Issuu on Google+

utas

scho

ol of a rc h i tec

t u re & desig

n wit h

the o ffice of the state a rc h i tec

t

HOB

ART

CITY

_NAV

IGAT

E

spe cul ate


city gateway | wateredge ‘How does graphical and spatial wayfinding information assist in clarifying, highlighting and celebrating city gateways and the water edge giving visitors and the inhabitants of Hobart a greater sense of comprehension and connection with place?’ Members of this section of the project have explored specific strategies for navigating and wayfinding beyond signage and maps exploring broader understandings of urban legibility and experience of place. Research includes an exploration of gateways to the city, the Derwent River wateredge and the broader physical setting of Hobart that are seen as central aspects of experience and orientation. Detailed photographic and drawn mapping of particular sites highlight existing and potential connections, leading to a study of semiotic structure of the city. Further strategic refinements and speculations can then be made and applied to specific urban context. The two lines of enquiry has led to a greater understanding and appreciation of the City of Hobart’s legibility with rigorous exploration of sites, and reference to previous data and reports assisting in the group’s approach to research conducted.


CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE


city gateway | water edge project scope

Hobart is a city of the senses where it is not necessary to abstract a plan of its space in order to negotiate it (Wooley, 2004). Iconic landmarks including the Tasman Bridge, ‘the mountain’, the Derwent River and Wrestpoint are identifiable elements forming reference points within the natural and built urban structure . On arrival the city is experienced three dimensionally or ‘in the round’, by virtue of its topography and climatic exuberance (Wooley, 2004).

Hobart from Kangaroo Point, Durmont, 1841


CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE www.hobartcity.com.au/.../city_of_hobart_urban_design_principles_aug..au


city gateway | water edge analysis | historical

hobart’s urban growth - alterations to the river

Colonial Grid up to 1845: -Rectilinear and closed with incremental extension -Accessible low ground rivulet within central area basin

Mid - late 19th Century expansion: -Rectilinear extended though not formally planned -Informal and irregular beyond the central area basin


CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE 20th Century suburban extension: -Urban footprint is elongated with curvilinear extensions of vehicular routes -Spreading away from the early rectilinear street grid along water edge

21st Century suburban consolidation: Recommendation that further development should seek consolidation of the existing pattern with defining margins made up of existing boundaries (water edge/ sloping ground) of landform.


city gateway | water edge analysis | current

paths + edges + districts + nodes + landmarks Hobart is often referred to as a small city in a large landscape. When arriving by air, on making one’s way to the city the busy highway cuts through the landscape to the river where the Tasman Bridge, an iconic gateway, carries you over a breathtaking natural harbour with Mount Wellington acting as a dramatic backdrop. These gateways and LANDMARKS are memorable features and their location helps to orient the navigator, however, enhancing connections with the greater landscape through the treatment of PATHS, EDGES and NODES along the airport to city route would add a layer of urban legibility that celebrates the approach to Hobart adding to the sense of arrival. In relation to the Derwent River there is a lack of high quality links between the Tasman Bridge and Sandy Bay due to the separation of DISTRICTS by poor quality EDGES as a result of a car dominated road network. This disarticulation has resulted in the lack of development of social spaces along the water EDGE and the separate use of the city from the water edge. The river is an asset to the city yet its full potential has not been brought out. The water edge could be treated as an integrated urban development across Hobart, reintegrating the Derwent River with the city fabric. Linking inner city gateways, the river EDGE, LANDMARKS, and major places of interest through continuity of spatial wayfinding strategies would also assist in the connection, understanding and legibility of place.

legend

edges

path districts nodes landmarks


CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

analysis | proposed

city gateway The research focuses on strengthening airport to city gateways through the treatment and introduction of recognisable elements in order to create a sense of arrival and celebtation that assists in orientating the navigator.

water edge The objective of the investigation is to discover methods which are able to make the water edge play a more significant role in the everyday movement of commuters across Hobart, in particular from Sandy Bay to Tasman Bridge. The existing vegetation and parkland has the potential to form a strong green network linking through to the wateredge. There is also the potential to use the water edge to reinforce links between the pedestrian network and public transport. The Derwent River will be looked upon in it’s entirety beyond Sandy Bay and the Tasman Bridge . Additional connections between Hobart and its neighbouring precincts through the introduction of additional jetties and ferry points to build up the existing ferry network are explored.

legend

areas of investigation

points of investigation districts


city Gateway analysis | proposed

With the constant aim in making vehicuilar routes into the city as seamless as possible, connections between surrounding areas and the city centre have become insufficient and uninviting. High quality links leading to and from the city are in need of development. This includes the identification of strong entry points (Gateways) that create a sense of arrival (Gehl 2010).

