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CELS - Curso de Extensão em Línguas Estrangeiras LINC - Línguas no Campus

Anelise S. SCHERER Gabriela B. SANTOS Camila A. SORTICA Flávio C. dos SANTOS Franciano CAMELO Gisela B. BERLESI Graciela R. HENDGES Thaiane S. SOCOLOSKI

FOUR SKILLS Laboratório de Pesquisa e Ensino de Leitura e Redação Departamento de Letras Estrangeiras Modernas Universidade Federal de Santa Maria


UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA MARIA DEPARTAMENTO DE LETRAS ESTRANGEIRAS MODERNAS CURSO DE EXTENSÃO EM LÍNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS - CELS LÍNGUAS NO CAMPUS - LINC

FOUR SKILLS 2 AUTORES Acad. Anelise Scotti SCHERER Acad. Gabriela Bueno SANTOS Acad. Camila Américo SORTICA Acad. Flávio Cézar dos SANTOS Acad. Franciano CAMELLO Acad. Gisela Barcellos BERLEZE Acad. Eliseu Alves da SILVA Acad. Felipe FELTRIN

Profa. Dra. Luciane Kirchhof TICKS Profª. Drª. Graciela Rabuske HENDGES Profª. Thaiane da Silva SOCOLOSKI

COLABORADOR

Acad. Marcos Vieira GIZERIA

ORIENTAÇÃO PEDAGÓGICA

Profª Drª Graciela Rabuske HENDGES Profª Drª Luciane TICKS

EDIÇÃO VISUAL Acad. Anelise Scotti SCHERER

CAPA

Profª Nathalia Rodrigues CATTO Profª Drª Graciela Rabuske HENDGES Profª Ms. Vanessa Ribas FIALHO

2ª Edição Santa Maria, RS 2011


UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA MARIA Felipe Martins Müller Reitor Hélio Leães Hey Pró‐Reitor de Pós‐Graduação e Pesquisa Pedro Brum Santos Diretor do Centro de Artes e Letras Márcia Cristina Corrêa Coordenadora do Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Letras Eliana Rosa Sturza Chefe do Departamento de Letras Estrangeiras Modernas Désirée Motta Roth Coordenadora do Laboratório de Pesquisa e Ensino de Leitura e Redação Graciela Rabuske Hendges Luciane Ticks Coordenadoras do Curso de Extensão em Línguas Estrangeiras e do Projeto Línguas no Campus


APRESENTAÇÃO Os projetos de extensão Curso de Extensão em Línguas Estrangeiras (CELS) e Línguas no Campus (LINC) vêm oferecendo cursos de línguas estrangeiras e de língua materna (redação acadêmica) para a comunidade universitária há mais de 10 anos. Ao longo desses anos, as abordagens teórico-pedagógicas implementadas nos projetos têm acompanhado o debate científico das pesquisas em Linguística Aplicada, contribuindo para a formação profissional dos alunos das Licenciaturas em Letras, por um lado, e para a formação linguística de centenas de alunos dos diversos cursos de graduação e de pósgraduação da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os livros didáticos usados nos cursos são elaborados pelos integrantes dos projetos e são atualizados semestralmente. São o resultado de um processo cíclico de pesquisa, discussão teórica, elaboração, aplicação, reflexão crítica e aperfeiçoamento. Os conteúdos apresentados nesses livros são selecionados considerando interesses e necessidades do nosso público-alvo principal – alunos universitários, pois são propostos por eles em levantamentos periódicos. Os livros didáticos da coleção Four Skills compreendem tópicos e exercícios direcionados ao desenvolvimento de quatro habilidades de comunicação: produção oral, produção escrita, compreensão oral e compreensão escrita. Os livros da coleção Leitura em Inglês enfatizam a habilidade da leitura estratégica em língua estrangeira, com foco em dois fins específicos: leitura de gêneros midiáticos e leitura de gêneros acadêmicos. A abordagem pedagógica adotada nos projetos e materiais busca refletir uma concepção de linguagem como sendo funcional e indissociável do seu contexto. Dentro dessa perspectiva, a forma da linguagem é vista como determinada pela função, seguindo padrões de organização de acordo com cada uma das infinitas funções que a linguagem pode desempenhar. Por fim, considera-se que através da linguagem é possível perceber visões de mundo, identidades e representações sociais e culturais, bem como intervir no mundo, ocasionando mudanças sociais.


TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT

SPEECH ACTS

PAGE

1

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

• giving and asking information about professional life; • reporting other people’s speech; • justifying career choices; • discussing gender stereotypes in the professional field;

7

2

DRESSING FOR SUCCESS

• talking about dressing codes in the working context; • describing outfits; • discussing shopping behaviour;

35

3

SPENDING SMART

• discussing spending habits; • making comparisons; • talking about being green;

61

THINKING GLOBAL

• • • •

81

4

criticizing other people’s speech; stating opinion; giving advice; making recommendations.


UNIT I PROFESSIONAL LIFE This unit is focused on language use in some professional contexts, such as in a job interview and in a research report about this topic. Have you ever thought about the ideal professional profile in your area/field of study/ profession? Have you ever taken into consideration how language can contribute to build an image that is (or is not) adequate to a job interview?


Four Skills 2 / 9

PROFESSIONAL LIFE LESSON 1 SPEAKING 1. Warm up: Let’s get to know a little bit about each other. Introduce yourself to the class orally, by providing the following information: a. Name: ________________________________________________________________________________ b. Age: __________________________________________________________________________________ c. Hometown: ___________________________________________________________________________ d. Previous experience with the English language: ______________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ e. Objectives in this course: 1)_______________________________________________________________; 2) ______________________________________________________________; 3) ______________________________________________________________; 4) ______________________________________________________________. 2. After introducing yourself to the class, get together with a classmate to answer the questions below in order to promote a discussion about different professional areas. a. What do you do/ study? What is your major? b. Why did you choose your profession or field of study? - I chose to be a(n)... because... c. Is your job or future job your dream job? Why? Why not? If not, what’s your dream job? - My (future) job is (not) my dream job because… d. Which of the following is most important to you in a job? ( ( ( (

) high salary ) a friendly boss ) good working conditions ) co-workers you like

( ( ( (

) opportunities for promotion ) benefits (health insurance, retirement) ) personal satisfaction ) location

Why? - In my opinion, the most important things in a job are… because… - In my job, I would like to have…

e. If you already work, how were you hired? Did you have to go through a job interview? If you don’t work yet, will you have to go through job interviews in the future? 3. Now, report your classmate’s answers to the group.


10 / Four Skills 2

and

VOCABULARY

TO DO – AUXILIARY VERB

Observe the question Why did you choose your career? and try to translate it into Portuguese. What is your translation of “did”? In the question above, “did” is functioning as an auxiliary verb and is not translated into Portuguese. “Did” is the past tense of the verb to do. The verb to do, therefore, has two roles: 1. it is an auxiliary verb as well as 2. it is a main verb in English. As a main verb, to do means fazer in Portuguese and has the following forms in the simple present and simple past tenses:

I YOU HE/SHE/IT WE YOU THEY

Simple Present affirmative Portuguese do eu faço do does do do do

Simple Past affirmative Portuguese did eu fiz did did did did did

As an auxiliary verb, to do is used with all main verbs (to do inclusive) whenever they are in negative or interrogative clauses; except when you have a modal verb (latter you will see them) and the verb “to be”. NEGATIVE She

INTERROGATIVE

doesn’t

study.

Does

auxiliary verb

main verb

auxiliary verb

Ela não estuda.

she

main verb

Ela estuda?

Simple Present negative

study?

interrogative Portuguese

Simple Past negative

interrogative Portuguese

I

do not - don’t Do I see?

Eu vejo?

did not - didn’t

Did I see?

eu vi?

YOU

do not - don’t Do you see?

Tu vês?

did not - didn’t

Did you see?

(Tu) viste?

did not didn’t

Did he/she/it see?

does not

HE/SHE doesn’t IT

Does he/ she/it see?

WE

do not - don’t Do we see?

did not - didn’t

Did we see?

