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Navigate is part of a series of speculate projects that address a range of themes and issues that affect legibilty and character on place in the city of Hobart

INTRODUCTION

NAVIGATE | HOBART


INTRODUCTION

contents

navigate Urban legibility is central to the experience of the city assisting in orientation, and finding ones way through the urban fabric. The grouping and layout of a

introduction

cites elements together in their multiple combinations and permutations form a city’s image, the quality of which reflects its legibility. Within this framework of common elements there are certain individual characteristics that give the city its identity.

CHAPTER 1 - city gateway and water edge

It is important that designers and urban planners give prominence to the richness and existing use of the spatial environment with specific consideration of local characteristics. When planning and reshaping existing urban environments the uncovering and preserving of strong images also

CHAPTER 2 - city edge

assists in drawing out its structure and identity. In Hobart’s case the enduring layering of the surrounding landscape and the cities historical context on a human scale are characteristics that influence the city’s evolving urban morphology. A small city in a large landscape Hobart’s containment of the built through landform and extension along the Derwent River edge reflect the city’s identity. Enhancing these characteristics as the city evolves through an appreciation of its place within the landscape and fostering connections with elements of the built form that assist in orientation and movement will strengthen the city’s identity.

CHAPTER 3 - in the city

project scope urban legibility hobart’s urban legibility analysis + speculation toolkits project scope urban analysis city gateway water edge conclusion project scope urban analysis strengthening existing paths creating new nodes beyond the edge conclusion project scope urban analysis historical analysis speculation conclusion


project scope INTRODUCTION

objectives + outcomes

navigating the city spatial legibility

small city big landscape

character + identity urban legibility

objectives Further investigate the possibility of accessing new points of the existing landscape

Identify linkage possibilities for the existing footpaths in the city that connect to the landscape.

outcomes The outcome will be a proposal that describes a method for development.

node

edge

path

district

To establish a method for design development for urban solutions for the under-utilised site.

Illustrate possible changes to the layout, design and infrastructure of the Domain Rose Garden to be more inclusive of its users and encourage passive recreation

To determine a method that can inform the process of an incremental development rather than a top-down master plan approach, whilst exploring mixed opportunity for diversity.

water city

wayfinding

To establish a method to revive the characteristics of the site such as the geographical, industrial and historical markings.

Identify ways to improve way finding and inclusive access in relation to the Railway Roundabout connection between the city and the Queens Domain.

caroriented city

city as campus

landmark

axis + paths

landscape nodes as desinations

GATEWAY + WATERS EDGE

MOVEMENT IN THE CITY

CITY EDGE

mental mapping

laneways

lost space

topographic

signage senses stimulation


urban legibility INTRODUCTION

spatial wayfinding Wayfinding is described as the process of finding your way to a destination in a familiar or unfamiliar setting using cues given by the environment that are either graphical or spatial in nature.

According to Kevin Lynch (1960) an individuals image of a city relates to physical forms that can be conveniently classified into five types of elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks that differentiate one part of the urban fabric from another (Lynch 1960). The quality of these factors affects the observer’s perception, understanding and the mental mapping of an urban environment . A designed space that employs memorable and imageable features will be effectively navigatible (Lynch 1960). Research methodologies used across this project will analyse wayfinding observations that are either graphical or spatial in nature. Consistent reference is made to Lynch’s method of analysis that assists in differentiating one part of the urban fabric from another when assessing the legibility of the city and the strength of its identity.....

paths

edges

districts

nodes

landmarks

Paths are channels forming lines of motion and should show clarity of direction. They may be streets, walkways, canals, railroads. For many people, these are the predominant elements in ‘their image’ facilitating in the visual identification and structuring of the city, as it is along paths, that the other environmental elements are arranged and related.

Edges are the linear elements and form visual or physical barriers providing a specific definition to the region and may be more or less penetrable. These linear breaks in continuity are lateral references rather than coordinate axis, for example, a river or highway edge. Although not as dominant as paths edges are important organizing features holding together or marking generalized areas such as the outline of a district

Districts are medium to large sections of the city that the observer mentally enters ‘inside of’ and are recognizable as having some common identifiable character from the exterior. Most people structure a city to some extent in this way. Individual differences and characteristics as to whether paths or districts are the dominant elements dependant on the given city.

Nodes are strategic intense spots in the city which the observer can enter along route and therefore are typically connected to the concept of paths.. They may be primary junctions, transition points, the convergence of paths or a shift from one structure to another. Nodes may also be concentration points that have importance or influence through their physical character, for example an enclosed square. These points may reflect the epitome of the

Landmarks are another type of point reference. The location of these physical elements is crucial. They may be radial references seen from many angles and distances over the tops of smaller elements or they may be simple yet distinctive, only visible in restrictive localities or from certain approaches. They may form the identity of the city itself for example shop fronts, trees, doors and other urban detail increasingly relied upon as a journey becomes more and more familiar.


urban legibility INTRODUCTION

graphic wayfinding Research methodologies across this project analyses wayfinging observations that are either graphical or spatial in nature. Reference to Lynch’s theory, classification and ranking of elements underpins individual analysis.

Graphic wayfinding systems should be designed in conjunction with spatial wayfinding strategies. ‘ In wayfinding it does not matter whether information is obtained by graphic , spatial or other means as long as it is legible and readable’ Authur and Passini(1992). Graphical wayfinding refers to printed and electronic information and directional signage. The importance of consistent and informative graphic wayfinding systems that are not fragmented or piecemeal is imperative when navigating through the complexities of a city setting. Graphic information is useful at the commencement of one’s journey even though on-going decision making and execution of plans may change mid route. Even though the destination may change the sequence and the information needed, if of good quality and consistency, remains the same Authur etal (1992).

With advances in technology the challenge is to keep abreast of and improve the accessibility and legibility of evolving forms of graphical wayfinding information. Ideally electronic and digital platforms would link in with a uniform signage system ‘on the ground’ that contains easily decipherable information (ICAP 2010). With rapid technological advancements however personal journey planning is seen as driving the demise of traditional wayfinding signage and increasing the importance of placemaking graphics, along with public art and iconic architecture (Atkinson.B, 2012).


URBAN LEGIBILITY | HOBART INTRODUCTION

modes of movements

vehicular traffic barrier

public transport

centralised pedestrian movement

network of laneways

The Public Spaces, Public Life Report, Gehl (2010) established that Hobart is a vehicle dominated city. Visiting Hobart today, it is evident that some streets even suffer from a layout that could be described as urban motorways for example Davey Street, Macquarie Street and Brooker Avenue being four lanes wide and a 60 km/h speed limit create a significant traffic barrier around the city. These traffic barriers disconnect the city from its surrounding natural landscape and disables any decentralisation of pedestrian movement.

The public transport system in Hobart consists of buses connecting the city centre with the surrounding suburbs. The buses offer surface transport desirable for especially seniors and school children and there are close links between the bus system and the pedestrian network. Bus stops are generally evenly distributed throughout the study area.

Hobart’s pedestrian movement is quite centralised, given that the most of its key destinations are decentralised from one side of the city to the other. These key destinations are not linked within the pedestrian network and would benefit from further considered. The Queens Domain, Botanical Gardens and Hobart Aquatic Centre appear the most disconnected from the city despite there proximity. This is partly due to the traffic barriers that exist, but also the lack of way finding elements and visual clues to assist pedestrians to their where-abouts.

Hobart has a familiar and distinct typology of lane ways that spread outward from the city centre. These urban spaces provide a very familiar experience for the people of Hobart. . Much of the character of these lane ways is derived from their origin as service lanes providing access to industrial buildings. So the character and worn nature of the materials is also a component of their familiarity.

Domain

UTAS Menzies

Brisbane Lane Theatre Royal R.H.H

Bank Arcade

Mathers Lane Mall

Mid City Arcade Criterion Lane

Kemp Street

Purdy’s Mart Cat & Fiddle Arcade

TMAG Bus Mall

Harrington Lane

Collins Count Trafalgar Place

Franklin Square

Centrepoint Bidencopes Lane Arcade

Temple Place

Jennings Lane

Cinema St David’s Park Salamanca Place

Salamanca Square

Woobys Lane Kellys Steps Berea Street


URBAN LEGIBILITY | HOBART topography + landscape

INTRODUCTION

distance to broader landscape

landscape + vegetation

topography + views to broader landscape

The Public Spaces, Public Life Report, Gehl (2010) established that Hobart is a vehicle dominated city. Visiting Hobart today, it is evident that some streets even suffer from a layout that could be described as urban motorways for example Davey Street, Macquarie Street and Brooker Avenue being four lanes wide and a 60 km/h speed limit create a significant traffic barrier around the city. These traffic barriers disconnect the city from its surrounding natural landscape and disables any decentralisation of pedestrian movement.

The Public Spaces, Public Life Report, Gehl (2010) established that Hobart is a vehicle dominated city. Visiting Hobart today, it is evident that some streets even suffer from a layout that could be described as urban motorways for example Davey Street, Macquarie Street and Brooker Avenue being four lanes wide and a 60 km/h speed limit create a significant traffic barrier around the city. These traffic barriers disconnect the city from its surrounding natural landscape and disables any decentralisation of pedestrian movement.

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ANALYSIS | toolkit INTRODUCTION

urban analysis criteria

introduction

accessibility

visual connection

social

comfort

safety

According to the Tasmania Capital City Plan for Hobart, the urban design strategy focuses on quality urban design as a catalyst for the achievement of social outcomes, incorporates concerns for diversity, equity and opportunity while considering safety, access to employment, recreation, infrastructure and services, the environment and sustainability.

Accessibility is the means of getting from one destination to another destination with ease for the user no matter what their physical capabilities are.

Visual connection in urban street is crucial to know where you are and where you are going.

Well-designed places are more attractive to people and businesses. The urban strategic role in upgrading the streets, public squares and open spaces in activity centres to make them great places to be. Through good planning and strategy, this can further improve the public realm. Essential urban elements that contribute to people’s enjoyment of spaces in the public realm; in this term, the spaces will form a connection with the public and increase legibility in the city.

Comfort against unpleasant sensory experiences is an important element to considered in urban design. In this section, this refers to protection against weather, pollution, noise and dust for the public. Building edge that function as a covered and protected walkway can be one type of protection against unpleasant sensory experiences for the public. For example, awnings from buildings to protect people from rain along commercial streets and at bus stops. It is important to ensure the urban streets are more pedestrian friendly, comfortable and exciting to visit, urban streets that offer protection against unpleasant sensory experiences will attracts more people to visit.

Protection against vehicular traffic including physical separation of bicycles, pedestrians and vehicles for public’s safety, this is particularly important where pedestrian oriented city emphasis on high volume of people walking and riding their bikes.

-quality urban spaces are defined by 5 criteria, which are accessibility, visual connection, comfort,safety and social These 5 urban character use as analysis criteria because these are strongly related to urban legibility. According to Lynch definition, legibility can enhance the identity, structure and the meaning of environmental surroundings.

Accessible spaces should be well connected to surrounding areas, have easy access to nearby public transport, good pedestrian access into and through site. They should also enhance urban infrastructure for better access to the greater landscape.

Visually connected to surrounding areas -significant landscape or built features can be seen from surrounding areas -visual axis from one street to another in orienting people from one place to another -arrangement of streets and pathways visually clear and logical -clear signage showing people where they are, and to help them in navigate around the city

Protection against crime and violence The increased use of the urban street in the city will enhance its safety, day and night. The presence of more people in the urban streets and river foreshore area will likely reduce crime. Passive surveillance from people in buildings, cafes and shops adjacent to the public spaces will also improve safety in the area. This refers to protection against crime and violence.


speculation | toolkit INTRODUCTION

types of urban interventions

landscape

signage

street furniture

public facility

lighting

arts + culture

Landscaping can be used as an urban design strategy to revitalise urban street and public spaces in Hobart. Landscaping play crucial roles in visually enhancing urbanscapes and building a city’s identity and character. The existing conditions of Hobart city suggest very minimal natural/landscape involvement.

Signages are a big part of wayfinging in helping people navigate a place. This is especially so for visitors in a city. A clear and consise signage would efficiently and safely direct people to destinations. Different signages are required for various targeted users like motorists, pedestrians, and the disabled.

According to GEHL (2010) report, quality seating is a precondition for good city life. Street appeal is an important element in representing cities and encouraging public life by inviting staying activities. Interesting street furniture may enhance street appeal. Flexible street furniture allows spatial transformation facilitating various

The objective of the public facility is to activate urban spaces while further enhancing urban legibility of the city. Types of public facility may include mobile consessions, coffee hub, bike hub, outdoor sitting area and others. It can be a series of stopping and resting points to reconnect urban spaces. Community involvement within the public facility creates variety, diversity of activities whereby improving street quality.

The integration of lighting in urban spaces can improve night time safety and visual interest. For example, a series of significant leave shape pavilions with the integration of lightings have formed a lantern like space in one of the social courtyard in Chicago. Public spaces are successfully improved into an artful enlivened space hence creating a safe public gathering space while improving the city’s civic fabric.

The GEHL (2010) surveys show that pedestrians move slower in front of active frontages, and more activities take place. In Hobart there are currently streets that are classified as dull and inactive. One of the solutions is to incorporate graffiti art along the streets. The application of creative public art along dull façade will create distinct and symbolic characteristics to urban street. This will also extend the art and culture cycle of the communities.

Quincy Court, Chicago, IL

Cork Graffiti

http://www.3form.in/news-article.php?v=85

http://www.onextrapixel.com/2009/06/17/38-marvellous-graffiti-art-and-

(Accessed 1st, June 2013)

street-art-that-will-blow-you-away/

demographics.

Landscape- Land, water, greenery http://www.picstopin.com/1205/landscape -lake -trees-mountain/

Acceptable street signages

Customised street furniture

Mobile Concessions

http:%7C%7Cstained- glass-patterns*co*uk%7C4landscape*jpg/

http://people.clarkson.edu/projects/physplantwiki/index.php/Campus_

http://www.uap.com.au/blog/customised-street-furniture-jack-evans-

http://fancycribs.com/6222-lions-park-by-rural-studio.html

(Accessed 15 August 2013)

Signage (Accessed 15 August 2013)

boat-harbour-tweed-heads/ (Accessed 1st, June 2013)

1st, June 2013)

(Accessed


‘How does graphical and spatial wayfinding information assist in clarifying, highlighting and celebrating city gateways and the water edge giving visitors and the inhabitants of Hobart a greater sense of comprehension and connection with place?’ Members of this section of the project have explored specific strategies for navigating and wayfinding beyond signage and maps exploring broader understandings of urban legibility and experience of place. Research includes an exploration of gateways to the city, the Derwent River wateredge and the broader physical setting of Hobart that are seen as central aspects of experience and orientation. Detailed photographic and drawn mapping of particular sites highlight existing and potential connections, leading to a study of semiotic structure of the city. Further strategic refinements and speculations can then be made and applied to specific urban context. The two lines of enquiry has led to a greater understanding and appreciation of the City of Hobart’s legibility with rigorous exploration of sites, and reference to previous data and reports assisting in the group’s approach to research conducted.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

city gateway | wateredge


city gateway | water edge

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

project scope

Hobart is a city of the senses where it is not necessary to abstract a plan of its space in order to negotiate it (Wooley, 2004). Iconic landmarks including the Tasman Bridge, ‘the mountain’, the Derwent River and Wrestpoint are identifiable elements forming reference points within the natural and built urban structure . On arrival the city is experienced three dimensionally or ‘in the round’, by virtue of its topography and climatic exuberance (Wooley, 2004).

