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A Ad: Digital creative that is typically interactive. Banners, buttons, interstitials and key words are all examples of online advertisements. The digital creative can be text, static graphic, animated graphic, video, audio or other. Ad Auction: For each ad impression, an ad auction system selects the best ads to run based on the ads' maximum bids and ad performance. All Ads compete against each other in this process, and the ads that the system determines are most likely to be successful will be shown. Ad exchange: An online platform which brokers online advertising by bringing web publishers and advertising buyers together to participate in auctions for ad space. Used for the buying and selling of digital advertisements, an ad exchange is a marketplace where publishers and advertisers can find and execute advertising transactions (similar to what happens on a stock exchange). Ad Network: An advertising company that connects between web site publishers and advertisers. Larger ad networks aggregate sites into general categories so that they can offer advertisers targeted buys. The majority of banner advertisements on the Internet are sold and served by ad networks. Ad Rotation: Different ads and different ad sources are often rotated in the same space on a webpage. Ad rotation can be static (one ad per page view) or dynamic (more than one ad per page view cycled based on elapsed display time). This is usually done automatically by software on the website. This function is related to, but different from ad serving provided by a network Ad server: Name for the organization, hardware, and software that delivers advertising creative to the user’s browser. The ad server typically is responsible for selecting the appropriate ad to serve by frequency control and targeting. The ad server also performs a variety of other administrative tasks including the counting of impressions and clicks, and report generation. Use of an ad server helps establish trust between an advertiser and publisher since the statistics are maintained by an objective third party. Ad Space: The space on a webpage reserved to display advertising. Ad Units: A way of classifying ad types. Ad units on the Internet include banners, buttons, micro buttons, pop ups, skyscrapers, text links, interstitials, etc. Ad unit sizes are usually defined by the IAB as voluntary guidelines. Advertiser: Any individual or entity purchasing online advertising space including agency media buyers, OEM media buyers, and sole proprietors. Agency: An organization beholden with the responsibility to design, produce and manage the advertising for its customers. Agencies that handle digital creative and online campaigns are typical called interactive agencies. Many agencies handle both interactive and traditional media.


Agency commission: Also known as Kickback, it’s a discount that is offered to advertising agencies which place an order on behalf of their clients. Many large companies establish their own in house agency in order to qualify for the discount when they place the advertisements directly. Commissions vary greatly between countries and regions and can be anywhere between 10-50%, although usually in the 15% range. Affiliate Network: A Company that gathers several advertisers/campaigns and theirs materials (usually a high variety of offer types and countries). The campaigns are uploaded to a web platform from which site-owners/ ad networks/ publishers can pull campaigns and run them on their media. Usually the business model is CPA for these campaigns. The affiliate network profit is a percentage of campaign results interms of sales / leads / downloads, etc. Ad server: The computer or group of computers responsible for the actual serving of creative’s to websites, or for making decisions about what ads will serve. An ad server may also track clicks on ads and other data. Major publishers, networks and advertisers sometimes have their own ad servers. API: Application Programming Interface. Use the Video Cloud Flash-only Player API to integrate an ad server with a Video Cloud player. The API allows your development team to build a code wrapper to connect with a custom ad serving system.

B Banner: A graphic that appears on a web page that is usually hyperlinked to an advertiser’s web site. May appear in a variety of file formats including GIF, JPEG, Flash, HTML, Java, JavaScript & more. Banner Burnout: Overexposure of advertising creative that contributes to a drop in click-through rates. Frequency control reduces burnout for a particular creative or campaign. Behavioral targeting: A form of online targeted advertising by which online advertising is delivered to consumers based on previous internet actions that did not result in a conversion in the past. Bid: The maximum rate you've indicated you're willing to pay per unit. This bid helps determine your ad's strength in the ad auction, and therefore its likelihood of appearing on the site. Branding: A traditional advertising method used to elicit a latent response from a target based on cumulative impressions and positive reinforcement. The most successful brands are considered "trustmarks" and enjoy loyal, lifelong customers. Browser: An application used to access files from the Internet. Common browsers are Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator. Browser Caching: See Cache. Backfill: Inventory that is not pre-sold; i.e. remnant inventory. Can also refer to one ad network filling unsold inventory for another ad network Big Data: Big data helping advertisers find the right audience 3

