Page 1

Governance Structure In India


THE

EXECUTIVE BRANCH APPOINTS ELECTS

Has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy.

A D M I N I S T R A T I O N H I E R A R C H Y

SOME PROFILES

UNION

President

Democratic Government:

By the people. For the people. Of the people.

Parliament

ZONES

Vice- President

The States have been grouped into 6 zones having an Advisory Council 'to develop the habit of cooperative working�

1 3

5

The Northern Zonal Council Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Chandigarh The Central Zonal Council Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh;

The Western Zonal Council Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and

Prime Minister

Council of Ministers

Head of the Republic of India. ĆĽÂ…Â‹ÂƒÂŽŠ‡ƒ†‘ˆÂšÂ‡Â…Â—Â–Â‹Â˜Â‡ÇĄ‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹˜‡ƒÂ?† Judicial branches of the Government. Commander-in- chief of Indian Armed Forces. Exercises the Executive powers of the Union †‹”‡…–‡Ž›‘”–Š”‘—‰Š•—„‘”†‹Â?ƒ–‡‘Ƽ…‡”•Ǥ

Vice- President

2 4

6

The North-Eastern Council President

Assam Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland;

The superintendence, direction and control of the entire process for conduct of elections to Parliament and Legislature of every State and –‘–Š‡‘Ƽ…‡•‘ˆ”‡•‹†‡Â?–ƒÂ?†‹…‡nj”‡•‹†‡Â?–‘ˆ Â?†‹ƒ. Permanent Constitutional Body

The Eastern Zonal Council Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Sikkim and West Bengal;

Election Commission

Chief Election Commissioner

Election Commissioner 1

Election Commissioner 2

Governor of State

The Southern Zonal Council Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry.

šnj‘Ƽ…‹‘ chairman of Rajya sabha. Acts as President in his absence. Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒÂ? Â?†‹ƒÂ?…‹–‹œ‡Â?ƒÂ?†Â“Â—ÂƒÂŽÂ‹Ć¤Â‡Â†ĥ a member of Rajya Sabha.

Prime Minister Contributes to decisions of council of ministers to be presented to the president. Furnishes information as president may call for Submits matter for consideration of council on Presidents demand

Council of Ministers ‘Ž†•‘Ƽ…‡ƒ–”‡•‹†‡Â?–ǯ•’Ž‡ƒ•—”‡–‘aid or advise him. Total no. of members in the council should be less than 15% of that of Lok Sabha. Responsible to Lok Sabha.

CHIEF JUSTICE

IAS (Indian Administrative Services)

STATES & UTs

All India Services and the Central Services. Ƽ…‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡ÂŽÂŽ Â?†‹ƒÂ‡Â”Â˜Â‹Â…Â‡Â•ÇĄ‘Â?ƒ’’‘‹Â?–Â?‡Â?– by the Government, are placed at the disposal ‘ˆ–Š‡†‹ƥ‡”‡Â?––ƒ–‡ ‘˜‡”Â?Â?‡Â?–•Ǥ

Indian Administative Sevises leaders

ƒÂ?ƒ‰‡Â?‡Â?–‘ˆÂƒĆĄÂƒÂ‹Â”•™‹–Š‹Â?ƒ–ƒ–‡Ǥ Comprizes of 28 states and 7 Union Territories (UTs).

The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) The Indian Police Service (IPS) The Indian Forest Service (IFS)

JUDGES

REGIONS For the purpose of administrative convenience, medium and large sized states are divided into regions. Č‹Â?‘Â‘ĆĽÂ…Â‹ÂƒÂŽĠÂ?‹Â?‹•–”ƒ–‹˜‡Â•Â–ÂƒÂ–Â—Â•ČŒ

STATES WITH REGIONS

Assam Gujarat Kerala Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh

DVISIONS

District Comissioner / District colllector District Comissioner / District colllector

SUBORDINATE COURTS

7 Age eligibility and Term time for Administrative posts Deputy Collector / Assistant Collector / Sub- Divisional Magistrate / —„nj‹˜‹•‹‘Â?ƒŽƼ…‡”

80 70 60 50

DISTRICTS

Administrator Union Territories Puducherry Lakshadweep Delhi Daman and Diu Dadra and Nagar Haveli Chandigarh Andman and Nicobar Island

Council of Ministers (and or Legislative Assembly: elected/ partly elected and partly nominated)

Tahsildar Incharge of revenue administration and land records.

Village Headman Custadian of Government property in village. Collects revenues at village level. Head of village police.

30 20

Tahsildar

AGE ELIGIBILITY

UNION TERRITORIES Delhi

Union State

Circle Inspector / Revenue Inspector

National Capital Territory (NCT)

Due to certain geographical, cultural, and strategic factors Union Territories need to be protected from disturbances and even political turmoil. They are under direct supervision of the President. Chief Minister

Council of Ministers

LOCAL LEVEL Blocks, Hoblis, Villages, Habitations, Municipalities. Also refered as Pargana, Sarkar, Province historically.