Hobart from Kangaroo Point, Durmont, 1841

www.hobartcity.com.au/.../city_of_hobart_urban_design_principles_aug..au


city gateway | water edge analysis | historical

Colonial Grid up to 1845: -Rectilinear and closed with incremental extension -Accessible low ground rivulet within central area basin

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

hobart’s urban growth - alterations to the river

Mid - late 19th Century expansion: -Rectilinear extended though not formally planned -Informal and irregular beyond the central area basin

20th Century suburban extension: -Urban footprint is elongated with curvilinear extensions of vehicular routes -Spreading away from the early rectilinear street grid along water edge

21st Century suburban consolidation: Recommendation that further development should seek consolidation of the existing pattern with defining margins made up of existing boundaries (water edge/ sloping ground) of landform.


analysis | current

analysis | proposed

paths + edges + districts + nodes + landmarks

city gateway

Hobart is often referred to as a small city in a large landscape. When arriving by air, on making one’s way to the city the busy highway cuts through the landscape to the river where the Tasman Bridge, an iconic gateway, carries you over a breathtaking natural harbour with Mount Wellington acting as a dramatic backdrop. These gateways and LANDMARKS are memorable features and their location helps to orient the navigator, however, enhancing connections with the greater landscape through the treatment of PATHS, EDGES and NODES along the airport to city route would add a layer of urban legibility that celebrates the approach to Hobart adding to the sense of arrival.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

city gateway | water edge

The research focuses on strengthening airport to city gateways through the treatment and introduction of recognisable elements in order to create a sense of arrival and celebtation that assists in orientating the navigator.

water edge The objective of the investigation is to discover methods which are able to make the water edge play a more significant role in the everyday movement of commuters across Hobart, in particular from Sandy Bay to Tasman Bridge. The existing vegetation and parkland has the potential to form a strong green network linking through to the wateredge. There is also the potential to use the water edge to reinforce links between the pedestrian network and public transport. The Derwent River will be looked upon in it’s entirety beyond Sandy Bay and the Tasman Bridge . Additional connections between Hobart and its neighbouring precincts through the introduction of additional jetties and ferry points to build up the existing ferry network are explored.

In relation to the Derwent River there is a lack of high quality links between the Tasman Bridge and Sandy Bay due to the separation of DISTRICTS by poor quality EDGES as a result of a car dominated road network. This disarticulation has resulted in the lack of development of social spaces along the water EDGE and the separate use of the city from the water edge. The river is an asset to the city yet its full potential has not been brought out. The water edge could be treated as an integrated urban development across Hobart, reintegrating the Derwent River with the city fabric. Linking inner city gateways, the river EDGE, LANDMARKS, and major places of interest through continuity of spatial wayfinding strategies would also assist in the connection, understanding and legibility of place.

legend

edges

legend

path

districts

areas of investigation

nodes

points of investigation

landmarks

districts


city Gateway In addition Hobart’s Inner City Action Plan (ICAP 2010) notes that routes into the city are not clearly marked and there is a lack of recognisable elements to assist in navigation. In response Gehl (2010) recommends the development of a signage and wayfinding strategy that focuses on the city and major places of interest.

airport precinct + tasman highway to bridge

entrance to tasman bridge

tasman bridge to city

entrance ways to city centre

Paths - generally car dominated by Tasman Highway - well defined/ functional Edges - neglected, opportunity to rectify through planting/landscape design Districts - no clear demarkation/river marks transition Nodes - opportunity to create Landmarks - multiple in landscape - need to enhance and celebrate

Paths - confusing, difficult to negotiate, signage clutter in attempt to compensate Edges - poor, grubby, under repair, mismatch of materials Nodes - NIL

Paths - well defined , sweep past river edge Edges - lack of quality edge that compiments river Districts - clear division/definition of Domain above, wilderness as backdrop Nodes - NIL, opportunity to create Landmarks - bridge, multiple within landscape - need to enhance and

Paths - car domination continues into and through city via one way streets Edges - lack of quality edge that compiments river Districts - lack of sense of arrival / movement through precincts Nodes - combination of weak and strong, need to be identified/recognised Landmarks - multiple within built environment - need to be linked together

Landmarks - bridge, multiple within landscape - need to enhance and

celebrate

Districts - bridge/river denotes change, edge, signage detracts from gateway

celebrate

legend

legend paths

paths

edges

edges

districts

districts

nodes

nodes

landmarks

landmarks

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

analysis | proposed With the constant aim in making vehicuilar routes into the city as seamless as possible, connections between surrounding areas and the city centre have become insufficient and uninviting. High quality links leading to and from the city are in need of development. This includes the identification of strong entry points (Gateways) that create a sense of arrival (Gehl 2010).


city gateway analysis | airport precinct

speculation signage visual

social

facility

art

safety

graphical wayfinding Printed material : Tourism Tasmania map informative other maps contain a moderate amt of information. No other available until arrival in Hobart Electronic: reliable platforms when accessible. Directional signage: consistent signage needed within airport precinct Use of icons/graphical signage needed for non English speaking visitors.

Bus and taxi pick up zones are not clearly marked Transition from aiport precinct signage to road network signage system needs attention. Confusing signage between airport and highway however as there is only one route or access way signage is secondary to other wayfinding cues Electronic: reliable platforms with pre arranged access to internet.

Accessibility of information

Replaceble map?

Wayfinding with realtime apps

own images

Analysis of available printed and electronic wayfinding information reveals that it is generally of useful and informative. The challenge is to improve its accessibility, legibility (for non English speaking visitors) and the link with a uniform signage system with easily digestible information as recommended by ICAP (AP10).

Adequate printed material

No specific signage

An example of technological advancement improving the accessibility and sharing of printed and interactive information is the rapidly increasing number of interactive kiosks globally. Their deployment allows customers, in this case visitors to Hobart, access to self-service applications that provide tailored, layered retrainable information for individuals and groups that may include: - art/cultural destinations and landmarks - timetable of pending events - location of public, transport services and amenities - list, ranking and level of available accommodation - recreation and entertainment facilities/locations The capacity of the interactive kiosk combine both printed and electronic material is now available. The feasibility of their integration into the upgrading the cities wayfinding system in general needs to be explored.

Unmaintained signage

Sign system

With rapid technological advancements personal journey planning is seen as driving the demise of traditional wayfinding signage and increasing the importance of placemaking graphics, along with public art and iconic architecture (Atkinson.B, 2012).

Interactive kiosks

Generate personal hybrid maps images -desktopmag.com.au

Gehl Report 2010

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

access


city gateway analysis | tasman bridge to city

speculation signage visual

comfort

graphical wayfinding

precedent - the princeton university strategy

Good directional signage along Tasman Highway until bridge approach. Mismatch of signs when approaching bridge that is confusing to visitors - opportunity here to improve. Clutter of signs detract from the bridge, mountain and river beyond. Opportunity to replace signs with recognizable elements/theme through treatment of Highway edge.

facility

art

safety

Unimpressive, token welcome sign - location does not relate to or denote transition point. First use of informative icons at this transition point Road signs generally consistent

The Experience

The aim of the campus wayfinding program is to promote a better visitor experience and improve traffic patterns by providing essential information that people and residents need to find the university and navigate the campus. The Sign Family is based around the dynamics of the visitor experience as people approach the campus, orient themselves at campus entrances and find their destinations.

The Sign Type

A visitor typically approaches by car or train

Vehicular, directional, parking ID, street ID

A visitor orients at entrance then goes by foot or bus

Map display, bus map, pedestrian directional, walk ID Building ID

A visitor finds a destination

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

access

Sign Type Family - Directional

detracts from landscape

Welcome to Hobart Vehicular Directional Large Township Marker Sign Type Family - Orientational

Vehicular Directional Medium

and small

Pedestrian Directional

Identification: As discussed Comprehensive and consistent identification of buildings, streets and walks will help visitors find their destination. Information: Map cases could be located at key points on arrival at the airport, wayside stops and in the city campus. Pedestrian: Directional signs feature visitor destinations with design input included from stackholders visitor destinations approved by stakeholders. www.twotwelve.com

mismatch of signage

use of icons assists international visitors


city gateway speculation signage access

visual

social

comfort

safety

precedent - directional signage dandenong I victoria

graphical wayfinding Opportunity to improve direction signage along Liverpool Street to direct visitors to precincts / zones, major places of interest eg hospital, UTAS city campus, multi-storey car parks, waterfront, North Hobart. Adequate overhead directional signage to Davey St. Obscure parallel to the road sign on entry to Davey.

Minimal directional signage along Davey Street - need to rely on maps, electronic devices when navigating towards major places of interest for eg. Salamanca, TMAG - opportunity to improve.

Overview: A series of new way finding signs installed throughout central Dandenong to assist pedestrians to find key landmarks and places of interest. Located along key walking routes, the signs indicate approximate journey times, distances, preferred walking routes, key landmarks, together with locations for public toilets, transport and phones. The signs include maps that highlight the immediate environment and show the broader precinct area.

lighting

art

Design Challenge: Need to understand current and future requirements a priority as 56% of population born overseas, over half with English as a second language and 6% of population with some form of disability. In response a user orientated mapping system was developed relying on: - 3D extruded landmarks and buildings as essential references for navigation. - consistent use of simple, clear directions easily understood in English - reference made to key nodal points supported by limited directional signs that allows users to easily understand where they are in an urban context and shows the relationship between areas. Sustainability: Modular signage with interchangeable elements and components. Vitreous enamelled panels were produced locally and meet longevity demands.

Entrance to waterfront

Entrance to waterfront

Lack of signage

Obscure signage

Lack of signage

images - melbournedesignawards.com.au

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

analysis | entrance to city centre


city gateway speculation access

visual

social

comfort

landscape

safety

furniture

art

spatial wayfinding Airport is a gateway (LANDMARK) in itself - sense of arrival and anticipation needs to carry through to PATHS leading to departure points (bus/taxi/rental cars) that are currently disjointed, ambiguous and lacking in character. General reliance on signage for orientation /direction

Colonnade of posts erected to stop roadside parking forms a strong EDGE away from the airport Opportunity to link airport to highway roundabouts creating as series of NODES with the installation of a common theme through continuation of planting along EDGE to highway that enhances avenue (PATH) .

Designing an efficient wayfinding system requires a multidisciplinary approach including input from the landscape architect. Considerations to do with landscape amy range from the ’image of the city’ to the dynamics of regional planning to traffic calming, streetscape design and pedestrian travel. (Rapheal.D., 2006).

Pathways that are well delineated and coupled with readily understood entries also support logical wayfinding. The vocabulary of the path, its surfacing, and associated elements such as lighting and landscaping, clearly delineate routes which travellers may follow to their destination. Thus landscape architects have the opportunity to be critically important in the design of wayfinding systems. opportunity to showcase Tasmanian Natives along vehicular,pedestrian paths

bland pathways

colonade of posts I native planting

bland roundabouts

continue native planting

designforwalking.com

Gehl Report 2010

http://www.treesforlife.org.au

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

analysis | airport precinct


city gateway speculation access

visual

social

comfort

landscape

safety

furniture

art

spatial wayfinding Opportunity to introduce common theme through landscaping pockets of vacant land along EDGES that are currently under utilised and or detract from surrounding landscape and LANDMARKS. Cutting through landscape and initial views of Mount Wellington form gateway and backdrop to the city. This transition point would be ideal for a wayside stop before bridge gateway.

cutting through landscape

Bridge is a LANDMARK gateway marking transition from outer lying DISTRICTS to the city. Integration of PATHS (ramps) along this section of roadway is confusing to the visitor.Reliance on signage to assertain direction. Mismatch of materiality along EDGES that are also of poor quality. Common thread linking NODES would assist in navigating onto bridge allowing decluttering of existing signage. Measures would enhance this iconic LANDMARK gateway - bridge, mountain, river, landscape.

The identified landscape opportunities may be subject to a number of intrinsic landscape values including those to do with: - Functionality: effectiveness of the landscape project in performing the practical roles expected of it by the community - Affordibility: the whole-of-life asset cost to council

Routes to city and surrounding precincts need to be clearly identifiable and well linked to the city network through recognisable elements to ease wayfinding. (Gehl,2010). Improve visual qualities of wayfinding systems by adding elements that increase delight of human senses (Gehl,2012)

-Sustainability: the projects contribution to protection of biodiversity, nonrenewable resource usage, pollution control and energy consumption - Experience: arousing the users emotional response to the intervention for example calming, stimulating and connection with sense of place -Authenticity: contributing to the recognition, protection of the natural, indigenous and cultural heritage of the site and its immediate context.

enhance and celebrate

http://www.fastcodesign.com

plant out edges

unattractive edges

Establish the design of recognisable elements

http://www.treesforlife.org.au

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

analysis | tasman highway to bridge


city gateway speculation access

visual

social

comfort

landscape

safety

furniture

lighting

facility

art

spatial wayfinding Bridge connects the water EDGE - poor vista of waterbody when on travelling over. Bland exit from bridge - ideal point for art installation that denotes transition point across DISTRICTS and ones arrival to Hobart. Opportunity to directly connect with river EDGE through the creation of a series of NODES for example the inclusion of a wayside stop at the once popular Regatta Ground that includes an information bay, public amenities

and possibly urban camping. Improving connections with Macquarie Point and the Domain could occur from the Regatta Ground over time. Creating stronger connections with the water EDGE will re stimulate communal activity along this historically significant section of the river.

Regatta Ground - an opportunity to develop this transition point between districts

own images

Prime location

Speculate Macquarie Point Report, UTas, 2010 Bland exit

Opportunity to landscape Opportunity to increase the quality of the physical connections between inbound roadways and the edge of the River Derwent at strategic transition points along route. These include the Regatta Grounds and the southern end of Cornelian Bay opposite the lower Botanical Garden exit. A wayside stop at either of these points could include an information bay/interactive kiosk, bike hire, public ammenities and urban camping ground. Branches away from these nodes could connect with surrounding landscape/ landmarks/facilities including the domain, bus shuttle, possible light rail, water taxis, cycle path,Macquarie point and the Botanical Gardens.

