampak – kdo pa pravi, da je zdravo izpolnjevati otroške želje? Pa čeprav lastne … Mar bi z varnih tal zrla v nebo in občudovala pilotove spretnosti! Avi Šorn nadaljuje: »Oseminšestdesetega leta sem postal pilot jadralnega letala. Ker pa je bilo naslednje leto ali dve zelo malo letal na razpolago in smo morali dolgo čakati na vrsto, smo takoj, ko sem v tuji reviji naletel na fotografijo jadralnega zmaja, tega tudi naredili. Z njim sem letal dve leti, ampak ko smo na tekmi z zmaji v Avstriji zagledali zračni topli balon, ki je bil lahko v zraku kar nekaj časa, mi je takoj postal veliko bolj všeč.« Skupina prijateljev zanesenjakov je prvi balon naredila sama. Kupolo so morali šivati v telovadnici, ki je bila edini dovolj velik prostor daleč naokoli. Uporabili so samo najboljše materiale in Avi Šorn je še danes po več kot tridesetletnih izkušnjah prepričan, da je bil njihov izdelek varen in da niso zgrešili na nobeni točki. Z njim so leteli vrsto let: denarja za novega niso imeli in tudi v svetu še ni bilo toliko balonov, da bi ga z lahkoto zamenjali. Jugoslovanska vojaška oblast, ki je bila takrat nad civilno, jim je podelila dovoljenje za polete, ko pa se je to izteklo, so imeli hude težave z birokracijo.

Pri vseh Šornovih zgodbah, ki jih takole mimogrede slišim, bi moral moj strah že zdavnaj izpuhteti. »Slovenija, pravzaprav oddelek za civilno letalstvo, je do nas takoj začutil simpatijo, zato se je število balonov v Sloveniji strmo dvigovalo, in če sta bila prej pri nas 2, mogoče 3 baloni, jih je bilo v nekaj letih 20, v 5 letih pa že 50. Številka se je ustavila pri 50, 60 balonih,« pove Avi. Nihče pa jih ne izdeluje več sam. Pri vseh Šornovih zgodbah, ki jih takole mimogrede slišim, bi moral moj strah že zdavnaj izpuhteti. Čeprav se ga zelo racionalno trudim premagati, mi ne uspe popolnoma. Ampak počasi se le zmanjšuje. Avi Šorn je Jugoslavijo zastopal že na svetovnem prvenstvu v Kanadi leta 1991, od takrat ni manjkal na nobeni tekmi. Letel je tako rekoč po vsem svetu: Avstraliji, Japonski, ZDA, Novi Zelandiji, Argentini, Boliviji ... In seveda po Evropi ... Najboljši rezultat je bilo 4. mesto na evropskem prvenstvu in 20. na svetovnem. Poleg tega ima 2 diamantni znački, jeseni se bo potegoval še za tretjo. »Za diamantno značko moraš doseči 9.000 m, jaz sem bil na 10.600 m, in to sam, saj ne moreš še koga drugega spravljati v nevarnost. Dovolj je, da sebe. Ker v pol ure dosežeš 10.000 m višine, sledim pri takih podvigih nasvetom dveh prijateljev, zelo dobrih zdravnikov, ki mi izračunata dekompresijo,« razloži.

Ne morem se zadržati in postavim vprašanje, ki se mi zdi tisti trenutek na nekaj sto metrih višine pač najbolj pomembno: »A vas je bilo kaj strah?« »Saj ti možgani več ne delajo,« se zasmeji. Njegov najdaljši polet, to je 150 km, je trajal 6 ur. V rokah trdno drži ‘jamski‘ rekord. Še nikomur se ni uspelo dvigniti 42 m visoko 300 m pod zemljo, tako kot se je njemu v Postojnski jami v Koncertni dvorani na Bergerjevi predstavi Die Traumdeutung. V teh desetletjih, v katerih se Avi Šorn premika ’nad oblaki’ (no, oblačno vreme pravzaprav ni prijazno za balonarje), se je še najbolj spremenila strategija, kako se vrniti po kopnem domov. »Nekdanje razmere so neprimerljive z današnjimi. Ko si včasih pristal, si moral poiskati telefon in poklicati spremljevalce, da so prišli pote, če ti niso sledili tako, da so gledali v zrak in vozili avto približno v tvojo smer. Z današnjo tehniko je to nekaj popolnoma drugega. Balon gre tja, kamor piha veter, res pa je, da na različnih višinah piha v različne smeri. Včasih je celo tako, da na eni višini letiš v eno smer, se spustiš ali dvigneš in lahko pristaneš skoraj na vzletišču,« razloži Avi. No, ampak z naključnimi potniki leti na višini 300 do 500 m. »Toliko, da imajo lep razgled. Nekatere je strah, ker smo prenizko, druge, ker smo previsoko. Potem se pač odločiš za nekaj vmes …« Tretje pa je ves čas strah, bi lahko po pristanku mirno dodala. Ampak mehkost poleta, čudežen pogled na Ljubljano, Barje, ki nima nič skupnega z vsakdanjimi prizori, in končno nežen pristanek zbrišejo iz spomina prestali strah in pustijo zgolj željo po novih dogodivščinah, kot bi rekel Neznalček.


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{ Balooning }


{ Ballooning }

With

Avi Šorn in the Skies

Above Ljubljana Text: Meta Krese

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“F

Photography: Arne Hodalič

lying a balloon is more interesting than flying an aeroplane because you need a better understanding of the weather and you must surrender yourself to the winds. You have to know more about flying itself, and its dynamics. With an aeroplane you simply take your seat, open the throttle, fly to your destination and land. I’m talking about more complicated balloon flights, of course. For simple flights, you just choose a big field, inflate your balloon, go up and come down. You don’t need all sorts of specialist knowledge. But flying as far as you can through valleys, using the winds to your advantage, that’s not easy... And that’s why I have stuck with balloons.” The speaker is hot air balloon pilot Avi Šorn, and he is telling me these things as we rise high into the sky (incredibly high, it seemed to me). As I listen to him I start to understand why people still fly balloons, even though I can’t stop asking myself what I am doing in a wicker basket hundreds of metres above Ljubljana. Was this really necessary, I wonder. It’s true that I had wanted to go up in a balloon ever since I was five years old, when my sister bought me a copy of Dunno’s Adventures by the Russian author Nikolai Nosov, in which one of the most exciting adventures involved a trip in a balloon, but who says it’s healthy to make childhood wishes come true? Even if they’re your own... I’d rather be safely on the ground gazing up into the sky and admiring the pilot’s skill.

Avi Šorn continues: “I became a glider pilot in 1968. At that time there were very few aircraft available and we had to wait a long time for our turn, so the moment we came across a photograph of a hang-glider in a foreign magazine we decided to take up hang-gliding as well. I flew a hang-glider for two years but then, at a hang-gliding competition in Austria, I saw my first hot air balloon – a balloon that could stay up in the air for quite a long time – and I immediately decided that I liked that a lot more.” He and a group of his friends, fellow enthusiasts, made their first balloon themselves. They had to sew the canopy in a school gym because it was the only place big enough for miles around. They used only the best materials and even today, after more than 30 years’ experience, Avi Šorn still believes that the balloon they built was a safe one and that they did everything right. They flew that balloon for several years: they had no money for a new one and in any case there were still so few balloons in the world that replacing it would not have been easy. The Yugoslav military authorities, which in those days took precedence over civilian authorities in aviation matters, granted them an airworthiness certificate, but when this expired they encountered real problems with bureaucracy. “Slovenia, or rather the civil aviation department, immediately took a liking to us and as a result the number of balloons in Slovenia shot up. If to start with there were two, maybe three balloons in the country, within a couple of years there were 20 and within five years there were already 50 of them. The number has now stabilised at around 50 or 60 balloons.” Even if no one makes their own any more. Listening to Šorn’s stories as we fly along, my fear should have evaporated long ago. Although I try very rationally to overcome it, I am not entirely successful. But it is slowly diminishing. Avi Šorn represented Yugoslavia at the FAI World Hot Air Balloon Championship in Canada in 1991 and has not missed a meet since then. He has flown practically all over the world: Australia, Japan, the USA, New Zealand, Argentina, Bolivia... and of course Europe. His best results


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Listening to Šorn’s stories as we fly along, my fear should have evaporated long ago. so far are fourth place at the European Championship and twentieth at the World Championship. He also has two diamond badges and this autumn will try for his third. “To get a diamond badge you have to reach an altitude of 9,000 metres,” explains Avi. “I made it to 10,600 metres. You have to do it solo because you can’t put anyone else in danger. It’s enough that you are putting yourself in danger. Because you reach an altitude of 10,000 metres in half an hour, when attempting these feats I am careful to follow the advice of two friends of mine who are very good doctors and who calculate decompression for me.” I can’t help myself and I ask the question which at that moment, several hundred metres above the ground, seems to me to be the most important one: “Have you ever been scared?” “Your brain just stops working,” he laughs. His longest flight, 150 kilometres, lasted six hours. He is also the undisputed holder of the “cave ballooning” record. No one else has yet succeeded in ascending to a height of 42 metres while 300 metres below the surface of the Earth, as he did in the Concert Hall in Postojna Cave during a performance of Matjaž Berger’s production of Die Traumdeutung.

Over the course of the several decades in which Avi Šorn has been moving “above the clouds” (cloudy weather is actually not very pleasant for balloonists), the biggest change has been to his strategy for getting home again once back on the ground. “There’s no comparison with conditions today,” he tells me. “Back then, when you landed, you had to try and find a telephone and call your backup team to come and get you, unless they had followed you by looking up in the air and driving in roughly your direction. With today’s technology it’s completely different. The balloon goes wherever the wind blows, although it’s true that the wind blows in different directions at different altitudes. Sometimes it can even happen that at one altitude you are flying in one direction, and then you go down or up and find yourself landing almost where you took off.” When he’s carrying passengers he flies at an altitude of between 300 and 500 metres: “Enough for them to have a good view. Some are frightened when we fly too low, others are frightened when we fly too high. So you end up choosing somewhere in between...” Others again are frightened the whole time, I could easily have added once we had landed. Yet the gentleness of the flight, the wonderful view of Ljubljana and the Barje wetland (a view that bears no relation to the panoramas of everyday life), and finally the soft landing – somehow these factors combine to erase the last vestiges of fear from my memory, leaving behind nothing but a desire for new adventures, as Dunno would say.

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Legenda

o razkriti, a še naprej skrivnostni kristalni jami Besedilo: Dragica Bošnjak

Fotografije: Dragica Bošnjak, Charles Crowell in sodelavci Inštituta za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU


Krasoslovje v Združenih arabskih emiratih

S

tarejši domačini so že dolgo namigovali, da se v težko dostopnem skalovju, ki se boči na enem od obmorskih predelov emirata

Ras al Khaimah (RAK) blizu meje z Omanom, za komaj opaznim vhodom v notranjosti skriva ogromna jama ... Od tam naj bi večkrat slišali »nenavadne glasove in šumenje, podobno penjenju morskih valov«, kar naj bi pomenilo, da sega prav do morskega dna. Vendar pa se, so dodali pomenljivo in v svarilo mlajšim, ki bi jih utegnila preveč zamikati

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kakšna nora pustolovščina, da se tisti, ki jih je bila premamila radovednost, niso nikoli vrnili ...

T

ako pravi ena od legend. Naravoslovno usmerjeni raziskovalci, ki vsekakor veljajo za krasoslovce, se lahko ob tem bolj ali manj diskretno nasmehnejo. Legende so pač legende, vedno jih je treba »jemati z rezervo«. Vendar pa so, pripoveduje predstojnik Inštituta za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU v Postojni, dr. Tadej Slabe, v krajih, kamor pridejo prvič in kjer še ni resnih terenskih raziskav in podatkov, gotovo prav staroselci in drugi domačini dragocen vir osnovnih informacij o posameznem območju. Ti lahko veliko pomagajo z napotki, kod in kako do težje dostopnih terenov. Eno takih, sicer terensko ne toliko težko dostopnih, ampak praktično strokovno še skoraj povsem neraziskanih, je tudi že omenjeno območje RAK; po velikosti je to četrti od sedmih Združenih arabskih emiratov s približno 300.000 prebivalci, z bogato zgodovino, skromnejšimi nahajališči nafte, vseeno pa s solidnim življenjskim standardom in predvsem – s sedanjostjo in prihodnostjo, usmerjeno v izobraževanje, znanost in raziskave. Med slednje tako spada – poleg poudarjenega razvoja centra za napredne materiale, kar vključuje področje alternativnih virov energije, skrb za čisto vodo in sonaravni razvoj – tudi raziskovanje njihovega krasa. Tako so slovenski krasoslovci prejeli povabilo dr. Asme Al-Farraj Al Ketbi, profesorice na Oddelku za geografijo Univerze Združenih Arabskih Emiratov (Al-Ain University UAE) in predsednice geografskega združenja ZAE, naj opravijo osnovne terenske raziskave, saj pri njih s tem še niso imeli praktično nobenih izkušenj. Domačini in jamarji so sicer obiskovali nekatere jame, nihče pa jih še ni strokovno proučeval.

Dr. Asma Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi je kot dobra poznavalka geomorfologije območja emirata Ras Al Kaimah, od koder je doma in kjer prebije pretežen del akademskih počitnic, vedela, da je kras tudi precej prevotljen. Zanimala se je za nekatere precej nedostopne vhode v jame in želela, da bi jih poznavalci, torej slovenski krasoslovci, podrobneje raziskali: pomagali bi odkriti jame, ugotovili njihove značilnosti in ocenili, kakšne so možnosti za razvoj jamarstva, gorništva in drugih vrst turizma. Pri tem je profesorico Al-Farraj Al Ketbi podprl tudi šejk emirata RAK Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi, ki je tudi osebno sprejel slovenske raziskovalce in se v pogovoru z njimi zanimal za znanstvenoraziskovalno delo na področju krasoslovja. Njegovo osebje je celo obiskalo slovensko ekipo med terenskim raziskovanjem, posredovali pa so tudi pri navezavi stikov z lokalnimi poznavalci posameznih hribovitih in gorskih predelov. Kot so povedali, se jim zdi zanimiva pobuda dr. Asme Al-Ferraj Al Ketbi, da bi del tamkajšnjega kraškega območja zaščitili kot nacionalni park, kjer bi bile v središču zanimanja prav kraške jame. Kot ponavadi so sestavili interdisciplinarno skupino, v kateri so bili poleg predstojnika, geografa-krasoslovca dr. Slabeta, še dva geologa, dr. Martin Knez in dr. Nada Zupan Hajna, hiodrogeologinja dr. Metka Petrič, pa dr. Franci Gabrovšek, ki se kot fizik ukvarja predvsem z računalniškim modeliranjem krasa, obenem pa je tudi odličen jamar, ter mikrobiolog dr. Janez Mulec.


