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中国画法,完全从书法文字中来 1,。。。 Chinese ink painting derives its approaches from Chinese calligraphy1…

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笔飞错舞

P e r c e p t i o n and D e l u s i o n

黄运南 与 刘志民 合编

A collaborative project by Ng Woon Lam and Don Low Chee Mun 特别献给多年来支持我们艰苦艺术旅程的师友及家人

Dedicated especially to our mentors, friends and family members who have unconditionally supported us throughout our tough art journey over the years.

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Contents Curation by Mr. Khoo Cheang Jin, NWS

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Acknowledgements

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Preface by Ng Woon Lam Preface by Don Low Chee Mun

6-7 8-9

Comparison of Chinese Ink Brushes and Western Painting Brushes

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Comparison of Chinese and Western Brushwork

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Different Types of Brushes and Brush Marks 25-29 Demonstration by Mr. Tan Kee Sek

30-31

Conceptual Basis of Chinese Ink Painting, and Its Relationship with Ink and Brush Application 32-42 Experimental Artworks Artists’ Biographies References

10-29, 34-90 91-92 93-94

Glossary

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Copyright Information

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Curation by Mr. Khoo Cheang Jin, NWS 动画片是大人小孩都喜欢的影片,从早期粗糙的手绘卡 通到今天引用大量电脑科技的三元动画,它俘虏了一代又 一代人的心。记得早年曾经看过大陆出产的水墨动画片, 由毛笔所带出来的笔触、墨色、墨韵的效果,特别有东方 韵味,有别于一般的西方动画。不过这类水墨动画似乎只 昙花一现,往后就没有再看到,更遑论以三元方式制作。

People of all ages love cartoon or animation. The 2-D hand drawn version has throughout the years evolved into a more sophisticated 3-D animation thanks to the computer technology. I remember watching an old school 2-D animation produced in China with the touch of Chinese ink painting many many years ago. The brush strokes and

这次黄运南和刘志民两位画家携手合作,探讨水墨 动画的可行性,虽属实验性质,但藉此抛砖引玉,期待 更多同好加入探索,精神可嘉。或许不久的将来我们将 观赏到多部三元水墨动画呢!更期待的是有一天可以看 到志民潇洒的水墨人物,配上运南浑厚多变的山水背 景,结合两位大师创作的一部本土制作三元水墨动画!

technologies.

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Ng Woon Lam and Don Low are two masters of their own calibers. his sketches of human activities. The two collaborate on this issue to experiment and to bring out various possibilities with the hope of attracting more like-minded peers for further research on the Chinese ink animation. Let’s hope in the very near future we will see a 3-D

二零一四年 六月廿三日 邱昌仁 槟城水彩画会会长 美国全国水彩画会署名会员

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23 June 2014


Acknowledgements 感谢水墨画前辈画家曾纪策先生示范及讲解水墨及书法用笔 基本概念。 感谢邱昌仁画友对此次的试验性创作给于详细的评述及推荐

concepts of Chinese brushwork and its application in Chinese calligraphy and ink painting.

感谢苏宝宝小姐为本书的英文部分进行校对及修正。 感谢南洋理工大学资助此次的实验工作。 感谢南洋理工大学-艺术,设计与媒体学院借出画廊供展出活 动,也同时感谢全体工作人员协助所有展出工作 。

mendation. ing the English content of this book.

感谢新加坡水彩画会协助各项展出工作。 感谢国家艺术理事会与南洋理工大学亚洲艺术与设计中心的 资助。 要感谢的朋友实在太多太多,如有遗漏,敬请包涵!

to the entire hardworking and knowledgeable exhibition team from

its regular support. We would also like to thank all my fellow artists and friends who generously assisted me in the whole process of exhibition plan-

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从我们较熟悉的动画制作手法着手分析,我们可以发现, 今天的动画发展趋向于三元数码手段制作;以美术的角度切 入,我个人感到制作出来的作品少了许多二元所赋于的优点。 三元制作的优势,在科技应用方面,能重复应用先进的 视觉效果,质感成效等;从商业运作的角度,也可能有一些 优势;但实际上,今天几个大型动画电影,经费却也相当惊 人,并没有真正地发挥了三元制作的优势,既节省了制作经 费。 反观二元的工作最大的优势是:工作的画家皆尽其所能, 进行有效的简化,并加入了美感与强化作用,不一味追求真 实;以视觉,感觉及错觉为观众带来有效的视觉冲击。 这种手段与我多年来作为一位东方水彩艺术工作者的创作 概念非常相似,激起了我想把各类中西绘画及中华书法的一 些笔墨手段融入动画制作中的想法;我想借此来达到更强烈 的错觉效果。 希望以此抛砖引玉,使一些高明的三元制作同道也来尝试 把二元的优势融入三元制作中,能以最少的资源完成最有冲 击力的作品。