Desolate Regatta Ground

A unique edge

Possible urban camping Cornealian Bay

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

analysis | tasman highway to bridge


water edge current conditions | sullivans cove - sandy bay

battery point

sandy bay

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

sullivans cove Characteristics of areas highlighted in this urban analysis of Sullivans Cove, Battery Point, and Sandy Bay: 1) Lack of pedestrian’s/cyclists’ safety: This affects the quality of space for human circulation. A safe environment encourages the movement of people and eases navigation. 2) Lack of passive surveillance in the night: With the lack of passive surveillance, a space will not be able to give people a sense of security, hence discouraging people from using a space. 3) Presence of visual connections to the river: This visual connection creates opportunities from which the river can be used when navigating across the cityscape. The identity of Hobart as a waterfront city is also enforced when people are able to see the river from within the city as it creates a stronger image within their collective memory. 4) Presence of significant gradient change: A land with significant gradient change is not pedestrian nor cyclist friendly. This affects people’s choice of route when navigating the city. The areas identified then inform our decision about where we should investigate and analyse further in order to seek possible solutions which are able to improve the quality of the areas.

Lack of pedestrian’s/cyclists’ safety Lack of passive surveillance in the night Visual connections to river Significant gradient change


water edge

elizabeth street - sullivans cove

princess park - aj white park

quayle street - marieville esplanade

drysdale place - casino

A legible PATH can be created by introducing a series of NODES along

This proposal seeks to overcome the separation of the two parks caused

The disconnection of green network from the residential main street to the

The carpark creates a strong EDGE between the Casino building and

Elizabeth Street to deal with the abrupt change of programs at ground level,

by Castray Esplanade by enhancing the PATH connecting both sides of

water EDGE forms a weak character of place for pedestrians moving across

water edge, forming dead-ends at the green space and building EDGE

causing a disconnected use of the city from the Sullivans Cove. Proposals

the road and creating a NODE at the point where the two paths to the

the site. By strengthening the PATH connection between the main street and

thus making the water edge under-utilised. The proposal is to establish

made along the street may also deal with the topographic changes which

parks intersect. This would enhance the legibility of AJ White Park.

the water EDGE, the continuation of the green network could function as a

a distinct street hierarchy of attractive and safe pedestrian PATH for

key NODE for navigation in connecting the two disconnected DISTRICTS,

movement across the street, as well as establishing a NODE between the

the residential area and the water edge.

two recreational LANDMARKS, the Casino building and the water edge.

result in a disconnection of vistas towards the Sullivans Cove.

Castray Esplan

ade Sandy Bay Road

Elizabeth Street Mall Eli

zab

eth

Str e

Princes Park

et

Qu

ayle

Stre e

Drysdale Place

t

Sullivans Cove

Casino AJ White Park

Marieville Esplanade

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

proposed solutions | sullivans cove - sandy bay


water edge

elizabeth street - sullivans cove

princes park - aj white park

quayle street - marieville esplanade

drysdale place - casino

• Disrupted visual view from the mall to the river caused by the topographic

• The barrier built along the sloped edge is causing disconnection between

• Although river views can be seen when entering the Quayle Street

• The carpark causes a disconnection between the areas of vegetation and

changes within the city.

the two parks.

with row of trees functioning as the initial wayfinding tool there is a

the casino while occupying a prime area of land along the water edge.

disconnection of green banding from the main street to the water edge. • There is a lack of diversity and mix in functions of night activities leading to

• The built edges do not foster community engagement within the park and

a lack of mixed user groups engaging with the water edge.

is left underutilised.

• The water edge has no artificial lighting provision resulting in a lack of • Lack of ‘staying’ spaces along the water edge.

social engagement after dark when the space could be used for social activities with great views.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

legibility + character | sullivans cove - sandy bay


water edge

foreshore walk

water square

collective/2012/07/25/dune-street-furniture-system-by-ferpectcollective-05 (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.publicsquaregroup.com/cleveland-skatepark at 30 April 2013)

Street furniture covering shelves, benches and lamp posts can be introduced to provide staying

A skateboard ramp could be one of many different activities at the water square.

(accessed

spaces for people along the water edge.

rivulet stream

points of activity

http://inhabitat.com/seoul-recovers-a-lost-stream-transforms-it-intoan-urban-park/seoul-stream/?extend=1 (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.wejetset.com/magazine/author/17/tourism 30 April 2013)

Water stream in a pedestrian street telling the historical story of the Rivulet stream which flows from the city to the Derwent river.

art

(accessed

at

greenery

http://inhabitat.com/water-light-graffiti-led-wall-in-france-needsonly-water-to-paint-a-picture/water (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://keepsouthbendbeautiful.wordpress.com/2010/09/16/what-is-apocket-park/ (accessed at 30 April 2013)

Musical swings stimulate the public space, bringing together people of all ages and backgrounds in the city.

Interactive water graffiti led wall that needs only water to paint a picture can be installed as a

Pocket park with water and trees can be sandwiched between development on multiple sides, enclosing the space and aiding in the respite experience for the users.

means to reinvogarate urban street life.

http://econode.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/bo01-in-malmo-sweden.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.manlykayakcentre.com.au/kayak.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/metrolight-sl/paver-lights-for-publicspaces-led-63606-747770.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

h t t p : / / w w w. m e t ro p o l e p a r i s. co m / 2 0 0 6 / 1 1 3 0 / 1 1 3 0 b l o g. h t m l (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/02/ water-running-through-streets.jpg (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.cambridge2000.com/galler y/html/P71915403e.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

Create squares and direct access along the foreshore walk and give people opportunity to touch the water and enjoy a multitude activities on the water.

Activities on water such as boat rowing to attract social engagement and activities.

Paving stone with a light of memory of water. It also acts a wayfinding strategy to help people navigate from the city to the water edge.

Water jets offering fun for everybody while creating an attractive space for a variety of events.

Art installation as a public intervention to light up the dark street.

Green space offers inviting edge within urban landscape while lighted trees help people navigate during the night.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

precedents


water edge

Changes in topography along Elizabeth street hinders visual connectivity towards the water edge. Urban interventions are biased towards the Elizabeth street mall and are then discontinued, resulting in a lack of staying spaces in the areas between the mall and the water edge.

access

visual

social

comfort

Problem 1:

Opportunities:

Problem 2:

Opportunities:

Disconnected visual connection between the water and the street caused by the topographic changes

Use existing buildings (multi-storey carpark) as a means to make visual connections and provide spaces for social activities.

safety

01

Lack of social activities between the mall and the water edge

Continuation of the vibrant street mall down towards the water edge.

02

03 Elizabeth street mall

01 Elizabeth Street Mall offers a wider public/pedestrian space with a diversity of cafe’s and retail shops. This has developed strong walking links in-between.

02 Disrupted visual views from the mall to the river caused by the topographic changes within the city.

03 Lack of diversity and mix in functions of night activities leads to a lack of mixed user groups engaging along the water edge.

City Gateway | Water Edge discoveries:

(Image taken from Speculate GASP)

The redevelopment of Elizabeth Street Pier since 1991 has increased activity between Elizabeth Street Pier and Salamanca Place but that part of the Cove from Elizbeth Street Pier to Hunter Street is still weak. Strategy of extending and intensifying the number of activities between the mall and cove can be made. It is also important that the interventions do not limit future opportunities for the continuation of walkways along the water edge.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

problems + opportunities | sullivans cove - elizabeth st


water edge speculation | sullivans cove - elizabeth st

landscape

1) Continuation of the row of trees with public seats underneath

2) Roof top of Argyle Street Carpark to be used as a viewing platform towards Sullivans Cove

3) Programmetic change of street facing shops to more peopleoriented cafes and retail shops

4) Continuation of art works down Elizabeth Street towards Sullivans Cove

5) Public street furniture to be installed along water edge to create staying spaces

6) Program from Elizabeth Pier to spill out onto streets as an activation of edges

furniture

lighting

art

2) Viewing platform on Argyle Street Carpark

7) Stairs to descend down into the water to allow people to get closer to the water if they wish to

5) Public street furniture

6) Program from Elizabeth Pier to spill out onto streets

7) Stairs to descend down into the water

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

This speculation aims to extend the vibrancy of Elizabeth Street Mall towards Sullivans Cove as the separation between the use of the city and the existing Sullivans Cove activities is very evident.


water edge

The Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies and the CSIRO Marine Laboratories are causing a disconnection between Princes Park and the wateredge. While there may be opportunities for better water edge connections via AJ White Park, the carpark causes a disarticulation between links. The carpark itself has a good connection with the water edge.

access

visual

social

comfort

Problem 1:

Problem 2:

Problem 3:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Poor accessibility + enclosure

AJ White Park lacks of visual presence from the Princes Park

Disconnection between social activities in their respective environments and the water edge

safety 02

01

01

02 01 View to the main street between Princess Park and the Car Park + AJ White Park. The barrier that is built along the slope edge causes a disconnection between the two parks.

Introduce designated pedestrian walk way between Princes Park and the existing car park at AJ White Park.

Signage can be introduced between the princess park and the main street.

Increase diversity of outdoor spaces to provide social engagement across the site.

02 View to the AJ White Park and the Derwent river. Built edges doesn’t foster community engagement within the park and is left underutilised.

City Gateway | Water Edge discoveries:

(Image taken from Speculate GASP)

The identity of the wateredge is dominated by the existing car park, causing a dominating ‘to and fro’ entry between Princes Park and AJ White Park. Part of the parking space can be replaced by pockets of greeery/landscape and public facilities.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

problems + opportunities | battery point - aj white park


water edge speculation | battery point - aj white park

landscape

This speculation aims to improve the legibility of AJ White park from the main road, resolve the disconnection between the two parks, increase the diversity of uses at the site, and encourage community participation in the temporary events.

2) Zebra crossing and stairs to be inserted to deal with the level change and improve the pedestrian connectivity between the parks

3) Addition of trees as a way of linking the two parks and possible act as a wayfinding strategy

4) Signage to be installed to inform people of the presence of AJ White Park

5) Public street furniture to be installed to support the BBQ facilities and create staying spaces by the water edge

6) Creation of “Sea Organ� descending into water to attract people to the site and allow people to experience the sounds and patterns of waves

furniture

facility

art

2) zebra crossing

4) Signage

7) Public art works installation in addition to the current sculpture there

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

1) Sheltered bbq pits provide people with a comfortable space for barbecuing while being able to enjoy the river view

signage

1) Sheltered bbq pits

3) addition of trees

7) Art installation 5) Street furniture

6) Sea organ- produces sound when waves hit the steps

http://elmtin.blogspot.com.au/2011_02_01_archive.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)


water edge

Although Quayle Street has a good visual connection to the water from the main road there is lack of staying spaces along this stretch. The network of trees forms a strong urban articulation denoting the procession to the Rivulet and the water edge. The topography of both sides is raised up from the road levels such that they form a gateway to the waterway.

access

visual

social

comfort

Problem 1:

Problem 2:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Poor signage linking from the main street to the water edge

Disconnection of green network from the main street or from the water edge.

safety

01

02

01

02 03 04

Strengthen the metaphorical connection between the Rivulet and the water edge.

01 River view can be seen when entering the Quayle Street. Trees function as the initial wayfinding tool.

02 Rows of deciduous trees act as a linking visual guide to the water edge, aiding body sensory movement through the landscape.

03 Sense of movement is changed when meets the Rivulet. Rows of trees are now discontinued.

Continue the green network as a means to enhance the navigational movement while bringing the historical qualities of the Rivulet to the water edge.

04 End of trip at water edge. Social engagement of the site is inactive.

City Gateway | Water Edge discoveries: (Image taken from Speculate (Image taken from Speculate GASP) GASP)

Disarticulation between the green network and the water edge could be made legible by understanding the relationship between the pedestrian movement and the character of place.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

problems + opportunities | battery point - quayle st


water edge speculation | battery point - quayle st This speculation aims to strengthen the existing green network as a wayfinding strategy and educate people about the rivulet that runs through the area. The interventions proposed are subtle and will not create any disturbance to the residential neighbourhood.

signage

Continuation of trees along Quayle Street and the addition of signages at the start, middle, and end of the street.

2) Signage with information about the Sandy Bay rivulet are to be provided at various points of Quayle Strreet- one at the start of the road, one on a bridge at the center (so that people coming from other road intersections will also come across the signs), and one at the end of the road towards Marieville Esplanade.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

1) Additional rows of trees may be inserted at the start and end of Quayle Street to continue the existing stretch of trees. The deciduous trees not only act as shade during summer but also functions as a linking visual guide to the water edge. They create a rhythm and sense of movement through the landscape.

landscape

Bridge with rivulet running below

Sandy Bay rivulet running through part of the site before meandering away

Network of trees running through entire length of the street which slopes down towards the water

Existing private jetty


water edge

The carpark is currently causing the disconnection between the green areas and the casino and it is also occupying a great spot in front of the water edge when the space can instead be used for other social activities. Deadends at green space and building edges which generated by the large carpark space have made the water edge underutilised.

access

visual

social

comfort

Problem 1:

Problem 2:

Problem 3:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Poor pedestrian accessibility due to the lack of pedestrian crossings

No sheltered spaces provided for the outdoor spaces

Outdoor spaces lack of diversity in recreational activities

safety

01 02

Create a distinct street hierarchy of attractive and safe pedestrian network crossings through the separation of paths for movement across the street.

01 No provision of light and social engagement along the water edge.

Provide multi-purposed shelters which not only provide protection from the weather but also support public life activities along the water edge.

Offer pockets of space offering potentials for sports, play, and cultural activities along the water edge in connection to the existing green space.

