ANNUAL REPORT 2011
“Organizations like Global Rights—dedicated to speaking up for those who have no voice and to shining a light into the darkness of human rights abuses—help carry this struggle for all of us. You can take great pride in your role in ensuring that thousands of individuals around the world have better access to justice, can demand accountability from their governments, and understand their rights in a concrete and meaningful way.” President Bill Clinton
At Global Rights we believe in the dignity and equality of all human beings. We work to break down barriers that deny people their human rights. We believe that systemic change is rooted in the individual and the communities in which they live. Our experience tells us that a potent tool to overcome power imbalances in society for the most poor and marginalized is access to justice. Working side by side local activists in Africa, Asia and Latin America, we are building the capacity of our partners to address human rights violations not just today—but for generations to come.
Dear Friends and Supporters, I am inspired every day by the courageous work of our partners, who in dangerous and uncertain environments, stand boldly on the frontlines of human rights abuses to demand a more just world. I am truly humbled by their courage. Yet when I meet our partners in my travels, what they most often say to me is “thank you.” They are grateful to us for believing in them. And that gratitude rightly belongs to YOU for your generous support of our work here at Global Rights. YOU are training a future generation of lawyers in Afghanistan and providing legal protection for women victims of violence in Morocco. YOU are exposing human rights violations against Afro-descendants in Latin America and demanding protection for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) individuals in Nigeria and Sierra Leone. And, YOU are standing hand in hand with our partners on the frontlines combatting some of the world’s worst human rights violations. What is perhaps most important, though, about the work we are doing together is HOW we are attacking the human rights crisis across the globe. We are not sending in outsiders to “fix” problems—but rather
training new human rights leaders within these communities so they can advocate for their own rights. As shown in our Theory of Change diagram below, our goal is to leave behind a culture that supports and defends human rights not just for today, but for generations to come. I’m truly honored to stand by your side in this work. I am deeply grateful for the trust you have placed in us by investing in our work. We never take that trust for granted, and we work hard every day to demonstrate that investing in Global Rights is one of the very best ways to create a better world for all of us. Thank you,
Susan M. Farnsworth Executive Director
To read the latest stories and insights from the human rights frontlines, please visit our Frontline Justice blog at www.globalrightsblog.blogspot.com.
GLOBAL RIGHTS’ THEORY OF CHANGE Individuals Learn and Understand They Have Human Rights
Learn How to Articulate and Demand Rights
Identify and Understand the Barriers that are Denying Their Human Rights
Work to Remove or Change Barriers
Fulfillment of Human Rights
FROM OUR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Our partner organization, The Women’s Empowerment Initiative in Bauchi, with Global Rights’ Nigeria Country Director, Abiodun Baiyewu (far right).
Increasing access to justice is at the heart of all of Global Rights’ work. We believe rule of law helps level the playing field for the most poor and marginalized. Your support of Global Rights provides our partners with the legal empowerment tools to fight for human rights for themselves and their communities.
Defending Human Rights in Nigeria In 2011 Global Rights continued our paralegal training and court accompaniment program in the underserved states of Northern Nigeria. With our partners Women’s Empowerment Initiative Nigeria (WEIN) in Bauchi State, Hotoro Women Development Association in Kano State and Legal Awareness and Development for Women in Nigeria (LEADS) in Kaduna State, we were able to train 150 volunteer paralegals. The women of northern Nigeria now have somewhere to turn for assistance with issues like pretrial detention, extrajudicial killings, divorce, inheritance, domestic violence, and forced marriage.
Bringing Justice to Remote Uganda There are no lawyers in Bundibugyo, one of Uganda’s most remote districts. Global Rights is building legal capacity in the region to address pressing human rights concerns including violence against women, child sexual abuse and neglect and land disputes— including women’s access to property ownership. We completed a Paralegal Training Manual tailored to this region and conducted trainings to prepare 42 community members to deliver paralegal services to this remote and underserved district. Since our paralegals have been working in Bundibugyo,
A paralegal trained by Global Rights in Uganda works with a young mother to secure child support.
