Intersecting Health and Justice
A Century of Progressing Communities: Reproductive Rights Timeline
Everybody Needs Somebody: Health and Caring
Breast Cancer Awareness
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MIAD BRIDGE FALL 2011 [Fall 2011] MIAD Bridge | iii-----
Table of Contents
A Century of Progressing Communities:
Reproductive Rights Timeline
Everybody Needs Somebody: Health and Caring
Breast Cancer Awareness
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vii 2 14 16 26 28
Letter From the Editor
A Century of Progressing Communities
Everybody Needs Somebody
[Fall 2011] MIAD Bridge | v-----
Letter From the Editor
â€œThere is so much that the scientific method has to offer to visual problem solving.â€?
DearReader, I have always ways been fascinated by the natural world and science has always inspired me. When I was born, my father was in post-graduate school working on his Ph.D. in microbiology and as he raised me, he instilled in me a love of science. I enjoy being outside and exploring the natural world, and I love asking questions and understand how things around me interact and work together. In school, I always enjoyed science class and loved the formulaic way of solving problems and I think that has had a great influence on my process in design. I think that there is so much that the scientific method has to offer to visual problem solving. The scientific method is based on research and observation and I feel that design is much the same. My favorite thing about science was the sense of exploration and discovery. Outcomes always have something to teach us, even if they are not the expected outcomes. I feel like the same applies to my love of design. I love the process of exploration and discovery through careful research and wide-eyed observation. Science and design share another similarity, and that is the aspect of peer-review. In science, every outcome is questioned and analyzed by peers, and in design every critique pushes the solution further to completion. It is the question of â€œwhyâ€? that motivates both scientists and designers alike, and that drives us to learn more, to understand more, to create more. And just like art and design, science is everywhere and all around us. It permeates ever part of life from the grass under your feet, to the computer you type on. Design feeds off science and gathers inspiration from every angle of science. When I think about design, I find myself using my scientific analytical mind to process and respond to the problem and create visual solutions that meet the needs of the client and will pass the review of peers. I always want to create something that can be appreciated by both the audience and peers in my field. And science is much the same. Science is for everyone. Everyone may not know why the grass grows, but they can still appreciate the way it tickles the soles of their feet. Thank you,
Alisha Denomme Alisha Denomme Editor-in-Chief
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BY ALISHA DENOMME | JULY 6, 2011
It is important that both genders are responsible for their children and that children are born into circumstances that lets them survive and thrive. Families are the foundation of strong communities; without a proper foundation, the process of building communities is sabotaged from the very beginning.
Reproductive Rights Timeline
Up until the first-wave feminist movement of the early 20th century was well under way, men had complete control over laws, and therefore made the decisions over reproductive rights for both genders. This meant that all over the world, women had very little reproductive rights, including access to preventative birth control and abortion â€“ even in the most extreme life-threatening conditions. Even early feminists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Mary Wollstonecraft opposed abortion. However, a few women believed that in order for women to have a more equal stance in society, and to have physically and mentally healthy lives, they need to be able to decide when a pregnancy is best for them. Margaret Sanger was one of these women; she pioneered family planning clinics in America. Volunteering for Planned Parenthood opened the door for me to better understand how reproductive rights can affect society and how being able to decide when and how one starts a family can affect the community as a whole; families are the building blocks of the community. The World Health Organization defines reproductive rights as: â€œ...the right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.â€? This means equal rights and responsibilities for both genders. For women this means having access to, and information about, all forms birth control; prevention against STDs; and the right to freedom from discrimination against social and economic status. For men this means the right to prevention against STDs, and freedom of financial responsibly of unplanned and unwanted children. The history and timeline of reproductive rights is complex, formed by brave citizens taking small steps forward to better the future of the community.
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Comstock Laws and Margaret Sanger
“[Women have the right] to fully enjoy sexual relations without being burdened by the fear of pregnancy.”
In 1910, Margaret Sanger distributed a pamphlet called “Family Limitation”, which was in violation of the Comstock Laws of 1873 which made it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious” materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information on contraception or abortion. In 1916, she opened the United States’ first family planning and birth control clinic in New York City. It was raided 9 days later by police and she served 30 days in prison. Her initial appeal was rejected, but in 1918 an opinion letter written by Judge Frederick E. Crane of the New York Court of Appeals found that contraceptive devices could be legally promoted for the cure and prevention of disease and allowed doctors to prescribe contraception. Her conviction was reversed and in 1921 she founded the American Birth Control League, and legal family planning began in the United States paving the way for women’s reproductive rights in the 20th century. In the 1930’s the combined oral contraceptive pill – otherwise known as “The Pill” – was being developed worldwide, but was very expensive. However, this new invention was helping countries move toward allowing women better access to birth control all over the world. This was critical to fulfilling the psychological need of women to fully enjoy sexual relations without being burdened by the fear of pregnancy.
In 1942, the American Birth Control League became apart of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.
The Proclamation of Teheran and The Pill
Although in 1948, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, there was no mention of reproductive rights in the declaration. It wasn’t until 1968 that reproductive rights became a subset of human rights, with the Proclamation of Teheran: have a basic rightand to decide freely and responsibly “Parents have a “Parents basic right to decide freely responsibly on the number andchildren spacingand of their children and a right on the number and spacing of their a right to adequate education in and information to adequate education and information this respect” in this In 1957 The Pill was finally approved in the US by the FDA, however, it was only prescribed for menstrual disorders and not marketed as a contraceptive. In 1965, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled over Griswold v. Connecticut and struck down one of the remaining Comstock Law state bans on contraception, allowing married women to obtain The Pill for contraceptive use.
However, [The Pill] was only prescribed for menstrual disorders, and not marketed as a contraceptive.”