Represents state administration at District level. Represents various departments of the state government.

Incharge of revenue administration, land records. Either a newly recruited member of IAS or of State Civil Service.

40

SUB-DISTRICTS Tehsils, talukas, blocks or mandals: The governmental bodie at the Tehsil level is the panchayat samiti.

HIGH COURT

—„nj†‹˜‹•‹‘Â?ƒŽ‘Ƽ…‡”

Some Indian states are subdivided into divisions, each comprising several districts.

Basic territorial unit of Government of India, connecting common man to the administration.

SUPREME COURT

All laws are mostly regulated by parliament Any repugnant law made by

TERM TIME (YEARS)

1

2

3

4

5

6

. . .

till age . of 62

. .

till age of 65

Village Headman

Lieutenant Governor

Legislative Assembly (Direct elections from territorial constituencies)

Number of members of

on an existing laws made by the Parliament is considered as void.

10% of that of


President summons

Council of states (Rajya Sabha)

yearly sessions:

PARLIAMENT OF INDIA (SANSAD)

Make

Amend

Make

Amend

Repeal

Repeal

Supreme legislative body of India

FOUNDED IN 1921

India is a Parliamentary democracy :

Ordinary bills (they are the proposals for general laws)

Members are the representatives of the people of their resp. constituency

Money bills (they are the proposals for Revenue laws)

‘Oversight’: Parliament Keeps a check on ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡‘ƥ…‡”•

Budget session Monsoon session Winter session

Its structure is Bicameral (two houses)

Elects president, vice- president

(Govt. policies are discussed)

THE PARLIAMENT --->

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH includes: THE PARLIAMENT and THE PRESIDENT

There are 2 types of democracy systems:

PARLIAMENT

A state legislature member

PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM

PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM

The President is separate from the legislative body.

The chief executive, such as Prime Minister, is part of the legislative body.

Separates the executive and legislative functions of the government,provides checks and balances to limit the powers of both.

The legislature holds the power, and the chief executive must answer to the legislature.

Can’t be a member of both houses:

and

Ex- officio Chairman

if a member of two/ more of any of the houses, the expiration of Term time will vacate all the occupied seats

Shall caste vote only in case of equality of votes

COUNCIL OF STATES RAJYA SABHA

HOUSE OF PEOPLE

Speaker Shall caste vote only in case of equality of votes

LOK SABHA

The chief executive and members The legislature is elected by the people and then they must appoint/ of the legislature are elected the chief executive among them. separately by the people.

552

252

Powers are same as that

Deputy Speaker

Deputy Chairman

of Lok Sabha: ‘‘–‹‘‘ˆ…‘Ƥ†‡…‡ Money bills initiative with ultimate authority

* In a state having both houses of state legislature, the powers and responsibilities are distributed among the houses in similar fashion as that of union legislature.

Acts as Speaker in the absense / unavailibility of

Acts as Chairman in the absense / unavailibility of

1/3 rd dissolves every 2 years Permanent House ȋ‘†‡Ƥ‹–‡–‡”–‹‡Ȍ

Ordinary bills can be originated here

is Vice president

šǦ‘ƥ…‹‘ Chairman

leader of the house is PM or another nominated member

2

60

of Anglo Indian community are appointed by President

500 max

Number of members

2

12

total no. of votes assigned to Legislative Assemblies of States

having special knowledge or practicalexperience in: Literature . Science Art . Social Service Nominated by max

of Anglo Indian community are appointed by President max Represent Union Territories

Number of votes to be casted by each elected member

20

total no. of elected members of the Parliament

max

Shall caste vote only in case of equality of votes

530

Direct elections from territorial constituencies in the state

Elects President

238

Ex- officio Chairman

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL VIDHAN PARISHAD

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY

Except for the area of money bills, it has equal powers as that of the lower house

Speaker Shall caste vote only in case of equality of votes

VIDHAN SABHA

Equal Powers with the Lok Sabha in: initiating and passing any Bill (except Money bill), impeachment of the President and Judges, a resolution declaring war or national emergency House of people (Lok Sabha)

Representatives of States

Also called as MLAs. Direct representatives of the people of the people of the state.

Elected by

Deputy Speaker

Deputy Chairman

Membets of Union Territories(UT) Elected by Electoral collage of that UT

Acts as Speaker in the absense / unavailibility of

Acts as Chairman in the absense / unavailibility of

President

Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) Number of votes to be casted by each elected member

by system of proportional representation of population and no. of votes per member

population of the state total number of elected members of the state assembly

Election Was primarily intended for consultation and can not hold up legislation passed by the Vidhan Sabha for long.

nominated by the Governor(arts, science, literature, scholars) by 3 years experienced teachers from state

6

by corporation, municiple, zilla parishad

by members of assembly

from graduates of 3 years

Only states have this house:

1/3rd

40 Number of members

Members are also called as MLCs and they should not be a member of Union Parliament at the same time.

Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh.

