Page 1

“ Public Art An exploration into

as an

Urban Regeneration tool for



adam lakhanpal C3187670 ma urban design final report 2013


01 introduction 04 02 art history, typologies & policy 12 03 public art strategies 30 04 hull city context 58 05 design principles 98 06 hull draft urban art strategy 106 07 references 152 08 appendices 158



1.1 Introduction Public art is an interesting subject field due to its role in the urban environment. Though the function of art is often debatable, it can share the characteristics of good urban design through the opportunity to draw a community together, define character through culture or heritage and create attractive places. Another fascination is the extent to which the public can interact with art in their spaces. The policies within art galleries are often highly sensitive about the maintenance of paintings and other art works and remind visitors to refrain from touching them. However in the case of public art, people, formally and informally, find ways to freely engage with art in their spaces and build a mutual bond with the art work during this process, as with the case of the Larkin Toads in Hull (Burke and Charlton, 2011).


This is a compelling finding especially if the work was not originally intended to engage with audiences and this ignites interest into the study of public art.

term, ‘art in public places’ as opposed to public art” (Harding, 1997).

Public art has the ability to radically transform a place as witnessed with UK exemplars such as the Cardiff Bay In the modern day context, public art can regeneration scheme commissioned by aid in the creation of attractive places the Arts Council of Wales (2009) public With a substantial growth in the subject and environments with challenges art was highly praised and supported by field through time and influences, today’s arising in how the form itself addresses the local community who agreed that public art can be manifested through a its wider context and what makes a the “arts and culture make Wales a wide selection of media and typologies. place unique. better place to live”. Whilst on an architectural scale, art can take the form or function of buildings, Public art within cities and towns is As opposed to piecemeal development, a city or town can also represent art usually managed by local authorities the Urban Task Force (1999) argue through colour, space and infrastructure. who are responsible for policies, “successful regeneration can be programs and planning permission. design-led” where composure of At such, there is no right or wrong They publish public art strategies key urban principles into a strategic approach when it comes to defining which commonly include the funding, framework can improve the quality of public art. Several key examples include: commissioning and maintenance life, bring communities together and procedures of public art in the city or reinforce a sense of pride. “More than museum art, public art district area. gathers the issues of it’s time and From a design perspective, difficulty can begins to address a larger audience” A conventional public art program impede the task to formulate the right (Senie and Webster, 1992). exercised is the percent for art program, team when there is a need for urban in which 1% of all construction costs regeneration. Design teams regularly “Public art is not a distinct art form; during a development project is may consist of town artists and public rather the term refers to works of art delegated to install a public art work. arts officers in contrast to architects, in any media created for and in the Many European countries implement planners or highway engineers. In context of the civic realm, be it the built percent for art programs (Public Art the case of public art commissioning, or natural environment.” (Arts Council Online, 2008) although in the UK Petherbridge (1987) states “re-engaging of Northern Ireland, 2005). the policy is discretionary for local with an artistic imagination is key, authorities, which explains why some not surpassing the notion that an “Fulmination between artists, critics places are widely decorated with public adventurous and open-minded artist is and curators has led to a more general art as opposed to others. needed.”

In studying the collaboration between architects and artists in practice, research by Fernie (2006) shows certain teams believe that artists are more highly attuned to the development of our cultural landscape. According to the finginds, ‘they can react more sensitively than architects to shifts in the spirit of a place, drawing attention to different phenomena and sources of inspiration.’ On the downside public art is not always praised and where controversy is concerned often the issues result in public hatred and negative paradigms. Nowadays the Design Council CABE (2008) argue “the stakes are high because far too much development does lack imagination.” In general, common UK public art criticisms arise from the high costs of commissioning and lack of public consultation. The priority of government budgeting allocated for public art installations, irrespective of local employment and housing needs can often dissatisfy members of the public (Greenhalf, 2007).


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1.2 Hull city context Similarly to public art, the city of Hull was In it’s current state, the thought of also selected through personal reasons. developing Hull with a regenerative scheme could prove challenging and if it is to be successful then it must meet Hull’s heritage and evolution as a city is a story that can be told through it’s urban the social, economic and environmental environment. It has witnessed significant needs to sustain the city for the future. A growth and from the 13th century large increase in social deprivation has swept certain character areas within through to the development of the the city centre with the eventual demise docks in the 18th century, much of the economic potential was utilised through of the industrial trades and this is proof that Hull is in desperate need of a new the export of various trades. identity. If public art is to contribute to Hull’s regeneration the approach and However during much of the 20th outcomes must be tailored to the city’s century, Hull’s trade economy rapidly existing nature and contribute to a sense declined and this resulted in a large of place for citizens and visitors. amount of deprived areas and brownfield sites within the city centre. Other local authorities such as the Albury Regenerative attempts were made when Despite the negative stereotypes, Hull’s hidden gems are in the form of it’s City Council (2010) in Australia have the city gained a stereotypical image thriving culture and public art collection and labelled ‘one of the worst places seen this requirement to be vital in the to live’ (Kieran and Jordison, 2003), which have mass potential to be utilised process for providing a cohesive vision although most development was halted as marketing tools for promoting the for future public art installations and city as an attractive place. The city due to the economic recession. guidance. centre has a popular range of theatres, museums, galleries and public art In today’s context as an experience initiatives and where these facilities have for new visitors to the city, Hull’s city proven to boost tourism levels, generate centre is a product of its failure as it comes across as a place that never fully civic pride and create attractive spaces, there is future potential to harness them achieved urban regeneration. again in a new structure or framework. As a general rule, a majority of public art strategies adopted by local authorities such as Cardiff City Council (2005) and Lewisham Council (2009) tend to provide fundamental guidance in public art commissioning. However their limitations include the existing contextual characteristics of their urban environments to be of any importance and disregard the concept of site specific art opportunities within their city. The approach is an ‘anywhere anything’ concept and the implications respectively from an urban design perspective result in detaining the real urban character of the place.


1.3 Draft urban art strategy As Hull already has an existing adopted public art strategy, the principles in this will not be replicated. Instead a new approach will combine the principles of urban design and public art to create a new framework for the city’s regenerative needs. This will be the draft urban art strategy. The draft urban art strategy will examine the needs of the city in respect to producing a public art regenerative framework along with new initiatives to relabel Hull as a city for the arts. The purpose of this proposal is therefore to produce a draft urban art strategy for the city centre of Hull.

City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Existing urban grain Existing public art

Fig 1.1 Existing public art in Hull


The study area is focussed on the new city centre boundary as defined by Hull Citybuild (2006). The grain map shows the built form with green and blue space, indicating scale and locations of public art.

Existing monument Seven Seas Fish Trail Seven Seas Fish art Existing public space Watercourse Dry dock Road network Railway

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1.4 Research Question

1.5 Research Aims

1.6 Research Questions

“An exploration into Public Art as an Urban Regeneration tool for Hull”

The overall aim for this design project is to devise a public art framework for the Hull City Centre, paying particular attention to the key elements which characterise the city and community. Therefore, the research aims are:

Art in the city has already began to contribute to distinguishing Hull from other places. However, individual developments cannot shape the city alone, Hull is in need of an art strategy, owing to the success of previous art installations along with an increase in public demand for more permanent city centre works as found by Burke and Charlton (2011).

1) To critically evaluate selected worldwide case studies, examining the representation of art in public places, its evolution and what public art typologies currently exist in todays urban environments and apply the best practice principles to the Hull context 2) To explore the extent to which the public can interact with art, even in an informal way, taking account of their cultural and historical characteristics 3) To examine the role of public art in aiding the regeneration of modern cities on a wider scale, examining strengths and weaknesses, eventually focussing on the Hull context 4) To review instances where public art has not been deemed successful in UK cities, concluding with implications 5) To produce a draft urban art strategy and regenerate Hull as a city for the arts


The research questions posed are as follows: 1) Why use public art when other types of regeneration methods are available? 2) Will the community of Hull appreciate public art as a “branding technique” for local distinctiveness? 3) What are the design principles in producing a draft urban art strategy? 4) How will these design principles be applied to Hull’s existing context? 5) What are the benefits to Hull in terms of the economic, environmental and social principles of using public art as the key initiative in an urban design framework?

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1.7 Research Methodology Overall, the main methodologies used 4. To interview these groups, in attempt are field research and desktop research. to discuss the diverse themes which Engaging the public is essential in the brand the city of Hull proposal as including them in both the research and design processes will lead 5. To undertake surveys, questioning to devising a suitable draft urban art members of the public community strategy. Data collected will be evaluated as to how a draft urban art strategy against best practice principles. The key would help Hull, with particular methodologies are: emphasis on engagement and concepts for new public art spaces 1. To gather, analyse and review secondary information from various 6. To consult with the Hull City Council sources such as public art strategies, Planning department, taking account journals, books, articles and websites of what key issues they would agree to include in the draft urban art 2. To interview stakeholders and strategy established groups (youth and students, charitable organisations, 7. To review case study examples of sustainable environment etc) best practice and apply them to the as to what public art means to Hull city context them, focussing on best practice commissions they like and could see as an improvement to their city 3. To interview these groups, attempting to evaluate what they label as “good and bad public art�, generating opinions on public art policy and instances where they may have had positive and negative experiences concerning art in their city


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1.8 Conclusions

In general, art in public places is a compelling worldwide subject area and the thought of public art regeneration has been recognised to possess many benefits. Some argue “spaces for public art are seen not as engines for economic growth but as catalysts for cultural renewal” (Williams, 2001). Others express the thought of using art as a “bolt on extra” rather than an urban design tool (Porch, 2000). This research is important as not only do the capabilities of public art differ in each context, it’s regeneration abilities need to be fully explored. A 2016 vision outlined by Hull City Council’s Area Action Plan proposed several strategic objectives for the future development of the city. This included transforming the image with new architecture, public realm, art and facilities (Hull City Council, 2006). This proposal states the need for art to be included as a urban tool in redeveloping the city centre. As it is currently emerging, public art in Hull is highly relevant in today’s context. It has proven to aid urban regeneration on social and economic scales in the city (Sterk, 2004).


Planning an urban design strategy has the potential to contribute to an equal if not higher scale of furthering Hull’s economy, uniting communities and providing safe and attractive spaces. Whereas previous success has been accomplished, the demand from locals for more art projects is evident (Morland, 2010). Management teams from the Larkin25 project found an expressed community desire for more permanent art in the city (Burke and Charlton, 2011). A draft urban art strategy therefore is significant in the future planning, guidance and maintenance of temporary and permanent public art in Hull. A draft urban art strategy has the potential to set a standard in relating art specifically to its public context, reflecting the image of citizens and communities. After analysing international case studies, a detailed approach will be carried out with concentration on local community engagement. The significance of this engagement is that if carried out effectively, it creates a logic to the public art framework.

For a city like Hull, detailed consideration of art planning and strategy can lead to creating a distinctive brand and a sense of place for citizens, be this through temporary or permanent projects. Although Hull’s negative image at the beginning of the 21st century has begun to recover, communities have indicated a need for change, with a desire to move on from their ‘poor branded city’ (McGregor, 2005). Although individual areas have been categorised for regeneration, the city is in need of distinctiveness, a requirement that public art has the potential to be a major contributor. Many opportunities still exist for it to become a thriving city. As Wafer Hadley (2009) stated, “Hull has the potential and the will to create its own success story”.


Fig 1.2 Hull 2010



Art History Form & Policy

2.1 Introduction The chapter begins with a brief history of public art. Three main eras are studied which have seen significant changes in public art development. Selected contemporary art case studies are then analysed in relation to best practice. The next focus is on arts councils. Scope is given to their policies and approach towards public art. Following on, the Percent for Art policy is reviewed in respect to the UK and American contexts.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 2.2 Definition of Public Art When attempting to derive meaning from the word public art, it is questionable how people perceive “art” as opposed to “public”. Contemporary definitions of public art continue to evolve. The Oxford Dictionary Online (2004) defines ‘art’ under the following terms:

2.3 Brief History of Public Art Simple interpretations include “an artwork or element of design that is either temporarily or permanently located in a public space” (North Carolina Arts Council, 2010).

Art - “the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional”

Harding (1997) brands it as ‘the notion of a general publicness of ‘location’, as distinct from, the more limited publicness of institutions such as art galleries and contemporary art museums’. This supports the argument that art should be shifted from architectural confinement to a part of our outdoor spaces and public realm.

The arts - “the various branches of creative activity, such as painting, music, literature, and dance”

Kardon (1980) says “public art is the major arena in which democratic ideas and aesthetic elitism attempt to come to terms with each other.”

Arts - “subjects of study primarily concerned with human creativity and social life, such as languages, literature, and history (as contrasted with scientific or technical subjects”

Deviating from the social meaning, others including artists themselves have accepted that there is no such thing as ‘public art’, only ‘art in public places’ (Harding, 1997).

Art - “a skill at doing a specified thing, typically one acquired through practice”

The extent of art’s nature can be seen through its historic and contemporary forms. People have their own concept and experience with art which then leads them to convey this message.

Due to complexity of public art history, three main eras will be evaluated which have witnessed significant development in public art representation and values.




The study will assess and distinguish the various social influences during historic public art initiatives which will provide an clearer understanding for the purpose of producing public art for the Hull. Factors will include the predominant social subjects, the common materials and techniques utilised at the time and a summary of public art. This will be followed by selected public art form and typology case study analyses.



2.31 ancient greek & roman cities 1000BC - 1000AD Subject matters The Gods, figures, myths, entertainment Materials/techniques Concrete, stone, ivory, marble Modelling, building, metopes Summary The origins of Western public art dated 1000BC to the ancient Greeks, who predominantly signified the virtues of religious and social art (Whitley, 2001). This was seen in the simplicity and clear arrangement of their architectural structures. Some Greek buildings considered “public” by use, were also cast in perfection as works of art such as The Parthenon (Fig 2.1c) and The Temple of Zeus.

Fig 2.1a Cleobis & Biton

Fig 2.1b A metope from The Parthenon

Out of all the Greek cities, Gombrich (1995) stated Athens became “the most famous in the history of art as many of the statues were developed”, following on from where the Egyptian culture left off. Fig 2.1a shows the influences and almost imitation of Egyptian modelling. With the invasion of the Romans, civil engineering and architecture reached new heights (op.cit.) as seen in Fig 2.1d. They also used similar techniques from the Greeks, making art more lifelike as seen in their modelling techniques.


Fig 2.1d Panorama view of the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine, Rome

Fig 2.1c The Parthenon, Athens

Design principle

Fig 2.1e The Imperial Forum, Italy


Use principles of vernacular design e.g. materials, styles to strengthen the existing character


Preserve qualitative historic features to enrich urban landscape


2.32 european cities 1600-1945 Subject matters Religion, “styles”, royalty, portraiture Materials/techniques Stone, stucco, oil paint, marble, bronze, Fresco, architecture, landscape, sculpture Summary The Renaissance and Baroque periods followed through European cities, recognised by long tastes in design. According to Gombrich (1995), the word ‘Gothic’ was first used by Italian critics of the Renaissance to denote the style which they considered barbarous. The decorative detailing of the Palace of Versailles along with its gardens combined a grandeur of architecture, statues, urns and trophies. The style revolutionised the Baroque period, setting an obsessive trend as artists were given free reign to translate their most unlikely visions into stone and gilt stucco (op.cit.). In England the laws of classical architecture were adopted. The designs of the villas were influenced by Italian architects, whilst southern artists created the gardens and landscapes (op.cit.).


Fig 2.2a Italian sculpture detail

Fig 2.2b Melk Monastery, Vienna

Fig 2.2d Chiswick House and gardens, London

Fig 2.2c The hand of God, Paris

Design principle

Fig 2.2e The gardens at Versailles, Paris


Design traditional public spaces with new facilities e.g gardens with sculptural/artistic elements


Incorporate robustness and flexibility in public space design for all users


2.33 contemporary/post world war II 1945 Subject matters Politics, creativity, heritage, interaction Materials/techniques Steel, timber, stone, glass, aluminium, Painting, sculpting, graffiti, photography Summary During the 21st century, the scope of art in public places dramatically widened in form, function and media. Through propaganda displays, political messages were heavily portrayed through monumental posters, heroic paintings and sculpture. Many street murals were created as a protest by minority groups against certain laws (Fig 2.3a).

Fig 2.3a Titanic Mural, Belfast

Fig 2.3b John Lennon Wall, Prague

Other modern art types such as Light Art soon emerged in the 1960’s with the development of artificial light sources and experimentation (Weibel, 2006). Further forms of overtly political public art during the Cultural Revolution (1966-68) was promoted by the Chinese authorities. During the 1970s the cities of Belfast, New York and Los Angeles also witnessed this public art movement. The early 1980’s saw the form of spray can art in New York City, created from the Hip Hop Culture (Moss, 2000).


Fig 2.3d World War II Memorial, Washington

Fig 2.3c Mother Russia

Design principle

Fig 2.3e Flamingo, Chicago


Improvise and explore the uses and forms of contemporary public art works


Use styles and materials representative of context to create distinctive spaces

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Fig 2.4 Public art typologies

2.4 Public art typologies Charity (2005) argues ‘art is a social activity’ and with society continually developing to meet it’s own needs, public art has been recreated in the process for entertainment, education and functional purposes. The Newport News Public Art Foundation (2008) is a US based arts organisation, working to encourage the public to enjoy, appreciate and engage with art sculptures around them, through outreach and education programs. According to them, public art can be categorised further into five groups as shown in Fig 2.4.

Fig 2.4a Flying Saucer Grove

Fig 2.4c The Sphere

Fig 2.4b Bus Home

Fig 2.4d Callejon Murals

2.5 Public art forms





Draws inspiration from the location

Flying Saucer Grove (Fig 2.4a)

Semi-integrated Shares certain inspiration from the location but not mutually exclusive to the area

Bus Home (Fig 2.4b)


No integration with the area

The Sphere (Fig 2.4c)

Community art

Focus on the community belief allowing freedom of expression

Callejon Murals (Fig 2.4d)

Ephemeral art

Temporary for occasion, transitory in nature

Sanddinosaurs (Fig 2.4e)

Fig 2.5 Public art forms








The Fig 2.5 diagram is a collation of contemporary public art forms, gathered through independent research. Some of the more recognised forms of public art include sculptures and detailed works such as ceramics. Architectural sculptures as seen earlier along with public buildings are considered legitimate forms of public art and increasingly most aspects of the built environment also fall into this category. Modern public art is inviting to wide audiences and artists must be creative and imaginative if their work is to be recognised. Harding (1997) agrees that the development of public art ‘makes us refocus on why and for whom art is made and distributed in our world. It also asks of artists to consider directing their experiences away from autonomous reflection and make them function in a social context.’ Contemporary examples of these public art forms have been analysed in a selection of case studies. Design principle

Fig 2.4e Sanddinosaurs


Create diversity to the city’s existing public art collection by adding a range of new typologies

Explore the juxtaposition of utilising classic and contemporary public art forms

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Fig 2.5a Architecture as art name/artist

The Guggenheim/ Frank Lloyd Wright


New York/1959


“A unique addition in concrete to New York skyline” (Pickrel, 2007) The museum’s collection has grown organically, over eight decades, and is founded upon several important private collections


Fig 2.5i Digital art

“Overshadows the artworks displayed inside” (Damon, 2009) “Difficult to properly hang paintings in the shallow, windowless, concave exhibition niches that surround the central spiral” (op. cit)


site/year strengths


Fig 2.5b Exterior

site/year strengths

Theme portrayed addresses society and politics Valuable art - sold at a high price Approach combined with dark humour gave urban art a distinctive image


Fig 2.5d Original wall art


“Refuses narrative and stares you down. This is especially powerful in the context of being embedded in the cathedral” (Slavin, 2011)


“Evokes technology and science, not religion and the divine.” (Colberg, 2007)

Location ideal for motorists

Blue Carpet/Thomas Heatherwick Newcastle City Centre/2001 “A complex design integrating a variety of materials in a well-used area of the city, so it requires a rigorous maintenance regime” (Evening Chronicle, 2006). “As well as the initial costs, these grandiose arts projects have a long-term legacy in terms of maintenance. We were frustrated at what we saw as a waste of money and I can understand if people are concerned” (op.cit.).


Redball Project/Kurt Perschke




Integration in a wider context of places A catalyst for new everyday encounters


Limitations of form Questionable branding as “art”

Fig 2.5f Stained glass

Fig 2.5n Plymouth

Fig 2.5g Sculptural art name/artist

Angel of the North/Antony Gormley


Gateshead, Tyne and Wear/1998


Listed as an icon of England Often been used in film and television to represent Tyneside, as are other local landmarks such as the Tyne Bridge and the Gateshead Millennium Bridge.


Fig 2.5l Aerial view

Fig 2.5m Visual art

Symphony of Light/ Gerhard Richter Cologne Cathedral/2007

Correspondent of time/season Concept associated to seaside towns





Fig 2.5k Furniture as art

Fig 2.5e Detailed art name/artist

M5, Weston super Mare/2004

Fig 2.5j M5 view

Riot Flowers/ Banksy

Labelled a vandalist Criticised for replicating the style of French artist Blek le Rat (The Independent, 2008) Work removed by local authorities



Fig 2.5c Street art name/artist

Travelling Light/Peter Freeman

Sparked controversy initially with a “Gateshead stop the statue” campaign “Monstrosity with fascist undertones” (Sewell, 2008)

Design principle

Fig 2.5h Landscape view

Use interactive form and function as catalysts for new encounters with the community

Explore the role of public art in different settings e.g daytime, season

The next section examines adopted public art policies and the role of the UK established arts councils who have major influences in public art commissioning and funding. A critical review of their urban/arts regeneration case study is also included.



2.6 arts council england Vision

Influence on public art

Arts Council England champions, develops and invests in artistic and cultural experiences that enrich people’s lives. We support a range of activities across the arts, museums and libraries - from theatre to digital art, reading to dance, music to literature, and crafts to collections.

Upon division in 1994, the council became a main distribution body of the National Lottery Funds, (also established the same year) an investment which resulted in the expansion in size and responsibility.

Policies • To involve the public and local communities in making policies, setting priorities and distributing money • To increase access and participation for those who do not currently benefit from the cultural opportunities available in England • To foster local community initiatives which bring people together, enrich the public realm and strengthen community spirit • To encourage new talent, innovation, and excellence and help people to develop new skills • To ensure that money is distributed for projects which promote public value • To further the objectives of sustainable development • To support the long-term managerial viability and leadership of organisations in the arts (Arts Council England, 2011)


Since the 1970’s, the Arts Council England (2011) has supported over 800 organisations under nine different regions in development and investment in artistic and cultural commissions. Including public art and other artforms, they have also funded educational activities, exhibitions, publications and tours. As recorded in their annual statistics, most of their organisational activity is significantly supported in London (op.cit.).

Fig 2.6 Regeneration Case Study name/design team

site/completion regeneration cost strengths


City Park/ Gillespies & Arup Bradford City Centre/2012 Urban £24.4 million Awarded best Place in UK & Ireland by The Academy of Urbanism Return of annual estimated £80m to Bradford economy (Wainwright, 2012) “Enhanced the overall image of Bradford and has provided a catalyst for regeneration.” (Winrow, 2012) Attracted criticism from locals (Wainwright, 2012) Faulty fountain control valves to be replaced (Rush, 2012)

Fig 2.6a Site Plan

In 2011, the Council agreed a four year investment of £1.4 billion of government public money and £1 billion from the National Lottery to help create art experiences for as many people as possible across the country (op.cit.).

Design principle •

Develop Hull as a mixed use city attraction to boost the economy with increased tourism footfall

Use aesthetics and colour to improve the spatial image of the city

Fig 2.6b City Park (Visit Bradford, 2012)


2.7 scottish arts council Vision

Influence on public art

Fig 2.7 Regeneration Case Study name/design team

The Scottish Arts Council is the lead body for the funding, development and advocacy of the arts in Scotland. We offer a unique national perspective on the arts and their audiences. Our strategic leadership – development, funding and advocacy - is underpinned by specialist knowledge and experience in the management and delivery of the arts at national and international level.

The National Lottery Funded Scottish Arts Council Capital Programme has achieved great success in delivering artistic opportunities for communities across Scotland. They made almost 1,000 capital awards and over £167 million of lottery funds have been invested since 1995 in the development of the arts infrastructure of Scotland (Scottish Arts Council, 2010)

site/completion regeneration cost strengths


We aim to forge productive relationships and constructive dialogue at all levels between ourselves and our stakeholders in the arts, national and local government, education, health and community renewal. Working in partnership with others, we will respond to the needs of the arts and their audiences. Policies

• Increase the scope and quality of our support to artists • Secure the foundation of Scotland’s artistic development • Create flexibility to support the new and the innovative • Create opportunities for participation in the arts • Build a culture of co-operation with partners and the arts community • Make the transition to Creative Scotland (Scottish Arts Council, 2004)

The expertise of the Scottish Arts Council also has international recognition. Scottish artists continue to be welcomed internationally especially in places such as Venice and Washington, where commissions were critically praised (op.cit.).

Pennywell/ North Edinburgh Arts & others Muirhouse, Edinburgh/2014 Residential/mixed use Ongoing Application granted, demolition of existing residential blocks underway The development is a housing led regeneration opportunity which will boost the local economy by providing new jobs in the construction industry as well as supporting local businesses.” (Urban Realm, 2012) Masterplan objections at council meetings included increased traffic and parking, height of tall buildings and landscaping (Ulla, 2011)

Their community projects have generated wider participation in the arts, an example being Inspiring Communities. More than 170 projects applied and 17 projects were taken onto the programmes, consisting of audiovisual, literature, music and dance activities.

Design principle •

Make all art accessible for visitors and locals to allow for individual community experiences

Explore the use of space in siting public art installations

Fig 2.7b Bulb Planting In Muirhouse

Fig 2.7a Public art installations


2.8 arts council of wales Vision

Influence on public art

Our priorities are: • Supporting the creation of the best in great art • Encouraging more people to enjoy and take part in the arts • Growing the arts economy As well supporting and developing high quality arts activity, some of the activities that we perform day to day are: • Distributing Lottery funds • Providing advice about the arts • Raising the profile of the arts in Wales • Generating more money for the arts economy • Influencing planners and decision-makers • Developing international opportunities in the arts • Promoting small scale performances in local communities Our job is to ensure that the contribution of the arts is recognised, valued and celebrated

The Arts Council of Wales has played an important role in supporting and developing high quality arts activity. On average they distribute around £31 million each year, helping the arts to thrive in Wales. A study conducted in the Arts Council of Wales Plan (2008) showed that over three quarters of people in Wales (76%) support the view that “arts and culture make Wales a better place to live”.