In 1962, the American Law Institute developed the Model Penal Code (MPC) which included a section on abortion which became a model for abortion law reform legislation enacted in 13 states from 1967 to 1972. In 1966 Mississippi reformed its abortion law and became the first U.S. state to allow abortion in cases of rape. In 1968, Georgia and Maryland followed with MPC abortion reform, and Arkansas, Delaware, Kansas, New Mexico, and Oregon in 1969. It was also at this time that Canada allowed abortion for selective reasons at the decision of a “Therapeutic Abortion Committee”. In 1970, Hawaii, New York, Alaska and Washington repealed their abortion laws and allowed abortion “on demand”; and South Carolina and Virginia reformed on the basis of MPC, and Florida in 1972. It wasn’t until 1975 that The Pill was available for unmarried women.
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Roe v. Wade and the Cairo Programme of Action
In 1973, in the landmark case of Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court declared all the individual state bans on abortion during the first and second trimesters to be unconstitutional. The Court also legalized abortion in the third trimester when a woman’s doctor believes the abortion is necessary for her physical or mental health. Meanwhile outside of North America, the push for women’s reproductive rights
“In 1989, the Supreme Court of Canada decided unanimously in Tremblay v. Daigle that the fetus is not a person until birth and does not have ‘right to life.’ ”
makes headway worldwide. In 1979, The People’s Republic of China began its One-Child Policy, encouraging many urban couples to have only one child, and in some cases imposing penalties for violating the policy. In 1988, France legalized the “abortion pill” Mifepristone. At the same time Canada’s abortion law (which allowed abortions upon the approval of a committee of doctors) is ruled unconstitutional by R. v. Morgentaler, and no legal restrictions have since been placed on abortion in Canada, leaving medical practitioners the sole right to decide whether or not to perform an abortion. In 1989, the Supreme Court of Canada unanimously decided in Tremblay v. Daigle that the fetus is not a person until birth and does not have “right to life”. In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, the Cairo Programme of Action was created. It asserted that governments have a responsibility to meet individuals’ reproductive needs, rather than demographic targets, and addressed issues such as violence against women, sex trafficking, and adolescent health. Even though it was non-binding, it was the first international policy document to define reproductive health. It was adopted by 184 UN member states. However, many Latin American and Islamic States made formal reservations to the programme, in particular, to its concept of
Countries legalizing limited abortions from 1975-1980: France, West Germany, Italy, New Zealand, and The Netherlands.
reproductive rights and sexual freedom, to its treatment of abortion, and to its potential incompatibility with Sharia Law. These counties included many Catholic nations like Argentina, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Malta, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and the Holy See. These rights were in conflict with the Constitution of Ecuador which includes: the inviolability of life, the protection of children from the moment of conception, responsible paternity, the right of parents to bring up their children, and the formulation of population and development plans by the Government in accordance with the principles of respect for sovereignty. Ecuador stated in its reservation: “... Accordingly, the delegation of Ecuador enters a reservation with respect to all terms such as “regulation of fertility”, “interruption of pregnancy”, “reproductive health”, “reproductive rights” and “unwanted children”, which in one way or another, within the context of the Programme of Action, could involve abortion.” And many Islamic countries, such as Brunei, Djibouti, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen made broad reservations against any element of the programme that could be interpreted as contrary to the Sharia Law. Guatemala even questioned the conference’s legitimacy in legally proclaiming new human rights. Since then, Amnesty International has argued that the realization of reproductive rights is intrinsically linked with the realization of a series of recognized human rights, including the right to health, the right to freedom from discrimination, the right to privacy, and the right not to be subjected to torture or ill-treatment.
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The Beijing Platform/The Yogyakarta Principles
In 1995, the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, in its non-binding Declaration and Platform for Action, framed women’s reproductive rights as “indivisible, universal and inalienable human rights.” Solidifying that, what had been started in Cario, were indeed human rights.
“[The principles recognized] the rights of persons to decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality.”
Back in the US, in 1999, Congress passed a ban on intact dilation and extraction (another form of abortion), which President Bill Clinton vetoed. And in 2000 Mifepristone was approved by the FDA. In 2005, reproductive rights for women took a blow when The U.S. Deficit Reduction Act prevented college health centers and many health care providers from participating in the drug pricing discount program, which formerly allowed contraceptives to be sold to students and women of low income in the United States at a lowered cost. In November 2006, The Yogyakarta Principles were added to the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. They stated that the international community has recognized the rights of persons to decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence. The Principles include “The Right to Treatment with Humanity while in Detention” (Principle 9) which requires that adequate access to medical care is provided and counselling appropriate to the needs of those in custody; it recognizes the particular needs of a person on the basis of their sexual orientation and gender identity. These principles were among the first to guarantee rights for people with various sexual orientations.
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Roe v. Wade for Men
“A woman can legally deprive a man of his right to become a parent or force him to become one against his will.”
On March 9 2006, The National Center for Men brought a case in the US, Dubay v. Wells (a.k.a Roe v. Wade for men), that argued that in the event of an unplanned pregnancy, when an unmarried woman informs a man that she is pregnant by him, he should have an opportunity to give up all paternity rights and responsibilities. Supporters argue that this would allow the woman time to make an informed decision and give men the same reproductive rights as women. When it comes to family planning, women have three options: abortion, adoption, or keep the baby. However, men do not have any option whatsoever, and must abide by what the woman has decided. Armin Brott put it like this: “A woman can legally deprive a man of his right to become a parent or force him to become one against his will.” But the balance here is very delicate. Jacob Appel has pointed out that “if one grants a man veto power over a woman’s choice to have an abortion in cases where he is willing to pay for the child, why not grant him the right to demand an abortion where he is unwilling to provide for the child?” This is why men should be granted the right to “financial abortion.” If the child is unintended and unwanted, the man should be able to divorce himself of any financial or moral obligation to the child, leaving the women with the same three options as before. Granting men this right places responsibility on the women to examine the real repercussions of having an unintended child without the support of the father. However, it is important to remember that the embryo is in the woman; her decision is about her whole body including the pregnancy, so she should always be granted veto power in the option of abortion. Unfortunately, Dubay v. Wells was dismissed in the U.S. Court of Appeals (Sixth Circuit), leaving an imbalance of reproductive and financial power.
