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OMS No. 10024-0018

NPS Form 10·900 (Ocl1990)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service (

",..,',

')~'"A.ational Register of Historic Places RegistrationF orm This form Is for use in nominating or requesting determinations for individual properties and districts. See instructions in How to Complete the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (National Register Bulletin 16A). Complete each item by marking "x' in the appropriate box or by entering the information requested. If an item does not apply to the property being documented, enter "NfA" for "not applicable: For functions, architectural classification, materials, and areas of significance, enter only categories and subcategories from the instructions. Place additional entries and narrative items on continuation sheets (NPS Form 10-900a). Use a typewriter, word processor, or computer, to complete all items.

1. Nameof Property historic

name

other name/site 2.

_---"C"-'o"'I""d""e:!..n:...;M=a""n""s""io=-'n....!R-""'u!.:.in""s'--number

_

---------•...---•...---------------------------

Location

city or town

Montgomery

New York

: state : 3.

o not for publication o vicinity

NYS Rt. 17K

street & town

NY

code

county Orange

code

-----

zip code

12549

State/FederalAgency Certification As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, I heroby certify that this D nomination request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property II meets 0 does not meet the National Register criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant !if nationally D statewide D locally. (D See continuation sheet for additional comments.)

o

Date

Signature of certifying offici~lmtle NY State Historic preserv11ion Officer State of Federal agency and bureau I

In my opinion, the property [] comments.)

meets

0

does not meet the National Register criteria. (

I

D See

continuation

sheet for additional

'

Signature of certifying officialfTitle

Date

I State or Federal agency and bureau ,

4.

1

I~ffi~ce~fyth~~epro~rty~

,

F

~~

I

~

D entered in the National Regi~ter. 0 See continuation sheet D determined eligible for the I

o ,

-----------------

National Park Service Ce~rtification

o o

National Register D See continuation sheet determined not eligible for th~ National Register. I removed from the National Register. other, (explain:)

_

~S~~-n-a~~-r-e-o~f~~-e-K~e-e-p-e-r •••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ ••••~~

•••••••••••• ~D~a~t-e-o~f~A-c-~-n~~~


ccrocn M;lm:lon Ruins Name of Property

Orange County, New York County and State

5. Classlfleatlon

\~----~~~=---~--------~=-~----~~----------~--~--~~--------~~~----~--

J

Ownership of Property

Category of Property

Number of Resources within Property

(ch••• ck as many boxesas apply)

(check only one box)

(Do nol include previously listed resources in the count)

/81 public-local

o private o public-State

o public-Federal

o district o buildlng(s)

Contributing

Noncontributing buildings

12

~site

sites

D structure

structures

o object

objects Total

Name of related multiple property listing (Enter "N/A" if property is not part of a multiple property listing.)

Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register

N/A 6.

N/A Function or Use

Historic Function

Current Function

(Enter categories from instructions)

(Enter categories

Domestic/Single

dwelling

Vacant/Not

from instructions)

in use

Agriculture/Subsistence

7.

Description

Architectural

Classification

(Enter categories from instructions) Georgian

Materials (Enter categories foundation

Slone

walls

Stone

roof

Stone

other

Narrative Description (Describe the historic and current condition of the property on one or more continuation

from instructions)

sheets.)


or:mge County New York County and Slate

Colden Man:;ion Rulne Name of Property

8. Significance ) Applicable

National Register Criteria (Mark 路x" in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property

Areas of Significance (enter categories from lnslrucllons)

for National Register IistinO路)

o A Property

is associaLed with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history.

Agriculture Architecture

.t&1 B Property

is associated with the lives of persons Significant in our past.

Archeology

o C Property

embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction.

~

0 Property has yielded, or is likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history.

Criteria

Period of Significance 1767 -present

Considerations

(Mark "XU in all the boxes that apply.)

Significant 1767

Property is:

DA

owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes.

o B removed DCa

Significant Persons (Complete if Criterion B is marked above) Colden, Cadwallader Sr and Jr

from its original location.

birthplace or grave. Cultural

~

Dates

Affiliation

0 a cemetery.

DE

a reconstructed building, object, or structure.

D F a commemorative

property.

o G less than 50 years of age or achieved

Architect/Builder

James. Wines and Gabriel Many significance

within the past 50 years. Narrative

Statement

of Significance

(Explain the significance of the property on one or more continuation

9. Major

Bibliographical

sheets.)

References

Bibliography (Cite the books. articles. and other sources used in preparing

Previous

documentation

this form on one or more continuation

on file (NPS):

o preliminary

determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested previously listed in the National Register ~previously determined eligible by the National Register designated a National Historic Landmark recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey

o

o o #

D recorded Record

#

sheets.

