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EL REFUGIO DE HITLER ( HITLER’S SHELTER ) Diego Rivera and the Popular Graphic Workshop The Fight against Fascism in Mexico


Cover: Diego Rivera, El Refugio de Hitler (detail), 1956.

First edition, 2011 Copyright Š 2011, Universidad de Guadalajara Centro Cultural Casa Vallarta Av. Vallarta 1668 44160 Guadalajara, Jalisco www.cultura.udg.mx Any reproduction, retransmission, republication, or other use of all or part of any document found in this reference book is expressly prohibited, unless the appropriate copyright owner has granted prior written permission. All other rights reserved.

Printed in Mexico


EL REFUGIO DE HITLER Exhibition catalogue


INDEX

Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 7 El refugio de Hitler, by Diego Rivera.......................................................................................... 8 The fight against fascism in Mexico.........................................................................................10 Mexican antifascist graphic........................................................................................................12 El refugio de Hitler: Diego Rivera painting of the F端hrerbunker ruins..........................14 El refugio de Hitler, the ruins of the Berlin Chancellery.....................................................16 Work catalogue.............................................................................................................................19 Biography of the presented artists...........................................................................................44 Bibliography...................................................................................................................................49

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Centro Cultural Casa Vallarta Universidad de Guadalajara


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It has been a great honor and pride for the University of Guadalajara to present the exposition El Refugio de Hitler in the facilities of the Casa Vallarta Cultural Center. The exhibition, enriched with pieces from private collections, was a coordinated effort between the University and Arvil Gallery provided the tapatテュa audience (people from Guadalajara) the opportunity to enjoy these works of art from November 26th 2010 to March 11th 2011. As a whole, this exhibition formed part of the cultural activities that University of Guadalajara organized in order to commemorate the Bicentennial of Mexican Independence and to celebrate the Centennial of the Mexican Revolution. With these activities the community was able to reflect on our past, present and future through pieces with high social content. My special thanks go to Mr. Armando Colina and Mr. Vテュctor Acuテアa from the Arvil Gallery for their enormous generosity on the loan of El Refugio de Hitler by Diego Rivera, national heritage of incalculable value. I extend my gratitude to the great kindness of Rafael Barajas who provided the masterworks that belonged to the Popular Graphic Workshop as well as the Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (National Council for Culture and Arts) and the team of Casa Vallarta.

テ]gel Igor Lozada Rivera Melo Director of Cultura UdG


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El Refugio de Hitler, by Diego Rivera It is a great pleasure for the Arvil Gallery to present in Guadalajara this important painting which has a double benefit: one as a historical document and the other for being one of the best works of art produced towards the end of Diego Rivera’s life. Rivera created this painting after his journey to the USSR where he was sent by the Moscow Academy of Arts where he went also for cancer treatment after making a stopover in Berlin. More than ten years after the end of the Third Reich the ruins of the last bastion of Hitler still remained visible as did many of the other collapsed structures. Rivera was impressed by the political and historical symbolisms of this place not only for Germany but also for the world’s history. There ended one of the biggest tragedies that mankind suffered under the influence of Adolf Hitler. Rivera saw again the opportunity to establish a political and ideological stance, stand against the fascism, predict the end of capitalism and announce the new era of mankind‌socialism. This magnificent work has been intimately tied to the Arvil Gallery for over 30 years and has represented one more opportunity to promote the Mexican art. In particular, this painting has had repercussions in Germany. It has been the subject of study for the brilliant report by Anne Schumacher de la Cuesta on the influential Frankfurt diary, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Also, it has been requested for long-term loans by several national and international museums. There have been many foreign offers to acquire it. As a historical document, this painting has had influence in many countries, particularly in Germany because it embraces the aesthetic and political vision of one of the most representative Latin-American artists of the 20th Century, his perception, his testimony and his vision on the ruins. The gray and pale colors transmit to us a cold an


