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PARAMETRIC MASTERPLANNING FOR EMERGING CITIES

In the design studio “Syn City” innovative planning methods for the generation of urban spatial structures for emerging cities in ethiopia have been developed. The goal was to create a computer-based design strategy, which adapts plans to changing environmental and social parameters and integrates the perspective of the urban user. In that way, the urban master plan is synthesized by a set of rules which has derived from the lives and interactions of the urban actors, rather than being determined by abstract geometrical principles. BACKGROUND Rapid population growth and rural-urban migration are putting enormous pressure on urban planning in developing countries: Continuously, new neighborhoods and entire cities have to be built in a very shot time span. These new developments, however, must not only meet the basic need of “saving the roof over one’s head” but must also be able to ensure secure and sustainable livelihoods for all users of the city. Architects and urban designers must hereby pay particular attention to the morphology of streets, places, and buildings, since these persist over long periods of time and the greatly influence the behavior of the urban user. Currently, the Ethiopian government is discussing the development of several thousand towns (ca. 10.000 inhabitants) in the Ethiopian countryside. The chair InfAR has prepared an initial development concept in collaboration with the EiABC and industry partners. It received broad attention over the last months and was critically discussed with the Ethiopian government. This real-life example served our studio as a case study with the goal of rethinking and parametrizing the initial concept. GOAL AND METHODS The task of creating thousands of towns in a very short time span and the complexity of cities itself creates a huge challenge for urban planners. Thus, as Alexander (1964) states: „Bewildered, the formmaker (…) has to make clearly conceived forms without the possibility of trial and error over time. He has to be encouraged now to think his task through from the beginning, and to ‘create’ the form he is concerned with, for what once took many generations of gradual development“ (ibid., p. 4). Traditional planning methods are not suitable to support the designer in this task. They don‘t allow rapid adaption of plans to changes and to individual local conditions. Thus planning with these methods often result in a reduced set of patterns, that are „stamped“ along large urban areas, ignoring the specifities of sites and the complex interplay between the emerging spaces. Parametric modeling on the other hand allows to create plans based on rules and numbers that describe relations between spatial objects. By changing boundary conditions (such as topography or existing streets) and changing parameters (such as street width or lot size) plans can be easily adapted to different contexts. This allows for greater flexibility in the planning process and thereby facilitates the creation of better results. The goal of the design studio was to develop a parametric masterplan that is adaptable to different situations and provides high urban qualities. The subgoals of the project were to train students (1) in the computational modeling of design-concepts, (2) in understanding the impact of urban form on human behaviour for specifiying generative rules and (3) to get them in touch with building in african context. Therefore different seminars and input lectures accompanied the project. These include Parametric Modeling (with Rhino Grasshopper), Programming (C#) and Spatial Analysis (Space Syntax) as well as lectures about building in Ethiopia and Ethiopian Culture.

OUTCOME The challenging task for the students was to synthesize the multitude of inputs to a consistent strategy for creating masterplans. The exhibition shows the results of these efforts. Besides the development of the strategy that can be described in an algorithm (displayed as a flow chart on the second page of each project) this strategy had to be applied in three different sites (introduced below). Finally the results from each group for each site have been analysed for objective comparison. The results of the project reveal a great potential of the methodology for the future of urban planning.

NEED FOR URBANIZATION Ethiopia has the lowest rate of Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa. Through Urban History a Nation´s Urbanization an Economic Develop-

Source : United Nations, www.unpopulation.org Graphic Design : Jan van Ballegooijen

CURRENT SITUATION Overcrowded public streets in Addis Ababa, the mega – capital of Ethiopia.

Photo : Dirk Donath

PARTICIPANTS Maria Victoria Behler, Franziska Bernstein, Çimenoglu Burcu, Ulysse Fontaine, Christoph Hanisch, Nigora Ishandzhanova, Kateryna Konieva, José Luís Krug, Maria Jose Landeta Valencia, Helena Louisa Pooch, Bardo Salgado, Frederic Schneider, Bogdan Shevchenko, Alberto Villa, Tehya Wood, Ryan Zeringue

T2D CONCEPT SKETCH The initial concept for the layout of 10K Cities served as a starting point for refinement

TEACHING STAFF Vertr.-Prof. Dr. Sven Schneider, BUW Jun.-Prof. Dr. Reinhard König, BUW, ETHZ, AIT Dipl. Ing. Lukas Veltruský, BUW Dipl. Ing. Nicole Baron, BUW MArch Abdulmalik Abdulmawla, BUW GUESTS Dr. Wolfgang Loibl, AIT Wien Prof. Dr. Dirk Donath, EiABC Addis Abeba University Asgedom Haile, EiABC and BUW Florian Geddert, plus4930 Martin Bielik, DecodingSpaces

Concept : Donath Geddert Veltruský

Photo : Dirk Donath

COMPUTATIONAL PLANNING METHODS Parametric Modeling Techniques are applied to create Urban Masterplans that adapt to the local

CURRENT APPROACHES Houses built by the government to offer living space in the rural areas. Graphic : Reinhard König

SITE #8 FEFA DILDYI – ፈፋ ድልድይ A castle in nowhere – Fefa Dildy is located in the Amhara region of Ethiopia in a very harsh desert-like area around 60 km from the next urban settlement, the Town of Sekota. The settlement is placed in a huge valley surrounded by mountains with rocks and sand on a relatively low attitude of around 1200 m which brings a dry hot climate dominated by cactus vegetation cover. Though the agriculture is mainly dependent on seasonal rainfall the crop cultivation is found to be productive and suitable for seldom fruit trees and spices for medicine and food. The town´s character provides a compact and dense settlement, gives a micro climate with manifold green areas and sun protected places. It will be a tourist attraction being located inbetween two superior places of Ethiopia: Lalibella and the Semien Mountains. It can provide horse riding, walking and free-climbing facilities. Photo : Jakob Schmitt

SITE #2 HARO WELABU – ሀሮ ወላቡ Haro Welabu is a populated place which is located in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples‘ Region. A Two hour´s drive to the south east from the Woreda capital Dilla and around 700 km to the south of Addis Ababa takes you to a hilly and green area: there is the place where people start to create a town in a cozy valley surrounded by an amazing landscape. The economy is defined by high-end agricultural products which are delivered all over Ethiopia. A traditional ceremony place is attached to the town area which brings thousands of people to that place every year. First facilities like an elementary school and a health care center are the staring points for further urban development to strengthen the identification and local character of this place.