In addition Hobart’s Inner City Action Plan (ICAP 2010) notes that routes into the city are not clearly marked and there is a lack of recognisable elements to assist in navigation. In response Gehl (2010) recommends the development of a signage and wayfinding strategy that focuses on the city and major places of interest.

airport precinct + tasman highway to bridge

entrance to tasman bridge

Paths - generally car dominated by Tasman Highway - well defined/ functional Edges - neglected, opportunity to rectify through planting/landscape design Districts - no clear demarkation/river marks transition Nodes - opportunity to create Landmarks - multiple in landscape - need to enhance and celebrate

Paths - confusing, difficult to negotiate, signage clutter in attempt to compensate Edges - poor, grubby, under repair, mismatch of materials Districts - bridge/river denotes change, edge, signage detracts from gateway Nodes - NIL Landmarks - bridge, multiple within landscape - need to enhance and celebrate

legend

paths

edges districts nodes landmarks


entrance ways to city centre

Paths - well defined , sweep past river edge Edges - lack of quality edge that compiments river Districts - clear division/definition of Domain above, wilderness as backdrop Nodes - NIL, opportunity to create Landmarks - bridge, multiple within landscape - need to enhance and

Paths - car domination continues into and through city via one way streets Edges - lack of quality edge that compiments river Districts - lack of sense of arrival / movement through precincts Nodes - combination of weak and strong, need to be identified/recognised Landmarks - multiple within built environment - need to be linked together

celebrate

legend

paths

edges districts nodes landmarks

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

tasman bridge to city


city gateway analysis | airport precinct access

visual

social

safety

graphical wayfinding Printed material : Tourism Tasmania map informative other maps contain a moderate amt of information. No other available until arrival in Hobart Electronic: reliable platforms when accessible. Directional signage: consistent signage needed within airport precinct Use of icons/graphical signage needed for non English speaking visitors.

Bus and taxi pick up zones are not clearly marked Transition from aiport precinct signage to road network signage system needs attention. Confusing signage between airport and highway however as there is only one route or access way signage is secondary to other wayfinding cues Electronic: reliable platforms with pre arranged access to internet. own images

Adequate printed material

No specific signage

Unmaintained signage

Sign system


speculation

Accessibility of information

Replaceble map?

Wayfinding with realtime apps

Analysis of available printed and electronic wayfinding information reveals that it is generally of useful and informative. The challenge is to improve its accessibility, legibility (for non English speaking visitors) and the link with a uniform signage system with easily digestible information as recommended by ICAP (AP10). An example of technological advancement improving the accessibility and sharing of printed and interactive information is the rapidly increasing number of interactive kiosks globally. Their deployment allows customers, in this case visitors to Hobart, access to self-service applications that provide tailored, layered retrainable information for individuals and groups that may include: - art/cultural destinations and landmarks - timetable of pending events - location of public, transport services and amenities - list, ranking and level of available accommodation - recreation and entertainment facilities/locations The capacity of the interactive kiosk combine both printed and electronic material is now available. The feasibility of their integration into the upgrading the cities wayfinding system in general needs to be explored. With rapid technological advancements personal journey planning is seen as driving the demise of traditional wayfinding signage and increasing the importance of placemaking graphics, along with public art and iconic architecture (Atkinson.B, 2012).

Interactive kiosks

facility

art

Generate personal hybrid maps images -desktopmag.com.au

Gehl Report 2010

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

signage


city gateway analysis | tasman bridge to city access

visual

comfort

safety

graphical wayfinding Good directional signage along Tasman Highway until bridge approach. Mismatch of signs when approaching bridge that is confusing to visitors - opportunity here to improve. Clutter of signs detract from the bridge, mountain and river beyond. Opportunity to replace signs with recognizable elements/theme through treatment of Highway edge.

Unimpressive, token welcome sign - location does not relate to or denote transition point. First use of informative icons at this transition point Road signs generally consistent

detracts from landscape

Welcome to Hobart

mismatch of signage

use of icons assists international visitors


speculation

precedent - the princeton university strategy

The aim of the campus wayfinding program is to promote a better visitor experience and improve traffic patterns by providing essential information that people and residents need to find the university and navigate the campus. The Sign Family is based around the dynamics of the visitor experience as people approach the campus, orient themselves at campus entrances and find their destinations.

The Experience

facility

art CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

signage

The Sign Type

A visitor typically approaches Vehicular, directional, by car or train parking ID, street ID A visitor orients at entrance then goes by foot or bus A visitor finds a destination

Map display, bus map, pedestrian directional, walk ID Building ID

Sign Type Family - Directional

Vehicular Directional Large Township Marker Sign Type Family - Orientational

Vehicular Directional Medium

and small

Pedestrian Directional

Identification: As discussed Comprehensive and consistent identification of buildings, streets and walks will help visitors find their destination. Information: Map cases could be located at key points on arrival at the airport, wayside stops and in the city campus. Pedestrian: Directional signs feature visitor destinations with design input included from stackholders visitor destinations approved by stakeholders. www.twotwelve.com


city gateway analysis | entrance to city centre access

visual

social

comfort

safety

graphical wayfinding Opportunity to improve direction signage along Liverpool Street to direct visitors to precincts / zones, major places of interest eg hospital, UTAS city campus, multi-storey car parks, waterfront, North Hobart. Adequate overhead directional signage to Davey St. Obscure parallel to the road sign on entry to Davey.