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desolate winter; its lines truly take us deep into the emotions and sensations that the ruins awoke in the artist. Many of the latest paintings of Rivera belong to the period of the USSR journey. Above the many things that he saw on that long trip, he chose the ruins of Hitler’s shelter as the theme for one of his most important paintings. This art represents the symbol of a fascist regime that caused the death of more than 55 million people and the destruction of Germany itself. We firmly believe that not only the ruins, but also the terrible and dramatic implications were the reasons for Rivera to use these images as a horrifying synthesis of that particular period of mankind which he intensely lived in Mexico while taking part in multiple antifascism acts and manifestations during World War II. The conferences in the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (The National Museum of Fine Arts), the fight against anarchist organizations, Andrew Almazán, against the ‘Camisas Doradas’, etc… were all related to his experiences. The political charge and antifascism militancy are behind the selections that the artist makes on the ruins of the bunker to achieve one of his best works of art. For the Arvil Gallery, to present this painting is not only to promote and disseminate Rivera’s artistic genius, but also to remember the importance of the defeat of fascism worldwide and the struggle in our country to prevent its reoccurence. This emblematic piece of Mexican art is a symbol for Arvil, to promote our cultural creativity, within and abroad our frontiers.

Victor Acuña y Armando Colina Directors of the Arvil Gallery


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The fight against fascism in Mexico During World War II, in Mexico existed organizations in favor of an alliance with the Berlin - Rome - Tokyo axis and, of course, organizations opposed to any connection with the governments of these cities. On the collective memory, the incidents of ships Faja de Oro and Potrero del Llano, as well as the collaboration of the Escuadrテウn 201, have more presence than the demonstrations and voices expressed in favor or against fascism throughout the years of war. But, this opposition was very important to the political national context. Several public opinion organizations declared themselves in favor of the Nazi regime, looking to establish the authoritarian and anti-popular model in the use of power in Mexico. This desire that had been exacerbated during General Cテ。rdenas government, whose laws reform and public politics with deep social character, lead the most conservative organizations to take political sides against government, organizing in such diverse forms, from anarchist to opinions that visualize on the electoral fight, the path to change the course of the country. On the other hand, the left-wing organizations fought to defend the USSR and to prevent the most conservative voices in Mexico from imposing a philo-germanic regime. The movements of the progressive organizations were multiple. The government of テ」ila Camacho helped bring the necessary spaces in order for that to happen. For example, Palacio de Bellas Artes was used as a forum for conferences against fascism, with the participation of important figures such as Ricardo Josテゥ Zevada, Vicente


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Lombardo Toledano, Jesús Silva Herzog, Víctor Manuel Villaseñor and Daniel Cosío Villegas. Furthermore, important artists such as Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo and David Alfaro Siqueiros, also created memorable works of art against fascism. In a synthetic way, the pieces here presented are a remembrance to that Mexico opposed to fascism. A Mexico that re-built itself after the armed movement and that, in its majority, aspired to have a country whose ideological and political values were similar to the ideology of the Revolution. Moisés Rosas


Mexican antifascist 12

Since the end of the 40’s, worldwide public opinion stated that fascism –especially in its German version, nationalsozialismus- was one of the most monstrous movements in the history of mankind. Nowadays, the term ‘nazi’ is referred as an insult. Adolf Hitler is the paradigm of a genocide and mad head of state, concentration camps in Auschwitz and Dachau passed into history as one of the worst mankind embarrassments. No one argues that anti-semitism or the idea that the aryan race superiority are dangerously outrageous. The burden of these certainties is such that we often forget that fascism had millions of adepts not only in Germany, Italy, Japan or Spain, but also in many countries around the world. We tend to forget that the Spanish Falangist Movement in Mexico had thousands of members, that the philo-nazi organization Acción Revolucionaria Mexicana ARM (Mexican Revolutionary Action) was very strong; or that the anarchist literally moved the masses in the Bajío. Furthermore, it is usually forgotten that fascists ideas captured the attention of hundreds of intellectuals around the world, from the north american Ezra Pound and french Louis Fernand Céline, to the mexicans José Vasconcelos and Gerardo Murillo, Dr. Atl. It is necessary to remember that the fight against fascism occurred in many countries and in a variety of fronts, one of them …art. It is commonly known that Hitler was a frustrated artist, that Nazis made expositions mocking modern art, which they called “degenerated art”. However, it is rarely known that Italian fascism was more tolerated and many modern art teachers, from Giorgio de Chirico to Otto Dix, through Albert Marquet, were established in the fascist status-quo. In Mexico, the art of political commitment has been practiced since the 29th century; that is why it surprises us that numerous artists were organized to struggle against fascism in the fields of the graphic propaganda, creating a very particular phenomena.