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Global Population Control
China’s One Child Policy
Most current reproductive rights guarantee (or are moving toward) the individual the right to have as many children as they want,
“Only approximately 36% of China’s total population is currently restricted to one child.“
when they want them without exception. However, many also believe in the collective right of the already existing population to live in a world with a sustainable population, free of overpopulation, scarce land, famine, and brutal resource wars. The most notable example of population control is China’s “OneChild Policy,” which Chinese government refers to under it’s official translation of family planning policy. It was created in 1979 to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China by curbing the population boom and decreasing the national population long-term. It is controversial both within and outside of China, however 76% of the Chinese population supports the policy. The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors, however it has been implicated that there has been an increase in forced abortions due to the policy. In 2002, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization, but this law is not always actively enforced. Other negative social consequences that come along with the policy are the under-reporting of female births and the high rate of female infanticide — as males are favoured not only to carry on the family name, but for other cultural advantages, such as not paying for the marriage of a daughter and the viability of finding work early to support the parents. This has been suggested as a possible cause behind China’s gender imbalance which is decimating a generation of men who are disturbingly aware of the possibility of living their entire lives without the prospect of ever finding a wife. China has approximately 4:1 male to female population ratio.
Chinese authorities claim that the policy has prevented approximately 400 million births from its implementation in 1979
Although many Westerners believe that it is a nation wide policy, only approximately 35% of China’s total population is currently restricted to one-child. Officially, it restricts only married, urban couples to having just one child, and it allows exemptions for several cases, including rural couples (who need children to work on their farm), ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves (making the policy viable for only every other generation). Hong Kong and Macau are completely exempt from the policy, as well as foreigners living in China. In 2010 it was announced that the majority of the citizens first subject to the policy are no longer of reproductive age, and it has been speculated that many citizens of the younger generation simply disregard or violate the policy in more recent years. Still, the deputy director of the Commission stated that the policy would remain unaltered until at least 2015. In March 2011, the Chinese government reviewed the policy and expressed considerations to allow for couples to have a second child. In April 2007 a study by the University of California, Irvine, which claimed to be the first systematic study of the policy, found that it had proved “remarkably effective”. However other social economists have expressed concern for China’s aging population and negative population growth to lead to many retired Chinese elders with a small working class to support them. Yet the reduction in the fertility rate and subsequent population decline has reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation like: epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services (such as health, education, law enforcement), and strain on the ecosystem from abuse of fertile land, and the production of high volumes of waste. Even with the one-child policy in place, China still has one million more births than deaths every five weeks. However, due to the Chinese government’s strong-hold on media, and information and statistics coming out of China, it is very hard to get a clear picture of how China’s population control strategy will shape the future of the country.
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Global Population Control
Arth’s Birth Credits
Another method of population control has been promoted since the 1990s by Michael E. Arth, an urban designer, environmental activist, and local Florida politician. It is a choice-based, marketable, birth license plan also called “birth credits”. Similar plans can be traced back to economist Kenneth Boulding (1964) and echoed by ecological economist Herman
“...their economic and educational levels would tend to rise as there is an inverse relationship between net worth and number of children”
Daly (1991). Arth believes that human overpopulation is a serious issue and that a free-market population control is preferable to other options that may take too long (economic development or family planning), are impractical (space colonization), or cruel (forced sterility, genocide, famine, disease, and war), and preserves the individual right to choice. Birth credits allow women to have as many children as they wants, as long as she buys a license for children go beyond Zero Population Growth (ZPG). For example, if ZPG was determined to be two children, then those children would be “free”, and the market would determine the cost of the license for each additional child. Extra credits would expire after a certain time, so they can’t be hoarded by speculators. An advantage of the scheme is that affluent women wouldn’t buy credits because they already limit their family size by choice. Society benefits by prevention of overpopulation-related disasters and immediate reduction in unwanted children. The incentive to individuals is that their economic and educational levels would tend to rise as there is an inverse relationship between net worth and number of children. As with traffic laws, enforcement of birth credits could be through fines, tax levies, or loss of privileges. This plan pays for itself by rewarding those who choose not to have children, and charging those that have more than ZPG. The cost of the credits for those with more than ZPG would be a tiny fraction of the actual cost of raising a child. Therefore, the credits would serve as a wake-up call for women who might otherwise produce children without seriously considering the long term consequences to society.
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Reproductive Rights Timeline
American Birth Control League legally opened by Margaret Sanger
Margaret Sanger distributes “Family Limitation” pamphlet
ALI MPC adopted, starting a cascade of state abortion reform
Universal Declaration of Human Rights formed by UN
Tremblay v. Diagle declares fetus not a person in Canada
One-Child Policy implemented on Chinese population
“The Pill” approved for sale by the FDA
“The Pill” is invented and manufactured in Europe
Proclamation of Teheran declares first reproductive rights
Margaret Sanger is jailed for 30 days after distributing birth control
“The Pill” approved for sale to unmarried women
Roe v. Wade declares a woman’s’ right to choice
R. v. Morgentaler overturns Canada’s former abortion policy
1965 Griswold v. Connecticut allows married women to use contraceptives
Beijing Platform solidified reproductive rights as binding
Michael E. Arth promotes birth credits in Florida
Mifeprestone approved by the FDA for sale in America
Cairo Programme of Action created against sexual discrimination
Mifeprestone made legal for distribution in France
Yogyakarta Principles declares freedom of sexual orientation
Dubay v. Wells fails to provide men financial abortion options
Reproductive rights are essential to empower women to become working members of society and for men to equalize the balance of financial power. Both genders need to help stop the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. It is important that individuals have the right to control their own bodies and make informed, intelligent, and responsible choices about sexual orientation and starting a family. It is important that collective rights of the community and individual rights are balanced in order to create a society that fosters growth of the family as well as the economy. With respect for individual rights and support of Human and Reproductive Rights, we can grow the
Kevles, Daniel J. “The Secret History of Birth Control.” The New York Times. July 22, 2001 Men’s Rights.Com. “What Are A Father’s Rights To Prevent An Abortion?” June 8, 2011.<http://www.mensrights.com/index.php/Articles/ What-Are-A-Fathers-Rights-To-Prevent-An-Abortion.html> International Conference on Human Rights. “Proclamation of Teheran” 1968. Archived at <http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/b_tehern.html> National Center for Men: Fighting for Fairness and Equal Rights. “Roe v. Wade... For Men: Men’s Center files pro-choice lawsuit in federal court.” 2008 <http://www.nationalcenterformen.org/page7.shtml>
nation and bring communities closer to achieving the American Dream
United Nations: Report of the Fourth International Conference on Population and Development, Cario. September 13, 1994 <http://www.un.org/popin/icpd/conference/offeng/poa.html>
by allowing everyone their own individual pursuit of happiness.