Photo : Yohanna Eyob

SITE #3 ANKO GOLMA – አንኮ ጎልማ Anko Golma – The Ethiopian version of Marrakesh – is a township on the top the high hills of the “Gofa” region in the South of Ethiopia; blessed with magnificent views, breathtaking landscape and a fertile agriculture. The town is trenched along the mountain ridge where farming and foresting exists to both sides. The local community is engaged in commercial and manufacturing activities. This urban settlement is characterized with a network of small and narrow streets and compacted multistory buildings meant to house as many as possible in the little constructible land available, on top of these hills. The area comes with open mind people, warm climate, and a growing agroindustry mainly wood industry, preprocessed agricultural products for all kind of crops. Photo : Olaf Kammler

PROPOSAL FOR ADDIS BETEKRSTIYAN An adapted T2D proposal for Addis Betekrstiyan - a small South Gondar town. The city plan is build upon water harvesting optimization („town as a sponge“) and a densification of the existing building and parcel structure („rural heritage take-over“). The streets are following the natural water flow and intersect with the building structure in order to form an organic town fabric. The central water reservoir creates a new common point of identification („center of equilibrium“) beyond the diverse religious interests. In addition the town lake will be used as water reservoir and a natural storage for renewable energy („urban battery“). An evolutionary approach will only set the final town structure as „traces“ in the landscape and infrastructure will be build on demand (except water which will be used for high revenue crops). Until final stage the unused plots will be used for temporary farming, construction and recreation facilities. Concept : Donath Geddert Veltruský

Nicole Baron, Reinhard König, Sven Schneider, Lukáš Veltruský

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

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commercial and social center in Ethiopian cities; the religious plaza, where the religion pluralism is represented and plays a big role on the Ethiopian The city concept aims on decentralizing major imagery; and the Town Hall which includes all civic city functions in the most integrated areas of the and cultural services for the citizen. Moreover, the urban network to result in a more dispersed city three Plazas represent the most diverse spaces of core. The main functions of the city are the city, attracting people everyday. distributed in nodes, which are the most integrated points of the street network. This DISTRIBUITION OF FUNCTIONS way, even though more dispersed, it is possible As previously mentioned, the nodes contain all the to keep a well-structured and hierarchized city major functions of the city, which were distributed core. The development of the city from the and put together according to an empirical center is a process of addition of nodes which evaluation of what would serve the citizens better. provides, on one hand, different functions and Functions were addressed by taking into account the uses. Therefore a diversity forms within the city, specific demographic data of Ethiopia. Therefore, as but on the other hand, it sets a framework more than 40% of Ethiopia’s population is under 15 where the city can grow at a continuous pace, years old, education played a big role in the city. only depending on the topographical features of Moreover, it was our personal assessment that a given site. technical education should be a perogative in order to provide the framework for a strong city economy. TH E N ODES / S T R E E T NE T WOR K The initial node is placed on the existing main road; INFILL / BUILDINGS therefore establishing connections from the city with Concerning buildings and the infill of the the surrounding urban agglomerates. All nodes are neighborhoods, three main building types were placed according to the location of the initial node, placed. On one hand, most people are living in their creating a grid of nodes that, when triangulated and own single house, which relates directly to historical coupled with the voronoi pattern, create the city grid Ethiopian houses. These are placed within the where the nodes emerge as the most integrated neighborhoods, therefore the residents enjoy a points of the street network. That is the basis of the more human-scaled environment. On the other city, the nodes work to propel its livelihood by hand, row-housing and multi-story buildings were bringing diverse uses together and encouraging placed on the main roads in order to create a more people take part on the urban scene, hence urbanized front on more integrated connections. providing it with a social commitment. Block housing was also taken into account in order to provide major functions and also to address the CITY CORE / PLAZAS urban phenomena of buildings around corners of The three initial nodes define the city core. There, major connections creating a higher density. This the main cultural and civic functions of the city are type of dwelling also allows easy placing of multiset, providing citizens with the platform for their function buildings, which work as diversity everyday living. Spatially, the city center comprises conductors. Public buildings were also addressed of three main plazas, which represent the Ethiopian with specific design features to provide them with triad of living: the Main Market, by far the an unambiguous character.

C H ID IN E O

Neighborhood Units The use of Voronoi Network and Delaunay Edges to connect the main nodes creates interconnected networks of neighborhoods.

José Luís Noronha Krug , Alberto Villa, Ryan Zeringue

FEFA DILDIY Situated in a valley and having few topographical constraints, the nodes were placed for ideal performance, creating a more circular city. HARO WELABU The software generated a city with a clear topographical limit, creating less extensive neighborhoods.

ANKO GOLMA The topography limited the growth of the city and the software generated a city with a clear center and the developed in two different directions.

HARO WELABU On the contrary to the other locations, topographical constraints forced functions to split. For example, the industry is placed in two different, opposite locations

ANKO GOLMA The different functions are concentrated around the generated nodes, providing a lively and diverse city.

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

FEFA DILDIY Different building types are related with different functions. Most multi-function buildings are placed along the primary street network.