In 1933, with the idea of fighting against imperialism and fascism, some intellectuals and artists, particularly Leopoldo Méndez , founded the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios LEAR (Revolutionary Writers and Artists League) and when it vanished in 1937, some of its most outstanding artists joined together to create the Popular Graphic Workshop. There, artists such as Leopoldo Méndez, Alfredo Zalce, Pablo O’ Higgins, Luis Arenal, Gabriel Fernández Ledesma or José Chávez Morado, and others made graphics and propaganda against fascism…illustrated pamphlets and flyers handed man to man, posters hung on the walls, and books denunciating the Nazi brutality. The posters of Chávez Morado are remarkable against the presidential campaign of the right-wing candidate Andrew Almazán and those of Méndez and Chávez Morado against the journalists linked to the axis, and those of Zalce, Arenal and O’Higgins announcing conferences against fascism organized by the Liga Pro Cultura Alemana (Pro German Culture League) in Mexico. In an interview from 1957, the muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros remembers: ¨Who amongst those who lived those years in México, couldn’t remember the full covered walls of posters in which our illustrations expressed clear positions regarding concrete problems that affected our country and the world?1 These posters must be understood as an extension, a complement of the muralist movement. With these papers, the committed progressive artists went out on the streets to agitate the masses. This is one of the greatest moments of the 20th century Mexican art, when the agit-prop art had a real relevance, a strong influence among public opinion. Siqueiros remarked: “what was done since 1924 until the end of World War II could be considered the glorious time of the contemporary Mexican illustration”.2 Rafael Barajas (El fisgón)

1 Raquel Tibol. Gráficas y neográficas en México. Biblioteca de la Ciudad de México, México, 2002, p. 104. 2 Idem.

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El Refugio de Hitler: Diego Rivera painting of the Führerbunker ruins In 1955 the most famous painter in Mexico, Diego Rivera, known for all his monumental murals, made a stopover in East Berlin. The artist who, together with other artists, founded the Mexican Partido Comunista (Communist Party) was returning to Mexico from Moscow. He was disappointed and depressed because he knew about his incurable disease. His last hope to stop this cancerous disease, a treatment with the cobalt bomb of the soviet Dr. Funkin, failed. Returning to Mexico, Rivera painted one of his last oil paintings, based on his journey notes: El Refugio de Hitler – Ruinas de la Cancillería de Berlín (Hitler’s shelter – Ruins of the Berlin Chancellery). This hardly known work of art belongs to a private Mexican collection. The sad and atypical painting for Rivera, shows the artist’s anemic state. Above the ruined landscape, there is a completely grey heaven with a small and pale yellow sun that emits no heat. In the first view are shown the rests of the Führerbunker (the shelter of Hitler): an enormous parallelepiped in reinforced concrete with a dark gap and rusty irons. Beside the pear-shaped body with teared concrete structures…very likely the previous exit and the observation tower. There are also misty long buildings at the end, with red flags that no longer give the dynamic of socialism that Rivera so many times evoked in his previous paintings. However, the painting captivates by its indescribable grief. What a difference faced to the flourishing times of Rivera when his paintings poured out of joy to live, strong


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colors, and revolutionary scenes. In this late painting of Berlin, the artist´s vitality and his desire to live no longer exist. Resigned, he finds in the ruins of the last shelter of Hitler one of his last subjects. Two years later, on November of 1957, Diego Rivera dies in Mexico City. Anne Schumacher de la Cuesta

Published on Thursday, November 18th, 2004, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, number. 270/ p. 35. Translated from the german.


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El Refugio de Hitler, the ruins of the Berlin Chancellery As did many other artists after the armed movement of 1910, Diego Rivera approached to the socialists ideas and particularly to the Communist Party founded in Mexico in 1919. The generation that lived the Revolution, or the years after it, was deeply influenced by ideas of the organizations that took part in it. The impact that the social and political changes unleashed on the art was really important in modifying bases and aesthetics and thematic perspectives of the artistic creation. In the 20’s, a great many artists sought to establish original routes for an artistic creation related to a social vision through cultural missions, Outdoor Painting Schools, plans and programs of the new Sectretariat of Public Education. The right turn that made the first governments emanated from the Revolution, except the administration of Låzaro Cårdenas, gave a major boost to these artistic organizations to try to express, through art, their political visions. A clear example of this particularity within the history of Mexican art, in the first middle of the 20th century is precisely the late painting of Diego Rivera here presente. On his journey to the Soviet Union, looking for a cure to his cancer, Rivera made a stop over in Berlin, where he connected with the post-war heart-rendering reality on a divided, starved and defeated Germany. Ten years had past since the fall of Nazism when Rivera paints this touching painting, that in some way portraits the terrible capture of Berlin, by the Soviets and allies. The ruins, and in general the country, are synthesized in this impressive painting.