02 The only pedestrian/cyclist path that cuts through the green space and stops at the parking area. City Gateway | Wateredge discoveries: Duck watching/feeding activity have the potential to engage with the community and the members of Casino. Further interventions to upgrade the water edge as part of the current activities and legibility would be beneficial. (Image taken from Speculate GASP)

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

problems + opportunities | drysdale place - casino


city gateway | water edge speculation | drysdale place - casino

landscape

1) Sheltered bbq pits and street furniture are able to provide a wider variety of activities along the water edge such as picnicking and duck watching

2) Additional trees can be planted along the evident trodden path across the green space as a form of shelter

3) Zebra crossing to be added for the ease of pedestrian crossing

4) Steps leading down to the shore area break the disconnection of levels

5) Playground for the children to add life to the space

6) Part of the existing carpark can be turned into a park so as to create a more inviting and pleasant threshold into the Casino

4) Steps down to water

5) Playground

2) Network of trees

7) Jetties and platforms jutting out from the water edge would create a suitable ferry point and viewing platforms providing views towards Kangaroo Bay and its surrounding landscape 1) Sheltered bbq pits and public furniture

3) Jetties and viewing platforms

facility

lighting

3) Zebra crossing

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

This speculation aims to reduce the amount of prime water edge space wasted on carparks by turning sections of existing carparks into a parkland and create legible pedestrian connections with the Casino. Several strategies are explored to rejuvenate the character of place.

furniture


city gateway | water edge conclusion

Sensory related activities and urban interventions have also proven to be important in maintaining public interest. Beyond the obvious fact that the river physically connects parts of Hobart together, it is also able to affect people and communities by providing them with a sense of identity, joy and place. It is embedded within the memories of people, influencing the image of the city formed in their minds due to its strong characteristic of acting like a landmark, allowing people to form their body images and orient themselves in the landscape. The body scape created gives a person his sense of direction. (Bloomer & Moore, 1977)

The research conducted in this chapter highlights that wayfinding is a key issue that concerns itself with people movement, their relationship to space and presents opportunities to design in response to peoples wayfinding behaviour. The user of the observer participant approach through the recording of people movement and experiencing the airport to city gateway and the water edge has identified a series of graphical and spatial issues and identified opportunities where graphical and spatial information can be enhanced or introduced. Hobarts natural landmarks and the river edge are memorable features and their location in relation to the city helps to orient the navigator, however, enhancing connections with the greater landscape through the treatment of paths edges and nodes would add a layer of urban legibility that enhances Hobart’s identity. The linking of landmarks and major places of interest through continuity of the chosen wayfinding system would also assist in the connection and understanding and legibility of place.

landscape Opportunities to enhance the edges of paths along road network on Gateway approach and the water edge that would assist the navigator along route. The treatment of edges and the strengthening of paths acknowledge city’s place within the landscape with connections to surrounding natural landmarks adding a layer of urban legibility.

furniture Opportunity to introduce street furniture as a common theme within the city and along the water edge. Common theme provides a common thread that assists in linking nodes and major places of interest. Introduce characteristics between street furniture and treatment of edges (signage, barriers) through colour, texture, shape.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

‘How does graphical and spatial wayfinding information assist in clarifying, highlighting and celebrating city gateways and the water edge giving visitors and the inhabitants of Hobart a greater sense of comprehension and connection with place?’

Water edges hold an abundance of opportunities for social activities to take place, and these activities in turn may act as a means of navigation strategy, instead of having to merely rely on physical objects as landmarks. Physical landmarks may not be visible from certain parts of the city, and their visibility is also greatly reduced when night comes. When viewing the river, the districts at opposite shores will be in people’s frame of view, subtly creating a link between the distant built fabric and them in their subconscious minds.

lighting The areas where lighting is needed to assist in orientation, safety and security are identified. Well designed light installations give architecture life and act as a ‘voiceless tour guide’. Designing with natural and artificial ‘light’ in mind is always a primary consideration in Tasmania.

facility Speculations include a variety of facilities for the visitor and the inhabitants of Hobart that assist in wayfinding through the creation of strategic junctions and transition points along paths and the water edge. Physical character of speculations provide graphical and spatial wayfinding information.

art The inclusion of art through speculative designs assists in the introduction of a common theme at gateways and along water edge . Generic layout maintains consistency of graphical information and allows stakeholders the freedom to include individual art themes.

(city gateway to the water edge: taken from maps.google.com)


REFERENCES Lascano, Ryan. “What Makes A Good Wayfinding System?” Arrows & Icons Magazine. Arrows & Icons Magazine, 06 Oct. 2009. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.

Appleyard, D. (1973). “Notes on Urban Perception and Knowledge”, Landscape Architecture and city and regional planning periodical, University of California, USA Arthur, P. and Passini,R. (1992). “Wayfinding : people, signs and architecture”. New York,McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, USA.

Reinhold, c1986). UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate Macquarie

Amidon, Jane, Radical Landscapes: Reinventing outdoor spaces (London : Thames & Hudson c2003).

Trancik, Roger, Finding Lost space: Theories of Urban Design (New York : Van Nostrand

Lynch, K., (1960) “Image of the City”. Joint Centre Publications, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

Point, Launceston, UTas School of Architecture & Design, 2012.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Abrams, J. B. (2010). “Wayfinding in architecture”. Architecture Commons vol 4 (16): 55., University of South Florida, USA

UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate GASP! Elwick Lynch, Kevin, A Theory of Good City Form (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981)

Bay, Launceston, UTas School of Architecture & Design, 2012.

Muhlhausen, J. (2000). “Wayfinding is not signage: signage plays an important part ofwayfinding, but there’s more”. http://www.signweb.com/ada/cont/wayfinding0800.html.

UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate Sullivan’s

Montgomery, J. (2007). “Making a city: Urbaninity, vitality, and urban design.” Journal of Urban Design 3(1): 93-116.

Beattie, N. (1992). “Imageability and Cultural Identity”. Exedra 3(2): 4-8. National Heart Foundation of Australia, Healthy by Design: A Guide to Planning and Bloomer, Kent C and Moore, Charles W, Body, Memory and Architecture (London: Yale

Designing Environments for Active Living n Tasmania, 2009, accessed 29 March 2013,

University Press, 1977)

<http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/driving-change/current-campaigns/local-campaigns/ Pages/tasmania-healthy-design.aspx>

Boyer, M. Christine, The City of Collective Memory (Cambridge: MIT press, 1994).

Cove, Launceston, UTas School of Architecture & Design, 2012. UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate City as Campus, Launceston, UTAS School of Architecture & Design, 2012. Wilkie, George, Inner City Action Plan: Preliminary Report to the Hobart City Council, Accessed March 20, 2013. Yiftachel, Oren and Hedgcock, David, “Urban Social Sustainability: The Planning of an Australia City”, Cities 10, no. 2 (1993): 139-157.

Radovic, Darko. Eco-urbanity: Towards Well-mannered Built Environments, (New York:

Farr, A. T Kleinschmidt, Prasad, Y. Mengersen, K. Wayfinding: “ A simple concept, a complex process” Transport Reviews, Queensland Institute of Technology, Vol 32, No.6,715-743, 2012.

Routledge, 2009)

Gehl Architects, Hobart Public Spaces and Public Life: A City with People in Mind,

Gehl, Jan Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space (Van Nostrand Reinhold

Raphael, David. “Wayfinding Principles & Practices.” Landscape Architecture Technical Information Series 2nd ser. (2006). Http://fergusonsportal.macmate. me. American Society of Landscape Architects, 2006. Web. 10 June. 2013. http://fergusonsportal.macmate.me/Portal/Urban_Systems_files/LATIS%20

Company: New York, 1987).

Wayfinding.pdf.

Gibson, D. (2009). “The Wayfinding Handbook”. New York, USA, Princeton Architectural Press, USA

Sasaki, Walker Associates, Landscape Infrastructure: Case studies by SWA (London :

Hobart City Council, 2011, accessed 29 March 2013, <http://www.hobartcity.com.au>

Hayden, Dolores, The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. (Cambridge: MIT, 1995).

Rajnis, Berjoska, Traces: Uncovering a Material Memory- Revealing Water, Land and Time at the Edge of the Urban Landscape, Dalhousie University, Halifax, 2010.

Springer, 2011). Stevens, Quentin. The design of urban waterfronts: A critique of two Australian ‘southbanks’. The Town Planning Review, Australia: City of Melbourne, pg.173-203, 2006.

*All images or photographs not referenced are taken or drawn by the author


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city edge

The existing public facilities in Campbell Precinct has actively provided services at the city edge area; unfortunately its current contribution towards legibility and identity of the district is insufficient. Its location along Campbell Street, existing NODES could be used to strengthen the urban character thus act as a way finding tool to connect between the Waterfront, City and the Domain. According to the H.C.C’s ICAP report, the routes between city and surrounding areas is not clearly identifiable and linked. University facilities developed along Campbell street and Domain area form a an island separated from both city and landscape Legibility is a key factor in defining the potential paths for connecting the CBD and cities edge. Speculations for infrastructure will be broken down into 3 parts which include the strengthening existing paths, creating new nodes and extending beyond the edge. Analysis and speculations were based on Lynch’s 5 elements of spatial legibility (Lynch, K. 1960) (paths, landmarks, districts, edges and nodes). This research seeks to not only defined Hobart’s urban character but also considers Legibility as a physical and spatial characteristic of the environment.

city edge

The cities edges between the inner city, Campbell streets newly defined education precinct and the Queen’s Domain are disconnected. this disconnection is mostly attributed to Brooker Avenue which physically separates the city and domain into two different districts. The city edge is also visually separated as they do not share common characteristics and functions (urban + landscape). In order to reconnect these districts and strengthen the access, to the existing urban park should be emphasized. Additional access points are required as well as improving way finding strategies, universal access and usage facilities to the existing access points.


city edge project scope

painting showing rivulet and Hunter island, (http://www.admiralscollection.com.au/images/history.jpg)

Hobart has a strong sense of place, The topography of the city is distinctive and dramatic. Starting at the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge the topography rises inland to meet Hobartâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s iconic Mt. Wellington. The distinctive location of the natural landscape has seen many significant changes in linkage and connection.

arial photograph showing brooker avenue disconnecting the city from the queens domain (http://catalogue.statelibrary.tas.gov.au/item/?q=hobart+railway&format=Images&i=27&id=PH30-1-8941

The Queens Domain in particular has a variation of connections with the cities centre. Originally these areas where divided by a rivulet travelling south where it flowed into the River Derwent. Later this rivulet was diverted and the disconnection became a wide pedestrian friendly street allowing users to move between the town and the grazing fields and Botanical Gardens on the banks of the Domain. Eventually this pedestrian friendly street became a four lane highway which is now the cities busiest road creating a strong traffic barrier at the cities EDGE. This condition had lead to a strong division between the city and landscape. This chapter seeks to understand how this barrier was created, and what can be done to re-connect these two disconnected DIRSTRICTS.

city edge

painting from the Queens Domain showing partially covered rivulet, (http://www.tasfamily.net.au/~schafferi/)

7


CITY EDGE anaylsis | historical

K

ST

1803 The traditional owners of the Domain, the Mouheneenner, lived in the region and through their lifestyle practices managed the Domain for at least 8,000 years before settlement. When Hobart was settled in 1803, the area now known as the Queens Domain was separated by the current location of Hobart city by rivulet flowing south to the River Derwent.

1811 - 1830 From as early as 1811, plans for Hobart streets were laid out by Governor Macquaire, reserving the areas of the Domain for Government purposes In 1818 gardens and farm lands were established on the domain. Public agitation at this decision commencing in the 1830s had the Domain confirmed as a public space.

RE

ET

1858 - 1870 Park street, a wide pedestrian friendly street, hugs the edge of the Queens Domain which housed the newly constructed Hobart High School which is now known as Domain House. A new government house was also constructed on the Queens Domain and as a result a new road is constructed travelling East West from the town through Domain Park,

1900 - 1917

In 1917, the Queens Domain was vested in the Council as a public reserve, however its boundaries were altered significantly to make room for the expanding gas works and rail yards. Hobart High school moved to a new location and by 1900 The University of Tasmania opened and constructed additions to Domain House.

1939 - 1960 During the 1960’s Park street was widened and renamed Brooker Avenue which was originally constructed as a two lane road. As a result of this the Railway Roundabout was constructed, and given its name because of its adjacency to the Hobart railway. 1961 a competition was held to provide a centrepiece for the busy roundabout which had previously served as a memorial for Hobart’s former mayors. A modernist fountain design was chosen and constructed by 1967.

1995 - 2013

The closure of Hobart’s gas works in 1978, saw extensive changes to character of linkage between the edge of Macquarie point and the Queens Domain. Government Railways close with most of the station buildings, housing and sheds removed, including at the Hobart Station site, leaving room for the Tasman highway connection between the city and the Tasman bridge being built through the previous site railway site, which now houses the ABC centre.

city edge

PA R


CITY EDGE anaylsis | current

proposed solution

edges + districts

landmarks, paths + nodes

Mcquarie street, Davey street and the Brooker highway form a traffic barrier surrounding the city and disconnecting it from greater Hobart landscape. Arglye street further divides the city creating an island that is neither city nor landscape. Ultimately these traffic barriers form distinct EDGES separating the city into THREE PARTS These DISTRICTS are disconnected physically by wide roads and also through their lack of physical connection and continual visual identity.

The cities existing EDGES + DISTRICTS create an internalised city with centralised pedestrian movements with PATHS that remain disconnected from the greater context. NODES and intersections with great potential are under utilized and key navigational LANDMARKS that spread beyond the boundary of the city appear unreachable or are altogether undetectable.

strengthening existing paths

aligning new paths of circulations with existing and proposed systems of circulation

3

and wayfinding with the city centre.

UTAS Menzies

Theatre Royal R.H.H

TMAG

establishing a series of nodes along campbell street that assist in wayfinding paths that extend beyond the boundaries of the district.

extending beyond the edge

focusing on crossing brooker avenue, establishing the railway roundabout as a key node and establishing the university rose garden as a landmark and destination.

city edge

creation of nodes

Domain

2

1

The disconnected edge will be addressed in three keys problem areas


strengthening existing path

landmark

node

path

district & edge

Location and numbers of landmark in a route will affect the wayfinding

In Hobart, there are numbers of existing nodes are underutilised and discon-

Different quality of laneway, alley, and routes could be a path that offers different

The development of education facilities along city edge has formed an

quality of space. The ideal location of landmark along Liverpool street has

nected with integrated paths. The node that use to navigate cyclist is different

experiences for people in travelling and wayfinding. Collins street, Liverpool

identifiable district at campbell street and domain area. Edge is an essential

advantages in navigate people travel through different district.

from pedestrianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s route node. Concentration node (social space,public space)

street and Bathurst street intersected with numbers of

element that influences connectivity of path from one district to another

Railway Roundabout is a strong landmark associated with entry point or

used to navigate pedestrian,while node for cyclist can be a place of break in

laneway. The activation of laneway has advantage in activating the adjacent

district. A clear district edge will give a sense of arrival and direction for

Gateway to the city CBD via Liverpool Street. Utas Menzies also known as

transportation.(bustop and end trip facilities). Student housing in Melville street

street. Barthusrt street and Liverpool street offers opportunities as continuity

people who travel through different district. Liverpool street potential to be

and Mathers lane in Liverpool street are potential to be an important node point

paths that

developed as an active path due to the quality of street frontage. Menzies

that orientate people in city.

link city centre to domain area. The laneway in between will be activated and

which located at the intersection point of Liverpool street and education pre-

encourage people flow along Bathurst and Liverpool street.

cinct has created a clear district edge due to its unique facade.

strong landmark that used to orientate people to education precinct.

city edge

current condition


strengthening existing path current condition | legibility + character

melville street

liverpool street

barthurst street

macquarie street

•Dull facade and inactive street frontage has resulted poor edge

• The street is mainly dominated by car, heavy traffic load is an issue

• The shops along Barthurst street majority occupied with car accessory

• Heavy traffic load dominated the street, causing difficulty for pedestrian

along Melville street.

for accessibility.

shops, which resulted less people travel through.

and cyclist to access, disconnecting the street from waterfront and campbell

• Mathers lane entrance is hardly been discovered, potential to be a

• Greater opportunities exist to establish strong pedestrian path along

visualise the route further beyond, wayfinding signage is needed.

path or node point that connects adjacent street together.

bathurst street over brooker avenue.

city edge

education precinct. •Major changes in topography causing difficulty for pedestrian to


strengthening existing path current condition | campbell street to city

collins street

barthurst street

macquarie street

melville street

Existence of landmarks and nodes offer opportunity for Liverpool street to be developed as key spine connecting city edge and inner city.Utas Menzies unique facade clearly be seen along the street due to street topography. Mathers lane is a potential node point used to strenghtened connectivity between Liverpool street and Bathurst street. In future, Myer development will activates the street edge along Liverpool street. Railway Roundabout is a strong landmark associated with entry point to the city CBD via

Collins street is a busy street dominated with high pedestrian and vehicles flow. Majority of street frontage(edge) is active and integrate with landmarks. Elizabeth mall act as a strong landmark that orientated people along collins street. However, hospital dull facade has caused discontinuity of path to campbell precinct,act as a fail landmark in collins street. Busmall is in need of signage and more waiting area for people. The integration of busmall in front retails shop has resulted overcrowded in that area,especially during peak hour.