C Cache: A type of computer memory that stores previously accessed documents locally so that they can be accessed faster should they be needed again. If you go back to a web page that you have previously visited, much of the pages content may be able to be accessed from your cache instead of requesting the data from the server again thus decreasing the time it takes to load the page. Cache Busting: The process of blocking the caching of certain files to guarantee new delivery from the external server for each page view. Cache busting is necessary for the successful execution on online advertising. Campaign: A contracted agreement between an advertiser or advertising agency and either a publisher or a representative of a publisher. The campaign is specific to the creative to be published and the issue, or duration of the publication. Online advertising campaigns are defined by a number of variables, including the digital creative, the duration or flight dates, the pricing program, the publishers to be used and any user targeting applied. Category Targeting: The controlled delivery of creative to categorized websites. Categories focus a campaign to those users most likely to be interested in the products or services being offered, thus increasing the effectiveness of the campaign. Channel: An area on a Web site, or a collection of websites and/or web-pageswhich contains information or content on a specific topic. Clicks: Clicks are counted each time a user clicks through an ad to reach a landing page. Click Rate: The percentage of impressions that resulted in a click through. Calculation is dividing the number of clicks by the number of impressions. For example if a banner was clicked on 13 times after being displayed 1000 times, the banner would have a click rate of ( 13 รท 1000 = .013 ) 1.3%. Click-Through: The activation of a hyperlink using a mouse or other input device. The click-through is essential to the interactivity of online advertising. Click-Through Rate (or Ratio) (CTR): The rate of activated ads to total ads displayed. A typical CTR is 0.5% (1 in 200), also called Click-Through Percent (CTP). The click-through rate of advertising creative is one measure of its effectiveness. Click-through URL: When users click on a banner or text link, the click-through URL is the new destination to which they are directed. Click Tracking: The process of counting and auditing the clicks for a campaign. Click tracking can be done by a different entity than that which serves the creative. Commission: The percentage of the advertising fee paid to the Publisher for hosting the creative on their website typical commissions range from 50 to 75 percent. 4

Common Gateway Interface (CGI): Interface-creation scripting programs that create WebPages in realtime based on dynamic end user interactive data. Conversion (Web): Term used to describe the process of getting a web visitor to accept an offer or become a paying customer. Advertisers strive for high conversion ratios. Conversion Pixel: Pixels are HTML codes that canbe inserted into advertiser's action page to track postimp/post-click actions. This causes a clear, single pixel GIF image (1X1) to be loaded by our servers and count the action if a corresponding tracking cookie exists on the visitor’s computer. Cookies: A process by which a small file is sent from a web server to the local users computer to store information unique to that browser. Often used by advertisers to keep track of the number and frequency of advertisements that have been shown to a visitor or by sites to help them determine the number of unique visitors. Cost per 1,000 Impressions (CPM): is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pays for every 1000 impressions of their advertisement. Prices typically range from $1 to over $50 per thousand impressions. This is an ideal method of payment for advertisers who want to guarantee only the number of people who sees their banner. The "M" in CPM is from the Roman numeral for 1000. The Roman numeral M was derived from the latin word "mille" meaning "thousand". Cost per Action or Acquisition (CPA): is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pays for ever action (sale or registration) completed as a result of a visitor clicking on their advertisement. Prices typically range from $1 to $25 or if a percentage of a sale 5% to 25%. This is an ideal method of payment for advertisers who want to guarantee only the number of customers generated as a result of a advertisement. Cost per Click-through (CPC): is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pays for each click through made on their advertisement. Prices typically range from 1¢ to over 50¢ per click through. This is an ideal method of payment for advertisers who need to guarantee they only pay for those viewers of the banner that click on it and visit a page on their site. Cost per Engagement (CPE): An online advertising payment model which attempts to measure the value of a user's engagement with a company's brand. Similar to CPM, where a publisher is paid for a certain number of page impressions, CPE is a brand awareness advertising model that was developed in response to video and mobile advertising. The theory is that users are spending time looking at your video or mobile ad for a longer amount of time than if it were just impression based, and that there is a value to that, even though they may not make a purchase or take an action. CPL: One of the types of CPA, a cost per lead (CPL) method allows advertisers to pay for every lead or customer inquiry that resulted from a visitor who clicked on a their advertisement. Prices typically range from $1 to $10. This is an ideal method of payment for advertisers who want to guarantee only the number of potential customers with an interest generated as a result of a advertisement. Also known as cost per inquiry (CPI). 5