Policies • • • • • • • • •

Establishing the value of art Celebrating Welsh language and culture An unwavering commitment to quality Championing the contemporary, living arts Increasing public engagement Building a more inclusive culture Making the most of our public partnerships Working across government Ensuring value for money

• Building a strong future for the arts 2009-2012 (Arts Council of Wales, 2008)


In 2007/08 their community touring scheme “Night Out” presented 535 events in 330 venues, organised by 2,169 volunteers and enjoyed by more than 33,000 people. (op. cit.)

Fig 2.8 Regeneration Case Study name/design team

site/completion regeneration

Cardiff Bay/Thomas Heatherwick and others Cardiff/2000 Waterfront regeneration




£200 million



The development has enabled land in the city centre to be redeveloped for higher-value uses (Esys Consulting Ltd, 2004) Reinforced the competitive position of Cardiff” and “contributed to a massive improvement in the quality of the built environment” (op. cit.) Project less successful in generating employment (op. cit.) As at 2008, up to a third of apartments were not occupied (Hannaby, 2008)

During 2011, the Council commissioned IXIA, a large public art organisation along with Celfwaith to identify public art policies, strategies, projects, people and funding in Wales. The aim was to produce a baseline of information against which the public art sector can be annually assessed, and which informs how Arts Council of Wales supports the sector.

Design principle •

Allow public art to be at the forefront of the project to ensure it flows through the development

Examine a space for the arts where it is represented through buildings, public space and installations

Fig 2.8b Regeneration aerial view

Fig 2.8a Wales Millennium Centre


2.9 arts council of northern ireland Vision

Influence on public art

The Arts Council does not directly commission public art, rather it enables commissioning, by welcoming applications from organizations (not individuals) who wish to do so to its National Lottery funding schemes. Their dedicated programs support the development of public art along with public benefits, quality of arts activity, financial viability and quality of management, and partnership funding. The Arts Council can also advise on all aspects of the commissioning process, from planning the commission, developing the brief, selecting artists and drawing up a contract. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland may also be able to participate occasionally in selection panels for public art projects.

Between 1995 and 2001, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland allocated some £1.5 million to 45 art projects, ranging from large-scale urban works to smaller-scale community and rural projects. (Arts Council of Northern Ireland, 2001). They also support public art within its Capital Percent for Art programme.


• Give new employment/commissioning opportunities to artists • Contribute to creative urban and rural regeneration and enhance the public • Realm and built and natural environment • Foster and promote our artistic heritage; • Encourage and nurture community participation and civic pride • Make the arts widely accessible • Encourage the development and transfer of artistic skills • Encourage greater critical debate, dialogue and to promote best practice (Arts Council of Northern Ireland, 2007)

The Arts Council’s new plan outlines a series of innovative schemes to contribute to the development of cultural tourism, the creative industries and entrepreneurial skills for artists, as well as building on the success of Northern Ireland’s existing artists and arts organizations.

Fig 2.9 Regeneration Case Study name/design team

site/completion regeneration cost



River Lagan/Laganside Corporation and others Belfast/2001 Waterfront/urban Various “Each art piece was chosen to enhance the development space in which it sits. Many have been created by local artists and a number reflect Belfast’s great industrial history, while others celebrate its changing face.” (Department for Social Development, 2003) “Laganside considers the provision of public art an integral aspect of a regeneration strategy which seeks to create distinctive and memorable public places....” (Boal, 2008) To the south, the farmland landscape is in relatively good condition, although much of the woodland suffers from a lack of management. (Northern Ireland Environmental Agency, 2006).

Fig 2.9a The Big Fish by John Kindness

Their extensive transformation of neighbourhoods through public art commissions and street-scaping; and arts venues such as the recently refurbished Grand Opera House and the new City Arts Centre in Belfast, also form part of the plan to bring economic prosperity and renewed vitality to their city night life. (Arts Council of Northern Ireland, 2007).

Design principle •

Distinguish recurring themes within the city centre public art works which together tell Hull’s story

Create memorable public art installations which characterise Hull differently to other places

Fig 2.9b Custom House Square



2.10 national endowment for the arts (USA) Vision

Influence on public art

The National Endowment for the Arts was established by Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government. To date, the NEA has awarded more than $4 billion to support artistic excellence, creativity, and innovation for the benefit of individuals and communities.” The main vision is: • To advance artistic excellence, creativity, and innovation for the benefit of individuals and communities. • The creation of art that meets the highest standards of excellence • To engage the public with diverse and excellent art • To promote public knowledge and understanding about the contributions of the Arts • To enable the NEA Mission through Organizational Excellence

In the States, funding support for art exhibitions and excellence strengthened in 1965 as the National Endowment for the Arts was founded. This marked the era in American history that substantial federal tax funds were allocated for arts spending at state and local levels (Katz, 1984). In doing so, members of the public felt the arts were “officially sanctioned as significant contributors to their nation’s well-being” (Smagula, 1983).

Fig 2.10 Regeneration Case Study name/design team

site/completion regeneration cost strengths


Miller Beach Arts & Creative District/Various Indiana, US/Ongoing Urban/community Various “The arts ... can transform a place and can do so very quickly...they do create jobs but they also provide a reason for people to want to be in a community.” (Landesman, 2012) Committed to creating a diverse, welcoming, and vibrant cultural destination for the visual, performing, and culinary arts, the District plans serve as a catalyst for community regeneration, sustainability, and enriched quality of life. Plans to tackle annual increased traffic problems around Marquette Park not well received by residents (Franklin, 2011)

The core policy of their Art in Public Places program was dissemination of and good access to art experiences regardless of social or cultural status, providing individuals with the opportunity to make an “educated choice” about having “high quality” art in one’s life.

Policies • Applications for Federal grant funds recommended by advisory panels; • Guidelines outlining funding categories, objectives, and eligibility; • Leadership initiatives and partnership agreements with other agencies; • Agency budget levels, allocations, and funding priorities; • Policy directions involving Congressional legislation and other issues of importance to the arts nationally. (National Endowment for the Arts, 2000)


Design principle •

Foster new community based initiatives to give the locals more control of public art in their city

Enhance the engagement between local artists and Hull based communities to give an insight into art

Fig 2.10b Farmers Market

Fig 2.10a Graffiti art

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 2.11 Percent for Art The Percent for Art is a government policy which during a typical development scheme, would involve using a small budget from the overall project cost to fund and install a public art commission. The minimum fund is 1% however this does vary from place to place (Public Art Online, 2008). The aims of the policy is encouraging artist engagement meaningfully through the project design process whilst including a public art commission as an integral part of the development. 2.11.1 Percent for Art in America The first proposal for the program called Art-in-Architecture was initiated in 1934 by Edward Bruce (Knight, 2008). It specified that the budget for new federal buildings be utilized to purchase contemporary works by American artists. However, this was suspended in 1966 in response to inflated construction costs. The first legislation was passed in Philadelphia in 1959 under citygovernment control. In the US, this was then followed by Baltimore (1964), San Francisco (1967) and Seattle in 1973, (Knight, 2008).

Fig 2.14 European Percent for Art Schemes (Public Art Online, 2008)

Fig 2.11a Architecture name/artist

Harold Washington Library Centre/Thomas Beeby




No fixed %










No fixed %





Tilted Arc/Richard Serra


0 - 1.5%

New York/1981



“Influenced by Earth Art, existing outdoors in remote locations, left to erode and change under the natural conditions of the environment.” (Boettger 2002) Creates static, effective within the fast-paced centre of the Federal Plaza






Consisting of 10 floors, officially largest public library building in the world “More specifically, Beeby’s iconography relates to the Midwest and to Chicago.” (Schulze and Harrington, 2003)


“One of the 15 ugliest buildings in the world.” (Wong, 2009) “Its rooftop ornament is cartoonish and its lobby has all the grace of a shopping mall.” (Kamin, 2009)

Fig 2.11b Street view

Fig 2.11c Sculpture name/artist site/year



Criticism over cost and disruptive location The trial involving Tilted Arc is cited as the most notorious public sculpture controversy in the history of art law (Levine, 2002)

Fig 2.15 Public Benefits from Percent For Art (Artquest, 2006) Fig 2.11d Context

• • • •

2.11.2 Percent for Art in Europe Fig 2.12 Redbridge Percent for Art Practice “Under the Council’s Percent for Art Scheme, for all Council-led capital projects with total capital costs over £50,000, a minimum of between 1 – 5% will be allocated towards Public Art, depending on the scale and purpose of the project.”

• •

3.29 Castlefields Percent for Art Practice Fig 2.13 “In new developments, a scheme called ‘a percent for art’ policy or similar should be used to persuade the developers to contribute to a public art fund that will serve not just the housing directly, but also the amenity areas nearby.”

• • • • • •

Opportunities to appreciate public places; Demystification of the fine arts by their manifestation in public places; Acquaintance with the works of artists of their time; Improvement of the environment, particularly for public employees working in public buildings which may be made more inviting to the public; Accepting a responsibility for artists and craftsmen; Providing a medium for expression by the community in relation to its own identity; Enhancing the community’s reputation and standing as a leader in public arts; Providing a reason for civic pride; Raising the morale of the public and of public workers, thereby increasing efficiency; Making people happy and educating them through their environment; Enhancing the architectural environment; Fostering, promoting and their artistic heritage


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 2.11.3 Percent for Art in Britain In the UK, it is said that a ‘golden age’ of public art occurred during the 1980’s and 1990’s, as the cities of Glasgow, Birmingham, Manchester, Dublin and Belfast each began a post-industrial transformation (Pollock & Paddison 2005). Introduced in 1989, the Percent for Art campaign was initiated by the Arts Council of Great Britain. Where the policy is negotiable in the UK, many local authorities have published their policies. The Sheffield City Council (2001) public art scheme has been successful due to its integration into the city policy (Fig 2.17), enabling people to participate in public art initiatives. They also support the need for regeneration in sustainability. Another successful approach is conducted by the London’s Borough of Redbridge (2006), whose policy states a percent for art budget of 1-5% (Fig 2.12). This covers installation, maintenance and many other costs too. The percent for art scheme adopted by The Arts Council of Northern Ireland (2001) offers strategic advice on their policy, which includes implementation, funding, planning and artist commission techniques. Other UK public art strategies simply state the policy is needed, however lack the information needed to introduce or even support such a policy. This is


evident in Castlefields Public Art Strategy published by The Halton Borough Council (2008) as seen in Fig 2.13. A reference to Percent for Art is provided in relation to housing developments. Though some councils have distinct policies or art guidance highlighting their sensitive design approach, others do support the Percent for Art policy. The Teignbridge District Council’s Art policy (1994) has remained unchanged since it’s adoption in 1992. Percent for Art although not compulsory, is encouraged in the UK by the Arts Councils. Funded by The Arts Council England, the Artquest (2006) forum shows how Percent for Art contributes to enhancing communities and places (Fig 2.15). Conducted through desktop research, the Fig 2.18 table shows a checklist of major cities in regards to their support of percent for art policy. The case studies above were funded and commissioned under European Percent for Art programs.

Fig 2.16a Sculpture name/artist site/year



Gartenschlauch/Claes Oldenburg Frieburg, Germany/1983 Scale is appropriate to the park setting, a dominating landmark along a tram route The continuos water flow from the hose into the pool creates a fountain Art genre often ridiculed, causing controversy Targeted by vandalism

Fig 2.16b Landscape view

Fig 2.16c Sculpture name/artist site/year strengths


The Sequence/Arne Quinze Brussells, Belgium/2008 Was recycled when commission contract ended Because of the intense colour, it contrasts with its natural surroundings generating a sentimental reaction amongst passers by Work is not personal, the style is often replicated in a similar manner across the world

Fig 2.17 Sheffield Public Art Core Policy “The focus for public art will be on artist-led projects integrated with wider regeneration schemes rather than on one-off pieces of artwork. We will try to increase the opportunities for artists to engage at an early stage with architectural, environmental and community regeneration schemes. This will make it possible to create sustainable contributions which increase opportunities for economic investment and add quality elements to developments. There will continue to be a role for traditional public art elements such as site specific and functional permanent works, but in addition alternative opportunities for delivering innovative and exciting public art - and involving direct community participation in this delivery - will be created.”

Fig 2.16d Integration

Fig 2.18 UK cities supporting Percent for Art CITY
































|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 2.12 Conclusions The principle that artists often find art useful in promoting their ideas or establishing a means of public contact with viewers has been witnessed through the development of public art forms and typologies. Common art subjects were a representation of life within society, depicting the influences of styles and fashion. What is evident is that art has created an ambition in technique, with people involved in a continuous effort to perfect the art of sculpting better than their predecessors. This was seen with work from the Romans. Artists made use of the local materials and facilities available, creating an apparent vernacular trend. Post-war public art developed radically. Linker (1981) stated “the attempt of shift art out of the gallery and onto the street in the 1960’s were about changing art itself, broadening it’s influence born of democratic urges.” The Mural Movement in particular reflected this, enabling distressed communities to portray their political agendas publicly ‘without permission of the authorities’. Used in expression, Miles (2000) argues “planning in today’s diverse society requires new ways of thinking about representation.”

As witnessed, public art has served many uses in the past. An increase in modern art forms has allowed public art to become a part of society and our everyday lives. In the way people learn to engage differently with their spaces has also created future opportunities for art. Senie and Webster (1992) agree with the role of the arts amid an increasingly diverse population, they can become an important vehicle for defining common ground, making it a viable part of public life. The influence of the Arts Councils has greatly impacted public art within Great Britain. Their chief aim is to maintain and encourage art activity and develop projects, offering various programmes which bridge the gaps between artists and communities. They have supported a vast majority of projects, including funding for urban regeneration with local councils and design professionals. Charity (2005) explains from an interview that ‘artists consider the opportunity to explore new relationships and embark on interesting dialogues to be of paramount importance, and the chemistry between people to be more important than compatibility of work’.

The impact of their policy and programs in both the art and built environment sectors has nurtured our perception and awareness of contemporary public art. Percent for Art is a strong policy in Europe. As shown in Fig 2.14, 80% of the authorities listed delegate 1% towards art funding and half are negotiable to offer more (Artquest, 2006). The policy is also negotiable in the UK as there is no set value, however the findings show more than half of the authorities listed in Fig 2.18 support Percent for Art policy. This program should be considered if not adopted, in the remaining major UK cities such as Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and Glasgow. Following the success of urban regeneration precedents, the case studies examined have demonstrated the potential role public art has played in the redevelopment of city spaces. Furthermore, the Percent for Art program has guided a variety of arts activities and commissions, something which is especially beneficial to UK cities as the policy is not compulsory.

Cities like Glasgow are in the process of urban regeneration for the Commonwealth Games (Clyde Waterfront, 2010) and with an adopted Percent for Art policy, public art could be an effective contributor. There are further opportunities for other leading cities to involve themselves in the Percent for Art policy. As noted by the Arts Council England (2011), “it brings many benefits to communities, allowing opportunities for cultural enhancement, creating a distinctive image for a place whilst engaging citizens in activities.”






3.1 Introduction This section introduces the concept of UK and international public art strategy case studies with a particular focus on their strategic content and approach to public art guidance in their cities. A personal analysis criteria of five key principles will then examine them in respect of their structural framework, contextual and strategical approach, engagement strategy and sustainability considerations. A summary and checklist will compare the public art initiatives and best practice principles from each case study.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 3.2 Public Art Strategy structure With the diversity and increase of public art works in today’s cities, many local authorities have implemented public art strategies.(REF) The strategies provide specific planning policies and strategic guidance to Councils, developers, artists and those wishing to commission art works within the city. Public art strategies are published for many reasons. According to Cambridge City Council (2010), the purpose of their Supplementary Planning Document is to: • Encourage excellence and innovation in the commissioning and implementation of public art • Put artists at the ‘heart’ of the public art process • Provide practical information on how a developer may meet and respond to the council’s policy on public art The content within the strategies differ, yet to a certain extent some of their principles are consistent. Their level of detail depends on factors such as the policy included and scale, whether they focus on an entire city or individual area.

3.3 Case study analysis By examining a wide case of public art strategies, it is possible to discern similar patterns in their framework. A typical public art framework is composed of 3 main elements. These include:

In order to produce a draft urban art strategy for Hull, the best practice principles from the chosen public art strategies will be gathered and analysed. A strong framework is required for the strategy if it is to be successful, however POLICY it needs to respond effectively to the Detail on all national and or city planning policy existing city environment. along with any government/private sponsored art programs such as Percent for Art initiatives

STRATEGY After the visionary statement of the strategy, guidelines can consist of methodology (aims, objectives and action plan), implementation (funding, programs), opportunities (city-wide context) along with the commission process (artist selection, planning)

In regards to the analysis, the five key principles have been drawn together to form an overall assessment procedure. They have been identified through a study of contemporary public art strategies where each principle is justified in relation to best practice.

The analysis has been composed of five key criteria, which essentially should be approached and elaborated in all art strategies. These are:

In terms of the structure, the strategy must be coherent, legible and representative of the subject matter. Public art strategies are provided for wide audiences such as local authorities, developer and even the public. For this reason the framework content must be thorough, consistent and approachable from all angles. Because public art relates to design and creativity, this element must also flow through the document with suitable images and graphic material.


Information on local, regional and international best practice commissions

The themes were selected through a study of selected national and international public art strategies, as they were consistent throughout each document. These themes will provide a guide to generate a wide range of best practice principles from each art strategy framework.

There is no recognised system in place which formulates any attempt to critically analyse public art strategies. They are produced for long term guidance and in this instance, their existing principles and quality of the guidance provided can be studied in relation to their context.



3.31 Analysis criteria



The strategy must deem practical, supported by local or national planning policies stating the need for public art. The approach must be effective and logical to work in the context of the place. Strategic guidance on the process Opportunities to raise awareness of of commissioning art in that particular public art and create new audiences context, from artist selection to future should be considered through maintenance of the public art work. engagement, education, marketing and Opportunities for potential art works other techniques. Public art must be or programs must be indicated for the easily accessible to the public and to need of those wishing to commission those wishing to be involved.

The strategy must be practical for future development and growth of the place. An action plan must provide information on social, environmental and economic issues regarding public art for e.g initiating public art forums or investing a certain amount of public funding each year to public art works. Guidance must also state how public art design can contribute to aiding in sustainable regeneration with examples of supporting communities, creating jobs, and contributing to creating lively places.

Response to place Portrayal of character Appropriate scope to area/district Response to local/regional needs

Policies/programs Feasibility Artist commissioning Benefits to place

Community engagement Council consultation Artist involvement Opportunities for new audiences Accessibility of art

Economic/social/environment Future action plan Urban/rural regeneration

Fig 3.1 Analysis principles



Clarity/legibility Visual appeal Representative of subject matter


The Northern Ireland Arts Council (2005) state “engagement with the public is a key process in public art commissioning.� Community engagement must be prioritised with ways to ensure all members of the public, including ethnic groups, youths, elderly and others, have input towards the development and nurturing of their places. On a wider scale, plans must be in place to also facilitate the involvement of local authorities, artists, stakeholders, built environment professionals and others in public art matters.

Lastly, the issue of sustainability must be addressed well. As sustainability becomes an increased commodity, more organisations have implemented strategies to further sustainable art, an example being Chrysalis Arts (2009) who have adopted an assessment of sustainable guidelines. The recurring theme of sustainability should be evidently stressed through the whole strategy, in accordance to social, environmental and economic factors. Best practice examples could include the promotion of sustainable art or even policy guidance on sustainable maintenance of public art works.


or fund public art. It must be stated clearly how the local authority will implement the public art strategy. The key methodologies and processes must be elaborated. The impact of the public art strategy must also be taken into consideration, whether positive or negative.


The public art strategy must relate and respond effectively to the place. Fernie (2006) argues good public art examples are not spontaneous results of one single decision, rather they emerge from a long process of negotiation. The public art strategy must be informative of the existing setting of the space and in order to create a distinctive place, the existing characteristics and influences must be into account such as history, culture, regeneration etc. The framework must be adequate to cover a reasonable scope of the place and should tie in with specific boundaries treated by local authorities, responding well to either local or regional needs.



|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 3.32 Public Art Strategies

3.33 Hull Public Art Strategy

The case studies chosen are a mixture of national and international strategies. Seven British public art strategies were selected including the existing Kingston Upon Hull strategy. The international studies include Albury city (Australia), West Don Lands (Canada) and the Island of Jersey.

Adopted in April 2005, the existing Kingston Upon Hull Public Art Strategy (2005) not only provided public art guidance but also included extensive extracts from the Hull City Council planning framework.

By reviewing the selected case studies, the study will gather and differentiate cultural, political and other influences in public art commissioning guidelines between European cities and other states. Regional case studies such as Sheffield and Cardiff have excelled in public art commissioning with expansive collections of art works around the city (Cox, 2011). These cities can be studied for best practice principles, with clear contribution from their public art strategies.

In respect to the policy contexts, the public art strategy highlights the objectives and target outcomes of the Hull City Centre Masterplan and the five strategic development areas: • • • • •











Humber Quays Fruit Market Area East Bank and Blaydes Dock Albion Square and the Heart of the City Quay West/St Stephen’s

Within the seven year period, a thorough assessment needs to be undertaken as to whether the public art strategy has met and delivered these initial outcomes. Because of the relevance to urban design already within the Hull public art strategy, the analysis process must evaluate whether these proposals are still valid and if developed, their effects on the built environment.


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.4 sheffield Title The City and Art: A public art strategy for Sheffield 2001-2004 Authority/Studio Sheffield City Council Year 2001 Case Studies Cow Parade - Various Blue Carpet - Thomas Heatherwick Percent for Art Yes

Strategy Dwelling on the solid foundation and success of past public art commissions, the document is initially set out as a highly prioritised long-term strategy. It welcomes new commissions in the city whilst exploring new ways of relating contemporary art activity to the communities of Sheffield. There are 10 strategic objectives in focus within the document, which include percent for art, creating identity, adapting to the city context, evaluating progress etc. Within this capacity, each principle is assessed thoroughly before an action plan is produced.

“The strategic plan outlines key priorities for public art within the next three years. It is intended as a core framework for delivering public art in the city. This framework should be flexible enough to respond to a variety of opportunities created by the development of new regeneration schemes, funding initiatives and partnerships.”

Analysis - Presented in consistent manner - Images needed of key public art projects


- Facilitates involvement of diverse communities - Targets the inclusion of young people.

ENGAGE - Reinforces the image of the city as “art friendly” - Principles carefully woven into the city’s context

- Sustainable use of percent for art funds - Focus on sustainable regenerative schemes


CONTEXT Design principle •

Establish key principles which fundamentally provide guidance on Hull specific public art

Provision of facilities which accommodate the needs of the diverse community members

- Very effective, aiding in creating a sense of place - Lacks essential guidance regarding artists











Well thought out approach for its time. A clear study of key objectives to reinforce the image of art within the city although no guidance on art commissioning


Fig 3.2a Sheffield Railway Station water feature

Fig 3.2b Sheffield Art Strategy

Fig 3.2c Water feature

“Successful implementation of a percent for art policy as well as wider encouragement of the integration of public art into a range of regeneration projects has seen the completion of over 150 public art commissions since 1985.� Sheffield City Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.5 leeds Title An ‘Accommodating Framework’ A Creative Public Art Strategy for Leeds Authority/Studio Leeds City Council Year 2008 Case Studies Beauty in the Ordinary - Lizzie Coombes The Jigsaw Project - Gabriella Boiangiu Percent for Art No

Design principle •

Structure draft urban art efficiently so it is presented as a cohesive narrative

Plan to engage members of the community in the process to establish their opinions of public art

Strategy The overall strategy proposes to approach the subject of public art in a new manner. The framework is divided into 2 main sections, consisting of context and strategy. The contextual guidance introduces the scope of public art and artists, along with certain key studies which defined new boundaries of public art, all within relation to the city centre. In the other half, the methodology follows up with a brief action plan supported by relevant objectives and policies. The core actions are to produce a vision statement and use the “jigsaw” analogy (a representation of key initiatives which together contribute to creating a network of contacts, levels and meanings.

“It is our intention to develop an exciting and contemporary range of public art works through the metropolitan area, to belong to the people of Leeds and to be, we hope, an inspiration to residents, artists, the multicultural business, educational and professional communities and to the many national and international visitors whose destination is our fine city.”

Analysis - No logic to the structure, irrelevant images - No graphic content







- Environmental sustainable practice will be adopted - Economic and social support to arts community



To summarise, the artist commission process highlights the requirements of best practice.


ENGAGE - No scope of historic art works/programs - Lacks a response to the city context

- Practice forms a new approach to art commission - Strategy guidelines are not elaborated


- Plan to engage residents, communities, stakeholders - Seek partnerships with authorities and agencies




An interesting proposal and potential emerging study in the long term however critically lacks the essential relationship to the Leeds setting


Fig 3.3a Clarence dock sculpture

Fig 3.3b Leeds Public Art Strategy

Fig 3.3c Henry Moore sculpture

“The benefits to the public of the involvement of artists in the design and character of the built environment, particularly public realm, are widely accepted and the Leeds cityscape benefits from a range of art which contributes to the quality of and interest in the environment.� Leeds City Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.6 cardiff Strategy The strategy provides a detailed insight into producing public art in the city of Cardiff.

Title Cardiff Public Art Strategy

Authority/Studio Cardiff Council

From inception, the heritage of public art is introduced in the strategy, listing all the ways it has contributed to the city’s environment and culture. Both National and Council policy statements are referenced, stating the recognised need for art works.

Year 2005 Case Studies All Hands - Brian Fell Landmark - Pierre Vivant

The prospect of public art is a key section, listing the types of commissions from historic to contemporary. This supports the following guidance which lists local and city wide opportunities for specific types of art.