INCREASING ACCESS TO
the police have noted a significant increase in reports of gender-based violence and violence against children that they must investigate, which our partners link to greater awareness. Empowered by your support, the paralegals have helped scores of women claim their rights within their families and from public institutions. Justice for All lawyers working at our Legal Advice Bureau in Kabul.
Promoting Land Rights in Burundi Conflicts over land use represent 73 percent of cases brought before courts in Burundi, and small landowners are often overpowered by larger government or corporate interests. To create a stronger legal framework for land rights issues, Global Rights worked with 12 civil society organizations to help pass the Land Reform Act last year. Now, we are leading the first-ever coalition of civil society organizations to monitor land issues in Burundi and to ensure the Reform Act is properly enforced by the government.
Meet Our Partner Justice for All, Afghanistan
Thanks, in part, to Global Rights and our partners, the Burundi National Assembly voted unanimously in 2011 in support of the Land Reform Act.
Ensuring Civil Society’s Participation in Burundi’s Transitional Justice Process Global Rights is leading an effort to convince the government to include civil society organizations as members of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. We have established an electronic forum for the NGO Network on Transitional Justice. To date, 46 members have subscribed, representing 25 national and international organizations. The e-forum is believed to be the sole virtual space where all documents related to the transitional justice process can be found in one place.
Training the Next Generation of Lawyers in Afghanistan Global Rights’ Young Lawyers in Training Program (YLTP) is unlike any other legal education course in Afghanistan. It provides fourth-year Law and Shar’ia students with practical legal skills, as well as a clear understanding of human and women’s rights. The top YLTP graduates are given one-year fellowships at civil society organizations or governmental institutions. Many of the organizations provide legal services or legal advocacy for the poor and disadvantaged, particularly women. To date, more than 1,500 young men and women have graduated from YLTP. Nearly 130 have served as Legal Fellows in 25 organizations in Afghanistan.
With our partner, Justice for All (JFA), Global Rights launched its first Legal Advice Bureau (LAB) in 2009. Based in the Kabul Family Court and led by Afghan women, including many Global Rights’ Legal Fellows, JFA provides free legal aid and represents indigent women and men. JFAs lawyers have taken on more than 1,200 cases addressing problems such as domestic violence, forced marriage, divorce and child custody. Due to our success with JFA, Global Rights opened three new LABs in 2011 with our partners, Voice of Women in Herat, the Afghan Independent Bar Association in Mazar, and the Afghan Women’s Network in Nangarhar.
“We’re working closely with people in desperate need. They come from poverty and in bad circumstances. They suffer from violence and they fear for their future. We’re trying to help where we can.” -Khatera, a lawyer at our Legal Advice Bureau in Herat, Afghanistan
Global Rights’ partner, Association Bades, conducts a training workshop for rural women of Al Hoceima, Morocco.
Grave violations of women’s human rights continue to occur worldwide with terrifying regularity—and too often go unpunished. Your support of Global Rights empowers women to come together to fight extreme poverty, discrimination and gender-based violence. By helping women develop the skills and information necessary to advocate for their own rights, we are unleashing a powerful force for change.
Advancing the Violence Against Women Act in Morocco Global Rights is using a human rights approach to reduce violence against women in Morocco. With input from more than 2,000 Moroccan women, we helped our partners draft model Violence Against Women legislation in 2010. Progress continued in 2011 when the United Nations Committee Against Torture adopted the exact language and recommendations from our report to the government of Morocco on ways to combat violence against women, including calling for the passage of the Violence Against Women Act.
ADVOCATING FOR WOMEN’S
Empowering Mrs. T.E., Bundibugyo, Uganda In just its first year, Global Rights’ paralegal training program in remote Uganda is already improving women’s lives. When Mrs. T.E.’s former husband planned to sell all of the family land, she and her children were left without a means to make a living. A paralegal trained by Global Rights arranged a meeting with all parties to the sale before the Local Council. The paralegal shared information about how land rights and property ownership laws applied in the case. As a result, the sale was cancelled, and the land was returned to Mrs. T.E. and her children to farm for years to come.
Our partners participate in an Online Court Decision Database training. They learned to collect, monitor and document domestic court decisions on women’s rights issues.
