BINGQING (Adela) XU PORTFOLIO 2013-2019
M. Arch. â…¡, Architecture & Urban Design, UCLA
Fall 2018 One Wilshire Data Center, Los Angeles, CA Academic Project Partner: Yuting, Yifei, Yudi Individual part: patch generation, facade redesign, VR Virtual billboard is an interactive platform supported by VR, which gains information from a new generation facade. The advanced facade involves a great number of patches, generated by machine learning, carrying a sea of spatial information and showed by plentiful animations. Taking advantage of the virtual billoard, more information will be offered and more business value will be created.
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS IN MACHINE VISION
GOOGLE CLOUD VISION
Machine vision (MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry.
What is the difference between machine vision and human view? How can we take advantage of machine vison to complement human view? How can exert the effect of machine vision in design?
linear burn 73%
Changing parameter can only increase confidence to around 90%.
cumsum test Window
linear burn 45%
saturation 100 91%
linear burn 45%
hue 100 + saturation 100
MACHINE LEARNING FEATURE EXTRACTION
Machine learning is a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. It is a branch of artificial intelligence based on the idea that systems can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention.
train machine extract features generate pathches
Based on machine learning, specific patches with high confidence of specific information are generetaed and matched with corresponding animations by tensorflow. Inputting those databases into unity, AR effect can be achieved.
def _transform_vector(width, x_shift, y_shift, im_scale, rot_in_degrees): “”” If one row of transforms is [a0, a1, a2, b0, b1, b2, c0, c1], then it maps the output point (x, y) to a transformed input point (x’, y’) = ((a0 x + a1 y + a2) / k, (b0 x + b1 y + b2) / k), where k = c0 x + c1 y + 1. The transforms are inverted compared to the transform mapping input points to output points. “”” rot = float(rot_in_degrees) / 90. * (math.pi/2) # Standard rotation matrix # (use negative rot because tf.contrib.image. transform will do the inverse) rot_matrix = np.array( [[math.cos(-rot), -math.sin(-rot)], [math.sin(-rot), math.cos(-rot)]] ) # Scale it # (use inverse scale because tf.contrib.image. transform will do the inverse) inv_scale = 1. / im_scale xform_matrix = rot_matrix * inv_scale a0, a1 = xform_matrix b0, b1 = xform_matrix # At this point, the image will have been rotated around the top left corner, # rather than around the center of the image. # # To fix this, we will see where the center of the image got sent by our transform, # and then undo that as part of the translation we apply. x_origin = float(width) / 2 y_origin = float(width) / 2 x_origin_shifted, y_origin_shifted = np.matmul( xform_matrix, np.array([x_origin, y_origin]), ) x_origin_delta = x_origin - x_origin_shifted y_origin_delta = y_origin - y_origin_shifted # Combine our desired shifts with the rotation-induced undesirable shift a2 = x_origin_delta - (x_shift/(2*im_scale)) b2 = y_origin_delta - (y_shift/(2*im_scale)) # Return these values in the order that tf.contrib.image.transform expects return np.array([a0, a1, a2, b0, b1, b2, 0, 0]). astype(np.float32) def test_random_transform(min_scale=0.5, max_scale=1.0, max_rotation=22.5): “”” Scales the image between min_scale and max_ scale “”” img_shape = [100,100,3] img = np.ones(img_shape) sess = tf.Session() image_in = tf.placeholder(dtype=tf.float32, shape=img_shape) width = img_shape def _random_transformation(): im_scale = np.random.uniform(low=min_ scale, high=1.0) padding_after_scaling = (1-im_scale) * width x_delta = np.random.uniform(-padding_ after_scaling, padding_after_scaling)
ONE WILSHIRE REDESIGN - DATA CENTER
ADVANTAGES OF PATCHES
mutiple interior functions behind facade trpical facade with limited information (traditional public building)
Quality perforated window film which can print oneway vision window graphics, invented by Contra Vision® Performance™.
patch database entertainment commercial information
vision from exterior
vision from interior
SCAN FACADE scale, distort, rotate and cover patches to form a aesthetic facade
22nd floor pet store
19th floor book store
13rd floor milk shop
8th floor clinic cake shop
ice cream store
3rd floor candy store
MOBILE SPACE IN A SPACE
Fall 2018 Academic Project Partner: Yanxu Jia To set spatial principles and apply the rules of machines' motion, the use efficiency of spaces will be improved. Based on flexible and ingenious spatial arrangement, a series of recombinations of modular spaces with specific functions are shown in this project.