Besides the historic document that represents itself and its aesthetic and visual abundance, this painting depicts the political and ideological thinking of Rivera. On the foreground are visible the ruins of the bunker, destroyed, representing defeated fascism. On the background towards the extremes of the frame, we see the capitalism ruins, represented by several buildings. To the very center we see the triumph of socialism, materialized on a Reichstag crowned by red flags. As a whole, these are the three phases of the life of Germany and a future lighted by a sun that, yet deadly, it only reaches with its sunlight the phase of socialism. Rivera presents us the future of mankind‌ socialism as the new and obligated historical period of life, above the fascism and capitalism destruction. This is an emblematic painting in the career of Rivera, who, at the end of his life and with a serious disease that little by little wasted him away, practically ends his creative cycle with a work of art that promotes his politic ideas and ideological vision, through art. MoisÊs Rosas

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Work Catalogue


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Diego Rivera

El refugio de Hitler 1956 Oil on canvas 1.05 x 1.35 m Arvil Gallery Collection


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Leopoldo MĂŠndez

La venganza del pueblo 1942 Xylography 25 x 20 cm Rafael Barajas Collection


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Leopoldo Méndez

Deportación a la muerte 1942 Lynography 34.5 x 50.5 cm Realized for the illustration of Antonio Castro Leal, El libro negro del terror nazi en Europa, México, El Libro Libre, 1943.

Rafael Barajas Collection


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Leopoldo MĂŠndez

El imperialismo y la guerra 1937 Lithography 26 x 16 cm Hoja volante Rafael Barajas Collection


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テ]gel Bracho

ツ。Victoria! 1945 Typographic direct printing from lithography 80 x 60 cm Poster Rafael Barajas Collection


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Jesús Escobedo

El fascismo, 8ª Conferencia: Cómo combatir el fascismo 1939 Typographic direct printing from lithography 47.5 x 67.5 cm Poster Rafael Barajas Collection


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Raúl Anguiano

1° de mayo de 1939: Salvemos al mundo del fascismo Lithography 64 x 49 cm Poster Rafael Barajas Collection


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Alfredo Zalce

La URSS defiende las libertades de MĂŠxico 1941 Lithography 47 x 67.5 cm Rafael Barajas Collection


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Pablo O’Higgins

¡El frente soviético es nuestra primera línea de defensa, sostengámoslo! 1941 Lithography 48 x 64 cm Rafael Barajas Collection


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Luis Arenal

Ingresa al Partido Comunista 1938 Lithography 95 x 70 cm Poster Rafael Barajas Collection


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Gabriel Fernรกndez Ledesma

Manifiesto a los Poetas 1946 Typographic direct printing from xylography 95 x 70 cm Mural Rafael Barajas Collection


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BIOGRAPHY OF THE PRESENTED ARTISTS Diego Rivera

Guanajuato, December 13th, 1886 – Mexico City, November 24th, 1957. He grows up in Mexico City from the age of seven. He is a student of the Antigua Academia de San Carlos, goes to school for almost a decade. Thanks to a scholarship he travels to Europe where he stays 14 years. That stay allowed him to become familiar with styles and European visual techniques of different periods, as well as being close to the avantgard of the early century. After experiencing different styles, Rivera returns to Mexico in 1921 and enters the cultural program of José Vasconcelos through the elaboration of murals. Among those, outstanding is Visión Política del Pueblo Mexicano that decorates the walls of the Sectretariat of Public Education. In his murals, Rivera creates national icons still legitimate that have gone beyond frontiers. His easel work is vast as well and represents the complex narrative that characterizes the artist.