YOU

do not - don’t Do you see?

did not - didn’t

Did you see?

THEY

do not - don’t Do they see?

did not - didn’t

Did they see?


Four Skills 2 / 11 LESSON 2 READING

CAREER QUIZ According to a study developed by Dr. John Holland, a psychologist who developed the RAISEC career development model, people and work environments can be classified into six different groups. The following quiz was designed to help you match your interests and skills with similar careers. 1. In each of the three sections below, choose six options that are true about you in order to discover the kind of person you are: A. Are you? ( ( ( ( ( (

) scientific ) concrete ) accurate ) cooperative ) adventurous ) creative

/ I / / R / / C / / S / / E / / A /

( ( ( ( ( (

) observant ) mechanically inclined ) well-organized ) friendly ) self-confident ) unconventional

( ( ( ( ( (

) precise ) practical ) methodical ) patient ) extroverted ) emotional

( ) do complex calculations ( ) pitch a tent ( ) do a lot of paper work in a short time ( ) express yourself clearly ( ) sell things or promote ideas ( ) play a musical instrument

( ( ( (

( ) explore a variety of ideas ( ) build things/work on electronic equipment ( ) type or take shorthand ( ) do volunteer work ( ) make decisions ( ) take photographs

( ) perform lab experiences ( ) be physically active ( ) work with numbers ( ) help people with problems ( ) campaign politically ( ) express yourself creatively

B. Can you? ( ) understand scientific theories ( ) operate tools and machinery ( ) keep accurate records ( ) teach others ( ) convince people to do things your way ( ) draw

) think abstractly ) play a sport ) work well within a system ) plan and supervise an activity ( ) give talks or speeches ( ) design fashions or interiors

C. Do you like to? ( ) do research ( ) work outdoors ( ) follow clear defined procedures ( ) work in groups ( ) have power or status ( ) attend concerts, theatres, art exhibits

2. Now, write next to each column the sequence of letters I R C S E A and count how many of each letter you marked(follow the example on letter A). Then, complete the following table: Letter

Number of times you marked it

Letter Number of times you marked it

I

S

R

E

C

A


12 / Four Skills 2 3. Which letter did you mark more frequently? That is the one which shows your career interests: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising or Conventional. See details of each career interest in the following chart: People who have athletic or mechanical ability prefer to work with objects, machines, tools, plants or animals, or to be outdoors. People who like to observe, learn, investigate, evaluate or solve INVESTIGATIVE problems. People who have artistic, innovating or intuitional abilities and like ARTISTIC to work in unstructured situations using their imagination or creativity. People who like to work with people to enlighten, inform, help, train, SOCIAL or cure them, or are skilled with words. People who like to work with people, influencing, persuading, perENTERPRISING forming, leading, or managing for organizational goals or economic gain. People who like to work with data, have clerical or numerical ability, CONVENTIONAL carry out tasks in detail or follow through on others’ instruction. REALISTIC

According to the quiz, I am a/an _______________________________ person. SPEAKING

4. Below you will find two charts that show career possibilities according to each type of career interest. Do you agree that you are interested in following any or at least one of these careers?

( ) I agree.

( ) I disagree. WRITING

5. Why do you agree/disagree? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ REALISTIC

INVESTIGATIVE

ARTISTIC

Automobile Mechanic Baker/Chef Construction Worker Dental Technician Electrical Engineer Eletrician Jeweller Painter

Biologist Chemist Computer Systems Analyst Geographer Mathematician Pharmacist Physician Psychologist

Actor/Actress Architect Fashion Designer Dancer Furniture Designer Journalist/Reporter Music Teacher Photographer


Four Skills 2 / 13 SOCIAL

ENTERPRISING

CONVENTIONAL

Athletic Trainer College Professor Journalist/Reporter Elementary/High School Teacher X-Ray Technician Librarian Nurse Police Officer Social Worker

Financial Manager Flight Attendant Foreign Service Officer Hotel Manager Interpreter Lawyer/Attorney Real Estate Agent Sales Manager Travel Agent

Accountant Administrative Assistant Bank Teller/Cashier Catalog Librarian Financial Analyst Library Assistant Safety Inspector Telephone Operator Typist

SPEAKING 6. Make an interview with two of your classmates in order to discover their findings in the career quiz. Write down their answers to the questions in the chart below, following the example: What is your name? His/her name is… What type of person are you? He/she is a … type of person. What professional could you be? He/she could be a/ an… Classmate 1 What is your name? What type of person are you? What kind of professional could you be? Classmate 2 What is your name? What type of person are you? What kind of professional could you be?