APPLICATION OF MOBILE SPACE The Shed - Diller Scofidio + Renfro
MACHINE RULE & SPATIAL PRINCIPLE Sperone Westwater Gallery / Foster + Partners
follow dedicated path
provide dedicated area
move in shortest distance
minimize area in the center DOCK B
ADVANTAGES OF MOBILE SPACE layout 1
create complex shapes corridor
DOCK C stop at specific locations
provide docks for its stopping
create new space improve space efficiency 2 days
DOCK D scale flexibly
MODULUS & RECOMBINATION The mobile space contains two layers. The space of each layer conforms to the modulus a*b. And all of the interior spaces follow this modulus and combine with each other flexibly.
function adaptively fixing space a assembled + expensive
At dock A on the first floor, there could be a cafe. The fixing space can be a place for people to enjoy drink and think quietly and the mobile space can be a room to sell drinks and offer people a active space.
At dock A on the second floor, there could be a tea house. It creates an environment to talk and read. At the same time, people in this space can reach out cafe by hollowing out and see what happen in the lobby through huge glass.
At dock B on the first floor, there could be a theater. People could enjoy the concert here. The fixing space is a huge auditorium and the mobile space could be stage. It will be easier for actors to prepare with a mobile stage.
At dock B onm the second floor, something interesting will happen. The fixing space on the opposite offer a space for watching and the exterior wall of mobile space could be a huge screen to play movie. And the interior space of mobile space is a bar to relax. People in the lobby also can watch screen on the first floor.
At dock C on the first floor, when the mobile space and fixing space meet, there will be a big space for exhibition. People can see art works, such as drawings, sculptures, and talk with drinks.
At dock C on the second floor, the mobile space offer a romantic place to help painters to focus on creating works. When they will tired, they can enjoy the landscape on the roof of mobilel space through huge glass.
At dock D, the mobile space can be a talk room for artists. People can exhibit their works and exchange ideas in a public space. At the same time, events happen on the first floor in the mobile space can be watched through the glass on the roof.
At dock E, the mobile space can be a small library. People can read books on big stairs, on sofa. When mobile space combine with the fixing space, people even can read in the public space and have communication with people in lobby.
Winter 2019 Academic Project Partner: Jianqiao, Yudi The experiential mission of this project is: Destination of experimentation, innovation and transformation in the display of products that is inviting, fun, unique, comfortable, attractive, nurturing, and educational to people; with meeting places that encourage people to meet one another and spend time.
MISSION STATEMENT ORCHARD
Orchardise is the place where people meet with friends frequently, where technology merges into nature indistinguishably, and where shopping happens with activities unconsciously. This semi-exterior park owns idyllic landscape and intelligent distribution system, which enable urban inhabitants to explore beautiful scenery and myriad merchandises simultaneously. Handfree shopping are achieved here with the help of overhead conveyor network, and people are liberated here to enjoy various healthy and educational activities which are constantly changing according to seasons.
SITE AND SYSTEM
INTELLIGENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
STORY 1 1
Handfree shopping. Choose your path flexibly. Receive notifications from the App.
Meet friends frequently. Enjoy your food anytime on the way before checking out. Merchandise is part of landscape. 22
Relax yourself in the semi-exterior park. Pick up your staff at the destination.
Shopping happens with workout. Technology merges into nature. Handfree shopping with the overhead conveyor network.
STORY 2 33
Meet friends to have a picnic in semi-exterior park. Gain fresh food materials from nature and experience the process of labor. Set your destination flexibly and spend your time at anywhere in orchardise.
Technology merges into nature. Intelligent distribution system is part of landscape.