Percent for Art Yes

Design principle •

Consider the meaning of public art installations in relation to their environments

Allow a wide range of public art initiatives to regain civic pride and allow locals to be proud of Hull

“We aspire to make Cardiff a liveable city with clean streets, good parks, easy access to the countryside, impressive architecture, high quality public art and an outstanding waterfront”.

Analysis - Contemporary format, graphically appealing - Legible, effective organisation







- A high priority, considered throughout the document - Promote inclusion with urban & rural regeneration



Recommendations for implementation then follow, establishing certain plans for action to co-ordinate and improve public art activity in the city.


ENGAGE - Informative, gives an insight into history - Scope is appropriate, covering the region scale

- Commission process detailed and practical - Strong development opportunities for future


- Facilitating involvement of diverse communities - Targeting the inclusion of young people.




An exceptionally good strategy in many respects, promoting a high quality city environment to deliver truly innovative public art commissions.


Fig 3.4a All Hands

Fig 3.4b Cardiff Art Strategy

Fig 3.4c Landmark

“There is a need for far wider recognition of the part public art can play not only in creating more beautiful and secure public spaces, but also in contributing to the regeneration of communities.� Cardiff Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.7 hull

“Integration of contemporary public art practice within the physical and socioeconomic regeneration of the city.”

Title Kingston Upon Hull Public Art Strategy

Authority/Studio Hull City Council Year 2005 Case Studies Newcastle Quayside - Various Cardiff Bay - Various Percent for Art Yes

Design principle •

Relate urban design and public art as the key factors driving the draft urban arts framework

Develop sustainability plan for public art to aid in meeting social, environment and economic challenges

Strategy The strategy introduces the historic context of Hull with a brief overview of the role of public art. It presents a case for public art stating the economic benefits before stating the role of the artist. The commissioning process follows with very detailed guidelines. The planning framework of Hull along with regeneration policies are covered after.

Analysis - Coherent layout, logical structure - No graphic or illustrations, unappealing format


Delivery mechanisms including funding, artist consultation and the long term strategic vision cover all the city programs, assessing the current aims and objectives of the strategy. A summary of recommendations and appendices concludes with individuals consulted and draft policies.






ENGAGE - Full scope of existing city context and policies - No relation between area developments & public art

- Logical, combination of, policy, funding & delivery - Numerous commission & artist guidelines detailed


- Sustainable development a high priority - City centre focus for economic & social activity




- Best practice guidelines to community engagement - Artists consulted, feedback on the Hull art strategy




Overall well documented, addresses range of issues including city regeneration. However a dull presentation & lacks any link between public art in developments.


Fig 3.5a Larkin Toad

Fig 3.5b Hull Public Art Strategy Fig 3.5c King William III monument

“The key to successful transformation is not only what type of change is promoted, but how it is carried out. If it is delivered in a manner which is in tune with the soul of a place, it is likely to succeed. But if it goes against the grain of local distinctiveness and identity, it will struggle to take root and is more likely to falter.� Hull City Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.8 west lothian Title Public Art Strategy 2008-2011 Authority/Studio West Lothian Council Year 2008

Strategy The document rationale was the result of policies contained in the adopted Local Plan. The framework attempts to establish clear and consistent responsibilities for public art in the borough. Similar to other documents, the discipline of public art is discussed. It then highlights the local government policies adopted.

Case Studies Sheep - Ronald Rae NORgate - David Wilson

“Our vision for Public Art in Scotland is ambitious; developing this area will take time as we want to explore the many exciting possibilities that public art can bring to communities throughout Scotland. Ultimately we want to create a vibrant environment for the people of Scotland to live in.”

Analysis - Bold and co-ordinated with consistent colours - Efficient, layout straight to the point


The strategy discusses the role of the public art officer, art groups, art funds and the planning service in ensuring public art plans are delivered.

Percent for Art No

Design principle •

Ensure public art installations are feasible to strengthen the vision of their potential setting in Hull

Facilitate the establishment of several community public art groups and forums in an allocated space

A simplified implementation of successful public art schemes and action plan concludes, indicating key principles which would contribute to the success of the strategy.







ENGAGE - Scale works at local level to deliver key actions - Fails to address the existing urban environment

- No contribution to any sustainability initiative - A lack of concern with sustainable strategies



- Facilitating for a range of practical initiatives - Detailed action plan, with output and timescale


- Disregards public and community consultation - Unsupportive to artists or other consultees




Highly disappointing for the study area. The policy initiatives are covered, however weak in consultation and sustainability principles.


Fig 3.6a Sheep

Fig 3.6b West Lothian Strategy

Fig 3.6c NORgate

“Public art integrates artists’ skills, vision and creative abilities into buildings and spaces by incorporating creative components, giving developments a unique quality and creating a visually stimulating environment.” West Lothian Council



3.9 northern ireland Title Public Art Handbook For Northern Ireland Authority/Studio Arts Council of Northern Ireland Year 2005 Case Studies Big Fish - John Kindness Let the Dance Begin - Maurice Harron Percent for Art Yes

Strategy As an alternative to functioning as a art handbook, another focus of the document is to act as a guide to those involved in the commissioning of art. It outlines a short history of public art in the growth of Northern Ireland along with the leading role of the Arts Council to support public art projects. Best practice guidelines for commissioning are elaborated with the relevant stages of the process. The case studies are categorised into the specific art typologies with project descriptions. This is then followed by a summary of key actions and recommendations for raising awareness and promoting community participation.

Analysis - Easily to navigate, well organised - Heavily populated by images depicting setting


- Of paramount importance to the project itself - Useful to consider value of community-art mural work

ENGAGE - Best practice examples listed with Irish art history - Regional scale focus, no scope at local level

- Promoting sustainability benefits of quality design - Contribute to urban and rural regeneration projects



Design principle •

Allow public installations to share Hull’s heritage with audiences especially younger people

Manifest public art as a predominant culture within the city through the built environment and spaces

- Commission process very detailed and practical - Strategic priorities given to improve future public art











Exceeds high standards despite the new approach. Clear & practical guidance given to diverse audiences with all methodology and implementation procedures.


Fig 3.7a Big Fish

Fig 3.7b Northern Ireland Handbook Fig 3.7c Let the Dance Begin

“In essence, the drive is to instill a culture of engaging artists meaningfully and collaboratively in the design process of buildings and large-scale environmental schemes, and to integrate artwork within the physical fabric of buildings which interface with the public.� Arts Council of Northern Ireland


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.10 lewisham Title London Borough of Lewisham Public Art Strategy Authority/Studio Lewisham Council Year 2009 Case Studies Lewisham Street Rhythms - Gary Drostle Chariot - Oleg Prokofiev Percent for Art Yes

Design principle •

Explore all potential opportunities within the city context for community, heritage and cultural works

Design spaces and sculptures with natural surveillance and reinforce security measures

Strategy The record of public art commissions in the borough are promoted through the art strategy, encompassed in a high level of detailed policy and strategy guidance. A brief overview and background explain the relevance of public art in context followed by a section explaining all relevant national and local policy framework contents.

“Make Lewisham a creative borough with a thriving arts sector, vibrant communities and active residents. To develop Lewisham’s identity as a vital, creative place to live, work and learn through innovative and sustainable design and the provision of high quality creative destinations.”

Analysis - Organised & readable from multiple perspectives - Representative of the borough’s art history


A general approach of opportunities highlight long-term regeneration plans which may have effects on future public art works. The areas given provide reference to the scheme and policy documents. Best practice guidelines for implementation summarise the overall document, whilst the appendices include a typical model of a public art contract.







ENGAGE - Key uses ensure a full understanding of Lewisham - Ambitions to integrate art into the urban design fabric

- Creating a safe, secure, sustainable & inclusive city - Support the Council’s regeneration priorities



- Great potential, exploring possible opportunities - Best practice guidelines from inception to delivery


- Built through consultation, education & and skills - Increase consultation & involvement of locals




A true best practice example. Highly integrated & ambitious with extensive thought given to all themes. Reinforces city vision to develop future opportunities


Fig 3.8a Lewisham Street Rhythms

Fig 3.8b Lewisham Public Art Strategy

Fig 3.8c Chariot

“For Lewisham, the one-off, large-scale landmark approach is less likely to be relevant... an imaginative, longer-term process accumulating over time will ultimately be more successful.� Lewisham Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.11 albury (australia) Strategy The Albury strategy introduces a new approach to public art commissioning: themes and collections.

Title Albury City 2010 - 2020 Urban & Public Art Strategy Authority/Studio Albury City Council Year 2010 Case Studies Melting Men - Nele Azevedo Burgundy Lane Mural - Tony Sowerby Percent for Art Yes

Design principle •

Draw audiences to proposed public space typologies which create focal points within the city

Reinforce localism through consultation procedures with community public art programs and events

The focus of the document identifies the city’s existing public art themes as well as the significance of individual works and opportunities for developing them. These are analysed in relation to their significance, representation and further development. Several guiding principles which form the framework of the strategy are then listed and discussed in turn. This is then followed by an action plan and a longterm public art program which aims to capitalise on further opportunities to celebrate and acknowledge the contribution of the themes and their values to the city.

“AlburyCity is committed to supporting and developing urban and public art in the local community. The Urban & Public Art Policy (the Policy), adopted by AlburyCity, demonstrates this commitment. The Policy will guide decision making on urban and public art in the region through to 2020.”

Analysis - Contemporary supporting graphics and visual tools - Clear following respective manner





ENGAGE - Well researched integrated into urban fabric - No introductory understanding to the city

- Understanding existing urban themes & collections - Further elaboration, create identity & local pride




- Support of becoming a cultural tourist destination - To enrich public spaces, contribute to regeneration




- Community-led creation of street art - Consult property owners & public/private sector clients




An excellent collective urban approach to create distinctive character & preserve city heritage. Strategy proven successful with a thriving arts culture.


Fig 3.9a Webb Bridge

Fig 3.9b Albury Urban & Public Art Strategy

Fig 3.9c Albury War Memorial

“Public art plays a critical role in place making. It helps to tell the story of a place or articulate it for the first time. Strong stories associated with the region have been identified for interpretation through public art.� Albury City Council



3.12 west don lands (canada) Strategy The strategy published by visual artist Anholt (2009) showcases a montage of existing public art works in the West Don Lands area followed by the vision set by the local authority.

Title Public Art Strategy West Don Lands Authority/Studio Jill Anholt

VISION “The city’s Official Plan recommends that a partnership between the public and

private sectors is to be nurtured to transform Toronto into a large public art gallery with installations throughout the city.”

Analysis - Highly visual, representing subject of graphic and art - Lacks cohesion, no link between chapters

Recommendations for funding continue the strategic aims of the document which then lead into the overall strategy.

Year 2009 Case Studies Spider - Louise Bourgeois Crown Fountain - Jaume Plensa Percent for Art No

The strategy is composed of a range of diverse opportunities for artists and art works in the area that contribute to the aims set previously. A list of implementation strategies conclude.


- Engage public in process of community development - Creating a unique pedestrian experience

ENGAGE - Lack of thought given to macro impact - No supporting knowledge of city or culture

- Integrated works that expresses the SUDS - Creating sustainable strategies and awareness


CONTEXT Design principle •

Facilitate new experiences for audiences with interactive and ephemeral art installations

Consider urban opportunities such as gateways, promenades for specific public art works

- No logic to strategy or techniques - Lacking great detail of implementation tactics











Critically lacks supportive strategical knowledge of public art commissions. Fails to address many issues in Toronto, especially the development of art work


Fig 3.10a Salmon Run

Fig 3.10b West Don Lands Art Strategy

Fig 3.10c Vessel

“Conceptual thresholds between the West Donlands and the distinctive neighbourhoods it borders, marking the entrances to the community and creating points of orientation within the city.� Toronto City Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

3.13 jersey island Title The Jersey Public Art Strategy

Authority/Studio States of Jersey Council Year 2010 Case Studies The Jubilee Needle - Richard Perry Liberation Sculpture - Phillip Jackson Percent for Art Yes

Design principle •

Extend the city’s existing collection of public art works with the arrival of new themes

Develop a renewed sense of place making use of Hull’s existing ‘gems’ e.g waterfront, heritage

Strategy The document is split into two main parts, consisting of the summary of recommendations along with the appendices. The summary is led by the council vision for public art and the built environment. Social and environmental opportunities are listed within the island context highlighting recent best practice examples and future aspirations. This is then followed by implementation techniques such as national policies in respect to the planning process. In the appendices, guidance for the whole public art commissioning process is detailed. This includes artist selection, contracts, maintenance and de-commissioning. Scope is given to recommended methodologies defined by the council. A list of consultees concludes the strategy.

“A public art policy for Jersey would recognise the contribution that public art makes to the quality of life, the improvement of public spaces and the development of a sense of place.”

Analysis - Organised categorically for a range of audiences - Contemporary format, graphically appealing








ENGAGE - Recognises the need to distinguish the place - Reflects upon current work with recommendations

- Percent for art funds contributing to sustainability - No recognition on the city benefits of sustainability


CONTEXT - Comprehensive guidance for commissioning - Maintenance principles & also project management


- An integral approach to the strategy development - Engaging with various consultants & communities




A well defined & feasible approach to addressing current and future public art works. Constantly aims to create a distinctive setting for local communities.


Fig 3.11a Liberation Sculpture

Fig 3.11b Jersey Public Art Strategy

Fig 3.11c The Jubilee Needle

“As Jersey adapts to the challenges of the twenty-first century, while simultaneously seeking to retain its special character, there will be increased opportunities for public art to help articulate what it is that makes the Island special and different from other places.� States of Jersey Council


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Fig 3.12 Summary of public art case studies with best practice criteria / reading

Leeds Public Art Strategy 2008

Cardiff Public Art Strategy 2005

Kingston Upon Hull Public Art Strategy 2005

Northern Ireland Public Art Handbook 2005

Lewisham Public Art Strategy 2009

Albury City 2020 Public Art Strategy

West Don Lands Public Art Strategy 2009

Jersey Public Art Strategy 2010

Best Practice Guidelines

Establish clear and consistent responsibilities for public art

Define the role for contemporary public art within the scope of the city’s current and future development

Helping those involved in commissioning art achieve rewarding outcomes

Commissioning good artwork that challenges & benefits the borough

Guide decision making on urban and public art in the region through to 2020.

Creating a distinctive neighbourhood that weaves into a network

Advocate, promote & recognise the value of artists working in the public realm

Promoting high quality art, creating distinctiveness

Art work created for civic realm

Freely accessible to public

A close relationship between an artist and the community

Art in public places

To define the Island as a whole and characterise rural areas

Attractive spaces, art infrastructure

Sense of place, partnerships, value of artists in public realm

City branding/culture, raising art profile

Create identity, aid in sustainable regeneration


Integration of work by artists into public space

Art activities within public realm

Sculptures, performances, temporary art

Artists creativity into built environment

Artists work within the built, natural, urban or rural environment

New regeneration schemes, funding initiatives & partnerships

Develop contemporary public art throughout city

Artistic concepts integrated into development

Vibrant environment for people of Scotland

Integration of public art within the physical and socio-economic regeneration of Hull

An implementation driver of Council policies

Economic and social, city employment

Contribution to environmental quality

Develop civic pride, distinctive ‘image’

Enhanced social cohesion, improved image, promoted interest in the local environment

Quality urban design, unique image

Sense of place management, governance, contribute to arts growth


Artist-led projects integrated with wider regeneration schemes

Consultation, innovative workshops

To make city liveable

Rejuvenating the city’s economy, protecting the city’s environment, enhancing image and raising aspirations

Work with regional partners, promoting excellence in commissions

Existing preservation, development of strategic urban and public art

Cohesiveness identity, linking past/ present, distinctive neighbourhoods

Develop local culture, promote diversity, respond to place, react to consultation

Engagement, city themes, local distinctiveness


Engagement, urban assessment & art maintenance

Clear intentions & brief

Key locations, enhancing legibility



Develop public art for Build on success, city which is practical promote & secure and deliverable delivery of high quality public art projects

West Lothian Public Art Strategy 2008-2011




Sheffield Public Art Strategy 2001

More cutting-edge public art which engage different communities

Identify opportunities in briefs, major developments

Gateways, landmarks, education programmes Proposal for artist involvement, budget allocation

Transformation of city into large public art gallery with installations everywhere

Encourage mixed teams, foster & market adventurous commissioning

Engagement, ambition, new thinking, controversial

Community involvement, innovation, leading artists

Replicate existing themes and opportunities within city

Construction hoardings, communication, connectivity

Originality, site specific, creative public art

Commitment, strategic planning

Distinctive functional areas, waterfront, gateways, un-used buildings

Derelict land, distinctiveness and character

Artist collaboration, develop links, agency work

Gateways, public meeting points, facilitating cultural development

Thresholds, gateways, key public spaces

Disemmination & legacy, mentoring, cultural events

Public space, gateways, development sites

Consultant appointment, consultation, strategy development

Funding, commissioning strategies, monitor and training


Public art forum, formal communication

Project purpose, site, scale, involvement, timescale

Disbursement, training, strategy reviewing,

Engagement, public & private sector funding, issue design guidance


Percent for art, wider encouragement, city centre masterplan

Management, funding mechanism, marketing

Promoting awareness, evaluating and celebrating success

City centre masterplan, public art panel and programs


City expertise, create identities, engagement, evaluate progress

Promote strategy, percent for art, arts fund, forums, education

Adopt strategy, negotiation, educational media, arts officer

Foster sustainable development, support economy and regeneration





Skills development for artists, enhance cultural tourism experiences Percent for art, public art strategies

Planning art, independent commissions, building relationships, Comprehensive policies and proposals, improved transport links


Art programs Creation of temporary administration, design structures, buildings review, funding for art activity Integrate strategies, funds, develop case studies, manage commissions

Percent for art, funding for art projects in public realm



Negotiation, awareness, management, evaluation Percent for art, funding, adopting policy and strategy



Fig 3.13 Checklist of initiatives from public art case studies THEMES/ PUBLIC ART STRATEGY

Sheffield Public Art Strategy 2001

Leeds Public Art Strategy (unpublished)

Cardiff Public Art Strategy 2005

West Lothian Public Art Strategy 2008-2011

Kingston Upon Hull Public Art Strategy 2005

Northern Ireland Public Art Handbook 2005

Lewisham Public Art Strategy 2009

Albury City 2020 Public Art Strategy

West Don Lands Public Art Strategy 2009

Jersey Public Art Strategy 2010




|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 3.14 Conclusions By studying the selected case studies, the aim was to identify the best practice principles from each public art strategy. The analytical process created has generated a practical understanding of the public art process and how local authorities have dealt with it in their city spaces. It has allowed a fair assessment of each art strategy on a range of pivotal themes. The findings showed that the Lewisham Council (2009), and Cardiff City Council (2005) case studies provided the highest standards of public art guidance. They consistent met the criteria in all 5 analysis themes and set out good practice principles covering a wide range of public art initiatives. The Albury City Council (2010) case study in particular was also a best practice example, personally for its urban approach to public art, a strategy type intend for the Hull draft urban art strategy. Amongst the least successful strategies, the Leeds City Council and West Lothian Council (2008) case studies in particular did not respond to their existing city context. Smales and Whitney argue in


Haughton and Williams (1996) that in Leeds there is ‘a marked absence of meaningful and relevant public art and sculpture.’ The Fig 3.13 checklist table summarised the initiatives from the chosen case studies and found the Leeds, West Lothian and West Don Lands public art strategies were particularly poor and failed to address a wide range of issues. They lack the essential appreciation of their existing public art collection, which undermines their character. Without any principles to distinguish what makes Leeds or West Lothian unique, it becomes difficult to develop local culture or enhance the image of these places. The existing Hull City Council (2005) public art strategy provided excellent guidance towards the future commissioning of public art works in the city. Extensive information applicable to a wide range of users, defined the logical approach by the Hull City Council to strengthen the waterfront, increase city centre living and develop core retail areas. The strategic character areas proposals were specific, centralised on recurring themes of mixed-uses, contemporary architecture, enhancing movement and new public squares.

However, the main flaw was a lack of association between the overall regeneration framework and contemporary public art. In the Hull City Masterplan chapter, there were no opportunities listed for public art to become an asset or target outcome for future strategic development. Because of this, the whole section is deemed irrelevant in the strategy. This limitation provides the basis to the draft urban art strategy, where the relationship is examined between public art and urban design in the city of Hull. As the study indicates, those local authorities who practised to achieve their strategy vision were deemed more successful than others. IXIA (2010) in partnership with the Arts Council England also agree in their guidance that the ‘visionary stage is an important starting point when it comes to commissioning public art.’ The next chapter will examine at the city of Hull with a particular focus on its historic context, current setting and culture.







4.1 Introduction This section begins with a context examination of the Hull site initially with the growth of the city centre along with the social image problems. The Hull City Council Masterplan is then reviewed with all relevant visions and policies in respect to the allocated Strategic Development Areas (SDA) in which a current character appraisal is conducted for each area. The report then analyses the current public art, public space and cultural initiatives in more depth and follows with two selective successful public art installations. The public art study and findings are assessed with conclusions based on the needs of the community.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.2 Spatial context

North Sea







St Charles Roman Catholic Primary

A16 5 F reetown W

Collingwood Primary School





Fig 4.1 Regional setting

B1 231

A1105 Anlaby Rd

Rd ne ss

H ol de r 65

City boundary



on Garris

Hull Royal Infirmary




West Park Hull City AFC



C A1165 lev el and St


Pearson Primary School

Thoresby Primary School

t an as




03 3 le tP





Endeavour High School




The Hull Paragon Interchange integrates the city railway station with the separate bus and coach station. Located within the city centre complex, it is operated by First TransPennine Express, combining railway services with the Northern Rail, First Hull Trains and East Coast companies.


erley A1079 Bev

The A165 secondary route runs north from the city, providing direct access to Scarborough, whilst the A1079 provides access to York, situated north west. To the south, the Humber Bridge provides further links across the River Hull.



ds Avn

Hull is served well by road access. The M62/A63 primary route lies a short distance to the east, providing access both in and out of Hull. It serves as one of the main east-west routes in Northern England, linking the nearby cities of Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool.


Pearson Park


Kingston upon Hull is located in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Frequently referred to as Hull, the city stands on the River Hull, with the Humber estuary 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull is located approximately 40 miles east of York and 62 miles from Leeds.


A63 Hedon R d

Victoria Park

St Georges Primary School Wheeler Primary School Victoria Dock Primary School

Adelaide Primary School Chiltern Primary School


Sutton Cottingham

Sculcoates Marfleet

Newington Hull boundary City centre boundary

Fig 4.2 City location


Newington Primary School

Fig 4.3 City context



ps yv ille

H A63

le ess

Settlements Watercourse

There are frequent ferry services from Hull. P&O Ferries provide ferries from the King George Dock to Belgium and Amsterdam. In 1993, a new terminal was built for Rotterdam and Zeebrugge at the Port of Hull for cargo and passenger services. The Hull city benefits from an advantageous position for portage, since its position on the north of the Humber Estuary (Lewis, 1991).

6 A116


The city centre site lies on the southern boundary of Hull from the River Humber waterfront. In total, it covers a combined area of 27.59 sq miles and as from 2011, it has an estimated population of 256,100 (National Statistics Online, 2008). The city centre is located centrally to local districts. These include the council housing estates of Botanic and Sculcoates with Wilcomlee, which is a primary industrial estate. They are within 1.2km (15 minutes walking distance) of the city centre. The city centre boundary is defined partially by the urban road network. This network provides major links to the wider rural areas of Hull.

Industrial Education

Alexandra Dock

Health Superstore KC Stadium Greenfield Forestry Brownfield Primary road

River Humber

Secondary road Watercourse Railway

Several major green spaces lie outside the city centre. Pearson Park is a registered grade II site, covering an area of 9ha situated approximately 1.6km northwest of the city centre. The grounds contain several listed structures, which include memorials and statues. West Park is located adjacent to the Kingston Communications Stadium (KC) recreational ground. It’s facilities include playgrounds and bowling greens. The KC Stadium owned by Hull City Council, hosts weekly sporting events and concerts. Situated 1.1km from the city centre it has attracted a significant amount of visitors each year (The Football League, 2012).


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.3 History of Hull The economic growth of Hull was built around its market trade and industrial uses. As the potential of the city’s natural location was effective for portage, the River Hull increasingly became a haven for seaborne trade in the late 13th century with the export of wool from Beverley market town (Gillett and MacMahon 1980). This eventually decreased by the 15th century with the arrival of English cloth industry. During the next 200 years the trade further increased with shipbuilding and exporting lead, flax, hemp, iron and tar (op.cit.). The city of Hull saw rapid port development during the early 18th century with the combined increase of agricultural and industrial developments within Yorkshire and the East Midlands.

In this period, Hull rapidly expanded in growth from its medieval core (now known as the Old Town). In 1809, the Humber Dock (Fig 4.4a) was constructed. The development of suburbs saw an increase in population from around 7,500 in 1700 to around 22,000 in 1800 (Lambert, 2003). With the arrival of the rail link to Leeds and Barnsley in the mid 1800’s, the trade activity prospered. The new town hall designed by Cuthbert Broderick opened in 1866 (Fig 4.4b), shortly before Hull was granted city status. The Holy Trinity Church was restored in 1869 (Fig 4.4c) and West Park, a large public park, opened in 1885 (Fig 4.4d). Leading up to the First World War, Hull became a major settlement for emigrants. Although the industry declined in the 1920’s, further housing and planning developments took place with the construction of council estates on the city’s outskirts. The University of Hull was founded in 1927 and gradually, numerous campus buildings were developed to the east of the city.

Apart from trading, seafaring also became common. Construction began on the docks and the first was completed in 1778. The whaling trade increased in which by 1800, 40% of the country’s whalers sailed from the town, and the trade brought increased prosperity to the city (Hull History Centre, In 1930, the Queens Dock (Fig 4.4e) 2007). was filled to complete a sequence of


gardens. After some time, the older docks were also closed. The major Ferensway development (a major thoroughfare to the north west of the city) was delayed by the Second World War. Most of the city and around 5,000 houses were destroyed during air raids (op.cit.). Post war development included further council suburbs. Hull experienced a further loss in the fishing industry in the 1970’s (Hull History Centre, 2007). Planning was granted to build The Humber Bridge in 1959 although construction started in 1973. The late 20th century saw additional retail and tourism developments in the city which included the Princes Quay, a shopping centre built over the Princes Dock (Fig 4.4f) and multiple museums. Plans were made to regenerate the city in the 21st century by Hull City Council. The Deep aquarium opened in 2001 and The St Stephens Shopping Centre in 2007. Towards the southern waterfront, The World Trade Centre Hull and Humber was developed as part of a new business district named Humber Quays. In 2011, the Hull Fish market closed down causing further decline in the city centre.