7. Based on the data you obtained in the interviews in the previous activity, tell the whole group about one of the interviewee’s career personality. You can use the following example and grammatical explanation to help you with your report:

I interviewed Silvia. She told me that, according to the quiz, she is a realistic person and that (therefore) she could be a mechanic.


14 / Four Skills 2

and

VOCABULARY

REPORTED SPEECH Reported Speech, also called Indirect Speech, is used when we want to tell someone what we or another person (has) said. Consider the following extract from a dialogue between two friends who have not seen each other since high school. Paul: Hey, what about that part-time waiter job? John: Dude, I love that job! Now, imagine that one of your friends, Paul, wants to tell his girlfriend Carol abou his meeting with John. Paul: Guess who I bumped into today! Carol: No idea. Paul: John, my high school classmate! Remember? Carol: Yes, yes, I remember him. Paul: So, he told me he still works as a waiter! Can you believe it? So, one of the possibilities to report someone else’s words is to use the verbs tell, say, explain in their past forms: told, said, explained.

TO TELL and TO SAY are irregular verbs. TO EXPLAIN is a regular verb.

In regular verbs, the past tense is signaled by addition of -ED to the root of the verb. But irregular verbs have special formats in the past tense. Study the list onnext page about these special formats.

NOTES


Four Skills 2 / 15 Present

Past

Irregular Verbs Participle Present

awake

awoke

awaken

go

went

gone

be

was/were

been

grow

grew

grown

bear

bore

borne

hang

hung

hung

Past

Participle

beat

beat

beaten

have

had

had

become

became

become

hear

heard

heard

begin

began

begun

hide

hid

hidden

bite

bit

bitten

hit

hit

hit

bleed

bled

bled

hold

held

held

blend

blended

blended

hurt

hurt

hurt

blow

blew

blown

keep

kept

kept

break

broke

broken

know

knew

known

bring

brought

brought

learn

learned

learned

build

built

built

leave

left

left

burn

burnt

burnt

lend

lent

lent

burst

burst

burst

let

let

let

buy

bought

bought

lose

lost

lost

catch

caught

caught

make

made

made

choose

chose

chosen

mean

meant

meant

come

came

come

meet

met

met

cost

cost

cost

mistake

mistook

mistaken

cut

cut

cut

overcome

overcame

overcome

deal

dealt

dealt

pay

paid

paid

dive

dived

dived

put

put

put

do

did

done

read

read

read

draw

drew

drawn

ride

rode

ridden

dream

dreamed

dreamed

ring

rang

rung

drink

drank

drunk

run

ran

run

drive

drove

driven

say

said

said

eat

ate

eaten

see

saw

seen

fall

fell

fallen

sell

sold

sold

feed

fed

fed

send

sent

sent

fight

fought

fought

show

showed

showed

find

found

found

sing

sang

sung

fly

Flew

flown

sleep

slept

slept

forbid

forbade

forbidden

speak

spoke

spoken

foresee

foresaw

foreseen

take

took

taken

forget

forgot

forgotten

teach

taught

taught

forgive

forgave

forgiven

tell

told

told

freeze

froze

frozen

understand

understood

understood

get

got

got/gotten

wear

wore

worn

give

gave

given

write

wrote

written


16 / Four Skills 2 LESSON 3 READING 1. Imagine yesterday you met a friend of yours, Guilherme, who has applied for a job in a fashion store. Here are some things he said to you1: I live in Porto Alegre now.

My father isn’t very well. I got married. My wife’s name is Alice.

I bought a nice apartment.

Alice is a web designer.

I enjoy my job very much.

We don’t have children yet.