Scenery changes constantly according to seasons. Set staff drop-off points anytime by fingerprint. Have a picnic in nature with machine.
Enjoy your time in an environment with nature and technology.
Spring 2017 In Dagu Shipyard, Tanggu District, Tianjin Academic Project Individual Project The opposite bank of the site is still in the process of planning and construction, so my design is a blueprint for the future. The most valuable point of this site is its history. To revive this forgotten period and bleak relic, I try to combine together the culture of river and shipbuilding industury with the functions which contemporary citizens need.
SITE CONDITION The forgotten shipyard situates at the opposite of Tianjin CBD. There are few people accessing this place and the atmosphere is bleak.
LOCATION This diagram shows the important nodes along the Haihe River, which is the mother river of this city.
BLOCK FUCTION GENERATION
LANDSCAPE FUNCTION GENERATION
SCATTERED STONES ON THE RIVER
OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOR AND POND
STAGES NEAR RIVER
CORRIDOR IN THE AIR
NATRURAL BOOK BAR
THATCHED COTTAGE FOR COOKING
BUIDING ACROSS THE RIVER
BICYCLES PARKING LOT
18 11 9
MASTER PLAN 7
6 5 5
1 MAIN ENTRANCE 2 NATURAL BOOK BAR 3 FISHING POOL 4 CAFE 5 COMMERCIAL CENTER 6 CULTURAL OFFICE 7 COMMUNITY ACTIVITY 8 SOCIAL TRAINING 9 GYMNASIUM 10 RESIDENCE 11 HOTEL 12 EXHIBITION 13 EXTERIOR STAGE 14 DANCING HALL 15 CHATTING ISLAND 16 VEGETABLE YARD 17 MONKEY WOODS 18 DOCK
AERIAL VIEW This project aims to create a comprehensive park for citizens who have no time to rest or company their family members and friends. Although people in this city are busy with all kinds of work, I try to design a way to allow people enjoy their life!
Fall 2016 In Jin Jiang Road, Jinhua Town, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province Academic Project Individual Project The social background of this design is the increasing amount of migrant children from countryside in recent years. Their education problem becomes a focus of the whole society. This children library is designed to show the truth that all kids with different background, no matter poor or rich, should have the right to receive equal education opportunity.
Photography from Xinlang.com
URBAN SPRAWL PROCESS
1969 There is only first ring road in Chengdu City.
1990 With the development of the city, the second ring road was built .
2002 Due to the entry of migrant workers, the third ring road was built, Jinhua town was founded.
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION In order to solve the housing problem of the increasing population, the government approved a new plan to expand residential area.
B u i l d i n g co n st r u c t i o n attracted a large number of foreign construction workers.
To solve the education problem led by the increasing mass of migrant workers, more primary schools are needed to establish in the future.
In order to reduce the gap between urban and rural children, except for elementary schools, more special spaces for them to cultivate interests are also in need.
The project is located in Jin Jiang Road, Jinhua Town, Chengdu City. A series of analyses related to surroundings are carried out, including greenlands, buildings, paths and grounds.
Change in shape
Create a garden in the middle of block.
Make lighting wells for the library in the atrium.
Window 1 Workshops 2 Gardens 3 Reading rooms 4 Activity rooms 3m 9m 6m 12m
Create concave spaces in the surrounding block.
In the body block, insert the flexible units.
A series of variable vertical rotated staircases are placed in the atrium.
POPULATION DATA ANALYSIS
According to the related government documents, the population of migrant workers and their children has dramatically increased from 2005 to present. This trend is illustrated by the left diagram with different lengths of circles.
THE PERSPECTIVE OF LIBRARY COURTYARD
INTERIOR ANALYSIS The section plan and interior renderings are used to express the abundant and fantastic spaces which offer children enough room to study individually or cooperatively, and therefore children can immerse themselves into knowledge and cultivate their own interests.
TRANSFORMATION ANALYSIS Children enter the Arrive at the second Dark corridors, unable library from the floor reading room. to discern the front. entrance elevator.