Fig 4.4a Humber Dock, 1903

Fig 4.4b Guildhall, 1925

Fig 4.4c Holy Trinity Church, 1960



02 03

Fig 4.4d West Park, 1903 04

Fig 4.5a Historic docks 1) Queens Dock 3) Humber Dock

2) Princes Dock 4) Albert Dock

Fig 4.5b 17th century The fortifications and moat around medieval Hull defined the boundaries of the Old Town

Fig 4.5c 1850 Extensive local industry and housing expansion and the dock network replacing the old moat

Fig 4.4e Queens Dock, 1903

Fig 4.5d 1930 Fig 4.4f Princes Dock, 1903

Queens Dock filled and the growth of Albert Dock. Demolition above Paragon Interchange

Fig 4.5e 1970 East bank industry demolished with the arrival of university buildings and north west growth

Fig 4.5f Present Further infill and large scale developments with major local and strategic highways established


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.4 The city’s image With the collapse of the fishing industry and high unemployment rates during the late 20th century, economic problems were soon underway. Hull’s reputation began to suffer and as a result, it was portrayed as a city in decline (BBC News, 2004). Shortly after, its social status became associated with increasing crime rates and low quality education, ranking the lowest in England (op.cit.). In 2003, as the result of an online survey, Hull was labelled “the top crap town in the UK” in a publication named “Crap Towns - The 50 Worst Places to live in the UK” (Kieran and Jordison, 2003). The book contained quotes from residents, who were outspoken and agreed at the result.

“A sad story of unemployment, teenage pregnancy, heroin addiction, crime, violence, and rampant self-neglect.” (Resident) “Hull did teach me one valuable lesson. No matter what happens to me later in life, no matter where I live, or how bad things are, I know that it can never be as bad as living in Hull.” (Coutts-Britton, former resident) (Kieran and Jordison, 2003)

The publication became viral and sparked much debate from residents, politicians and others as to whether the ranking was justified. It was however revealed that though the reader votes were weighted in accordance with the town’s population, both authors of the guide admitted the list was unscientific and biased (BBC News, 2003). Common reasons for Hull’s vote was due to its “silent threat of violence, boring landscape and the smell of the chocolate factory” (McGregor, 2003).

Before the survey was conducted, city marketing chiefs of Hull were dismissive of the comments (op.cit.). Millions of pounds had been invested in the city since 1993 and landmarks such as The Deep, KC Stadium and the Hull Marina were evident of tourism and development within the city. The results of an independent survey carried out by The Guardian and Observer named Hull as one of the top 15 cities in the UK (op. cit.).

The Hull City Council was to secure further investment in the city over the Kieran and Jordison stated the overall next decade. The research of analysis statement of the book was a lack was undertaken by Hull Citybuild (2003) of community involvement in town planning and how “local authorities are showed that the city was characterised more interested in business than in the by low unemployment, low job quality and earnings and many forms of social people who live in the place” (op.cit.). “We found that people were talking about the city as it was - a lot of them seemed to be people who lived in the city a long time ago. The reality now is very different.” (Emma Pearson-Kendall, Hull City Image) “Visitors placed us alongside London, Liverpool and Manchester - all thriving European cities and we’re up there with them. We are not saying the city doesn’t have any issues - but what city doesn’t?.” (op.cit.) (McGregor, 2003)

Fig 4.6 Bottom ten cities in relative performance Economic Prosperity Index

Social Deprivation Index

Built Environment Index































(Centre for Cities, 2009)


deprivation. A masterplan (op.cit.) was devised to develop the capability of the city centre and foster economic growth across the whole city. Although the framework listed a detailed renaissance scheme, the decision lied with the local authority and other organisations to encourage the delivery. In a follow up survey promised by Kieran and Jordison (2004), Hull featured in 19th place in “Crap Towns II - The Nation Decides”. At this point, the social image of Hull was seen in need of repair and the potential of the city centre masterplan was soon realised by Hull City Council. In a gradual process, improvements were made to education and between 2004 - 2008 crime rates plummeted, recorded as the second biggest drop in Britain. “The change that has taken place in the last ten years” “Activities for children in the town” “The Marina” “The Deep is outstanding” “Pubs and clubs” “Freedom Festival” “The beautiful buildings” “The Art Gallery is wonderful” “I love the fish walk that takes you around Hull “Where in the country could you have such a great time for free?” (Responses to the question “What stands out as the best thing on offer?”) (Wafer Hadley, 2009)


In 2007, in accordance to the submitted masterplan, both the Hull Paragon Interchange and St Stephen’s retail development opened to the public. Several other large scale residential and mixed use development were planned, however their progression came to a halt during the economic recession (Hull Daily Mail, 2008). According to research by Centre for Cities (2009), in comparison to other UK cities, the effects of the recession triggered the sharpest increase of unemployment between 2008-2009 in Hull. These statistics reflected the weakened private sector economy. Although the negative perception of the city had began to improve slightly, Hull “Before getting into the hidden surprises and apparent ‘good things’ about Kingston Upon Hull, there are a few issues that one probably should be aware of on entering the city.” There is a strict dress code that is obligatory for all: sports clothing, fake gold jewellery and peaked caps are highly recommended if you wish to be ‘cool’ and a part of the ever expanding ‘chav’ culture. It is also not advised to leave one’s car unattended, and to watch where you step, as spitting is part of everyday life.” (Rosa Flanagan, writer) (Shahab, 2010)

city councillors were still aware that more economic and social progress had to be made. Wages and employment remained below the national average and around 120,000 inhabitants still lived in the 105 most deprived areas in the country (Topping, 2008). Strategies were directed at community engagement within Hull to re-establish a sense of local pride and transform the city image. Wafer Hadley’s Cultural Strategy (2009) detailed a long term visionary statement and development framework for cultural activities within Hull. Local responses were generally positive and the strategy added support to the council’s planning infrastructure. Notwithstanding the findings from the cultural research, the Communities and

Local Government (2011) confirmed Hull as one of the authorities with the highest levels of deprivation in England. These statistics attracted negative media press and soon established stereotyping of Hull’s citizens associated with poor quality education, troubled youth culture and social life (McGregor, 2005). Soon, Hull began to celebrate its heritage of famous citizens with arts and cultural developments. Festivals, museums and theatres acted as economic regeneration catalysts raising the profile of the city centre along with plans for further tourism from rugby league games hosted at the KC Stadium (Hull Daily Mail, 2011). By mid 2011, there was publicity around

“This will put Hull on the international map and gives it an international profile. It will attract hundreds of thousands of visitors and should help to sustain and boost jobs.” (Jon Pywell, Regeneration, Hull City Council)

“I don’t think there is anything much wrong with Hull. I think it has got an image problem. When you talk to people who have a lot to do with Hull, they are incredibly positive about the city.”

“Next year, we are beginning our bid for the 2017 year of culture. We have 24 big events lined up, including the marathon and the Olympic torch coming to the city. There will be other events to follow the world cup and bring a lot of tourism into the area.” (Terry Geraghty, Leisure and Culture, Hull City Council)

“People who know the city like it, the problem is that not enough people know the city. They rely on people like me in the press for their impressions of the city.” (Robert Crampton, Journalist for The Times)

(Hull Daily Mail, 2011)

(Hull Daily MailA, 2011)

the story of Hull’s image in which the city was promoted, particularly in interviews with former citizens who were in the public eye. Award winning journalist Robert Crampton defended the poor statistics, stating the city’s boundaries placed the wealthier districts in East Riding and created a false impression (Hull Daily MailA, 2011). Local Politician Lord John Prescott similarly dismissed negative feedback of his home city, including those featured in the Crap Towns publication. He praised Yorkshire people, stating Hull is a “great northern city and a great place to live and work” (BBC News, 2005). Design principle •

Ensure all public art contributes to improving Hull’s social image and redefine Hull as a city for the arts

“We are now beginning to see Hull’s sunnier side. It has a wonderful marina, which would be well-placed in the South of France. It is the largest village you could ever know everybody knows everybody in ‘Ull, which is how we pronounce it. What makes Hull wonderful is the people themselves. But you have to live here to know that.” “Hull is turning a corner. But for God’s sake, let’s hope it doesn’t change the character of the people.” (PM Lord John Prescott) (White, 2012)


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.5 Hull Masterplan Following on from the negative press, several strategies were issued to aid investment and secure a sustainable future for Hull, in which eventually a Strategic Masterplan Framework was presented to the local authority by a selective team of specialists, including Roger Tym & Partners, Chapman Taylor, Michael Hopkins & Architects, Battle McCarthy, Buro Happold and Hull Citybuild (2003). It’s priority was the allocation of proposed development types in selected areas such as the Fruit Market, Humber Quays etc which were targeted for long term strategic investment. Hull Citybuild established in 2002 by Hull City Council, Yorkshire Forward and English Partnerships, was an urban regeneration company to liaise with private sector organisations, aiding in the regeneration of the city centre. The strategic team produced a evaluated report entitled, “The Renaissance of Hull City Centre” (op.cit.) which detailed the overall approach to the city centre masterplan undertaken. It focussed on consultation, conducting critical evaluations of the under-performing city and presenting


conclusions based on findings. These were translated into strategic objectives. One of the most significant proposals in the masterplan submission was to re-develop the city centre boundary. Looking northbound, the old city boundary included much of the 19th and 20th century suburb estates and extended towards the employment areas to the east and southwest. It covered a space of approximately 203ha and was established to meet the needs of the city’s growing population, yet as a result, Hull suffered many problems. In their report, Hull Citybuild (op.cit.) state: “Like other old industrial towns and cities in the north and midlands, Hull is characterised by high unemployment, low job quality and earnings, low educational achievement and many interrelated forms of social deprivation, which can be traced to the structural decline of traditional industries, combined with the selective flight to the suburbs of both jobs and population” The new city boundary area is approximately 153ha and provides a more robust and logical area, planning efficiency in the city’s land uses. It categorises and adapts to the strategic


“A beautiful, prosperous heart for a great European maritime city, proud of its distinguished history and confident in its future, competing effectively in the modern global economy whilst preserving its distinctive heritage and special landscape, enriching the quality of life of all Hull’s people, now and for all the generations to come” (Hull Citybuild, 2003)

development areas within the city core. Hull Citybuild (op.cit.) argue a “smaller city centre area is needed, given the foreseeable levels of demand or city centre activities to facilitate the creation of the missing, but needed, densities and value contours.” The objectives of the masterplan were: 1. A unified and compact city centre core 2. A city centre re-united with River Humber waterfront

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The masterplan also identified the need to differentiate between the various character areas which unified the city centre. Split into five Strategic Development Areas (SDA’s), they were identified as the main drivers for new developments, showing the greatest potential (op.cit.). They are:

New city centre boundary

Fig 4.7 City boundary

Old city centre boundary Built form

A prime office core A large city centre core population A strong retail circuit A strong and lively River Hull corridor New icons to lift the heart of the City

Humber Quays Fruit Market East Bank and Blaydes Dock Albion Square & the Heart of the City Quay West St Stephen’s

As stated by Hull Citybuild (op.cit.), St Stephen’s is not one of the SDA’s but is a crucial element of the retail circuit and is often included in the Quay West development area. These areas were listed as development priorities due to their prominence and relationship to key


under-exploited assets in the city centre. Along with this, a Landscape Framework was submitted, identifying key strategies to connect the SDA’s together.

regenerative projects) were abolished due to the public sector funding cuts by the coalition government (BBC News Humberside, 2010).

Subsequent to officially publishing the masterplan, numerous forthcoming regenerative planning applications, some of which gained support from Hull Forward (Hull’s public funding organisation), were granted outline permission by the Hull City Council. Individual developments soon began to take shape within the allocated SDA’s including the St Stephen’s Shopping Centre, Paragon Interchange, Humber Quays and Hull History Centre.

In mid 2010, local city councillors decided to withdraw the existing city centre policies stating they were outdated in the current economic climate and the masterplan was no longer “fit for purpose”. (Hull Daily Mail, 2010). By this time limited development within the city had taken place, as all the SDA policies were abolished.

In June 2006, as part of an emerging Local Development Framework (LDF) Hull City Council (2006) reviewed the existing planning policies to support the proposed masterplan. These were further elaborated and included in a series of final draft supplementary planning documents. By 2007, the economic downturn of the global recession halted many of the planned proposals and two years after, both Hull Forward and Yorkshire Forward (who supported the funding for

proud of their regenerative work (op.cit.). footbridge which crosses the River Hull) Today, two further proposals which and a Premier Inn hotel (as part of The were postponed have been fully erected. Boom). These are the Scale Lane Bridge (a

Some policies were too restrictive for developers and this frustrated councillors, although they were generally

City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s

Fig 4.8 SDA’s

Fig 4.9 Hull City Masterplan (Hull Citybuild 2006)



4.6 humber quays Summary The boundary of the Humber Quays SDA is west of the Hull Marina, split into two parts, Humber Quays North and St Andrew’s Quays. Humber Quays North encompasses the derelict land along Wellington Street West, south of the residential estate. St Andrew’s Quays further below is built around Albert Dock.

Built form/uses With the completion of three major business and residential landmarks in the Humber Quays, the area is characterised as the waterfront and business district (Hull, 2009). One Humber Quays is currently in use as the World Trade Centre Hull & Humber. Two Humber Quays serves as additional Grade A office and residential space. Freedom Quay offers waterside apartments. The buildings exhibit modern architectural designs offering extensive views out to the nearby areas. Their brick, render and glass elevations are truly reflective of the waterfront setting. St Andrew’s Quays is home to several warehouses, forming part of a commercial port still active in use for operational purposes. These warehouses are eyesores with their height and grey cladding.


Streets/spaces The promenade along Railway Street, east of the Humber Dock is an attractive walking route. Panoramic views in this space recapture the spirit of Hull and include the cluster of boats at the Marina, Princes Quay Shopping Centre, the Holy Trinity Church, the Fruit Market along with the Humber waterfront and various other landscaping features. However along Wellington Street West, fences surround the brownfield land which fronts the River Humber. The east section of this land currently serves as a temporary car park. Crossing the footbridges to St Andrew’s Quays leads to a hostile environment. The space is underutilised, with no spatial identity except for the warehouses.



5 3


Fig 4.10a SDA boundary 3

The extent of the city’s pollution from the industrial sites further south east from the city centre can be glimpsed from the piers

At the edge of the promenade, the views to the quay reflects a site that has not only been disassociated from the city centre, but also forgotten in the city’s historic archive

Fig 4.10b View to St Andrews Quay

Public art Several public art works are commissioned around the Humber Quays area. Two landscape integrated pieces are situated near the Humber Quay buildings. There is also Sculpture Fishing, a surreal statue form adjacent to the Humber Dock. Further south, a sculpture by artist Neil Hadlock pays tribute to European families who had to transit at Hull to get to America during the late 19th century.

Fig 4.10c View to Minerva Pier


Existing colour palette Design principle


Gain potential from the promenade and waterfront for innovative and ambitious art works

Facilitate new art experiences for the adjacent housing community opposite Wellington St West

The newly established waterfront and business district revives the city with fresh look through a modern built environment, however somehow does not manage to attract the estimated pedestrian footfall and activity

Fig 4.10d One and Two Humber Quays Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)

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SDA Vision Statement

The break in streetscape to an integrated art work generates amusement as the contours give the work a life of its own

Fig 4.10e Landscape art 5

The significance of this work reflects upon its location as an indication of the city’s waterfront as a key migration point

Regeneration outcomes Aside from the business developments, other residential proposals have been submitted for regeneration. Hull Forward selected Surface Architects from a developer competition and developers Nikal for a mixed residential and leisure scheme adjacent to the One Humber Quays. Although the award winning scheme reached the detailed design stage with construction schedules planned in late 2009, Hull Forward were soon abolished due to regional government funding policies a year later. The project was suspended with no further comments.

“Situated to the south west of the city centre, Humber Quays enjoys magnificent views of the Humber Estuary. This scheme creates a new location for prime offices on the waterfront. It includes One Humber Quays and the outlying areas towards Albert Dock, which will be linked together by a new bridge.” “The development will have a major new public plaza, offices, new housing, restaurants, new cultural facility, hotel and riverside walkway.”

Fig 4.10h Surface Architects proposal

- Spectacular waterfront location - Prime office space, housing and restaurants - Riverside cultural facility - Mixed use to create a high quality development in a beautiful location (Hull Citybuild, 2006)

Fig 4.10i Humber Quay Phase Two

Fig 4.10f Neil Hadlock sculpture

Fig 4.10g SDA Framework

The highly anticipated Humber Quays was to include an additional Phase Two leisure and residential proposal. In 2008, it was granted outline planning consent and Hull City Council ensured a key priority by the end of 2010 was to provide the detailed designs for the waterfront business district (Hull, 2009). Regional development agency Yorkshire Forward, (who provided the investment and acquired the land) sold the land to an engineering firm C Spencer for £2.9m, thus delaying further construction plans (Insider, 2011). It is unknown if the firm will promote the brownfield site for its current development as it currently stands vacant, awaiting further planning. With the inclusion of the Humber Quays regeneration developments, the area has been slowly revitalised through business and residential uses. Freedom Quay was recognised for its high quality apartments in the city (Nikal, 2009). However the Humber Quays still lacks great potential. With delays to planning proposals, there is still a sense of place yet to flourish for the business waterfront.

Fig 4.10j Freedom Quay



4.7 fruit market Summary The Fruit Market forms the southern section of the Old Town, the city’s historic quarter. Due to its waterfront location further south of the A63 strategic highway, it has been secluded and in decline for a period of time. A majority of the properties owned by the fruit traders and retailers are either closed and or boarded up. Numerous planning applications and competition entries have been submitted in aid of providing a sustainable vision for regenerating the Fruit Market.

Built form/uses The architecture within the Fruit Market mainly comprises of brick and render warehouses and smaller industrial units. There is a lack of colour and sense of ownership as buildings have deteriorated, reflecting the current state of the Fruit Market. Unpleasant views of the deteriorated terraced buildings and pitched roof’s can be distinguished from East Bank and Quay West. One building along Blanket Row which proves aesthetically pleasing is the Arc building, a centre for architecture and the built environment.

Existing colour palette


Streets/spaces The eastern gateway to the Fruit Market via East Bank is unwelcoming as substantial quantities of brownfield land provoke a sense of insecurity to an area which has been forgotten. Along Humber Dock Street, the buildings create a strong frontage to the Humber Dock which livens the atmospheric promenade walk along the River Humber. The domination of parked cars along with the A63 link road situated at a gateway to the Fruit Market shows no consideration of promoting a pedestrian environment. The A63 road acts as a barrier by isolating the lower half of the Old Town. The urban environment lacks legibility and walking through the presence of derelict buildings in a network of tight streets creates feelings of claustrophobia. Further south, Nelson Street is a static space, framing the view of the The Deep with soft landscaping features.

Public art Although there is minimal public art within the Fruit Market, the existing public art works around the perimeter create a diverse mixed character. The first is the Reflective Colours Larkin Toad outside the Arc building. A semiintegrated bench lies at the end of Minerva Terrace, acting as a threshold to Nelson Street. Further along is a statue of the city’s first mayor, Sir William De La Pole. Design principle



Foster new developments with more community based initiatives and social development

Promote the Fruit Market as a renowned space for the heart of artist and community pride

1 1


Exploring the Fruit Market at times feels like wandering through a movie set or a ghost town



Fig 4.11a SDA boundary 3

A leading precedent for sustainable design in Hull though the Arc building does manage to confine itself from pedestrians in the process

Fig 4.11b Humber Street 2

Fig 4.11c Arc 4

At the exit of the footbridge, with views like this it The street lighting, bollards and railings shape an

no surprise the Fruit Market has become discrete

inspiring composition, typical of a historic market

and a ground for social deprivation, contained

town setting

within itself

Fig 4.11d Hull Marina

Fig 4.11e Land south of Humber Street

Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)

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One of the few spaces which thrives with exceptional landscape, riverside views, aesthetic building styles and exceptional

Fig 4.11f Nelson Street

walking spaces

“The Fruit Market Area will be a lively community providing a mix of city living, workspace, hotels, leisure and shopping, as well as a major new public area. The Fruit Market Area will welcome creative industries and smaller businesses enhancing its old town charm and encouraging diversity. Boutique shops and a variety of restaurants, cafés and bars will be located along Humber Street creating an ideal place to go in the evening and at weekends.”

Regeneration outcomes The result of the economic recession delayed and cancelled a number of Hull’s regenerative developments, including plans for the eagerly awaited Fruit Market.

Fig 4.11i Surface Architects masterplan

“The Fruit Market traders, currently based in the area, will move to a new purpose built complex in Spring 2008.”


During the recession, a change in funding circumstances for Igloo Regeneration which could not be justified for the overall development led to the end of their contract with Hull City Council and eventually Roger Tym & Partners (2010) were appointed as the new consultant team.

- Old Town charm - A place of character to live and work - Contemporary studio spaces - Restaurants, leisure and art (Hull Citybuild, 2006)

Igloo Regeneration were selected as the preferred developers from the results of an intense competition process by Hull Citybuild. They consulted further built environment professionals including Bauman Lyons, Sarah Wigglesworth and Hodsons Architects to carry out masterplanning exercises with a set vision to build an entirely new “destination location” for living, working and eating out. (E-Architect, 2008).

Fig 4.11j Roger Tym & Partners vision

Further stakeholders were involved with the lengthy development proposals, when eventually the government withdrew funding. Financial appraisals undertaken after estimated that the commercial investors needed to generate £22m of council funds to support the projects (Hull Daily Mail, 2012). As of today, the Fruit Market has not progressed and still stands neglected as it was before any strategic planning. Although there is much potential to revive this interesting historic waterfront area, nothing will commence until approval is granted at a strategic level.

The monument provides an anchor to the space, enticing people to take the time to appreciate the setting as a static environment

Fig 4.11g Sir William De La Pole monument Fig 4.11h SDA Framework

Fig 4.11k Roger Tym & Partners vision



4.8 east bank of the river hull Summary The East Bank SDA forms the eastern city boundary fronting the River Hull. It is split into two parts, East Bank and Blaydes Dock. The extent of East Bank forms a linear spine from the north A165 route running through to the A63 link road. The area to the west of River Hull is Blaydes Dock and includes several smaller dry docks. Similar to the Fruit Market area, the East Bank has become isolated from the core of the city centre as it is built up of commercial uses.

Built form/uses There is a unsightly combination of post war industrial brick buildings and steel railings along Tower Street, which characterise the area. These are overlooked by a cluster of larger contemporary warehouses in the Citadel Trading Park further east. To the south, the Premier Inn residential block adds architectural interest to the skyline. Situated further down is the major landmark in the city, The Deep. The building’s structure and its glass and aluminium cladding possesses a striking form amid the clutter of commercial buildings. Opposite in Blaydes Dock, some attributes of classical architecture are manifested in the blocks of university study buildings.


1 2

Access to the East Bank is facilitated by the numerous footbridges along the River Hull. East Bank is not a pedestrian friendly environment. Walking is unpleasant as the general openness of the space, graffiti and litter amidst the hard landscaping and steel containers leaves people feeling insecure. The only green space in East Bank is a deserted grassland which is inaccessible to pedestrians. Adjacent lies the boat/barge turning bay in the River Hull. This space captures an attractive view of the buildings opposite the river, which include the William Wilberforce Museum. To the south of Blaydes Dock, the existing vacant land serves as a car park for the university buildings.



Fig 4.12b The Manor housing development

Public art There is no public art within the East Bank SDA.


Fig 4.12a SDA boundary 3

Existing colour palette Design principle


Build on existing industrial themes present at East Bank and connect the area back to the city centre

Compliment existing architectural styles at Blaydes Dock and potential of new public plazas

Fig 4.12c Georgian houses

Fig 4.12d The River Hull

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| SDA Vision Statement “The East Bank of the River Hull will have a major new residential community situated on a spectacular riverside location. By embracing the spirit and personality of the existing buildings that give the area its unique urban character, quality housing will attract a wide range of people, especially those wishing to live within walking distance of the city centre.”

Regeneration outcomes - Waterfront location close to The Deep and Museums Quarter - Potential to impound the River Hull - New bridges (Hull Citybuild, 2006)

“The East Bank will be served by firstclass amenities including a wide range of educational and health facilities. The area will see the development of new ‘feature’ foot and cycle bridges, redevelopment of the land behind Hull College, pocket parks along the riverside promenade and the potential to impound the River Hull.” - New residential community - Health and education facilities

Fig 4.12h The Boom

Planning was granted to erect a 23 storey residential tower as part of the Manor mixed use development on the East Bank in 2009. Robinson Architects detailed an ambitious vision to redefine the area as a top leisure destination. Plans were also approved for a £25m restaurant and casino scheme. Eventually with the economic downturn, the strategic development became shelved, although the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA) invested £6.5m into a high-tech footbridge opened in 2012 over the River Hull which was to link the proposed development (Hull Daily MailA, 2012). In 2008, another waterside development named The Boom was given the go ahead. Costing £88m, it was to contain a mix of 600 apartments and luxurious retail and office space. Deemed a major boost for the social and economic growth of the city, much support was given from Yorkshire Forward, Hull City Council, HCA, Pure Urban and other stakeholders (op.cit). Construction was proposed to start in mid 2008. Assembly began on the first phase, a residential block and a multi-storey car park. However similar to the Manor development proposal, problems occurred with the recession underway. The funding from Yorkshire Forward was halted significantly and in Winter 2008, it was announced the construction was to be postponed for later completion (Hull Daily Mail, 2008)

Fig 4.12e SDA Framework

Today the residential tower (now the Premier Inn) and the car park have been fully erected, along with the footbridge. Fig 4.12f Scale Lane bridge proposal

Fig 4.12g The Manor housing development

Fig 4.12i Scale Lane footbridge



4.9 albion square and the heart of the city Summary The Heart of the City covers three significant areas within the core of the city. The first site is Albion Square, a surface car park at Albert Street/Bond Street with the adjoining Wilberforce Health Centre. The next is Queens Victoria Square, a large open space at the conjunction of several prominent central routes between the New and Old Town. The last site is Queens Gardens. This boundary also covers some extent of the Hull College (Learning Quarter) and Police Station on George Street.