Cost per Sale (CPS): A CPA pricing method that typically pays a transaction percentage for the acquisition of a customer that makes a purchase. See Cost per Action (CPA). Cost per View (CPV): is an online advertising payment model where advertisers pay for the delivery of a targeted visitor to the advertiser's website, meaning the publisher is only paid when a user goes to a website. An advertiser pays for each unique user view of an online ad or website (usually used with popups, pop-unders and interstitial ads). Creative: The materials used in advertising to convey a message. Digital creative can be text, static graphic, animated graphic, video, audio or other. See Banner. Contextual targeting: figuring out what the content on a webpage is really about and being able to place ads based on that content. Creative: The actual graphical advertisement itself. Common creative formats include GIF, JPEG, JavaScript, HTML, and Flash. CAP: Shorthand for creative approval, which means a creative can run on the AppNexus (or some other) platform. CDN: Content Delivery Network. A CDN delivers static content, such as creative image or flash files. Usually a CDN provider has servers across the globe configured to deliver content as quickly as possible, which is why it is typical for an ad server to use one.

D Defaults: Term used by ad networks to describe a type of banner that is served to a site when no paying banner is available. Usually a PSA type of advertisement unless the ad network permits publishers to specify their own default advertisement. Data Reporting: The presentation and delivery of publisher website and advertiser campaign data. Data reporting is typically a combination of tabular and graphic presentation. Demographics: Statistical data that describes the makeup of a given user base, and includes information such as age range, gender, education levels, and average household income. Demographic data is one of the tools used to match ad space with an advertising campaign. Digital Creative: Advertising creative that is in digital format. Digital creative is easily stored, retrieved and delivered online. Common forms of digital creative include hypertext, HTML files, GIF image files, MPEG video files and AVI audio files. Direct Response: A traditional advertising method used to elicit a direct response from a target by providing immediate access to the means to make a purchase. The interactivity of the Internet is ideal for the implementation of direct response advertising campaigns. 6

DNS: A domain name server (DNS) is a computer on the Internet that helps to translate domain names into IP addresses. Without it web sites could not be found when typed into a browser. Domain Name: The part of an Internet address including and immediately preceded by the domain extension. For example is our domain name. The domain name is part of a web sites URL. Each web site has its own unique domain name. Daisy chaining: Daisy chaining is the linking of several ad tags, usually from several different exchanges, ad servers, or ad networks. Sometimes no creative can be found to fill the ad slot on a webpage, and so a second tag is passed back and the webpage seeks a creative from a second system. Before ad exchanges, daisy chaining was very common. It is still in use today, but generally with shorter chains. DMP: Data Management Platform: A DMP is a relatively new term and is not statically defined, but in general refers to a centralized system for gathering first-party data, integrating with third-party data, and applying this data to one's advertising strategy. A DMP may include the following features: estimating the likely reach for some user segment, measuring the lift from using data, acting as a financial clearing house between data buyers and sellers, and assisting publishers in monetizing data on their users. DMPs most commonly work with User Data but may also work with Contextual Data, or other types of data. DSP: A company that allows advertising clients to buy digital media on several different selling systems or exchanges through one interface.

E Even Delivery: The uniform distribution of advertising creative across designated websites and over the flight of the campaign given targeting parameters, if any. Reputable ad serving systems have a variety of methods to maximize even delivery. Exclusive: A contract that forces a Publisher to sell all specified inventory on a certain channel or page or website for a specified period of time. Advertisers can also be bound to purchase media only through a certain channel for a specified period of time. Exit Transfer: The automatic launch of a browser window containing the advertiser's content triggered by the visitor exiting a particular webpage or website. Exit Traffic: Type of web visitor traffic in which visitors leaving a site click on a popup or popunder advertisement, otherwise known as a exit console.

F Flash: A software plug-in that enables browsers to play multimedia animations. Some rich media advertisements require users to have this plugin.