Bathurst street mainly occupied with car accessory shops ,which resulted poor street frontage (edge) and low quality of path. However, it has potential to be developed as pedestrianise street as it is less dominated by car. Utas Menzies and Tafe located at intersection point between Bathurst street and Campbell street has created a clear sense of arrival at education precinct. Stated library potential to be developed as strong landmark along Bathurst street by enhancing social space on street level.

The street frontage (edge) of building is enclosed. Majority rear side of building facing Macquarie street. Tasmania museum fail to be a landmark along Macquarie street as it is surrounded with gate; created a clear separate edge from street.Macquarie street is also hardly access by pedestrian as it is dominated with heavy traffic load. In conclude, Macquarie street found to be least connected to Campbell education precinct and it has formed an edge disconnected waterfront to inner city.

Melville street potential to be developed as student residential area, creates a strong activity links extended from campbell education precinct to inner city. Currently Melville streetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frontage dominated with carpark and under utilised space, resulting poor travel experiences for people.There are a lot of inactive spaces can be turned into new social space(nodes) or education facilities in future. Development of Melville street has advantages in activating the adjacent street; Barthurst street and Brisbane street.

access

visual

social

access

visual

social

access

visual

social

access

visual

social

access

visual

social

city edge

Key map

liverpool street


strengthening existing path precedents paths

nodes

edges

landmarks

Covered pedestrian crossing ,Geoffrey galand and cedric michel <http://openbuildings.com/buildings/pedestrian-crossing-by-atelier-981-profile-6022>

Tel Aviv Port Public Space ,Mayslits Kassif Architects

Diguedondaines,Geoffrey Galand

Figure 3.18 Eye sculpture,,Pritzker Park, Tony Tasset

< http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2010/11/tel-aviv-port-public-mayslits-kassif-architects/>

< http://europaconcorsi.com/authors/2144663867-Atelier-9-81>

< http://www.chicagonow.com//2010/06/giant-eyeball-sculpture-at-pritzker-park/>

Miniature Campus,Nosigner < http://www.adcglobal.org/archive/yg/?year=13&id=366>

< http://www.asla.org/sustainablelandscapes/highline.html>

Diguedondaines,Geoffrey Galand skin nuno gusmao,pedro anjos < http://www.parqmag.com/>

Figure 3.19 RMIT,Melbourne < http://www.flickriver.com/photos/rmit/sets/72157609506873382/>

the edge cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge city

High line park, Joshua David


strengthening existing path speculation l campbell street Edge Water interactive wall replaced the existing street frontage to provide different sense of memory, sounds and sight to pedestrian.

Path Alley painted with wayfinding signage to strengthened the characteristic of alley and its connectivity to Campbell street.

Node The exisitng carpark potential to be turned into public art space, act as a new node point along campbell street.

city edge

District Culture districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s boundary clearly defined with art element; artistic bike rack, art paintted floor,and branded bus stop.


strengthening existing path speculation l campbell street

Bicycle storage

Edge Existing blank concrete wall of TAFE replaced with bicycle art wall to strenghtened the existence of bicycle facilities on left side.

Distrct The character of education district clearly defined here.The campus entrance installed with signage in different colour, enhance wayfinding experiences of student to different places. Branded bustop painted with campus logo to acknowledge student campus-campus bus services provided here.

Path The pathway been widen to 2.4m and planted with kerbs and trees. The green edge form as a buffer zone for pedestrian and car.

Branded bustop

Bicycle parking

city edge

Edge Edge could become one of the wayfinding tool for public. Wall painted with signage to indicate people the end trip facilities installed at carpark.


strengthening existing path speculation l melville street

End trip facilities

Node The existing carpark developed into social space for student, installed with signages and end trip facilities to assist pedestrian and cyclist orient themselves along the street.

Path The existing street topography and inactive edges resulted poor wayfinding experiences for public. Signage will be installed at intersection of paths.Node points and attractive edges are use to increase imageability of place.

city edge

Edge Existing dull wall will be replaced with green facade and attractive graffiti wall, to create a clear district character for Melville street. The new edges will provide different travel experiences and strong image for pedestrian who travel through.


strengthening existing path speculation l liverpool street Path Pathway developed into relaxing edge for public and student; planted with kerb and trees, act as buffer zone for traffic. Map and signage installed along the street for easier wayfinding.

Node Matherlane revitalised as new social space at Liverpool street. The alley decorated with artistic painting to increase imageability of space.

Bicycle parking The private off parking turn into bicycle parking.

city edge

Landmark State library installed with striking colour signage, strengthened existence of lbrary along the street.The library is hardly visible from other street due to land topography.


creating new nodes current condition

edges, nodes + districts

paths + landmarks

EDGES - Campbell precinct is surrounded by vehicle traffic flow which forms the edge that breaks the continuity with the surrounding areas. Main traffic flow that created the disconnected edge includes the Brooker Avenue highway, Macquarie Street and Davey Street. NODES - The Liverpool / Campbell Street junction, Bathurst / Campbell Street junction, and Collins / Campbell Street junction potentially to be an active nodes in future and function as a spinal link to strengthen Campbell precinct due to its strategic location and high density of pedestrian. DISTRICT - Education, civic and residential district were spread along Campbell precinct, there’s significant identity of spaces and functions that shares common attributes. Each district along Campbell Street has an identity but there’s no identity connection between them, there’s no defining features that link different district as one.

PATHS - The path along Campbell Street is clear towards the Waterfront; but the path between City and Domain which has poor signage and not visually connected has lead to poor wayfinding.

city edge

LANDMARKS - Landmarks within Campbell Precinct does provide a recognizable point of reference to the district; however it does not support to assist wayfinding beyond the city edge.


URBAN ANALYSIS current condition | legibility + character

davey street / campbell street

collins street / campbell street

liverpool street / campbell street

bathurst street / campbell street

• The vehicular dominated node cuts through padestrian footpath,

• An underutiled area disconnect the cognition for spatial

• The land topography channell the observer’s orientation path towards

• The stereotype character of building identity and structure is clear,

physically isolating the navigation elements thus leads to poor

characteristic of the padestrian environment, lack on space orientation

waterfront, however from great distance the destination is barely

however the interaction between built environment and the city users

wayfinding decisions.

that reinforce legibility.

noticable.

activity is very minimal.

• A strong landmark presence over large scale space mark edge to

• Unparallel node lack visual coherent on physical structure pattern,

• Menzies building provide unique perceptual identity as a significant

• Padestrian footpath being an isolated element for the street frontage

the district, however the spaces and functions in its surrounding not

confusing building skyline character.

landmark to the node, thus can help with issue of the city’s mental

cause difficulties to perceive the transparency and legibility of the area.

representation.

city edge

sharing similar common attributes.


creating new nodes theoretical framework “Similarly there is unrealised potential for “green” quarters which explore variety and contact with natural and semi-natural environments as is suggested by Leicester’s Environment City programmes” (Goodey,1992).

quality urban spaces

landscape / urban greenery

Urban design is concerned with the arrangement, appearance and function of our suburbs, towns and cities. It is both a process and an outcome of creating localities in which people live, engage with each other, and engage with the physical place around them (Creating Places for People, Urban Design Protocol for Australian Cities) .

Urban character -well defined public spaces -urban streets with frontage areas which gives a sense of security of human contact and surveillance -a clear definition of what is public and and what is private, achieved through the traditional distinction between public street and private block. -quality urban spaces are defined by 4 criteria, which are accessibility, visual axis, protection and social

Health Nowadays, urban landscape designs in the cities play a vital role in promoting good health of the citizens. Advancement of technology in this era is causing people to become more stagnant than ever, in this term, planning and layout of cities should respond by offering citizens the opportunity to be outside. People oriented city that emphasis on easy accessible and well-maintained paths for bicycling and walking will promote healthy lifestyle to citizens. Besides, diverse and attractive urban landscape design plays an important role in enhancing bicycling and walking experiences along the way.

To create productive, sustainable and liveable places for people through leadership and the integration of design excellence

Connection Urban landscapes make coexistence and communion between people and nature. Well-designed urban landscape in the city will strengthen the connection between people and nature, the idea that experiences of nature contribute to citizen’s well-being.

Urban design can significantly influence the economic, environmental, social and cultural outcomes of a place: -economic success and socio-economic composition of a locality -affects the balance between natural ecosystems and built environments, and urban design’s sustainability outcomes. -influence health and the social and cultural impacts of a locality: how people interact with each other, how they move around, and how they use a place. According to the Tasmania Capital City Plan for Hobart, the urban design strategy focuses on quality urban design as a catalyst for the achievement of social outcomes, incorporates concerns for diversity, equity and opportunity while considering safety, access to employment, recreation, infrastructure and services, the environment and sustainability.

Relationship to National Urban Policy The National Urban Policy presents the Australian Governments agenda on the future of our cities. It is a long term, national framework to guide policy development and public and private investment in cities through articulating a set of goals, objectives and principles.

Aesthetics Incorporating landscape feature along streetscape provides aesthetics value to urban street. Sidewalk planters provide sensory experience to people with fragrance and colour of nature. Besides, tall trees function as natural shading structure to the cities while shrubs serve as a natural walls and barriers in urbanscape.

There are macro and micro scale of landscape in urban design element. Macro scale landscape in the context of urban design (topography, landscape and environment) and micro scale landscape in urban design element (streetscape+landscape). Streetscape + landscape The design of public spaces such as streets, opens spaces and pathways, and includes landscaping, microclimate, shading and planting. Topography, landscape and environment The natural environment includes the topography of landforms, water courses, flora and fauna—whether natural or introduced. It may be in the form of rivers and creeks, lakes, bushland, parks and recreational facilities, streetscapes or private gardens, and is often referred to as ‘green infrastructure’.

city edge

urban design

Health

Connection

Aesthetics


creating new nodes urban street comparative analysis

To analyse speculation schemes, a rating system has been devised to identify and main urban street that connects to Campbell Street. Comparative analysis on four main streets which connect to Campbell Street are Collins Street, Liverpool Street, Bathurst Street and Melville Street. This evaluation system focuses on four key desirable characteristics on accessibility, visual axis, protection and social.

access

visual

comfort

social

The developed rating system is a hybrid matrix that amalgamates the 12 quality criteria developed by Gehl Architects - for assessing the quality of urban space; and also particular sense of place that provides urban character to the city of Hobart. Part of the criteria for this evaluation system are derived from the 12 quality criteria of an urban space, which identified by the Australian Commonwealth Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s National Urban Policy. According to Thomas (2002), the micro-(individual building) to the macroas important to the success of a piece of architectural or urban design as its style or its functionality. In this case, the relations between characteristics of a site and the needs of people are important in creating sense of a place. Through amalgamating the quality criteria and urban character of Hobart urban streets, the comparative analysis can: -compare propositions to other exemplars of good urban design of public spaces, assisting the local authorities to identify projects that best meet the and progress the recommendations of the 2010 Hobart Gehl Architects â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Places for Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; surveys -propose appropriate urban intervention along Campbell Street to further define Hobart urban character and strengthen Campbell Street as an educational precinct.

city edge

scale (a city) in development, the response of a development to the site is


creating new nodes analysis | collins street

Laneway infill as urban generator

(Source: http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/call-to-protect-laneways-in-the-nameof-a-gritty-city-20120616-20h4c.html )

access

visual

comfort

Urban Street Section : 93 collins street

social

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : collins street / elizabeth street junction

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : collins street / campbell street junction

city edge

Collins court acts as an important transition along Collins Street before entering the Centre Business District. Collins court should be activated and transform into an urban court with small scale markets, art installations, nature retreats and more. Reclaiming unused court could increase the amount of pedestrian along Collins court.


creating new nodes analysis | liverpool street

Urban landscape

(Source: http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/call-to-protect-laneways-in-the-nameof-a-gritty-city-20120616-20h4c.html )

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : 125 liverpool street

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : liverpool street / elizabeth street junction

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : liverpool street / campbell street junction

city edge

Currently, Liverpool Street is characterized as one of the active access in the city due to its proportion of retail trade. Access along Liverpool Street should be enhance with landscape to provide a level of comfort to the pedestrians and beautify the urban street. Besides, urban landscape also offers protection at certain level. This ensure the urban streets are more pedestrian friendly, comfortable and exciting to visit, urban streets that offer protection against unpleasant sensory experiences will attracts more people to visit.


creating new nodes

The main junction between Bathurst Street and Campbell Street has the potential to be an active node. Walkability and sense of identity are important in this sense. Well design streets critical in creating attractive public spaces and enhancing urban quality is important to strengthen the identity of the street.

access

(Source: http://www.sustainablecitiesnet.com/tag/urban-design/ )

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : 125 bathurst street

access

visual

comfort

Urban Street Section : 43 bathurst street

social

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : bathurst street / campbell street junction

city edge

analysis | bathurst street


creating new nodes

Hobart is characterized as car dominated city to pedestrian oriented city, enhance street pavement for pedestrian for pedestrian is crucial. Besides, creative application of graffiti art along dull faรงade will create distinct characteristic to urban street. Thus, create a strong visual engagement with the public users.

access

(Source: http://www.attheedges.com)

visual

comfort

Urban Street Section : melville street

social

access

visual

comfort

Urban Street Section : 43 bathurst street

social

access

visual

comfort

social

Urban Street Section : melville street / campbell street junction

city edge

analysis | melville street


creating new nodes ripple effects activation along campbell street Key urban intervention at road junction

Campbell Street as a spinal link

Road junction at urban streets functions as main nodes. In this term, road junction directs pedestrian, cyclist and vehicles from one destination to another. Road junction was chosen as main intervention area to create pedestrian friendly route. Pedestrian prioritized road to support pedestrian flow.