I don’t know what Fred does. WRITING

2. Later that day you told another friend what Guilherme said. Use reported speech. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. The text next page shows three comments about career interests posted by three people in CollegeNET. Fill in the chart below with information from these comments, according to what is required in each column of the chart. Indicate which linguistic cues you used to identify the information. What career did s/he choose?

Why did s/he choose this particular career?

Linguistic cues

Comment 1 Comment 2 Comment 3 ¹ Adapted from MURPHY, R. (1994). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students. 2.ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Four Skills 2 / 17

Source: http://www.collegenet.com/elect/app/app?service=external/Forum&sp=1498.


18 / Four Skills 2

and

VOCABULARY

The participants of the forum on page 15 were asked to give reasons for choosing their career, or, in other words, to justify their career choice. To do so, they used two types of linguistic connectors²: “because” (erk_40 and reddevil_77) and “the reason why” (adr8). Study this and further resources that can be used to express reason/cause in the following chart: Linguistic cues

Examples

• Because (+ informal)

They received a high mark on their exam because they had studied hard.

• Since (+ informal)

They had to leave early since their train left at 8.30.

• As long as (+ informal)

As long as you have the time, why don’t you come for dinner?

• For (+ formal)

The editor was getting impatient, for the magazine would soon go to press.

• As (+ formal)

As the test is difficult, you had better get some sleep.

• Due to (the fact that) (very formal)

We will be staying for an extra week due to the fact that we have not yet finished.

• Inasmuch as (very formal)

Inasmuch as the students had succesfully completed their exams, their parents rewarded their efforts by giving them a trip to Paris.

• The reason (why)… (very formal)

The reason why I chose to be a teacher is the possibility of changing the world through my practice.

Although all these resources are used to express reason or cause, the use of one or another expression affects meaning. Consider the following examples. The editor was getting impatient, for the magazine would soon go to press. The editor was getting impatient, because the magazine would soon go to press. The editor was getting impatient, since the magazine would soon go to press. In these clauses, “for” and “because” can be used for the same purpose and have the same meaning, but different uses in terms of context – “for” is generally used in a literary and/or formal context while “because” can also be very informal – and in terms of syntax – contrarily to “because”, “for” cannot be used at the start of a sentence. In the case of “since”, however, it also expresses cause, but is used with information that the speaker/writer considers already known and agreed upon by the reader/listener. ² Based on About.com: English as a 2nd language. Using adverb clauses with expressions of cause and effect. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from http://esl.about.com/library/ grammar/blgr_adverbclauses_cause.htm; and English-text.net: 'For' vs 'because' vs 'since'. Retrieved March 26, 2009, from http://www.english-test.net/forum/ftopic35488.html.


Four Skills 2 / 19 WRITING 4. Now, write five reasons why you have chosen your professional area/field of study using different linguistic strategies to justify/explain them. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

NOTES


20 / Four Skills 2 LESSON 4 SPEAKING 1. Look at the pictures below and analyze the graph on the next page. Make a comparison between the information presented in the pictures and in the graph. Is there any difference?

Image source: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2316/2101206915_1b7eeaba49. jpg

Image source: http://cdn.picapp.com/ftp/Images/0296/ 72c4a7c8-3f76-4118-a726-13b51a22764a.jpg

Image source: http://stilettorevolt.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/1ad _47fsb_female_soldier_iraq_27sep06.jpg

Image source: http://www.thegrio.com/assets_c/2009/10/Black%20 woman%20boss-thumb-400xauto-4668.jpg

Image source: http://www.autolinereviews.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/ 11/car-mechanic.jpg

Image source: http://bigthink.com/ideas/24780


Four Skills 2 / 21

[PERCENTAGE OF MEN AND WOMEN EMPLOYED IN EACH PROFESSIONAL/KNOWLEDGE FIELD IN THE USA3]

2. Now, answer the following questions based on the graph: a. Which area has the highest number of men? _________________________________________ b. Which area has the highest number of women? _____________________________________ c. Do you think the same happens in your country? ____________________________________ d. In your opinion, why are men and women more inclined to choose some areas instead of others? _______________________________________________________________________ 3 Source: DEY, Judy Goldberg & HILL, Catherine (Eds.). (2007). Behind the pay gap (p.12). Washington, DC: American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation. Retrieved onlineJul 8, 2010, from http://www.aauw.org/learn/research/upload/behindPayGap.pdf.