World Health Organization. <http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/en>
Community Connection Planned Parenthood
On October 16 2011, Planned Parenthood turned 95. Planned Parenthood is many things to many people: a trusted health care provider, an informed educator, a passionate advocate, and a global partner helping similar organizations around the world. Planned Parenthood delivers vital reproductive health care, sex education, and information to millions of women, men, and young people worldwide. One in five American women has chosen Planned Parenthood for health care at least once in her life. Planned Parenthood has more than four million activists, supporters, and donors nationwide. The heart of Planned Parenthood is in the local community. Planned Parenthood has 83 unique, locally governed affiliates nationwide operate nearly 800 health centers, which reflect the diverse needs of their communities. Planned Parenthood Wisconsin (PPWI) operates 27 health centers that serve more than 70,000 people each year. They offer comprehensive, medically accurate, age-appropriate sexuality education to thousands of young adults, teens, parents and other adults of influence each year. PPWI educators work with community partners to encourage healthy decision making and early detection and prevention to close racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. The public affairs program aims to protect and expand access to comprehensive reproductive health care and education. PPWI works to help advance public policies that are pro-woman and pro-family; expand access to family planning and reproductive health care; and bring accurate, responsible sex education into our schools. PPWI depends on their dedicated activists and volunteers to promote and protect reproductive rights and freedom in Wisconsin and the nation. You can join them in the fight to ensure that choice is
More Info at:
www.PPAWI.org 14 | MIAD Bridge [Fall 2011]
protected by hitting the streets or the phones, at an outreach table, on campus, in their office, or at a community event near you!
Connect, Communicate, and Change Make a difference at your local Planned Parenthood today!
COMMUNITY OUT-REACH VOLUNTEER
Community Outreach volunteers help educate
Get outside this fall and go door-to-door with
the community and provide information about
other volunteers to talk to constituents about
Planned Parenthood’s services and advocacy,
important reproductive health issues in key
share information about reproductive rights
districts! Don’t worry if you’ve never canvassed
issues, collect petition signatures, and get others
before, it is simple! All training, materials and
involved! Grab a friend and join a community event.
scripts are provided. You get to talk to the
PPWI can pair you with a veteran volunteer and
community about reproductive rights issues
provide information about Planned Parenthood.
and help educate voters on how to protect their reproductive rights.
DATA ENTRY VOLUNTEER
PHONE BANK VOLUNTEER
Help Planned Parenthood help connect the
You can help Planned Parenthood connect
members of the community with each other
community members by making phone calls
and with PPW in the fight against the attack
during critical issues affecting your health and
on women’s health and reproductive rights by
freedom. If you’ve never phone banked before,
entering names of supporters into the digital
it’s fun and easy! All training, materials and scripts
data base. The names of the supporters are
will be provided. PPWI uses an online dialing
gathered from petitions and postcards collected
system and will have pizza, candy, beverages,
at farmers markets, festivals, and other outreach
and pro-choice goodies and trinkets.
events by PPWI volunteers.
[Fall 2011] MIAD Bridge | 15-----
BY ADAM FORBES | FEB 12, 2011 ILLUSTRATED BY RACHEL SHULTZ
Everyone has the right to their own personal health and well being, health care should be easy, universal, and come without complications. Health care means providing adequate preventative and curative care to any patient that seeks it. A patient is anyone who seeks care, no matter what their social or financial situation may be.
Health and Caring
Proper health care should involve education on health; it should inform individuals on what is healthy for them and to stay away from unhealthy habits. This is important for the masses to help them to prevent the need to seek care for easily preventable illnesses or conditions. Mental and physical well-being are both important and should be viewed to equally affect their situation, therefore all mental related illnesses should be held equally consequential to those of physical nature. Everyoneâ€™s health is their own responsibility and it is always up to the individual whether or not to seek care, but access to receive quality treatment from professionals should be available to everyone no matter what the circumstances Good health care is extremely important, proper care is an absolute necessity to every individual. Without health and well-being, one simply cannot lead their life to itâ€™s full potential, nor be able to improve their conditions for themselves or their families. It should be stressed that both mental and physical conditions are understood and considered equally when it comes time to seek care. The ramifications of both mental and physical illnesses are extremely critical to ones own personal welfare; therefore need to be treated equally in their urgency as determined by patient or physician. The views I hold on health care seem very idealistic in comparison to the feelings and opinions I get from others on what needs to be done regarding health care. I cannot help but feel that the rights of human beings are being overlooked and down played in favor of political rivalry and the egocentricity of the few in charge. I find it hard to have faith, or even participate, in a government that works in this way. It seems as though very little gets done, and when things do move forward (i.e. the new health care bill), it is soon being challenged for every little flaw. The duality in government creates nothing but feud, and serves only to halt progress in exchange for political turmoil. I cannot say that I know what the alternative is, but the contempt coming from both sides in opposition of the other will not facilitate progress.
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Service in Life
“I truly enjoy helping people work through their problems, offering advice, and helping them to gain the confidence they need.”