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N ATURAL PARAMETRIC CITY (7 DAYS CITY) Concept for a city shaped by nature for 10.000 inhabitants in Ethiopia

Location of the sites

Making a city an attractive place, is an urban project that provides an environment where the inhabitants have convenient access to parks and squares and can find their places easily, feel as actor of the city and have opportunities for their self development. At the public places the social life of cities takes place, uniting its residents and creating new ties. This concept is based on spontane ity and an organic feel. It is guided by the natural principal of the water flow and the topography to set up a street network. Streets planned with a low slope to reduce the effort for citizens to move in the city . In addition to the benefits of short distances achieved by a densification to 40 people per hectare, a sig nificant amount of land is being saved by reducing the urban sprawl. After selecting a sight, the street network is the second most important factor of any city with a high living quality. Once a grid is laid out, it is very difficult to change. The city structure provides living in green neighborhoods with short walking connections and the functions distribution will support the inhabitant‘s creativity and make a rich and prolific urban life happen. Preserving local tradition is attained by incorporating the existing structure. With this concept and automated process of planning is pos sible within a short time to plan an unlimited amount of unique cities which have a natural perception and provide a solid foundation for a high living quality.

SITE #2 HARO WELABU

SITE #2 HARO WELABU Based on the neighbourhoods division, 5 subcenters with main functions are spread through the city. This site has a district within center is also merged with the main center of the city.

SITE #3 ANKO GOLMA This site has 5 neighbourhoods, one of the subcenters is based on the existing center of the settlment

Commercial

Odyn Deux Drei - Bogdan SHEVCHENKO, Ulysse FONTAINE, Frederic SCHNEIDER

SITE #3 ANKO GOLMA

Public

Religious

Industry

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

Educational

SITE #8 FEFA DILDIY

SITE #8 FEFA DILDIY The site has the landscape that allows to have circle-like city geometry and divide it into 4 equal neighbourhoods.

Living

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PARAMETRIC MASTERPLANNING FOR EMERGING CITIES BUILDINGS In order to reduce the urban sprawl and keep distances short we decided to density to about 40 people per hectare. This contributes to a significant amount of land saving and reducing the environmental footprint.

DAY 6 - ZONING Placing the industry of a city is a key issue. Assuming that the industry is producing different smells, noise and air pollution it is wise to plan industry with the average wind direction. Wind is not always going in the same direction, but it can reduce the pollution within the city.

DAY 5- LOTS Multi-story buildings are facing the main road to shield off noise pollution from the majority of the inhabitants.

BLOCKS Blocks are made from street network structure and have size from 1500 to 8000 square meters.

STREET NETWORK The very first streets are based on water slopes. New streets are made from initial points that are rearranged topography points, existing streets and water slopes streets.

CITY BORDER The city border is made from a circle initial curve and avoids high slopes.

WATER FLOWS The water flows and the topography is the foundation for setting up a street network, zoning and placing buildings.

EXISTING SITUATION Existing streets, connections, buildings, structure have priority for future city.

FLOWCHART

Odyn Deux Drei - Bogdan SHEVCHENKO, Ulysse FONTAINE, Frederic SCHNEIDER

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

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C H A N G E . E XCHANG E CITY Since Ethiopia recognizes a rapid urbanization trend and will experience a high population influx from rural to urban areas in the future, each new city of currently 2500 planned cities will be faced with new challenges in social, economic and environmental questions. In which way can we plan productive cities with strong identities, where interconnections among people, infrastructure and services can be placed, and moreover, where a livable and resilient city is given to its citizens? A city that couples urban change with social exchange? The City takes the city as an ecosystem which contains social, economic and urban sub-ecosystems. The organization of this city-concept is organized under a node system based on three levels of connections: MACRO – MESO - MICRO which allows interconnections among the city and citizens. This exchange pattern will ensure a dynamic self-sufficient community life, allowing this new city to be productive as well as humane. The MACRO interconnections will ensure the economic sustainability and civic society organization. Each MACRO node has related MESO nodes that provide diversity of functions and exchange values defined by standardized walkable distances. The meso-nodes play the role as transmitters from MICRO nodes of personal networks to MACRO nodes of citizen community.

general market as a productive place to intercon nect, to cultural actvities with the museum and library. It provides as well the city‘s main facilities as administration and services. The second macro nodewith the university and research center is a place to lean and to research. Agriculture and Industry as the third and fourth macro node ensure the productive city. ME S O - TR AN S MI T T ER L EVEL The Meso nodes with a maximum walking distance of 250 are identified by citizens as a place to gather . A meso node aims to be the center for neighborhoods with kindergarden, open space, little markets, as well as productive small manufactures. It operates as the transmitter betwenn personal networks of Micro Level and Macro level. A productive unit (Superblock) contains Micro nodes as personal networks.

HARO WELABU #2 The software generates an optimal small town based on existing main streets of Haro Welabu.

FEFA DILY#8 Based on existing structure elements as lots, main roads and natural components the software creates the initial grid. The city is based on the highest walkability and equal acces to facilities.

MICRO - INDIVIDUAL LEVEL The concept core lies on social exchange at a micro level by coupleing community spaces ,urban gardening and daily life facilities. The aim of the micro level is to create a livable neighborhood based on life quality. The opening grid ensures walkability, visbility and a relation between residential blocks. This relation also is required for the open block core - as an exchange place for the living community.

ANKO GOLMA#3 Based on two main structuralexisting structural lines the software creates an optimal town with a block grid.

MA CR O - C O M P R E H E NS I VE LE V E L As a comprehensive level the macro node system creates a network that give the base to the city to act as a productive and sustainable eco-system. The Macro level is composed by four macro nodes. The first node as the centric node gives access to the

self sufficient

transparency

connection

identity

air quality

walkable

PRODUCTIVE UNIT The change.exchange city is based on the concept of productive units which are materialized by creating super-blocks (4 blocks). The super blocks provide a dynamic self sufficient life style which are projected in the 3

Maria Victoria Behler, Helena Louisa Pooch, Maria Jose Landeta

HARO WELABU #2 The software generates a livable radio (600m)for the city which ensures an optimal access from every single spot of it. A second radio creates the buffer zone to industrial areas and guarantees a healthy enviroment.

ANKO GOLMA #3 The software identifies the most integrated streets and hotspots in order to derive the placement of Macro and Meso Nodes. In a second step the opening grid for micro level is created.