{ Krasoslovje }

In koliko resnice je bilo v skrivnostni legendi? ( 84 )

Zaenkrat »kakšne nove Postojnske jame« niso odkrili in morda nekoliko razočarali tiste s prevelikimi pričakovanji. A saj so v slabih dveh tednih komaj zaorali prve brazde v ledino na nekaj omejenih območjih. Vseeno pa so zbrali veliko zanimivih podatkov in nabrali vzorce naplavin in sig, ki jih pozneje podrobno analizirajo ter pripravijo poročila tako za objavo v strokovni literaturi kot za aplikativno rabo pri nadaljevanju raziskav oziroma načrtovanju različnih aktivnosti in programov na njihovih kraških območjih. Že ob prvem obisku jih je na drugi lokaciji, ki jo poznajo domačini, čakala »strokovna poslastica« – povsem bela, z debelo skorjo kristalov pokrita jama. Poimenovali so jo »kristalna« in na prvi pogled ocenili, da gre verjetno za tako imenovano hidrotermalno kraško jamo, ki jo bodo seveda še podrobneje raziskali. Kot je ob tem dejala tudi v svetovnih strokovnih krogih vplivna in spoštovana dr. Asma al-Farraj Al Ketbi, načrtujejo s sodelavci nadaljnje tesnejše sodelovanje in nove projekte s skupnim terenskim raziskovanjem, skupnimi publikacijami in pripravljanjem strokovnih osnov za določanje zavarovanih območij oziroma načrtovanje nacionalnih parkov. Pri tem ob omenjanju gorniškega turizma, jamarstva in ostalih dejavnosti posebej poudarjajo skrb za varovanje okolja, vodne vire, sonaraven razvoj ... Spodbudno je še dejstvo, da je uspelo ne le v Emiratih, temveč tudi v svetu uveljavljeni strokovnjakinji Asmi al-Farraj Al Ketbi – med drugim je kolumnistka v družinskih revijah in publikacijah, namenjenih »sodobni ženski« (v arabskem svetu), in zelo »športna« dvakratna babica, ki z zadovoljstvom podpira hčerino izobraževanje v Ameriki in pot v samostojnost – pritegniti k študiju in terenskemu raziskovalnemu delu poleg študentov tudi študentke: izobražene mlade ženske, ki jim verjetno predstavlja vzor na poti v uspešno akademsko kariero. Za slovenske raziskovalce je bilo presenetljivo, kako odmevno so o njihovi raziskovalni skupini poročali mediji; med drugim (poleg številnih televizijskih postaj) so več prispevkov objavili tudi na tematski strani, namenjeni znanosti in raziskovanju v dnevnem časopisu The National iz Dubaja in v več časopisih, ki izhajajo v arabščini, ter drugih medijih na območju Zaliva.


The Legend

of a Still-Mysterious Hidden Crystal Cave Text: Dragica Bošnjak Photography: Dragica Bošnjak, Charles Crowell and researchers of Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU

T

he older locals have long hinted at the existence of an enormous cave with a barely noticeable entrance in a hard-to-access rocky area on the coast of the Ras al Khaimah (RAK) emirate, near the Oman border... They say that “strange voices and murmuring like the foaming of the ocean waves” come from there, which could mean that it reaches right down to the sea bed. But they also add pointedly, as an admonition to youngsters who might be tempted to try some crazy adventure, that those who gave in to their curiosity have never returned... So says one of the legends. But scientifically-oriented researchers, which karstologists undoubtedly are, meet such assertions with varying degrees of discreet laughter. Legends are, well, legends, and you always have to take them with a grain of salt. However, according to the Director of the Karst Research Institute in Postojna, Dr Tadej Slabe, in places where they go for the first time and where no serious fieldwork or data collection has been done, indigenous people and locals are definitely a valuable source of basic information about individual areas. They can be of great assistance with advice about where and how to get to difficult-to-access terrain. One such area, not so difficult to access but to all intents and purposes completely devoid of scientific research is the above-mentioned RAK; in size it is the fourth largest of the seven United Arab Emirates, with a population of approximately 300,000, a rich history, modest oil reserves, but at any rate with a solid standard of living and, particularly as regards education, science and research, a focus on the present and future. The latter, in addition to the focused development of a centre for advanced materials, which includes the fields of alternative energy sources, clean water and sustainable development, also includes research of their karst. Thus it was that Slovene karstologists received an invitation from Dr Asma Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi, a professor in the Geography Department at AlAin University UAE and President of the UAE Geographical Association, to carry out basic fieldwork, of which they themselves have had practically no experience. Some caves have been visited by locals and cavers, but none of them have been studied professionally.

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{ Karstology in the United Arab Emirates }

( 86 )

Dr Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi is very familiar with the geomorphology of the area of the Ras al Khaimah emirate, which is her home and where she spends the majority of her academic holidays, so she knew that their karst is also full of caves. She was interested in some fairly inaccessible cave entrances and wanted experts, i.e. Slovene karstologists, to study them in more detail: help them discover caves, determine their characteristics and assess the possibilities for the development of caving, mountaineering and other forms of tourism. Professor Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi received support from the Sheik of the RAK emirate, Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi, who also personally accompanied the Slovene researchers and asked them about their scientific research in the field of karstology. His staff also visited the Slovene team during their fieldwork, and helped them establish connections with locals who were familiar with the individual hilly and mountainous regions. They said that they were intrigued by Dr Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi’s initiative to protect this karst region as a national park, in which the karst caves would be the focal point. As is customary, an interdisciplinary team was formed consisting of a team leader, geographer/karstologist Dr Slabe, two geologists, Dr Martin Knez and Dr Nada Zupan Hajna, hydrogeologist Dr Metka Petrič, physicist Dr Franci Gabrovšek, who is mainly involved in computer modelling of karst areas, and is at the same time an excellent caver, and microbiologist Dr Janez Mulec.

And how truthful were those mysterious legends? For the time being they have not discovered a “new Postojna Cave”, which is perhaps slightly disappointing to those with excessively high expectations. With less than two weeks at their disposal, however, they barely scratched the surface in some of the areas in question. But they did collect a lot of interesting data and samples of alluvial deposits, dripstone and flowstone, which they will later analyse in detail and use as a basis for reports for publication in specialist journals, which will also have a practical application in further research and a variety of activities and programmes in other karst regions. Even during their first visit they enjoyed a “professional treat” at another location known to

the locals, a totally white hidden cave thickly encrusted with crystals. They gave it the working title of “crystal”, but at first glance hypothesised that it was probably what is known as a hydrothermal karst cave, which they will of course study in greater detail. According to Dr Asma Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi, who is influential and respected in professional circles around the world, she and her colleagues are planning to continue their close cooperation and new projects including joint fieldwork, joint publications and the preparation of background documentation in order to establish protected areas or plan national parks. With regard to mountain tourism, caving and other activities, they are placing particular emphasis on protecting the environment, water resources, sustainable development, etc. Particularly encouraging is the fact that Dr Al-Farraj Al-Ketbi, a recognised expert not only in the Emirates but around the world – she also writes columns in family magazines and publications aimed at “modern women” (in the Arab world), and is a very athletic grandmother of two who is happy to support her daughter’s education in America and her journey to independence – has succeeded in attracting not only male students to study and perform fieldwork, but also female students: educated young women to whom she undoubtedly represents a model on their path to a successful academic career. The Slovene researchers were surprised at how much attention their research group received in the media; several television stations provided coverage and a number of articles were published in the science and research section of the Dubai-based daily newspaper The National, and in Arabic-language newspapers, and other media in the Gulf region.

A


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N

ajbrž ni treba podrobno razlagati, kako take znanstvenoraziskovalne odprave, ki so vedno povezane s terenskim delom, tovorijo s seboj poleg ustreznih oblačil, obutve in plezalno-jamarske opreme tudi terensko laboratorijsko opremo, zraven pa še pravcate kamnoseške pripomočke. In kako so ob vrnitvi vedno potrebni še pravi logistični podvigi, da bi dodatno »najtežjo«, a dragoceno vsebino prtljage – vzorce kamenja in drugo – pretovorili domov. Primerki kamnin najrazličnejših oblik, velikosti, barv in sestave, ki jih izbrskajo med terenskim raziskovanjem, poznavalcem že na pogled pomagajo razbrati ali vsaj oceniti geološke procese, ki so se na posameznih območjih dogajali v minulih stoletjih ali tisočletjih. Mozaik s podatki se namreč pozneje dopolni z domačimi laboratorijskimi raziskavami, nova strokovna spoznanja pa ponavadi predstavijo v uglednih mednarodnih znanstvenih publikacijah. In šele ko se nepoznavalec lahko pobližje spozna z izjemno obsežnimi in povsod po svetu odmevnimi rezultati znanstvenoraziskovalnega dela slovenskih krasoslovcev, je mogoče razumeti, kako lahko sredi na videz puščobne kamnite pokrajine ob vznožju goratih gmot v peklenski vročini ali v blatu do kolen navdušeno razlagajo, da so sredi pravega raja za raziskovanje ... Tudi zato je bilo za nas že zdavnaj doseženo pomembno priznanje, da so kras – te svojevrstne pokrajine, ki se razvija na karbonatnih kamninah – poimenovali prav po slovenskem krasu. Z njegovimi opisi se je začelo razvijati krasoslovje, ki se po zaslugah naših krasoslovcev uveljavlja tudi kot samostojna znanstvena veda.

I

t is probably unnecessary to explain in detail that for these types of scientific expeditions, which always include fieldwork, in addition to the required clothing, footwear and climbing and caving equipment, you also have to bring field laboratory equipment, as well as real stonecutting tools. And that when you return you have to deal with the logistical challenges of carrying your “heaviest” but invaluable cargo – rock and other samples – home. The specimens of the most varied shapes, sizes, colours and composition which are taken during the field research can help specialists even at first glance determine or at least estimate the geological processes that occurred in individual areas in bygone centuries and millennia. This mosaic of data is later supplemented by laboratory research at home, and new scientific findings are usually presented in respected international scientific journals. Only when the layperson can approximately appreciate the incredible extent and global impact of the scientific work of Slovene karstologists is it possible to understand how in the middle of a barren rocky landscape, at the foot of mountainous landmasses, in infernal heat or in mud up to their knees they can exclaim that they are in research heaven... For this reason as well we long ago achieved an important recognition that the German translation of our word kras (Karst) is used as the international term for the unique landscapes that develop over carbonate aggregates. The study of karstology developed from descriptions of it, and thanks to the continued contributions of our karstologists is just now beginning to be established as an independent scientific discipline.


Predjamski grad

( 88 )

Sveže češnje iz obleganega gradu S

krivnostni grad šarmantnega razbojniškega viteza, skrit globoko v kraškem svetu Slovenije, je bil stoletja

miren pred osvajalci. Danes ga dnevno obišče na stotine ljudi s celega sveta. Besedilo in fotografije: Luka Dakskobler


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{ Predjamski grad }

P

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redjamski grad so dali v dvanajstem stoletju zgraditi oglejski patriarhi blizu jamborne ceste, na delu, ki je bil del trgovske povezave med celino in Trstom, in sicer v jami, ki je del drugega največjega jamskega sistema v Sloveniji, dolgega več kot 14 km. V njem je najprej živela rodbina Luegg oz. vitezi Jamski, ki jim je pripadal tudi Erazem, razbojniški vitez. O njem pripoveduje legenda, da so ga po sporu s habsburškim cesarjem Friderikom III. in po uboju cesarjevega sorodnika obsodili na smrt. Zato se je skril v Predjamski grad, kjer ga je po dolgem iskanju izsledila cesarjeva vojska in grad oblegala leto in en dan. Čakali so, da Erazmu poidejo zaloge hrane in se preda, toda Erazem jim je z gradu pošiljal hrano, s katero se je ves čas oskrboval prek skrivnega jamskega rova. Ko jim je spomladi 1484 z gradu metal zrele češnje iz Vipave, ki jih tedaj v Predjami še ni bilo, se je vojski posvetilo in podkupili so Erazmovega služabnika, da jim je pokazal najšibkejšo točko gradu in jim signaliziral, kdaj se v njej nahaja Erazem. Tako je legendarnega viteza zadela topovska krogla, ravno ko je opravljal potrebo na grajskem stranišču. Njegovo dekle naj bi ga bilo pokopalo ob cerkvi v Predjami in na grob zasadilo lipo, ki je tam še danes. Stara lipa, zdaj že povsem votla, res stoji pred cerkvijo, ki jo je verjetno dal zgraditi Erazmov oče v 15. stoletju. Kasneje, v letih, ko so srednjeveške gradove opuščali in so ti začeli propadati, so grofi Cobenzl sezidali še vhodni renesančni stolp in grad je dobil današnjo obliko. Zadnji lastniki so bili knezi Windisch-

grätz, ki so ga imeli za lovsko postojanko. Od druge svetovne vojne je v državni lasti, leta 1999 razglašen za kulturni spomenik, v njem pa so oskrbniki živeli vse do leta 1989. Uradno se grad imenuje Jama, saj razen vhodnega stolpa ves leži v jami. Njegovi zidovi se zdijo skoraj naravno zliti s skalnato steno zadaj, zeleno od plesni in mestoma mokro, saj v jamskem svetu od vsepovsod teče voda. V spomladanskih in jesenskih mesecih je v gradu več kot 80-odstotna vlaga, zato morajo vsako leto vsaj tretjino gradu pokitati in prebeliti z apnom. Najverjetneje so nekoč v grad vstopali po lestvi v drugo nadstropje, kar je bilo na strmem pobočju pogosto nadomestilo obrambnega jarka in dvižnega mostu, ki so ju dočakali kasneje, ko so z umirjanjem razmer vhod prestavili v prvo nadstropje in naposled v pritličje. Grad so neprestano širili in prezidavali, zato je do danes ostala v njem marsikatera uganka – npr. vrata, ki ne vodijo nikamor. Nekoč je veljalo, da se je grad širil iz jame navzven, po zadnji prenovi leta 1989 pa so dognali, da je najprej nastal osrednji del današnjega gradu. Nato so v strahu, da ne bi kdo vendarle prebil meter in pol debele stene, zgradili globlji, jamski del, tega pa kasneje opustili in zgradili vhodni stolp, ki pravzaprav edini leži pred jamo. Na nekdaj zunanji steni gradu sta jasno vidna zazidana vhoda v prvo in drugo nadstropje. Danes ga vsako leto obišče okrog 110.000 turistov, ki si ga ponavadi ogledajo skupaj s Postojnsko jamo. Njihove duhove burita predvsem mučilnica in sodna dvorana z globokim breznom, v katerega so menda