Built form/uses The coloured aluminium facade of the Wilberforce Health Centre embarks on a contrasting aesthetical form within an area built of traditional masonry buildings. The decayed Edwin David building on Bond Street served as a post WWII department store before it became disused. Boarded up, the building and its neighbouring retail store discredit the entire street with their repulsive appearance. The concrete and brick George Street multi-storey car park is unappealing, with its inactive facade and hard edges. This is similar to the Police Station, although the columns of the building do spark interest.

Existing colour palette



3 7

Streets/spaces The panoramic views at the Queen Victoria Square of contemporary and classical architecture and sculptures surrounded by heavy pedestrian environment create phenomenal character. The mood at the Peace Gardens (the eastern entrance to Queens Gardens) differentiates, being lively near to the large water fountain and flower gardens, then suddenly serene through the wooded walk by the ponds. Albion Square seems forgotten, surrounded by an overshadowing concrete tower block to the east. The outdated concrete cladding of the mid 20th century Kingston House portrays a deprived space.

4 1



Fig 4.13a SDA boundary 4

Though the facade sets the architectural standards high, it is undermined by the car park

Fig 4.13b Wilberforce Health Centre 2

Public art Public art within the Heart of the City represent strong city wide cultural themes. Two anchor and propellor sculptures adjacent to the Hull Maritime Museum symbolise the city’s WWII freedom fighters. The Wilberforce Monument sited in front of the Hull College is extremely powerful. Placed atop a Doric column, not only is the 30 metre height of the statue compelling, but the location signifies a strong belief for education as Wilberforce abolished the slave trade. The fountain in Queens Garden creates a social focal point, commemorating the heart of civic pride Hull. In the Peace Gardens, a figurative sculpture blends contemporary character into the same space. Design principle



Reinforce civic pride and heritage as predominant themes of public art at the Queens Gardens

Provide learning experiences through heritage art

Fig 4.13c Queens Square Clusters of buildings like this result in eyesores


and have minimal relationships at street level

Fig 4.13d Edwin David building A comprehensive


infrastructure of footpaths reinforce the connectivity around the gardens enhancing the

Although the choice of materials are outdated,

Fig 4.13f Peace Gardens

the columns entice artistic interest

Fig 4.13e Column detail, Police Centre

Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)


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Regeneration outcomes

“Albion Square and the Heart of the City will undergo a dramatic transformation to provide a lively quarter that spans office, leisure, cultural and civic use that complements the Georgian architecture and conservation area status.” In harmony, together both college and monument define a strong edge to a major node, though the building’s elevation represents

Fig 4.13g Hull College

a 1950’s office block


Desppite the astonishing view to the monument, the colleges’ concrete structure physically reduces it’s impact

Fig 4.13h View of Wilberforce Monument 8

As well as the erosion, the sculpture flows freely

“It will reveal the hidden gems of The Maltings and revive Queen Victoria Square and Queens Gardens. The public space will be attractive and provide a relaxed urban oasis that is supported by new and improved walkways to other areas of the city and a select range of cafés, restaurants and bars.” - Mixed use office, residential and leisure - New development and reuse of Georgian buildings within conservation area - New public spaces including a public square - Revamped Queens Gardens and Queen Victoria Square

Fig 4.13k Wilberforce Health Centre

The report also highlighted the significance of the Albion Square site location in relation to its design context and wider city potential to form relationships using movement, land uses, heritage, views and the various character areas within the city core (op.cit).

Fig 4.13l Albion Square design brief

(Hull Citybuild, 2006)

natural occurrences

Fig 4.13j SDA Framework

A progress of planning and development issued by Hull Forward (2008) indicated that the property around Albion Square (including both Kingston House and the Grattan Building) had been acquired to assemble a major development site. However, no planning applications have been approved for the site except for the Wilberforce Health Centre. The £16.5m health centre was developed by Citycare (2012) with partners NHS Hull, the Sewell Group, the UME Group and Community Health Partnerships and granted outline planning permission in May 2008. Opened in 2011, the centre provided a much needed health facility, especially for workers and residents in the city and was averaging 5,625 visitors per month. The building was also awarded a Civic Society Award in recognition for its services (op.cit).

as if it truly has been anchored to the site from

Fig 4.13i Anchor and propellor sculpture

A comprehensive design guide was published for Albion Square by Hull City Council (2010) to guide the future developments of the car park. The publication emphasised the need to re-connect the site to existing spaces in the Georgian New Town and city core such as St Stephen’s, Queens Gardens whilst creating a sufficient development layout to repair the existing built form environment and public realm.

Fig 4.13m Albion Square design brief



4.10 quay west/st stephens Summary The Quay West SDA comprises with the St Stephen’s development to form the retail sector. The area is compact with two boundaries, the first of which includes the built form to the west of the Princes Quay Shopping Centre. The perimeter around the St Stephen’s Shopping Centre and the Paragon Interchange continues further east outside the city boundary.

Built form/uses Both areas have established uses of employment, housing, retail, leisure and parking. Quay West is defined by a strong building boundary to the north, east and west. The mid/late 20th century warehouses and low rise buildings are typical brick and render and although some have been subject to deterioration, other modern builds characterise the area well. The attractive form and colour of the Princes Quay Shopping Centre sat atop the dock appears as a boat ready to set sail. The St Stephen’s buildings create a diverse skyline and a strong sense of place with a variety of heights and frontages juxtaposed in a series of geometrical forms. The early Georgian and modern buildings reinforce the retail and leisure experience with active frontages.

Existing colour palette



Streets/spaces The A1079 Ferensway highway creates a vibrant walking experience through the whole retail quarter. The tertiary streets in the core of Quay West are lifeless and deserted. Clusters of bollards, brick walls, and parking ticket machines create hard edges and unpleasant views. However, the panoramic views at the Princes Quay Shopping Centre are phenomenal. The open space along Princes Dock St forms an active pedestrianised environment, surrounding by water elements, furniture, landscaping and dense mixed use housing. The large street patterns allow for a good sense of visibility and legibility. The creation of numerous static spaces are highlighted outside the retail centre, Hull Music Centre and Hull Truck Theatre by modern street features. Despite the positive local character, the space is let down by several deprived and underutilised brownfield sites located to the west. Some are temporary car parks awaiting development, although they are also used as social spaces by youths.


5 7

1 2 3

Buildings seen in need of repair such as this

Fig 4.14a SDA boundaries 4

devalue the credentials

Fig 4.14b Urban decay 2

of the city

Although most shop fronts are active, few spill out onto the street enticing interest to the urban setting

Contemporary mixed use facilities for the

Public art Disappointingly, the only significant public art work is in the Paragon Interchange. The recent bronze statue of Hull based poet Phillip Larkin stands near the exit of the station, greeting visitors on the arrival to the city.

Fig 4.14c Carr Lane

community and tourists alike excel to providing a diverse retail and leisure experience

Fig 4.14d St Stephen’s 3

Design principle


New retail proposals will label Hull as a prominent shopping experience for tourists and locals

Establish legible connections from Quay West to St Stephen’s to strengthen retail character of the city

The panoramic views capture the juxtaposition of the architectural styles, colours and dock

Fig 4.14e Princes Quay Shopping Centre

Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)

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SDA Vision Statement

A convenient transport hub effectively constitutes to creating a tourism quarter within itself along with the St Stephen’s development

Fig 4.14f Paragon Interchange 6

A large quantity of brownfield land near St Stephen’s leaves an unsafe setting often popular hangout places for troubled youth

“Quay West area is located to the west of Princes Quay and will provide a new retail route linking Princes Quay with the new St Stephen’s development and the Prospect Centre. The movement of people between the major shopping centres will be concentrated along a strong retail circuit, which will provide a new lease of life for areas such as Prospect Street, King Edward Street, Jameson Street, Paragon Street, Carr Lane and Ferensway.”

Situated East of Ferensway St Stephen’s presents one of the most significant and eagerly anticipated developments in Hull’s history.

“New routes will also be created from the East Bank of the River Hull to Queen Victoria Square, via Whitefriargate. Combined with the ongoing revival of the Old Town, it will provide a new area for specialty shopping, leisure and city living on Whitefriargate.”

New public squares and a remodelling of Ferensway itself will ensure strong connectivity from the scheme to the rest of the retail circuit, including Princes Quay, Quay West and the Prospect Centre. St Stephen’s will be an exciting hub where people come to live, work, visit and shop. - New public transport interchange - New retail anchor - Complementary residential and leisure uses including new homes for Hull Truck Theatre and the Albemarle Music Centre

- Extension of Princes Quay - Strong retail circuit - Complementary office, residential and leisure uses

Fig 4.14g Land adjacent to St Stephen’s 7

Regeneration outcomes

The 40-acre mixed use development combines retail and leisure, alongside new residential development, and a new state of the art public transport interchange, creating a new anchor for the city centre.

(Hull Citybuild, 2006)

The statue welcomes visitors to the city, reflecting a community proud of their cultural association

Fig 4.14h Phillip Larkin at Paragon Interchange

Fig 4.14i SDA Framework

Fig 4.14j SDA Framework

In 2006, outline planning permission was granted to joint owners Henderson Global Investors and Invista Real Estate Investment Management to extend the western area of the Princes Quay Shopping Centre as part of the Quay West development (Quay West Hull, 2006). The development boundary extended to the A1079 Ferensway strategic highway and Castle Street. Estimated at £300m, the core proposal was to include additional retail space along with cafés, restaurants, a hotel and leisure complex. Two years later, originally at a price of £110m, the Princes Quay Shopping Centre including the existing planning grant was put on the market and later sold for £71m to private equity firm CIT after a 16 month period in April 2010 (Hull Daily MailA, 2010). However later that year, the ambitious plans were discarded as directors of the CIT stated they were not viable and that their focus should be to improve the “untapped” potential of the centre (Hull Daily MailB, 2010). Currently it is unanticipated if the investors will pursue with the proposals in the future. Both the St Stephen’s mixed use development and Hull Paragon Interchange transport hub opened in mid 2007, shortly before the downturn of the economic recession. These developments alongside the Albermarle Music Centre and Hull Truck Theatre (event and concert venues) together have been instrumental in the city centre regenerative masterplan. The St Stephen’s shopping centre has won numerous awards for environmental sustainability and providing a substantial economic boost (Hull, 2008).


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.11 Access and movement The city centre is contained by strategic highway links to the north, east and west. The city centre is well served by the wider network of public transport and access. The A165 primary route provides access between the city and the furthest suburbs, eventually leading to Bridlington, 47km away. The major gateways are located at the intersections between these routes, which includes access from East Bank through the bridges and the entrance from the Humber Quays via boat travel. There are additional secondary gateways, a majority of which allow access through the primary roads.

Design principle

40 0m (5 minu

800 m

t es



City centre boundary (1 0 m

inutes w a l k)

Primary roads Secondary roads

The Hull Paragon Interchange is located within the city centre to the western boundary. With the integration of the bus and coach facilities with this complex, it is a pioneering service for public transport users, contributing to better accessibility through the city. Developed as a contribution to sustainable regeneration, the Paragon Interchange has generated high economic growth and has contributed to the increased amount of annual visitors (Hull City Council, 2011).


Tertiary roads Pedestrianised area 1.2 km

(1 5 m inute

s walk)

Pedestrianised area (restricted) Pedestrian links Cycle route Primary gateway Secondary gateway Walking distances

Fig 4.15 Access and movement

The city centre benefits from regular bus services (Fig 4.15). Most of the bus routes conjoin and pass through the Paragon Interchange. The north of the city centre which includes Queens Gardens and St Stephens benefits from very frequent bus services.

Urban grain Watercourse

The infrequent services run mainly to the east and south of the city, usually every hour. The regular buses operate mainly outside the city centre with the exceptional south east services to the East Bank.

Establish new linkages which promote safe and attractive walks and connect the SDA’s

Create more pedestrianised areas for outdoor community based arts initiatives

Hull benefits from a well established cycle network. Most of the primary and secondary routes incorporate cycle lanes and the city benefits from multiple traffic calmed areas and quiet streets, which are desirable routes for cycling. The routes provide access to most of the surrounding residential districts and pass through the city centre. In the city, some designated routes are attractive, situated along the eastern waterfront, through public spaces and to major attractions. In some areas, Hull promotes a pedestrian friendly environment. Certain routes are restricted due to regular pedestrian activity, centred around the Heart of the City and the Fruit Market. A majority of Hull’s urban environment is walkable within a 1.2km proximity (15 minutes) and this increases opportunities for foot journeys as some areas within city have rich spatial character and preserved heritage.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.12 Land uses The land uses have been characterised by the spatial evolution of the city areas through time especially with the rise and decline of the trade industries. To the present day within the Old Town, individual warehouses and few early 18th century Georgian buildings are reminiscent of Hull’s historic past where trade was centred around the River Hull. The Old Town now serves as a Museum Quarter, comprising of mixed use leisure, retail and educational facilities. The museums are located within student housing accommodation, overlooking the River Hull waterfront. The established Education Quarter was underway after the partial infill of Queens Gardens, and comprehends the Universities of Humberside and University of Lincoln along with several colleges. Although these buildings provide a strong closure to the city Fig 4.16 Land uses centre boundary to the north east, and mixed use housing such as living their urban layout is backed onto and evidently secludes the employment uses above shops. The hotels and apartments adjacent the other side of the River Hull. are contemporary developments operated by well established companies The housing needs in the city are widely such as Premier Inn, Travel Lodge and Ibis. Student accommodation, ideally spread in the form of hotels, houses, is situated within close proximity to the apartments, student accommodation

Design principle •

More mixed uses to attract tourists and demonstrate why Hull is a unique place

Incorporate public art within the developments to ensure they are integrated with their sites

Both River Hull and River Humber are actively navigable as the Albert Dock occasionally handles cargo and boats still ferry across the River Hull for various purposes. City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Mixed use Civic/public use Housing

Typical mixed uses comprise of ground floor retail, leisure and dining with the upper floors as offices or housing. This flexible layout allows the city centre to develop to meet the needs of the society by changes of land ownership and new developments taking place.

Education Employment Leisure Parking Brownfield/derelict Urban grain Public space Watercourse

Current brownfield and vacant land are opportunities waiting to be utilised by previous development proposals affected by the economic climate.

educational quarter whilst the primary residential estate is situated adjacent to the Humber Quays SDA. This late 20th century cul-de-sac estate comprises of traditional houses built within parking courts.


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.13 Culture and landmarks Through the years, Hull’s credibility has been revived through the promotion of regeneration and planning. One contribution of the renewed image was the established cultural character.

Design principle

4 5


Hull City CouncilA (2010) praised the city for its wide inclusion of art galleries, museums, public art and art events. The city’s Museum Quarter is located in the Old Town, consisting of mostly Georgian mixed use and contemporary builds. The buildings themselves are incorporated with local public spaces, thus making the overall experience of tours and walks more attractive, reinforcing the local distinctiveness.




9 10

City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City

Typically, the museums allow free entry and it is through the arts that people are invited and encourage to learn about the city’s culture and historic trades. The Wilberforce Museum dwells on the city’s proud heritage and role in the abolition of slavery whilst the Hull Maritime Museum and The Deep promote the city’s maritime past. The Deep provides tourists with the opportunity to explore the aquarium through interactive displays, presentations and live exhibitions. It is a popular landmark attraction (op.cit.).


East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Local landmark City-wide landmark Cultural landmark Watercourse Dry dock

Fig 4.17 Culture and landmarks

The streets flourish with elements of public art and monuments which depict famous figures or themes, educating people about Hull’s culture and heritage. Organisers host annual festivals, theatre and events which bring excitement into the city, often held in open ground or

Use culture as a marketing tool in promoting Hull’s leisure and heritage facilities

Allow cultural experiences around the city and build on the existing cultural spaces e.g Museum Quarter

urban festival comprising of live music concerts, arts events and circus tents held in the Fruit Market. The social event has proven track record of attracting crowds for cultural purposes as last year, a record of 75,000 people attended the festivities, creating a vibrant atmosphere for the whole city (Hull Daily MailB, 2012).



Urban grain

the numerous theatres. The Hull New Theatre regularly features musicals, opera, ballet and drama performances. Flower shows, medieval jousting events and kite flying festivals are just some of the wide range of activities organised for families and fun loving people in the city. The Freedom Festival is a four day

Another unique cultural feature is the independent telephone system. KC is Hull’s own communication network and forms part of the umbrella KCOM group who are a UK communications and services provider. This is celebrated through distinctive cream telephone kiosks located around the city. Though approximately 126 still remain, they are huge icons and are sometimes decorated before or during significant events (Hull Daily MailC, 2012).

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Telephone kiosk at Paragon Street


Timeless monument

breaks landscape, adding variety to



encapsulated in traditional

busy retail environment

Georgian setting

Refurbished theatre imitates classical

Transport museum and gardens contemplating

style, recognised as

old and new, inspiring local character

Fig 4.17b Wilbeforce Museum

Fig 4.17c Nelson Mandela Gardens

Fig 4.17d Hull New Theatre




Heart of the city’s retail attraction, marks major gateway into the city through rail

iconic landmark

Local monument on Lowgate pays respect to ancient 14th century St Mary’s Church

Fig 4.17a Cream telephone kiosks

Multi archive collection stored in striking arts and cultural renaissance design


Fig 4.17e Hull History Centre

Fig 4.17f St Stephen’s



Widely appreciated cultural icon as a recognition of previous industries, and a magnet for tourists

Despite a catalyst for cultural renewal, the socially deprived location undermines the aquarium

Strengthening links to major plaza complex, the building houses a children’s gallery and cafe

Fig 4.17h Ferens Art Gallery

Fig 4.17g Charles Henry Wilson monument Fig 4.17i Hull Marina

Fig 4.17j The Deep

Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.14 Public space With the addition of docks and pedestrianised spaces in the city centre, this has allowed for the development of several urban open spaces to be created to strengthen city’s social, economic and environmental value.

Design principle 9 6

7 8

The most prominent public realm within the city is the Queens Gardens. The centralised green space comprises of the Peace Gardens and is well known by its evolution as the Queens Dock and its scale of 4ha within the Hull City Centre located at the heart of the city. The Rosebowl fountain provides a dominant entrance to the space signifying its importance whilst the Peace Gardens, being rich in aesthetical quality, allows a change in character from the busy city life.




2 City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Public green space


Pedestrianised area Watercourse Dry dock

The remaining additional public green spaces are passive recreation spaces by nature, located further towards the edges of the city and include Kingston Square, Nelson Mandela Gardens and the Trinity Burial Ground. These remain discrete to pedestrians within the city area and although they aren’t

Raise the profile of Hull’s existing public realm infrastructure with new public art schemes

Other diverse typologies of public realm form a complex infrastructure which together cater for the demands of the people within the city and include memorials, promenades and pedestrianised high streets.


Fig 4.18 Public space

Promote new public space typologies to facilitate for Hull’s community and biodiversity types


Private green space

Queen’s Gardens is appreciated by many pedestrians as it serves as a multifunctional active and passive recreation space. Whilst some people can be seen exercising, others freely capture the landscape setting from benches and walls. The gardens possess ecological value, paying respects to the existing biodiversity with ponds inhabited by ducks, goldfish and other organisms.

Urban grain

as recognised as Queens Gardens, they remain sentimental to passersby containing statues or monuments, contributing to the aesthetic value of the city centre.

Few public spaces have been adopted in the national cycling network routes. The two significant routes encompass the space around Queens Square and through the Humber Quays, showcasing an attractive experience of the city character. Several strategic walking routes were put forward in the LDF (Hull City Council, 2006) aiming to encapsulate the nature of the SDA’s through connectivity with key spaces and developments along the riverside docks, retail circuit etc. Few already existed, though they were never completed due to the delay and cancellation of many developments.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1

Wide pedestrian spaces enclosed



The scale of the Holy Trinity Church provides

by historic architecture and unique


an enclosure to an ambient setting

Panoramic views from Queens Gardens shows a well designed environment, sensitive to local

monument enhances sense of place

needs and Hull’s heritage

Buildings positively front the marina space, which incorporates a series of distinct lighting and

Fig 4.18a Queen Victoria Square

Fig 4.18b Hull Marina



Sequential flowers and play facilities in spaces catering for diverse community

railing features

Simple spatial layout acts as a threshold to

Fig 4.18c Trinity Square 7

Heavy wooded perimeter at Peace Gardens

major retail hub, although atmosphere is too

provides a sense of enclosure to setting,


transcending from Queens Gardens

Fig 4.18e Nelson Mandela Gardens

Fig 4.18f St Stephen’s



Fig 4.18g Peace Gardens

Fig 4.18d Queens Gardens 10

A captivation of colour, landscaping, paving elements, street lighting and furniture integrated into a compact square, provides a break from the busy city life

High rise residential towers and office blocks effectively overlook the space, allowing for

Memorial strengthens community focus at

Fig 4.18j Peace Gardens

static space opposite Paragon Interchange

Fig 4.18h War memorial

Fig 4.18i Kingston Square

good security

Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.15 Public art 4

The extensive portfolio of public art located throughout the city ranges from medieval, Georgian, Victorian and 21st century contemporary works. A number of registered charitable art organisations regularly sponsor, promote and facilitate art exhibitions and commissions.


Use public art as the primary urban design tool in regenerating the Hull city centre

Allow for a wide range of public art initiatives to serve community needs and attract visitors to Hull


outcomes. 5

Upon observation of the existing public collection in the city, it can be noted that the predominant art theme is heritage. Most of the art works are historical statues, notably of famous figures or people who either were born or lived in Hull. These include King William III, poet Phillip Larkin, musician David Whitfield, politician William Wilberforce, aviator Amy Johnson and others. The statues reinforce the value of heritage to Hull and play a significant role in raising historic awareness through the urban environment. The interactive trails of fish, toads and poems in the city form the Seven Seas Fish Trail, Larkin with Toads and the Larkin Trail. Both The Seven Seas Trail and Larkin Trail were permanent unlike the Larkin with Toads, though few toads are still located in their primary locations. This public art project was highly successful (Burke and Charlton, 2011).

Design principle



7 3 City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market


Albion Place/Heart of City

Although public art thrives in the Heart of the City SDA, it is unappreciated in other areas. The East Bank SDA, mostly due to its nature as an employment space, lacks any form of public art. Similarly, the Fruit Market and Quay West areas possess minimal public art works perhaps due to their hostile environments.

East Bank/Blaydes Dock



Quay West/St Stephen’s Public art Monument Seven Seas Fish Trail Fish Seven Seas Fish Trail Public space Dry dock

Fig 4.19 Public art

Hull’s community arts charity Artlink (2005) aim to provide opportunities for community members to have access to quality arts provision. Alternatively, Arc (2007), an architecture and built environment charitable group, purposely promote quality placemaking and

Watercourse Urban grain

support communities in the Humber region. Such organisations ensure art related activities in the city are co-ordinated equally by specialist community members. The success of these charities is through organisation, expertise and achievement of project

Some public art initiatives in the city are unsuccessful, clearly due to a lack of clarity in their composition or message. This makes understanding and the potential appreciation of the art work difficult as there is no indication as to what it formally represents. Examples include the large pole sculpture outside the Job Centre on Spring Bank and sphere sculpture on the A165 Freetown Way.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1




Though the spherical seating creates slight sculptural interest, the pole does nothing to correlate to any artistic pattern or meaning from the city’s rather attracts interest for the

An interesting composition, contrasting to the setting yet compliant with

Fig 4.19a Metal Figures

contemporary art


Not only does

A vibrant integrated work, assuming the form

Reflective Colours toad decorated

of the waterfront setting at Humber Quays

in lively fashion marking entrance

Fig 4.19c Larkin Toad

Fig 4.19b Landscape art 6

The statues

the Queen

within the facade

Victoria Sqaure

of the church


reinforce classical

create legibility


as a dominant

styles adding

landmark, it is

variety to the

also a major focal

street of Georgian

point in the Heart


Fig 4.19e Queen Victoria Square

of the City

to ARC building


Fig 4.19d Sculptures at Spring Bank/A165 node 10

Fig 4.19f Sculptures in the Catholic Church 9


wrong reasons

Built from traditional materials, the bench fosters an environment for both adults and children, framing vistas to The Deep and River Humber

Just the scale of the golden monument commemorates the presiding era of the King at Market Place, marking the route to the Holy Trinity Church

Integrated into its setting, the Cod, located

Fig 4.19g King William III monument

Placed off the Freetown Way strategic highway,

adjacent to Princes Quay marks the

although the nature of this sculpture is unknown

introductory findings during the thrilling trail

it is evident it has been pointlessly dumped as it

Fig 4.19h Seven Seas Fish Trail

Fig 4.19i Tide Turning, Nelson Street

discredits its existing habitat

Images all by Lakhanpal (2012)

Fig 4.19j Sphere sculpture



4.15.1 larkin with toads The Larkin25 festival was a cultural arts event marked to celebrate 25th anniversary of the death of celebrated Hull based poet and librarian, Phillip Larkin. The festivities comprised of walking tours, musical events, art and photography exhibitions however the focal interest was the Larkin Toads trail, a public art display inspired by two poems by Larkin, ‘Toads’ and ‘Toads Revisited’. When the £258,000 funding was provided, the initiative attracted much criticism by MP’s, deemed a “waste of taxpayers money in the current harsh economic climate” (Metro, 2010). Nonetheless, the project still commenced. Planning for the Larkin Toads began in 2009 involving community stakeholders, artists and charity groups. During production, 40 fibreglass replicas were cast from a single metre high toad sculpture and designs were submitted by 37 local and national artists. On the evening of 15th July 2010, they were distributed to their designated locations, 27 of which were in the city centre and the rest outside.