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多年来学习西洋水彩与油画,都不时应用了许多中华书法 的基本笔法在画面上;在教学上,发现今天的学生们由于过 于依赖电脑修正,照像及数码科技,逐渐失去了灵活用笔赋 彩的能力。更重的是,当眼手不能并行时,眼睛对视觉美感 的敏感度也会相对地减弱,造成美术学习上的困扰;希望借 此综合出一些学习经验与学生及美术工作者分享。 在西画方面,我是实践者;我就直接介绍我各种的手法与 经验;但在水墨画方面,我所知甚少,所以得借助几位中国 近代水墨大师的理论做为探讨的根基,如有理解偏差,请画 友们不吝指正。 二零一四年 二月十九日 黄运南 南洋理工大学 艺术, 设计与媒体学院 助理教授


Preface The animation industry today has moved to increasingly rely on computer generated animation for its less time consuming processes lost the visual freedom and aesthetics that classical 2-Dimensional (2D) hand drawn animations once possessed during the heyday of animation.

computer technology that allows a certain level of realism to be

calligraphy brushwork concept regularly serves as an important part of my development as an artist. When I started teaching in tertiary inences. This working direction somehow breaches their willingness to train themselves with brush skills in painting. Hand skills become even harder when the students cannot reproduce artwork in parallel with what they perceive. It reduces their sense of aesthetics and their ability to develop themselves as artists. I hope I can use my rough experimental results and discussions here to inspire our younger generation to explore the beauty of cal-

power and resources than projected in order that quality effects are

no expert and can only share my study of the concepts of a few contemporary Chinese ink masters. I sincerely invite readers and experts in this area to correct me if my point of view deviates from the actual concept of Chinese ink brushwork.

visual images rather than the duplication of purely realistic objects or texture surfaces. Ng Woon Lam This approach of simplification in design to achieve a greater visual impact is similar to my approach in watercolor painting for many works adapted from Chinese ink painting methodology within the 2D animation creating process.

Nanyang Technological University

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在多数的作品中,细节都尽量地简化,但观者能轻易地发 挥想象;笔触的应用轻易地呈现了动感,甚至是衣服上的皱 褶。而水彩颜料的沉淀与渲染效果更丰富了画面的变化。 人物角色是我凭空想像而得,但也从中国古典文学巨作及 神话故事中得到一些启示。其中《三国演义》中的人物是我 的最爱。三国浓缩了历史与人类发挥想象能力的极限,留下 了许多艺术设计及形象创作的宝贵泉源。 在我的各项人物创作实验中,我自由地应用中华书法及水 彩的技法,使二者相辅相承,发挥最大的作用。我直接以毛 笔描写,增加了变化上的灵活性,使笔触能挥洒自如。由于 不受形体的牵制,使我更能发挥笔、墨与彩之间的律动性。 在下笔之前为了能成竹于胸,我会先进行一些基础素描结构 的探讨。

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我首先用较大的毛笔写其运动方向,再以小笔整修出细 节,而尽量留下原先笔触的律动感。原有的大笔触刻画的形 态很有力而抽象地传达了 力’的意念,成为了人物创作的隐秘 的视觉结构。

二零一四年 六月十六日 刘志民


Preface ferent methods of drawing and painting with both Chinese and watercolor brushes so as not to limit myself to just using Chinese brush

bare essentials. Viewers are given every opportunity to use their imgest the movements of the characters or their clothes and even the

painted direct with a brush without the use of a pencil sketch. In this could be easily represented with just a few strokes of the brush. The strokes. While having no intention of keeping my lines strictly to a predictability of the brush and ink on paper. I do have a pre-conceived usually births from a number of sketches I did prior to the painting.

drawings an additional visceral visual quality and a certain amount of grittiness that adds to the nature of the content. inspirations from Chinese mythologies and folklores. I am particularly interested in the characters that appear in “Romance of the Three history. The story is part history and part legend so it gives plenty

initial broad stroke(s) can be perceived as a form of “action painting�

characters.