Its not to say that I haven’t spoken with individuals who have created thoughtful solutions to this predicament, but they all seem to be playing by the flawed rules of a flawed game. How can people come to expect perfection when they have a party opposite them that has a completely different and opposing view of correctness? Due to this opposition, the health care bill has become too complex and disjointed for people to expect a complete and effective change to health care. Although, both sides would agree the health care bill is nowhere near a perfect solution, repealing the entire health care bill is futile and would be a giant backward leap. For any progress to be made, there needs to be steps made in the right direction. An infant learning to walk does not revoke his first steps that were shaky and unstable. Those steps were the building blocks that could make him or her into a long distance runner. As a people we need to start with those same building blocks in order to commence in progress. The service I have put forth at this time is quite limited. I once volunteered to set up a pit stop for runners in a 5K-race benefitting breast cancer through a neighborhood recreation center. I set up a station for water, and handed it out to runners as they passed by. Other than that instance, and the recent activities for class, I haven’t done much of anything as far as volunteer work goes. This work does have a loose connection toward health. The race for one was to benefit a health related cause; secondly, the actual work I did had to do with keeping the runners hydrated.
We simply cannot afford to keep progress in a sifter, letting only small advancements go forth, and holding back the big ones.
Overall this was an enjoyable experience, although I can’t say it brings me as much joy as simply listening to other people. I truly enjoy helping people work through their problems, offering advice, and helping them to gain the confidence they need. I feel that many people do not get the emotional support they are in need of, and being there to listen does give me a sense of worth. One of the most valuable things you can give someone is your time, and undivided attention. Through giving this gift you can feel the positive affect it has on the one you gave that consideration to. Many positive things go overlooked in people because they would not suffice to be put on ones résumé, but that does not mean they cannot have a tremendous affect on someone’s life. I do not have training in guidance only my own experiences, which are limited, but I believe if you are trying to help someone with only love in your heart you cannot hurt them.
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Adam’s Personal Story
“Soon after my birth it was realized that I had been born with a serious congenital heart defect. “
Soon after my birth it was realized that I had been born with a serious birth defect. Transposition of the great vessels, a congenital heart defect where the two major blood vessels, that carry blood away from the heart the aorta and pulmonary artery are transposed or crossed. This was an instance where immediate medical response was needed, I was immediately given Prostaglandin, a drug used to dilate a closing blood vessels. Eleven hours after my birth I was flown by helicopter to Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago for corrective surgery to be performed. Three days after this, at optimum time due to the condition of the heart surgery was performed by Dr. Farouk S. Idriss. Dr. Idriss was Professor of Cardiovascular surgery at Northwestern Medical School and led a research project entitled Surgical Anatomy of Congenital Heart Disease. Dr. Idriss invented a revolutionary new surgery to anatomically correct transposition of the great vessels; therefore it is quite an honor to have had the surgery that saved my life performed by the man who invented it. Especially lucky on my part, since he retired less than one year after my surgery was preformed. The ways that I have benefitted from health care are obvious I would not be here today if it was not for the aid I received. From the amazing care from doctors, those who transported me, to the generous family friends who donated blood soon before the operation, I must be forever thankful to all those individuals who helped me in my helpless state and insured my life go on. At the time of my birth my father had recently started his own company. He was on a temporary insurance plan that extended from his previous job, until the time he was able to buy an entirely new plan. The insurance covered almost all of the costs of my care, which was of great benefit to my parents who were financially stable, but also going through a risky period
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of time. I could not say what the outcome would have been if they had they been uninsured, but do to the absolute requirement of the surgery I assume it would have been carried out regardless. Investigating this event serves to solidify and deepen my views on health care even further. With the tragedies and complications that plague humanity in times of need, it is absolutely necessary for one to have the best care possible no matter who they are, or what there given financial situation. This event – for example a couple having a child – is stressful as financially as it is emotionally, even when in a comfortable financial position. But then to be immediately faced with the possible death of a child any time to deny someone available help? Even in a situation less threatening where the infant needs care but will certainly survive, should they still not be given any treatment that will ensure them the best possible circumstances to lead a life as if born without any complications? Life does not need to get any more difficult or distressing especially in times of vulnerability, in this age of scientific advancement and knowledge it is ones right to proper care. The world “qualify” should not enter the world of health care. The concept of eligibility for proper health and well-being is an avaricious and inhumane atrocity.
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I interviewed Francisco â€œKikoâ€? Cesar who was born and raised in Brasil, and came to the U.S. in his early twenties to continue his degree in mechanical engineering. He met his wife Amy here and they traveled back to Brasil to start a family. After some years living in Brasil they decided it was time to move back to the U.S. This putt them in a difficult financial situation upon arrival. They were just beginning their new life in the United States, and Kiko had not yet found work they needed some financial help. The services of The Rotary Club provided their children with school materials, and some members even volunteered to bring them food. Kiko is outstandingly appreciative for this and finds ways to give back whenever he can. He volunteers at The Family Health Partnership Clinic (FHPC), and was on the board of directors for ten years. While in this position Kiko helped the company improve and grow, and after this time ways up he used his computer skills to take the lead position in the IT department, which he still holds to this day. The story that got Kiko in touch with the FHPC is just as interesting and noble as the service he provides there. About fifteen years ago, Kiko was driving down Illinois Rt. 47 in Chicagoâ€™s Northwest suburbs when he saw a man hitchhiking and picked him up. Kiko told him where he would be stopping and the man was happy to take the ride. As they talked Kiko learned that the man was a Cuban immigrant who recently lost all that he had, and that he was traveling to Florida. Kiko reached his destination and they parted ways.
13.7% are uninsured in Illinois, according to the 2000 census.
Interview with: Francisco Cesar
On his way home Kiko came to the realization that the man had no coat, money, or shelter. Kiko later found the man and decided that the right thing to do was to find this man someplace to stay, so he set him up at an apartment close by. Kiko learned that this man was a diabetic, and took him to the nearest free clinic, which was the FHPC. He paid the mans rent for four months he still receives Thanksgiving and Christmas cards from the hitchhiker. When it comes to health care Kiko said that he does not know all of the “ins and outs” of the bill but said, “Like any complex law or regulation, the bill just needs fine tuning”. Just after this Kiko stated that with what the new bill could offer “it would be a disservice to humanity, not to pass it”. He made a great point about the uninsured, saying “[they] do not get care unless they are very sick, and if they do they go to the emergency room”. This highlights the importance of free clinics like the FHPC. Kiko explain that “clinics like this cut down the number of people going straight to emergency, now they can get quality care they can afford leaving the emergency rooms open for those in desperate need”. The new health care law would put an end to this and help people get the preventative care they need. This was an informative interview and I have learned much from it.