Minimal directional signage along Davey Street - need to rely on maps, electronic devices when navigating towards major places of interest for eg. Salamanca, TMAG - opportunity to improve.

Entrance to waterfront

Entrance to waterfront

Lack of signage

Obscure signage

Lack of signage


speculation

precedent - directional signage dandenong I victoria Overview: A series of new way finding signs installed throughout central Dandenong to assist pedestrians to find key landmarks and places of interest. Located along key walking routes, the signs indicate approximate journey times, distances, preferred walking routes, key landmarks, together with locations for public toilets, transport and phones. The signs include maps that highlight the immediate environment and show the broader precinct area.

lighting

art

Design Challenge: Need to understand current and future requirements a priority as 56% of population born overseas, over half with English as a second language and 6% of population with some form of disability. In response a user orientated mapping system was developed relying on: - 3D extruded landmarks and buildings as essential references for navigation. - consistent use of simple, clear directions easily understood in English - reference made to key nodal points supported by limited directional signs that allows users to easily understand where they are in an urban context and shows the relationship between areas. Sustainability: Modular signage with interchangeable elements and components. Vitreous enamelled panels were produced locally and meet longevity demands.

images - melbournedesignawards.com.au

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

signage


city gateway analysis | airport precinct access

visual

social

comfort

safety

spatial wayfinding Airport is a gateway (LANDMARK) in itself - sense of arrival and anticipation needs to carry through to PATHS leading to departure points (bus/taxi/rental cars) that are currently disjointed, ambiguous and lacking in character. General reliance on signage for orientation /direction

Colonnade of posts erected to stop roadside parking forms a strong EDGE away from the airport Opportunity to link airport to highway roundabouts creating as series of NODES with the installation of a common theme through continuation of planting along EDGE to highway that enhances avenue (PATH) .

bland pathways

bland roundabouts

colonade of posts I native planting

continue native planting


speculation

Designing an efficient wayfinding system requires a multidisciplinary approach including input from the landscape architect. Considerations to do with landscape amy range from the ’image of the city’ to the dynamics of regional planning to traffic calming, streetscape design and pedestrian travel. (Rapheal.D., 2006).

furniture

art

Pathways that are well delineated and coupled with readily understood entries also support logical wayfinding. The vocabulary of the path, its surfacing, and associated elements such as lighting and landscaping, clearly delineate routes which travellers may follow to their destination. Thus landscape architects have the opportunity to be critically important in the design of wayfinding systems. opportunity to showcase Tasmanian Natives along vehicular,pedestrian paths

designforwalking.com

Gehl Report 2010

http://www.treesforlife.org.au

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

landscape


city gateway analysis | tasman highway to bridge access

visual

social

comfort

safety

spatial wayfinding Opportunity to introduce common theme through landscaping pockets of vacant land along EDGES that are currently under utilised and or detract from surrounding landscape and LANDMARKS. Cutting through landscape and initial views of Mount Wellington form gateway and backdrop to the city. This transition point would be ideal for a wayside stop before bridge gateway.

cutting through landscape

plant out edges

Bridge is a LANDMARK gateway marking transition from outer lying DISTRICTS to the city. Integration of PATHS (ramps) along this section of roadway is confusing to the visitor.Reliance on signage to assertain direction. Mismatch of materiality along EDGES that are also of poor quality. Common thread linking NODES would assist in navigating onto bridge allowing decluttering of existing signage. Measures would enhance this iconic LANDMARK gateway - bridge, mountain, river, landscape.

enhance and celebrate

unattractive edges


speculation

The identified landscape opportunities may be subject to a number of intrinsic landscape values including those to do with: - Functionality: effectiveness of the landscape project in performing the practical roles expected of it by the community - Affordibility: the whole-of-life asset cost to council

Routes to city and surrounding precincts need to be clearly identifiable and well linked to the city network through recognisable elements to ease wayfinding. (Gehl,2010). Improve visual qualities of wayfinding systems by adding elements that increase delight of human senses (Gehl,2012)

furniture

art

-Sustainability: the projects contribution to protection of biodiversity, nonrenewable resource usage, pollution control and energy consumption - Experience: arousing the users emotional response to the intervention for example calming, stimulating and connection with sense of place -Authenticity: contributing to the recognition, protection of the natural, indigenous and cultural heritage of the site and its immediate context.