As the toads were unveiled, the public reaction was unprecedented. Comments included the toads were “just great” and “fantastic” whilst people summarised the overall experience as a way of brightening up the city and an ideal way of entertaining children (Burke and Charlton, 2011). The only minor negativity raised was the initiative to locate the remaining 13 toads outside the city centre. However others pointed out that this exclusion allowed them to venture unvisited areas (op.cit). The event commenced for three months until winter when 29 toads were auctioned to private buyers for £60,000. The remaining toads were left. The project proved with an equal mix in creative thinking and economic support, cultural art in public places can be successful. It was recorded that the effects on economic regeneration were colossal. More than £1m in income was generated as 120,000 people took part in the trail whilst tourism increased by 40% compared to the previous year (op.cit.). Commercial sponsorship of the toads raised £150,000 and those businesses involved stated it was a positive experience and were keen to use the toads for marketing and enhancing their premises (op.cit.).


To promote creativity To engage & involve communities on a large scale

An uplift in social sustainability resulted from the success where opinion polls revealed 90% opted for more public art in the future whilst local businesses longed for more cultural regeneration projects in the city (op.cit.).

• To strengthen social identity • To promote cultural tourism

Burke and Charlton stated most of the earlier controversy that surrounded the notion of urban toads had been won over by civic pride and a sense of ownership. It was realised during the festival that though initially touching

Analysis - Inspirational, abstract colours and representation - Distinguishable themes relating to the city character


- Delivery team included schools, artists and charities - Toad interaction included stroking, sitting & kissing

ENGAGE - Situated within primary landmark spaces - Toads located outside city were bonus to explore



- Toads sparked public reaction with sense of pride - End of festival marked by auctioning toads to charity


- Economic boost of £1bn during summer 2010 - Promotion of art & cultural regeneration in Hull




Despite negative reaction, the project successfully boosted social & economic factors. A contemporary best practice study in urban art renaissance.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Design principle •

Recreate similar experiences for the community members to produce, interact and share a relationship with the art in their spaces

the toads was unpermitted, people soon sat on them, kissed them and took photographs before adopting them with nicknames. Visitors became attached to the toads as not only had they enhanced the cultural identity of Hull and its’ citizens, but also connected communities. The project explored potential economic investment in cultural regeneration and where precedents such as the Seven Seas Fish Trail have worked, there is also more potential yet to be explored. Owing to the success, an ambitious follow up trail is being planned by the event organisers (Hull Daily MailB, 2011).

The toads inherit good values of public art, decorated in a wide fashion of colours and subject matters, celebrating the life of a much loved resident, stationed at major and minor intervals throughout the city centre and beyond and enticing the love of

Fig 4.20 Larkin Toads


Larkin Toad

Fig 4.20a Larkin Toads

residents and tourists through engagement and conversation



4.15.2 seven seas fish trail In 1992 to commemorate the city as a gateway to Europe, Humberside City Council, creative arts promoter David Porter and several others hosted Hull 1992, a year long event, during the course of which several festivals were organised with particular attention to sustainability. One of the key landmark projects was the Hull Fish Pavement or Seven Seas Fish Trail.

To date the Seven Seas Fish Trail has successfully earned its reputation as a leading attraction in the city centre, becoming popular with both tourists and residents, especially children. Since its completion, more than 400,000 people have been entertained on the trail (Hull Daily MailC, 2010), educating themselves about the vast species of fish in the process.

Before its abolition in 1996, the Humberside City Council commissioned Public Art Officer Andrew Knight to liaise with visual artist Gordon Young assisted by his team, to design and develop a unique fish trail of sculptures and engravings through Hull’s Old Town. The sponsors were Seven Seas Ltd.

Building on its existing success, in 2010 Seven Seas restored the trail, adding three more fish; a shark, gurnard and a lobster, accompanied by up to date marketing publications detailing the new trail, information on the sculptures and historical facts about the fish.

The 41 life sized fish sculptures were produced to scale, in a variety of traditional materials to integrate with their setting of paved surfaces. To encourage fun and interaction, explorers were handed a location checklist from the Hull Tourist Centre and upon completion, a certificate was rewarded. Guidance for the challenge includes audio points at certain locations adding variety to the experience.


Such strategic decisions aimed to ensure the future success of the fish trail whilst preserving its existing loved character (op.cit). The trail not only strengthens the heritage and culture of Hull’s fishing trade, but also promotes footfall and pedestrian engagement through Hull’s historical quarter comprising of the Old Town and two SDA’s; The Heart of the City and the Fruit Market.

The trail is reflective of Gordon Young’s humour and play as a plaice sits outside the market place, an electric eel outside the electricity sub station and a shark outside the bank. It is elements such as these which create distinctiveness

from other walking trails in representing an experience which has true meaning to the artist, users and the place. It is a much loved urban feature especially popular amongst children as voted online the Trip Advisor (2012) website.

Analysis - Sculptures cast in materials suitable to the setting - Key accuracy with life sized representations


- Rubbing encourages child participation - Audio points create a very sociable experience

ENGAGE - Trail route covers a wide section of the Old Town - Humour shown through certain fish locations



- Trail provides a rich source of marine education - Completion of trail encouraged by rewards


- Most sculptures engraved into existing setting - Trail promotes walking, attracting many tourists




Continues to be successful in that it is practical in its approach as an art display, yet its underlying principle as an cultural icon within the city remains immortal

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Design principle •

Allow public art installations to grasp audiences and take them on an adventure throughout the city to educate and entertain them

Furthermore, apart from the souvenir certificate, people who complete the trail are entered into a lucky draw to win a goody bag prize. The walk promotes active education, venturing people to visit the city’s oldest urban environment, allowing opportunities for rubbings of selected sculptures on the way and keeping them occupied for hours on end.

Just the statistics alone on the opposite page reveal the popularity of embarking on such a trail which engages families in the passion of hunting for fish sculptures embedded in the city’s urban setting, which opens the gateway to explore and

Fig 4.21 Fish Trail

Seven Seas Fish Trail Fish Seven Seas Fish Trail

Fig 4.21a Seven Seas Fish Trail

appreciate Hull’s oldest quarter and facilitates fun and enjoyment along the way, all for free


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.16 Public art research

4.16.1 Questions and settings

In order to achieve a successful outcome for the project, the research aims and methodology have to be tested for validity. The design proposal must respect the citizens of Hull, as community engagement and local views are vital to consider if the draft urban art strategy is to be successful. The RIBA (2011) argue that in the design process communities should be involved:

The study aimed to test whether the questions devised were successful in gaining an understanding of the public perception of art and how people would develop art if given the opportunity to do so. Leeds was chosen as Smales and Whitney state in Haughton and Williams (1996) “it is a city deprived of a coherent public art collection.” The final study was undertaken in Hull City Centre in which the following questions were posed:

• to create a robust brief and vision that is based on local knowledge and expertise • to reflect on what the building or site is for • to bring people together with similar and/ or different views to explore options, identify solutions, avoid future conflicts and opposition • to create a stronger sense of belonging and ownership over the project • to raise design aspirations that are achievable • to educate people about design and the development process • to develop mutual learning between all parties involved in the project • to create an environment that is more responsive to social and environmental change.

A research pilot study was undertaken in Leeds where questionnaires were handed to members of the public in art galleries, public realm, universities, local councils and employment. Both the process and results of this study are included in the Appendices.


Q1) Please describe your age group Q2) Please describe your gender Q3) If you could describe the CULTURE of Hull with 3 words, what would they be? Q4) In your opinion, what do you think of PUBLIC SPACES in Hull City Centre? Q5) What does PUBLIC ART mean to you? List some of your favourite examples in other places Q6) Could these examples work in HULL? If yes/ no then why? Q7) List what you would define as “GOOD QUALITY” and “BAD QUALITY” public art? Q8) How do you think a PUBLIC ART STRATEGY would contribute to making Hull a better place? Q9) If there was a design for a NEW PUBLIC ART WORK in Hull, what would you like to see?

Alongside the questionnaires, online versions were also generated through Survey Monkey, a free survey website. The same questions were put forward, yet the only difference was that the website had optional features to compare and analyse responses to publish into reports. The study aimed to generate responses from the diverse community whilst paying attention to the distinct public and private settings within the city centre which would be populated with people of all social backgrounds. The online surveys were posted mainly through new subject matters and various social groups on Facebook and LinkedIn, which included the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Hull Fair Hull College University of Hull Hull Daily Mail Hull Truck Theatre Hull and Proud Princes Quay Shopping Centre The Deep Hull History Centre Hull Libraries St Stephen’s Urban Design Network

The settings chosen for the research methodology were: 1. Humber Quays 2. Princes Quay Shopping Centre 3. Queen Victoria Square 4. Hull City Council 5. Hull History Centre 6. Hull College 7. St Stephen’s Shopping Centre The second half of the study included consultation with built environment professionals. Individuals within these consultancies had extensive proven track record of working with public art in the Hull City Centre and so generating their opinion was also a valid procedure for the research proposal. These individuals included: 1. Hull City Council Paul Holloway - Arts Development Manager 2. RKL Consultants Andrew Knight - Public Art Consultant & Urban Design Officer 3. Artlink Sarah Fisher - Arts Development Worker

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.16.2 Study statistics 4. Salt Architects Bridget Hansford -Director



5. Gordon Young Gordon Young -Visual Artist


For the study, 60 questionnaires were prepared. Improvements included a more efficient layout of questions which were straight to the point and as open as possible, entitled “An urban design study into how a public art strategy could help regenerate the city of Hull”. The statistics of the study which includes both the field and online survey are recorded on the next pages.

Fig 4.22c Prospect Street

Fig 4.22f Wilberforce Drive



Fig 4.22d Kingston House

Fig 4.22g St Stephen’s Shopping Centre

Fig 4.22a Humber Dock Street 2


Fig 4.22b Princes Quay Shopping Centre

Fig 4.22e Hull History Centre


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.16.3 Questionnaire data Q1) Please describe your age group:




13% 36% 19%


Q3) If you could describe the CULTURE of Hull with 3 words, what would they be?




Q2) Please describe your gender:






26-35 Q4) In your opinion, what do you think of PUBLIC SPACES in Hull City Centre?


Q5) What does PUBLIC ART mean to you? List some of your favourite examples in other places


Q6) Could these examples work in HULL? Q7) List what you would define as “GOOD QUALITY” and “BAD QUALITY” public art? If yes/no then why? No

City isn’t that good Vandalism


Modernise city Tidiness Reduce crime Art of all types



Security Separate funds



Q8) How do you think a PUBLIC ART Q9) If there was a design for a NEW PUBLIC ART WORK in Hull, what would you like STRATEGY would contribute to making to see? Hull a better place? Unsure


Sort other issues It would not


Has been proven Positive vibe Solve image problem Engage society Economic benefits Cultural awareness Brighten up city Make people happy

13% 14% 73%

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Colour Something to give tourism a boost Actual art such as paintings Outdoor pools and parks We need something accessible! More skate parks for kids Artist design competitions Something to celebrate Hull Real life ships Digital technology & lighting Raise profile of what we already have Playful Modern designs Derelict land in use Abstract art

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Coherent themes Unity Art that can adapt Art Centres & indoor graffiti space Preschool art Floral displays and gardens Celebrate Hull’s heritage Street Art not vandalism Originality Photography Performing arts Individualism Larkin Toads Community and artist balance Graffiti

Design principle •

Utilise culture and heritage as two coherent characterised themes driving new art initiatives

Improve social development by creating a wide mixture of community and tourist attractions


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.16.4 Online discussion During the process of posting the initial online public art survey on Survey Monkey and Facebook, another group by the name of Hull and Proud had began a similar topic discussion with around 58 group members. The topic status posed the following question:

4.16.5 Study Analysis

“Instead of knocking down all the old day care centres and old school buildings why not regenerate them into single occupancy accommodation so people can down size instead of being made to pay this new bedroom tax due in April from this government”

8% 12%

Other opportunities 12%

Afternoon Hull. Do you think Hull needs SDA’s “Regenerating”? Where would they Precedents build? Although the discussion did not generate closed answers due to the informality of the question, the response agenda was quite clear as to what the group members aspired for. People wanted to see a change in the city centre as they all contributed to suggestions based on social, economic and political views. In total, 51 people replied to the post and the results are recorded opposite.

Other opportunities




5% 5% 12%

Buildings & spaces

A new city

“New outlet better bigger than Princes Quay and maybe new gym health centre. There’s a lot of empty places to crack on with like that building in town the old shopping more near Juliet’s”

People Fig 4.23 Response analysis

Buildings and spaces “Instead of building places, do something with the abandoned buildings. I am sick to death of seeing empty shops all over the place, it’s depressing” “Hard one, because many places need doing up”

A new city “Knock it all down and start again”

SDA’s The Fruit Market and Marina area could be a fantastic place to be as proved by the Freedom Festival, the atmosphere there last year was brilliant but few people knew it was there. Every other town, especially abroad I’ve been to with a Marina make it a feature, we’ve shut ours down!!


“I think Whitefriargate would look amazing if it had a roof. Connect it all, and get some smaller boutiques put down there.”

We need to regenerate the people of hull first to have pride in their city and surrounding area’s of their home’s again. Only takes a few people to start the domino effect and once the council see we want a better city for ourselves then maybe they would have more impulse to tidy other area’s to. A run down city is caused by people

Jobs & Education “Think it needs something to generate more jobs” “A better quality of life for the younger generation. There is nothing for the future generation here - it is pretty grim and to get a better chance of a job or education you have to move out of Hull”

Precedents “We should just have a look at Liverpool and what a fantastic job they have done of regenerating a very similar port to ours”

The online survey was posted on 20/02/2013, two weeks before the primary field study. The date chosen for the study was 06/03/2013. On the day, the cold and unstable rainy conditions made the outdoor research difficult as some people seemed to be judgemental, hurrying away incase the rain did pour. Although the low temperatures drove people inside, it became warmer during lunchtime and subsequently the primary public spaces gradually became occupied. In the absence of people in the Fruit Market and Humber Quays areas during most of the morning, (except for industrial workers) the research had to be continued further north of the city. With the status of these areas being exceptionally low and unsocial, their eventual demise have driven people away, creating a negative image in the process. If more people were present in these areas, they may have had an alternative view to public art and regeneration and so this opportunity was missed. Other outdoor responses given at the Queen Victoria Square and Hull History Centre were more successful. A key


learning point occurred due to the first instance where many passers-by refusing to participate blaming time and the process of personal data collection. At this moment, the questionnaire boards were being handed to participants and this gave them the impression that the process would result in major time loss. Afterwards, the process was reassessed and adapted into an interview method where people were simply being asked questions. This worked especially at the Hull College with students as this ensured that their responses were compliant with the project and did not include any offensive material. This resulted in the completion of around half of the overall questionnaire sheets, although it was found that those who had been handed the board to fill in had provided more detailed responses. Around 10 minutes was granted to these people to think over questions thoroughly before providing a more personal response. Though successful, these findings were not beyond comparison to the indoor responses. Around 70% of the total questionnaires were filled inside the shopping centres and civic buildings

where the boards were given to both locals and retailers. People were very friendly and even introduced themselves (some being art teachers!) whilst engaging in brief discussions as to the nature of the project and personal reflections on the public art status in Hull. This proved that not only were participants more willing to use the time to respond in a safe and comfortable environment, but that they gave a good impression of the people in Hull as part of their friendliness. Retailers displayed a high professional nature in answering questions and because they were not busy, the responses were given back on time. It shows they were more willing to treat the study with professionalism by providing fully detailed feedback.

and museums were refused by Arts Officers at the Hull City Council as the primary concerns were that the public art study correlated with any ongoing exhibitions or events taking place. Responses generated would have been essentially useful in the emerging draft urban art strategy as the fundamental market group could have easily included local artists or opinionated people who had a passion for art. Due to this, to a certain degree the study lacks validity of local data from the specialist field.

limitations with LinkedIn as though new discussions could be established within organisation groups and firms, people strictly have to join the group first before being allowed to do so.

No Hull based groups were established on the social networking site and eventually the only group was the Urban Design Network and out of a potential 21,000 members, only 10 people gave feedback to the post. Most people stated their lack of knowledge of Hullâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s public art status although their alternative suggestions of researching worldwide Some people expressed uncertainty public art programs were ideally helpful. over the questions, especially defining Nobody however, responded to filling and analysing public art. Despite everyone being fully briefed beforehand in the posted questionnaire on Survey in that all opinions would be appreciated Monkey. even if they did not take interest in There were no responses on Facebook public art, it seems some felt they had It was also recorded that those who despite the posts on numerous social to be knowledgeable about the subject. responded indoors found a sense of groups which were heavily occupied inspiration from within the buildings. The The questionnaire should have maybe shopping centres and history library are portrayed art with quotes or descriptions with members as a lack of interest was not only popular city landmarks, but also with the aid of some images of reputable shown to the subject matter nor did anyone co-operate with the survey. qualify as architectural sculptures in their public art as because of this procedure, People were more willing to respond to questions were often skipped. own right. the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Regenerationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; discussion from the group admin members for an intensive A major downfall with the study was the The online survey process was not debate but resisted to commenting on a lack of responses from art galleries or as successful as predicted due to the lack of marketing. For the research student project. museums. The permission required to conduct primary research in the galleries methodology, there were more


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.16.6 Response Analysis The findings show more young people were willing to participate in the study as a large majority of people recorded were young adults and teens. The teenagers represented were mainly students at the Hull College and all those who were approached showed no signs of refusing to co-operate. It could be said that these students understand the true value of primary research in the nature of study and education. Others wanted themselves to be heard and used the questionnaire as a means of voicing their opinions of how the city arts environment does not cater for the youth which is why some often result to vandalism. People in this age group were more critical of Hull’s chav culture and desperate for more youth facilities, complaining how the public spaces in Hull although were “good for chilling” were not actually appealing. Interestingly, the work of street artist Banksy was highly popular for future innovative designs in Hull, with suggestions of other contemporary works as opposed to the clusters of existing monuments. Others desired for more colourful art to brighten the city up. People in this age category were more


knowledgeable about contemporary public art but were also trying to complement the existing city themes. Students were particularly helpful, with a majority of them being aware of the educational benefits of primary research methods and engaging with them showed that public art has the potential to bridge the wide gap of Hull’s community especially by involving the youth.

battle its deteriorated image, there is still much negativity around as people still describe Hull as “hidden”, “odd” and “socially deprived” in regards to its social, economic and environmental status. Around 61% of the comments regarding the condition of public spaces were negative with most people complaining about litter, youth problems, lack of facilities and isolation. Others stated there should be more public spaces within the city centre and that there is By a fraction it was recorded that much more potential yet to be explored. throughout the study environments, This is evident as excluding Queens females were more responsive than Gardens, there is a lack of public males in participation with a ratio of 51% realm to the east and south of the city. to 49%. Their common labelling to bad Locals are still sceptical of the earlier public art were “ugly”, and “meaningless” regeneration proposals and complain whilst several noted that they would like how the city never made it as how the to see more gardens and floral designs. built environment professionals had Most understood that an arts strategy visualised. would benefit tourism by placing the Hull on the map in wide recognition and aid The next question in some instances economic regeneration. was not too successful. Though it is acceptable that art is opinionated, some The portrayals of Hull’s culture by locals participants left the question blank, was fascinating as some people had to expressing a lack of interest whilst think very hard how to label their own others even struggled to give public art a city. Overall 54% of people classified personal definition despite the city’s vast their city positive, 48% were negative collection of art interventions. Examples and 10% were mixed. This shows that of recollection included the museums, although the city has done well to existing heritage works and Banksy

with a high majority of people agreeing public art has a place in society. Where past public art initiatives have been successful, people often favour the experience as they truly understand the potential of the arts to engage and create vibrancy in the city centre, providing a means to create a distinctive images for locals to be proud of. Locals were unambiguous in ruling out how to define good and bad quality public art. Common responses for positive art included interventions that were meaningful in portraying the city, colourful, unique, robust and allowed for freedom of expression. Around 30% of responses highlighted vandalism as bad quality art, followed by dirty, cheap and characterless. Locals were concerned about new arts initiatives introduced to the city centre as quite often they are vandalised in a short space of time. This ongoing concern needs to be addressed in the scope of the arts strategy if public art is to be successful in the city centre context. Part of the issue includes the welfare of the youths in that there is a high lack of facilities to keep them occupied.


A majority of the locals asked were confident that an arts strategy could aid Hull’s regeneration. Most witnessed the economic benefits of the Larkin Toads, with the whole festival raising the profile of the city and bringing money back into the local economy. People agreed that this not only helped to erase the negative portrayal of Hull but also engaged locals with artists to create and represent a city with an emerging distinct culture. The culture of the city as witnessed with the earlier question is unstable as though overall it may be comforting for adults, it clearly lacks the facilities for the modern day youth. A minority of locals felt that regeneration needs to address existing problems such as crime, youth, road networks however it is feasible that public art can contribute to these issues too if done correctly.

awareness about Hull’s origins. The preferences were clearly distinguished as the younger generation opted for more contemporary works, ranging from light displays, graffiti centres, youth clubs and skate parks. They were fed up with witnessing repetitive art through monuments as they were not something they could easily relate to. Other interesting thoughts included art that could adapt to the setting, photography, paintings, artist design competitions and more artist engagement with communities.

Overall the experience has proven to be promising simply not just towards the context of public art but as a ways of communicating with a society who are divided between class and share individual experiences about a city which is eventually rising to the The most interesting response gathered challenge to meet their needs and those though was from the last question which of future generations. many people agreed the city’s maritime and founders needed to be reinforced The city’s overall image is a result of as a coherent theme running through failed regeneration attempts and a lack the city spaces. The people aged 36 of investment by developers and the years and onwards reflected upon local authorities. Residents have to suffer these as a tribute not only to education as these spaces form a daily part of and tourism, but to civic pride in raising their lives for work, study, recreation or

leisure purposes. It is clear however, that despite previous regeneration attempts, opportunities still exist to brand Hull as a city for the arts. The Fig 4.42 personal reflection lists the key benefits and weaknesses of the public art field study.

Based on a model by Kolb (1984) the experience is critically examined and shows that although most things went well and were carried out efficiently, there is still room for improvement providing a similar research experience takes place in the future.

Fig 4.24 Personal reflection of the field study

What went well • • • • • •

Successful engagement with a wide range of people from diverse social and educational backgrounds Educating people as to how the arts have a high potential to flourish in the city centre as a cultural icon Understood the needs of the youth who represent outcasts and forgotten members of the society Liaison with design professionals and artists to generate best practice principles and something unique for Hull Recognise the need for a critical design strategy to revive the deteriorating condition of the Hull’s urban setting Collating data into an understandable format of information, applicable to a wide range of research principles

What went badly • • • • •

Lack of commitment to secure permission to visit the art galleries and Museum Quarter Questionnaire layout was slightly poor not to fundamentally introduce the subject matter Poor response to online questionnaires All responses would have been received with extra voluntary help Lack of response from other social groups e.g. primary school children, adult social clubs

What to improve for future • • • • •

Seek permission from authorities to visit the gallery and museums, emphasising the educational nature of the study Devise an easier format of questions with the aid of images and descriptions Organise educational visits to engage with other members of the diverse community Market online questionnaire further on other social networking sites to raise awareness Organise a team of volunteers to span the length of the city posting questionnaires


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 4.17 Conclusions The aim of this chapter was to examine the spatial context of the Hull City Centre in relation to its current urban setting and to the main public art initiatives.

The community engagement process was an intellectual and enjoyable experience. It was interesting how locals were mixed in describing their own culture, with some interesting The evolution of the city’s urban growth suggestions. Public spaces were not has prospered from the developing praised due to their lack of facilities and trade industries which provided much of unclean environments although public the economic activity. From the gradual art was recognised clearly in proving age of decline the city suffered a poor beneficial to the urban environment. image portrayed by annual statistics and The study proved people were in favour a publication until councillors vowed to of a public arts strategy, in respect to kick-start regenerative development. exploiting the use of forgotten spaces and maximising community integration. The LDF submission incorporated the masterplan framework and city centre Ideas for future public art initiatives policies which were successful for the displayed a real sense of creativity in present time, highlighting a sensitive local residents, however some were yet strict approach to the city centre concerned with essential funding and design guidance. These policies future maintenance as finance and subsequently restricted the development vandalism were recognised issues in the of other ambitious projects in the city city centre. Design Council CABE (2008) until the economic recession period state “artistic placemaking contributes where they along with the masterplan to helping people unlock their were abolished. Future projects were creativity and express themselves.” The scrapped down to financial issues where youth are commonly misunderstood, in result the allocated areas put forward segregated from the society because for development remained derelict. they lack essential facilities to keep them Piecemeal buildings and a bridge have engaged. It was understandable how been constructed although on an urban they felt as during the site visit, it became scale, the areas suffer as a result of obvious that there was not much for their provision. being physically disowned.


The discussions with built environment professionals contributed to another successful part of the engagement, leading to invaluable knowledge and professional guidance on the city’s urban nature and future design aspirations. All responses received will be thoroughly employed throughout the urban design framework. The next section will generate the best practice design principles for the framework of the draft urban art strategy.






5.1 Introduction This section will review the primary and secondary research conducted from previous sections in order to establish a structure of clear principles to aid the design of the draft urban art strategy. Best practice principles from the urban regeneration case studies and public art strategy reviews will be examined with results from the public art field study and translated for the purpose of integrating urban design and public art as the primary components to the draft urban art strategy, which pays respect to community values. All the design principles from Section 2, 3 and 4 have be summarised on the next page.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Fig 5.1 Summary of design principles

5.2 Public art Throughout the previous sections, it has been recognised that a vast majority of the current public art works signify and pay tribute to the heritage of the city, with monuments relating to figures who were rulers, pilots, soldiers, musicians and an abolitionist. Despite the fact that these works have commemorated Hull’s past triumphs (which must be respected and appreciated) acting as an education tool in the process, it was witnessed during the public art survey that whilst some individuals opted for more heritage themed works, others agreed new types and forms of public art were needed in the modern day city context. Today, public art interventions are becoming increasingly ambitious than ever with a development in materials, styles and forms. The city’s existing public art collection is based on integrated, semi-integrated and discrete works with occasional ephemeral works from time to time. Recent ephemeral art works have been successful in sparking reaction and fun for a short period (Larkin Toads), but evidence suggests high numbers of people have voted for more permanent public art initiatives in the city (Burke and Charlton, 2011).