Primary

location

D State D

o ~

D ~

Historic Preservation Other State agency Federal agency Local government University Other Name of repository:

Library, Internet by Historic American Engineering

of additional

data: Office


Orange County. New Yark County and State

Colden Mansion Ruins Name of Property

10. Geographical Data Acreage

of Property

8_.5

_

UTM Reference5 (Place additional boundaries of the property on a continuation

sheet)

2

1 Zone

Easting

Northing

Zone

Easting

Northing

3

Zone

Easting

Northing

Zone

Easting

Northing

OSee

continuation

4 sheet

Verbal Boundary Description (Describe the boundaries of the property on a continuation

sheet.)

Boundary Justification (Explain why the boundaries were selected on a continuation

sheet.)

11. Form Prepared By name/title

Lisa Melville, Planner

organization

_ date October 23, 2003

street & number....::3:...4:....:B=e:..;:re::..::a:...:....;R:.;::o.:::a.:::d city or town Walden

_

telephone

518-486-4669

state NY

zip code

12586

Additional Documentation Submit the following items with the completed form:

Continuation Sheets Maps A USGS map (7.5 or 15 minute series) indicating the property's location. A Sketch map for historic districts and properties having large acreage or numerous resources. Photographs Representative black and white photographs of the property. Additional items (Check with the SHPO or FPO for any additional

items)

Property Owner (Complete this item at the request of SHPO or FPO.)

name/title

Town of Montgomery

street & number 110 Bracken Road

telephone

city or town

state ~

Montgomery

845-457-2600 zip code 12549

Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.). Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 18.1 hours per response including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Chief. Administrative Services Division. National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127; and the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reductions Projects (1024-0018), Washington, DC 20503. .


United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

OMB No. 1024-0018,

Property Name: Colden Mansion Ruins Location: Montgomery, Orange County, NATIONAL REGISTEROF CONTINUATION SHEET

NP!:) Form

New York

HISTORIC PLACES

Section number 7 Page 1 Narrative Description The Colden Mansion Ruins occupy an 8.5 acre parcel ofland on the east comer of Route 17K and Stone Castle Road in Montgomery, New York. The Colden Mansion was built in 1767 by Cadwallader Colden, Jr., a very successful farmer, Colden, Jr. doubled the mansion's size a few years later. The date stone bore the inscription l,W. and G. Many, who were three local builders. These brothers were named James, Wines and Gabriel Many. What remains of the main building today is a ruin. The south wall which was the front of the house has caved in, leaving three walls standing. The frames of the doorways, fireplaces and windows also remain on these three standing walls. Cadwallader, Jr. and his wife lived in an earlier house on the site. A ruin to the rear of the mansion may be that earlier structure. The mansion was constructed oflocal stone and was considered one of the finest houses in this area. The Colden Mansion was the only house in this area of the Hudson River Valley to compare for size/scale/finishes with some of America's more famous Georgian era homes. The house's earliest surviving image is an engraving from 1859, which reveals that the original house was 2 112stories high and five bays wide. The first floor consisted of two parlors, one on each side of the central hall. There were two chambers above the parlors and a basement kitchen below the east parlor. The round window in the gable of the front facade had muntins shaped in similar design to that of the front transom (clover leaf design). The front Palladian window and the first floor windows and doorway of the original building had plastered facings to simulate stone lintels (this treatment could also be found over the front Palladian). The barrel back cupboard in the west parlor had curved shelves with the shell motif at the top similar to that at Hill Hold Museum in Goshen, New York. It is believed it was during the McGowan ownership that the mansard roof was added (this was a late style mansard, early 1890's). At , this time the original front doorway transom was replaced with one of colored glass and the round window in the gable peak was transformed to a half-round window. The former attic was also transformed into living space and contained a hallway with doorways with transoms to the various rooms. The McGowan's called the place "Stony Castle" hence the current name of the adjacent road (Stone Castle Road). It is unusual that so much woodwork survives from the building and that their whereabouts are known: 1). The Metropolitan Museum has the west formal parlor complete with flat paneled wainscoting from that room; 2). Town of Montgomery has the east parlor paneled room end; 3). Town of Montgomery has the front doorway less the original transom (which was replaced during the late 19th century remodeling); 4). Town of Montgomery has the paneled room end of the east front bedroom above the parlor; 5). Edna Fletcher installed a paneled room end in her home in the Town of Newburgh (believed to be from the east back wing); 6). Museum Village ended up with one room end which they stored outside and it eventually rotted; 7). One room is unaccounted for, but rumor has it that it ended up in a doctor's home in Balmville, Orange County; 8). Part of the cherry handrail from one of the staircases was stored at Hill Hold Museum along with the cornice dentals and a portion of the hall way flat paneled wainscoting.