( 91 )

metali na smrt obsojene. V jami za gradom si na stropu lahko ogledajo jeklene različice zbiralnikov vode, v katere so v srednjem veku lovili vodo in jo po kanalih speljali po vsem gradu. Od tod vodijo jamarji manjše skupine skozi Erazmov rov, ki je dolg le 37 metrov, a skoraj navpičen, zato se morajo obiskovalci privezati. Večkrat na dan lahko turisti vstopijo tudi v spodnjo jamo 25 metrov pod vhodom v grad, si s svetilkami svetijo pot skozi del jamskega sistema in 25 metrov nad gradom spet pogledajo na svetlo. V jami so vidni podpisi obiskovalcev od 16. stoletja dalje, tu pa prebiva tudi 12 vrst netopirjev, ki so zaščiteni, zato je jama v času njihovega zimskega spanja zaprta. Zgornji del se imenuje Fiženca, ker je po izročilu na izhodu nekoč rasla figa, ki je zaradi toplejšega jamskega zraka ni vzela zima. Po dogovoru se skupine lahko odpravijo tudi na zahtevnejši ogled, ki traja do pet ur. Osrednja prireditev pod Predjamskim gradom je vsakoletni Erazmov viteški turnir, julijska dvodnevna srednjeveška prireditev z viteškimi dvoboji in predstavami ter nočnim ognjenim obleganjem gradu. Obišče jo okrog 10.000 ljudi. Predjamski grad še danes buri duhove. Dobesedno. Pred leti ga je obiskala ekipa lovcev na duhove iz ZDA in jih ni le našla, ampak tudi posnela. Kajpak, največ v mučilnici. Od tedaj zanimanje za »predjamske duhove« narašča. Svoje nenavadnosti še vedno ponuja tudi jamski svet. Ista termika, ki naj bi ohranjala pri življenju figovo drevo, postreže tudi z zvončki, ki rastejo na travniku pred gradom – v času božiča.

{ Predjama Castle }


{ Predjama Castle }

Fresh Cherries From a Besieged

Castle Text and photography: Luka Dakskobler

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eep in the heart of Slovenia’s Karst region, this mysterious castle, once the home of a dashing knight-brigand, remained an impregnable stronghold for centuries. Today it is a popular tourist destination, with hundreds of visitors every day from all over the world. In the 12th century, the Aquileia patriarchs had Predjama Castle built close to what was called the Mast Road, part of a trade route between the interior of the continent and Trieste, more specifically in a cave that is part of the second biggest cave system in Slovenia, more than 14 km long. It was first inhabited by the Luegg family, otherwise known as the Jamski or Cave knights, who included Erasmus, the knight-brigand, of whom legend records that, following a dispute with the the Emperor, Frederick III, and the murder of one of the Emperor's relatives, he was condemned to death and took refuge in Predjama Castle, to which he was tracked down after a long search by the imperial army, which besieged the castle for a year and a day. They waited for Erasmus' supplies of food to run out and for him to give up, but Erasmus actually sent them food from the castle, since throughout the siege he was being supplied via a secret cave passage. When he threw ripe Vipava cherries – the cherries were still not ready in Predjama – down to his besiegers in the spring of 1484, the army saw the light, and bribed one of Erasmus' servants to show them the weakest point of the castle, and then signal when Erasmus was in it. The legendary knight was hit by a cannonball as he was seated answering the call of nature in the castle privy. His consort is said to have had him buried by the church at Predjama, and planted a linden on the grave, which stands to this day. In front of the church, which was probably built on the orders of Erasmus' father in the 15th century, there is indeed an old linden, now completely hollow. Later on, at a time when medieval castles were being abandoned and starting to fall into disrepair, the counts of Cobenzl built the Renaissance entrance tower, and the castle acquired the appearance it retains today. The last owners were the princes of Windischgrätz, who used it as a hunting lodge. Since the Second World War it has been in state ownership, and in 1999 it was declared a cultural monument. Caretakers lived in it until 1989.

Officially the castle is named Jama (Cave), since apart from the entrance tower, it lies entirely inside the cave. Its walls seem almost naturally welded to the rock face behind it, which is green from mould and wet in places, since water flows every which way in that cave environment. In the spring and autumn months the humidity is more than 80 percent, so every year at least a third of the castle needs to be plugged up and whitewashed. The entrance to the castle was no doubt originally via a ladder to the second floor, which on a steep slope was a common substitute for a moat and drawbridge, something that came later, when the more peaceful conditions allowed the movement of the entrance to the first floor and ultimately to the ground floor. The castle was continuously expanded and rebuilt, so today there remain quite a few puzzles – such as a door leading nowhere. It was once thought that expansion was from the cave outwards, but after the last renovation in 1989 it was concluded that first came the central part of today’s castle, then in fear of someone actually breaching the metre-and-a-half thick walls, they constructed the deeper, cave section, abandoning it later and constructing the entrance tower, which in fact is the only part situated pred jamo,


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that is, in front of the cave. The entrances to the first and second storeys can clearly be seen on the former external wall of the castle. Today it is toured each year by around 110,000 visitors, who usually include it as part of a trip to Postojna Cave. They are usually stirred most by the torture chamber and the judgement hall, with its deep chasm into which, it is thought, the condemned were thrown. In the cave at the back of the castle, on the ceiling you can see steel versions of the water collection system used in medieval times to catch water and channel it throughout the castle. From there, cave guides take small groups through Erasmus' Passage, which is just 37 metres long, but almost vertical, so visitors must be harnessed to ropes. Several times a day, visitors can also enter the lower cave, 25 metres below the castle entrance, light their way with flashlights through part of the cave system, and then come back out into daylight 25 metres above the castle. Inside the cave you can see the signatures of visitors from the 16th century onwards, and this is also home to 12 species of bat, which are protected, so the cave is closed during their hibernation period. The upper section is called Fiženca, after the Slovene word for

fig, since according to tradition a fig tree once grew at the exit, where the warmer air from the cave provided shelter from the winter chill. By special arrangement, groups can also undertake a more difficult tour that lasts up to five hours. The main public event below Predjama Castle is the annual Erasmus Knights' Tournament, a two-day medieval spectacle in July, featuring duels and shows, and a night-time siege of fire around the castle. This event is attended by around 10,000 people. Predjama Castle continues to stir up spirits today. Literally. A few years ago a team of ghost hunters from the USA visited the castle, and not only found ghosts, but recorded them. Mainly, of course, in the torture chamber. Since that time, interest in “Predjama ghosts” has been growing. And the cave environment continues to offer its own extraordinary features. The same thermal system that supposedly kept the fig tree alive, now provides snowdrops, which grow in the meadow in front of the castle – at Christmas time.

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LJUBLJANA

Ivan Hribar,, župan, ki je obnovil

po potresu porušeno mesto ( 94 )

Besedilo: Alja Bukovec

Fotografije: iz arhiva Zmaga Tančiča


M

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van Hribar velja za legendarnega župana in ima v zgodovini Ljubljane posebno mesto zaradi doprinosa k njenemu razvoju. Z arhitek-

turno-urbanistično prenovo v času njegovega županovanja je mesto poleg mnogih infrastrukturnih novosti, ki so pomenile pomemben korak k moderni deželni prestolnici, dobilo tudi veliko narodno pomembnih poslopij in novo secesijsko podobo.

agistrat je Ivan Hribar prevzel leta 1896 na prvih volitvah, in to po katastrofalnem potresu, ki je Ljubljano prizadel na velikonočno nedeljo 14. aprila 1895. Zaradi več kot tisoč porušenih ali poškodovanih hiš se je mesto znašlo pred izzivom izrednega obsega in Ivan Hribar, ki je bil v času potresa mestni svetnik, je že takrat z močno voljo in vizijo bodoče Ljubljane aktivno stopil v osredje mestne politike in pripomogel k ureditvi razmer, da je življenje v mestu kar se da hitro steklo naprej. Za njegovo aktivno delovanje so ga na naslednjih volitvah nagradili z izvolitvijo za župana mesta Ljubljane. Magistrat mu je prepustil župan Peter Grasselli in tako je Hribar postal drugi župan slovenske narodnosti v zgodovini mesta Ljubljane. Bil je gospodarstvenik, politik, pesnik, prevajalec, pisatelj, svojo sposobnost pa je dokazal tudi z izredno uspešnostjo pri poslu; formalno je sicer končal le nižjo gimnazijo, nadalje pa se je izobraževal sam ob delu. Svojo prvo zaposlitev je dobil pri zastopniku praške banke Slavije v Ljubljani, kjer je hitro napredoval. Služboval je na njenih zastopstvih v Ljubljani, Pragi, Brnu, na Dunaju in v Trstu. Izkušnje iz bančništva je spretno uporabil pri zbiranju finančnih virov iz tedanjega središča avstroogrske monarhije in pridobivanjem novih investitorjev za obnovo Ljubljane, tako da je bilo za časa njegovega županovanja (1896–1910) obdobje živahne gradnje – mestni stavbni volumen se je takrat več kot podvojil. Tako je uspel katastrofalni davek potresa izkoristiti za korenite urbanistične in gradbene posege. Popotresne obnove se je mestna oblast, čeprav so okoliščine zahtevale naglo ukrepanje, lotila premišljeno. Za normalizacijo stanja so razpisali javni razpis za nov regulacijski načrt, ki bi hkrati odprl pot novi moderni mestni ureditvi. Predlog za obnovo je prvi predložil slavni urbanist Camillo Sitte z Dunaja. Za njim sta svoji viziji predstavila še takratni sodelavec Otta Wagnerja in profesor na dunajski tehnični univerzi Maks Fabiani ter arhitekt Kranjske stavbinjske družbe v Ljubljani, Adolf Wolf. Najbolj jih je navdušil Fabianijev načrt z okrožno cesto ali s t. i. ringom po zgledu Dunaja, Gradca in drugih mest, ki je obkrožil notranjo zaključeno mestno enoto in jo ločil od zunanjih predmestnih. Čeprav je bil načrt le delno uresničen, so nekateri njegovi predlogi aktualni še dandanes. Arhitekt Maks Fabiani je na razvoj Ljubljane vplival ne le z idejami za regulacijo mesta, pač pa je pomemben tudi njegov odnos do ohranjanja zgodovinske zapuščine mesta. Cenil je zaključeno celoto baročne stare Ljubljane in z namenom, da se ohranita usklajena arhitekturna podoba in višinska dominanta Ljubljanskega gradu, je priporočil tudi stavbno višino treh nadstropij v središču mesta. Arhitekturo po potresu je zaznamovalo več stilov. Za gradnjo novih reprezentativnih družbenih poslopij je veljalo mnenje, da so najbolj primerni tradicionalni historični slogi. V neorenesančnem slogu smo tako dobili deželni dvorec, opero, narodni muzej in druge stavbe. V tem času se je po Evropi uveljavljal tudi nov slog, njegov nosilec pa je bilo predvsem moderno meščanstvo. Po letu 1898 tako tudi pri nas najdemo prva arhitekturna dela z značilnostmi umetnosti fin-de-siecla, ki so med Prešernovim trgom in železniško postajo nadomestila v potresu

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poškodovane hiše. V ta sklop secesijske Ljubljane spadajo stavba Mestne hranilnice ljubljanske, hotel Union arhitekta Josipa Vancaša, prva veleblagovnica v mestu – Urbančeva hiša – arhitekta Friedricha Siegmundta, Fabianijeva Bambergova hiša, Hribarjeva hiša in mnoge druge, ki skupaj tvorijo še tretjo zaključeno slogovno celoto – secesijsko Ljubljano. Kakšne so bile Hribarjeve oblikovne preference, ni znano, pač pa naj bi bila nanj naredila velik vtis Praga s svojimi številnimi stolpiči. Zato lahko predvidevamo, da je imel besedo pri podobi vogalnih zaključkov hiš okrog takrat urejenega Miklošičevega parka pred Sodiščem (Čudnova hiša, Krisperjeva hiša in druge). V njegovi viziji razvoja mesta je bila predvsem najprej ureditev temelje infrastrukture in modernizacija mesta, spodbujanje gospodarske rasti za dvig materialnih razmer in ravni izobrazbe, kar naj bi vodilo v duhovno neodvisnost slovenskega naroda. Hribar je tako v popotresni obnovi uredil vodovod in kanalizacijo, za katero je poskrbel že pred potresom in za zasluge pri tem dobil leta 1890 naziv častnega meščana Ljubljane. Zgradil je prvo ljubljansko elektrarno, mesto je dobilo javno cestno razsvetljavo in novo obliko javnega prometa – tramvaj. Infrastrukturne novosti so vplivale na hitrejšo urbanizacijo in industrializacijo mesta, ki se je počasi spreminjalo v moderno deželno prestolnico. Hribar je bil spreten prekupčevalec s posestvi tudi v privatnem življenju. Njegova hčerka dr. Zlata Hribar je v svojem zapisu ob razstavi Mestnega muzeja leta 1997 o svojem očetu zapisala, da je bil dober

gospodar, ki je z veseljem gradil in ustvarjal kaj novega. Svojo prvo hišo je zgradil v Cerkljah, zatem je bila leta 1907 po načrtih Maksa Fabianija dokončana Hribarjeva hiša na Slovenski cesti v Ljubljani, prepoznavna po svoji valoviti fasadi. Le-to je bil med prvo svetovno vojno prisiljen prodati in kupiti vilo Zlatico v Rožni dolini. Poslopje je takoj, ko je bilo mogoče, posodobil in dokupil sosednji vrt. Načrt za prenovo je pripravil Josip Costaperaria, znan arhitekt ljubljanskega modernega meščanstva, ki je hiši dodal prizidek na vrtni strani in vhodni del. Vila Zlatica sedaj čaka na novo poglavje, saj je po želji pokojne Hribarjeve hčere, ki je vilo zapustila državi, v pripravi načrt za obnovo že močno dotrajane hiše. V njej naj bi Mestni muzej razstavil zbirko zgodovinsko dragocenih Hribarjevih predmetov in uredil zapuščino ljubljanskega meščanstva. Leta 1936 je dal zgraditi še svoj zadnji projekt, vilo Sončnico na Bledu, kjer je zopet sodeloval z arhitektom Costaperario. Tako kot je bilo njegovo življenje polno izzivov, ki jih je premagoval z odločnostjo in neustavljivo energijo, je tudi njegov konec nekako v stilu. 18. aprila 1941 je namreč zaradi prizadetosti ob okupaciji Ljubljane pri svojih devetdesetih letih zavit v jugoslovansko zastavo skočil v Ljubljanico. Na tem mestu je danes po njem poimenovano Hribarjevo nabrežje, kjer so lani odkrili kip, delo akademskega kiparja Mirsada Begića, ki predstavlja Ivana Hribarja v trenutku, ko z Dunaja prejme pismo, v katerem je zapisana cesarjeva podpora pri obnovi popotresne Ljubljane.