16 June 2014

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工具上的应用及优势 中华书法笔,狼毫稍硬,羊毫极软 而长,以这两种为主,再研发出各不 同硬度,长短不一的笔,其中有些是 混毫。在绘画上,各种笔结合应用, 总体来说,中华书法中,笔都不能太 硬,否则无法发挥出书法用笔的阴阳 顿挫及流畅感。 西画,以水彩而言,纸面较坚实, 可使用浓淡差较大的颜料,甚至以笔 去拨或推动很厚很浓的颜料,都不是 问题。(此为油画笔法,水彩也引以 为用);如用在水墨上,早已穿破了 宣纸。 所以中西用笔法,在应用为主的 前提上,有许多结合的可能性,只要 好々地从纸笔及颜料应用法和性质上 去结合即可。所以在此次以实用性质 为本的实验上,用上了各种不同的笔 与下色法,以求理解其视感效果上的 多变性。在纸方面,最终选择了水彩 纸,以便各种手法能在耐力强的水彩 纸上自由运作。 水彩与墨 混合试验 黄运南 Watercolor and ink experiment Ng Woon Lam 10


以下例出各类画笔及其优劣点: 水墨画笔(狼毫、羊毫及混毫) : 注重应用其 流畅性及多变性的笔法,去制造各类力势及皴擦 效果;在此,皆归类为软毛笔;较难拨动太浓的 颜料。如非在宣纸上运作,大量水份与颜料藏于 笔中,较难释放到纸面上。 水彩笔(貂毛笔或各类相似动物毛笔): 能同 时吸收,并轻易释放大量的颜料及水份,为中间 硬度,皴擦变化及流畅性略逊于中华毛笔。 尼龙笔:非常坚实,能如油画笔般,推动大量 的浓颜料,但其流畅性较差,只适合小面积及边 线调整;如过度依靠它,会造成过硬的填充感, 使画面失去动力及流畅性。 综合上述各种笔的硬度及对纸面坚实度的要 求,此次的实验,选用了水彩画纸;并且,水彩 纸的纹路能造成它与颜料产生许多变化,如沉淀 及特别的皴擦效果。 为了集中理解笔法与水份的变化,选择了以黑 白为主的手法进行绘制,用了有大量沉淀效果的 月光黑 (Lunar Black, Daniel Smith 出品),以便 结合水彩纸及水彩技法的优势。

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 11


Comparison of Chinese ink brushes and western painting brushes Chinese calligraphy or ink painting brushes are generally made and goat hair. Weasel hair is comparatively harder than goat hair. In

through the use of the wrist. color paper is very tough. It allows application of thick paint and the painter is still able to push the paint around. This pushing of thick paint approach is adapted from oil painting technique. If it were to be this rigorous process. COMPARISON OF BRUSHES

for large area wash or low to middle paint concentrations.

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun


for release later on watercolor paper surface. They are regarded as medium hardness (slightly harder than weasel hair Chinese brushes). Their capability in creating various textures could be slightly weaker than Chinese ink brushes. Nylon or other synthetic brushes wield the hardest brush hair as compared to all the rest of watercolor brushes. They are able to push concentrated paint just like oil painting bristle brushes. adjustment of edge sharpness. Over dependence on synthetic brushes can cause overly hard edges making the whole paint-

Having experimented with the characters of the above three able properties than rice paper for rigorous experiments to be carried out due to its toughness. Rice paper is too fragile for some

To further understand the variations that can be achieved using tube paint is a type of granular watercolor paint that can create strong precipitation during its drying process on rough watercolor

背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

variations through the optical results obtained on watercolor paper surface.

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以下为各种笔与颜料的变化应用示范。 用笔的方式:中华书法用笔注重 劲’的发挥,以中华书法为 基础,中锋用笔,讲究藏锋,如锥画沙,逆势起笔,欲下先 上,欲左先右,使笔画圆润浑厚 2。 骨法用笔:骨法之于用笔,是用笔的结果,就是说 骨气’、 骨相’的表现方法在于用笔 3。 唐代张彦远在《历代各画记》中指出:「夫象物必在于形 似,皆本于立意而归于用笔,故工画者多工书。」 也就是说, 通过 用笔’,表现出对象的外形结构,并刻画对象的精神状态。 。。 骨法,即为 骨气’、 骨相’指的是对象的体格状貌,美恶形象, 长短、大小颜色等外表特征,以及对象的气质、个性、精神状 态。 在骨法用笔上,潘天寿理解为:「对物象外在及内在的观察 理解,而后诠释的方式;这自然而然地与中华书道连贯上了, 因为各种考究无形中牵涉了如何简化应用的问题,所以书法自 然成为水墨绘画中骨法用笔的基础。」