United States Department National Park Service

of the Interior

OMB No. 1024-0018, NPS Form Property Name: Colden Mansion Ruins

Location: Montgomery, Orange County, New York ,NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES , CONTINUATION SHEET Section number 8 Page 1 NARATIVE STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE The significance of this house is linked to the Colden family. Cadwallader Colden, Sr. and his family were incredibly influential around the town of Montgomery. There are signs of them all around. The family's historic cemetery is not too far away. A street sign bears the Colden name in the city of Newburgh because Alexander Colden was a successful merchant who ran the first ferry operation across the Hudson River in Newburgh. A historic marker about Colden's daughter, Jane, a famous botanist, is displayed at a neighboring elementary school that's also named East Coldenham. Colden's book, History of the Five Indian Nations Depending on New York, is still considered one of the great original sources on Indian relations in New York. Colden even tried to place Kings College -- the college that would later become the Ivy League's Columbia University -- in nearby Newburgh. The local hamlet where they originally settled is called Coldenham. Colden, Sr. was born in Dunce, Scotland on Feb. 17, 1688. His father, the Rev. Alexander Colden, sent him to the University of Edinburgh where he graduated in 1705. Colden, Sr. then spent three years studying medicine and mathematics before coming to America in 1708. At the time, the land was a British colony. He practiced medicine in Philadelphia until 1715 and settled in New York in 1718. A year later, he became the Lieutenant Governor of the New York colony. In 1720, a friend of Colden. Sr. named John Johnson procured a patent of land for 1,000 acres and transferred it to Colden the same day. The possible explanation is that Colden, Sr. was Surveyor General and since it was for his own private benefit, it looked better to take it out in his friend's name. , Shortly after this, Colden procured another patent to be issued directly to him for 2,000 acres, which lies directly south to the one , issued to Johnson. It is declared in the patent to be called "Coldengham." It was changed many years later to the current spelling of Coldenham. The 3,000 total acres are in what is now the town of Montgomery. In 1728, the senior Colden erected a stone house on what is now Maple A venue off Route NYS 17K (not too far from the Colden Mansion Ruin) and settled his family there after residing in New York City. The family's burial ground is near this original house, which is believed to have been demolished in 1846. The family cemetery is still intact and is owned by the town of Montgomery. One of Colden, Sr.'s most unusual contributions is building the state's first freshwater canal, running from near his house on Maple A venue to possibly the Wallkill River in nearby Walden. Some details are sketchy, so no one is certain why he built the canal. But one common theory is he used the canal to transport either peat for fuel or stones that were used to build his residence. It's also important to note the Coldens were slave owners and that they would not have been able to settle here without the slaves' work. It is suspected that there is a slave cemetery on the house site. Colden, Sr. was married to Alice Chrystie. They had nine children. When they moved from New York City to Coldengham they brought, Alexander, 11; Elizabeth, 6; Cadwallader, Jr., 5; Jane, 3; and Alice, 1. They also brought an infant daughter Sarah, who died after two years. In Coldengham, three others were born: John in 1729, Catherine in 1731, and David in 1733. Colden was a renaissance man for his day, writing pioneering works about Indians, botany, physics, medical subjects and mathematics. Even though he was rooted in British culture, Colden was independent thinking and fair-minded about his governing role in the New York colony. The senior Colden was also an earnest loyalist and advocate of taxation of the colonies by the crown. In 1722, he was appointed to the Kings Council for NY Province (Jan. 4, 17511etier from Cadwallader Colden to Peter Kulm). He was lieutenant governor from 1761 to his dealth on September 28, 1776 and acted as Governor in the governor's absence and through transition periods. The Tory was acting governor when he refused to sign a request from certain colonists to repeal the 1765 Stamp Act, which imposed a tax . . On November 1, 1765, he was targeted in a protest when a crowd armed with torches arrived at Fort George, which stood on Battery Point in New York City. It was here that the paper intended for distribution under the Stamp Act was being stored under Governor Colden's care. The crowd broke open the governor's coach-house and paraded two images -- one of the governor, the other of the devil