foto: Alja Bukovec

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Ivan Hribar, the Mayor who Rebuilt from

the Rubble of the Earthquake Text: Alja Bukovec

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Photography: Zmago Tančič Archives

van Hribar is regarDeD as a legenDarY MaYOr WhO hOlDs a special place in Ljubljana’s history thanks to his contribution to the city’s development. The architectural and urban renewal during the period when he was mayor allowed the city to acquire not just a range of new infrastructure that signified a major step towards becoming a modern provincial capital, but also a large number of buildings of national importance and a new appearance reflecting the style of the Vienna Secession. Hribar was elected mayor in 1896, in the first mayoral elections after the catastrophic earthquake that hit Ljubljana on 14 April 1895 – Easter Sunday. With more than a thousand buildings destroyed or damaged, the city faced a challenge of extraordinary dimensions, and Ivan Hribar, who was a city councillor at the time of the earthquake, came to the fore of city politics with what was, even then, strong will and vision for the future of Ljubljana, and helped to bring some order to the city so its life could continue as smoothly as possible. His active efforts were rewarded at the next elections, when he was voted in as mayor of the city of Ljubljana, taking over from Peter Grasselli at the Town Hall and becoming only the second mayor of Slovene ethnicity in Ljubljana’s history. Hribar was a businessman, politician, poet, translator and writer, and he demonstrated his abilities through his extraordinary success in business; formally he only completed lower grammar school education, but while employed he continued his education on his own after work. He obtained his first employment with the agent of the Prague bank Slavija


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in Ljubljana, where he gained rapid promotion. He worked in the bank’s branches in Ljubljana, Prague, Brno, Vienna and Trieste. He skilfully employed his experiences from banking in garnering sources of finance from the then centre of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and in securing new investors for the renewal of Ljubljana, which made his terms as mayor (1896-1910) a period of lively construction. During this time the physical volume of buildings in the city more than doubled. In this way he was able to exploit the catastrophic toll of the earthquake for radical urban planning and construction projects. Although the circumstances demanded immediate action, the postearthquake renewal was tackled prudently by the city authorities. In order to bring the situation back to normal, a public tender was issued for a new regulatory plan, which would at the same time open up the way for a new, modern arrangement of the city. A proposal for renewal was first submitted by the famous Viennese urban planner Camillo Sitte. Following him, specific visions were presented by the then associate of Otto Wagner and professor at the Vienna Technical University, Max Fabiani, and by the architect of the Carniolan Buildings Society in Ljubljana, Adolf Wolf. The greatest enthusiasm was generated by Fabiani’s plan, with its circular or ring road along the lines of Vienna, Graz and other cities, which circled the complete inner urban unit and separated it from the outer suburbs.

Although the plan was only partly implemented, some of its ideas are still current today. The architect Max Fabiani influenced the development of Ljubljana not just through his ideas for regulating the city, but also through his approach to preserving the historical legacy of the city. He valued the integrity of the baroque Old Town, and in order to preserve a harmonious architectural appearance and the towering eminence of Ljubljana Castle, he also recommended a building height of three storeys in the city centre. Post-earthquake architecture was characterised by several styles. Regarding the construction of new prestigious public buildings, the prevalent opinion was that traditional historical styles were the most appropriate. Thus the city acquired a provincial palace, opera house, national museum and other buildings in the NeoRenaissance style. At this time a new style was also becoming established across Europe, and its champions were primarily the new urban middle class. After 1898 we can thus identify the first architectural works featuring fin-de-siècle art, which replaced buildings damaged by the earthquake between Prešeren Square and the railway station. Ljubljana’s Secession-style buildings include the Ljubljana City Savings Bank, the Hotel Union by architect Josip Vancaš, the Urbanc building – the first department store in the city – by architect Friedrich Siegmundt, Fabiani’s


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Bamberg building, the Hribar building and many others, which together form a stylistic whole. Precisely what Hribar’s own design preferences were is not known, but he was apparently greatly influenced by Prague, with its numerous little towers. We may therefore imagine that he had some say in the appearance of the buildings around the newly laid-out Miklošič Park in front of the Law Courts (the Čuden and Krisper buildings and others). At the forefront of his vision for developing the city was the arrangement of basic infrastructure and modernisation of the city, and the promotion of economic growth to raise material standards and the level of education, which would lead to the spiritual independence of the Slovene nation. In the post-earthquake renewal, Hribar thus saw to the arrangement of mains water and sewerage, something he had worked to ensure even before the earthquake, thereby earning for himself in 1890 the title of Citizen of Honour of Ljubljana. He oversaw the construction of the first Ljubljana power station, the city’s acquisition of street lighting and a new form of public transport – a tram service. The new infrastructure contributed to the more rapid urbanisation and industrialisation of the city, which gradually developed into a modern provincial capital. Hribar was also a skilful property dealer in his private life. In her notes for the exhibition at the City Museum in 1997, his daughter Dr Zlata Hribar wrote of her father that he was a good businessman who was very happy to build and create anew. He built his first house in Cerklje, then the Hribar building, constructed to plans by Max Fabiani and famous for its undulating façade, was completed on Slovenska Cesta in Ljubljana

in 1907. He was forced to sell this during the First World War, and he purchased the Villa Zlatica in the Rožna Dolina area. As soon as he could, he modernised the building and acquired the neighbouring garden. The renovation plans were drawn up by Josip Costaperaria, a famous architect of Ljubljana’s modern urban middle class, who added to the building a structure on the garden side and an entrance section. Villa Zlatica is currently awaiting a new chapter, since according to the wishes of Hribar’s now deceased daughter, who left the villa to the state, plans are being drawn up for the renovation of the seriously deteriorated building. In the future the villa will be used to house an exhibition of items of historical value connected to Hribar and the legacy of Ljubljana’s burgher class. In 1936 he commissioned the construction of his last project, Villa Sončnica in Bled, where he again collaborated with Costaperaria. Just as his life was full of challenges, which he overcame through determination and indefatigable energy, his end came in something of the same style. On 18 April 1941, faced with the blow of the wartime occupation of Ljubljana, he wrapped himself in the Yugoslav flag and jumped into the River Ljubljanica. He was ninety years old. Today the embankment where he died is called the Hribar Embankment, and last year a statue was unveiled here in his honour. It is the work of Academy-trained sculptor Mirsad Begić, who portrayed Ivan Hribar at the moment when he received a letter from Vienna registering the Emperor’s support for the renewal of post-earthquake Ljubljana.

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KamÄ?atka

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Vijuganje

po zasneženih deviških strminah ( 103 )

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ijuganje po deviškem snegu daleč stran od civilizacije hitro zasvoji vsakega smučarja. Potem, ko

smučanje po večini prestižnih evropskih in severnoameriških smučiščih postane že večkrat prebrana knjiga, je helikoptersko smučanje izziv, ki se mu le težko upreš, saj je dostopnost zasneženih deviških strmin v visokogorju resnična avantura, vredna prav vsake minute, ki jo preživiš na spustih v dolino. Potrebno je imeti le srečo z vremenom in zaupati pilotom ter gorskim vodnikom, ki jim v tistih nekaj dneh, ko si v divjini, zaupaš svoje življenje. Besedilo in fotografije: Aleš Fevžer


{ Kamčatka }

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oja pot z Adrio Airways od Brnika do Moskve je minila hitro v primerjavi z enajsturnim nadaljevanjem proti Petropavlovsku na Kamčatki. Prostorni Iljušin je bil povsem zaseden in poleg domačinov je bilo na njem precej tujcev v smučarskih bundah, ki so klepetali v različnih jezikih. »Dežela ognja in ledu«, kot domačini imenujejo Kamčatko, nas je pričakala v oblačnem vremenu, a nas je vodič Kolja pozdravil s širokim nasmehom in od sonca ožganim obrazom, kar je bil dober obet. Polurna vožnja do hotela v Paratunki na obronku mesta je minila med spoznavanjem novih prijateljev z vseh koncev sveta. Že popoldanski teoretični in praktični pouk o uporabi opreme za reševanje v primeru plazu ali nesreče in pripomočkov za varno smučanje nas je napolnil z adrenalinom. Med skupno večerjo smo že klepetali kot velika družina, čeprav smo bili zbrani z vseh vetrov: Francozi, Italijani, Švicarji, Nemci, Angleži, Avstralec, par z Nove Zelandije, Američani, majhna skupina Rusov in dva Slovenca. Komaj smo čakali na naslednje jutro, ko smo takoj po zajtrku odšli na zasneženo polje tik ob hotelu, kamor se je čez nekaj minut spustil orjaški MI-8 z bližnjega letališča. Dvanajst smučarjev in trije vodniki smo v notranjost jeklenega ptiča hitro zložili vso opremo in dva zaboja s hrano ter se v nekaj minutah leta povzpeli nad bližnje hribe. Prvi spusti so bili bolj kratki in so služili ogrevanju za kasnejše daljše in zahtevnejše terene, na katerih smo presmučali do osemsto višinskih metrov med vsakim spustom. Osemkrat smo se dvignili pod oblake in vsakič pristali drugje, tako da smo cel dan smučali po deviškem snegu. Ko so se sredi dneva oglasili lačni želodci, je bil čas za kosilo in prava mala gostija na snegu (surov losos, topla juha, domač kruh, salama, sir, sadje, sokovi, energijske ploščice in razni priboljški) je poskrbela, da je tudi preostanek dneva minil v dobrem razpoloženju, pa čeprav je narava popoldne pokazala zobe in smo komaj ušli manjšemu snežnemu plazu, ki se je sprožil pod našimi nogami. Kljub temu da je prvi vodnik že preizkusil teren in sta dva izmed nas že prismučala v dolino, se je pod robniki naslednjega smučarja začela dogajati prava drama. Prerezal je vrhnjo plast snega in videti je bilo, kot da se je hrib pod njim začel premikati. Na srečo smo vsi hitro dojeli, kaj se dogaja in odsmučali na varno. Plaz zaradi svoje velikosti ni bil življenjsko nevaren. Vsi pa smo bili opremljeni z ABS napihljivimi nahrbtniki, ki v primeru nesreče služijo kot zračna blazina v avtomobilu; a vsaka poškodba, ki ti lahko prepreči nadaljnje smučanje, je lahko precej neprijetna. Večerni obisk savne in kopanje v bazenu s termalno vodo pred hotelom sta bila pravšnja sprostitev po adrenalina polnem dnevu. Novo jutro ni prineslo dobrih novic, saj je močan veter pomenil preveliko nevarnost za letenje. Čakanje na izboljšanje je trajalo cel dan, a ker tudi po kosilu ni kazalo, da se bo veter umiril, smo preostanek sončne svetlobe namenili krajšemu izletu s turnimi smučmi. Tudi naslednji dan je bil veter premočan in postajali smo vse bolj slabe volje, saj smo z vso opremo dvakrat zaman čakali pred vrati. Popoldne smo preživeli na majhnem lokalnem smučišču in se med potjo nazaj na vaški tržnici preobjedli kaviarja, ki je bil smešno poceni. Ko smo že malce podvomili, če sta se dolga pot in časovna razlika, zaradi katere smo se prve dni zbujali sredi noči, izplačali, je sledil eden najlepših smučarskih dni v mojem življenju. Hladno jutro se je razvilo v čudovit dan in med poletom proti 2741 metrov visokemu vrhu delujočega ognjeni-


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ka Avačinski smo bili prijetno vznemirjeni. Med spustom s smučmi smo zavili malo iz smeri in se zelo previdno približali robu kraterja, iz katerega se je valil gost dim. Žveplo je smrdelo po gnilih jajcih in hitro smo se odpravili dalje, saj sta nas čakala več kot tisoč višinskih metrov spusta po nedotaknjeni belini in še cel dan letenja. Večino dneva smo preživeli na grebenu, s katerega se je videl skoraj celoten zaliv Avača – to je nekakšen naravni valobran, ki ščiti Petropavlovsk pred valovi Ohotskega morja. Sledilo je še nekaj smučarskih dni, ki so nasitili naše želje po užitkih v pršiču, zato se je poslovilna zabava zadnji večer pred odhodom domov zavlekla daleč v jutranje ure. Skovali smo mnoge načrte, saj je na svetu še veliko podobnih helikopterskih priložnosti, ki so vredne obiska. Na vrhu spiska je Kanada s svojimi prostranstvi pa Aljaska, Kavkaz, Uzbekistan, Čile, Nova Zelandija, Indija, Nepal in še mnoge druge države, ki ponujajo smučarske avanture, za katere je vredno živeti. In smučati.