Flight, Flight Dates: The time period, and associated start and end dates, over which an advertising campaign runs. Frequency: The rate a particular user is exposed to a particular creative or a particular campaign during a single session or period of time. Frequency capping is essential to the success of online advertising campaigns to maximize creative effectiveness.

G Graphic Interchange Format (GIF): A common graphics format that can be displayed on almost all web browsers. GIFs typically display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. Static or animated GIF images are the most common form of banner creative. Geo-targeting: Serving of ads to a particular geographical area or population segment.

H Hang: When a webpage is prevented from loading completely or at all due to a technical difficulty at the server end or at the user end. Online advertising that is poorly served may have the tendency to hang pages, thus irritating the user and publisher alike. Hit: The sending of a single file from a web server to a user's computer. Most WebPages contain several files, including all HTML, graphics, audio, etc. Hit is not the same as impression, page view, or number of unique visitors. Information about hits is valuable to the provider for server loading and bandwidth predictions, but used alone, it is of little value as a metric of online advertising, or online use in general. Home Page: The first page or front page of a Web site Host: The individual or website that displays online advertising. See Publisher. House Ads: Type of banner advertisement that a web site publisher runs in an ad space when no paying advertisement is available to fill the space. Typically filled with an advertisement promoting one of the website’s services, products or features. Hybrid Campaign: An advertising campaign pricing model base on combining different individual pricing models into one. A CPM/CPA hybrid campaign combines the benefits of branding and direct response into the same campaign. The relative weighting of each individual model is adjustable within the hybrid campaign, and can be modified during the campaign run to maximize ROI. Hyperlink: HTML code that when clicked on redirects ones browser to another web page. Most banners are hyperlinked to an advertiser’s web page. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): A coding language used to make hypertext documents for use online. 8

Hypertext: The text version of the hyperlink. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): The networking protocol that allows hyperlinks to work.

I IAB: The Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) is the leading online global advertising industry trade association with over 300 active member companies in the United States alone. IAB activities include evaluating and recommending standards and practices, fielding research to document the effectiveness of the online medium, and educating the advertising industry about the use of online and digital advertising. Impression: Also called an ad or page impression. The display of a single creative to a consumer on a website. A single page view can have more than one impression if there is more than one advertising location on the page, or if dynamic ad rotation is used. Insertion Order (IO): Online or printed document that specifies the details of an advertising campaign. The terms of the agreement may also be specified on the insertion order or they may be placed in a separate document but are almost always referred to the insertion order if not present. Interactive Media: The online, Internet, or web environment is the primary interactive media for advertising. It is dubbed interactive because the user, or advertising target, can typically interact with the content and advertising. Interactive Creative: A digital creative that uses a hyperlink to transfer the user to another website or open a separate interactive window. Inventory: The number of ad spaces available for sale on a web site or network during a certain time frame. Determined by taking into consideration the number of advertisements on a page, the number of pages with advertisements and the number of page views during a specific time frame. Internet Protocol Address (IP Address): The numerical system used to identify the components of the Internet. Every system connected to the Internet has a unique IP address. In the current system (IPv4), there are only 4.3 billion unique IP addresses. ISP: A company that provides access to the Internet via one or more type of technology. These may include a phone line, cable, fiber optic, radio waves or satellite.

J JavaScript: JavaScript is a cross-platform, object-based scripting language developed by Netscape for client and server applications. It is commonly used on web pages to add interactivity and dynamic content such as banner rotation. 9

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG): Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), pronounced "jaypeg", is a graphics format which displays photographs and graphic images with millions of colors.

K Keyword: A word or phrase used to focus an online search and to target advertising. Advertisers can purchase keywords on search engines to guarantee that their website information is displayed prominently and/or display an associated creative.

L Lag Time: The amount of time between making an online request or command and receiving a response. A primary goal of advertising network efficiency is to minimize lag time. Landing Page: The page on a web site where one is taken after clicking on a advertisement. While this can be any page, it is often a page designed to expand on the service or product mentioned in the initial advertisement.