[Everybody Needs Somebody] MIAD Bridge | 23-----
24 | MIAD Bridge [Everybody Needs Somebody]
The need for health care is obvious, health and well-being is an issue everyone living has to face in one way or another. No matter what way you look at it people need care, and steps need to be taken to ensure that everyone gets the best possible care offered. It is simply unfair and unjust to deny someone care whether they are sick or not. Article three in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.” To deny someone the care they need would, especially when it is readily available would be a direct violation of this right, and sadly enough this shameful act is still going on today in this country. With the right laws in effect, and a little help from the community health care can be available to everyone in need. Sitting down and examining my thoughts on health care has really made me evaluate myself and come to conclusive arguments for my beliefs. Doing that, as well as talking to others about their ideas in the interviews, has brought up a lot of points that intrigued me. It has led me to find out more about the health care law, as well as develop a better understanding of my own ideas on this issue. I learned a lot from hearing the views of those I interviewed, even though I didn’t always agree with the points that were made. I have gained a greater sense of understanding on the ideas surrounding the health care law, and why people may be responding to it the way that they are. I feel that there is a strong connection between service and wellness for both those directly benefitting from the service provided as well as those providing the service. In many places service is an absolute necessity in order for organizations to stay running and helping those in need, The Family Health Partnership Clinic is a great example of this. Health is of enormous importance to everyone living today, and in a country as advanced as the United States health should be at the top of our priorities. It is our job to pave the time ahead with the absolute best living conditions for those who will lead the future, and without health there can be no future.
Jackson, Jill. “Health Care Reform Bill Summary: A Look At What’s in the Bill.” Political Hotsheet(2010): n. pag. Web. 9 Feb 2011. <http:// www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20000846-503544.html>. “Obituary Dr. Farouk S. Idriss.” Pediatric Cardiology. 14. (1993): 196-197. Print. Schumacher, Kurt R. “Transposition of the Great Vessels.” http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. A.D.A.M., Inc., 12/21/2009. Web. 9 Feb 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002535> Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E,eds. “Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine.” 8th ed. St. Louis, Mo; WB Saunders; 2007.
Health How-To Breast Self-Exam
Most breast problems are first discovered by women themselves – often by accident. The goal of self-exams is to find cancers before symptoms start. Some women feel very comfortable doing breast self-exam regularly with a systematic step-by-step approach to examining the look and feel of their breasts. Other women are more comfortable simply looking and feeling their breasts occasionally while showering or getting dressed. Sometimes, women are so concerned about “doing it right” that they become stressed over the technique. Doing breast self-exam regularly is one way for women to know how their breasts normally look and feel and to notice any changes. It’s a good idea to examine your breasts once a month at the same time each month because breasts can change throughout your menstrual cycle. Getting to know your breasts early in adulthood is the best way to detect changes and spot abnormalities later. Though breast cancer is most common in women over 50, it can occur at any age; that is why it is important to develop a baseline for what is normal now. Some imperfections are normal, but it is important to remember that breast lumps can be both benign or malignant. Any unusual changes should be reported to your doctor. Talk with your doctor about self breast exams. Most women find it easier to follow a pattern to be sure that they covered their whole breast. You might want to start at the nipple and work your way to the outer edge of your breast or you might want to move your fingers up and down vertically in rows. To feel all the tissue inside your breasts, you will have to use varying pressures. To feel the deep tissue in the back of your breast, you will have to use firm pressure. When you’ve reached the deep tissue, you will be able to feel down to your rib
More Info at:
www.NATIONAL BREASTCANCER.org 26 | MIAD Bridge [Fall 2011]
cage. Many women find that the easiest way to feel their breasts is when their skin is wet and slippery, so they like to do this step in the shower.
Good, Better, Breast! Just follow these 4 easy steps to a breast self-exam:
1 2 3 4
Step 1: Before you put on your bra, stand in front
Step 2: While standing or sitting, and feel your
of the mirror with your hands on your hips
left breast with your right hand keeping
and press firmly to flex your chest muscles.
your fingers together. Using a small
Do a visual check for any of the following
circular motion with a firm, smooth touch,
abnormalities: visible distortion or
feel for lumps, hard knots, or thickening
swelling; dimpling, puckering, or bulging
under the skin. Feel your entire breast
of the skin; inverted nipple or nipple
from your collarbone to the top of your
that has changed position; and redness,
abdomen, and from your armpit to your
soreness, or a rash. Repeat with your
cleavage. Repeat with the opposite
arms raised over your head and check
breast and hand.
under your arms for lumps.
Step 3: Lie down and place a pillow under your right shoulder and put your right arm
behind your head. With the fingers of
your left hand, repeat all the motions in
Step 2. Repeat this step with your right hand. It is important to feel your breast
Step 4: Squeeze your nipples to check for a watery, milky, or yellow discharge or blood.
from different positions as the shift in gravity can expose tissue that was inaccessible while sitting or standing.
[Fall 2011] MIAD Bridge | 27-----
BY ALISHA DENOMME | SEPT 15, 2011 BASED ON AN ESSAY BY ERIN WEAVER
The strength of a society can be measured in two ways: by the way it tends to the health and wellbeing of its people, and the way it upholds justice in the community. Some form of structured health and justice can be found in every civilization in the world â€” from shamans and chiefs leading small indigenous tribes, to wealthy countries employing physicians and police; the value of health and justice is universal.