Urban interventions along Campbell Street strengthen the link between all educational facilities. Through upgrading this link, Campbell Street can realize itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential as a vital and attractive generator of quality public life.

city edge

key activation point along campbell Street


creating new nodes speculation l accessibility Indicate gateways points to the city centre

Sustain and strengthen the link to the Domain’s House Highline Park (Source :http://www.asla.org/ sustainablelandscapes/highline.html)

Indicate prominent local buildings with similar signage throughout the area Southbank Institute of Technology, Brisbane

Signange indicating building’s function Allow footpath to runs uninterrupted along Campbell Street indicating the importance of pedestrians using this link Cologne’s Schildergasse (Source :http://www.planetizen.com/ node/47517)

Raise up pavement, experienced as driving up and in a dominated space

city edge

(Source :http://jurisgresteurbanblogger. blogspot.com.au)


creating new nodes speculation l visual connection

Streets with steep grades

Play space for weekend and evening recreation

Bonython Park Playspace, WAX

Landscapes

Significant views to waterfront from Campbell Street â&#x20AC;&#x153;Streets Come Aliveâ&#x20AC;? by team LEVON (Source :http://www.bustler.net/index. php/article/winners_announced_ in_21st_century_street_design_ competition/ )

city edge

Urban greenery along Campbell, propose short plants on Macquarie, Collins and Liverpool Streets to avoid blocking visual connection to the waterfront


creating new nodes speculation l comfort Awnings from buildings to protect people from rain A dedicated bicycle lane throughout the link creates a vital addition to the cycle network and to the feeling of public life

Copenhagen

Moveable and transformable furniture according to season Platform Precinct Urban Design by eekos Archtitects (Source : http://eekos.com.au/category/place-making/)

Building edge that function as a covered pathway for public

city edge

Bike facilities provided to encourage everyone to cycle


creating new nodes speculation l social Extend the theatre functions to spill along Campbell Street Platform Precinct Urban Design by eekos Archtitects (Source : http://eekos.com.au/category/ place-making/)

Introduce daily activity to City Hall, incorporates public reading room, cafeteria, free internet access

city edge

Coffee hub

Give a sense of identity with more attractive sitting environment infront of the art school Platform Precinct Design by eekos tects (Source

:

Urban Archti-

http://eekos.com.au/catego-

ry/place-making/)


BEYOND THE EDGE urban analysis

bathurst street + brooker avenue

liverpool street

the railway roundabout

the university rose garden

This wide and busy brooker avenue creates a strong EDGE between

This is a key mediating space between the city and the domain and

The proposal is to reestablish the railway as a key NODE and LANDMARK

This is the largest urban park within the Northern half of the city, there is

city and landscape making a dramatic change in the topography, and

currently exhibits no characteristics of this. The street should be directing

of orientation within the greater Hobart landscape. By improving the

great potential for this space to serve the needs of nearby high educational

character. The proposal involved establishing a strong pedestrian PATH

and informing users of the urban park existing beyond, a strengthened

existing facilities at the roundabout and strengthening its existing PATHS

facilities, if the parks facilities are improved along with the proposed PATH

along bathurst street over brooker avenue, connecting LANDMARK higher

visual PATH with characteristics of the landscape district would help to

and connections, the roundabout could function as a key hinge in

improvements it could act a NODE and destination between high education

educations facilities and establishing a NODE at the intersection between

connect the two, as well as establishing a node between two key medical

connecting the currently disconnected DISTRICTS.

and recreational activities on the Domain such as the Hobart Aquatic Centre

bathurst and campbell street.

LANDMARKS, the Menzies building and the R.H.H.

UTAS Domain House

H.A.C UTAS Domain House

city edge

UTAS Domain House

TAFE

UTAS Menzies

UTAS Menzies

R.H.H

UTAS Menzies


BEYOND THE EDGE

bathurst street + brooker avenue

liverpool street

the railway roundabout

the domain rose garden

• The road cuts through the landscape, making a dramatic change

• The underpass is hard to find, wayfinding strategies need improving

• Small interventions and opportunities are already working in this space.

• Small interventions and opportunities are already working in this space.

in the topography, furthering the difficulty of physically and visually

in the immediate and broader context. • Greater opportunities exist for the space in regards to the adjacent higher

• Greater opportunities exist for the space in regards to the adjacent higher

educational facilities.

educational facilities.

accessing the urban park beyond. • Universal access and safety are an issue in the underpass.

city edge

current condition | legibility + character


BEYOND THE EDGE theoretical framework Many texts exist on the importance of city dwellers connecting to the natural landscape. Many theories are present on how and why public urban parks should be designed. Although the literature covers a wide variety of theories, this report will focus on four major themes which have emerged repeatedly throughout the literature.

access

ecology

community

delight

An essential component of providing good urban park design stems from the accessibility of the park. Successful accessibility should provide both universal admittance and way finding strategies.

Many texts exist on the importance of city dwellers connecting to the natural landscape. Chiesura’s (1991), Burls (2007) and Harnik (2010) demonstrate that the quality of our relationship with nature affects the quality of our mental and physical health.

There is more depth to the urban park than providing grass and vegetation. Koh (2006) insists that the vegetation and landscape of the park is only a small part of what it should provide the city, stating parks should be multifunctional, ecological and cultural, providing for its users and open to the city. “Parks should be energized through their ecology, but have a community based design, be loving and loved by the community engaging its visitors not just to view, but to participate.” (Koh, 2006, p.18). Koh observes that there are many newly designed parks that are green, beautiful, conceptual and photogenic but are not used because they offer nothing for the user and have no meaningful connection to the community.

Thompson (1999) believes that although there is no single summary or theory that offers a summary of aesthetic strategies that in order to inspire delight spaces must embody the spirit of the place. Urging designers to respect the particularities of the place, referring to the local distinctiveness of the landscape creating a sense of connection and belonging of those using the space. Delight is thus embodied in spaces that carry meaning, even if it is a representation of mankind-within-nature.

THIS WAY

Burls (2007) and Harnik (2010) address the requirements of the urban park through investigation into the ratio or green landscape to the ratio of benefits to the user. Burls (2007) research undertaken using health maps, compares aspects of the natural environment and biodiversity to the range of determinants of health and wellbeing. This paper focuses specifically on the role of vegetation and trees, showing the costs and benefits reaped from urban green open spaces. Burls uses low-income areas that have poor vegetation, as an example of how enhancing these areas through the planting of community gardens and trees can alleviate social ills.

Gehl (1987) touches on the issues planners and designers should think about in creating active public spaces. He argues for taking a humancentered design approach that is in harmony with how people perceive and interact with the world. By focusing more on the social needs of the user, Gehl observes what their needs are and provides recommendations for how environmental characteristic can enable people’s enjoyment within the public realm and thus the larger public life of the city.

Thompson states that ‘aesthetic values of place are not enough’. Referring to a series of investigations that define delightful landscapes as ones ‘rich in information’ the four characteristics of these are identified as complexity, coherence, legibility and mystery. Further analyses of the four categories suggest that mystery is the most consistent of the informational factors. This last finding supported Thompson’s contention that humans are information hungry creatures always seeking new situations to explore and new knowledge to store.

city edge

Lynch (1960) first defined way finding as ‘the process of finding your way to a destination in a familiar or unfamiliar setting using cues given by the environment’. Although he states that the success of the process relies on the ‘interplay between human and environmental factors’. Environmental considerations include the individual’s experiences with the elements of a built environment and its communication mechanisms. This report will focus on Lynch’s definition of a landmark as a built environmental consideration as a form of navigation. In this instance the landscape (topography) and vegetation acts as a form of landmark within the city breaking through the pavement and leading users to larger areas of natural landscape.


BEYOND THE EDGE existing recommendations

The ICAP (Inner City Action Plan) HCC (2011)

The Domain Master Plan HCC (2012)

Explores the challenges and gives detailed recommendations within the four theme areas of lifestyle, movement, city life and visual environment.

Contains a selection of key recommendations from the Gehl Architect’s Report, outlining 15 recommended projects to attract people and

Identifies projects to enhance the Domain’s claim to be the City’s premier park. Responding to the park’s well known issues of presentation, access, use, safety and activity.

Recommendation 8 Identifies the need for the city to connect with its greater natural landscape.

Action Project Seven – AP07 Address the same issue by offering a new improved access from the city across Brooker avenue to the front of Domain House.

activity to create a vital, dynamic city centre.

Executive Summary Identifies that the Domain is under used and hard to access.

Hobart 2025 Strategic Framework (2007) The strategic framework is a long-term vision for the city, developed in consultation with residents, business, interest groups, key city stakeholders, young people and students from across the city. The vision represents a shared understanding of what Hobart should be like in the year 2025.

Future Direction 1 Offers opportunities for all ages within city life. FD1.2.2 Enhance and promote easy access and activities for all ages in and around the city.

Future Direction 2 Recognise Hobart natural beauty and quality of environment.

Future Direction 7

FD2.2 Retain and further develop the cities parks and urban open spaces, enhancing and conserving the historical character of Hobart’s natural and built environments.

FD7.3 Entertainment, arts, and cultural activities promote the distinctive character of city and lifestyle opportunities, and strong vibrant communities will ensure a vibrancy and way of life this is Hobart

Be dynamic, vibrant and culturally expressive

city edge

The Hobart Public Spaces, Public Life, Gehl (2010)


BEYOND THE EDGE precedents

sociopetal spaces @ parc güell, gaudi, barcelona

landscape retention steps @ large workshop, france

http://www.family-skate.com/Images/news/mostbeautifulskateparks/

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Parc_Guell_09

Becker, A “Urban Green: European Landscape Design for the 21st century” ,Switzerland: Birkhauser, 2010, pg80-83

This shelter was created with the idea of providing

The mobile concessions stands that can be

Bryan Lawson summarized what Antonio Gaudi

Designed to mimic the contours of the land,

a place inside a place were city dwellers could

temporary or permanent.

has created alternating convex and concave

the steps create places for people to stop and

the highline @ new york city united states of america

freeway park @ seattle united states of america

shelter for lounging and dining @ norway

http://landarchs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/highline7.jpg

http://hugeasscity.com/images/Freeway_Park_at_Seneca.jpg

http://www.urbansplatter.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/KebonyUrban-Shelter-13LOWRES.jpg

The use of native grasses breaking out of the pavement.

Bridges Interstate 5 and a large city-owned parking lot provides pedestrian access

mobile concessions @ lions park greenboro, alabama

Transitional from city to urban park.

between the Washington State Convention &

feel private while enjoying the company of others.

Allowing to be locked down when not in use.

curves on the parapets of Gaudi’s Parc Guell in

rest. They are a creative way to change the

Vegetation as a tool of navigation and way

Trade Center and the First Hill neighborhood.

The covered sides and top help users deal with

Locked at the separate hubs of activity in the

Barcelona that naturally creates places for people

topography of the immediate landscape creating

The design celebrates the site’s urban nature

the harsh Norwegian climates. The middle section

park.

to congregate as ‘sociopetal’ and ‘sociofugal’

multiple uses and recreating site usability.

can be lifted creating a table

These temporary concessions promote activity

spaces.

finding.

while minimizing the freeway’s negative impact.

and social interaction.

pedestrians + landscape take priority

habitation + shelter

activity + economy

people places not empty spaces

N CO

X

V

vegetation as navigation

VE

CONCA

E

utilizing the landscape + topography

city edge

community + delight

access + ecology


BEYOND THE EDGE urban analysis | bathurst street

visual

comfort

landscape

social

furniture

signage

CE

NO

TA P

H

AV E

NU

E

access

speculation

Improve way finding prioritizing

NOT A PUBLIC ROAD

access pedestrian and universal amenity

ecology city down Bathurst Street.

community Enable social and educational integration across institutions.

delight Create an informal, inspirational learning space for students

city edge

Introduce the landscape into the


beyond the egde urban analysis | liverpool street

access

visual

comfort

social

speculation

landscape

signage

furniture

lighting

access Improve way finding though the use of vegetation as a landmark

ecology Improve safety and habitation

THE QUEENS DOMAIN

community Enable community access by promoting the Domain within the city.

delight Create a space of a distinctive character that inspires and delights.

city edge

opportunities for the space.


C

NOT A PUBLIC ROAD

beyond the edge urban analysis | the roundabout

access

visual

comfort

social

speculation

facility

furniture

lighting

access Improve way finding though the use of vegetation as a landmark

ecology Provide greater opportunities for

community Provide facilities that make this a people place not an empty space

delight A socially active space enables opportunities for other layers of delight.

city edge

privacy and comfortable habitation.


visual

comfort

social

AV E H TA P

NOT A PUBLIC ROAD

access

speculation

CE NO

urban analysis | the rose garden

NU E

beyond the edge

landscape

signage

furniture

access Improve way finding though the use of vegetation as a landmark

ecology Provide greater opportunities for

N

CO

X

V

VE

CONCA

E

community Provide spaces that enable social activity and give users greater choice.

delight Continuation of historical planting throughout the new activated areas. Establishing a visual identity.

city edge

privacy and comfortable habitation.


cONCLUSION What are the opportunities for improving connections between cities and their landscapes, using strategies associated with spatial legibility, character and identity? The research conducted in this chapter highlights that spatial legibility is a key issue that concerns itself not only with the users navigation but their relationship to the character and identity of place. These findings present opportunities for future design responses that further consider the way people move through and occupy urban spaces. Considerations include ( but does not limit to) the introduction

community

development

transport

recreation

Arts and Culture, Social Inclusion

Building, Planning

Parking, Lighting, Footpaths and Street Cleaning

Parks, Gardens and Bush land

As defined by Thompson (1999), the delight of a space has a lot to do with

The growing development within the city including Menzies 1 and 2, Royal

The report recommends that pedestrian traffic be prioritized over vehicular

The speculations at The University Rose Garden, which is currently managed

inspiring its users. Sculpture, public art, and anything that informs or refers

Hobart Hospital redevelopment, and the proposed Melville Street student

traffic on Bathurst and Liverpool Streets. This has been done on Liverpool

under this department, uses social interaction and habitation as key strategies

to a historical narrative are all excellent ways to delighting the users of urban

housing and Performing Arts Centre as well as the Queens Domain Master

Street by removal of curb-side car parking and widening of the footpath.

for improving the current use of this park.

parks.

Plan and Domain House redevelop means that the following proposals could

There has also been a change of surface concrete pavers allowing grass

become a priority once these developments have all been completed.

to grow through as a navigational tool toward the entrances to the Railway

Seating in particular has been re organized to enable social interaction using

Roundabout.

Bryan Lawsons concept of ‘sociopetal’ and ‘sociofugal’ spaces through the

These are often also tools that can involve the users mentally and physically to the space, sculptures can often be not only visually aesthetic but also,

Future zoning and planning development in the area surrounding speculations

function as landmarks or points of reference within the landscape, as well as

should consider that the district as a whole should have an identity and

objects of interaction.