M Make-Good: Impressions not delivered. If 500,000 impressions are bought and only 400,000 are delivered, the make-good is 100,000. Make-good impressions typically run in the month following the end of flight date or are removed from the campaign invoice (credited). Malware: Slang for "malicious code," this term was primarily used by computer security programmers. This term is often heard in conjunction with hackers who use certain kinds of malware to infect computer systems and compromise the way they work. Max Time Length: The maximum number of seconds it takes for an animated graphic to complete one loop. Normally 10 to 20 seconds. Media: The forms of publication. Traditional advertising media include newspapers, magazines, billboards, radio and television. Digital interactive advertising media started with the Internet, accessed at an indoor computer, but is quickly spreading to television, cellular devices and outdoor locations. Media Broker: An individual or organization that represents and is authorized to sell the advertising space of one or more publishers. Advertising networks can act as brokers for online publishers. Media Buyer / Media Planner: An individual working directly for an advertiser, or for an advertising agency, charged with the responsibility of purchasing advertising space. An interactive media buyer makes online ad space purchases, sometimes through an ad network. Media Kit: Information offered to potential advertisers by publishers to help advertisers understand the publihsers rates, visitor demographics, terms, etc. 10

Mid-roll: The name of an online video commercial that appears during an online video, it is Typically: 10::15 seconds in length. Once you click on certain online video links, you may be forced to watch a short commercial either before the video content (known as a pre-roll) during the video content (known as a mid-roll) or after the video content (known as a post-roll).

N Net Dollars: The total amount a publisher/Advertiser receives for inventory.

O Opt-In Email: Email received based on a user's choice to opt-in, or rather their choice to be on a digital mailing list that (theoretically) is only used to send messages which will be of interest to them. Most optin email is advertising. Opt-in email continues to build market share in the online advertising world. More often than not, opt-in is the default and user action, such as a check box, is required to opt-out. Opt In: A process whereby a user voluntarily agrees to start receiving email, usually commercial, about a topic of interest. Opt Out: A process whereby a user voluntarily agrees to stop receiving email, usually commercial, about a topic of interest.

P Pacing: Your daily budget is the amount (money or ad unit) you've indicated you're willing to spend on a specific campaign per day. Page View: The loading of a webpage by a browser. A single User Session may result in multiple page views and numerous Impressions. Reload of the same page is another page view. PayPal: PayPal enables any businesses or consumers with an e-mail address to securely, conveniently, and cost-effectively send and receive payments electronically. Piggyback: Piggyback pixels contain pixel code (typically, third-party pixel code) to run on top of other pixel code, and allow multiple tracking. Pixel: See Conversion Pixel. Pixel: Short for picture element (Pixel), a pixel is a measurement representing a single point in a graphic. Most ad units are measured in pixels such as the common 468 pixel x 60 pixel sized banner. Plug-in: A modification to a browser that allows the execution of a certain type of custom file, such as Macromedia's Flash™. Plug-ins are typically designed to enhance the web user experience by providing animation, video or audio content. 11

Pop-Under: A window that pops (launches automatically) behind the current browser window. Also known as a pop-behind or go-behind (demo) Pop Up: A type of advertisement that is automatically displayed in a second smaller browser window upon loading or unloading a normal web page. Pop ups advertisements tend to cost advertisers more since their visibility is higher but are often considered annoying by web site visitors since they may be obtrusive Portal: A website designed around the concept of offering so many resources that a visitor has little reason to go to another site for more information. The resources may include a directory of links, games, email, instant messaging, bill payment, shopping malls & more. The idea behind it is to attract and retain a large audience and offer the various sections of the portal to advertisers. Yahoo is an example of a successful portal. Post-roll: The name of an online video commercial that appears at the end of an online video, it is typically :10::15 seconds in length. Once you click on certain online video links, you will be forced to watch a short commercial before the video content (known as a pre-roll) or after the video content (known as a post-roll). Post-roll makes up a small percentage of the available interactive video inventory, but it is growing more popular because it is one of the simplest ways to utilize the Internet for sight, sound and motion. Pre-roll: The name of an online video commercial that appears prior to an online video, it is typically: 10::15 seconds in length. Once you click on certain online video links, you will be forced to watch a short commercial before the video content. This snippet of online advertising is known as "a pre-roll" or just "pre-roll" (as opposed to a mid-roll or post-roll). Pre-roll makes up a small percentage of the available interactive video inventory, but it is growing more popular due to the fact that online publishers can pretty much guarantee that users will see and hear the pre-roll commercial before the audio stream starts. It is also one of the simplest ways to utilize the Internet for sight, sound and motion. Proxy: A technique used to cache information on a Web server. It acts as an intermediary between a Web client and a Web server. Basically, a proxy server holds the most commonly accessed and recently used content from the World Wide Web in order to provide quicker downloads for users and to increase server security. Publisher: An individual or entity selling online advertising space, including portal media planners, Webmasters and other ad networks. Publisher, web publisher, Webmaster and host are synonymous with respect to online advertising. Programmatic buying: A method of buying media (ad inventory) that utilizes technology and data to make automated impression level decisions to maximize a marketer’s goals. Publisher Direct RTB : DSPs give buyers direct RTB access to multiple sources of inventory. They typically streamline ad operations with applications that simplify workflow and reporting. These products are directed at agencies, agency holding companies and large advertisers (the buyers). The technology stack 12