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在现代中西并用的绘画制作上,虽不必全盘受限于中华书 道,但其哲理却能发挥作用,尤其是在如何简化这一环。 今天许多纯科技的三元动画相当缺乏这个概念,只一味精细 地描绘制造细腻的质感,而忘记了视觉有错觉的成份存在;如 能简化应用,才能把最有作用的错觉元素放大应用,这不仅加 强了视觉作用,也同时减少工作时间及人力与经费的浪费。 西画笔法,以画面成效为基础,画家可随心所欲地创造出 新方法以附合创作的需求,不受任何法则的约束。所以,以我 的个人观点,站在纯粹视觉效果上的考量,中西笔法相当容易 结合使用;在实用的基础上,可以先考虑画面视觉效果,然后 结合应用,能发挥东方用笔的劲,但也不据泥于书法用笔的法 则。 《黄宾虹》的理论中也指出用笔有利于变化,变化则节奏应 用更为丰富 1。


刘海粟言道:「长锋羊毫毛笔,柔软酣畅,便于进退旋转,更能饱含 水墨,可以恣意挥洒,有助于发挥它的用笔特色。但是由于羊毫笔缺乏 强烈的弹性,难以控制,用这种笔作画,一定要有丰富的经验和深厚的 功力才行 4。」 中西笔法混合应有的好处: 能发挥中华书法中’力’的势及流畅感,增加视觉上的错觉美。简单举 例说明如:直线可能不是很直,但由于书法用笔上的势,能产生错觉上 的 直’。 以西画画面效果为主,则在应用上,可以创出新手段;在皴擦变化方 面上可以更随意。举例说,一笔中可以断,可以续,可以结合下一笔的 效果,去变化,为求达到画面美感,中西笔法可以随意结合应用。

笔墨试验 黄运南 Ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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Comparison of Chinese and Western Brushwork 2

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in the reverse direction before moving towards the intended tion of brushworks. 2

: This technique requires using the brush in

that the pressure at the tip of the brush can be felt. It allows brushwork.

背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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2

THE EMPHASIS OF THE ‘BONE’ STRUCTURE IN BRUSHwORk

Due to the emphasis on Chinese calligraphy work is important. ‘Bone’ in Chinese calligraphy: require a certain controlled approach in execu-

Hua Ji (历代各画记) states that: “Depicting object likeness is through depicting its form; while the feeling comes mainly from the use of brushwork. the decisive brushwork could depict the inner spirit of the subject matter. Here the inner strucof the object. It just refers to the viewer’s understanding of how the object behaves or feels like. to smaller branches and gradually behaves softer towards the end of smaller branches.

背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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骨法’ (bone) means the depiction spirit of a perceived subject matter. ence of both the East and the West is not restrict-

effects in order to closely depict reality. That fuldelusive quality of visual behavior is missed out in the working scope. If we could introduce this a strong delusive quality into the presented images. It enhances the visual results while being cost of operation. the full freedom to invent one’s method of brush of the East and the West could be combined well 2 2

(central-

be less stringent while maintaining its concept of

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背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam


AdvANTAgES OF COMBININg EASTERN ANd wESTERN BRUSHwORk

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demanding hand pressure control like Chinese calligraphy. In this project we tried to take advantage of both types of brushworks without following strict rules of Chinese calligraphy. The long and soft design of a goat hair brush allows it to hold a lot of -

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 19


腕力的应用 石涛说:「腕若虚灵则画能折变, 笔如截揭则形不痴蒙,腕受实则沉着 透彻,腕交虚则飞午悠扬,腕受正则 中直藏锋,腕受仄则欹斜尽致,腕受 疾则操纵得势,腕受迟则拱揖有情, 腕受化则浑合自然,腕受变则陆离谲 怪,腕受奇则神工鬼斧,腕受神则川 岳荐灵 5。」 运腕论:石涛说:「画受墨,墨受 笔,笔受腕,腕受心。。。。腕若虚 灵则能折变 4。」 笔如截揭则形不痴蒙,。。。要 求一笔下去,像是以刀截物,十分果 断,又像开盖物的盖子那样,干脆利 落,明确肯定 4。 主张用笔要善于回旋、圆转、安 详、自在,避免生硬、呆板、霸气和 躁气。

背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 20


USE OF wRIST various possible changes. Brushworks must be decisive while the wrist is firmly in conit presents firm strokes. When the wrist is presenting firm calligraphy strength. When case rich variations. When the wrist movepresents the sense of strength in the same it presents a positive and friendly emotion. The use of the wrist will therefore evolve in a flow to depict its fluidity. The variations and and the landscape image enhanced with lively and spiritual depiction.5” Use of wrist4: painting consists of thousands of substanccontrolled by the wrist and the wrist is controlled by the artist’s heart … when the wrist pable to making dramatic variations. Brushwork is executed like cutting an object with a sharp knife. There should not be any hesitation… . It is like opening a cover of a can. The formation of the opening is clear and precise4.