Leopoldo Méndez

Mexico City, June 30th, 1902 – February 8th, 1969. At the age of 15 Mendez enters the Academia de San Carlos. He makes his first works as an engraver in publications from Veracruz, such as Horizonte magazine and the newspaper Norte. In Mexico City some of his works are in El Sembrador and El Maestro Rural. He makes numerous posters and is one of the first artists to use linoleum instead of wood or metal plate for printing. Together with Francisco Díaz de León, Gabriel Fernández Ledesma, Fernando Leal and Fermín Revueltas, he publishes and illustrates the journal 30-30. In 1933 he contributes to the foundation of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR). Four years later, with Pablo O’Higgins, Luis Arenal y Alfredo Zalce founded the Popular graphic workshop that leads for 15 years. He receives the Guggenheim scholarship in 1939 and seven years later, the first prize Premio Nacional de Grabado in Mexico. Méndez is most popular for his artistic as well as his humanistic career. In 1952 he received in Vienna the International Peace Prize, given by the World Peace Council.


Ángel Bracho

Mexico City, February 11th, 1911 –February 1st, 2005. He entered the Academia de San Carlos at the age of 17 where he attended night courses for six years. Bracho was a member of the LEAR from 1933 to 1938. In 1936 he joined the cultural missions of the SEP as visual arts teacher. He takes part in the foundation of the Popular Graphic Workshop in 1937. He creates some murals and some are outstanding, such as the one in Mexico City’s market Abelardo Rodríguez and the one in Palacio Municipal of Tezoatlán, Oaxaca. Internationally recognized by his graphic technique, Bracho receives the Latin-American gold medal in xylography in 1960 and six years later is named honorary professor of the Florence Design Academy.

Jesús Escobedo

Dos Estrellas, Michoacán, June 3rd, 1918 – Mexico City, 1978. He enters the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre Santiago Rebull at the age of 10, and attends for six years. His professor is Gabriel Fernández Ledesma. Since his early years, the great sensitivity of his drawings and his talent for painting are detected by his teacher. In 1930, when Escobedo is only 12, he participates in the exposition Cien Años de Litografía Mexicana and three years later achieves his first individual exposition in the National Museum of Fine Arts. From 1934 to 1935 he continues his engraver formation in the Escuela Central de Artes Plásticas (San Carlos). He works for the SEP as a textbook illustrator and assistant’s restorer in the Museum of Popular Art. He was member of the LEAR and the TGP. In 1945 received the Guggenheim scholarship.

Raúl Anguiano

Guadalajara, Jalisco, February 26th, 1915 – Mexico City, January 13th, 2006. Anguiano enters the Escuela Libre de Pintura del Museo Regional de Guadalajara at the age of 12. In high school, José Vizcarra is his professor, and he also studies drawing with Francisco Rodríguez Caracalla and Jesús Guerrero Galván. He moves to Mexico City at the age of 19, and works as assistant to his muralist friends Jesús Guerrero Galván, Roberto Reyes Pérez, Máximo Pacheco and Juan Manuel Anaya. In 1937 joins the LEAR and collaborates for the organization of the TGP. His talent for drawing is captured on his

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murals, easel paintings and graphics. His easel work is the more outstanding. In 1949 collaborates in the Bonampack expedition organized by the National Institute of Fine Arts, in which he is commissioned to create a series of drawings on the ethnographic and geographic characteristics of the Lacandon region. This experience will be of great influence on his later work.

Alfredo Zalce

Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, January 12th, 1908 – Morelia, Michoacán, January 19th, 2003. Zalce moves to Mexico City and enters the Academia de San Carlos at the age of 16 where he attends school for five more years. In 1931 he finishes his formation learning lithography by the time he studies sculpture in the Escuela de Talla Directa del Ex Convento de la Merced. Later he joins the cultural missions of the SEP that allow him to travel. A member of the LEAR and TGP, he is also a professor of painting and sculpture in several schools. He also wins the Premio del Salón de la Plástica Mexicana in 1978 and the Premio Nacional de Bellas Artes in 2001. His extensive work is diverse considering he practices as muralist, engraver, sculptor and ceramist. Yet, it is his talent as an illustrator that gives him more popularity. It is outstanding and he is well recognized for his series of eight lithographies called Estampas de Yucatán.