http://www.fastcodesign.com

Establish the design of recognisable elements

http://www.treesforlife.org.au

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

landscape


city gateway analysis | tasman highway to bridge access

visual

social

comfort

safety

spatial wayfinding Bridge connects the water EDGE - poor vista of waterbody when on travelling over. Bland exit from bridge - ideal point for art installation that denotes transition point across DISTRICTS and ones arrival to Hobart. Opportunity to directly connect with river EDGE through the creation of a series of NODES for example the inclusion of a wayside stop at the once popular Regatta Ground that includes an information bay, public amenities

and possibly urban camping. Improving connections with Macquarie Point and the Domain could occur from the Regatta Ground over time. Creating stronger connections with the water EDGE will re stimulate communal activity along this historically significant section of the river.

Bland exit

Opportunity to landscape

Desolate Regatta Ground

A unique edge


speculation furniture

lighting

facility

art

Regatta Ground - an opportunity to develop this transition point between districts

own images

Prime location

Speculate Macquarie Point Report, UTas, 2010

Opportunity to increase the quality of the physical connections between inbound roadways and the edge of the River Derwent at strategic transition points along route. These include the Regatta Grounds and the southern end of Cornelian Bay opposite the lower Botanical Garden exit. A wayside stop at either of these points could include an information bay/interactive kiosk, bike hire, public ammenities and urban camping ground. Branches away from these nodes could connect with surrounding landscape/ landmarks/facilities including the domain, bus shuttle, possible light rail, water taxis, cycle path,Macquarie point and the Botanical Gardens.

Possible urban camping Cornealian Bay

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

landscape


water edge current conditions | sullivans cove - sandy bay

sullivans cove Characteristics of areas highlighted in this urban analysis of Sullivans Cove, Battery Point, and Sandy Bay: 1) Lack of pedestrian’s/cyclists’ safety: This affects the quality of space for human circulation. A safe environment encourages the movement of people and eases navigation. 2) Lack of passive surveillance in the night: With the lack of passive surveillance, a space will not be able to give people a sense of security, hence discouraging people from using a space. 3) Presence of visual connections to the river: This visual connection creates opportunities from which the river can be used when navigating across the cityscape. The identity of Hobart as a waterfront city is also enforced when people are able to see the river from within the city as it creates a stronger image within their collective memory. 4) Presence of significant gradient change: A land with significant gradient change is not pedestrian nor cyclist friendly. This affects people’s choice of route when navigating the city. The areas identified then inform our decision about where we should investigate and analyse further in order to seek possible solutions which are able to improve the quality of the areas.


sandy bay

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

battery point

Lack of pedestrian’s/cyclists’ safety Lack of passive surveillance in the night Visual connections to river Significant gradient change


water edge proposed solutions | sullivans cove - sandy bay

elizabeth street - sullivans cove

princess park - aj white park

A legible PATH can be created by introducing a series of NODES along

This proposal seeks to overcome the separation of the two parks caused

Elizabeth Street to deal with the abrupt change of programs at ground level, causing a disconnected use of the city from the Sullivans Cove. Proposals made along the street may also deal with the topographic changes which

by Castray Esplanade by enhancing the PATH connecting both sides of the road and creating a NODE at the point where the two paths to the parks intersect. This would enhance the legibility of AJ White Park.

result in a disconnection of vistas towards the Sullivans Cove.

Castray Esplan

ade

Elizabeth Street Mall

Eli

za

be

th

Str ee

Princes Park

t

Sullivans Cove AJ White Park


drysdale place - casino

The disconnection of green network from the residential main street to the

The carpark creates a strong EDGE between the Casino building and

water EDGE forms a weak character of place for pedestrians moving across

water edge, forming dead-ends at the green space and building EDGE

the site. By strengthening the PATH connection between the main street and

thus making the water edge under-utilised. The proposal is to establish

the water EDGE, the continuation of the green network could function as a

a distinct street hierarchy of attractive and safe pedestrian PATH for

key NODE for navigation in connecting the two disconnected DISTRICTS,

movement across the street, as well as establishing a NODE between the

the residential area and the water edge.

two recreational LANDMARKS, the Casino building and the water edge.