The stairs can be rotated.
Accidental trigger the device, a beam of light.
Come to the house of interest.
Many people, the room Open the device, expand An outer wall Push out the is not big enough. space, and more free with a revolving outer wall furnishings are exposed. lever. and see the scenery on the left.
Rotate and connect to another platform.
The scene after the evolution.
The scene after the evolution.
Finally fold Remove the cover The solid shield Enrich the into a stool plate along the on the glass can experiences of for children rail and turn down.be removed. children's readto rest. ing.
Rotating doors contain different forms of books.
Rotate door leaf After getting the according to need. book, you can sit on the door and read it.
A revolving door with bookshelves.
A revolving door with a seat.
Push out the outer wall and see the scenery on the right.
Look up at the sky outside.
The characteristics of this project are interlaced outdoor circulation spaces and plentiful movable balconies. These spaces offer children enough room to study and communicate with their friends.
Winter 2016 Qinghe Village, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province Academic Project Individual Project This project aims to reconstruct a house of a family with four generations, because the current limited spaces cannot accommodate a normal life. To guarantee that the new design can meet the demand of every family member, a great number of investigations have been made before.
The site is located in the southwest of the 2nd Group, Qinghe Village, which belongs to Nehei, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province. It is in the northeast of China. It is normal that the difference in temperature between summer and winter is extremely huge. The development of agriculture here is improved because of the benefit from its fertile and high-production soil, with appropriate rainfall and experienced cultivation method.
93 year-old grandma
29 year-old sister in law
54 year-old aunt
11 year-old elder niece
32 year-old brother
6 year-old younger niece
site area 2334.5 ㎡ building foot print 134.64 ㎡ floor area 245.09 ㎡
The buildings is comprised of one single house for accommodating the whole family members and four warehouses of storing grains and a series of tools. There are two vegetable gardens which are in front of and behind the buildings respectively.
ROUTES & BLOCK
4㎡ 12 ㎡
younger brother and sister in law
4㎡ 12 ㎡
bathroom activity store
elder brother and sister in law
balcony 14 ㎡
tearoom 15 ㎡
public space 7㎡
Limited space has been distributed according to needs.
FAMILY TREE study
sister in law
eat and talk
read and learn
relax in nature elder niece
sleep in quite space
access to yard
sister in law
reunite and chat
The wall colored in red in the diagram has been fully reserved as a load-bearing structure and a historical signature of the old big family. The new design offers various routes for a more convenient and colorful life.
INTERIOR ANATOMY The interior spaces are composed by a series of materials, which can create a warm and lovely atmosphere .
wood window frame
wood window frame grating
glass window breast board
wood window frame grating stair
white wood table
brick interior wall
brick interior wall
waved cloth cushion
waved cloth carpet
waved cloth carpet
The life space of the elder niece is placed on the second floor towards south.
INTERIOR SCENE This rendering of bedroom with study room describes the scenario of the elder child's life. Since there was no study room before, a narrow space offers a quiet room for her to study next to the bedroom. Besides, instead of utilizing concrete wall, a group of wooden racks is implemented to these two rooms. In addition, an exterior balcony is proposed to offer a better light condition and the windows are double layered to keep the interior warm.
Two pieces of glasses have been used to afford different styles of light and shadow.
EXTERIOR SCENE Because of the weather condition of Northeast China, the house is surrounded by 370mm thick bricks to keep warm. In winter, the lake next to the house freezes and children play snow in the yard. Adults spend more time at home, because they do not need cultivate crops during that time. This perspective shows the scene of Lantern Festival.
Summer 2017 In an abandoned factory, Beijing Academic Project Partner: Kaixiang, Chengcheng, Mibo, Gaoxiang, Zhihang Individual part: conceptual design, fabrication, installation The construction of the project is based on enneper voronoid, which arouses our interest at first. To explore how this math model can be explained and utilized in architecture, we transformed it into a 2meter-high massing with steel panels and proposed series of analysis based on this prototype.
Connect every piece of steel panel by screwings and the model has been finished.