United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

OMB No.1 024-0018, NPS Form

Property Name: Colden Mansion Ruins Location: Montgomery. Orange County, New York NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES CONTINUATION SHEET Section number 8 Page 2 -- through the town in the Governor's carriage and came back to Bowling Green, where they burned them in front of Colden. The next day he yielded and gave the stamps to the New York Common Council. When Governor Tryon returned to office, Colden retired to his house on Long Island. It is believed he is buried on Long Island. There is also a memorial stone for Colden at the family cemetery near his original house back in the town of Montgomery. Ironically, Colden, Sr., the British loyalist, died in 1776. It was here in Montgomery where Colden, Sr's second son and namesake, Cadwallader Colden, Jr., was given 500 acres to farm. Cadwallader II married Elizabeth Ellison. Both are buried in the Colden family cemetery in Coldenham. Although Elizabeth endured a dozen births, only seven children survived childhood. In 1767, the junior Colden built what is known as the Colden Mansion. A very successful farmer, Colden, Jr. doubled the mansion's size a few years later. Colden, Jr., became the largest slave holder in the area. By the 1760s, his estate had grown to include the remainder of his father's 3000-acre tract. He was elected to the post of first supervisor of the Precinct of Hanover. In 1774 he was elected to the Court of Common Pleas. The Colden Mansion remained in the family for about 100 years. Later owners (McGowan's) a mansard roof before the house was eventually abandoned in the 1930s due to litigation.

replaced the Georgian hipped roof with

In 1941, the West parlor's exquisite parlor paneling was removed to provide a suitable wall for the Museum of Art.

Verplank Room

in the Metropolitan

One of the great stories about the Colden family is Jane Colden, who was born in 1724 and was one of the daughters of Cadwallader, Sr. and Alice Colden. The senior Colden was a firm believer in the education of women and he taught Jane botany. While collecting and describing many of the area's native plants, Jane Colden and her father were acquaintances of Benjamin Franklin, John and William Bartram, and Peter Kalm. All were noted scientists. Jane Colden Farquahar contributed mightily to botany. She published the first illustrated flora of New York in 1749. She exchanged many seeds and plants with European and American botanists and gardeners. In fact, Peter Collinson wrote a letter to Linnaeus in 1756 stating, "Jane Colden was the first lady who is scientifically skilled in the Linnaean system." For her contributions, a state historic marker notes Jane Colden's botany skills near the elementary school off Route 17K. She died in 1766 at age 42 during childbirth. The eldest son of Cadwallader, Sr and Alice Chrystie was named Alexander and he was the first to operate a ferry across the Hudson River from Newburgh to Dutchess County. Not too far from the Colden Mansion Ruins is the house owned by Thomas Colden, the senior Colden's grandson. The junior Colden built the house for son Thomas Colden around 1770. The house has been remarkably preserved. Thomas Colden served as a sheriff of Ulster County when his father was also a county judge in 1774. Both men tried to stem the tide of revolt against English rule, not exactly a popular position to take at the time. During the Revolutionary War, Cadwallader, Jr. was held under house arrest in the Van Dusen House in Hurley which acted as the State Capital after Kingston was burned by the British. Thomas Colden fought in the British army, survived the war and died at his home in Coldenham in 1826. Before the war, the Coldens were held in high esteem. But after the war it was probably difficult for Tory sympathizers, Thomas Colden and his father to return after the British were defeated, but they did and lived out their lives there. To know the family is to know the old mansion's significance.


UnitAd Stata!; Dapartmant Of tne Intenor National Park Service

OME! NO. 10Z4-Q0111, NP3 Form

Property Name: Colden Mansion Ruins Location: Montgomery, Orange County, New York ') NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES . CONTINUATION SHEET Section number 9 Page I MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPIDCAL

REFERENCES

Bibliography

[Brev] Letters and papers. - Repr. - New York, 1973 - 9 vol: ill. - (Collections / New York Historical Society) (The John Watts De Peyster publication fund series) First published 1918-37. Cielo, Carla A. "Preliminary Conditions Survey of the Colden Mansion Ruins in Montgomery, NY." Town of Montgomery, 1998. Eurich, Robert-C. and Robert L. Williams. "Old Houses of Hanover: Historic Sties of the Town of Montgomery,Orange New York: Town of Montgomery, 1994. Hoermann, Alfred R. Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment.

Greenwood Publication Group, July 2002.

Melville, Lisa. "Stone Castle." Hudsonian Magazine Online, 2001. Williams, Robert L .. "Proposal: Heritage Park The Colden Mansion Ruins." Town of Montgomery,

Communications ..

, \

Evelyn Cambell, Personal communication,

Rose Pennings, Personal communication, Bob Williams, Personal communication.

April- October 2003.

October 2003. October 11,2003.

County."

1998.