Meet Our PartnerS Hasna Allali, Zahira Bouchait, Mariam Zemouri, Morocco “We met Global Rights in Morocco ten years ago at their training workshop on women’s human and legal rights education. At the time, there were no women’s rights associations in our towns. For some of us it was the first time we had traveled to another city and spent the night in a hotel – we even had to ask for our fathers’ permission!
A discussion about defining domestic violence at a Global Rights training workshop for paralegals in Bundibugyo, Uganda.
“This program saved my life.” -A young, rural Moroccan woman, after attending our Women’s Legal Rights Education training.
Building A Just World :
In partnership with a loc al theater group Al Baladi, Globa l Rights and our partner, Assoc iation Tafiil Moubadarat, broug ht our message to the pe ople throughout Morocco wit h a play titled “Violence Against Women: At What Price?” It show s how violence against wome n impacts the entire community and why there is a shared respo nsibility to end it through mobilizi ng to pass the Violence Against Wo men Act.
Through our partnership with Global Rights, we’ve developed our capacity to make our voices heard and improve the lives of women in our communities. We founded our own NGOs to teach women about their rights and advocate for change. When we held our first workshops, we worried that no one would come. Now, hundreds of women—many of them illiterate and some walking more than two hours across mountains— participate regularly in our activities. We recently had the privilege to represent those women to the Moroccan Family Minister as we called for Violence Against Women legislation to be passed, as well as at the United Nations Committee against Torture. We never thought local authorities would seek us out to collaborate with them. We never imagined we’d write model legislation to protect women. But through our long-standing partnership with Global Rights, we have.”
RIGHTS & GENDER EQUALITY
Representatives from our partner organization, Red de Mujeres Afrolatinas, Caribe; as y de la Diaspora, present the Beyond the Historic Apology report at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in October 2011.
Less than a decade ago, most people weren’t even aware that Latin America was home to as many as 150 million people of African descent. Your support for Global Rights helps our partners raise awareness about widespread discrimination towards Afro-descendants and their underrepresentation in government. We are empowering Afro-descendant communities to make their voices heard in the corridors of power.
An Historic First – Launching the International Year of Afro-descendants In March 2011, Global Rights hosted a conference at the Organization of American States (OAS) in Washington, DC to mark the International Year for People of African Descent. Leaders of African descent, representatives of OAS member states and observer countries, and members of nongovernmental
organizations from around the region called on the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) to study the condition of Afro-descendants in Latin America. Following our recommendation, the IACHR later released their report, The Situation of Persons of African Descent in the Americas, in January 2012. Demanding Rights, Not Apologies, in Peru A full 150 years after the end of slavery in Peru, the exclusion and marginalization of Afro-Peruvian people is permitted and tolerated at every level of the government. That was a key finding of our report, Beyond the Historic Apology: A Report on the State of Afro-Peruvian People’s Human Rights. Produced with our local partners and released in May 2011, the report has become an important tool to pressure the government to change discriminatory policies.
ADVANCING RACIAL AND
Partnering for Rights of Domestic Workers in Brazil With our partner Articulação de Organizações de Mulheres Negras Brasileiras (Network of Afro-Brazilian Women’s NGOs - AMNB) we worked to produce a report, Black Women and Domestic Workers in Brazil: a Rights Perspective. The report highlights discrimination against Afro-descendant domestic workers and makes suggestions for how to improve their situation. Because of our collaboration, AMNB was able to present the report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in February 2012, exposing violations and making key recommendations to the government of Brazil.
“Global Rights helped launch the community organization AFRODES in Colombia. This year AFRODES’ representatives visited the United States several times to meet with staff in Congress and the State Department. They are part of the conversation about policies that affect them because of the ways we helped them early on.” -Carlos Quesada, Director of Global Rights’ Racial and Ethnic Equality Program Global Rights’ Beyond the History Apology: A Report on the State of Afro-Peruvian People’s Human Rights.