Similarly on the subject of diversity, apart from a small range of murals, sculptures and public buildings, there is an apparent lack of public art forms in the city centre as the main emphasis is on monuments and statues, respectively located within their own territories. The arts strategy must accommodate for the existing works, with the application of a new range of public art initiatives to the sensitive character areas within the city centre context. New typologies and forms must be explored as suggested in the public art survey paying particular attention to materials and styles, some of which represent the compelling character of the built environment.

Fig 5.3 Types of public art Type



Draws inspiration from the location


Shares certain inspiration from the location but not mutually exclusive to the area


No integration with the area

Community art

Focus on the community belief allowing freedom of expression

Ephemeral art

Temporary for occasion, transitory in nature


Key term

Design principles



Public art

Incorporate a selective range of historic and contemporary public art forms and types appropriate to the modern day city context



Integrate urban design and public art as the main drivers by using the best practice principles from the public art strategy and regeneration case studies



Use the five key public art strategy analysis initatives of STRUCTURE, CONTEXT, STRATEGY, ENGAGE and SUSTAIN to devise the framework of the Hull draft urban art strategy

3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13



Preserve and enhance historic features with sensitive development which together enrich the city’s heritage

2.8, 3.9, 3.10, 4.9, 4.16.3



Strengthen the city image and create local distinctiveness with uplifting mixed character areas

2.31, 2.33, 2.5, 2.6, 2.9, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.13, 4.4, 4.8, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13, 4.15.2, 4.16.3



Provide distinctive spaces for all members of the community, addressing the existing difficulties

2.32, 2.5, 2.7, 2.10, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.14, 4.15, 4.15.1, 4.16.3


Public realm

Enhance existing public spaces with the addition of further public space throughout the city



Design lively and mixed use spaces to boost economic income and attract tourism footfall

2.31, 2.32, 2.33, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 3.12, 3.13, 4.4, 4.6, 4.9, 4.15, 4.15.1, 4.15.2 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 3.7, 3.13, 4.11, 4.12, 4.15

2.31, 2.32, 2.7, 4.8, 4.14, 4.15.1, 2.6, 2.7, 2.9, 3.11, 3.12, 4.10, 4.12, 4.15, 4.15.2, 4.16.3

Fig 5.2 Public art forms









|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 5.3 Regeneration Urban design will contribute to the overall design of the draft urban art strategy whilst public art will be overseen as the primary initiative and regeneration tool. Its application will be towards an urban development framework which critically examines the current city centre site for public art initiatives, new built form and public realm. The focus of applying urban design principles throughout the draft urban art strategy is to revitalise and amalgamate the city centre in creating a unified and sustainable place for locals and tourists, repairing the unstable economy and image of Hull, promoting cultural diversity and developing newly enhanced public environments. By analysing the selected public art case studies in Section 3, an overview was provided of how strategic principles in contemporary art strategies are used in urban design. Although some were more successful than others, the underlying aim of the analytical process was to define which strategies stress the importance of using public art as a means of defining spatial character and providing communication for it’s people.


5.4 Framework The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (2000) recognised that urban renaissance is “the process of improving the quality of life in all our towns and cities and ensuring they are places that people choose to live, work and play.” The market town has much potential with its rich historic origins and trades however the current state of the city centre is seen in need of urgent repair as it is plagued with various social, economic and environmental complications. Reviewing the urban regeneration case studies supported by the arts councils revealed that urban design and public art developments have been successful in the past considering a variety of contexts. These projects have proved the real economic benefits of successful urban art interventions especially Cardiff Bay as they strive to create memorable and unique places within their cities. Hull too has the potential to maximise its efforts and regain its identity lost throughout time, becoming the a great place to be for residents and tourists. The large quantity of isolated spaces, most of which are located at the perimeter of the city centre boundary

Section 3 provided a brief insight and analysis of the selected public art case studies. The analytical process used was based on five key principles forming an overall assessment criteria and was based on a personal approach devised through a wide study of contemporary public art strategies.

Fig 5.4 Urban decay at The Fruit Market

and are a result of poor finance, possess high potential for regeneration capabilities, especially the Fruit Market and Humber Quays areas. Their location overlooking the waterfront is highly promising for creating quality development adjacent to the iconic rivers running through the city.

The draft urban art strategy will not challenge nor be as competent as the public art strategies assessed in the case study review as they were put together using local/regional planning policies with professional expertise from a large extent of consultants and other professionals. Hull’s existing public art strategy is very topical and widely manages to address planning policies, urban regeneration and the arts in a comprehensive guidance document. However the strategy is not only outdated as some of the principles are not applicable to the current economic or environmental climate, but it also fails to acknowledge the relation between public art and urban design especially to the (then current) city centre masterplan and LDF policies.

The second principle of context is equally as important as every initiative included in the draft urban art strategy should respect the city centre site and be a well thought out response to the best practice principles and analysis conducted in previous sections such


The structure of the draft urban art strategy must be apparent and coherent in that it narratively portrays the need for urban design and public art integration in the city. The urban analysis and design process must be self explanatory, with the notation system prompted from the results of the questionnaire study.

Policies/programs Feasibility Artist commissioning/management Benefits to place


The five key assessment criteria will be used for providing the framework for the draft urban art strategy.

Clarity/legibility Visual appeal Representative of subject matter

Response to place Portrayal of character Appropriate scope to area/district Response to local/regional needs

Community engagement Council consultation Artist involvement Opportunities for new audiences Accessibility of art


These policies not only have been abolished but again are deemed irrelevant in the modern day. Likewise stated earlier in Section 3, due to this flaw, the draft urban art strategy will become a catalyst in creating an urban design and public art framework for the city centre which will maximise the potential of the effects of social, environmental and economic sustainability.



Economic/social/environment Future action plan Urban/rural regeneration

Fig 5.5 Analysis principles

as the public art strategy and urban regeneration case studies. The historic growth and city centre context has previously been examined in relation to the recent LDF policies and masterplan framework in Section 3, which includes an extensive representation of the SDA character areas.

The draft urban art strategy will accommodate for the local needs of the city through the proposal development of built form, public art and public realm. As locals opted for better facilities and cleaner public realm, these suggestions and others will form the analysis to the strategy to which an adequate solution will be provided. As Hullâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing public art strategy includes an SPG note for public art which is currently active, the addition of further public art policy is not necessary with the draft urban art strategy.

For the urban design framework, a site appraisal will be undertaken to identify current key issues within the city centre and possibilities on how they can be overcome. Other appraisals will recognise potential opportunities for new buildings, spaces and public art initiatives to be designed where seen essential, taking into consideration land uses, architectural styles, public space design and street movement.

Engagement is highly crucial to providing the development that meets the needs of society and others. The field research was undertaken to engage with locals in selected social The draft urban art strategy must deem environments and review their personal practical if it is to be successful. The thoughts on the city with suggestions site context must be assessed with sensitive planning, with consideration to on possible improvements if given the chance to do so. The Hull City Council the conditions which are seen in need Arts Development Team along with of renewal and those which still prove particular built environment specialists, monumental to occupants of the city. Seen as the abolished planning policies artists and public art consultants were from the LDF are no longer in practice, it also approached in the process, all of must be evident that each SDA has been which provided exciting and varying responses. developed logically with full respect to the surrounding character of the city and The draft urban art strategy must gains the full potential of the space. analyse and foster the proposals locals would like to include, as the arts act as a voice for the community, representing



their culture and values. Harding (1997) argues “public art makes us refocus on why and for whom art is made and distributed in our world. It also asks of artists to consider directing their experiences away from autonomous reflection and make them function in a social context.” The consultation has already been carried out in Section 4. From the results of the study, it is clear that opportunities for new audiences include the modern day youth. The draft urban art strategy should aim to address their needs and consolidate them into a solution whilst integrating them with other members of the community. A small amount of further urban issues are a result of the youth and so if the draft urban art strategy is successful, it should counteract with the ongoing problems. A majority of locals agreed that if a forthcoming public art intervention was proposed, they would like it to be more accessible. From the countless monuments and statues spread throughout the city, it is no surprise that locals feel as if public art is not for the them but as a marker to the space. Public art should cater for the public, be easily reached and also understood.


Petherbridge (1987) states that best practice principles for public art include “the consultation process with the contextual siting of the piece.” Sustainability is a commodity and as the survey indicated 90% of the public art case studies stated how local authorities propose to implement efficient social, economic and environmental initiatives through their policies and guidance. The draft urban art strategy must propose an efficient yet feasible design framework which will sustain the city and compromise the needs for the present and future generations. The existing public art strategy for the city already encompasses an action plan for public arts initiatives however it is not set out as an urban study in which the ‘urban design’ element needs to be visible as one of the key stratagems. Playing a major role in sustainable development, the urban regeneration ethic needs to come across in the fundamental narrative of the arts strategy. This will be through proposing new and vigorous development schemes essentially renewing the city centre urban character.

5.5 Heritage

5.6 Character

The city centre encompasses many qualities of Hull’s trade and industrial heritage which comprise of street furniture, lighting, railings, bollards, paving etc. There are also many listed buildings contained in the Old Town Conservation Area which forms a boundary east of the city and includes the Humber Quays, Fruit Market and Heart of the City SDA’s.

Within each of the SDA’s, a certain urban quality is apparent which distinguishes them from each other. The Quay West (along with St Stephen’s) comprise the retail quarter, the East Bank, Fruit Market and Humber Quays serve as prime industrial and employment uses and the Heart of the City is the primary civic sector.

These surviving qualities add richness to the urban setting and through the arts strategy need to be preserved and enhanced to celebrate their representation of the city’s history. Together they characterise the city centre, adding local distinctiveness and have the potential to reignite a sense of civic pride.

Fig 5.6 Wilberforce Gardens

These character areas were reinforced by the local authority and built environment specialists with the gradual arrival of piecemeal developments, although now some in the cases of the the Fruit Market and Humber Quays, have been abandoned as a result. These two areas along with the East Bank site are in need of extensive development which revitalise the qualities of the space with character yet to be developed. Regardless of the education and crime statistics which resulted in the downfall of the city’s image around a decade ago, the contemporary branding of Hull needs to uprise and follow a more positive direction as there are many achievements and prospects which are to be celebrated. However, on the contrary there are also many negative aspects which surround the city which

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 5.7 Community The results of the study demonstrated how locals feel there is a shortage of mixed public facilities which leaves them with a fading confidence in their With the existing minor regeneration improvements in mind, the urban design own place. From ongoing planning proposals and long negotiations for potential needs to be fully exploited in land developments, locals have lost the draft urban art strategy with a focus confidence from local politicians to revive the lost character and culture to specify and deliver sustainable which is evident to some people and a development due to a lack in funding myth to others. Throughout the whole field study, a majority of people struggled and agreement. The city centre is a to interpret the cultural image of Hull up result of failed planning attempts with a to a point where examples were needed. high spatial area of derelict and underThis indicates an opportunity for the arts utilised space. strategy to brand Hull a thriving city of the arts with a unique, diverse and proud With the success of previous modern art interventions such as the Larkin 25 character which accommodates for all. festival, locals have witnessed the core benefits of introducing arts initiatives to Hull which facilitate for all community members and create a distinctive setting within the city, leaving them with memorable experiences.

5.8 Public realm

not only directly affect its image to locals but also to visitors.

Fig 5.7 Market Place

Many community members are willing to commit to a city for the arts and possess hidden potential waiting to be unlocked such as the youth, who aspire for freedom of expression in spaces to create street art. A few female participants wished for public gardens and floral art, which could be an

Public spaces are predominant locations for the arts. They captivate people from city life to absorb a whole different environmental setting altogether.

Fig 5.8 Humber Quays

initiative developed further if community members volunteered to maintain or take care of them. The draft urban art strategy must recreate and enhance the successful experiences from past public art initiatives by representing the values and needs of the diverse community. Arts should engage wherever possible as Charity (2005) describes public art as â&#x20AC;&#x153;a marker to bring people together; to make people proud.â&#x20AC;?

Disregarding Queens Gardens, Kingston Square and Queen Victoria Square, the main issue recorded by the field study, is that most of the remaining public realm within the city centre remain discrete and hidden. This includes Trinity Square, Nelson Mandela Gardens, Hull Marina and others. They stay transient, exclusive to their site locations as they facilitate for local needs and are not as well marketed as the city-wide spaces. Locals stated they would use the prime public spaces more often if litter was reduced and spaces were maintained regularly. It was also recorded that those who condemned these spaces were critical of their environmental conditions. There needs to be more awareness created in draft urban art strategy that these isolated public spaces exist. A lack of movement infrastructure which co-ordinates the spaces in a walking pattern causes disconnections and whilst they remain unoccupied, their full potential is not achieved.


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 5.9 Tourism The city needs adequate public spaces with up to date facilities to fulfil the active and passive recreation needs of end users. The core public spaces together create a northern focal point and this is unsustainable for the Fruit Market, Humber Quays and East Bank SDA’s which are not in close proximity. The draft urban art strategy needs to pinpoint ideal settings for more public spaces within each of the SDA’s and develop an infrastructure of attractive and walkable routes which connect them. This will actively promote a compact city centre with lively, safe and linked public spaces. Not only can public art initiatives be successful in social and environmental aspects but as witnessed with the Larkin Toads project, they can also provide a great impact to the city’s economy.

The Larkin 25 festival is a precedent example of a large scale public art project in the UK which has generated a high tourist footfall in a rapid period of time. As well as educating people about the life of a much loved poet, the festival represented and raised cultural awareness for a city which was deemed “rubbish” years ago. A high level of creativity and mixed uses must be included in the draft urban art strategy to distinguish why the city represents a place for people of all backgrounds and promotes its difference from other cities as a cultural icon. Effectively, it is the branding of Hull with labels of culture, arts, history, waterfronts, marina, and others which act as marketing tools to promote tourism and attract economic growth. Retailers will also benefit from the increased activity of visitors along with higher turnover incomes. Hull has a strong cultural representation through the numerous galleries and museums however although they are free admission, they are not promoted thoroughly and lack support to attract


more people from outside the city. The draft urban art strategy will act as an economic catalyst in regenerating the present cultural icons with the addition of further economic development to publicise Hull as a city attraction.

Fig 5.9 Draft urban art strategy structure








|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 5.10 Conclusion This section reviewed all the collated information from the research methodology for the composition of the draft urban art strategy. For the purpose of urban renewal, it is clear that the urban design framework must integrate public art as the primary tool for the success of the art strategy through proposed built form, public space and modern art interventions. The framework must represent the values of public art and the community as demonstrated in previous sections and promote Hull as a thriving arts city. Design Council CABE (2008) argue the repetition of today’s urban design frameworks which have no relevance to artistic nature and stated “how often do we see strategic plans that include words like ‘happiness’, ‘excitement’ and ‘love’ as distinct from ‘bypass’, ‘public realm’, ‘spatial outcome’ or ‘planning framework’?”. This needs to be evident throughout the draft urban art strategy as Hull has artistic qualities which are special and need to be celebrated.

Strategic design principles such as ‘creativity’, ‘engage’, ‘sustainability’, ‘transform’, ‘logic’, ‘heritage’, ‘community’, ‘character’ all need to be reflected in the draft urban arts strategy as the key drivers for design. The SDA’s along with other key spaces need to be fully explored to gain the maximum potential of the space. Deteriorated buildings and land will be assessed if they are to be retained or potentially developed whilst opportunities will be explored to connect the city centre as a unified place. The design principles will co-ordinate the development proposals by acting in conjunction with a renewed masterplan approach and with public art as the primary focus, the city could be rebranded in the process with a fresh image which is supported by civic pride and local distinctiveness. The next section is the draft urban art strategy.



Hull Draft Urban Art Strategy

6.1 Introduction This section details the draft urban art framework for the Hull city context, based on the research conducted in previous sections. Existing public art and opportunities are illustrated and appraised before the draft urban art development framework is discussed in relation to each of the design principles in Section 5 with regeneration proposals and new character areas. The public art principles and sustainability strategy are also detailed. The draft urban art strategy is concluded through an assessment of the research questions in Section 1 and a public art assessment criteria as detailed in Section 3.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Fig 6.1 Sensory analysis

6.2 Sensory analysis SDA/ Sense Humber Quays

Fruit Market

East Bank & Blaydes Dock Albion Square & the Heart of the City Quay West & St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s





Hull Marina/Rivers Smoke Gravel

Colourless paving Brick buildings Industry River Humber/Hull Lack of activity City centre skyline Brownfield land

Street furniture Railings Sculptures Fish Trail sculptures

Industrial machinery Vehicles

Old brick Sand/grit Vehicle exhaust smoke Rivers Mud

Pitched rooves Deteriorating buildings Open land Tidal Barrier Parked cars Holy Trinity Church

Street furniture Brick walls Barbed wire Fences

Speed boats (River Humber) A63 dual carriageway

Vehicles Rivers Industrial waste Grass Litter New tyres

Garages Industry Customers Georgian buildings Students Unused land Vandalism The Deep

Boards Gates/fences Brick walls Industry containers Bollards Signage

Traffic Industry Car repairs

Water Vehicle exhaust smoke Fast food Flowers Dogs

Buses Street lighting Landscaping Police vehicles Wilberforce Monument Students Classic architecture

Flowers Ducks Concrete Brick buildings Anchor sculptures Signage

Cycling Dogs Pigeons Fountain People/children Traffic

Brownfield land Fast food Docks Fruit Weeds

Vans Bollards Diverse architectural styles Children Deteriorated buildings Shopping centres War memorial

Telephone kiosks Railings Signage Outdoor cafe furniture Fish Trail sculptures

Shoppers Ice cream van Buses Trains


Old Town Conservation Area New Town Conservation Area Waterfront & Business Quarter Business Quarter Education Quarter Museum Quarter Whitefriargate

Industry Housing Retail Civic Public art Seven Seas Fish Trail




Fig 6.2 Existing quarters and boundaries


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.3 Quarters and Boundaries As witnessed in Section 4, it is clear that the urban nature of the Hull city centre is built upon a vast wealth of distinctive qualities, all which determine the established mixed character areas.

exists and this devalues civic pride. Each segment of the city centre has equal significance in its own right whether it is a primary retail or industrial quarter.

With most of the Hull city centre within From the city’s growth from a walled a designated conservation area, public town, the richness of the urban character art developments must protect and has been visually represented through enhance the city’s protected heritage. the selection of construction materials There of Dutch, Edwardian, Georgian used in built form, streets and public art and Victorian design influences which as seen in Fig 6.3. Proposed public art potentially could be furthered through interventions in the design framework public art interventions. should adjust to the city’s context and respect their environment through the Through previous site visits, the use of contemporary materials, styles experience of Hull is both challenging and themes. They should also contribute and fascinating as its story can be told to their environmental setting and unify through an exploration of the urban the space as a whole. environment. The city is an “unfinished canvas”, while some parts bloom with The emerging quarters within the SDA’s green spaces, attractive buildings and lack legibility and are hidden away communities, others are left secluded, from pedestrian navigation. Unless waiting to deteriorate. pedestrians are fully aware of their urban surrounding, there is no indication the New connections need to be established boundaries of these quarters exist. Not to link the character areas along with many people recognise Whitefriargate the quarters. The potential lies to extend as the oldest street in the city or that the boundaries of the quarters through the Waterfront and Business Quarter public art, and apply public art works as landmarks to direct pedestrian flow and promote the diversity of Hull as a city for Fig 6.3 Common material palettes everyone. Type

Building Street Public Art

Waterfront and Business Quarter

Museum Quarter

Education Quarter

Business Quarter

Common materials

Portland Stone, Red Brick, Concrete, Steel, Aluminium Concrete, Timber Decking, Ibstock Brick, Stone Bronze, Marble, Portland Stone, Granite, Fiberglass, Paint


Fig 6.3a Existing quarters and boundaries








City centre boundary


Humber Quays LT



Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock


Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Potential public space Positive public space Negative public space


Positive public art Negative public art



Past Larkin Toad location Seven Seas Fish art


Seven Seas Fish Trail LT

City-wide landmark


Local landmark Cultural landmark


Listed Mixed uses LT


Residential Employment


Education Civic/public use Car park Pedestrianised area Potential development Landscaping Public space Dry dock Watercourse Urban grain Railway




Fig 6.4 Existing public art, space and culture

Road network

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.4 Public art, space and culture Located through the northern and southern quarters of the city centre, Hull possesses a wide range of public art interventions which are genuine, characteristic and are of good quality. Some are more interpretive and successful than others and although they are generally appealing, the study in Section 4 demonstrated that the potential of public art works can have a further fundamental role in creating a sustainable city through wider community integration, environmental consideration and an approach to increased tourism. These initiatives include the Larkin Toads, Seven Seas Fish Trail and monuments. The less successful art works include the sculptures located adjacent to the A165 Freetown Way and several at the node of A165 Freetown Way/ A1079 Ferensway. Not only are these disassociated from the city centre due to their location, but they were often represented negatively by citizens (Section 4 study). These examples are a key lesson to be learnt for the public art framework that consultation in public art commissioning is a vital part of the design process.

The city centre lacks the provision of accessible and facilitative public and green space. Public art and accessibility was a key issued raised in the Section 4 study and similarly with public space (with the exception of Queens Gardens), all the existing public spaces are passive and lack appeal to the youth and others who require space for recreational uses. More facilities should be encouraged in these spaces if they are to work for the community members.

The city’s culture is slowly beginning to overtake the negativity surrounding Hull’s social image. However it is no surprise with derelict sites and failed planning attempts have people began to doubt the conditions within the city will improve. Certain cultural themes within Hull await to be utilized further such as those in Fig 6.4b. Fig 6.4a Positive and negative examples

The Fig 6.4a diagram shows positive and negative examples of public art, sapce and culture within the city’s urban environment. There is high potential to further these qualities to characterise Hull through the development of the SDA’s.

Fig 6.4b Public response to Hull’s existing culture


City centre boundry Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock





Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

m 40 0

m (5



Primary gateway Secondary gateway River gateway Active frontages Inactive frontages Movement barrier Strengthen connection

80 0m

k 1.2




m in

Housing connection (1 0

Employment connection mi

nut es

wa l

Retail connection k)

Green space connection Waterfront connection

ut es

Potential development

wa lk)

Landscaping Pedestrian access Walking distances Cycle route Dry dock Watercourse Local views Strategic views Panoramic views Urban grain Railway




Fig 6.5 Existing opportunities and constraints

Road network

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.5 Opportunities and constraints Fig 6.5a SWOT analysis SDA




Threats (Challenges)

Humber Quays

Major waterfront gateway and location Situated adjacent to homes and apartments Contrasting art works Humber Dock and Hull Marina cultural icons Contemporary mixed use developments Attractive walking route along Hull Marina Spectacular views of Humber Estuary

Disconnected by A63 strategic highway link No access permitted to St Andrew’s Dock Large quantity of unused and brownfield land Hideous views of St Andrew’s and warehouses SDA remains secluded due to lack of public uses Car park is a result of failed regenerative output Lacking adequate green space

Emerging business quarter Convenience of walking routes and distances Maximise promenade and walkway potential Expansion of city art work collection Use of landmarks to diversify character Contemplate area with new infill developments Potential industrial art themes

Complete isolation of the northern space and riverside quay from the city centre Further temporary uses will undermine regenerative buildings and existing character Unsafe environment for nearby residents Minimal opportunities for active recreation

Fruit Market

Seven Seas Fish Trail Nelson Street attractive waterfront space Promising panoramic views Several walkable pedestrian routes Benefits from cycle routes Secondary access from southern water gateway SDA well known regionally Active frontages along Humber Dock St Southern area of Old Town conservation area

Primarily commercial uses In major decline, lacks culture and public space Disconnected by A63 strategic highway link Deteriorating buildings, lacks legibility Large quantities of brownfield land Buildings confined, do not relate to street Lack of surveillance Regeneration attempts failed due to finance

Reclamation of lost heritage and image Links provided around the Fish Trail Viewpoints to East Bank and Humber Quays Maximise connectivity and walkway potential Complete redevelopment of spatial character Potential spaces for performance arts and artist studio facilities

Continual long term neglect Further temporary uses damage the city image Complete isolation from the city centre Risk of urban decay Low footfall and pedestrian activity Poor infrastructure of spaces

East Bank and Blaydes Dock

Major waterfront gateway and location Situated adjacent to residential area Area fronts the Old Town conservation area Close proximity to the The Deep Classic Georgian buildings at Blaydes Dock Premier Inn tower add definition to skyline North of established Museum Quarter

No public art interventions or public realm Completely disconnected from the city centre Deteriorated buildings and brownfield land Primarily industrial uses Large quantities of brownfield land Lack of surveillance

Potential leisure quarter Improved connectivity through new footbridges Attractive waterfront spaces Potential new public art foot trail Additional new museums or galleries Strong eastern edge to city centre boundary New large scale public plaza

Unsafe environment for visitors Disassociation from city centre Continual long term neglect Low footfall and pedestrian activity Poor infrastructure of spaces No appreciation for hidden architectural richness

Albion Square and the Heart of the City

Enclosed by New and Old Town buildings Queens Gardens, largest park in city centre Centralised location Iconic elevations of Wilberforce Health Centre Direct access to Hull School of Art and Design Strong connectivity and pedestrianised routes Georgian terraces opposite Albion Square

Queens Gardens is often unclean Albion Square car park undermines character Clusters of derelict buildings create eyesores Not many public art works College buildings disregard Wilberforce statue Concrete multi-storey car park hinders views

Potential connection link between SDA’s Community art spaces and interventions Public space and walking route at Albion Square Increased biodiversity at Queens Gardens Integrated contemporary and historic character Expansion of education quarter Enhanced cultural and socialisation spaces

Polluted environments Increased automobile activity Low footfall and pedestrian activity Further temporary uses will undermine regenerative buildings and existing character

Primary retail area St Stephen’s and Princes Quay iconic landmarks Paragon Interchange successful Areas linked by A1079 Ferensway highway Remarkable pedestrianised spaces Hull Truck Theatre architectural sculpture Regenerative development are tourism magnets

‘Warehouse sheds’ undermine Princes Quay Low footfall at Quay West due to decline Large quantities of brownfield land Many building frontages are inactive Areas lack functional green space Dysfunctional sculptures at Ferensway node Several surface car parks at St Stephen’s Secondary entrance to Princes Quay uninviting

High quality tourist district Series of convenient pocket parks Interactive public art displays Potential clusters of architectural sculptures Street performances to contemplate cultures Expansive walking network Enhanced cultural and socialisation spaces

Tourists favouring neighbour cities e.g. York Areas suffer decline Negative perceptions of public art Further temporary uses will undermine regenerative buildings and existing character Unsafe environment for visitors

Quay West and St Stephen’s


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.6 Existing street sections Attractive landscaping and pedestrian movement along Wellington St W Housing community

Restricted pedestrian access

Isolated brownfied land holds many opportunities Potential linear connection back to Waterfront and Business District

Cluster of warehouse eyesores

Promising riverside views back into the city

Threshold needs welcoming art installation


5m 10m



Potential community water feature

Potential movement linkages along Silvester Street






Further landscaping in the Potential heritage form of floral art displays based art works

Attractions needed to create appreciation for rich waterfront

Possible riverside office/leisure location

Concrete tower block Kingston House creates a focal point to the space

More civic pride needed!