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

FEFA DILY #8 The land use zoning commit a dynamic distribution of uses in the three levels. The micro level benefits the self sufficient behaviour by inserting community and productive facilities (urban garden, community space and manufactury).

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MACRO-MESO NODES RELATIONS

Community Space

Primary School

Residential

Urban Garden

Town Hall Secondary School

START

General Market

Library

ALGORITHM The flowcharts explaines the process of creating a parametrized city.

CREATE MAIN ROADS BASED ON TOPOGRAPHY

YES

DOES STH EXIST?

CANAL SYSTEM According to the topography and the generated grid, a parallel grid defines the canal system ensuring efficiency and close water system. The water reservoirs are placed in the perimetrial area of the city.

CREATE SECONDARY STREET NETWORK

ary

m Pri

500 m

Community Center

Univer-

Po st O

ffi

lth

a He

BUILDINGS The build area is placed around the generated opening of blocks following different rules according to the height and width of buildings.

CREATE TERTIARY STREET NETWORK

Local

CREATE NEW STREET SEGMENT

CONNECT MIDDLE POINTS OF SECONDARY STREET SEGMENTS

ur e

ce

b Pu

EVALUATE STREET LENGTH MAX. 240-440 M

Le is

ry

DENSITY There are three different densities proposed: low,medium and high. The density around Macro Nodes is high, in Meso Nodes between high and medium, and in outskirts and transition areas medium th density is low.

rse

CONNECT MIDDLE POINTS OF STREET SEGMENTS

STRAIGHTEN EXISTING ROADS

Nu

IDENTIFIY MAIN ROAD

WALKABLE DISTANCES

Local

NO

Administration

Se Sc con ho da ol ry

ANALYZE LOCATION

Macro Node

Museum

SOCIAL EXCHANGE LEVELS CITY SYSTEMS

CITY

SYSTEMCENTRIC

7

6

ORGANIZATIONS:

Workplaces, Education, Healthcare.

IDENTIFY INTEGRATED STREETS

LOW-MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL

TAKE THE MAIN HOT SPOT

TAKE INTEGRATED AS SECONDARY STREETS 18 M WIDTH

IDENTIFY HOUTSPOTS 500 M DISTANCE FROM MAIN HOTSPOT

TAKE MOST INTEGRATED STREETS AS PRIMARY STREETS 30 M WIDTH

CREATE BLOCK BOUNDARY FALSE

SET BOUNDARIES

CREATE LIVABLE ZONE RADIUS 600 M

GROUP/TRIBE

3

2

FAMILY/CLAN

11

CREATE OPENING GRID FOR STREET BLOCK

INDIVIDUAL

GRID The grid consists of three different networks which are defined by analysing the initial grid, defining most integrated streets.The initial grid is divided by a secondary and terciary grid generated by the subdivision of the initial grid (street network)by middle points and evaluated by walkability and integration factors.

MEDIUM-HIGH DENSITY MIX-USE

IDENTIFY STREET BLOCK WITH MORE THAN 14000 M2

PLACE MACRO NODES

CREATE OFFSET FROM BOUNDARY 2M

FALSE: PLACE BUILDINGS

CREATE ‘STOP GROWING’ RADIUS 900 M

CREATE OFFSET FROM BOUNDARY 4M

GENERAL STREET NETWORK

CONNECT POINTS WITH LINES

CREATE OFFSET OF 5 M FOR PATHWALKS

PRIMARY STREET NETWORK

CREATE RADIUS 250 M

TRUE: PLACE BUILDINGS

IDENTIFY INTERSECTING AREA OF PLACED RADIUS

ROAD SYSTEM A highly defined main road(red) give the software the start point for creating the initial grid.

FIND LINE MIDDLE POINTS OF EACHS BLOCK BOUNDARY

CREATE OFFSET FROM BOUNDARY 5M

PLACE MESO NODES

SECONDARY AND TERTIARY NETWORK

CREATE LOTS

SUBDIVIDE OPENING GRID BLOCK BOUNDARY

PLACE BUILDINGS

EXISTING STRUCTURE The existing natural structure (topography, main roads and water flow) affects the initial grid.

PEDESTRIAN NETWORK

RESIDENTIAL LOTS SHORTEST SIDE LENGTH MIN 12-15 M

BUILDINGS HIGHER THAN 2 STOREYS

MIX USED LOTS SHORTEST SIDE LENGTH MIN 20-40 M

PLACE GENERAL MARKET

MICRO

EVALUATE HOTSPOTS 500 M DISTANCE FROM EACH OTHER

CREATE BUFFER ZONE RADIUS 750 M

PLACE MACRO NODES

MESO

4

GROW CAPACITIES

TAKE THE FAREST HOTSPOT WITHIN LIVABLE RADIO

MACRO

COMMUNITY

5

EGO-CENTRIC

IDENTIFIY HOT SPOTS

WORLD

ETHNOCENTRIC

EVALUATE INTERGRATION AND WALKABILITY

WORLDCENTRIC

LOW INTEGRATION

HIGH DENSITY

PLACE MESO NODES

PLACE EDUCATION

PLACE INDUSTRY

PLACE RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

PLACE UNIVERSITY

PLACE COMMERCIAL

PLACE MICRO NODES

PLACE 4 M OFFSET BLOCK BOUNDARY

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

PLACE URBAN GARDENS AND COMMUNITY BUILINDS

4 openings

1

4 openings

Manufactury Kinder Garden

Community Space

Religious Space

Residential high-medium density

PLACE GOVERNMENTAL BUILDINGS

Playground

Primary School

Playground

Do not block axis

2

PLACE CULTURAL BUILDINGS

1 4

2

4

1

3 1

4 units= 1 community node (com-

3

4 3

2

Dont block axis

2

Urban Garden

Meso Node

Residential high-medium density

munity space+ urban garden)

3

4 units = 1 community node (shared urban garden)

EXISTING SITUATION Haro Welabu is situated in an agricultural environment and perimetrical of Addis Abeba, it has an existing street network with 4 main roads.