OMB No. 1024-0018. NPS Form

United States Department of the Interior

National Park Service

Property Name: Colden Mansion Ruins Location: Montgomery, Orange County,

New York

'j NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES . CONTINUATION

SHEET

Section number 10 Page 1 VERBAL BOUNDARY DESCRTPTION/JUSTIFICA

TION

The Colden Mansion Ruins occupies an 8.5 acre parcel ofland on the east comer of Route 17K and Stone Castle Road in the commercially developing southeastern portion of Montgomery. Route 17K which borders the southwestern boundary of the property is characterized by both open and forested land along with residential dwellings and commercial/industrial building (an industrial building stands on the opposite side of Route 17K). Stone Castle Road extends from Route 17K to Route 52 to the north and is characterized by trucking companies and light manufacturing facilities. The mansion property is bounded on the southeast by the Catskill Aqueduct. The mansion ruins along with its associated outbuilding ruins are set back from Route 17K and Stone Castle Road and are situated within close proximity of each other, but take up nearly the entire 8.5 acre parcel. Route 17K marks the southwestern boundary of the property and Stone Castle Road marks the southwestern boundary of the property and Stone Castle Road marks the northwestern boundary. The entire parcel is flat and covered with trees much of which are within fifty years of age. The mansion ruin is divided into two sections-the original front portion dating from 1767 and its full length rear attachment dating from c. 1775-1785. There are four stone lined wells on the property-two located on the southeastern side of the mansion the closest of which is located immediately adjacent to the eastern comer of the mansion and is more likely a cistern. Another well is located north of the mansion between what was most likely a privy and the barn complex. The remaining well is located east of the main barn ruins. East of the rear east comer of the mansion are the ruins of the one story stone cookhouse. Attached to the rear wall of the cookhouse are foundation ruins divided into two sections the south comer of which contains a rectangular cistern. These ruins once supported a frame structure which is conjectured to be the original dwelling on the property. It may have latter served as a slave quarters. East of this ruin are three small ruins, one of which is a small concrete foundation. The original use of these structures remains unknown, but , is believed to be agricultural in nature. North of these ruins are three barn ruins-two large and one smalL Behind the main barn ruin ! is the site identified to be that of the slave cemetery. North of the mansion and southwest of the barn complex is a small rectangular foundation believed to have originally served as a privy, It is expected that other more obscure ruins remain on the site. A recent archeological dig conducted by Louis Berger & Associates along Route 17K in front of the mansion revealed a portion of a stone wall believed to date to the eighteenth century. Extending from the west to the northwest of the mansion ruins are Osage Orange Trees believed to be associated with the eighteenth century plantings. All of the above noted features including the Osage Orange Trees are contributing components of this nomination.


Colden Mansion

Ruins

Orange County, New York

ADDITIONAL INFROMA nON

Photographs:

-

---- --------------_.

Picture I: Early engraving (1859) of Colden Mansion rim shows Georgian architecture

Picture 2: Early photograph of Colden Mansion still with Georgian roof and only photograph known [hat shows clapboard cookhouse that is believed to be earlier living structure.


Orange County New York

Colden Mansion Ruins

Picture 3:

Colden

Mansion

Picture 4: Verplanck

with Mansard

Room in Metropolitan

Roof sornerime

with

around

~oldeJl paneling

1890s


Colden Mansion Ruins

OrangeCountYtNew York

Picture #!>~&(;>: -COIOCI1Mansion R;\lins: The origin.al pornons of [he east and west walls and the majority QFthe center partition are full height (23 teet high).


Colden Mansion Ruins

Orange County, New York

Picture #5c&d: Colden Mansion Ruins: The original portions of the cast and west walls and the majority of the center partition are full height (23 feet high).


Colden Mansion Ruins

Orange County, New York

Picture #6: Colden Mansion Ruins; East Corner of ruin .

••

Picture In: First floor window frame

and second

nom

fife place

(northwest wall),

••


Colden Mansion Ruins

Orange County, New York l •...... ~

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nine, survive In

various s~age~ of decay.


Colden Mansion Ruins

Picture li9: There is a scattering of fallen and partially remnants of the floor-support system.

OrBnge County, New York

fallen timbers in the ruin's basement,

These timbers

arc the


Orange County, New York

Colden Mansion Ruins ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

MAPS

Mapl:

Real Property Tax Map

Map 2:

Map from Stewart International Airport Access Improvement Plan by , Berger, Lehman Associates, P.C. 1999. Shows proposed realignment of roads in relation to the Colden Ruins and the area to accommodate Stewart Airport development.

Map 3:

Sketch of Colden Mansion Ruins done by Robert L. Williams, former town historian.


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Map 3

Colden Mansion Ruins Rte.17K Montgomery, Orange County, NY

Concrete Found~ion

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National Register-Colden Mansion Ruins