人物与背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Figure and backdrop, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 21


ing or impatient execution should be avoided.

背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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皴法 皴法为写意形象表现的手段。 石涛言道:「锋不能变皴之体用,皴却能资锋 之形势。不得其锋何以变?不得其皴何以现?锋 之变与不变,在于皴现与不现 6。」

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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皴法 ( ‘Chun’ method )

METHOdS OF FORMINg vARIOUS TExTURES

intentional movement of the brush tip. Without good control of brush tip presmatters will not be formed. The changes of the brush tip action are closely connected with various formations of textural effects6.”

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背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam


different types of brushes and brush marks

貂毛笔与 其他动物毛笔 Kolinsky or sable and other natural hair type

尼龙或合成笔 Nylon and synthetic brushes

中华书法笔 Chinese calligraphy brushes

混合毛笔 Mixed hair brushes 25


貂毛笔渲染,干擦效果与笔触 Kolinsky brush marks and its wash and dry brush results 左:中华书法笔渲染,干擦效果与笔触 Chinese calligraphy brush marks and its wash and dry brush results 26


混合毛笔的设计使用者能轻易控制笔触 A mixed hair brush allows better control of brushwork thickness

尼龙笔笔触;它能推动浓度高的颜料 A nylon brush is able to move thick and concentrated pigment.

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背景 笔墨试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 28


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曾纪策先生示范讲解了书法基本笔法,并解析了水墨画上如何应用书法的笔 意。他呈现了中华书法家对笔的控制,及笔尖力道的发挥,行云流水般地把笔墨 融合一体;其骨法用笔,流露了篆体笔法及行书草书笔法的内力;其转折顿挫, 皆明显地呈现出书道的精髓。 曾先生的骨法用笔对我们的实验添加了制作手法上的灵感。虽然我们在笔法方 面一窃不通,但看了曾先生的示范,对我们在水墨皴法上的理解有很大的启示; 在皱法上,运用了阴阳顿挫,便能轻易增添了许多质感及视觉转换的变化,使画 面自然而丰富。

孤村落日残霞,轻烟老树寒 鸦,一点飞鸿影下。青山绿 水,白草红叶黄花 白朴词 天净沙 壬辰 夏 五月 曾纪策 曾纪策先生 草书示范 Chinese cursive calligraphy demonstration by Mr Tan Kee Sek 30


Demonstration by Mr. Tan Kee Sek dEMONSTRATION By MR. TAN kEE SEk

nese ink painting. His brush strokes were executed with a great amount of wrist control. It was evident through seeing the movements of his control of the brush tip when he worked. Both fluidity of brushworks and ink variations were managed masterfully with a great amount of wrist control in ing actions. Even the slowing down movements and finishing touches were not compromised. 7

(篆体笔法) and the fluidity from Chinese cursive and semi-cursive calligraphy8 (行草及草书 笔法). standing of Chinese ink and brushworks. His brushwork execution has inspired us to carry out experiments with a slightly wider scope of context. The fundamentals of Chinese ink painting in achieving textural results can with wrist control to arrive at various textural results. It further enhances textural effects through adding optical variations to the painted images. 曾纪策先生 篆书示范 Chinese Zhuan Di7 calligraphy demonstration by Mr Tan Kee Sek

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写实的基础,建立在画家对于物象的仔细观察,。。。写意的基 础,则是建基在理解的层面上,通过画家对于物象的观察和了解, 取其形态背后的意态。。。。最大的自由;是能够把视觉的经验转 化成记忆、知识和感觉,。。。摆脱对景创作的局限 4。 石涛言道:「信手一挥,山川、人物、鸟兽、草木、池榭、楼 台,取形用势,写主揣意,显需隐含,人不见其画诚,画不违其心 之用。《画语录。一画章第一》 6 」 夫画:「天下变通大法也,以形势精美也,古今造物之陶冶也, 阴阳气度之流行也,借笔墨以写天地万物,而陶泳乎我也 6。 夫一画含万物种。画受墨、墨受笔、笔受腕、腕受心。。。眼手 心一线,讲究运笔要自然流畅 6。 古之人寄只于笔墨,假道于山川,不化而应化,无为而有为。」