Breast Cancer Awareness
People who are employed in the service industries of health and justice are often highly regarded in the community The term “health” is often defined as the level of functional efficiency of a living being. When we speak about human health, we are usually referring to the condition of a whole person: mind, body and spirit. In 1946, the World Health Organization (WHO) created the standard definition of health, which states: “A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” The term “justice” is used to refer to the concept of moral rightness based on ethics. When we speak about justice in society, we are usually referring to both the laws created from concept of moral rightness, and the consequences for breaking the law and infringing on the rights of others. In 1948, the United Nations (UN) created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which declares in its first article: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.” Health is a physical state, and justice is a concept, and they form a baseline for society to develop a structured system of health care. [Detecting Justice] MIAD Bridge | 29-----
Politics and Justice In the absence of health, there is illness, and in the absence of
â€œ1 in 8 women in the United States (12%) will develop invasive breast cancer in her life.â€?
justice, there is injustice. Injustice is like illness because they both can act like a cancer. They build silently within society, and without early detection and aggressive action they can spiral out of control. In this way, breast cancer is a terrible injustice in society, and it affects 1 in 8 women per year in the United States alone. Everyone who has ever lived has been ill at some point in their life; children will get the sniffles, and elderly will experience the aging of their bodies. Many of us can cope with the day-to-day stresses and illness, but for many people, there will come a time when their illness is beyond their own scope of knowledge and they will need to see a physician for medical help. Unfortunately, due to the way the health care system functions in the United States, not every American is able to afford the medical treatment they need. We live in a time when 1 in 8 women in the United States (12%) will develop invasive breast cancer in her life, and some of those women will never be able to afford a mammogram or receive the treatment they need. Nearly 39,840 women in the U.S. were expected to die from breast cancer in 2010. Fortunately, death rates have been decreasing since 1990; these decreases are thought to be the result of increased awareness, earlier detection, and advanced treatments for those who can afford it. Recently, non-profit medical organizations, like Planned Parenthood, have been providing cancer screenings for women who would not be able to afford treatment otherwise. Cecile Richards, President of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, spoke recently about the
Planned Parenthood provides birth control to 2.5 million patients and four million tests and treatments for STDs, including HIV testing.
upcoming senate vote to eliminate funding to Planned Parenthood which would affect the cost preventative services they provide. She said: “Having failed last week to eliminate breast exams, cancer screenings, and birth control that millions of American women count on, these extremists [The GOP] insist on pushing another attack on these critical health services with a new vote against Planned Parenthood this week.” The current injustice towards health is perpetrated by feuding politicians, and affects the lives of millions of uninsured Americans. Cecile Richards continued to say that: “Planned Parenthood does not want one woman to be diagnosed with Stage 3 cancer, when our health centers could have caught that cancer through early screening. Every year we provide nearly one million screenings for cervical cancer and 830,000 breast exams.” The Republicans argued that Planned Parenthood should receive less funding because they also provide women with access to abortions. Senator Jon Kyl of Arizona (R) said abortions are: “Well over 90% of the services Planned Parenthood provides” which he then later admitted was “not a factual statement.” Abortion services actually constitute only about 3% of Planned Parenthood’s services, as Richards pointed out by saying: “The fact is that 97 percent of the health care Planned Parenthood provides is preventive, and every federal dollar Planned Parenthood receives goes toward providing preventive health care to women.” She continued to speak about the political climate causing this injustice toward women’s health, saying: “This is just one more indication of how far out of the mainstream the House Leadership is, and how they would sacrifice the health and well-being of women to pursue their extreme political agenda.”
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Science and Statistics “...About 70-80% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer.”
Organizations such as Planned Parenthood are vital for the health and justice of women who could not otherwise afford health care. The National Breast Cancer Foundation is another organization that save lives by increasing awareness of breast cancer through education and by providing mammograms for the uninsured, and those who cannot afford it. Social status, income and race also play an important role in the development and treatment of breast cancer. Compared to African American women, white women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer, but less likely to die of it. One possible reason is that African American women tend to have more aggressive tumors, although the reason unknown. It is also thought that because a larger percentage of African American women live below the poverty line, they cannot afford the same screenings and treatments as affluent white women. Family history also has an impact on the development of cancer in an individual. A woman’s risk of breast cancer approximately doubles if she has a first-degree relative (mother, sister, daughter) who has been diagnosed with breast cancer. About 20-30% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a family history of breast cancer. However, a shocking study found that about 70-80% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These are due to genetic abnormalities that occur in the natural aging process or from the result of life lifestyle choices, rather than inherited mutations. Factors such as environment and stress, as well as outside stimuli and products like deodorant, might also be the cause of random genetic mutations that cause cancer. Aluminum-based compounds are used as the active ingredient in antiperspirants; these compounds form a temporary plug within the sweat duct that stops the flow of sweat to the skin’s surface. Some research suggests that aluminum-based compounds, which are applied frequently and left on the skin near the breast, may be absorbed by the skin and cause hormonal estrogen-like effects. Because estrogen has the ability to promote the growth of breast cancer cells, some scientists have suggested that the aluminum-based compounds in antiperspirants may contribute to the development of breast cancer.