Pablo O’Higgins

Salt Lake City, UTAH, March 1st, 1904 – Mexico City, July 16th, 1983. His artistic talent first became apparent with music until he abandons his musical studies and dedicates himself completely to painting and drawing. Invited by Diego Rivera, he arrives in Mexico City at the age of 20 in order to collaborate in the murals of the SEP and the Escuela de Agricultura de Chapingo. The learned fresco painting techniques are of great use in his later mural works, in which La Expropiación Petrolera stands out. He joins the cultural missions of the SEP, working as an art teacher and theatre promoter in different republic states. He creates illustrations for mMexican and US publications and he is a founding member of the LEAR and the TGP.


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Luis Arenal

Mexico City, 1908 – May 7th, 1985. Since 1932 Arenal assists David Alfaro Siqueiros in some of his murals, among them, La América Tropical, Retrato de la burguesía and Marcha de la Humanidad. He is a founding member of the LEAR and the TGP. In 1940, together with Antonio Pujol, Arenal is involved in the failed attempt to kill Trotsky and he runs away to the US. Four years later he comes back and becomes an active member in the TGP. He had a variety of visual creations and among his notable works include some wood engravings of the book La Revolución en el Estado de Guerrero and the sculptures in the mixed Siqueiros mural named Cuauhtémoc contra el mito.

Gabriel Fernández Ledesma

Aguascalientes, May 30th, 1900 – Mexico City, August 26th, 1983. Thanks to a scholarship Ledesma moves to Mexico City in 1917 and enters the Academia de San Carlos. His great ability for drawing allows him to collaborate in El Universal Ilustrado newspaper since 1919. He also illustrates the book of poems written by his brother Enrique and this represents his first years as an illustrator. As a great art promoter, he establishes and directs the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre Santiago Rebull, in which the engraving workshop was of great importance. He also establishes, directs and edits Forma, a magazine focused on visual arts that went beyond frontiers. Founder member of the LEAR and the organization 30-30, he is also a member of the TGP. Most popular for his work as an engraver, Fernández Ledesma is also a writer and sculptor.


48 p. 4: Ángel Bracho, ¡Victoria! (detail), 1945. pp. 18 and 19: Diego Rivera, El Refugio de Hitler (detail), 1956. pp. 42 y 43: Pablo O’Higgins, ¡El frente soviético es nuestra primera línea de defensa, sosténgamoslo! (detail), 1941.


BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 ACEVEDO Esther, SÁNCHEZ MEJORADA Alicia, TORRES CARMONA Leticia, Diego Rivera: Obras, vol.1: textos de arte y vol. 2: textos polémicos, México, El Colegio Nacional, 1999. CARRILLO AZPEITIA Rafael, Posada y el Grabado Mexicano, México, Panorama Editorial, 1992. CORONEL RIVERA Juan, LOZANO Luis-Martín, Diego Rivera: Obra completa, Köln, Taschen, 2007. CORTÉS JUÁREZ Erasto, El grabado contemporáneo (1922-1950), Enciclopedia Mexicana de Arte tomo 12, México, Ediciones Mexicanas, 1951. CRUZ ARVEA Rafael (coord.), Diego Rivera: catálogo general de obra de caballete, México, Secretaría de Educación Pública / Dirección General de Publicaciones y Medios/ Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Centro Nacional de Investigación e Información de Artes Plásticas, 1989. DEBROISE Olivier, FRANCO TORRIJOS Enrique, Diego Rivera: pintura de caballete y dibujos, México, Fondo Editorial de la Plâstica Mexicana, 1986. Diego Rivera: retrospectiva, Catálogo de exposición {10 de febrero – 27 de abril de 1986, Detroit Institute of Arts; 2 de junio – 10 de agosto de 1986, Philadelphia Museum of Art; 29 de septiembre de 1986 – 4 de enero de 1987, Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, Ciudad de México; 17 de febrero– 4 de junio de 1987, Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid; y otros}, Madrid, Ediciones El Viso, 1987. Estética Socialista en México: Siglo XX, Catálogo de exposición {15 de octubre del 2003 al 25 de enero del 2004, Museo de Arte Carrillo Gil, Ciudad de México}, México, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes/ Museo de Arte lvar y Carmen T. de Carrillo Gil/Editorial RM, 2003. GONZÁLEZ María de los Ángeles, Diego Rivera: Arte y Revolución, México, Océano/CONACULTA, 1999. KETTENMANN Andrea, Diego Rivera 1886 – 1957: un espíritu revolucionario en el arte moderno, Köln , Taschen, 2003. Leopoldo Méndez 1902-2002, Leopoldo Méndez y su tiempo: colección Carlos Monsiváis, El privilegio del dibujo, Catálogo de exposición {Leopoldo Méndez y su tiempo: colección Carlos Monsiváis, diciembre 2002 – marzo 2003, Museo Nacional de Arte, Ciudad de México. Leopoldo Méndez: El privilegio del dibujo, noviembre 2002 – febrero 2003, Museo Mural Diego Rivera, Ciudad de México}, México, Editorial RM, 2002. LUDWIGG Henri, Las ultimas horas de Hitler, España, Editorial Novaro, 1973. MUSACCHIO Gustavo, El Taller de Gráfica Popular, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2007. PONIATOWSKA Elena, BOSQUES Gilberto, Pablo O’Higgins, México, Fondo de la Plástica Mexicana, 2002. PRIGNITZ Helga (ed.), El Taller de Gráfica Popular en México: 1937 – 1977, México, INBA, 1992. REYEZ PALMA Francisco, Leopoldo Méndez: el oficio de grabar, México, ERA/CONACULTA, 1994. REYEZ PALMA Francisco, Pablo O’Higgins: de estética y soberanía, México, Comité editorial del gobierno del Distrito Federal, 1999. SÁNCHEZ VÁZQUEZ Adolfo, “Claves de la ideología estética de Diego Rivera” en Diego Rivera hoy: simposio sobre el artista en el centenario de su natalicio, México, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes/Secretaría de Educación Pública, 1986, p. 204 -22. SANTIAGO José (de), “Algunas consideraciones sobre la composición en la obra de Diego Rivera” en Diego Rivera hoy: simposio sobre el artista en el centenario de su natalicio, México, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes/Secretaría de Educación Pública, 1986, p. 165 - 181. Taller de Gráfica Popular: cuatro décadas de grabado mexicano, Catálogo de la exposición conmemorativa, México, TGP, 1977. TORRE VILLAR Ernesto (de la), Ilustradores de libros: guión bibliográfico, México, Universidad Autónoma de México, 1999. 22ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, Catálogo de exposición {12 octubre – 11 diciembre 1994, São Paulo}, São Paulo, Fundação Bienal de São Paulo, 1994. 50 años TGP: Taller de Gráfica Popular 1937 – 1987, Catálogo de la exposición conmemorativa, México, INBA, 1987. 60 años TGP: Taller de Gráfica Popular 1937 – 1997, Catálogo de la exposición conmemorativa, México, CONACULTA/INBA, 1997.


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This exposition was opened in the Gallery of Casa Vallarta Cultural Centre from November 26th, 2010 to March 11th, 2011

CREDITS EXPOSITION Curatorial Rafael Barajas Museographer Luis Blanco Curatorial Council Igor Lozada / Francisco García / Ricardo Guzmán Research Sac-Nicté Couoh CATALOGUE Texts Moisés Rosas / Rafael Barajas / Anne Schumacher Photography Jorge Gómez Edition Sac-Nicté Couoh / Sayri Karp Graphic Design Verónica Cervantes Style Corrector & translation Gamaliel Luna Design and Production Supervision Adán Ronzón General Coordination Francisco García


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UNIVERSIDAD DE GUADALAJARA

GALERÍA ARVIL

Rector President Marco Antonio Cortés Guardado

Directors Armando Colina Víctor Acuña

Vicerrector Miguel Ángel Navarro Navarro Secretary José Alfredo Peña Ramos University Centre of Art, Architecture and Design Rector Mario Alberto Orozco Abundis

CONACULTA President Consuelo Sáizar Cultural and Artistic Secretary Fernando Serrano Migallón

Director of Cultura UdG Ángel Igor Lozada Rivera Melo

Executive Secretary Raúl Arenzana Olvera

Administration and Management Coordinator Francisco García Martínez

Associate Provost for the Arts Susana Phelts Ramos

Director University Press Javier Espinoza de los Monteros


Second edition, april 2011. Coloristas y Asociados, S. A. de C. V. Calzada de los H茅roes 315, C.P. 37000 Le贸n, Guanajuato, 300 books.



El Refugio de Hitler