On Bathurst Street, vehicular traffic has been removed all together, allowing

character that enables connections with the existing urban parks. This

a wide pedestrian walkway to bridge Brooker Avenue, and connect Menzies,

includes the incorporation of vegetation as a tool of visually identity within the

Domain House and the Tasmanian Polytechnic. All speculations include

Additional low scale planting has been recommended for use on campbell

district as well as a landmark in the city that assist in way finding.

upgrading of surface treatments to footpaths, on these two streets in particular

street as to maintain key views down the street towards the water edge and

as well as a focus on providing additional seating with included lighting.

beyond. Planting is also recommended as a tool of way finding leading

Existing projects within Hobart such as Sculpture by Numbers by Futago, are a perfect example of how simple pieces of sculpture can inspire, inform and visually delight users. These sorts of projects are recommended within

use of convex and concave curves in the giant terraced steps seen in the speculation.

pedestrians from the existing paths in the city across the city edge, breaking

the speculations and content of this report as being important elements of

the barriers and allowing a more permeable and soft edge between the city

improving existing urban parks.

and its landscape

city edge

of landscapes and street furniture, additional lighting, public facilities and street art


References REFERENCES Abdelbaseer A. Mohamed, Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Germany,2012. Burls, Ambra. 2007, People and green spaces: promoting public health and mental

Rui Li, Human Wayfinding and Navigation in a Large-Scale Environment: Cognitive

Map Development and Wayfinding Strategies, University of Saskatchewan,2007.

39.

Lynch, K 1960, The Image of the City, Technology Press, Cambridge,Massachusetts. Sullivans Cove Masterplan Demonstration (Tasmania Office of the State Architect and UTAS) 2010.

CABE, The Councillor’s Guide to Urban Design, London: Commission for Architecture

Marcus, C.C. 1997, People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space, Part 4

well-being through eco-therapy, Journal of Public Mental Health6. 3 (Sep 2007), p24-

and Built Environment, 2011. Steenbergen, C. Reh, W. 2011, Metropolitan Landscape Architecture - Urban Parks Chiesura, A. 2004, The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City, Landscape and

and Landscapes, Thoth Publishers, Bussum, The Netherlands

Urban Planning, Volume 68, Issue 1, 15 May 2004, p129-138.

Department of Infrastructure and Transport. “Creating Places for People.” Australian

Thomas, D. (2002), Architecture and the Urban Environment, Architectural Press,1st edn, Woburn MA.

Government http://www.urbandesign.gov.au/.2012 The Hobart Western Shore Public Transport Corridor, Tasmanian division of Planning Gehl, J. 2010, Cities for People. London, Island Press.

Institute of Australia in conjunction with the Australian Institute of Architects and Housing and Community Research Unit of the University of Tasmania, 2009.

Gehl, J. 2010, Hobart 2010 Public Spaces and Public Life - A City with People in Mind. Hobart City Council media release, Hobart, Tasmania

Thompson, I. 1999, Ecology, Community and Delight: An Inquiry into Values in Landscape Architecture, Taylor and Francis.

Gehl, J. 1987, Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space, Island Press, Washington DC, USA.

Wilkie, G. 2012, The Inner City Action Plan (ICAP), Hobart City Council, Hobart, Tasmania. p31-38

Goodey, B. (1993), Making Better Places: Issues of Urban Change, Urban Design of Central Areas and Beyond, Butterworth-Heinemannn Ltd, London, England.

Wilson, W.G. 2011, Constructed Climates: A Primer on Urban Environments, University

city edge

of Chicago Press, USA Harnik, P. 2010, Urban Green: Innovative Parks for Resurgent Cities, Island Press, Washington DC, USA. Hancock.T, (1993) , Social Sustainability, North America, viewed 28 May, < http:// newcity.ca/Pages/social_sustainability.html> Hobart City Council, City of Hobart Planning Scheme, 1998, Hobart City Council, http://www.hobartcity.com.au/Development/Planning/Planning_Schemes Hoeger, K 2007, ‘Campus and the City – A Joint Venture?’, in K Hoeger & K Christiaanse (eds), Campus and the City: Urban Design for the Knowlege Society, gta Verlag, Zuerich, pp. 13-2 Koh, J. Beck, A (2006), Parks, People and City, Topos 55, p.14-20. *All images or photographs not referenced are taken or drawn by the author


movement within city How can “lost space” between transportation facilities facilities perform as the most fundamental aspect in promoting urban legibility for pedestrians in Hobart? This chapter starts with the analysis of the different ways of travelling into the Hobart City area. The three main transportation methods include bus, car and bicycle. Upon reaching the city centre, they get off from their means of transportation and turn into pedestrians. However, the grid-configuration of the city is car-oriented. Therefore, the experience of the pedestrians is being compromised for the convenience of the automobile traffic network. Within the city, there are in-between spaces that are left vacant without any activities. These “Lost space” can be found in vacant multi-storey carpark buildings and laneways in the CBD. They are having lots of unexplored potentials, but are often neglected by the pedestrians due to lack of activities.

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Due to the above reasons, the speculation towards the future development of the Hobart City area would be to turn the lost spaces into landmarks to improve the legibility of pedestrians within the city.


within city project scope

The contexts and characters of Hobart city have been changing through time.

Figure 1: Photograph of Elizabeth Street Hobart looking north, 1879

Figure 3: arial photograph showing the current CBD district in Hobart city

In the past, the streets were wider and the buildings were shorter. There were more open area and less back lanes between buildings. The city had better legibility due to reasons such as iconic buildings being able to be seen from far and streets being wider for better views. The city was not car-oriented. The cars moved slower and people were able to move around freely. The city was highly accessible by pedestrians. On the other hand, the current Hobart city consists of modern buildings with similar outlooks. The height and density of the city are not to human scale. Also, socially inactive back lanes are created within the gaps of the buildings. These spaces are unsafe and lacking comfort for pedestrians to stay by.

Figure 2: photo of Macquarie Street 1940

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

However, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;lost spaceâ&#x20AC;? within the city area actually contains strong potential due to its location and characters. They can act as short cuts for pedestrians to walk through the city. By activating the lost spcaes, the process improves the urban legibility for pedestrians moving within Hobart city area.


within city

what is lost space? Lost space, as defined by Roger Trancik (1986), refers to urban open space that has lost the values and meanings in the city due to some reasons. Lost space is the leftover unstructured landscape at the base of high-rise buildings or the unused sunken plaze away from the flow of pedestrian activity in the city. Lost spaces are the surface parking lots that ring the core of the cities and sever the connection between the commercial center and residential areas. They are the no-manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lands along the edges of freeways that nobody cares about maintaining, much less using. Lost spaces are also the abandoned waterfronts, train yards, vacated military sites, and industrial complexes that have moved out to the suburbs for easier access and lower taxes. They are the residual areas between districts and loosely composed commercial strips that emerge without anyone realizing it. Generally speaking, lost spaces are the undesirable urban areas that are in need of redesign, making no positive contribution to the surroundings or users. They are ill-defined, without measurable boudaries, and fail to connect elements in a coherent way. However, they offer tremendous opportunities to the designer for urban redevelopment and creative infill and for rediscovering the many hidden resources in our cities.

dependence on automobile

modern architectural design

Dependence on the automobile is inevitable nowadays, since it is so deeply integrated into our life. It has resulted in an urban environment in which highways and parking lots are the predominant types of open space. This has consequently cause the lost of cultural meaning and human purpose in the public space.

Modern architectural design tends to ignore or deny the importance of street space, urban squares and gardens, and other important outdoor rooms. The space between buildings are rarely designed. They are likely to become separated from their context.

The street lost its social meaning as a multipurpose space. Neighbourhoods and districts no longer interacted, but became isolated. In the end the desire for order and mobility has undermined the diversity and richness of urban public life.

The modern city has become the environment of buildings surrounded with car parking space. Activities on the streets have little to do with the functions of the buildings. With the lose of a collective sense of the meaning of public space, people have also lost the sense that there are rules for connecting parts through the design of outdoor space.

private over public interest

changing land use

Private buildings ususally consist of a boundary that is defined by fence or wall. It is a sharp change from an public environment to a public one. The city of collective spaces is transformed into a city of private icons. In modern city, each architecture is the responsibility of a different public or private organization, and there is no unity of the entire environment.

The relocation of industry, obsolete transportation facilities, vacated commercial or residential buildings would create vast areas of wasted or underused space within cities. These sites offer enormous potential for reclaimation as mixed-use areas.

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

the causes of lost space

theoretical framework


within city analysis | current condition precedents edge + district

landmark + paths + nodes

city grid with no sense of direction The pedestrians walk through the unrecognizable laneways into and out of the multi-storey carparks buildings. Main traffic network cut the pedestrian network

Narrow entrances of the laneways are hard to be identified. laneways as short cut, but inactive due to lack of active node and sense of security. Promote transportation modes other than cars â&#x20AC;&#x201C; bicycle and public transportation

Melbourne Laneway

melbourne places for people -Improving the links between the city and the Yarra River, while introducing more sun to footpaths and active facades to improve the use of Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s arcades and laneways. -Making gathering spaces by redesigning existing squares and providing more urban plazas while provide access for people with disabilities and providing feature lighting to enhance street safety. -Strengthening and introducing physical changes to current laneway by supporting the cafĂŠ lifestyle and increasing the number of cafes, improving the quality of urban furniture, active frontages and discouraging through traffic

Hobart Laneway

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

-Encouraging more people to use the streets by attracting more people at night, increasing the residential community, increasing festivals and street markets, increasing the student community and ensuring a range of low to high cost housing choices are providedn


within city analysis | historical

Figure 7 : Franklin square with footpath (1870)

Figure 8 : Macquarie street with pedestrian footpath (1940s)

Image courtesy of the Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office.

Image courtesy of the Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office.

Image courtesy of the Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office.

1818 The first road was built through the Domain to site of Government Gardens.

1811

Governor Macquarie instructed Acting Surveyor James Meehan to make a design for the basic grid street system of this small but growing settle­ment on the shores of the Derwent River.

Figure 10 : Current Franklin Square with footpath. (2000s)

Image courtesy of Google maps.

Image courtesy of Google maps.

1880 Main Line Rail Establishes on Macquarie Point

1821 Stone causeway linking Hunter’s island was built by convicts.

1829

Figure 9 : Current Hobart waterfront and Hunter street. (2000s)

1858

1958 Domain highway completed

1887

1826 Bridge was built at Macquarie Street that link the Domain and the

1903

1893 Hobart’s tram network was built and was the the completely electric network in

1811

1829

1858

1887

1903

map by James Meehan

grid + hunter’s island reclaimed

developing sea port area

further reclaimed land from sea + railway development

further reclaimed land

1938

1966

1956 Hobart Airport was commisioned as the primary regular public transport airport.

further reclaimed land along sea port area

1964 Tasman Bridge

Image source Alysia Bennett.

1980 Brooker highway widened

1958 Tram service was decommissioned in favor of the

1938

Figure 11 : Current Macquarie street (2000s)

1978

now

1968 Southern Outlet A6 constructed. Motorised bus service replaced trolleybus

1966

1978

sea port reduced

further reclaimed land at macquarie point

now MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Figure 6 : Hobart waterfront and Hunters Island (1829)


within city analysis | historical

Figure 12 : Sea port of Hunters Island (1839)

Figure 13 : Old market of Hobart, now parliament square (1860)

Image courtesy of the Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office.

Figure 14 : Current Hobart seaport (2000s)

Current Salamanca market. (2013)

Image courtesy of Google maps.

Image source Fong Ka Chung.

Image courtesy of the Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office.

1818 Government garden established on future site of Botanic Garden.

1811

1821 Quarrying begins on future site of Beaumaris Zoo.

1829

Governor Macquarie identifies Macquarie Point as the most eligible spot for Government House.

1843 Governor Wilmot approves plans for the Domain to become â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;an extensiveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; modern public park.

1858

1826 Parade ground developed at Macquarie point for Military parade.

1850 Hobart high school opened.on the domain.

1853 Slip yards constructed at Macquarie Point

1887 1865 Quarry on Beaumaris site closed

1923 Beaumaris Zoo located from Sandy Bay to site of former Victorian pleasure garden

1918 Residential development on the suburb of Glebe.

1880 Queens Battery construction completed

1890 University moves onto the domain

1903 1900 Queens battery made obsolete

1941 Former site of Beaumaris zoo occupied and converted into oil storage facilty

1938

1922 Queens Battery

1937 Beaumaris Zoo closes; site briefly converted back into a garden.

1958 Olympic outdoor pool constructed in former Quarry

1966 1944 Grounds of Government house converted into paddocks to produce food for war effort

1996 Aquatic Centre constructed at site of

1978

now

1962 University outgrows domain site and relocates to Sandy Bay

residential commercial government education

1811

1829

1858

1887

1903

1938

1966

1978

now

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

religion / culture


within city current condition

social

visual

comfort

safety

Carpark buildings tend to create pedestrian flow towards them. Therefore, it is wise to plan retails along the way to the carpark buildings. The Centrepoint Shopping Centre and Trafalgar Shopping Centre are examples that benefits from the pedestrian flow towards the carpark blocks. The Cat & Fiddle Arcade is located in the centre of Hobart CBD. It is surrounded by Elizabeth Street, Collins Street, Murray Street, and Liverpool Street. Not only it serve the function as a retail shopping centre, it links up the streets surrounding it and provide convenience to the pedestrians.

wellington court

hobart bus mall

collins court

elizabeth mall

metro bus stop

pedestrian circulation transport facility

mathers lane

multi-storey indoor carpark

negative space

taxi station

negative space with potential

cat & fiddle arcade

bidencopes lane

centrepoint shopping centre

trafalgar shopping centre

making use of negative space Among the many negative spaces that scatter within Hobart CBD, those that have more potential are identified in the map in light green. These are chosen because they are located next to the multi-storey carparks. Pedestrians can use them as short-cuts after parking their cars in the multi-storey carparks. The areas marked with dark green are the existing pedestrian circulation spaces. Working together with the negative space with potential, they can be linked up and

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

access

negative space as pedestrian networks for transport infrastructure The negative space refers to the space being left over after modern buildings are built on the ground. It is because modern buildings usually have a strong barrier between interior and exterior. Thus neglected the space outside the building block. The negative space are usually the laneways, backlanes, unused courtyards and the routes for escape in case of fire. Pedestrians do not stay at these spaces as there is no activities or active functions in them. Thus, these negative spaces become deserted. potential The negative spaces may not be unutilised sites. Very often they are used for car parking, or as a short cut through the lot. They are across the entire Hobart CBD area as indicated in the diagram on the right. Being located in the CBD area with high land value, they have potential to create more positive contributions to the surroundings and the pedestrians through them. Retail shops can make use of the pedestrian flow in the negative space to create more shop frontage area, instead of focusing in the frontage on the main roads. Secondly, the negative spaces have the potential of expanding the pedestrian networks from the main roads. Since the main roads are more designed for cars than pedestrians, the negative spaces have the potential of bringing the pedestrian flow from the main roads into them. Thus, the negative spaces would then become more lively and vibrant. More positive contributions would be made to the surroundings and the pedestrians through them. existing pedestrian networks The Elizabeth Mall is one of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s major retail centres in Hobart CBD. Originally a part of Elizabeth Street, the portion of the street was pedestrianised in 1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and become the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main pedestrian thoroughfare, and central nerve of the Central Business District. The semi-outdoor environment in the Elizabeth Mall encourages street activities to happen, making it more lively and vibrant.


within city current condition social monofunctional city zoning Hobart Public Spaces Public Life 2010 by Gehl architects identified Hobart as a monofunctionally zoned city suffering from the modernistic planning ideals of the post war period. Different functions are clustered in the respective parts of the city, which cause the areas to be active only at a limited time periods. Pedestrians only appears in business and shopping areas in daytime, and waterfront area at night. During the other periods of the day, these areas are deserted. This situation shows that the mono-functionally zoned city is not be fully utilised. Lost spaces are formed in the different parts of the city during the respective period of the day that the areas are deserted. This should not be the case in the Hobart CBD area that has the most land value in Hobart. It shows that there is a strong potential in order to utilise the Hobart CBD fully.

business city

residence City

business persons

local residents

visual

comfort

safety

District Path Edge Landmark

lacking pedestrians The monofunctionally zoned city is lacking the natural surveillance through the presence of inhabitants and visitors. This has caused the city to be perceived as unsafe and uncomfortable areas when deserted. Introducing mixed uses into it creates areas that are stimulating and vibrant, with multitude of people and activities occuring at different times of the day, week and year. The amount of pedestrians on the street would then be greatly increased due to the introduction of different interests in the city area. The potential of Hobart CBD would then be fully utilised.