Emerging cities TOOL BOX

CITY IS BUILT

OPENING GRID

Maria Victoria Behler, Helena Louisa Pooch, Maria Jose Landeta

MESO NODES RELATIONS

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

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ur ba n spa c e s. C onceptually, these indus tr i e s c a n r a nge in size and product: in or de r to e nsure economic sustainability, thi s town would ideally home the primary and tertiary levels of production within its Abstract. The urbanization of Ethiopia‘s country- walls, but it may also include different side must provide resilient infrastructures which ty p e s of i nd ustry, like textile production, anticipate growth and maintain accessibility. To ta nne r i e s, a nd building materials. that end, this plan parametrizes a productive town in which a vibrant economy emerges from DIF F E R E N TIATED MI XED-USE NEI GHBO Rsustainable manufacturing, education, and soci- H OOD TY POLO GI ES al mixing. We use street networks and topograIn or d e r to a void a monotone city structure, phy to create visibility lines which allows the the c onc e pt b ehind these towns is focused public to be aware of the production chain, as around different neighborhood typologies one walks through industrial courtyards where based on density and primary function, the people work with raw materials, to the market i d e nti ti e s f or which would then inform their where the merchandise is sold—all with a view str e e tsc a pe a nd block division. For of the city‘s industrial monuments. i nsta nc e , l ow- density residential areas fea tur e ga r d e n ho uses with greater outdoor To achieve this, the plan builds on the existing sp a c e a nd r i nged around central education context of the town, placing the market at the b l oc ks, whi l e h igh-density education blocks most integrated point and incorporating major a r e de si gne d t o create a feeling of urban roads into the emerging grid. Next, the urban density with primary, secondary, and trade network and its primary functions are organized sc hool b ui l di ngs built against the street, by connectivity patterns which promote walkability and street network differentiation. At the S TR E E T N E TWORK edges of town, industry is decentralized but sus- Part of the process of building these cities tainably designed to minimize environmental up f oc use d on the street network as a tool degradation and maximize livability. The result is f or c r e a ti ng a n interactive urban environ a dense and diverse urban environment, an m e nt. The p r i mary street network is optimized industrial town for the new Ethiopia e xtr a p ol a te d f rom a process called cir that does not sacrifice livability for productivity. cle-packing, which provides connections b e twe e n di f f e rently-shaped neighborhood Ke y W ord s : p r o d u c t i o n c i t y, i ndustr i a l e xp e - ty p ol ogi e s. Then within those typologies, rie nce , m ar k et p l a c es , u r b a n c onne c ti vi ty , the se c ond a r y street network is integrated v isi b i l i t y into the primary street network with the gui d a nc e of space syntax and integration DIV ERSE IN D US T R I E S c ounts. The street network also becomes a A major c o mp o n en t o f t h i s c onc e p t f or a n tool f or p r ovi ding a line of sight from the e ng ag i ng i n d u s t r i a l t o w n i s m ul ti p l e ty p e s m a i n m a r ke t to the main industrial center, of i nd us t ry , p r o d u c t i o n , a n d m a nuf a c tur i ng which enforces the identity and experience w hich cre a t es d ema n d f o r e qua l l y di ve r se of the c i ty .

E XPE R I E N CI N G PR O D U CT I O N

HARO WELABU The algorithm fits to the steep topography and results in an elongated town 2.6 km from end to end and an area of 154 hectares, creating a density of 65 people per hectare.

ANKO GOLMA Another steep site, Anko Golma results in a city 2 km in length, 142 hectares, and an overall density of 70 people per hectare.

FEFA DILDIY Fefa Dildiy‘s site exists on a relatively flat area and enables the algorithy to maintain its centric shape as it grows the city. The resulting town is 145 hectares in size, 1.4 km across, and has a density of 69 people per hectare.

Residential Commercial Industrial Educational Public Religious

CONNECTING INDUSTRY AND TRADE This productive community town is designed with walkability, visibility, and accessibility in mind, and spatially organized using those principles to create the primary streeet network and place neighborhoods.

Line Bernstein, Nigora Ishandzhanova, Tehya Wood

HARO WELABU The algorithm took the elongated shape of this site and placed low-density housing primarily in the west along the ridge of the hill, while industry

ANKO GOLMA Because of the shape of the city, high and medium density areas are central but proximal to the edge of the city. With industry in the northeast corner, much of the heavy functions of the city are focused in

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

FEFA DILDIY The algorithm places most of the density in the middle, and the typologies relating to that level of density produce commercial, industrial, and public hubs. Mixed-use neighborhoods contain the remaining func-

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PARAMETRIC MASTERPLANNING FOR EMERGING CITIES Start with existing roads Place city center at point of highest local integration point according to space syntax

Analyze topography Above 10% grade in 0.7 km around city center

Below 10% grade in 0.7 km around city center

Draw city boundary as circle with 0.7 km radius

CITY BOUNDARY The drawing of the city boundary maintains density and sprawl size. If the site has steep terrain, the nearest topography lines at an acceptable slope provide a natural shape with which to fill.

Draw city boundary along nearest topography lines ≤10% grade

BLOCK FILL-IN Neighborhood typologies also inform the block division and minor function placement in each neighborhood: which neighborhoods have schools, services, or workshops and where they should be placed.

No Does boundary encompass 140-160 ha?

Yes Draw high-density zone comprising 18% of total city area around city center

SECONDARY STREET NETWORK Neighborhood typologies inform the inner streets and their qualities, which are then integrated with the primary streets.

Draw medium-density zone comprising 27% of total city area around high-density zone Identify low-density zone as remaining space between the outer border of medium-density zone and the city border Circle-pack zones according to neighborhood typologies

NEIGHBORHOOD TYPOLOGIES In order to create mixed-use neighborhoods that are different in shape and function, large blocks represented by circle-packing are given specific identities and qlaities.

CIRCLE-PACKING The logic behind circle-packing is to find the most efficient placement of predefined circles. This step represents the neighborhood typologies which make up the finer grain of the city. Circle-packing also provides a shape profile which creates an engaging main street network.