{ Kamčatka }


{ Kamchatka }

Skiing Down Virgin Slopes Text and photography: Aleš Fevžer

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S

kiing on virgin snow, far from civilisation, is something that any skier can easily get hooked on. When skiing in the majority of prestigious European and North American ski resorts is a book you have already read too many times, then heli-skiing is a challenge that is hard to resist, since access to slopes covered with virgin snow in high mountain areas is a real adventure that is worth every minute that you spend on your descents into the valley. All you need is a bit of luck with the weather and confidence in the pilots and mountain guides to whom you entrust your life for those few days you spend in the wilderness. My journey with Adria Airways from Ljubljana to Moscow passed quickly in comparison to the eleven-hour continuation in the direction of Petropavlovsk in the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Russian Far East. The capacious Ilyushin was completely full. As well as locals there were quite a number of foreigners in ski jackets, chatting in a variety of languages. “The Land of Fire and Ice” as the locals call Kamchatka was waiting for us beneath a cloudy sky, but our guide Kolya welcomed us with a broad smile and a sunburnt face, which seemed to bode well. The half-hour drive to the hotel in Paratunka, a resort area not far from the city, was spent making new friends from all over the world. Even the afternoon briefing and practical demonstration of the use of rescue equipment in the case of an avalanche or accident and aids to safe skiing filled us with adrenalin. During the communal dinner we were already chatting away like one big family, even though we came from all over the world: French, Italian, Swiss, German, British, one Australian, a couple from New Zealand, Americans, a small group of Russians and two Slovenes. We could hardly wait for the next morning. Straight after breakfast we set off to a snow-covered field next to the hotel, where a few minutes later a giant MI-8 helicopter from the nearby airfield came in to land. Our group consisted of twelve skiers and three guides. We quickly loaded our equipment and two crates of food into the steel bird and after a few


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{ Kamchatka }


{ Kamchatka }

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minutes of flying we were already climbing up over the nearby hills. The first descents were shorter and served as a warm-up for the longer and more difficult runs to come, where the altitude difference between the start and finish points was as much as 800 metres. Eight times we rose up below the clouds, landing somewhere different each time, so that we were skiing on virgin snow the whole day. When our stomachs started rumbling at around midday it was time for lunch and a real little banquet on the snow (raw salmon, hot soup, home-baked bread, salami, cheese, fruit, fruit juices, energy tablets and various other goodies) that put us in a good mood for the rest of the day – despite the fact that nature showed its teeth later that afternoon and we were lucky to escape a minor avalanche that was triggered right where we were standing. Even though the first guide had already tested the terrain and two of our number had already skied down into the valley, a real drama started to take place beneath the edges of the next skier’s skis. He cut through the top layer of snow and suddenly the hill beneath him seemed to move. Fortunately we quickly realised what was happening and we skied away to safety. Its small size meant that the avalanche was not a deadly one, and we were all equipped with ABS inflatable backpacks which function like an airbag in a car in the case of an accident, but any injury that can prevent you from skiing is quite unpleasant enough. An evening visit to the sauna and a swim in the thermal pool in front of the hotel was the perfect relaxation after an adrenalin-filled day. The next morning brought bad news, since the strong wind meant it was too dangerous to fly. We spent most of the day waiting for the weather to improve, but since the wind showed no sign of dying down even after lunch, we took advantage of what was left of the daylight for a brief excursion on touring skis. The wind was still too strong the next day and our mood started to worsen after we had twice waited in vain at the door with all our equipment. We spent the afternoon in a small local

ski area and stopped at the village market on the way back to stuff ourselves with caviar, which was ridiculously cheap. Just as we were beginning to wonder whether it had been worth the long journey and the time difference that had us waking up in the middle of the night for the first couple of days, we were rewarded with one of the most wonderful days of skiing I have ever experienced. A cold morning turned into a glorious day and during the flight towards the peak of Avachinsky, an active volcano 2,741 metres high, we were tingling with anticipation. During our descent we turned off the route a little and very carefully approached the edge of the crater, from which thick smoke curled into the sky. The sulphur stank of rotten eggs and we quickly moved away. A descent of over a thousand metres across untouched snow awaited us, and a whole day of flying. We spent most of the day on a ridge from which we could see almost the whole of Avacha Bay, a kind of natural breakwater protecting Petropavlovsk from the waves of the Sea of Okhotsk. A few more days’ skiing followed, satisfying our desire for the pleasures of powder, and then a farewell party on the last evening before our departure home that went on into the small hours. We hatched lots of plans with our new friends, because there are many similar heli-ski adventures around the world that are well worth trying. At the top of the list is Canada with its vast expanses of wilderness. And then Alaska, the Caucasus, Uzbekistan, Chile, New Zealand, India, Nepal and many other countries, all offering skiing adventures that make living worthwhile. And skiing.

A


SLOV EN IJA Nekaj osnovnih podatkov 2

površina (v km )

gozdovi travniki polja in vrtovi sadovnjaki vinogradi

20 273 10 124 5 593 2 471 363 216

forests grassland fields and gardens orchards vineyards

546 324 235 102 46,6

with Croatia with Austria with Italy with Hungary coastline (in km)

20273 10124 5593 2471 363 216 546 324 235 102 46.6

highest point

najvišja točka

Triglav

territory area (in sq. km)

border length (in km)

dolžina meje (v km)

s Hrvaško z Avstijo z Italijo z Madžarsko obala (v km)

A few facts

2864 m

Triglav

2864 m

population density

gostota naseljenosti

(prebivalcev/km)

98

(inhabitants/km)

98

prebivalstvo

2 milijona

population

2 million

Ljubljana

capital

glavno mesto večja mesta: podnebje:

Maribor, Celje, Kranj, Velenje

alpsko, celinsko, sredozemsko

Ljubljana

major towns: climate:

Maribor, Celje, Kranj, Velenje

Alpine, Continental, Mediterranean

language:

jezik:

Uradni jezik je slovenščina, na območjih z mešanim prebivalstvom pa tudi madžarščina in italijanščina. Pri stiku s tujci uporabljajo prebivalci Slovenije največkrat angleščino, nemščino, italijanščino in francoščino.

The official language is Slovene, as well as Hungarian and Italian in areas of mixed population. People who live in Slovenia most commonly use English to communicate with foreigners, then German, Italian and French.

denarna valuta: Denarna valuta je evro (EUR). Tuje valute lahko zamenjate na mejnih prehodih, v bankah, menjalnicah in hotelih.

currency:

prazniki

holidays

1. in 2. januar 8. februar 8. april 27. april 1. in 2. maj 25. junij 15. avgust 31. oktober 1. november 25. december 26. december

novo leto Prešernov dan, slovenski kulturni praznik velika noč dan upora proti okupatorju (druga svetovna vojna) praznik dela dan državnosti Marijino vnebovzetje dan reformacije dan spomina na mrtve božič dan samostojnosti

The currency is the euro (EUR). Foreign currency may be exchanged at border crossings, in banks, exchange offices and hotels.

January 1 & 2 February 8 April 8 April 27 May 1 & 2 June 25 August 15 October 31 November 1 December 25 December 26

New Year’s Holiday  rešeren Day, P Slovene Day of Culture Easter Sunday and Monday Day of Uprising Against the Occupation (WW2) Labour Day Pentecost Statehood Day Assumption Day Reformation Day All Saints’ Day Christmas Day Independence Day


EV ROPA EU ROPE

Redni poleti / Scheduled Flights Zimski in poletni vozni red Iz/from LJUBLJANA/Brnik

Čarterski poleti / Charter Flights Winter and summer timetables Iz/from LJUBLJANA/Brnik

Nm/km

Čas poleta/ Flight time (A320/CRJ)

Amsterdam

606/1122

1.35 h

Antalya

966/1789

Banjaluka

157/291

0.45 h

Aqaba

1454/2692

3.18 h

Barcelona

686/1270

1.46 h

Cairo

1276/2363

3.25 h

Belgrade

267/494

0.65 h

Chios

738/1367

2.10 h

Brussels

559/1035

1.26 h

Djerba

796/1474

2.20 h

Copenhagen

641/1187

1.39 h

Dubrovnik

292/541

1.05 h

Frankfurt

420/778

1.07 h

Heraklion

832/1540

2.15 h

Istanbul

781/1446

1.53 h

Hurghada

1533/2839

3.45 h

Manchester

868/1608

2.11 h

Ibiza

799/1480

2.20 h

Moscow (Sheremetyevo)

1120/2074

2.35 h

Karpathos

996/1844

2.35 h

Munich

224/415

0.41 h

Kefalonija

585/1083

1.45 h

Pristina

622/1150

1.50 h

Kerkira (Corfu)

523/968

1.35 h

Podgorica

365/676

1.25 h

Kos

873/1616

2.20 h

Sarajevo

222/411

0.41 h

Larnaca

1197/2216

3.00 h

Skopje

413/765

1.07 h

Lefkas (Preveza)

567/1050

1.40 h

Stockholm

910/1685

2.35 h

Lesbos (Mitiline)

746/1381

2.10 h

Tirana

474/878

1.14 h

Malta

670/1241

2.00 h

Vienna

153/283

0.30 h

Menorca

646/1196

1.55 h

Zürich

334/619

0.56 h

Mykonos

793/1468

1.56 h

Palma de Mallorca

723/1339

2.10 h

Rhodos

947/1753

2.30 h

Samos

823/1524

2.10 h

Vienna - Frankfurt

358/663

1.10 h

Iz/from PRIŠTINA Frankfurt

930/1722

2.50 h

Munich

646/1196

2.00 h

Nm/km

Čas poleta/ Flight time (A320/CRJ) 2.35 h

Santorini

836/1548

2.15 h

Sharm el Sheikh

1505/2787

3.45 h

Skiatos

632/1170

1.50 h

Thassos (Kavala)

563/1043

1.45 h

Tel Aviv

1286/2382

2.57 h

Thessaloniki

571/1057

1.24 h

Zakinthos

632/1170

1.50h

Adria Airways has used the map of Europe exclusively as an illustration of its flight connections and without any political or other implications.


Adria Airways

{ Adria Airways }

Flota/Fleet Airbus A319 Število/Total Dolžina/Length Višina/Height Razpon kril/Wingspan Hitrost/Cruising speed Višina poleta/Max. altitude Dolet/Range Št. potnikov/Passenger capacity

2 33.84 m 11.76 m 34.10 m 900 km/h 11 700 m 6 650 km 135

Airbus A320 1 37.57 m 11.75 m 31.10 m 900 km/h 11 700 m 3 890 km 180

Canadair Regional Jet 900 Število/Total Dolžina/Length Višina/Height Razpon kril/Wingspan Hitrost/Cruising speed Višina poleta/Max. altitude Dolet/Range Št. potnikov/Passenger capacity

4 32.50 m 7.57 m 23.20 m 882 km/h 12 496 m 3 600 km 86

Canadair Regional Jet 200 LR Število/Total Dolžina/Length Višina/Height Razpon kril/Wingspan Hitrost/Cruising speed Višina poleta/Max. altitude Dolet/Range Št. potnikov/Passenger capacity

6 26.77 m 6.22 m 21.21 m 860 km/h 12 496 m 3 285 km 48/50

Ilustracije: Miha Žnidar

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Število/Total Dolžina/Length Višina/Height Razpon kril/Wingspan Hitrost/Cruising speed Višina poleta/Max. altitude Dolet/Range Št. potnikov/Passenger capacity


( 119 )


{ Adria Dobrodošli v letalu AdrieAirways Airways} Spoštovani potniki, vaše zadovoljstvo je naš uspeh. Da bi bilo potovanje z nami čim bolj prijetno, nam dovolite, da vas opozorimo na nekaj napotkov, ki so pomembni za vaše udobje in varnost pred poletom, med letom in po pristanku.

Pred poletom Ekonomski in poslovni razred Na večini Adrijinih prog izmenično letijo letala tipa Airbus A-319, A-320, Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-200LR in CRJ-900. Vozovnica za potovanje v poslovnem razredu je izdana po veljavni tarifi za poslovni razred in velja eno leto z možnostjo rezervacije, plačila in prevzema kadarkoli, omogoča pa tudi druge ugodnosti, kot so: sprememba datumov potovanja brez doplačila, večja količina brezplačne prtljage, uporaba poslovnih salonov na letališčih idr. V ekonomskem razredu potujejo potniki z vozovnicami po ekonomskih tarifah, ki so nižje in vsebujejo določene omejitve.

Nakup vozovnice prek spleta

Adria Airways tudi na mobilnih telefonih Vsem uporabnikom pametnih telefonov sporočamo, da si lahko na svojem mobilnem brskalniku nastavijo našo mobilno stran m.adria.si ali pa s skenerjem kod poskenirajo QR kodo. Če skenerja nimajo, si ga lahko naložijo na povezavi http://www.i-nigma. com/Downloadi-nigmaReader.html. Uporabniki iPhona pa to najdejo v iStore. Mobilna stran prinaša: spremljanje statusa letov, informacije o voznem redu, informacije o naših destinacijah in informacije o vremenu na destinacijah. Poleg tega pa na tej strani še lahko najdejo: vodič za potnike, turistični vodnik, naše kontakte ter različne povezave do sledenja prtljage, iskanja poslovnih salonov po letališčih in preverjanja milj v klubu Miles&More. Seveda pa so tu še novice in najbolj vroče cenovne ponudbe vozovnic ter “checkmytrip”, kjer lahko preverijo svoje potovanje.

Web Check-in

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V Adrii Airways se zavedamo, da je pri potovanju pogosto dragocena vsaka minuta. Še posebej takrat, kadar nas na poti na letališče ovira gost promet. Web check-in je naša novost, s katero boste prihranili čas pri okencu za prijavo na let, saj se nanj lahko prijavite že od doma, z delovnega mesta oziroma povsod, kjer je vzpostavljena internetna povezava. Svoj planirani let lahko prijavite največ 24 ur in najmanj 60 minut pred poletom. Storitev web checkin je trenutno možna le za določene lete Adrie Airways. V prihodnjih mesecih bomo obstoječim destinacijam postopoma dodajali še nove.