22 / Four Skills 2 LESSON 5 LISTENING 1. Watch a video report from NBC once and answer the following questions: a. What is the video about? ( ) differences between man and women regarding marriage ( ) study results regarding gender differences in wage ( ) research on sexual harassment in the work environment b. Who is the author? ___________________________________________________________________ c. Who is the possible target audience? Why? __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Retrieved Jul 8, 2010, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/22710673#22710673

2. Watch the video again and look at the facial expressions of the people in the video while they talk and describe what attitude and/or feelings these expressions suggest. You may use the words from the box or you can think of other words to describe them. neutral

happy

dissatisfied

angry

serious

Brian Williams

satisfied relieved

Jenny Conny

nervous upset

Trish Regan

skeptical

surprised

Statistician

calm

scared


Four Skills 2 / 23 3. The facial expressions may be connected to the role each person has in the text. Match the columns below so as to link the names of the people with their respective role in the text: a. Brian Williams b. Jenny Conny c. Trish Regan d. Statistician

( ( ( (

) presents the research results ) evaluates the research results ) presents the news headline ) represents an example

4. In this video news text, we have the example of Jenny Conny’s story. Complete the chart below with the required information about Jenny: 1. Jenny’s problem in UCLA was… 2. Because of that Jenny decided to… 3. The consequences of her attitude were… 4. Now, Jenny’s future plans are…

( ) sue UCLA for sexual discrimination. ( ) to open a private practice in the future. ( ) that she was paid less than half the salary of male counterparts. ( ) that she can no longer work with academic medicine even though she did much research and had papers published. She can’t get a job anywhere.

5. According to the reporter Trish Regan, research shows that Jenny’s is not an isolated case. Which of the following alternatives contain information about the results of the research? a. ( ) Men get better salaries because they generally study more than women. b. ( ) One year out of school women are making 80% more than what men with the same educational backgrounds in the same jobs. c. ( ) Ten years out of school the wage gap between women and men widens, with women making just 69% as much as men. d. ( ) Ten years out of school the wage gap between women and men widens, with men making just 69% as much as women. e. ( ) Women with flexed time schedules and women who took time off for children are not taken into account in the research. f. ( ) As time out of school passes by, the difference in women’s and men’s salary raises.

NOTES


24 / Four Skills 2 LESSON 6 READING 1. Skim the text below and find out: a. the full name of the institution which conducted the survey. __________________________________________________________________________________________ b. the midia used for publishing the news. __________________________________________________________________________________________ c. two key words that summarize the focus of the survey. __________________________________________________________________________________________

Interviewers really do judge a book by it's cover according to new research. Top tips include: make sure your grooming is polished and that you wear traditional interview attire. The survey by NACE interviewed employers to find which factors influenced their recruiting decisions. In a tight job market even a small bias on the part of the interviewer might differentiate between candidates. Enhance your chances of securing a good job by following this advice.

Figure 1: Candidate physical attributes and their influence on employers, by percent of respondents Attribute

No influence

Slight influence

Strong influence

Grooming

69%

21%

73%

Nontraditional interview attire

13%

38%

49%

Handshake

22%

45%

33%

Body peircing

26%

43%

31%

Obvious tattoos

25%

46%

29%

Nontraditional hair color

26%

46%

28%

Unusual hairstyle

30%

49%

21%

Earring (male)

54%

34%

12%

Beard

73%

22%

59%

Mustache

93%

16%

19%

Source: Job Outlook 2006. National Association of Colleges and Employers. Source: National Association of Colleges and Educators (NACE)

Source: http://www.cvsurvey.com/ArticleCentre/tabid/79/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/8/Default.aspx

2. According to the results of the survey, ‘[ job] interviewers really do judge a book by its cover’ (1st paragraph). Explain the meaning of the quotation. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________