AMNB members Simone Cruz and Maria Das Dores Almeida at the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
Meet Our Partner Articulação de Organizações de Mulheres Negras Brasileiras (AMNB), Brazil AMNB is an incredibly dynamic group of women working to protect the rights of Afro-descendant women. Global Rights has been working with AMNB to produce two powerful reports documenting Afro-Brazilian women’s health and labor rights violations. AMNB traveled to Geneva, Switzerland in 2012 to present its findings and recommendations to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Our goal is to encourage CEDAW to make recommendations to the Brazilian government to take action to end discrimination against AfroBrazilian women.
Building A Just World:
Global Rights ex pands our influence by sh aring informatio n across borders and even continents. Our recent initiative, Promoting Ethn ic Diversity in Uganda, is mod eled on our wor k with Afro-desce ndant populatio ns in the Americas .
U.S. Ambassador Michael S. Owen with participants from our first LGBTI training in Sierra Leone
Global Rights’ partner, Why Can’t We Get Married, paves the way for LGBTI rights advocacy in Sierra Leone.
Violent persecution—often in the name of “traditional” values, culture and religion—is fueling a worldwide human rights emergency for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) community. Your support of Global Rights helps our partners expose abuses of LGBTI individuals and communities and advocate for their rights through regional and international human rights institutions.
“When I get back to my community I will continue to speak to my peers about human rights and the discrimination LGBTI people face. They are human and they have rights— the people of Sierra Leone need to support them.” -Participant at LGBTI rights training in Sierra Leone
Training Activists to Protect LGBTI Rights Recognizing that the first step to correcting human rights violations is documenting the extent of the problem, Global Rights launched a new LGBTI project in Sierra Leone in April 2011. Modeled after our ongoing work in Nigeria, we are conducting a series of six trainings, including how to monitor and document human rights abuses against LGBTI individuals. Twenty-four activists from five human rights organizations are participating in the trainings. At our first training, we were honored that U.S. Ambassador for Sierra Leone, Michael S. Owen, made opening remarks to the participants.
U.S. Ambassador Michael S. Owen with participants from our first LGBTI training in Sierra Leone.
EXPOSING HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES OF LGBTI INDIVIDUALS & COMMUNITIES
Global Rights’ Natural Resources and Human Rights Initiative Director Flavia Milano witnesses the effects of biofuel contamination on water supplies in Liberia.
Natural resource extraction practices result in some of the most grievous human rights violations on the African continent. Your support of Global Rights is empowering resource-rich communities to use human rights tools to address injustices resulting from action and inaction of states and corporations related to resource extraction and management.
Demanding Government Accountability in Nigeria In October 2011, a gold mine collapsed in Zamfara, northern Nigeria, burying four miners. The government took no action to rescue the miners and has done nothing since to address workers’ ongoing safety concerns. In addition, unregulated gold mining has lead to the deaths of over 300 children and young adults due to acute lead poisoning. Global Rights is working with partners in Zamfara to mobilize communities and increase civic participation to demand government transparency and accountability to protect workers’ rights and save lives.
Documenting Human Rights Violations to Advocate at Regional and International Bodies Global Rights launched new partnerships in 2011 in Mali and Sierra Leone. In Mali, our partner is documenting the harmful effects of gold mining in Sanso. In Sierra Leone, our partner is focusing on human rights violations due to diamond mining in Kono. We are empowering our partners throughout West Africa to advocate at regional and international bodies such as the African Building A Just World : Commission for Human Our handbook “My Right to and People’s Rights Demand Change” is a pra ctical (ACHPR) and the guide for African civil soc iety Economic Community on exercising the right to pu blic of West African States participation and the rel ate d right (ECOWAS). to information. Exercisin g the right to information is im portant because it is a tool to inc rease transparency and dema nd government and corporat e accountability on decis ions being made about resource ma nagement.
PROTECTING RIGHTS OFinCOMMUNITIES Resource-Rich Countries
Our partners in Uganda participate in a paralegal training so that they can provide legal assistance for the most underserved.
Building human rights capacity is a long-term process that depends on constant interaction and learning between local partners and our staff. Your support of Global Rights helps our local partners grow and thrive.