that powers an Ad Exchange can also provide the foundation for a DSP, thus there is a synergy for plays in both spaces. Premium: It refers to publisher inventory that is sold through direct channels in advance. I.e. guaranteed inventory. Often premium inventory is from a site's home page, or has some other elevated level of desirability.

R Redirect: When you type in a URL and hit "enter" but notice that the browser automatically sends you to another URL, you are experiencing a redirect. Refresh: To reload the same webpage. Remnant Space: Website ad space that is relatively undesirable and is often resold to a third party to be filled with low dollar advertising. Online remnant space is analogous to 3 AM television air time. Retargeting: Serves ads to people more frequently after they've left an advertiser's website. Retargeting helps companies advertise to website visitors who leave without a conversion. This is done by displaying ads to the prospect as they surf the internet via various ad networks that the agency buys media from on behalf of their Business Customers. Retargeting is only serving banner ads to people who have shown at least some amount of engagement in the brand. Return on Investment (ROI): Return on investment (ROI) is the process used to determine whether the monetary benefits from an expenditure, such as a advertising campaign, are above or below the amount of money spent on the campaign. Depending on the objective of an advertising campaign, the ROI may be hard to determine with certainty. Rich Media: A type of advertisement technology that often includes richer graphics, audio or video within the advertisement. Unlike static or animated GIF banner advertisements, rich media advertisements often enable users to interact with the banner without leaving the page on which it appears. Some popular types of rich media banners are created with HTML, Shockwave & Flash.

RTB (Real Time Bidding): An online marketing method which allows advertisers to place ads immediately based on what the user is currently viewing. It used to be that advertisers booked slots in advance and could not make on-the-fly decisions about what ads to show based on what people were doing on the Web. Advertisers can buy ads in the milliseconds between the time someone enters a site’s Web address and the moment the page appears. The technology, called real-time bidding, allows advertisers to examine site visitors one by one and bid to serve them ads almost instantly. Run-of-Network (RON): A campaign buy that distributes creative to all or most of a network of publisher websites with no targeting or other filtering applied, other than standard frequency capping. Run-ofNetwork campaigns provide Advertisers with the greatest reach at the lowest cost. 13

Rotation: A banner that is in rotation on a page or group of pages, will not be the only banner shown when any of the pages are reloaded. Sometimes an advertiser will request a banner not be shown in rotation in which case it would appear every time the page is loaded, also know as exclusivity. Real-time buying: Real Time Buying is a great way for advertisers to connect with their audience in the right place at the right time; it’s also proven a good method for persuading marketers to include display media in their overall strategy.

S Segment Pixels: Data from the pixel code can be used to track users who visit advertiser pages for audience segments. The expiration time period (up to 28 days) specifies the expiration time for the segment pixel. The pixel code contains the criteria for tracking user visits for audience segments. Serving: The real-time, controlled distribution of advertising creative to publisher websites. Skyscraper: A type of ad unit that is much taller than it is wide. Often used in columns of web pages where there is allot of unused vertical space but limited horizontal space. Statistics: The records that an ad serving software keeps each time it serves an ad and the ad is clicked on. The statistics recorded may be as simple as total impressions and click through or more detailed info such as browser types, geographical location, operating system & more. Stats: Data about the use of a website or the effectiveness of an ad campaign. The depth and breadth of stats is unlimited. Secondary Premium: Remnant inventory is sold after "premium" inventory has been pre-sold by a direct sales force. Remnant is sometimes synonymous with real-time inventory, and is often the target of programmatic buying. Because remnant has an unnecessarily negative connotation, other terms that have been experimented with are "premnant" (premium + remnant} or "secondary premium." Also sometimes called "tier 2" or "class 2." SSP: SSP enables publishers to access demand from a variety of networks, exchanges, and platforms via one interface.