Identify points of intersection between city border and main regional access road Place industry on main regional road downwind of town Add industrial sightline road connecting industry to city center Orientate market square and industrial monument to face each other Extrapolate primary street network from borders of circles packed within zones and existing major streets

MAIN STREET NETWORK The primary street network is extrapolated from the boundaries around the packed circles. This provides a template for access points which can then be perfected for access and integration.

Manually edit primary street network Yes

Are there any sections of the city improperly integrated?

No

Analyze space syntax of primary street network for local integration

Are the market and the industrial sightline street the highest-integrated segments?

No

Yes

SPACE SYNTAX The organization of streets and the integration of the street network in the emerging city is very important in this concept. At each point in drawing the street network, space syntax is considered and integration of streets is protected in order to create a functional, accessible city. PACKING BY DENSITY Zones provide boundaries for circle-packing, which efficiently packs shapes which represent neighborhoods and districts. This arranges neighborhoods and also provides guidance for a primary street network.

Place neighborhood typologies by size and location of major city blocks Manipulate radii of major functions according to distance and place them on highest-integrated streets

RADIUS MANIPULATION The concept behind this functioning industrial city relies on walkability and service accessibility. By limiting the distance of services and facilities from each other and from the primary industrial monument, the city grows with basic accessibility as a foundational structure.

Place buildings for major functions according to size and shape requirements Fill in secondary street network according to neighborhood typologies

TOPOGRAPHY The algorithm limits city growth by topography and maximum slope, then grows the rest of the city within that boundary.

Manually edit primary street network Yes Are there any sections of the city improperly integrated?

No Fill in lot division and housing placement according to typology Manually edit for simplicity and street access Place minor functions at the block level according to neighborhood typologies

No Are there adequate floor area allocations for living and education?

EDUCATION AND MIXED-USE LIVING This last check in the process of developing this city structure is to ensure that both living spaces and education are properly provided for the expected residents. Education as a major means of social and economic mobility and a means to sharing trades and small industries means that any emerging town must provide adequate educational services at all levels.

EXISTING SITUATION Haro Welabu as a site of development provides an existing network from which to grow. The town has a main road and a separate regional access road. Because of the street network, the algorithm is able to identify a preexisting city center.

Yes Finalize city structure by identifying greenspaces and diverse shared areas

Line Bernstein, Nigora Ishandzhanova, Tehya Wood

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

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PARAMETRIC MASTERPLANNING FOR EMERGING CITIES

CONNECT the hubS The motivation for our project is to create a city where Ethiopian people have an alternative to fast growing metropolises, like Addis Abeba, with the access to basic infrastructure, job opportunities and better living standards. Initial steps in macro level are to preserve existing, natural, built-up and cultural environments and complement it with a stable modular network of roads and infrastructure that can be used to remove and collect water for flooded regions. Here, in micro-level, blocks and lots are defined. Their functions and configurations are flexible to provide diversity, equality and possibility to adapt to demographic, economic or climate changes. The concept „connect the hubs“ provides the Ethiopian people with a city which is shaped according to their daily life, connecting necessary facility blocks into equally distributed network. The cities that we designed would allow any substantial changes in the scale of blocks and lots (micro-scale) while maintaining basic macro-scale structure. In addition, the city can respond to its specific natural or economic threats with its own resources. Using the existing structure of houses and infastructure, we provide the basic and most needed facilities for the evolving city. The boarders are created out of natural limitations such as steep hills or fertile ground. Then we look for the potential growth direction and the point we grow the radius for a 10.000 inhabitant city. Based on the existing main road we build our street-

CITY CENTER SPACE SYNTAX, MARKET SQUARE, VISUALLY CONNECTED

HOUSING DIVERSE, DENSER WHERE INTEGRATED

network parallel to it in a distance of 100m. After that we are looking for watersheds in that area and use them to build streets that are connecting the main street with the rest of the city. Also we can use the watersheds to collect rainwater and protect the inhabitants from floods. In the next phase we look at the space syntax analyses that we get from our street network and place the city center near an integrated spot that is close to the center point from where we started to grow the city radius. Afterwards we place our facility blocks into the evolving town so that they have good connections to every part of the city. There are three type of blocks. First is the Daily used block, it has a radius of 300m and provides every day uses. Second is the weekly used block that provides uses like schools or sports which has a radius of 600m. The Third block is only once in the city it has uses that are only used in special cases such as a hospital or an orphanage center. To fulfill the Ethiopean way of living, we offer five different type of housing units which are originated from existing housing typologies in Ethiopia but with improved living conditions. These five types are apartments, condominiums, row houses, villas and sheds. Each type has a different population density and size of open space. Location of each type of block depends on its density and building height, prioritizing some of them for the most integrated locations. In the end all the types have homogenous distribution within the city. In the final phase, urban environment is improved via green areas and public spaces.

ANKO GOLMA #3 The city has a unique shape due to the steep natural limitation and the direction of the existing main road.

FEFA DILDIY #8 The city is generated according to existing topography and natural limitations. In the steep areas, greenery facilities distributed equally within the city. Accordingly, the city square is visually connected with the most integrated street corners which makes it possible to accessible from all directions. With respect to their daily life, the square designed in a way that gives a space to different activities like weekly market.

HARO WELABU #2 The city integrates with the steep topography of the location and creates greenery facilities in the steep areas . Taking into account the existing main road, city center located around the most integrated streets according to space syntax analysis.

MAINSTREET EXISTING BASE OF STREETS

WATERSHEDS RESOURCES STRUCTURE

Industrie Education Religion Commercial Public

1 Storey FACILITY BLOCKS DIFFERENT, HUB, VARIOUS RADII

GREEN SPACE RELIGION, CEMETERY, GARDEN

Burcu Cimenoglu, Christoph Hanisch, Kateryna Konieva

FACTORIES ON THE BOARDER, GOOD CONNECTION

HARO WELABU #2 The city center is formed from three separated blocks which are located on two sides of the main road.