Node

tourists consumers students consumer city consumers tourists

fun city mixed city

tourists consumers students local residents

consumers tourists students local residents Figure 16 : Functions in the city centre

Reproduced from Hobart Public Spaces Public Life 2010.

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

low diversity of users The monofunctionally zoned Hobart city has a low diversity of users in each areas. It is because of the restricted diversity of functions that cause the lack of interests for users in different functional groups to enter the different zones. Generally, there is more diversity of users in the waterfront area than the Hobart City CBD.

cultural city


within city opportunities social

centrepoint arcade car park

waterfront car park

potential of car parking space The diagram on the left shows both the multi-storey car park buildings and outdoor car park compounds in the Hobart CBD. They are scattered in the different areas of the city. There are less multi-storey carparks than the outdoor carparks in terms of the number of compounds. However, the multi-storey carparks form big building blocks in the CBD which are dedicated for motor vehicles. In the day time, the CBD are filled with people and cars. However, the CBD is deserted in night time since there is little places of interest and activities.

comfort

safety

distribution of activities in night time The diagram below shows the average number and distribution of facilities in Hobart during night time. People are more concentrated in the Salamanca square area. There are also some activities scattered within the CBD. However, the road side park spaces would be utilitied more as they are free at night. Therefore, the car parking spaces are not fully utilised during the night.

commercial activities

eateries

sitting on folding

retail

sitting in cafe

24h convenience

sitting on benches

entertainmnt

waiting for transport

accomodation

standing lying down

Therefore, the car parking spaces in the CBD can be transformed into spaces holding events and activities instead of being deserted at night. Working together with the other improvments of pedestrian network, it would then bring out the potential of these car parking spaces and provide more positive contribution to the public.

multi-storey carpark

negative space with po-

outdoor carpark

existing pedestrian circula-

The Argyle street car park, the Centrepoint Arcade car park and the waterfront car park are identified in the diagram as nodes of activation for public activities during night time. It is because they are located on places which are more pedestrian-friendly and are more concentrated

Figure 20 : Average number and distribution of activities during day time (12pm - 4pm)

Figure 21 : Average number and distribution of activities during night time (9pm - 11pm)

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

argyle st car park

distribution of activities in day time The diagram below shows the average number and distribution of people in the Hobart during day time. People are more concentrated in the CBD area and the Salamanca square area. Therefore, the car parking spaces are utilised during the day.

visual


within city speculation | open theatre + restaurant street furniture

public facility

lighting

arts + culture

multi-storey car park & open car park before

roof top as open cinema The Argyle street car park building is one of the car parking space that is being identified as one of the car park building that has the potential to hold events and activities at night when the car parks become deserted.

before

waterfront carpark as restaurant The waterfront carpark is empty at night. It is being transformed into a restaurant. This waterfront carpark is chosen as it locates near where activities and restaurants are at night. The entire carpark compound can be divided into several smaller zones for different restaurants to serve different customers. Additional lighting facilities would be required as well. The equipments and kitchen booths are flexible for transportation.

The roof of the car park building can be used for open cinema at night. Making use of the large surface area, it can accomodate lots of people to participate in the event. Moreover, the equipments for the event are flexible and can be removed in day time. Thus, it will not affect the original purpose of the car park.

after

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

after


within city speculation | making and widening of pedestrian way landscape pedestrian circulation St re e

el

Cri te

rio

M

t

el

vi

e tre

lle

ls

one way traffic

nS tre

et

le

gy Ar re St

Carpark building

et

Elizebath mall

Bus mall

et St re ol

et St re

Str e

po Liv er

Ba th

ur

st

et

Mu

The part of Criterion Street facing the zebra crossing is being widened to provide space for pedestrians while waiting to cross the road.

oo rp

et St re

et

Macquarie Street

Davey Street

Da ve y

lin sS tre

et St re rie ac qu a M

et

lS tre

et

rra yS tre

Co l

bridge above highways A bridge is proposed, stretching from the bus mall across Franklin Square and to the opposite side of Davey Street. It is intended to provide pedestrial linkage above the Macquarie Street and Davey street which are highways with high level of traffic. Working together with the other pedestrian networks, it would then form a complete pedestrian route

ath

Liv e

bus mall The bus mall and the two roads on Collins Street and Macquarie Street are dedicated to the bus stations only. It is done to reduce the traffic entering the area, so that pedestrain way can be expanded.

Eliz eb

signage

widening pedestrian path The Liverpool Street is a one way car road and therefore provide the potential of removing either side of the road side parking space in order to widen the pedestrian path. The side facing North is being chosen as it is able to gain sun light from this direction. The road side parking space on the other side remains.

The other newly pedestrianised roads are intended to link up between the Hobart CBD with Franklin Square and beyond. widening of pedestrian way One side of the pedestrian ways is being widened along Bathurst Street and Liverpool Street, as indicated on the diagram on the right.

public facility

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

The logic for pedestrianising the roads starts from the Elizebath mall which was pedestrianised in 1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and become the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main pedestrian thoroughfare, and central nerve of the Central Business District.

street furniture

linking Liverpool Street and Bathurst Street The Criterion street is proposed to be pedestrianised in order to link up Liverpool Street and Bathurst Street. It is intended to serve the pedestrian flow from the car park building on Melville Street into the CBD. Pedestrians can then walk to the Elizebath mall or Murray street that is being pedestrianised as well.

pb

t

m Ca

pedestrianisation Part of the traffic network of Hobart CBD are propose to be pedestrianised as the diagram on the right.


within city speculation | improve pedestrian network lighting

laneway & public space activities in laneways The negative spaces are scattered in the Hobart CBD. There is potential in these space, as they are located within the areas with high land value and along the main pedestrian pathways.

signage

arts + cul-

improving entrance of laneways The laneways are often not fully utilised as there is no or little place of interest and attractions into them. Therefore, one of the speculation to use the potential of the laneway is to create a welcoming entrance to the laneway that is redesigned for daily activities and to hold events and festivals. Artworks can be used to decorate the entrance as well as the inside of the laneways in order to create a new image for the pedestrians.

before

Lighting can be provided so that the sense of safety is improved during night time. Pesdestrians would then walk through the laneways at night as well, rather than be deserted.

Activities such as street arts and sports can be introduced into the laneways by providing simple facilities. These can provide affordable entertainments to the teenagers in the area.

after

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Large scale activities such as cultural market, festivals and music performance can be held to help revitalise the negative spaces of larger size


within city speculation | interactive artwork landscape

street furniture

public facility

arts + culture

laneway & public space The best way to accomplish efficient pedestrian

wayfinding

task

is

to

incorporate a greater user experience through

sensorial

qualities,

graphic

indicators and spatial hierarchies. -Undeveloped spaces beside the car parking building can be developed into public laneway with bench and shelter -Multiple exit from carpark should be proposed to allow departure from all direction. -Simplified circulatory path that uses pedestrianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orientation

-Mini plaza serve as a node to direct people from each area. The attraction and activities held in the mini plaza act as a cognitive map to the pedestrian. -District indicator serve as a precinct pointer to inform the different zone that the pedestrian are entering. -Side parking are diminished to widen the pedestrian walkway and sidewalk activities area

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

graphic indicators (signage) to direct


within city speculation | sidewalk restaurant + public space street furniture

lighting

arts + culture

laneway & public space Parking was is connected with different exterior spaces. As this kind of car parking are allocated deep inside the urban grid, orientation of each path should be clearly indicated in all path. Lost

space

and

backlane

should

be developed into laneway arcade or

interconnection

between

the

carparking building to the main stree.

-Activating lost spaces in between the laneways which connect the car park to the main pedestrian laneway. -Proposing

laneway

cafe

and

pedestrian

experience

mental mapping.

to

promote

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

street performance to enhance the


within city speculation | end of trip facilities + node street furniture

signage

arts + culture

laneway & public space After

Before

Hobart Central Car Park Bicycle art attached with Hobart Central Car Park give an unique perceptual identity to the place which can help in wayfinding and help navigators to associate with his surrounding in the larger scale sapce and the ability recover position and orientation who are unfamiliar with the built environment.

After Loose space have been re-purpose the built environment by providing secure bike parking and lockers incorporated with existing public toilet. Street light proposed to increase security to the surrounding during night time as well as shelter to protect cyclists from the rain.

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Before


within city speculation | end of trip facilities + node landscape

street furniture public facility

signage

arts + culture

laneway & public space Before Argyle Car Park The strategic location of re-activate the existing car park to a new ‘end of trip’ facilities incorporating with existing public toilet give a sense of community and also enhance pedestrian link to Wellingston Courtyard as well as proposed bicycle gateway can help in wayfinding strategic.

Before

After

After

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Centrepoint The new bikestation re-activated the loose space at centrepoint and give an unique identity to the place. The bikestation provides secure bike parking, shower & changing room, lockers, bike rental and full services repair and maintenance of cyclist’s bike. The new proposal also provide bicycle lanes to enhance accessibility for cyclists to centrepoint.


CONCLUSION How can “lost space” between transportation facilities perform as the most fundamental aspect in promoting urban legibility for pedestrians in Hobart? This chapter researches on possibilities and constraints to strengthen the pedestrian walkway connection and form a new pedestrian network within Hobart city to give pedestrian a new experience on the walkway. The research builds upon existing database, and further developing through the speculations that suggest possibilities in designing the city and the spaces within.

community

development

transport

Recreation

By activating the “lost space” within the city through the interventions

The improvement of pedestrian networks as suggested previously would

The current Hobart is a car-orientated city that the traffic network is formed

Laneways and open car parking area are the potential spaces for daily

of street furniture and facilities, there are more possibilities for social

create more pedestrian flow on the streets, thus creating more business

in a grid pattern. Roads cut off the pedestrian walkways consequently.

activities and to hold events and festivals. These events create a new

activities to happen on the pedestrian networks. Moreover, the enhanced

opportunities for shops and restaurants along the way.

The speculations in this research are to create a new pedestrian network

image and experience for the pedestrians.

Building, Planning

laneways and back lanes can provide a engaging platform for arts and culture to bloom within the city. Artworks and innovative signage help to strengthen the memory and

Footpath and Street Facilities

Laneway, Restaurants, End Trip Facilities

encouraging people to walk and to cycle instant of using car. Moreover, the additional functions of vacant car parking spaces including

To encourage people using the laneways at nighttime, lighting up the

cinema and restaurant would produce additional income for the building

New nodes are introduced in between the pedestrian walkways to

spaces provided sense of safety. Lampposts, Café and restaurants are

and land owners by making full use of the potential of the space.

enhance the connection and urban legibility between multi-storey car

the examples that allow people to have activities in the laneways and

parks and pedestrian walkways. The nodes include end trip facilities for

open car parking areas at nighttime.

sense of the spaces by mental mapping. As different types of activities are introduced in laneways, streets and open car parking areas, the

It is also being suggested that the city should consist of certain degree

cyclist, art installations for visitors and furnished the laneways for public,

sense of security in these spaces would increase. By creating a complete

of mixing of functions between different parts of the city to prevent

that make the places feeling more conformable, more accessible and

To promote coming to the city by bicycle, the new end of trip facilities

and continuous pedestrian network, it gives pedestrians sense of space

from being a mono-functionally zoned city. By doing so, the city would

more suitable.

including bicycle parking space, lockers and public toilets provide to

and direction within a grid-formed city.

become more lively as there would be lesser time for the city to be empty

the cyclists to give a sense of community. By activating the existing car

due to zoning by functions.

parks to provide end trip facilities generates an unique identity to the place.

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Arts and Culture, Social inclusion


REFERENCES Barnett J. URBAN DESIGN AS PUBLIC POLICY : PRACTICAL METHODS FOR IMPROVING CITIES.

New York: Architectural Record, 1974.

Burton E, Mitchell L. Inclusive Urban Design : Streets for Life. UK: Elsevier Ltd, 2006. Trancik R. FINDING LOST SPACE : THEORIES OF URBAN DESIGN. 1 ed. United States of America: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1986. Tibbalds F. MAKING PEOPLE-FRIENDLY TOWNS : Improving the public environment in towns and cities. England: Longman Group UK Limited, 1992. Gehl Architects. Hobart 2010 Public Spaces and Public Life: A City with People in Mind. Hobart: Gehl Architects, 2010. Gehl J. Public Spaces and Public Life : A city with people in mind. Hobart: GEHL ARCHITECTS, 2010. Wilkie G. Inner City Action Plan : preliminary report to the Hobart City Council. Hobart City Council, 2012. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Technology Press, 1960. Ritter P. Planning for Man and Motor. London: Pergamon Press, 1964. Uhlig K. Pedestrian Areas: From Malls to Complete Networks. London: Academy

*All images or photographs not referenced are taken or drawn by the author

MOVEMENT WITHIN CITY

Editions,1979.


INTRODUCTION PROJECT Authors Lim Tian Hui Melinda Carmen Lo John Lancaster Bradley Preston Jimm Tang Caroving Suyin Akmal Sukemi Ming Lai Fong Ka Chung Yeo Hui Chuan Chan Weng Loong PROJECT supervisor Helen Norrie PROJECT advisors George Wilkie Felix Blackman


Navigating the city 2013  
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