Africa Algeria Association Hayat des Sages femmes is in the town of Skikda
Burundi Association des Femmes Juristes du Burundi Association pour la Défense des Droits de la Femme Observatoire de l’Action Gouvernementale Synergy Coalition: Action Ceinture Verte pour l’Environnement (ACVE) Association Burundaise des Elus Locaux (ABELO) Association de Coopération et de recherche pour le Développement (ACORD) Association des Femmes Juristes du Burundi (AFJB) Association des Juristes Catholiques du Burundi (AJCB)
Comunita Impegno Servizio Volontariato (CISV) Foundation Intahe League Iteka Organisation pour la Défense de l’Environnement au Burundi (ODEB) Réseau des Citoyens Justice et Démocratie (RCN) Union Chrétienne pour l’ducation et le Developpezment des Déshérités (UCEDD) Unissons-Nous pour la Promotion des Batwa (UNIPROBA)
Congo-Brazzaville CECIDE Commission Justice et Paix (CJP) Rencontre pour la Paix et les Droits de l’Homme (RPDH)
Democratic Republic of Congo
Action des Chrétiens Activistes des Droits de l’Homme a Shabunda Association Paysanne pour le Développement Intégré au Sud-Kivu Centre d’Études et de Formation Populaires pour les Droits de l’Homme Conseil Régional des Organisations Non Gouvernementales de Développement (CRONGD) Haki za Binadamu-Maniema Réseau des Associations des Droits de l’Homme du Sud-Kivu Reseau des Femmes pour la Defense des Droits et la Paix Régional des Organisations Non Gouvernementales de Développement
Mali Fondation pour le Développement au Sahel
Action Contre l’Impunité pour les Droits Humains
WEAVING A WEB OF PARTNERS
Morocco Association Amal pour la femme et le développement - El Hajeb Association Bades - Al Hoceima Association des jeunes avocats – Khemisset Association el Amane pour le développement de la femme – Marrakech Association Tafiil Moubadarat - Taza Association Tafoukt Souss pour le développement de la femme – Agadir Association Tawaza pour le plaidoyer de la femme Tétouan Espace Draa de la femme et de développement - Zagora Espace Oasis Tafilalt pour le développement - Rissani La Voix de la Femme Amazigh – Rabat
Nigeria Bauchi Human Rights Network Hotoro Women Development Association Kano Human Rights Network Legal Awareness for Nigeria Women Women Empowerment Initiative Nigeria
Sierra Leone Dignity Association Network Movement for Justice and Development Why Can’t We Get Married.com
Department of Justice in the Kunar province (MoJ) Department of Justice in Nangarhar (MoJ) De Qanoon Ghoshtonky Organization (DQG) Herat University - Faculties of Law and Shar’ia Human Rights Focus Organization (HRFO) Humanitarian Assistance for Women and Children of Afghanistan (HAWCA) Justice for All Organization (JFA) Kabul University - Faculties of Law and Shar’ia Laghman Provincial Council Legal Aid Organization of Afghanistan (LAOA) Legal and Cultural Services for Afghan Women (LCSAW) Nangarhar Provincial Council Nangarhar University - Faculties of Law and Shar’ia Training Human Rights Association for Afghan Women (THRA) Voice of Women Organization (VWO) Women 4 Afghan Women (WAW) Women and Children Legal Research Foundation (WCLRF) Women Department of Nangarhar
Latin America Brazil Articulacao de Mulheres Negras do Brasil
Colombia Afroamerica XXI - Colombian Chapter The National Association of Internally Displaced Afro-Colombians –AFRODES
Peru Centro de Desarrollo de la Mujer Negra Peruana
Uruguay UBUNTU - Transformacion Afro-descendiente
Regional Networks Afroamerica XXI - Latin America Central American Black Organization Central America Jacques Viau Network - Dominican Republic and Haiti Red de Mujeres Afrolatinas, Caribe; as y de la Diaspora - The Americas
Fondation Tunisienne pour le Développement – Siliana, Kasserine, Zaghouan
“By working with Global Rights we have been able to be the voice of the Afro-Peruvian community.”