曾纪策先生 水墨示范 Chinese ink painting demonstration by Mr Tan Kee Sek

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黄宾虹言道:「屡变者体貌,不变者精神。精神 所到,气韵以生 1。 不难为繁,难为用减,减之力更大于繁,非以境 减,应减之以笔 1。 吾爱石涛‘对花作画将人意,画笔传神总是春’ 句,此是诗,亦是画理 1。 分明是笔,笔力有气,融洽是墨,墨彩有韵 1。 。。。古人用笔,羊毫之柔,柔中有刚;紫毫之 刚,刚中有柔 1, 。。。」

曾纪策先生 水墨示范 Chinese ink painting demonstration by Mr Tan Kee Sek

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客:「笔之道尽矣乎?」 (黄宾虹)曰:「未也。顷所云云,笔本身之变 化也。一涉图论,犹有关乎全局之作用存焉。所谓 至始至终,全有朝揖,连绵相属,气脉不断’,是 言笔纵横上下,遍于全画,一若血脉神经之贯注全 身 1。」 又云:「意在笔先,笔周意内,画尽意在,像尽 神全 1。」 曰:「山水乃图自然之性,非剽窃其形。画不写 万物之貌,乃传真内涵之神。若以形似为贵,则名 山大川,观览不遑,真本俱在,何劳图焉 1?」 从石涛与黄宾虹的画论中,大略理解了笔墨变 化在水墨画中的必要性及其呈现方式;从这里理解 了如何应用笔法墨韵(黑白变化)去发挥两者的优 势,而能驾临逼真写实手法之上,以达到形神兼备 的神似境界。 石涛与黄宾虹皆谈到了观察、理解与简化,而 后把物象融入笔法墨韵之内,所以能发挥神似的趣 味。

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 34


刘海粟说:「中国画最大的特证是意, 画面没有了意不行。归纳起来,不外是两 方面: 一是画面的结构和内容的处理,二是物 象的具体表现,即如何进行艺术的概括。 中国画的第二个特证就是笔墨,没有笔 墨就不能表现意境与形神。 意境、形神不能单独存在,一定要通过 笔墨表现出来《散花坞飞鸿 --- 书信摘录》 。」 刘海粟分析谢赫的水墨画六法论: 第一,笔法:骨法用笔。相当于油画的 笔触 (Touch) 第二,写实:包括应物象形及随类赋 彩。相当西画中的写实 (Realism) 第三,结构:结营位置,相当于构图 (Composition) 第四, 模仿:传移摹写,含有再现的意 思 (Reproduction) 5 人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 35


Conceptual basis of Chinese ink painting, and its relationship with ink and brush application The fundamental concept of realistic painting relies on an artist’s careful observation while the fundamental concept of spontaneously executed paintings relies on the analytical asafter observation and analytical understanding of his/her sub9 . The biggest freedom of this process knowledge and feelings together. The artist is released from being constrained by an observed image4. 9

painting will not go against the artist’s original intention6.

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low chee Mun

36


change of the universe is the governing rule of man阴)10 (阳)10 he meditates on his inner personality6.

the wrist and the wrist is controlled by the artist’s heart. 6.

possibilities. Though without aiming to achieve any6.” “The forms of subject matters could be changing but the spiritual quality is not idity of the image is achieved1. The variation of brushwork helps to enhance the richness of image rhythm. It is about brushwork. Rendering in details is not presentation actually increases. The overall image represented is not reduced through thoughtful simpli-

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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石涛

ing of spring is achieved. It is a piece of poem while it is also an art concept.11 work. The strength of brushwork presents the energy. Coherent formation is through the use of ink. The ink tones present the rhythm.

it is able to carry some level of rigidity. When a rabbit hair brush is

running on the image while the feeling is hidden inside. When a paint-

is not about stealing purely the naturalistic forms accurately. It is not the actual object is clearly in front of us. There is no further effort needed. There is nothing more real than the original object.1”

reached their limit?”

a connection between the starting and completion of an image. The execution of brushwork in all directions on an image. It is like blood vessels and nerves connecting throughout a whole body.1”

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右:人物与背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Right: Figure & backdrop, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam


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ink and brushwork in Chinese painting is evident. The essence of ink and brushwork in the simplifying of subject matters is the heart of Chinese painting. It allows lieved to be beyond observation or measured likeness. the progress of observation. It starts with direct obsercombination of ink and brushworks. This is how spiritual likeness is depicted.