ANKO GOLMA #3 Daily and weekly used facility blocks distributed equally within the city to ensure the accessibility for all citizens living in different neighborhoods. To generate diversity, various housing types distributed evenly for each neighborhood.

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

FEFA DILDIY #8 The buildings around the city center and facility blocks eventually transform into commercial and public facilities in the ground floor. The software generates an optimal small town based on a highest walkability fitness Es sit dolor accum resto excera cus, que exererferunt atem.

2 Storey 3 Storey 4 Storey 5+ Storey

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PARAMETRIC MASTERPLANNING FOR EMERGING CITIES

Start Choose a fitting site

Mapping Existing situation

Define existing dwellings, roads and infrastructure, availability of resources

NATURAL LIMITATIONS The boarders are created out of natural limitations such as steep hills or fertile ground.

not enough

enough

ANALYSIS Natural limitations and possible directions for growth

Center Place a starting point on the main road and define a radius to get an area of 2 - 2.5sqkm

USE OF EXISTING STRUCTURE Using the existing structure of houses and infastructure, we provide the basic and most needed facilities for the evolving city

BOUNDARY cut city boundary according to natural limitations

Evaluate the area

too small

fitting ANALYSIS Analyse topography and define watersheds to create initial streets

WATER SHEDS we use the watersheds to collect rainwater and protect the inhabitants from floods

STREETS Generate modular street network starting from the existing main street

Are the resulting blocks too long? yes no

STREET SYSTEM Based on the existing main road we build our streetnetwork parallel to it in a distance of 100m. After that we are looking for watersheds in that area and use them to build streets that are connecting the main street with the rest of the city

SECONDARY STREETS Add more

START TO ASSIGN FUNCTIONS Place factories on the peripheries

GREEN AREAS Add in too steep zones, not available for buildings

SPACE SYNTAX Check analysis

Most integrated segments

Nearest blocks

WEEKLY-USE-BLOCK Create 600m-grid and place there weekly used Facility blocks

Best location for city-center

FACILITY BLOCKS In facility blocks, buildings are located through the center of the blocks to create an extrovert open space area around the buildings. This configuration allows accessibility and is more open to public use

CITY CENTER Taking the space syntax analyses that we get from our street network and place the city center near an integrated spot that is close to the center point from where we started to grow the city radius.

FACILITY BLOCKS There are three type of facility blocks. First is the Daily used block, with a radius of 300m. Second the weekly used block that provides uses like schools or sports with a radius of 600m. The third block has uses that are only used in special cases such as a hospital or an orphanage center

HOUSING TYPES we offer five different type of housing units which are originated from existing housing typologies in Ethiopia but with improved living conditions. These five types are basically called apartments, condominiums, row houses, villas and sheds which are equally distributed within the city

BLOCKS In each block, two different housing types are located to ensure diversity of accommodation in each neighborhood. These two types are the most similar ones in terms of building size, storey heights and number of inhabitants

Are the facilitie blocks well integrated? (according to space syntax)

no

yes

DAILY-USE-BLOCK Create 300m-grid and place there daily used Facility blocks

OTHER SERVICES Place other services for the city

HOUSING BLOCKS In residential blocks, buildings are located close to the streets to create an introvert open space area. This enclosed configuration allows privacy in the backyards

HOUSING BLOCKS Distribute housing to the rest of the blocks, give priority to the dense housing types next to the most integrated facility blocks

no

Are the housing blocks diverse enough? yes

LOTS | BUILDINGS Divide lots and place buildings for each housing type

GREENERY trees are located to provide green facilities to citizens and to improve urban environment

ENVIRONMENT Improving urban environment, placing greenery

BAKE City is finished.

Stop The Town is baked

Burcu Cimenoglu, Christoph Hanisch, Kateryna Konieva

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

bauhaus ifex


PARAMETRIC MASTERPLANNING FOR EMERGING CITIES

Per f o r ma n ce A na l ysi s Comparing the difference in performance for each city proposal in different three sites. The purpose of this analysis tool is to present a baseline for comparing both the flexibility of each concept in different site locations and the common changes that each site will exhibit on different design algorithm. Two charts are used, first a Box Chart for the walkability to each function, using space syntax closeness measure and second, a Spider Chart for 7 different measures to test the geometrical performance if few componant of each city.

SPIDER CHART Seven performance craiterias by eatracting either a parametrized value or quartiles for data matrix using the Q1, Q2(Median) and Q3 to understande where most of the data is located and how much each proposal deviete from the rest.

Street Length 5.0 K M

Integration

City Area 5.0 M MSq

10.0 Turn

1000 M

1.0

Walkability

Compactness

5.0 Fn

500 K

Diversity

Density

STREET NETWORK (INFRASTRUCTURE COST) A parametric value for the summary of the street network length of each city using all designed circulation pathes for either cars or pedestrians.

CITY AREA (LAND CONSUMPTION) A parametric vallue for the total lots area for each city to invistigate how much land is used to house 10K inhabitants.

COMPACTNESS (ISOPERIMETRIC QUOTIENT) A parametric value for the ratio between the city area and its perimeter, using the circularity measure, or the Isomrimetric Quatient Formula to understand how far each city deviate from the most compact circular shape from 0.0 to 1.0 Q = (4 * Pi * City Area) Perimeter2 DENSITY (BUILT-UP AREA IN RADIUS) A data matrix of the total built-up area around each building within a 200 meters radius scaled by 100K meter squared per unit. DIVERSITY (DIFFERENCE FUNCTIONS IN RANGE) A data matrix of the amount of functions exists within a 200 meter flight distance from each residential building to each function in range.

WALKABILITY (ALL TO ALL) A data matrix using Space Syntax measure for extracting the pathes taken from each building in the city to all the other locations throughout the whole city to measure the Betweeness (reachability) of each city.

INTEGRATION A data matrix using space Syntax Angular Closeness Measure, each city network exhibits a range of turns to arrive to all distinations to each functions from each residential point.