Sandy Bay Road

Qu

ayl

eS

Drysdale Place

tree

t

Casino

Marieville Esplanade

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

quayle street - marieville esplanade


water edge legibility + character | sullivans cove - sandy bay

elizabeth street - sullivans cove

princes park - aj white park

• Disrupted visual view from the mall to the river caused by the topographic

• The barrier built along the sloped edge is causing disconnection between

changes within the city. • There is a lack of diversity and mix in functions of night activities leading to a lack of mixed user groups engaging with the water edge.

the two parks. • The built edges do not foster community engagement within the park and is left underutilised.


drysdale place - casino

• Although river views can be seen when entering the Quayle Street

• The carpark causes a disconnection between the areas of vegetation and

with row of trees functioning as the initial wayfinding tool there is a disconnection of green banding from the main street to the water edge. • Lack of ‘staying’ spaces along the water edge.

the casino while occupying a prime area of land along the water edge. • The water edge has no artificial lighting provision resulting in a lack of social engagement after dark when the space could be used for social activities with great views.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

quayle street - marieville esplanade


water edge precedents

foreshore walk

water square

rivulet stream

collective/2012/07/25/dune-street-furniture-system-by-ferpectcollective-05 (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.publicsquaregroup.com/cleveland-skatepark (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://inhabitat.com/seoul-recovers-a-lost-stream-transforms-it-intoan-urban-park/seoul-stream/?extend=1 (accessed at 30 April 2013)

Street furniture covering shelves, benches and lamp posts can be introduced to provide staying

A skateboard ramp could be one of many different activities at the water square.

Water stream in a pedestrian street telling the historical story of the Rivulet stream which flows from the city to the Derwent river.

http://econode.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/bo01-in-malmo-sweden.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.manlykayakcentre.com.au/kayak.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/metrolight-sl/paver-lights-for-publicspaces-led-63606-747770.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

Create squares and direct access along the foreshore walk and give people opportunity to touch the water and enjoy a multitude activities on the water.

Activities on water such as boat rowing to attract social engagement and activities.

Paving stone with a light of memory of water. It also acts a wayfinding strategy to help people navigate from the city to the water edge.

spaces for people along the water edge.


art

greenery

http://www.wejetset.com/magazine/author/17/tourism (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://inhabitat.com/water-light-graffiti-led-wall-in-france-needsonly-water-to-paint-a-picture/water (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://keepsouthbendbeautiful.wordpress.com/2010/09/16/what-is-apocket-park/ (accessed at 30 April 2013)

Musical swings stimulate the public space, bringing together people of all ages and backgrounds in the city.

Interactive water graffiti led wall that needs only water to paint a picture can be installed as a

Pocket park with water and trees can be sandwiched between development on multiple sides, enclosing the space and aiding in the respite experience for the users.

http://www.metropoleparis.com/2006/1130/1130blog.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/02/ water-running-through-streets.jpg (accessed at 30 April 2013)

http://www.cambridge2000.com/gallery/html/P71915403e.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)

Water jets offering fun for everybody while creating an attractive space for a variety of events.

Art installation as a public intervention to light up the dark street.

Green space offers inviting edge within urban landscape while lighted trees help people navigate during the night.

means to reinvogarate urban street life.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

points of activity


water edge problems + opportunities | sullivans cove - elizabeth st

Changes in topography along Elizabeth street hinders visual connectivity towards the water edge. Urban interventions are biased towards the Elizabeth street mall and are then discontinued, resulting in a lack of staying spaces in the areas between the mall and the water edge.

access

visual

social

comfort

safety

01 02

03 01 Elizabeth Street Mall offers a wider

public/pedestrian space with a diversity of cafe’s and retail shops. This has developed strong walking links in-between.

02 Disrupted visual views from the mall to

the river caused by the topographic changes within the city.

03 Lack of diversity and mix in functions of night activities leads to a lack of mixed user groups engaging along the water edge.


Opportunities:

Problem 2:

Opportunities:

Disconnected visual connection between the water and the street caused by the topographic changes

Lack of social activities between the mall and the water edge

Use existing buildings (multi-storey carpark) as a means to make visual connections and provide spaces for social activities.

Continuation of the vibrant street mall down towards the water edge.

Elizabeth street mall

City Gateway | Water Edge discoveries:

(Image taken from Speculate GASP)

The redevelopment of Elizabeth Street Pier since 1991 has increased activity between Elizabeth Street Pier and Salamanca Place but that part of the Cove from Elizbeth Street Pier to Hunter Street is still weak. Strategy of extending and intensifying the number of activities between the mall and cove can be made. It is also important that the interventions do not limit future opportunities for the continuation of walkways along the water edge.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Problem 1:


water edge speculation | sullivans cove - elizabeth st

This speculation aims to extend the vibrancy of Elizabeth Street Mall towards Sullivans Cove as the separation between the use of the city and the existing Sullivans Cove activities is very evident.