1000

Elects President STATE LEGISLATURE

1

Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha: Initiating/passing Bills, Impeachment of the President . Judges, Resolution declaring war or national emergency

Woman’s Representation Bill proposes for 33% seats (Currently no reservation for women)

Term Time can be extended for min. 1 year in case of proclamation of emergency

Revenue-raising or “Money” bills must be originated here

‘–‹‘•‘ˆ‘…‘Ƥ†‡…‡ against the government can only be introduced and passed here.


THE JUDICIAL BRANCH PROFILES Supreme Court (UNION LEVEL COURT)

A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

High Court (STATE LEVEL COURT)

LAW

Has Superitendence over all the courts and tribunal throughout its territory (state). Calls for returns from courts under it. Makes, issues general rules, prescribes forms for regulation with the approval of Settles tables of fees allowed to its sherif, clearks, ‘ƥ…‡”•ǡƒ†˜‘…ƒ–‡•ǡƒ––‘”‡›•ǡ’Ž‡ƒ†‡”•Ǥ The guardian of fundamental rights and could bedirectly approached in case of their violation. Nothing in its power should confer on powers of or any Law related to Armed Forces. 18 High Courts in the country 3 have jurisdiction over more than one state Bombay HC includes Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli ,Daman-Diu. Guwahati HC, ( Assam HC) includes Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh. Punjab and Haryana HC includes Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh.

JURISDICTION

CHIEF JUSTICE SUPREME COURT

H I E R A R C H Y

Apex court India. Laws regulating constitution, jurisdiction, organization and powers of court are made by the Parliament. The Guardian of fundamental rights and could be directly approached in case of their violation. Has the Power to issue writs in the nature of ***habeus corpus, mandamus, prohibition,quo warranto, certiorari. Has jusrisdiction powers on the disputes concerning the Elections of the President and the Vice-President and inter-governmental disputes.

The frame work of the current legal system has been laid down by the Indian Constitution and the judicial system derives its powers from it. ‘common law system’: law is developed by the judges through their decisions, orders, or judgments and follow the adversarial system of conducting proceedings -there are two sides in every case and each side presents its arguments to a neutral judge who then gives an order or a judgment based upon the merits of the case.

Appellate Jurisdiction Appeals permitted under the Constitution Appeal by Special Leave Statutory Appeals Original jurisdiction Writs Original Suits Transfer of cases Election disputes Advisory Jurisdiction

JUDGES

Among the Union Territories, Delhi alone has a HC of

SUPREME COURT

its own. Rest state HCs.

The Indian judicial system is one the world’s oldest legal systems. ˜‹†‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹ƪ—‡…‡‘ˆ British legal system on Indian judicial system, are seen in laws that are common with the British legal system.

CHIEF JUSTICE HIGH COURT

Subordinate Courts (BELOW STATE LEVEL ) Appeals from the district courts lie to the High Court of the concerned state As per the criminal procedure code, the maximum sentence a district court may award to a convict is capital punishment. Hiererchy of jurisdiction below disctrict level:

JUDGES

Civil Courts *** Habeas Corpus: Gives individual a right to defend himself if he thinks he is unlawfully imprisoned.

HIGH COURT

Quo Warranto: Issued against ƒ’‡”•‘Š‘Ž†‹‰ƒ’—„Ž‹…‘ƥ…‡ or governmental privilege. Mandamus: Issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a ‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ƥ…‡”–‘’‡”ˆ‘” mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly Certiorari: Issued by a superior court for the reexamination of an action of a lower court.

CHIEF JUSTICE SUBORDINATE COURT

JUDGES

CHIEF JUSTICE : SUBORDINATE COURT

SUBORDINATE COURTS

6 ‹‘‡””‹–‘”‹‡•…‘‡—†‡”†‹ơ‡”‡–

Appointed by Eligibility:

Appointed by

after consulting

after consulting 10 years

or

Sub -Judge-Family Munsif Small cause Caurt, Lok Adalat

—†‹…‹ƒŽ‘ƥ…‡” Advocate of a high in India court or 2 or more as an advocate Eligibility: 7 years courts in succession. or pleader Should not be already serving in --> Union or State Government Appointed by after consulting and Exercises jurisdiction in Criminal, Civil, Revenue area

Session Judge

Board of Revenue

Courts of judicial magistratesof class I Courts of judicial magistratesof class II Courts of judicial magistratesof class III

Comissioner, Collector Tehsildar Assistant Tehsildar

CHIEF JUSTICE : SUPREME COURT Appointed by 5 years

10 years

Judge of a high court Advocate at a high court or 2/more such courts or 2/more such courts in succession in succession

and 10 years

Revenue Courts

Destrict Judge

Eligibility:

CHIEF JUSTICE : HIGH COURT

Criminal Courts

appointed by

after consulting

Is a distinguished jurisist in the opinion of Misbehavior:

Shall be removed on the order of backed by 2/3 majority in Parliament.

Governance Structure in India  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you