- Cecilia Ramírez, Centro de Desarrollo de la Mujer Negra Peruana, (CEDEMUNEP)
Child Concern Initiatives Organization (CCIO) Bundibugyo NGO/CBO Forum Bundibugyo Women Federation (BUWOFE)
Asia Afghanistan Afghan Civil Society Forum Organization (ACSFO) Afghan Women Education Center (AWEC) Afghan Women Network (AWN) Afghan Women Skills Development Center (AWSDC) Afghanistan Human Rights Organization (AHRO) Afghanistan Independent Bar Association (AIBA) Al Biruni University - Faculties of Law and Shar’ia All Afghan Women’s Union (AAWU) Balkh University - Faculties of Law and Shar’ia Civil Society and Human Rights Organization (CSHRO) Cooperation Center for Afghanistan (CCA)
Global Rights’ Executive Director Susan M. Farnsworth
Global Rights’ Board of Directors J. Stuart Lemle, Chair Niloo Razi Howe, Vice Chair Julia F. Cullen, Treasurer and Secretary James F. Fitzpatrick, Chair Emeritus Russell H. Carpenter, Jr.
Maaren Choksi Stuart Irvin Robert H. Kapp Eric Koenig Eric Lewis Robert Macpherson Singleton McAllister Mipe Okunseinde Yolonda C. Richardson Michael C. Williams Judy Woodruff
S IT TAKES A GLOBAL VILLAGE
Global Rights’ Funders Anonymous Atlantic Philanthropies Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs via its Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan Ford Foundation Freedom House Inter-American Foundation John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Kingdom of Belgium Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation via its Embassies in Bujumbura, Burundi and Rabat, Morocco The Moriah Fund National Endowment for Democracy Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs via its Embassies in Abuja, Nigeria, Bujumbura, Burundi and Rabat, Morocco Open Society Afghanistan
Open Society Institute Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs via its Embassies in Kabul, Afghanistan and Rabat, Morocco The Summit of the Americas Secretariat at the Organization of American States Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation via its Embassy in Bujumbura, Burundi United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) United States Institute for Peace United States Agency for International Development The United States Department of State: Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) The United States Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (DRL) The United States Department of State: The Middle East Partnership Initiative
Global Rights’ IN KIND DONORS
Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP
American University Washington College of Law Berry Appleman & Leiden LLP
Global Rights’ CHAMPION: Margaret Carpenter Even though Global Rights is a small organization, it has maintained the ability to zero in on important needs of people, and women in particular, who have limited access to justice. That’s something that much larger NGOs and contractors are not often able to do. I donate to Global Rights because I have such a strong respect for its leaders and staff and for what they do. I’ve been impressed with how they take small successful projects in one country and share the
Covington & Burling Lewis Baach PLLC International Senior Lawyers Project
experiences across other countries. It’s an efficient model. Funders are learning that lasting change can come from funding targeted projects that empower local organizations that meet local needs. Margaret Carpenter is the former Assistant Administrator for Asia and the Middle East at USAID. We are deeply grateful for Margaret and all of our individual donors for their steadfast support.
INVESTING IN GLOBAL RIGHTS
The fight for human rights is a global struggle. Our activists face countless challenges, immense discrimination and hostile threats. Global Rights and our partners across the world count on your contributions to create lasting, systemic change and defend human rights today and for future generations.
Thank you fo r your support. And please stay in touch. Please visit ww w.globalrights.or g for more inform ation on how yo u can help. Join us on:
OUR MISSION Global Rights is a unique human rights capacity-building organization that works side by side local activists in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Global Rights has learned through years of experience that systemic change to improve human rights depends on our ability to continually transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between Global Rightsâ€™ staff and our local partners. It is an approach that is rooted in the belief that human rights cultures are built from the ground up. We build human rights capacity in order to leave behind a culture that supports and defends human rights for future generations.
OUR VISION The work of Global Rights is motivated by our vision of a just society worldwide built on the fundamental principles of human rights.
OUR CORE BELIEFS We believe in the dignity and equality of all human beings, but we know there are barriers that deny people their rights. We believe that systemic change to overcome those barriers begins with the individual and the community.
Global Rights: Partners for Justice 1200 18th Street NW, Suite 602 Washington, DC 20036 globalrights.org Email firstname.lastname@example.org Tel +1 202.822.4600 Fax +1 202.822.4606