1) Continuation of the row of trees with public seats underneath

2) Roof top of Argyle Street Carpark to be used as a viewing platform towards Sullivans Cove

3) Programmetic change of street facing shops to more peopleoriented cafes and retail shops

4) Continuation of art works down Elizabeth Street towards Sullivans Cove

5) Public street furniture to be installed along water edge to create staying spaces

6) Program from Elizabeth Pier to spill out onto streets as an activation of edges

7) Stairs to descend down into the water to allow people to get closer to the water if they wish to


5) Public street furniture

6) Program from Elizabeth Pier to spill out onto streets

landscape

furniture

7) Stairs to descend down into the water

lighting

art

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

2) Viewing platform on Argyle Street Carpark


water edge problems + opportunities | battery point - aj white park

The Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies and the CSIRO Marine Laboratories are causing a disconnection between Princes Park and the wateredge. While there may be opportunities for better water edge connections via AJ White Park, the carpark causes a disarticulation between links. The carpark itself has a good connection with the water edge.

access

visual

social

comfort

safety 02

01

01

02 01 View to the main street between Princess Park and the Car Park + AJ White Park. The barrier that is built along the slope edge causes a disconnection between the two parks.

02 View to the AJ White Park and the Derwent river. Built edges doesn’t foster community engagement within the park and is left underutilised.


Problem 2:

Problem 3:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Poor accessibility + enclosure

AJ White Park lacks of visual presence from the Princes Park

Introduce designated pedestrian walk way between Princes Park and the existing car park at AJ White Park.

Signage can be introduced between the princess park and the main street.

Disconnection between social activities in their respective environments and the water edge

Increase diversity of outdoor spaces to provide social engagement across the site.

City Gateway | Water Edge discoveries:

(Image taken from Speculate GASP)

The identity of the wateredge is dominated by the existing car park, causing a dominating ‘to and fro’ entry between Princes Park and AJ White Park. Part of the parking space can be replaced by pockets of greeery/landscape and public facilities.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Problem 1:


water edge speculation | battery point - aj white park This speculation aims to improve the legibility of AJ White park from the main road, resolve the disconnection between the two parks, increase the diversity of uses at the site, and encourage community participation in the temporary events.

1) Sheltered bbq pits provide people with a comfortable space for barbecuing while being able to enjoy the river view

2) Zebra crossing and stairs to be inserted to deal with the level change and improve the pedestrian connectivity between the parks

3) Addition of trees as a way of linking the two parks and possible act as a wayfinding strategy

4) Signage to be installed to inform people of the presence of AJ White Park

5) Public street furniture to be installed to support the BBQ facilities and create staying spaces by the water edge

6) Creation of “Sea Organ� descending into water to attract people to the site and allow people to experience the sounds and patterns of waves

7) Public art works installation in addition to the current sculpture there


landscape

furniture

facility

art

2) zebra crossing

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

4) Signage

signage

1) Sheltered bbq pits 3) addition of trees 7) Art installation 5) Street furniture

6) Sea organ- produces sound when waves hit the steps

http://elmtin.blogspot.com.au/2011_02_01_archive.html (accessed at 30 April 2013)


water edge problems + opportunities | battery point - quayle st

Although Quayle Street has a good visual connection to the water from the main road there is lack of staying spaces along this stretch. The network of trees forms a strong urban articulation denoting the procession to the Rivulet and the water edge. The topography of both sides is raised up from the road levels such that they form a gateway to the waterway.

access

visual

social

comfort

safety

01

02

01

02 03 04 01 River view can be seen when

entering the Quayle Street. Trees function as the initial wayfinding tool.

02 Rows of deciduous trees act

as a linking visual guide to the water edge, aiding body sensory movement through the landscape.

03 Sense of movement is changed when meets the Rivulet. Rows of trees are now discontinued.

04 End of trip at water edge. Social engagement of the site is inactive.


Problem 2:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Poor signage linking from the main street to the water edge

Strengthen the metaphorical connection between the Rivulet and the water edge.

Disconnection of green network from the main street or from the water edge.

Continue the green network as a means to enhance the navigational movement while bringing the historical qualities of the Rivulet to the water edge.

City Gateway | Water Edge discoveries: (Image taken from Speculate (Image taken from Speculate GASP) GASP)

Disarticulation between the green network and the water edge could be made legible by understanding the relationship between the pedestrian movement and the character of place.

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Problem 1:


water edge speculation | battery point - quayle st This speculation aims to strengthen the existing green network as a wayfinding strategy and educate people about the rivulet that runs through the area. The interventions proposed are subtle and will not create any disturbance to the residential neighbourhood.

1) Additional rows of trees may be inserted at the start and end of Quayle Street to continue the existing stretch of trees. The deciduous trees not only act as shade during summer but also functions as a linking visual guide to the water edge. They create a rhythm and sense of movement through the landscape.

2) Signage with information about the Sandy Bay rivulet are to be provided at various points of Quayle Strreet- one at the start of the road, one on a bridge at the center (so that people coming from other road intersections will also come across the signs), and one at the end of the road towards Marieville Esplanade.


landscape

signage

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Continuation of trees along Quayle Street and the addition of signages at the start, middle, and end of the street.