Omejitve pri vnosu živil v EU

Letalsko vozovnico lahko najceneje in hitro rezervirate in kupite na Adrijinih spletnih straneh www.adria.si. To velja le za polete na Adrijinih letih. Nakup prek interneta je zaščiten z varnostnim certifikatom. Elektronske vozovnice prejme potnik po elektronski pošti. V primeru, da potrebujete letalsko vozovnico, kjer bodo vključeni tudi drugi prevozniki, vas prosimo, da pokličete naš Klicni center za rezervacije in prodajo letalskih vozovnic na telefonski številki: 386 1 369 10 10 ali 080 13 00.

Potujte z elektronsko vozovnico Na vseh rednih poletih slovenskega letalskega prevoznika je možno leteti z elektronsko vozovnico. Potnik dobi ob nakupu potniški kupon, ki velja kot račun, in načrt poti (itinerar) v ovitku Adrie Airways. Dokument lahko prejme tudi na svoj elektronski naslov in ga natisne sam. To dokumentacijo mora imeti s seboj ves čas potovanja. Pri okencu za prijavo na let se identificira s potnim listom ali osebno izkaznico. Uslužbenec izda potniku vstopni kupon za let, s katerim ta vstopi v letalo. Elektronski način dokumentiranja prodaje zagotavlja sproten vpogled v dogajanje z vozovico, hiter prenos podatkov in manjše možnosti zlorab. Najpomembnejše pri tem pa je, da so potnikovi kuponi za let shranjeni v elektronski obliki in tako varni pred izgubo.

Potnikom svetujemo, da pred potovanjem preverijo seznam artiklov, ki jih je mogoče vnesti na območje Evropske skupnosti. Strog nadzor nad uvozom mesa, mleka, rib, lupinarjev ter njihovih izdelkov je nujen za zaščito ljudi in živali pred boleznimi, ki se lahko prenašajo s temi živili. V primeru, da carinska služba pri rutinskem pregledu osebne prtljage ugotovi prisotnost nedovoljenih živil živalskega izvora, le-ta zaseže. Informativni letak “Kaj prinesti domov?” vam je na voljo na naši spletni strani. Več informacij lahko dobite na Glavnem uradu VURS-a ali na njihovi spletni strani www.vurs.gov.si v poglavju Javne objave/Uvoz živil za osebno rabo.

Ročna prtljaga Zaradi vaše varnosti in udobja vas vljudno prosimo, da upoštevate mednarodna pravila, ki potniku dovoljujejo imeti pri sebi en kos ročne prtljage v velikosti 55 x 40 x 20 cm in z največjo težo osem kilogramov. Ročno prtljago namestite v za to namenjeni predal nad sedežem, težje kose pa, če je le mogoče, shranite pod sedež pred sabo. Priporočamo vam, da predal s prtljago pazljivo odpirate, saj se lahko med poletom predmeti v njem premaknejo. Na letalih CRJ oddajte večjo ročno prtljago pred letalom. Tam jo takoj po izstopu iz letala tudi prevzemite.

Varnostna pravila Evropska unija (EU) je v letu 2006 sprejela nova varnostna pravila. Ta omejujejo količino tekočin, ki jo lahko vzamete s seboj na letalo. V svoji ročni prtljagi lahko prenašate samo majhne količine tekočin, ki morajo biti shranjene v posamičnih posodah z največjo prostornino 100


{ Adria Airways } mililitrov. Te posode morate zapakirati v prozorno plastično vrečko, ki jo je mogoče znova zatesniti; prostornina vrečke posameznega potnika ne sme biti večja od enega litra. Med tekočine spadajo: voda in druge pijače; juhe in sirupi; kreme, losjoni in olja; parfumi; razpršilci; geli, vključno z geli za lase in tuširanje; posode z vsebinami pod pritiskom, vključno s peno za britje ter drugimi penami in dezodoranti; kreme, vključno z zobno kremo; mešanice tekočih in trdnih snovi; črtalo za veke in tuš za trepalnice ter katerekoli druge snovi s podobno vsebnostjo. Še vedno lahko tekočine prenašate v oddani prtljagi – nova pravila se nanašajo samo na ročno prtljago. V svoji ročni prtljagi lahko prenašate: • zdravila in nujno potrebna živila (vključno z otroško hrano), ki jih boste uporabljali med potovanjem; morda boste morali dokazati, da jih nujno potrebujete; • tekočine, kot so pijače in parfumi (kupite jih lahko bodisi v prodajalni na letališču EU, ki je za točko, na kateri pokažete svoj vstopni kupon, ali pa na letalu, ki ga upravlja prevoznik EU). Če ste tekočine kupili zapakirane v posebni zatesnjeni vrečki, te vrečke pred pregledom ne odpirajte, sicer lahko varnostno osebje na kontrolni točki njeno vsebino zaseže. (Če na letališču EU presedate na drug let, vrečke ne odpirajte pred varnostnim pregledom na transfernem letališču ali na zadnjem letališču, če presedate več kot enkrat.) Če imate kakršnekoli dvome ali vprašanja, se pred potovanjem obrnite na svojega letalskega prevoznika ali potovalno agencijo.

Počutje in zdravje Vašemu dobremu počutju sta namenjena ventil za uravnavanje dotoka zraka in lučka za branje, ki sta nameščena nad sedežem. Tam je tudi pozivni gumb, s katerim lahko po potrebi pokličete stevardeso. V letalu je na voljo priročna lekarna, opremljena s sredstvi za nudenje prve pomoči. Med poletom lahko včasih v ušesih občutite neprijeten pritisk, do katerega prihaja zaradi sprememb višine in zračnega pritiska v letalu; težavo boste zlahka odpravili s poudarjenim požiranjem sline ali z nakazanim zehanjem. Da bi se izognili težavam z ožiljem, ko gre za dolg polet, vam svetujemo, da se večkrat sprehodite po potniški kabini, med sedenjem pa delate vaje za raztezanje celega telesa.

Alkohol na letalu V letalu ni dovoljeno uživanje alkoholnih pijač, ki jih prinesete s sabo. Kabinsko osebje ne sme streči alkoholnih pijač osebam, ki kažejo znake vinjenosti, in osebam, mlajšim od 18 let. Dobronamerno vas opozarjamo, da alkohol zaradi nekoliko nižjega zračnega pritiska med poletom deluje na telo hitreje in bolj intenzivno kot na tleh.

Po pristanku ( 121 )

Med letom Napotki za varnost Z najpomembnejšimi varnostnimi napotki vas bo pred poletom seznanilo naše kabinsko osebje, poleg tega pa boste v žepu sedeža pred sabo našli navodila za postopke v sili. Ker se glede na tip letala ta navodila razlikujejo, vas prosimo, da jih pred vsakim poletom pazljivo preučite. Med vzletanjem in pristajanjem si morate pripeti varnostni pas, zaradi varnosti in udobja pa vam priporočamo, da ostanete pripeti tudi med poletom. Po pristanku počakajte na svojem sedežu, dokler se letalo popolnoma ne ustavi oziroma dokler ne ugasne znak za obvezno uporabo varnostnih pasov. Kapitan letala lahko podeli potniku, ki se v letalu neprimerno vede, takoimenovani RDEČI KARTON. Ta je namenjen vsem, ki s svojim vedenjem ovirajo delo kabinskega osebja, ne spoštujejo varnostnih pravil ali pa ogrožajo varnost in udobje sopotnikov. Napad na varnost zračnega prometa je kaznivo dejanje po 330. členu Kazenskega zakonika RS (KZ-1), ki za tovrstna dejanja predpisuje zaporno kazen.

Zamujena, izgubljena ali poškodovana prtljaga Če bi med vašim potovanjem prišlo do nepravilnega ravnanja z vašo registrirano prtljago (velja tudi za prtljago, oddano pred letalom), zadevo takoj po prihodu prijavite na letališču pri ustrezni službi (Izgubljeno/Najdeno, Lost&Found, Arrival Service). Telefonska številka + 386 (0 ) 25 94 339.

Uporaba elektronskih naprav V letalu ni dovoljeno uporabljati prenosnih telefonov (biti morajo popolnoma izključeni!), radijskih in televizijskih sprejemnikov, videoiger z daljinskim upravljanjem, računalniških tiskalnikov in drugih naprav, ki bi z elektromagnetnimi valovi lahko motile delovanje občutljivih letalskih instrumentov. Druge elektronske naprave, kot so prenosni računalniki, CD in DVD predvajalniki ter žepni kalkulatorji, je dovoljeno uporabljati le med poletom (če ne povzročajo motenj), med vzletanjem in pristajanjem pa ne. Prosimo vas, da se pred uporabo elektronskih naprav posvetujete s kabinskim osebjem in dosledno upoštevate njihove napotke.

Nevarni predmeti Po mednarodnih varnostnih predpisih potnikom v letalu ni dovoljeno imeti (ne pri sebi ne v prtljagi) orožja in drugih nevarnih predmetov, kot so: vnetljive tekočine, pločevinke s stisnjenim ali utekočinjenim plinom, lahko vnetljive snovi, vžigalice, ki niso označene kot varne, in podobno.

Center za stike s potniki V Adrijinem Centru za stike s potniki lahko dobite vse informacije o naši ponudbi in novostih, pa tudi pomoč ali nasvet. Sem lahko potniki posredujete pritožbo ali odškodninski zahtevek, veseli pa bomo tudi pohvale. Na naš center se lahko obrnete osebno, pisno, po elektronski pošti prc@adria.si ali po telefonu na brezplačno številko 080 13 03 za klice znotraj Slovenije oziroma kot doslej na telefonsko številko +386 (0)1 369 11 33.

Najemi avtomobilov in hoteli Na Adrijini spletni strani smo pred kratkim dodali zavihka Rent-a-car in Hoteli, ki vam omogočata najugodnejše najeme vozil in rezervacije hotelskih namestitev. Zelo enostavno: obiščite www.adria.si in poiščite željeni zavihek. Na voljo je nekaj deset tisoč hotelskih objektov na vseh kontinentih, od tistih z eno zvezdico do prestižnih mednarodnih verig ter najemi vozil na več kot 3.400 lokacijah v 128 državah po celem svetu.


{ Adria Airways } Adria Airways Welcomes You Aboard Dear passengers, your satisfaction is our success. In order to ensure that your Adria flight is as pleasant as possible, allow us to draw your attention to certain points that are important for your comfort and safety before take-off, during the flight and after landing.

Before take-off Economy and business class The majority of Adria routes are served by the following aircraft: Airbus A319, A-320, Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-200LR and CRJ-900. A business-class ticket is issued according to the current business-class tariff and is valid for one year. The ticket can be booked, paid for and picked up at any time and includes other advantages such as changing the date of travel without additional charge, a larger free luggage allowance, the use of business lounges at airports, etc. Economy class is for passengers with economy-class tickets, which are cheaper and carry certain restrictions.

Online ticketing

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The cheapest and quickest way to book a flight and buy a ticket is to visit Adria's website at www.adria.si. This only applies to flights operated by Adria. Online purchases are protected by a security certificate. Passengers receive their electronic tickets via e-mail. If you require a ticket that will also include other carriers, please contact our Call Centre for Reservations and Ticket Sales on: 386 1 369 10 10 or 080 13 00.

Travel with an electronic ticket You can travel with an electronic ticket on all Adria Airways scheduled flights. On purchasing a ticket, passengers receive a passenger coupon and itinerary in an Adria Airways cover. You can also receive the document via e-mail and print it yourself. You must keep this document with you throughout the journey. At the check-in, present your passport or identity card. The check-in personnel will issue you with your boarding pass. Electronic documentation of the ticket sale means that the ticket status can be verified at any time. It also facilitates rapid transfer of data and reduces the chance of abuse. Most importantly, there is no danger of losing the boarding pass, since it is stored in electronic form.

check-in service is a new service that lets you save time at the check-in desk: because you can check in from home or office – or anywhere with an Internet connection. You can check in as early as 24 hours and up to 60 minutes before your scheduled departure time. Web check-in is currently only available on selected Adria flights. In the coming months new destinations will gradually be added.

Restrictions on bringing food into the EU We advise passengers to check the list of articles that may be brought into the EU before travelling. Strict controls of the import of meat, milk, fish, shellfish and products derived from them is necessary to protect people and animals from the diseases that they can transmit. If customs officials discover prohibited foodstuffs of animal origin during routine luggage checks, they will be confiscated. The informative leaflet “What to bring home” is available on our website. More information is available from the Veterinary Administration of the Republic of Slovenia or on its website http://www.vurs.gov.si/ under the section Public Announcements/Import of Foodstuffs for Personal Use.

Carry-on luggage For your safety and comfort, we ask you to observe international rules that permit passengers to have one piece of carry-on luggage of a maximum size of 55 x 40 x 20 cm and a maximum weight of 8 kg. Carry-on luggage should be placed in the overhead bins. Heavier items may be stored under the seat in front of you if possible. We recommend that you take care when opening the overhead bins as items may have moved during the flight and may fall out. If your flight is on a CRJ aircraft, larger items of carry-on luggage must be surrendered on boarding. They will be returned to you when you leave the aircraft.

Adria Airways on mobile phones To all smartphone users – we would like to inform you that you can now set our mobile site, m.adria.si, on your mobile browser or scan your QR code with the code scanner. If you do not have a code scanner, you can download it by clicking the following link http://www.i-nigma.com/Downloadi-nigmaReader.html. iPhone users can find this in the iStore. The mobile site provides information on the following: flight status, timetables, destinations and weather conditions. In addition, you will also find the following: travellers guide, tourist guide, our contact details and various links to: baggage tracking, searches by airport business lounge, and frequent flyer miles in the Miles & More Club. Of course, you can also find news, the hottest ticket price bids and “checkmytrip” where you can check information on your trip.