Four Skills 2 / 25 3. The text presents a chart (Figure 1) with a list of physical attributes investigated in the survey. The following glossary will help you understand new vocabulary from Figure 1. Analyze these tips: ● Grooming: the things that you do to make your appearance tidy and pleasant, for example, brushing your hair. (Cambridge dictionary) ● Attire: clothes, especially of a particular or formal type. (Cambridge dictionary) ● Handshake: a greeting in which two people who are facing each other shake each other’s right hand. ● Male Earring

Image source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_z_I_Tb0S5mI/RjPVd1LLQII/AAAAAAAAAN4/acJfdawwlgo/s400/alargador+de+orelha.jpg

● Beard

Image source: http://stat-www.berkeley.edu/users/spector/beard.jpg

● Mustache

Image source: http://drjeffadams.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/mustache-798185.JPG


26 / Four Skills 2 4. Examine the percentages shown in Figure 1 in the text. Which are the two physical attributes that most strongly influenced employer’s recruiting decisions?

______________________

____________________

5. Now, as if you were the interviewee, try to answer the survey considering the influence of physical attributes on hiring in your own profession/area here in Brazil. For each item, fill out one of the three cells in each row: NO influence, LOW influence or STRONG influence. In the 1st row, point out your profession/area. PROFESSION/AREA: Attribute

NO Influence

LOW Influence

STRONG Influence

Grooming Nontraditional interview attire Handshake Body piercing Obvious tattoos Nontraditional hair color Unusual hairstyle Earring (male) Beard Mustache a. What attributes show NO influence in your field? Why? b. What attributes show STRONG influence in your field? Why? 6. In your opinion, who is the target audience for the study reported in the text? Which group(s) of people would be more interested in its results? Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________


Four Skills 2 / 27 LESSON 7 SPEAKING 1. Practice with your classmates the questions below that are typically asked in a job interview. a. Tell me about yourself (a brief description). b. What are you good at?

+

What are your strengths?

-

What are your weaknesses?

c. What do you do in your spare time? I like to (...) in my spare time. I enjoy going to the movies; travelling; visiting my friends. Every time I can, I... d. In what environment do you work best? Describe your ideal work place and what motivates you. My ideal work place involves... I would like to work in... (...) motivates me to work with enthusiasm. Make sure that you have thought about the following questions: a. On holiday what do you miss most about your work? I don’t miss much about my work. I... When I’m on holiday, I usually miss.... b. Where do you see yourself in the next 5 years? In the next five years I intend to... In fact I hope that I... I hope to be...


28 / Four Skills 2 c. On a scale of 1-5 how important is your work to you? What are your priorities? 1) _____________________________ 2) _____________________________ 3) _____________________________ 4) _____________________________ 5) _____________________________

2. Enact with a classmate a job interview. You can ask four questions to your classmate and vice-versa. There are some suggestions for questions below: a. Do you like to work in a team or on your own? b. What would you like best about your ideal employer? c. If you did not have to work what would you do? d. What decisions do you find difficult to make? e. Which task gives you the greatest satisfaction? f. How do you respond to stress ? Give an example. g. What sort of person are you socially? h. What do you look for in a subordinate? i. How does this job fit into your career plan? j. Do you talk about your bosses or colleagues on social network webpages? Adapted from: http://www.cvsurvey.com/InterviewQuestions/tabid/78/Default.aspx

3. Now tell us... Did your classmate get the job? Justify. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________


Four Skills 2 / 29 LESSON 8 SPEAKING 1. What do you know about job fairs? Check the definition below: A job fair is also referred commonly as a career fair or career expo. It is a fair or exposition for employers, recruiters and schools to meet with prospective job seekers. Expos usually include company or organization tables or booths where resumes can be collected and business cards can be exchanged. In the college setting, job fairs are commonly used for entry level job recruiting. Often sponsored by career centers, job fairs provide a convenient location for students to meet employers and perform first interviews. Electronic job fairs offer the same convenience online.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_fair

2. Have you ever participated in a job fair? If not, would you like to do so? 3. Go back to the definition above and highlight: participants and their purposes/aims in a job fair. LISTENING 4. The video “Ideal candidates and job fair success� presents an interview. Watch the video once and pay attention to the questions asked by the interviewer. a. Number the questions on page 30 from 1 to 4 according to the sequence they appear in the video.