Bridge with rivulet running below

Sandy Bay rivulet running through part of the site before meandering away

Network of trees running through entire length of the street which slopes down towards the water

Existing private jetty


water edge problems + opportunities | drysdale place - casino

The carpark is currently causing the disconnection between the green areas and the casino and it is also occupying a great spot in front of the water edge when the space can instead be used for other social activities. Deadends at green space and building edges which generated by the large carpark space have made the water edge underutilised.

access

visual

social

comfort

safety

01 02

01 No provision of light and social engagement along the water edge.

02 The only pedestrian/cyclist path that cuts through the green space and stops at the parking area.


Problem 2:

Problem 3:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Opportunities:

Poor pedestrian accessibility due to the lack of pedestrian crossings

Create a distinct street hierarchy of attractive and safe pedestrian network crossings through the separation of paths for movement across the street.

No sheltered spaces provided for the outdoor spaces

Provide multi-purposed shelters which not only provide protection from the weather but also support public life activities along the water edge.

Outdoor spaces lack of diversity in recreational activities

Offer pockets of space offering potentials for sports, play, and cultural activities along the water edge in connection to the existing green space.

City Gateway | Wateredge discoveries: Duck watching/feeding activity have the potential to engage with the community and the members of Casino. Further interventions to upgrade the water edge as part of the current activities and legibility would be beneficial. (Image taken from Speculate GASP)

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Problem 1:


city gateway | water edge speculation | drysdale place - casino This speculation aims to reduce the amount of prime water edge space wasted on carparks by turning sections of existing carparks into a parkland and create legible pedestrian connections with the Casino. Several strategies are explored to rejuvenate the character of place.

1) Sheltered bbq pits and street furniture are able to provide a wider variety of activities along the water edge such as picnicking and duck watching

2) Additional trees can be planted along the evident trodden path across the green space as a form of shelter

3) Zebra crossing to be added for the ease of pedestrian crossing

4) Steps leading down to the shore area break the disconnection of levels

5) Playground for the children to add life to the space

6) Part of the existing carpark can be turned into a park so as to create a more inviting and pleasant threshold into the Casino

7) Jetties and platforms jutting out from the water edge would create a suitable ferry point and viewing platforms providing views towards Kangaroo Bay and its surrounding landscape


landscape

1) Sheltered bbq pits and public furniture

2) Network of trees

3) Jetties and viewing platforms

facility

lighting

3) Zebra crossing

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

4) Steps down to water 5) Playground

furniture


city gateway | water edge conclusion ‘How does graphical and spatial wayfinding information assist in clarifying, highlighting and celebrating city gateways and the water edge giving visitors and the inhabitants of Hobart a greater sense of comprehension and connection with place?’ The research conducted in this chapter highlights that wayfinding is a key issue that concerns itself with people movement, their relationship to space and presents opportunities to design in response to peoples wayfinding behaviour. The user of the observer participant approach through the recording of people movement and experiencing the airport to city gateway and the water edge has identified a series of graphical and spatial issues and identified opportunities where graphical and spatial information can be enhanced or introduced. Hobarts natural landmarks and the river edge are memorable features and their location in relation to the city helps to orient the navigator, however, enhancing connections with the greater landscape through the treatment of paths edges and nodes would add a layer of urban legibility that enhances Hobart’s identity. The linking of landmarks and major places of interest through continuity of the chosen wayfinding system would also assist in the connection and understanding and legibility of place.

landscape Opportunities to enhance the edges of paths along road network on Gateway approach and the water edge that would assist the navigator along route. The treatment of edges and the strengthening of paths acknowledge city’s place within the landscape with connections to surrounding natural landmarks adding a layer of urban legibility.

furniture Opportunity to introduce street furniture as a common theme within the city and along the water edge. Common theme provides a common thread that assists in linking nodes and major places of interest. Introduce characteristics between street furniture and treatment of edges (signage, barriers) through colour, texture, shape.

lighting The areas where lighting is needed to assist in orientation, safety and security are identified. Well designed light installations give architecture life and act as a ‘voiceless tour guide’. Designing with natural and artificial ‘light’ in mind is always a primary consideration in Tasmania.


CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Sensory related activities and urban interventions have also proven to be important in maintaining public interest. Beyond the obvious fact that the river physically connects parts of Hobart together, it is also able to affect people and communities by providing them with a sense of identity, joy and place. It is embedded within the memories of people, influencing the image of the city formed in their minds due to its strong characteristic of acting like a landmark, allowing people to form their body images and orient themselves in the landscape. The body scape created gives a person his sense of direction. (Bloomer & Moore, 1977) Water edges hold an abundance of opportunities for social activities to take place, and these activities in turn may act as a means of navigation strategy, instead of having to merely rely on physical objects as landmarks. Physical landmarks may not be visible from certain parts of the city, and their visibility is also greatly reduced when night comes. When viewing the river, the districts at opposite shores will be in people’s frame of view, subtly creating a link between the distant built fabric and them in their subconscious minds.

facility Speculations include a variety of facilities for the visitor and the inhabitants of Hobart that assist in wayfinding through the creation of strategic junctions and transition points along paths and the water edge. Physical character of speculations provide graphical and spatial wayfinding information.

art The inclusion of art through speculative designs assists in the introduction of a common theme at gateways and along water edge . Generic layout maintains consistency of graphical information and allows stakeholders the freedom to include individual art themes.