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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-

which is related to how the perceived subject matter is .

the ink and brushwork quality. If an artist does not have a good understanding and grasp of the art of controlling 意境) and spiritual likeness

.

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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without the help of ink rhythm and brushworks. 《散花坞飞鸿 --- 书信摘录》 – The following are letters: The principles of Chinese painting contains six important aspects as described by Xie He (谢 赫

with the structure of calligraphy. It is similar to brush strokes in Western oil painting though not tural requirements. Depiction of reality: This includes depicting forms and local colours of the observed objects. It is similar to realistic painting in Western art. Picture structure: This is the arrangement of subject matters in a picture plane. It is equivalent to composition in Western painting. Transfer or copy in ink and brushwork of the perceived image: This is related to reproduction in Western painting.

人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 43


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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun


人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

左:人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Left: Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 55


人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

右:人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Right: Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 56


人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 57


人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

右:人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Right: Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun 58


人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun

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人物 笔墨试验 刘志民 Figure, ink and brushwork experiment Don Low Chee Mun


人物与背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Figure and backdrop ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 61


人物与背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Figure and backdrop ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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人物与背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Figure and backdrop, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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右: 背景笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Right: Backdrop ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

人物与背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Figure and backdrop ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 64


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背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

背景 笔墨与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, ink, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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背景 笔与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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背景 笔与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image, watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam

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背景 笔与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 72


背景 笔与水彩试验 黄运南 Backdrop image watercolor and brushwork experiment Ng Woon Lam 73


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背景 笔与水彩试验, 74页 至 90页 黄运南 Backdrop image, watercolor and brushwork experiment, Pp 74 – 90 Ng Woon Lam


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Biographies 黄运南

Ng woon Lam

南洋理工大学 艺术, 设计与媒体学院 助理教授

Nanyang Technological University

获颁2011年南洋理工大学杰出青年校友奖 获颁2013年南洋理工大学教育奖 纽约艺术学院(New York Academy of Art), 硕士研究班毕业 (MFA in Painting) 美国水彩画会海豚院士(AWS-DF) 美国全国水彩画会签名会員(NWS) 美国水彩画会签名会員(AWS) 新加坡艺术协会永久会員 新加坡水彩画会会員 作品多次获得国际大赛奖项,其中包括2009及2014年美国水彩画会 第142届及第147届国际大展铜奖及2007与2014年新加坡艺术协会写 实画组首奖。 论文及画作刊登于本地及世界著名艺术期刊;其中有南洋艺术杂 志,The Artist’s Magazine, WatercolorMagic (现为 Watercolor Artist), International Artist Magazine 及法国水彩杂志(L’Art de L’Aquarelle).

Winner of various national and international juried art show awards

The Artist’s Magazine, WatercolorMagic (now known as Watercolor Artist), International Artist Magazine, Nanyang Arts Magazine and French watercolor magazine (L’Art de L’Aquarelle).

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刘志民 本土艺术家刘志民涉足于专业插画领域及素描教学工作。现为南洋理 工大学,艺术、设计及媒体学院兼职讲师;拥有动画专业硕士学位, 早年为合格半导体工程师,后转业为专业艺术家。近年来多次参与世 界走画会各项活动,成为活跃的新加坡区代表。

an engineer in semiconductor fabrication. He sketches and paints for

参展经验如下: 2014: 淡马锡工艺学院主办“我们一起描绘世界” “转变的世界”— 新加坡国家博物馆 2013: 1890的夏日之后 POPUP CONNECTION 2 Singapore Garret Art Gallery 2012:“新加坡大促销”— Ion Orchard Gallery 2011: “中巴鲁再现”— White Canvas Gallery 2010:“外在、内在”素描展 — White Canvas Gallery

on-location drawing. His sketches are featured in the following books: The Art of Urban Sketching, Urban Sketchers Singapore An Illustrated Journey: Inspiration from the Private Art Journals of Traveling Artists, Illustrators and Designers. He has participated in several joint exhibitions that include the following: Connect Village)

电邮: donlowcm@gmail.com 手机: 84183032 网站: https://www.flickr.com/photos/thedesignlanguage/ of sketches and drawings of Tiong Bahru curated by White Email:

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donlowcm@gmail.com


references

1. 《黄宾虹》 杨樱林著 中国人民大学出版社 Yang Ying Lin, ISBN: 978-730-050-0102 2.