BOX CHART A data matrix of the Three Quartiles of length of each path taken from each residential point in the Walkability city to reach all the functions in the city

to Functions

1000

Walkability

800

600

400

200

0 Commercial

Educational

Industrial

Public

Religious

Functions Summary : Syn City Performance Analysis

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

bauhaus ifex


Site #2 - HARO WELABU

Walkability to Functions

5.0 K M

1000 M

1.0

Walkability

Compactness

Educational

Industrial

Public

Educational

Density

Industrial

Public

100K

5.0 Fn Commercial

Diversity

Walkability to Functions

City Area 1.0 M MSq

Integration

Walkability to Functions

City Area

10.0 Turn

1000

5.0 M MSq

1.0

Compactness

200

1000 M

1.0

Walkability

400

Compactness

Walkability

1000 M

Walkability

200

0

5.0 Fn Commercial

Educational

Density

Industrial

Public

5.0 Fn Commercial

Diversity

Functions

5.0 K M

Walkability to Functions

City Area 5.0 M MSq

Integration

Walkability to Functions

City Area

10.0 Turn

1000

5.0 M MSq

200

1000 M

1.0

Walkability

400

Compactness

200

0

5.0 Fn Commercial

Educational

Density

Industrial

Public

5.0 Fn Commercial

Diversity

Functions

Walkability to Functions

City Area 5.0 M MSq

Integration

Walkability to Functions

City Area

10.0 Turn

1000

5.0 M MSq

200

1000 M

1.0

Walkability

400

Compactness

200

0

5.0 Fn Commercial

Educational

Density

Industrial

Public

500 K

5.0 Fn

Religious

Commercial

Diversity

Functions

Industrial

Public

500 K

Religious

Diversity

Functions

Density

Street Length

15.0 K M

5.0 K M

Walkability to Functions

City Area

Integration

1000

Walkability to Functions

City Area

10.0 Turn

5.0 M MSq

600

600

600

1.0

1000 M

Compactness

200

1.0

1000 M

Walkability

400

Compactness

200

0

0

5.0 M MSq

1.0

1000 M

Walkability

400

Compactness

0

5.0 Fn Commercial

Density

City Area

10.0 Turn

200

500 K

Religious

Walkability

800

Walkability

800

Walkability

Integration

1000

800

Functions

Educational

Density

Street Length

5.0 M MSq

Diversity

1.0

Compactness

5.0 K M

Integration

5.0 Fn

1000 M

Walkability

400

Street Length

10.0 Turn

Public

5.0 M MSq

0

500 K

Diversity

City Area

10.0 Turn

200

0

5.0 Fn Religious

Integration

1000

Walkability

1.0

Compactness

Walkability

1000 M

Walkability

Industrial

Density

5.0 K M

600

Educational

Diversity

Street Length

600

Commercial

500 K

Religious

5.0 K M

600

400

Public

Street Length

800

1000

Industrial

Functions

800

Walkability to Functions

Educational

Density

5.0 K M

Integration

Functions

1.0

Compactness

500 K

Religious

800

Public

1000 M

Walkability

400

Street Length

10.0 Turn

Industrial

5.0 M MSq

0

500 K

Diversity

City Area

10.0 Turn

200

0

5.0 Fn Religious

Integration

1000

Walkability

1.0

Compactness

Walkability

1000 M

Walkability

Educational

Density

Street Length

600

Commercial

Diversity

5.0 K M

600

400

500 K

Religious

Street Length

600

1000

Public

Functions

800

Walkability to Functions

Industrial

5.0 K M

Integration

Functions

Educational

Density

800

Public

1.0

Compactness

500 K

Religious

800

Industrial

1000 M

Walkability

400

Street Length

10.0 Turn

Educational

5.0 M MSq

0

100K

Diversity

City Area

10.0 Turn

200

0

5.0 Fn Religious

Integration

1000

600

Commercial

Density

5.0 K M

600

400

Diversity

Street Length

600

1000

500 K

Religious

5.0 K M

800

Walkability to Functions

Public

Street Length

800

Public

Industrial

Functions

800

Industrial

Educational

Density

5.0 K M

10.0 Turn

Educational

1.0

Compactness

Street Length

Integration

400

1000 M

Walkability

400

Religious

Functions

Walkability

Walkability

5.0 Fn Commercial

Diversity

5.0 M MSq

0

100K

Religious

City Area

10.0 Turn

200

0

5.0 Fn Commercial

Walkability

1.0

Compactness

200

0

Walkability

1000 M

Walkability

400

Walkability

600

400

Integration

1000

600

200

Walkability

5.0 M MSq

600

Functions

Summary : Syn City Performance Analysis

Walkability to Functions

City Area

10.0 Turn

800

Commercial

GROUP #5 Maria Victoria Behler, Helena Louisa Pooch, Maria Jose Landeta

Integration

1000

800

Walkability to Functions

GROUP #4 Line Bernstein Nigora Ishandzhanova Tehya Wood

Walkability to Functions

City Area 5.0 M MSq

Walkability

Walkability

Street Length

5.0 K M

800

1000

GROUP #3 JosĂŠ LuĂ­s Noronha Krug Alberto Villa Ryan Zeringue

Street Length

5.0 K M

10.0 Turn

Functions

GROUP #2 Bogdan SHEVCHENKO Ulysse FONTAINE, Frederic SCHNEIDER

Site #8 - FEFA DILDIY

Street Length

Integration

1000

GROUP #1 Burcu Cimenoglu Christoph Hanisch Kateryna Konieva

Site #3 - ANKO GOLMA

Educational

Industrial

Public

500 K

Religious

Functions

MASTER DESIGN STUDIO | Summer 2016

5.0 Fn Commercial

Diversity

Density

Educational

Industrial

Functions

Public

500 K

Religious

Diversity

Density

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Profile for Reinhard Koenig

Syn City 2016  

In the design studio “Syn City” at the Bauhaus University Weimar innovative planning methods for the generation of urban spatial structures...

Syn City 2016  

In the design studio “Syn City” at the Bauhaus University Weimar innovative planning methods for the generation of urban spatial structures...

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