(city gateway to the water edge: taken from maps.google.com)


REFERENCES Abrams, J. B. (2010). “Wayfinding in architecture”. Architecture Commons vol 4 (16): 55., University of South Florida, USA Amidon, Jane, Radical Landscapes: Reinventing outdoor spaces (London : Thames & Hudson c2003).

Appleyard, D. (1973). “Notes on Urban Perception and Knowledge”, Landscape Architecture and city and regional planning periodical, University of California, USA Arthur, P. and Passini,R. (1992). “Wayfinding : people, signs and architecture”. New York,McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, USA. Beattie, N. (1992). “Imageability and Cultural Identity”. Exedra 3(2): 4-8.

Lascano, Ryan. “What Makes A Good Wayfinding System?” Arrows & Icons Magazine. Arrows & Icons Magazine, 06 Oct. 2009. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. Lynch, K., (1960) “Image of the City”. Joint Centre Publications, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Lynch, Kevin, A Theory of Good City Form (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981)

Muhlhausen, J. (2000). “Wayfinding is not signage: signage plays an important part ofwayfinding, but there’s more”. http://www.signweb.com/ada/cont/wayfinding0800.html. Montgomery, J. (2007). “Making a city: Urbaninity, vitality, and urban design.” Journal of Urban Design 3(1): 93-116. National Heart Foundation of Australia, Healthy by Design: A Guide to Planning and

Bloomer, Kent C and Moore, Charles W, Body, Memory and Architecture (London: Yale

Designing Environments for Active Living n Tasmania, 2009, accessed 29 March 2013,

University Press, 1977)

<http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/driving-change/current-campaigns/local-campaigns/ Pages/tasmania-healthy-design.aspx>

Boyer, M. Christine, The City of Collective Memory (Cambridge: MIT press, 1994).

Farr, A. T Kleinschmidt, Prasad, Y. Mengersen, K. Wayfinding: “ A simple concept, a complex process” Transport Reviews, Queensland Institute of Technology, Vol 32, No.6,715-743, 2012. Gehl Architects, Hobart Public Spaces and Public Life: A City with People in Mind, Hobart City Council, 2011, accessed 29 March 2013, <http://www.hobartcity.com.au> Gehl, Jan Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space (Van Nostrand Reinhold Company: New York, 1987).

Gibson, D. (2009). “The Wayfinding Handbook”. New York, USA, Princeton Architectural Press, USA Hayden, Dolores, The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. (Cambridge: MIT, 1995).

Radovic, Darko. Eco-urbanity: Towards Well-mannered Built Environments, (New York: Routledge, 2009) Rajnis, Berjoska, Traces: Uncovering a Material Memory- Revealing Water, Land and Time at the Edge of the Urban Landscape, Dalhousie University, Halifax, 2010.

Raphael, David. “Wayfinding Principles & Practices.” Landscape Architecture Technical Information Series 2nd ser. (2006). Http://fergusonsportal.macmate. me. American Society of Landscape Architects, 2006. Web. 10 June. 2013. http://fergusonsportal.macmate.me/Portal/Urban_Systems_files/LATIS%20 Wayfinding.pdf.

Sasaki, Walker Associates, Landscape Infrastructure: Case studies by SWA (London : Springer, 2011). Stevens, Quentin. The design of urban waterfronts: A critique of two Australian ‘southbanks’. The Town Planning Review, Australia: City of Melbourne, pg.173-203, 2006.


Trancik, Roger, Finding Lost space: Theories of Urban Design (New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1986). UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate Macquarie

CITY GATEWAY | WATER EDGE

Point, Launceston, UTas School of Architecture & Design, 2012. UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate GASP! Elwick Bay, Launceston, UTas School of Architecture & Design, 2012. UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate Sullivan’s Cove, Launceston, UTas School of Architecture & Design, 2012. UTas School of Architecture & Design and Hobart City Council, Speculate City as Campus, Launceston, UTAS School of Architecture & Design, 2012. Wilkie, George, Inner City Action Plan: Preliminary Report to the Hobart City Council, Accessed March 20, 2013. Yiftachel, Oren and Hedgcock, David, “Urban Social Sustainability: The Planning of an Australia City”, Cities 10, no. 2 (1993): 139-157.

*All images or photographs not referenced are taken or drawn by the author



City gateway to water edge