Web Check-in At Adria we are aware that every minute is precious when you are travelling. Especially when heavy traffic holds you up on the way to the airport. The web

EU airport security rules In 2006 the European Union adopted new security rules that restrict the amount of liquids that passengers can take aboard aircraft. You are only allowed to take small quantities of liquids in your hand luggage. These liquids must be in individual containers with a maximum capacity of 100 millilitres each. These containers must be packed in one transparent re-sealable plastic bag of not more than one litre capacity per passenger. Liquids include: water and other drinks, soups, syrups; creams, lotions and


{ Adria Airways } oils; perfumes; sprays; gels, including hair and shower gels; contents of pressurised containers, including shaving foam, other foams and deodorants; pastes, including toothpaste; liquid-solid mixtures; mascara; any other item of similar consistency. You can still: • pack liquids in bags that you check in – the new rules only affect hand luggage; • carry in your hand luggage medicines and dietary requirements, including baby foods, for use during the trip. You may be asked for proof that they are needed; • buy liquids such as drinks and perfumes in an EU airport shop when located beyond the point where you show your boarding pass or on board an aircraft operated by an EU airline. If they are sold in a special sealed bag, do not open it before you are screened – otherwise the contents may be confiscated at the checkpoint. (If you transfer at an EU airport, do not open the bag before screening at your airport of transfer, or at the last one if you transfer more than once). If you have any doubts, please ask your airline or travel agent in advance of travel.

During the flight

with remote control, computer printers and other devices emitting electromagnetic waves which could interfere with sensitive aircraft systems. Other electronic devices such as portable computers, CD and DVD players and pocket calculators may only be used during the flight (if they do not cause a disturbance). They may not be used during take-off and landing. Please check with the cabin crew before using electronic devices and be sure to follow their instructions.

Hazardous items Under international safety regulations air passengers may not transport, either on their person or in their luggage, weapons and other hazardous items such as flammable liquids, compressed or liquefied gas cylinders, highly inflammable materials, matches (except safety matches), and so on.

Comfort and health For your comfort, an adjustable air vent and a reading light are located above your seat. There is also a button which you can use to call a member of the cabin crew if necessary. The aircraft is equipped with a first aid kit. During the flight you may feel an uncomfortable pressure in your ears. This is caused by changes in altitude and the air pressure in the aircraft; swallowing or yawning will help relieve the discomfort. In order to avoid vein problems associated with long flights, we advise you to take frequent walks up and down the cabin and to do stretching exercises for the whole body while seated.

Alcohol on board Consuming alcoholic beverages that you have brought on board the aircraft yourself is not permitted. The cabin crew is not allowed to serve alcohol to passengers who show signs of intoxication or to passengers under 18 years old. Please bear in mind that because of the lower air pressure during flight, alcohol has a faster and stronger effect than on the ground.

After landing Delayed, lost and damaged luggage Safety information Our cabin crew will give you important safety information before take-off. You will find instructions for emergency procedures in the pocket of the seat in front of you. Since these procedures differ depending on the type of aircraft, we ask you to read the instructions carefully before every flight. During take-off and landing you must fasten your seatbelt. For your own safety and comfort we also recommend that you leave it fastened during the flight. After landing, wait in your seat until the aircraft comes to a complete stop or until the seatbelt sign is switched off. The captain can issue a passenger who acts inappropriately on the aircraft with what is called a RED CARD. The red card is intended for anyone whose behaviour obstructs the work of the cabin crew, who does not observe safety instructions or who threatens the safety and comfort of passengers. Unacceptable behaviour on board an aircraft is a violation of the law. Placing air traffic in jeopardy is a criminal offence in accordance with Article 330 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Slovenia (KZ-1), carrying with it the penalty of imprisonment.

Use of electronic devices Use of the following devices is not permitted aboard the aircraft: mobile phones (they must be switched off!), radios and televisions, video games

If problems occur with your checked luggage during your journey (also applies to luggage surrendered on boarding), contact the appropriate service as soon as you arrive at the airport (Lost & Found, Arrival Service, etc.)

Passenger Relations Centre Adria's Passenger Relations Centre provides you with news and information about our services and can also offer assistance and advice. Passengers can submit complaints or compensation claims, and praise is always welcome. You can contact the centre in person, in writing, by e-mail to prc@adria.si, and by phoning the free telephone number 080 13 03 if calling from Slovenia, +386 1 369 11 33 if calling from outside Slovenia.

Rent-a-cars and hotels We have recently added two tabs to Adria's website that enables you to book a rent-a-car or hotel accomodation throughout the world at favourable rates. Simply visit www.adria.si, and click on the desired tab. Choose from among tens of thousands of hotels on every continent, ranging from one-star hotels to prestigious international hotel chains. Budget Rent-a-Car Slovenia offers Adria Airways customers the best deals on car rental in more than 3,400 destinations in 128 countries!

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Adria Airways

Ostale storitve/Other services Uradni prevoznik dogodkov Kot sodobna družba razumemo potrebe poslovnega vsakdanjika, ki se vse pogosteje odvija v globalnem prostoru. Zato stopamo naproti tistim, ki organizirajo konference, kongrese, sejme ali druge mednarodne dogodke, tako da postanemo njihov uradni ekskluzivni prevoznik, udeležencem ter organizatorju pa nudimo posebne ugodnosti. Preprosto, učinkovito in prilagojeno potrebam svojih uporabnikov poskrbimo za to, da poteka dogodek uspešno, udeleženci pa prispejo na cilj pravočasno, varno in zanesljivo. Kot članica združenja Star Alliance lahko za večje mednarodne kongrese zagotovimo produkt »Conventions Plus™«, v sklopu katerega postane več članov združenja uradni prevoznik dogodka. Za vse nadaljnje informacije smo dosegljivi po elektronski pošti: events@adria.si.

Official events carrier

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Prevoz tovora Blagovna služba Adrie Airways odpremi vse pošiljke hitro in kakovostno do vseh letališč po svetu. V sodelovanju z drugimi prevozniki in s pomočjo računalniško podprtega rezervacijskega sistema spremljamo vsako pošiljko od sprejema do predaje naslovniku. Naša blagovna služba in prodajna zastopništva v tujini vam bodo z veseljem pomagala odpremiti oz. dostaviti blago po najhitrejši in cenovno najugodnejši poti. ADRIA CARGO, Letališče Jožeta Pučnika Ljubljana – Prevoz tovora, telefon: 04 259 43 40, faks: 04 202 30 30, e-pošta: jp.cargo@adria.si

Cargo The Adria Airways cargo service provides fast, high-quality goods transport to every airport in the world. In conjunction with other carriers, and with the help of a computerised booking system, we monitor every item from reception to delivery. Our goods service and sales offices abroad will be happy to help you dispatch or deliver goods by the fastest and most competitively priced route.

As a modern company we understand the needs of modern business, which increasingly takes place in the global arena. For this reason we are ideally positioned to work with organisers of conferences, congresses, fairs and other international events by becoming their official exclusive carrier and offering discounted fares and other advantages to participants and organisers. With a simple, efficient approach adapted to the needs of our customers, we make sure that the event runs smoothly, with participants arriving at their destination on time, safely and reliably. As a Star Alliance member we offer the Conventions Plus service for major international conferences, which effectively makes all Star Alliance members the official carrier for the event. For more information write to us at: events@adria.si.

Avio taxi - Panoramski leti Z letalom Piper Turbo Arrow PA-28R-201T s tremi sedeži za potnike lahko poletite do vseh večjih mest s športnimi letališči v Sloveniji in do bližnjih letališč sosednjih držav. Za lete se lahko naročite po telefonu: 04 23 63 460 (Adria Airways Aviotaxi) ali 041 636 420 (tel. št. pilota).

Aviotaxi – Panoramic flights

ADRIA CARGO, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport – Cargo Transport, Telephone: + 386 (04) 259 43 40, Fax: + 386 (04) 202 30 30, e-mail: jp.cargo@adria.si

Our Piper Turbo Arrow PA-28R-201T, with its three passenger seats, can fly you to all major towns with sports airfields in Slovenia and to nearby airports in neighbouring countries. To book flights, call us on: 04 23 63 460 (Adria Airways Aviotaxi) or 041 636 420 (pilot)

Čarterski prevozi

Charters

Adria Airways ponuja potnikom, agencijam, podjetjem in drugim letalskim prevoznikom poleg svojih rednih linij tudi čarterske polete iz Ljubljane in z vseh drugih (predvsem evropskih) letališč. Z vstopom v Evropsko unijo ponujamo agencijam, podjetjem in drugim letalskim prevoznikom tudi polete z vseh drugih evropskih letališč. Odlikujejo nas zlasti prilagodljivost, ažurnost, visoka kakovost in točnost poletov. E-pošta: charter@adria.si

In addition to its scheduled services, Adria Airways offers charter flights from Ljubljana and other (mainly European) airports to passengers, agencies, companies and other carriers. Now that Slovenia is part of the European Union, we can also offer flights from all other European airports to agencies, companies and other carriers. Adria charters offer flexibility, up-to-the-minute services, high quality and punctuality. E-mail: charter@adria.si


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Spoznajte letenje v virtualnem svetu z našimi odličnimi inštruktorji. V simulatorju letenja – v 30 minutah za samo 39 EUR (DDV je vključen v ceno) – boste spoznali osnove letenja. Za rezervacijo termina in dodatne informacije o obisku simulatorja pošljite e-mail na naslov: ales.bobnar@adria.si; GSM: +386 (0)41 604 116. Letenje je možno po plačilu vnaprej in predhodni rezervaciji termina. Več o ponudbi preberite na spletni strani www.adrialetalskasola.si.

Flight School Learn to fly in a virtual world with our excellent instructors. In our flight simulator you can learn the basics of flying in just 30 minutes for a mere 39 euros (VAT included). To book a session and for more information about a visit to the simulator, e-mail us at the following address: ales.bobnar@adria.si; GSM: +386 (0)41 604 116. Booking essential. Payment in advance. For more information visit www.adrialetalskasola.si.

Zaposlene v družbi Adria Tehnika odlikuje vrhunsko tehnično znanje, ki temelji na več kot 40-letnih izkušnjah vzdrževanja letal proizvajalcev McDonnel Douglas, Airbus in Bombardier. Več informacij na spletni strani www.adriatehnika.com.

Adria Tehnika maintenance staff have superlative technical know-how deriving from more than 40 years' experience in maintaining McDonnell Douglas, Airbus and Bombardier aircraft. For more information visit www.adriatehnika.com.


Adria Airways

Klubi zvestobe/Loyalty Clubs Partnerska kartica Diners Club-Adria

Potniki s stalnim prebivališčem v Republiki Sloveniji se lahko odločite za skupno plačilno kartico Diners Cluba in Adrie Airways. Z uporabo partnerske plačilne kartice Diners Club-Adria lahko zbirate milje in koristite nagradne vozovnice in druge ugodnosti v programu Miles & More. Vsak porabljen evro vam bo prinesel 1 miljo. Dogovor, sklenjen med Adrio in klubom Miles & More, prinaša imetnikom partnerske kartice pomembno dodatno ugodnost: milje, zbrane z nakupi s plačilno kartico Diners Club-Adria, ne zapadejo, če ste vsaj tri mesece član, opravite z njo vsak mesec vsaj en nakup in račune poravnavate v roku. Kartica pa vam odpira vrata in nudi brezplačne storitve tudi v več kot 130 letaliških salonih po vsem svetu, kjer boste lahko v miru počakali na odhod svojega letala, brezplačno prelistali časopis, se osvežili z napitki, telefonirali ali poslali faks. Informacije: telefon 080 13 45, www.dinersclub.si, info@dinersclub.si

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Diners Club-Adria Partner Card

Passengers with permanent residence in Slovenia can obtain the joint Diners Club and Adria Airways charge card. By using the Diners Club – Adria Airways charge card, you can collect miles and enjoy bonus tickets and other privileges in the Miles & More programme. Every euro spent will give you one mile. The agreement between Adria and Miles & More brings partner card holders an important additional benefit: miles collected through purchases using the Diners ClubAdria payment card will not lapse if you have been a member for at least three months, you use the card for at least one purchase each month and you settle your account balance on time. At the same time, the card opens the door to free services in more than 130 airport lounges around the world, where you can await your departure in tranquillity, browse through newspapers, enjoy a refreshing drink, make phone calls or send faxes. Information: Telephone: 080 13 45, www.dinersclub.si, info@dinersclub.si

Star Alliance Star Alliance partnerstvo

Star Alliance partnership

Prednostna obravnava pri 27 letalskih prevoznikih

Priority treatment across 27 airlines

Adria Airways je letalski prevoznik z več kot 49-letnimi izkušnjami v čarterskem in rednem prometu. Uspešno sodeluje v evropskih integracijskih tokovih in se partnersko povezuje z drugimi letalskimi prevozniki. Decembra 2004 se je Adria kot regionalna članica pridružila največjemu globalnemu združenju letalskih prevoznikov Star Allianceu, z januarjem 2010 pa je napredovala v polnopravno članico združenja. Potnikom tako zagotavljamo vse prednosti, ki jih prinaša izboljšan dostop do svetovnega omrežja prevoznikov, združenih v Star Allianceu. V povezavi s partnerji vam omogočamo dostop do svetovne mreže poletov 27 letalskih prevoznikov, ki z več kot 21.200 leti dnevno povezujejo 1.185 destinacij v 185 državah. Poleg tega so vam na voljo ugodnosti, ki jih ponujajo prevozniki člani Star Alliancea, kot so: prijava na let do končne destinacije, priznavanje statusa, vstop v letališke salone ter zbiranje in uveljavljanje točk ali milj v okviru programov za pogoste potnike. Za številne destinacije po svetu so vam na voljo potovanja po ugodnejših cenah in posebna ponudba Star Alliancea Round the World – potovanje okoli sveta. Za več informacij smo vam na voljo na naših prodajnih mestih.

Če letite s katerim koli izmed 27 članov združenja Star Alliance kot potnik z zlatim statusom, boste povsod po svetu deležni prednostne obravnave. Prednostna prijava na let pomeni, da se lahko izognete dolgim čakalnim vrstam. Prednostno vkrcanje pomeni, da boste med prvimi na letalu in se boste lahko še hitreje namestili v udoben sedež. Prednostna prtljaga pomeni, da bo vaša potovalka prišla z letala med prvimi. Lepo je občutiti, da si nekaj posebnega. Zaslužili ste si.