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuJlujpFsPA


30 / Four Skills 2 ( ( ( (

) Would you suggest students bring anything to the job fair? ) What do you look for in your best candidates for full-time hires? ) And follow up after the fair? ) How should students prepare for job fairs on campus?

b. Now, try to find the appropriate beginning for each answer by the interviewee. Relate the columns below. After doing this, watch the video again and check your answers. 1) Question 1 2) Question 2 3) Question 3 4) Question 4

( ) The first thing I would do is definitely go to… ( ) Absolutely, you need to bring your résumé… ( ) I would definitely make sure when you go to the fair... make sure you get everybody’s business cards. ( ) I’m definitely looking for… the right package.

5. According to Heather Dera, what is the ‘right package’ she is looking for in the best candidates? ( ) creativity and enthusiasm for the position ( ) availability and interest in the position ( ) personality and creativity for the position ( ) personality and enthusiasm for the position 6. According to her, what should a job candidate do to ‘show enthusiasm’ for the position? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. In the list below, mark the other two characteristics she mentions for the ‘right package’. ( ) world experience ( ) work experience ( ) academic background ( ) experience in a company 8. Below you find an excerpt from the interviewee’s answer to the question ‘How should students prepare for job fairs on campus?’ Based on the listening, fill in the blanks with the missing verbs/phrasal verbs. “[…] _______ ____ what companies are coming to the fair... then also ________ what companies you’re interested in... When you find out the companies you’re interested in, definitely _____________ them, see what they’re about, _____________ what positions they’re hiring for […]”. 9. At the end of the video, she gives useful tips on steps to follow after the job fair. According to her, who should make the first contact (by e-mail or phone call): the employer or the job seeker? Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________


Four Skills 2 / 31 10. Do you agree with her suggestion? Justify your answer. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. After analyzing the video, it is important to try to connect it with your own job. Do you think that there is a “right package” or profile to be an ideal candidate in your profession? Cite three characteristics you consider relevant: 1) ______________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ______________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3) ______________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

and

VOCABULARY

How to relate to people Modal verbs are used for several reasons: to give a proposition a degree of probability, to express one’s attitude, and to perform various social functions, such as expressing politeness or indirectness when making requests, giving advice, or granting permission. In the following table, try to analyze the FUNCTIONS and the FORM of some modal verbs: MODALITY

MODAL VERBS should have to must may might will

EXAMPLES During a job interview, you should show your enthusiasm for the position. In this company, you have to wear uniform at work. You must bring your résumé. May we call you next week? We might interview the candidates next Thursday. I will contact you on Monday.

MEANINGS suggestion/advice obligation/necessity strong obligation/necessity permission/possibility possibility promise/commitment

POLITENESS

can could would

He can speak English. ability Could you talk about your last job? request/suggestion Would you mind to give us your request phone number? Adapted from: Celce-Murcia, M. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999) The grammar book. EUA: Heinle ELT


32 / Four Skills 2

SPEAKING Choose one job/occupation among the ones we have discussed so far and describe it according to the questions below. Bring pictures/photos or objects that you think might help you during the presentation.

Could you point out one example of a professional in this field? (relatives, acquaintances…) How long has he/she been doing this? (years, months…) Where does he/she work? Does he/she use special equipment? Does this person work part-time or full-time? (For example: day or night shifts) Does he/she work alone or in a team? Is it well-paid or badly-paid? What were the steps to apply for this position? (For example: job interview; curriculum vitae…) What were the requirements to apply for this position? (For example: graduation course; driving license…) What kind of benefits does this job/occupation offer? (For example: health, housing, meals assistance) On the other hand, what are the disadvantages involved? (List at least 3) What are the possibilities of upgrading (= achieving a better position; being promoted)? What must be the profile (physical/personality traits) of a person to work in this field? (List at least 5 attributes)


Four Skills 2 / 33

NOTES


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