32 | MIAD Bridge [Detecting Justice]
However Americans most at risk are less likely to have this information, those who cannot afford even basic health care plans. If you are unable to provide yourself with basic health insurance, you like likely unable to afford media like television and internet – where most of the information of breast cancer is circulating. So what is breast cancer? About 5-10% of breast cancers can be linked to gene mutations (abnormal changes) inherited from your mother or father. Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most common. Women with these mutations have up to an 80% risk of developing breast cancer during their lifetime, and they are more likely to be diagnosed at a younger age (before menopause). An increased ovarian cancer risk is also associated with these genetic mutations. In men, about 1 in 10 breast cancers are believed to be due to BRCA2 mutations and even fewer cases to BRCA1 mutations. Marisa Weiss M.D., President and Founder of Breastcancer.org, is a breast radiation oncologist in Philadelphia, PA. She explains it like this: “Just think about the many things that might cause the wear and tear that leads to abnormal cell growth—pollutants, hormones, pesticides, smoking, alcohol use, obesity, stress…. Or maybe your cells just made a mistake one day when they were making new genes to pass on to their baby cells. Perhaps there was a misprint in the genetic instruction manual that said switch growth on instead of growth off. This is a test.” The term “breast cancer” refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. Usually breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. Less commonly, breast cancer can begin in the stromal tissues, which include the fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast. Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes, small organs that filter out foreign substances in the body. If cancer cells get into the lymph nodes, they then have a pathway into other parts of the body. The breast cancer’s stage refers to how far the cancer cells have spread beyond the original tumor. [Detecting Justice] MIAD Bridge | 33-----
Our society works by exchanging money for goods and services: services provided by individuals and businesses are essential to our daily living. The idea of service is broad and wide reaching. The act of providing someone with a good or performing a duty – either for monetary reward in employment, or for free in volunteering – is defined as a service. The application of services can be linked to justice in the way the services are rendered. Any service that improves someone’s wellbeing is service in the name of health. And protecting someone’s right to healthy living is a service in the name of justice. These definitions are important because they encompass aspects of both topics; they are simple and easy to interpret. I define service in this way because it covers the spectrum of services. However, providing a service for free, or for profit gain makes a huge difference. Volunteers help organizations such as Planned Parenthood and the National Cancer Association provide affordable health services for those who need it. A service can either provide a product, item or material exchange, or a service could provide an accommodation, such as for medical reasons, health and wellbeing. In this way, services cover a wide range of actions and exchanges and it is important to make the connections between society, justice, and the services which provide health care. There seems to be a unifying theme behind multiple definitions of service, and that is the act of giving something to someone who needs it. So many services are offered to us daily that we often forget all the complex interactions behind the service. Some of these services become so routine that they are taken for granted in our daily lives. People of different socioeconomic situations will have a different set of daily services that are provided to them. Often people with a lower income are unable to afford many of the routine services that people with a higher income may overlook.
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Erin’s Personal Story “I don’t want to think of the possibility that my mother could have died...”
In 2009 my mom told me and my sisters that she had breast cancer. “I don’t want to scare you,” she said, immediately making my heart sink, “but I had some tests done on a lump that I found, and it came back positive, I have breast cancer.” I don’t want to think of the possibility that my mother could have died had she not received life saving tests and early detection. Over the course of three years my mother endured countless surgeries, and radiation and chemo treatments. She underwent a double mastectomy with the hopes of eliminating any chances of it spreading and it was a physically and emotionally draining time for us all. Mental health also played a huge role in my mother’s health and at times she broke down as her health declined. Other times when her spirits were brighter, she recovered faster. She needed several services daily by various people, doctors, nurses, radiation, chemo therapy, and one which seemed overlooked but was indeed very important, food. When my mother was recovering from surgery, she had no energy to cook. I was going to school 7 hours away in Milwaukee, so she received meals from Time for Dinner, a volunteer service that prepares home cooked meals, package them, and send them to patients in need for free. All my mom had to do was put it in the oven. I remember calling her on the phone and asking what was for dinner, and getting her enthusiastic response as she listed off the wonderful meals that were created just for her. Knowing that someone cared and was looking out for my mom was so touching it left a lasting impact on me. I felt as though there was justice, and that these services helped my mother to recover from life threatening cancer. My mother is better now; she has visited Time for Dinner and seen the faces of those who helped her. Now, she gives back and volunteers there when she can. I had the privilege of meeting a few of the women on the team and could not express my gratitude enough. My mother and younger sister also participated in the Komen Race for the Cure in St. Louis on June 16, 2010 which had over 71,800 registered participants and raised $3.4 million for cancer research. It is events like this that help to bring attention to cancer and to raise money to cure those suffering from breast cancer.
[Detecting Justice] MIAD Bridge | 35-----
Interview with: Laura Brown
I interviewed Laura Brown on the subject of service relating to health and justice. She is of a lower income level and struggling with Type 2 Diabetes meaning she pays a large sum of money each month to get her prescriptions re-filled. She is also a graduate student, so she is also dealing with many student loans. When I asked her how or why service is important to her, she responded by saying, “There are many things one is incapable of doing or lack the know-how to accomplish on their own, so at some point every one must seek the services of another.” I asked her to list specific examples in which she has served others and she said, “Most of my job history has been in the service industry. As an employee of OfficeMax, I rendered copy services to my customers, and as a grad student I help my professors by grading papers and teaching labs.” I also asked her to list specific examples in which she have benefited from others’ service: “Any time you go to a restaurant, buy something from a store, go to a doctor, consult a lawyer, etc. The services rendered by a doctor keeps you healthy. The services rendered by the employees of a grocery store allow you access to food.”
66% of all undergraduates in 2007/08 received some type of financial aid with a total average amount of $9,100.
36 | MIAD Bridge [Detecting Justice]
Incidence of Breast Cancer by Type 10%
Hereditary Breast Cancer (BRCA1 and BRCA2)
Familial Breast Cancer (no mutation)
Breast Cancer Incidences by Ethnicity 17%
Sporadic Breast Cancer (no family history)
In service, health and justice go hand-in-hand. The service might lead to a benefit in personal wellbeing, physical or mental health, or may benefit the wellness of a business, industry or specific product or demographic and reinforce justice. Society as a whole benefits from both Health and
BreastCancer.Org. “What is Breast Cancer” August 12, 2011. <http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/what_is_bc.jsp>
Justice, and it is these institutions that help people overcome illnesses
CancerTreatmentCentersOfAmerica.Com. “Care That Never Quits.” 2011. <http://www.cancercenter.com>
as severe breast cancer. At a time when breast cancer affects 1 in 8 women in the United States alone, both health and justice must work
NationalBreastCancer.Org. “Early Detection Plan” 2008. <https://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/edp/default.aspx>
together to provide people with the services they need to overcome life’s
Planned Parenthood. “Breast Cancer Screenings.” 2011. <http://www.plannedparenthood.org>
challenges. And only when justice is sought after, a cure can be found.
Susan G. Komen for the Cure. “Understanding Breast Cancer.” 2011. <http://ww5.komen.org/>