T Tag: HTML fragment that enables a website to serve an impression. Targeting: The control of the distribution of ad creative to only those websites or those users that fit within the particular targeting parameters. The depth and breadth of potential targeting parameters is unlimited. Targeting has the potential to dramatically improve the advertiser's ROI. Typical targeting parameters are: local user time of day, website category, user country, user age, etc.


Text Links: Text that is hyperlinked to another web page. Can be found on web sites or in newsletters and email. Often identified by appearing in blue with a line under it. When clicked on, the visitor will be taken to the page the text was hyperlinked to. Third Party Auditing: The use of an "independent" serving authority to provide the definitive accounting of the execution of an ad campaign. The campaign contract is usually written so that the auditor's numbers are final, rather than those of either the advertiser or publisher. Third party auditing is sometimes performed by a separate enterprise than third party serving, thus involving a total of four parties. If third party remnant space or affiliates are involved, the total number of entities involved in a single interactive advertising event can be five or more. Third Party Serving: The task of managing the frequency capping, redirection and accounting of advertising events between publishers and advertisers. Toolbar: In computer applications, this is the name of the strip of buttons you usually see at the top, bottom, or side of an application interface, such as a web browser. The buttons activate tools or services. Tracking: The collection and automated analysis of data associated with the serving of digital creative. Tracking provides the frequency control, accounting, stats data and anti-fraud components of a campaign. Traffic: The volume of visitors to a website. Traffic is the currency of online success, but is not the only factor. Massive, low grade traffic to a website with poor content will inevitably result in failure. To an ad network Traffic Management is the ongoing effort to balance Publisher inventory with booked campaigns. Transfer Click: Another term for the automatic loading (pop) of a new browser window containing the advertiser's content. Trading desk: Generally refers to buy-side platforms, most commonly within or working for advertising agencies. Also known as agency trading desks or ATDs. Third-party Cookies: Cookies with a different domain than the website a user is currently on. For example, if you visit, an AppNexus cookie with the domain would be a third-party cookie. See also First-party Cookies. Timestamp: The date and time that something occurred. For AppNexus the timestamp format is YYYYMM-DD HH:MM:SS.

U Uniform Resource Locator (URL): an HTTP address used by the World Wide Web to specify a certain site. This is the unique identifier, or address, of a webpage on the Internet is the URL of this site. 15

Unique Page Views: The total number of unique pages on a website by a unique visitor. Unique Visitor and User Session: A unique IP address visiting a website for the first time in a specified period. Unique visitor is more often associated with long periods of time, such as a month. User session is more often associated with shorter periods of time, such as 30 minutes. Both are valuable traffic metrics for many websites. Frequency control in ad campaigns is a function of unique visitor and user session definitions. User: A term that defines the online audience, it also refers to anyone who uses a computer.

V VAST (Video Ad Serving Template): VAST is designed for any on-demand video player where the ad response is parsed prior to play. Viral Marketing: The use of a self-perpetuation mechanism, such as a referral or affiliate program, to grow a user base in a manner similar to the spread of a virus. Good viral marketing campaigns have extraordinary ROI.

W Web Page: The traditional presentation of information online. Websites are made up of WebPages, analogous to the pages in a book. If frames are used, multiple pages can be displayed at the same time, resulting in multiple Page Views. Webmaster: The individual responsible for the management of a website. See Publisher. Website: A virtual location online designated by a unique URL. A website is made up of one or more WebPages. Website Categories: System of grouping based on content or demographic interests. These may include women’s interests, automotive, and financial sites, etc. Website Profile: Details that may include historical demographic and psychographic information about visitors to the website, or a portion thereof.

Y Yield Management: Broadly this refers to selling the right things to the right customer at the right time for the right price to maximize revenue. In advertising it generally refers to maximizing the revenue of publishers and their impressions using tools such as price floors.




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