Adria Airways has more than 49 years of experience in operating both charter and scheduled flights. We are successfully participating in the process of European integration and have established partnership arrangements with other air carriers. In December 2004 Adria joined the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, as a regional member and later became a full member in January 2010. Our customers now benefit from improved access to the world-wide Star Alliance network. In connection with our partners, we offer access to a global network of flights on 27 airlines, which offer more than 21,200 flights daily serving 1,185 destinations in 185 countries. Moreover, our passengers enjoy customer benefits offered by Star Alliance member carriers, such as through check-in, status recognition, lounge access, frequent-flyer accrual and redemption. Reduced-price flights are available for numerous destinations throughout the world, along with the Star Alliance Round-the-World special offer. We will be glad to provide details at any Adria sales outlet.

When you fly with any of the 27 Star Alliance member airlines as a Gold Status customer, you’ll receive priority treatment wherever you are in the world. Priority Check-in means you can avoid those winding queues. Priority Boarding means you’ll be among the first on the plane, so you can get to the comfort of your seat even quicker. Priority Baggage means your bag will be one of the first off the plane. It’s nice to feel special. You’ve earned it.


Dobrodošli v Miles & More Welcome to Miles & More Razlog več, da poletite z Adrio Airways

One more reason for flying Adria Airways

Adria Airways nudi svojim pogostim potnikom program Miles & More in jim s tem omogoča pestrost zbiranja in uporabljanja milj v celotni mreži poletov članic Star Alliancea. Sem spadajo tudi vse redne proge Adrie Airways.

Adria Airways is offering its frequent flyers the Miles & More programme, which makes available a variety of ways to collect and use miles on the entire flight network of Star Alliance members. All Adria Airways scheduled routes are included in this network.

Prijava v klub

Club registration

V klub se lahko prijavite s prijavnico, ki jo dobite na vseh prodajnih mestih in v letalih Adrie Airways, ali pa to storite na naslovu www.adria.si na naših spletnih straneh.

You can join the club by filling in the registration form available at all sales offices and on board Adria Airways aircraft, or by registering online at our website, www.adria.si.

Zbiranje milj

Collecting miles

Milje lahko zbirate na celotni mreži poletov članic Star Alliancea. Dodatne milje lahko zbirate z bivanjem v hotelih, z najemom vozil, telefoniranjem, nakupi v določenih trgovinah in z uporabo kreditnih kartic. Člani Miles & More v Sloveniji bodo milje pridobili tudi s plačilno kartico Diners Club-Adria. Vsak nakup v vrednosti 1 EUR vam bo prinesel eno miljo. Milje, zbrane z nakupi s plačilno kartico Diners Club - Adria, ne zapadejo, če ste vsaj tri mesece član, opravite z njo vsak mesec vsaj en nakup in račune poravnavate v roku. Poleg zbiranja milj imajo člani Miles & More še dodatne ugodnosti, kot so prednost na čakalnih listah, prevoz večje količine prtljage idr. Veljavnost zbranih milj je tri leta.

You can collect miles within the entire Star Alliance network. You can also collect additional miles through hotel stays, car rental, telephone calls, purchases at selected shops and using your credit cards. Miles & More members in Slovenia also receive miles when you use the Diners Club-Adria charge card. Every euro charged earns you 1 mile. Miles collected through purchases using the Diners Club-Adria payment card will not lapse if you have been a member for at least three months, you use the card for at least one purchase each month and you settle your account balance on time. In addition to collecting miles, Miles & More members enjoy additional benefits such as priority on waiting lists, excess baggage allowance and so on. Miles are valid for three years.

Koriščenje milj Zbrane milje lahko uporabite za številne nagrade: brezplačne vozovnice na progah članic Star Alliancea, potovanje v višjem razredu, počitniška potovanja, nakup različnih artiklov.

Using miles You can use the miles you have accumulated for various benefits: free tickets on Star Alliance member routes, upgrades to business class, holiday travel and various purchases.

Članske kartice Z včlanitvijo postanete član kluba in imetnik osnovne kartice. Doseženo število zahtevanih milj, zbranih v koledarskem letu, zagotavlja višje nivoje članstva, kot so: srebrni član ali Frequent Traveller, zlati član ali Senator in HON Circle Member. Višji nivo članstva vam prinese posebne ugodnosti. Člansko kartico imejte vedno pri roki, potrebujete jo za beleženje milj, uveljavljanje ugodnosti in naročanje nagrad.

Membership cards You become a club member as soon as you join. Accumulating the required number of miles in a calendar year leads to higher levels of membership: silver member or Frequent Traveller, or gold member or Senator, or HON Circle Member. A higher level of membership offers you special benefits. Always have your membership card on hand, because you’ll need it to register miles, claim benefits and request awards.

Dobrodošli na poletih Adrie Airways, članice združenja Star Alliance! Welcome aboard Adria Airways, a Star Alliance member! Informacije o zbranih miljah, novostih v klubu, naročila nagradnih vozovnic in drugih nagrad v klicnem centru Miles & More dobite na tel. št. (0)40 747 440 ali na naslovu www.adria.si. Navesti morate člansko številko in PIN številko. V delovnem času od 8. do 18. ure vam bodo informacije na voljo v slovenskem jeziku, kasneje v angleškem ali nemškem.

For information on miles, Club news, to order free tickets or other benefits, call the Miles & More call centre at +386 40 747 440 or visit our website at www.adria.si. You’ll be asked for your membership number and PIN. We’ll be happy to take your calls in Slovene from 8 am to 6 pm, and service is also available in English and German outside these hours.

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Prodaja vozovnic in rezervacije Ticket Offices and Booking Klicni center: telefon 00386 (0)1 36 91 010 Brezplačna številka v Sloveniji: 080 13 00 w w w. a d r i a . s i Adria Airways Zgornji Brnik 130h 4210 Brnik - Aerodrom Tel.: +386 (0)1 36 91 010 E-mail: booking@adria.si Poslovalnice / Sales offices:

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LJUBLJANA Gosposvetska 6 1000 Ljubljana Klicni center: 36 91 010, 080 13 00 Tel.: +386 (0)1 23 91 910 Fax: +386 (0)1 23 21 668 E-mail: adr.gosposvetska@adria.si Letališče Jožeta Pučnika LJUBLJANA LJUBLJANA Jože Pučnik Airport Adria Airways Sales Office Klicni center: 36 91 010, 080 13 00 Tel.: +386 (0)4 25 94 245 Fax: +386 (0)4 23 63 461 E-mail: adr.prodaja@adria.si AMSTERDAM Adria Airways, Netherlands Tel.: +31 20 625 11 22 Fax: +32 2 753 23 37 E-mail: adr.amstown@adria.si Airport Ticketing Desk Amsterdam Schiphol Airport Aviapartner Terminal 1 Tel.: +31 20 79 52 600 Fax: +31 20 79 52 601 E-mail: adr.amsairport@adria.si BANJALUKA Bosnia and Herzegovina SKY SRPSKA Tel.: +397 (0)51 220 330 Mobile: +387 (0)65 321 817 E-mail: office@sky srpska.aero BARCELONA Adria Airways, General Sales Agent Kompas Spain C/ Paris, 162-164 Entlo 2a 08036 Barcelona Tel.: + 34 93 246 67 77 Fax: +34 93 245 41 88 E-mail: adr.barcelona@adria.si BELGRADE Adria Airways Representative Office OKI AIR INTERNATIONAL Airport “Nikola Tesla” 11180 Belgrade 59 Tel/Fax: +381 11 2286457, 2286458, 2097457 E-mail: okiairbeg@oki.me, adr.belgrade@adria.si

BRUSSELS Adria Airways Brussels Airport – Box 4 1930 Zaventem Tel.: +32 (0)2 75 32 336 Fax: +32 (0)2 75 32 337 E-mail: adr.brussels@adria.si Adria Airways Ticket Desk Flightcare row 5 Airport Zaventem / Brussels Tel.: +32 (0)2 75 32 337 COPENHAGEN Adria Airways Representative and Information Antello AB, Tings Gatan 2 256 56 Helsingborg, SWEDEN Tel.: +46 (0)42 28 47 78 Fax: +46 (0)42 14 47 78 Mobil: +46 708 28 47 78 E-mail: adr.copenhagen@adria.si Adria Airways Airport Ticket Desk Copenhagen Airport Terminal 2, Floor 2, Office 230 2770 Kastrup, Denmark Tel. & Fax: +45 (0)32 51 59 59 Mobil: +46 708 28 47 78 E-mail: adr.copenhagen@adria.si FRANKFURT Adria Airways Frankfurt Airport Terminal 1, Building 201 Room 201. 4043/4044 P.O.Box 039, 60549 Frankfurt am Main Tel.: +49 (0)69 269 56 720, 269 56 721 Fax: +49 (0)69 269 56 730 E-mail: adr.frankfurt@adria.si Adria Airways Airport Ticket Desk Frankfurt Airport, Terminal 1, Hall B Sales Desk 307 P.O.Box 039, 60549 Frankfurt am Main Tel. +49 (0)69 269 56 722 ISTANBUL Adria Airways General Sales Agent Ordu Cad No. 206/1 34470 Laleli, Istanbul Tel.: +90 (0)212 51 24 232 Fax: +90 (0)212 51 24 234, 51 25 436 E-mail: adr.istanbul@adria.si KIEV General Sales Agent: AVIAREPS town office Chervonoarmijska st. 9/2 Office number 2 01004 Kiev, Ukraine Tel.: +38 044 287 07 47 Fax: +38 044 490 65 04 E-mail: jp.ukraine@aviareps.com

LONDON, MANCHESTER Adria Airways - London Gatwick Airport Ticketing Agent: Skybreak North Terminal, Zone A, Ticket Desk Tel.: +44 (0) 1293 507 182 Fax: +44 (0) 1293 507 144 Reservations: Tel: +44 (0) 1293 555 707 E-mail: info@adria.si MOSCOW Adria Airways Derbenevskaja 4 113 114 Moscow Tel.: +7 495 727 08 85 Fax: +7 495 727 08 88 E-mail: adr.moscow@adria.si Adria Airways Sheremetyevo Airport Ticket office Bohemia 2nd floor of terminal F Ticketing +7 903 5613645, e-mail: apt-svo@mail.ru, fax +7 495 578 8197 Supervisor on duty +7 916 267 2395, e-mail: svokkjp@adria.si MUNICH Prosimo, obrnite se na predstavništvo v Frankfurtu. Please contact our office in Frankfurt. PARIS Adria Airways 94 rue Saint Lazare 75009 Paris Stopnišče A, II. nadstropje Staircase A, 2nd floor Tel.: +33 (0)1 47 42 95 00 Fax: +33 (0)1 47 42 00 67 E-mail: adr.paris@adria.si PODGORICA Adria Airways, General Sales Agent Oki Air International Ivana Vujoševića 46 81000 Podgorica Tel.: +382 (0) 20 201 201 Tel. & Fax: +382 (0) 20 241 154 Mobil: +382 (0)67 24 11 54 E-mail: adr.podgorica@adria.si Adria Airways Ticket Office Podgorica Airport OKI AIR INTERNATIONAL Tel. & Fax: +382 (0) 20 623 232 Mobil: +382 (0)67 24 11 54 E-mail: adr.podgorica@adria.si

PRISTINA Adria representative office – town office Pal Palucij 3, 38000 Pristina Tel.: +381 (0)38 54 34 11 Tel. & Fax: +381 (0)38 54 32 85 E-mail: adr.pristina@adria.si Ticket issue at the airport Tel.: +381 (0) 38 548 437 Fax: +381 (0) 38 548 437 Mobile: +377 44 501 241 SARAJEVO Adria Airways Representative and Information Ferhadija 23 71000 Sarajevo Tel.: +387 (0)33 23 21 25, 23 21 26 Fax: +387 (0)33 23 36 92 E-mail: adria@bih.net.ba Adria Airways Airport Ticket Desk Sarajevo International Airport Tel. & Fax: +387 33 464 331 E-mail: adr.sarajevo@adria.si SKOPJE Adria Airways General Sales Agent AAM dooel Ulica Dame Gruev, Gradski Zid, blok 4/8 1000 Skopje Tel.: +389 (0)2 31 17 009, 32 29 975 Fax: +389 (0)2 31 65 531 E-mail: adr.skopje@adria.si Adria Airways Airport Ticket Office Skopje Airport Tel. +389 (0)2 25 50 133 TEL AVIV Adria Airways MIRUS SERVICES Ltd EL AL BUILDING 32 Ben Yehuda Street 8th Floor, Room 822 Tel Aviv 63432 Tel.: +972 (0)3 52 23 161 Fax: +972 (0)3 52 40 895 Adria Airways Ticket Desk Ben Gurion Airport Laufer Aviation Ltd. Tel.: +972 (0)3 97 74 300 Fax: +972 (0)3 97 12 022

TIRANA Adria Airways Albania Europian Trade Center Street Mine Peza, Number 102 Town Office Tel.: +355 4 227 4666 Tel. & Fax: +355 4 227 2666 Mobil Off.: +355 6 94076614 Airport Tel. & Fax: +355 4 238 1911 Mobil in Rinas Apt.: +355 6 94076611 E-mail: adr.tirana@adria.si VIENNA Reservations and purchase Adria Airways Station A-1300 Vienna Airport Tel.: +43 (1) 700 736 913 Fax: +43 (1) 700 736 914 E-mail: adr.vienna@adria.si WARSAW Adria Airways, General Sales Agent GLOBAIR Polska Sp z o.o. Marszalkowska St. 28, office number 1U-35 Warsaw 00-576 Tel: +48 (022) 696 85 20 Fax: +48 ( 022) 696 85 24 Mobile: +48 696 49 14 77  E-mail: adr.warsaw@adria.si www.globairgroup.com ZAGREB Adria Airways Praška 9 10000 Zagreb Tel.: +385 (0)1 48 10 011, 48 10 016 Fax: +385 (0)1 48 10 008 E-mail: adr.zagreb@adria.si ZÜRICH Adria Airways Loewenstrasse 54/II. 8001 Zürich Tel.: +41 (0)44 212 63 93 Fax: +41 (0)44 212 52 66 E-mail: adr.zurich@adria.si Adria Airways Airport Ticket Office Zürich Airport Terminal B-2-521 Tel.: +41 (0)43 81 64 437

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine, oktober- november 2011  

Free copy of Adria Airways Magazine for passengers. About Adria Airways, travel, culture, sport, events....

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