Huang Bin Hong, Chinese People University Publisher,

中国书法一本通 青石主编 北京联合出版社公司 Qing Shi, A complete Beijing United Publishing Company

guide to Chinese calligraphy,

3. 《潘天寿论画笔录》 浙江出版联合集团, 浙江人民美术出版社 叶尚青,记录整理 Ye Shang Qing, The Documentation of Art Concepts by Pan Tian Shou, Zhe Jiang United Enterprise, Zhe Jiang People’s Art Publisher, ISBN: 978-753-403-5203 4.

对焦中国画 罗淑敏著 三联书店(香港)有限公司 Luo Shu Min, The Joint Publishing (Hong Kong) Co. Ltd, ISBN : 978-962-042-8319

Focus of Chinese Ink Painting,

5. 《刘海粟谈艺录》 周积寅,金建荣编,河南美术出版社, Zhou Ji Ying and Jin Jian Rong, Discussions about Art by Liu Hai Su, He Nan Art Publication, ISBN: 754-010-874-61J0.760 6. 《石涛》 杨寅成编 中国人民大学出版社 Yang Yin Cheng, Shi Tao, Chinese People University Publisher, ISBN: 978-730-005-0140

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7.

Zhuan Di Calligraphy (篆体笔法) A type of ancient calligraphy. It requires the design of balanced or symmetrical structures. It is generally written with well controlled thickness.

8.

Chinese cursive and semi-cursive calligraphy (行草及草书笔法): The fluidity of brushworks in Chinese ink painting was derived from Chinese cursive calligraphy.

9.

Felt forms:’ Yi Dai (意态): It is a viewer’s response to observed subjects. For example, a tree with branches may be rough, firm and hard. However, if the overall formation of a tree makes the viewer see its grown shape as delicate, soft and fluid, it is considered that the artist has chosen to depict the subject matter through its felt form’.

10. Yin’ (阴) -- negative, Yang’ (阳) -- positive 11. The feeling of spring is generally regarded as a positive feeling using the spring weather for its figurative meaning. 12. Yi’ (意) could be a combination of feeling, atmosphere, mood, meaning and any scholastic connection to the choice of subject matters. 13 Yi Jing’ (意境): A combination of the state of emotion, atmosphere, mood, meaning of the chosen subject matters and storylines.

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glossary Perception (知觉, 感觉 - 在此以视觉为主): The organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perception

中锋 Zhong Feng’ (Centralised brushwork): Chinese calligraphy requires the brush to be held rather vertical so that the brush tip pressure can be felt easily. This allows better control on the thickness and shapes executed.

Delusion (错觉): A belief held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delusion

皴 Cun ’ (Textural method)

二元 (2D): 二度空间 two dimensional

篆体笔法 Zhuan Di’ Calligraphy: A type of ancient calligraphy. It requires the design of balanced or symmetrical structures. It is generally written with well controlled thickness.

三元(3D): 三度空间 three dimensional

行草及草书笔法 Chinese cursive and semi-cursive calligraphy

貂(西伯利亚貂): http://dampal.pixnet.net/blog/post/28120700 : 西伯利西鼬鼠,產地以北亞為主,是主要貂毛筆的原料。 Kolinsky: http://www.kalishfinestbrushes.biz/TheKolinsky.htm : The Kolinsky is a weasel-like critter about fifteen inches long with a large bushy tail of about eight to ten inches. It has reddish-brown fur and lives in Siberia and northern China, usually along rivers in forest areas. 劲 Jing’ (Strength): 书法用笔的发力方式 The exertion of force in Chinese calligraphy

意 Yi’ / 意境 Yi Jing’ : A combination of feeling, atmosphere, mood, meaning and any scholastic connection to the choice of subject matters. 意态 Yi Dai’ (felt forms): The delusive response of a viewer to an image 阴 Yin’ (negative) 阳 Yang’ (positive)

骨法 Bone’ Structure: Chinese calligraphic structure of brush application

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Robert B. Epp

Backdrop paintings: Ng Woon Lam Chinese content: Ng Woon Lam Design: Ng Woon Lam Proofreading: Robert B. Epp

Website for animated clips: www.ngwoonlam.com/perception_delusion

Published by Ng Woon Lam in conjunction with the exhibition Perception and Delusion

ISBN: 978-981-09-0532-3 Copyright Š 2014 No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted or published in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner(s)

Proudly sponsored by

Proudly supported by Centre for Asia Art and design School of Art, Design and Media

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Perception and Delusion  

Perception and Delusion A collaborative project by Ng Woon Lam and Don Low Chee Mun

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