Each piece of the components is fabricated by CNC milling machine where many digital optimization mechanisms were applied. In this project, B0-B3 2mm thick steel panel has been selected as the primary material.
Enneper's minimal surface is parameterized by: The first strip of steel panel is seperated in seven pieces The more general Enneperâ€™s surface of degree n is parameterized in polar coordinates by:
The second strip of steel panel is seperated in four pieces
PROPERTY Tangent Planes: At u = u , v = v , the tangent plane to the surface is parameterized by:
BLOCK DECOMPOSITION seperate the block into strips explode strips into pieces
The whole massing is seperated into seven stripes of steel panels and then smaller pieces of polygons. Every piece is composed of one to three triangles. This pmanipulation makes the construction process more practical.
Infinitesimal Area: The infinitesimal area of a patch on the surface is given byďźš
The sixth strip of steel panel is seperated in two pieces Curved sufaces cannot be made out by hand easily, so we choose to simplify the whole model with acurved surfaces into pieces of planes.
The fifth strip of steel panel is seperated in four pieces
The forth strip of steel panel is seperated in five pieces By using the scripting, a numbers of plans composing the volume have been calculated. It simplify the process of construction.
The third strip of steel panel is seperated in seven pieces
FABRICATION PROCESS The whole construction is seperated into 38 strips, some of what are complete and the others are bent into two or three parts according to the angles we calculated out before.
SIMULATION BASED ON FLOW DESIGN Flow design is used to simulate the natural wind flowand we can view the scale and orientation of the flow when the wind passes by the model as well as the density and arrows. After that, I try to demonstrate the proposed scenario and situation when people stay in the prototype. Velocity(m/s)[Pressure(Pa)] 19.865[42.934] 17.203[17.886] 14.046[-7.162] 9.932[-32.209] 0[-57.257]
Velocity(m/s)[Pressure(Pa)] 19.287[45.670] 16.703[11.889] 13.638[-21.892] 9.643[-55.673] 0[-89.454]
Velocity(m/s)[Pressure(Pa)] 18.975[44.619] 16.433[12.885] 13.418[-18.848] 9.488[-50.582] 0[-82.315]
Velocity(m/s)[Pressure(Pa)] 20.084[50.308] 17.393[20.525] 14.201[-9.257] 10.042[-39.039] 0[-68.822]
FEA STRUCTURE TESTING IN KARAMBA Displacement testing
Natural Vabration testing
These simulations illustrate the prototype has a sufficient loadbearing system that could be self-stablized under ex treme circumstances.
This section contains product design, photography and watercolor which I create during my free time. And they helped me to explore and understand architecture further more.
Snuff Bottle Fall, 2016
Bookmark Fall, 2016
Tool Box Summer, 2017
PRODUCT DESIGN Product design is an ingenioius method to combine abstract culture and practicability. Extracting memorable buildings from campus as culture symbols is our design concept.
Paper Cutting Bookmark Fall, 2018
USB Pen Drive Spring, 2017
Paper Cutting Winter, 2017
Key Chain Spring, 2018
Pen Holder Winter, 2018
Lingyin Temple, Zhejiang, Summer, 2015
Library, Tianjin, Spring, 2016
Sagrada Famillia, Barcelona, Spring, 2015
PHOTOGRAPHY This series of photographs were created during my college time. I am often amazed and fascinated by the spetacular light effect an architecture can offer. It is hard to deny that the basic elements, e.g. light and shadow, could on some extend articulate or emplify the architecture details. The first and the last pictures were recorded from two different sightseeings and the second one was captured during the construction process our new campus library.
Roadhead Wuyuan, Jiangxi, Summer, 2014
Straitness Laoshan, Qingdao, Fall, 2015
Gateway Jixian, Tianjin, Spring, 2017
WATERCOLOR Watercolor is a kind of creation that conveys various themes and emotions with distinguished brush strokes and certain propotion of water and pigments. This series of works were painted during my journeys to a few rural areas in China. I tried to choose three different scenes to express varied traits with a little imagination and exaggeration which demonstrated three unique countryside lifestyles.