Albert Dock

Fig 6.6a Existing section A-A Humber Quays

Inactive frontages along Waltham Street

Potential continuation of building line

Existing landscaping threshold to Albion Square

River Humber

Potential sculptural skyline

Public movement along Albion Street

Attractive Georgian terraced block

Under-utilised promenade

Derelict red brick building undermines space

Potential panoramic view

High pedestrian flow at node

Fig 6.6b Existing section B-B Albion Square


Pease Court Attractive public movement along housing Albion Street to Museum Quarter

High rise employment buildings

River Hull and boat turning bay

Dynamic space predominantly for those working in the area St Peterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s St

Abandoned brownfield land







Prominent western views to the Old Town and Museum Quarter

Potential Opportunity establishment for developing of eastern green ecosystems and infrastructure route biodiversity


Potential integrated public art sculptures


Fig 6.6c Existing section C-C East Bank


Fig 6.6g SDA sections

Fig 6.6d Albion Square

Fig 6.6e Wellington Street West


Fig 6.6f St Peterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Street land


City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Development blocks Proposed public art Proposed public space City Trail Retail Trail Hull Art Parade route Large tree Small tree The predominant public art regenerative outcome is a developed infrastructure of new contemporary and classic public art installations with rich, qualititative public spaces juxtaposed within a structural framework of proposed urban blocks. The SDA’s are strategically linked with the addition of several walking trails which lead visitors around the city centre whilst the existing qualities have been capitalised upon, such as the waterfront, culture and retail experiences with new shopping outlets, leisure and entertainment uses and community facilities. The developments in conjunction celebrate Hull’s sense of place and define it as a unique place.




Fig 6.7 Proposed urban art framework

Existing landscaping Existing public space Dry dock Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse Urban grain Railway Road network

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7 Urban art framework The public art framework will be examined in relation to the design principles in Section 5. The design principles were: 1. Public art - Incorporate a selective range of historic and contemporary public art forms, types and styles appropriate to the modern day city context 2. Regeneration - Integrate urban design and public art as the main drivers by using the best practice principles from the public art strategy and regeneration case studies 3. Framework - Use the five key public art strategy initiatives of STRUCTURE, CONTEXT, STRATEGY, ENGAGE and SUSTAIN to devise the framework of the Hull draft urban art strategy 4. Heritage - Preserve and enhance maritime features, with sensitive development promoting the city heritage 5. Character - Strengthen the city image and create local distinctiveness with uplifting mixed character areas 6. Community - Provide distinctive spaces for all members of the community, addressing the existing difficulties

6.7.1 Public art • Public art - Incorporate a selective range of historic and contemporary public art forms and types appropriate to the modern day city context From the responses of the public art study in Section 4, the capacity of the city’s existing public art collection has increased predominantly to accommodate a selection of new arts initiatives. The proposal for the urban art framework is a total of 75 public art interventions. A range of new art galleries, museums and community arts buildings with themes such as WWII and underwater sculptures along with land sculptures contribute to a substantial part of the proposed art interventions. The city’s landmark art gallery is located adjacent to Queens Gardens and will attract many citizens due to its location and ongoing exhibitions and performances.

Community based art works follow with art parades, performances and 7. Public realm - Enhance existing public interactive art works too which take spaces with the addition of further public place around the city. These will not space throughout the city only create a sense of identity for Hull’s 8. Tourism - Design lively and mixed use spaces community, but will also highly increase to boost economic income and attract tourism pedestrian flow and tourism. footfall

Ephemeral Furniture

Architecture 16%





15% 16% 10%








16% 22%

Discrete Visual


Digital Fig 6.7a Proposed public art forms The new monuments will strengthen Hull’s civic pride by raising further awareness of significant contributors who were born in the city, which now include artists, architects, entertainers and philosophers. Furniture art will be more contemporary and primarily includes 2 new footbridges at East Bank, promenade lighting and sculptural seating. Within the proposed urban design framework, a large majority of the proposed art works share relationships with their settings either through materials, colours or themes. Due to the diversity of the city’s landscapes, most

Fig 6.7b Proposed public art typologies

Humber Quays


Fruit Market

Quay West 17%



5% 9%


East Bank


St Stephen’s Albion Square

Queens Gardens

Blaydes Dock

Fig 6.7c Proposed public art locations


City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Architecture Visual Detail Digital Street Sculpture Furniture Integrated Semi-integrated Discrete Community Ephemeral City Trail Retail Trail Hull Art Parade route City-wide art landmark Local art landmark City-wide cultural landmark Local cultural landmark Mixed uses Residential Employment Education Civic/public use Car park Proposed public space Existing landscaping Existing public space Dry dock Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse




Fig 6.8 Proposed public art forms, types and uses

Urban grain Railway

Fig 6.9 Examples of proposed public art installations

Rhythm Park Guitar

Norman Collier Monument

Knowledge of Space

Where is the love?

Industrial Gardens

Rhythm Park Piano

Rhythm Park Trumpet

Retail Trail - Hand My Bag

Retail Trail - Friends of currency

Wall of Citizens

Urban Canvas

Ted Lewis Monument

Retail Trail - Credit Installment

Retail Trail - Heads Up!

Retail Trail - Bench Wallet

Something fishy

Give us a hug!

Hull Art Parade

Sail of Hull

Woodland birds

Shark Park Great White

Shark Park Grey Reef

Pride of Citizens

Image of Citizens

Hameshah Noor (Forever Light)

What the Fish?!

City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Development blocks Large sculptural lighting Small sculptural lighting Public art work lighting Projections Proposed public space Existing landscaping Existing public space Dry dock Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse




Fig 6.10 Proposed lighting strategy

Urban grain Railway


public art works draw inspiration from their site nature, and in the process ignite human perception. Examples include The Fish Market at the Fruit Market, Sail of Hull at Humber Quays and the Industrial Gardens at East Bank. The discrete works stand in their own right to entice a contrasting characteristic to the site. The location of new public art interventions is conditional to the area size of the SDA as well as the potential relationship to current public art initiatives in that particular space. Although the Fruit Market is a prime community arts base and the Humber Quays has many architecture related works, there is a generally positive mix of public arm forms and typology around the city to encourage people to learn more about how public art can enhance their city and benefit them. The Retail Trail and City Trail are walking trails which will provide improved connectivity through the city. A series of mixed typology retail themed art works such as a handbag, credit cards, banknote etc act as landmarks in the Retail Trail. The City Trail is a similar sequence which links a majority of the proposed art works with existing ones.

Fig 6.10b The Deep at night (existing) The elevations of waterfront buildings such as The Deep come to life during the community art exhibitions, which reminisce past events and community work

Fig 6.10a Proposed community arts projection

Hull’s existing public art collection has been diversified with several new art forms as shown in Fig 6.10e The scope of these works will reach out to Hull’s diverse community and attempt to create a more personal collection for them. A lighting strategy has also been established, which examines the role of the city’s proposed public art works at night. The lighting techniques will enhance the distinctive character areas and help to inhibit vandalism and range from street, integrated (such as floor lighting), projections and LED light installations.

Examples of these include ‘What the Fish?!’, an LED installment of multiple fish species located underneath the A63 Myton Bridge Flyover at East Bank and ‘Light up Hull’, an image projection on buildings such as The Deep and Princes Quay Shopping Centre with themes of local distinctiveness and community art.

Fig 6.10c Lighting at Wilberforce Gallery

Fig 6.10e New public art forms to city collection Form

Category Location



Heart of the City



East Bank, Humber Quays, Quay West



Fruit Market, Humber Quays



Fruit Market, Quay West



Heart of the City, Fruit Market, St Stephen’s



Fruit Market, East Bank



East Bank

Fig 6.10d Integrated lighting, East Bank


City centre boundry Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Development blocks







East Bank/Blaydes Dock

0m 40


Primary gateway Secondary gateway River gateway Proposed active frontages Existing active frontages Improved connections

80 0m

k 1.2




m in

ut es

Large tree (1 0


nu tes

Small tree wa

Existing landscaping

l k)

Existing public space Proposed pedestrian area


Existing pedestrian area

al k)

Existing pedestrian access Walking distances Cycle route Dry dock Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse Local views Strategic views Panoramic views Urban grain Railway




Fig 6.11 Proposed urban framework connections

Road network

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.2 Regeneration • Regeneration - Integrate urban design and public art as the main drivers using best practice principles from the public art strategy and regeneration case studies The urban art framework consists of substantial mixed developments within each SDA to accommodate for the city’s present and future needs. The urban design framework represents an indicative yet practical solution to the multiple isolated sites around the city centre and is robust, in that land uses can easily be adapted without compromising the needs of communities. It has been devised to represent the vision of how public art renaissance can transform the city of Hull in the modern day context and the feasibility of the proposed public art interventions in the city context. The architecture typology will reflect upon common building styles and construction materials used in the SDA. Most building forms represent geometrical forms and taller buildings will add sculptural interest to the Hull skyline, especially towards the south of the city. Elements of Georgian architecture are used at Blaydes Dock to

represent the existing Georgian terraced blocks. However further south of East Bank, steel and aluminium have been used in a more contemporary fashion to compliment The Deep. At the Fruit Market, a mixture of pitched and flat roof’s have been applied to terraced blocks to display a new and old age. The variety in architecture along with the proposed public art interventions create landmarks and will aid legibility during pedestrian navigation. Additional housing has been proposed for the urban design framework and will encourage more communities to live in various areas with access to education, work and leisure facilities within a 1520 minute walk. This will reinforce social and environmental sustainability with less car journeys and increased street liveliness. New community facilities include shopping arcades, sports centres and gyms, a cinema, restaurants, a health centre, cafes, art centres, galleries and museums. An increase in small local shops at Quay West and the Fruit Market will feed money back into the Hull economy and sustain economic growth.

The improved street network promotes The proposed public art interventions pedestrianism and fosters better are illustrated in context on the next connectivity through new alleys and pages. streets. These provide quicker access between SDA’s and can be integrated into the existing national cycle network. Creating various street types in the urban design framework essentially define character and are multifunctional during community arts initiatives such as parades and festivals. The promenades will become occupied again, as the attractive routes will allow people to experience public art interventions located within the new waterfront developments and public spaces. Both the existing and proposed public spaces promote diversity and new facilities and will attract communities from within and outside the city centre, resulting in social integration. Existing public spaces will be maintained regularly to ensure hygiene and safety for people and biodiversity. Proposed community facilities within public spaces include allotments, improved landscaping, play equipment, skate parks and urban graffiti canvases. An increase in green spaces around the city will provide further habitation for biodiversity especially at the East Bank Woodland.


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| humber quays Proposed built form/uses With the demolition of the warehouses at St Andrew’s Quay, the space has been capitalised for several office, leisure and housing buildings. At the Humber Quays North, the proposed architecture mimics the grid edges of the existing office buildings and to the south, there are reference to the River Humber waterfront with more free flowing forms. The predominant building materials include yellow brick, steel, timber and render.

Proposed streets/spaces The route along Wellington St West from the Fruit Market through to the art centre and south west boundary of the city centre is an attractive 15 minute walk through the proposed promenade developments. New landscaping defines the space in which the buildings positively front onto. The large scale public space at the Riverside Quay includes multiple public art works and will entice a sense of ownership from the communities who work and live at the waterfront. Extensive walking routes provide linkages to the city and the tree planting to the west encloses and integrates the development.

Proposed colour palette


Proposed public art The proposed public art provides a new identity for the Humber Quays with the commissioning of grand sculptures and buildings. The ‘Hull Pool’ is a robust public space situated between the office and apartment, and compromises of seasonal fountains. A common Yorkshire styled lighthouse allows visitors to capture magnificent vistas to the north of the city across the Holy Trinity Church and whilst being located adjacent to the art centre and fountains, creates a major focal point for tourists. The community art centre host workshops, exhibitions and other hands on educational experiences with art initiatives, fostering the involvement of the wider community members from children to the elderly. Several art facilities for the youth allow St Andrew’s Quay to become a more static space for art interaction. The ‘Sail of Hull’, a pirate ship adds diversity to the southern skyline amongst the cluster of tall buildings. Other playground activities include land art installations and raised lawns with are integrated in the rich wave-like landscape scheme. As part of a trio of art interventions which highlight local distinctiveness, the ‘Image of Citizens’ sculpture reflects the pride of community integration at the north east promenade. It is cast in weathering steel to compliment the industrial setting and works in conjunction with the large scale promenade lighting to create a distinctive environment.

Waterfront regeneration at the Humber Quays will see increased housing occupancy with new jobs and with community focussed art initiatives, people will

Fig 6.12a St Andrew’s Quay Proposals

recount individual experiences with public art

Smaller installations include lighting and public seating along the Riverside Quay to add variety in the landscape. The public art facilities are utilised by communities members of the adjacent housing uses as they are local and also attract many others from various parts of the city to appreciate their renewed waterfront setting. Fig 6.12b Riverside Quay Proposals


Promenade lighting

Image of Citizens


Distinctive rooftop

Office building (projection)

Sail of Hull

A Fig 6.12c Humber Quay Proposals The view of St Andrewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Quay from the Humber Quays North is breathtaking, as the Sail of Hull, Image of Citizens along with offices and apartments create a complexion of built sculptural forms

Fig 6.12d St Andrewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Quay Visual Sculptural promenade railings

Hameshah Noor (Forever Light) sculpture

Public seating as rocks

Contemporary form and materials

New pedestrian threshold Albert Dock

River Humber

Hull Pool

By providing an anchor to the space, the proposed developments lure people to the waterfront to examine the profound skyline, one which is distinguished by a combination of unique rooftops and sculptural forms

Land art installations

Fig 6.12e Proposed section A-A


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| fruit market Proposed built form/uses The renaissance of the Fruit Market is through the influences of classic Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian architecture. Elements from the 3 periods have been combined along with contemporary fashions to create a unique framework for the Fruit Market. New terraced blocks praise the existing character of the area and some existing buildings have been retained and restored for mixed uses. The Fruit Market has been reinvigorated as the core of community arts, in which the central linear park space is named ‘The Hub’. Many arts initiatives are established along with leisure, housing and employment uses.

Proposed streets/spaces The heart of the Fruit Market serves as a pedestrian friendly environment, with extensive landscaping, food production facilities, new market places and is an evident reflection of Hull’s community artistic talents. The linear park connects east and west walking routes to the promenades whilst Humber St has been pedestrianised for regular use as a local market. A combination of public and private spaces allows practicality for consumers and traders.

Proposed colour palette

Proposed public art The public art themes at the Fruit Market dwell on freedom of will and integrated community creativity. The Hub will appeal to artists with extensive facilities including long and short stay accommodation, workspaces, galleries, storage space, event space (for consultation) and arts stores. Several charitable art organisations will also be established to maintain the future planning of community public art interventions. Small art centres will be initiated to nurture local talent and encourage young artists the opportunity to unlock themselves. Digital images of all community work completed at The Hub will be saved and projected onto the facades of The Deep and Princes Quay Shopping Centre buildings as a recognition of civic pride. Annual ephemeral art will include workspaces on gable ends, building frontages, rooftops and street paving. This will appeal to all community members to express themselves using space, media and methodology. In reference to the Hull City football club, a large inflatable tiger mascot installation will be located in various spaces around the city in order to record encounters with the public and to examine the effects of public art interaction. The large scale public art intervention in the Fruit Market is a performing arts event named the ‘Hull Art Parade’. The annual procession is a celebration of collective community and cultural arts leading from the Heart of the City to the Fruit Market. Various worldwide cultures




Art displays at The Hub will reflect upon the values of Hull’s society, especially the work of the youth, and

Fig 6.13a Fruit Market Proposals - The Hub

this alone will strengthen civic pride

will attend, showcasing their artistic talents by performing at the event. It lasts for two days and follows up with numerous community workshop and educational activities which will take place at the community arts hub. Regular in-house consultation regarding all public and community art matters will take place at The Hub. This will allow the community to be aware of public art related issues taking place in the city and feel a sense of pride and ownership to take control themselves. Fig 6.13b Art Parade route


Local fabrics and material

Community members

Living above Coloured render, Unique contemporary Retained shops new & old character seating strategic view

Local mixed used shops and art facilities

will consult with built environment professionals and artists from an early stage to identify key sites for new public art installations

Fig 6.13d Community art at Blanket Row Carvings

Fig 6.13c Fruit Market proposals Blackboard Contemporary landmarks distinctive facades and rooftops community messages

Rooftop art

Outdoor market

Intensive green roof

Fig 6.13e â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Unlock yourselfâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; community art

Major art gallery with community mural

Give us a hug! inflatable mascot

Community floor paintings

Shrubs Recycled street light sculpture

The Hub is the community focal point of public

Glazed roof on accommodation building

art in Hull and by subjecting community arts initiatives to freely take over the urban environment,

Retained buildings

community members feel they have a certain degree of control regarding future public art

Fig 6.13f Existing Queen Street Youth crafted balloons

Decoration of buildings

Cultural entertainment

Themes coherent with existing characters

Local art gallery Local arts & craft shops Artist accommodation and workspaces

Linear park Allotments Ephemeral community drawings

Dutch influences, local art shops Community centre with extensive green roof

Classic Georgian style, Hull Fish Market

Fig 6.13g The Hub, Fruit Market

Fig 6.13h Hull Art Parade


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| east bank of the river hull Proposed built form/uses The proposal layout is coherent with the existing building and street infrastructure. New education facilities adjoin onto existing Georgian terraces at Blaydes Dock as part of the Learning Quarter with a new WWII museum backing onto the Clarence St bridge. The building design is inspired by classical Palladian architecture with strong symmetrical forms. Further south, the proposal density is increased with substantial buildings, all of which provide strong frontages to the riverside. New mixed use facilities include hotels, casinos, restaurants, cafes and gyms. Several buildings are retained for employment uses.

Proposed streets/spaces Pedestrian connectivity is improved with 2 proposed footbridges from the East Bank leading across to Blaydes Dock and south of the Museum Quarter at Scale Lane. This route follows promptly to Whitefriargate and to the Heart of the City and will be in frequent use. New parks include an industrial at Blaydes Dock, woodland, and a sculptural park further south. A good variety of green amenity spaces will enhance biodiversity and be facilitated by local communities south east of the East Bank.

Proposed colour palette


Proposed public art The East Bank art works provide diversity for the city’s public art collection. Recurring themes include heritage, culture and facilities. Industrial murals are painted on the gable ends of education buildings at Blaydes Dock. These depict the historic city during times of the market trading and the tough lives of traders. To the south, the Industrial Gardens compromises of interactive playground equipment and sculptures constructed from recycled building materials. Equipment includes air ducts as slides, old tables as swings and beams as see-saws.



Overlooking the park is the WWII museum and war memorial. The memorial is a land art installation leading to the riverside, consisting of plaques with the names of those from the city who fought in the World Wars. The museum, which extends the boundaries of the Museum Quarter, promotes free access to exhibitions of war memorabilia and rare artefacts with a principal theme on the effects of the Hull Blitz. Across the bank, new public squares and spaces are located at intervals between the promenade, for pedestrians to take in views across the Old Town. Carved bird sculptures are located within the woodland space. Further south, the Shark Park contains recycled installations of steel, timber, aluminium, glass, fibreglass and brick sharks, each with descriptive information as to the species. Located adjacent is the second civic pride

The Scale Lane footbridge furthers the walking network with direct access to Whitefriargate in the Old Town and the Heart of the City

Fig 6.14b Underwater Museum and Shark Park

Fig 6.14a East Bank Proposals sculpture, ‘Pride of Citizens’, a large scale lettered installation with printed portraits of community members. This is followed by the

Underwater Museum which allows visitors to dive in the internal pool and explore a range of underwater art installations completed by Hull artists. Under the Myton Bridge, the ‘What the Fish?!’ installation includes hanging LED fish which will illuminate the environment with various colours during evenings. A shark head provokes people walking down the promenade as it hangs outside an apartment building along with skating facilities for the youth at the riverside park opposite the Tidal Barrier.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Pride of Hull, recycled sculpture

Scale Lane footbridge

Scrap steel, aluminium, copper and bronze

Central green space

The ‘What the Fish?!’ installation literally provokes senses and sparks confusion for visitors as they are left to wonder if the fish are really fish or just a figure of their imagination

Fig 6.14d Existing Tower Street/Myton Bridge Fish railings

What the Fish?! light installations

Fish mural

Underwater Museum vessel inspired design


Fig 6.14e Underwater Museum and Myton Bridge Sheltered cafe space Bench


Fig 6.14c Shark Park Visual

The Underwater Museum brings a whole level of uniqueness to public art, giving

Street floor lighting

The Shark Park reinforces the city’s industrial heritage with the creation of scrap metal sharks which are overlooked by the colossal Pride of Citizens landmark sculpture. It is a distinctive location from which the eastern quarter of the Old Town, including the Museum Quarter can be viewed

visitors the opportunity to explore a different world to that above the water The sharks location at Myton Bridge is a clear link

Concrete mermaid

between the characters of the The Underwater Museum and The Deep

Wooden birds in the woodlands creates shelters and natural habitats for biodiversity types with further landscape planting

Fig 6.14f Proposed section B-B

Flower planting

Hollow steel shark, hoisted and supported internally

Fig 6.14g Honey... I’m Home!

Fig 6.14h Underwater museum


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| albion square and the heart of the city Proposed built form/uses The reformed built space at Albion Square consists of new mixed health, religious, housing and office uses in a typical Georgian fashion. Construction materials include coloured render, stone and brickwork. Wilberforce Gallery, the largest gallery in the city is located adjacent to Queens Gardens with a student accommodation block. New buildings for the Hull College include an Arts Department within the campus, which will offer students opportunities for further art related education.

Proposed streets/spaces As the Albion Square plaza opens out to Albion Street, the aesthetic view attempts to draw people into the space. Reinforced linkages followed through Waltham St and Silvester St connect the space to the wider city context. The space beside Wilberforce Gallery is pedestrianised, allowing for easy of access to the gallery and student accommodation. Two of the memorable filled in dock spaces in the Queens Gardens have been reopened to educate people on Hull’s history and facilitate new homes for biodiversity. The public space outside Hull College

Proposed colour palette


Proposed public art Considerable landscape installations at Albion Square include floral art, an children’s urban jigsaw, water fountains and a flower range. As the space is the focal point between Kingston Square further north and Queens Gardens, these works contribute to the green infrastructure within the Heart of the City. An interactive monument of Norman Collier, a famous Hull comedian, is located behind the urban jigsaw. Operative switches on the monument allow users to listen along to some of Collier’s famous comedy routines. The last of the 3 civic pride installations forms a perimeter around Albion Square and is the Wall of Citizens. Messages from Hull’s diverse community are inscribed all around the enclosure on what they love about the city and how it is stands out as a place from others. Another proposal which furthers civic pride and heritage at the Heart of the City is the ‘Knowledge of Space’ installation. Floor paintings of Hull’s famous citizens such as William Wilberforce, Phillip Larkin, Cuthbert Broderick and others will be installed at the heart of the Peace Gardens surrounded by large book sculptures filled with their literature and teachings. A large central plaque will detail other notable figures excluded from the installation and visitors will be encouraged to tour around the space to understand the credibility of the city’s historic achievements. A list of these people is below Fig 6.15d.

The floral art installments were desired by the older generation community members, in an effort to see more diversity in the city’s public art portfolio

Fig 6.15a Albion Square

Floor paintings on concrete slabs with detailed inscriptions



Central stone plaque

Fabric & concrete books

Reopened dock

Fig 6.15b Albion Sq and Heart of City proposals Beside the Wilberforce Gallery, there will be more floral art installations and frequent themed works to promote ongoing exhibitions. The Hull Arts Parade performances will circulate the course of the city centre through the Queens Gardens.

Fig 6.15c Knowledge of Space Outside the Hull College, students will get the opportunity to create personalised graffiti and street art on specialised boards. Though the works will be ephemeral, they will represent the creativity and freedom of art and design students whether they be conceptual or finalised.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Enhanced street nature

The Knowledge of Space installation reaches out to inspire

Red brick and stone

Floral art sculptures

Portland stone

audiences alike, by sharing some of the city’s invaluable heritage in the form of quotations, stories and poems all through the eyes of notable historic figures Reopened dock

Active frontages

Fig 6.15f Wilberforce Gallery

Urban Canvas

Interactive media facades

The Wilberforce Gallery is the city’s largest public art gallery, hosting a wide range of exhibitions and creative art events. Volunteers from the gallery work in partnership alongside the Hull College and frequently host seminars and workshops on art related subjects and during presentation pin-ups

Fig 6.15g Existing Albion Square Fig 6.15d Knowledge of Space Dorothy Mackaill - Actress

Stevie Smith - Novelist

Ebenezer Cobb Morley - Sportsman John Hall - Politician Jan Carmichael - Actor

Wall of Citizens

Notable figures William Wilberforce and Philip Larkin

Patricia Bredin - Actress Alfred Harker - Petrologist Norman Collier - Comedian

Floral art designs, new landscaping

New pedestrian access

Edward Arthur Milne - Astrophysicist Sir William Alfred Gelder - Architect Philip Larkin - Poet

Fig 6.15h Existing Wilberforce Drive

3-4 metre sculptures John Venn - Logician Ted Lewis - Author

Cuthbert Broderick - Architect

William Wilberforce - Philanthropist

Amy Johnson - Aviator

The built form at Albion

Terracotta render

Square pays full respect

Bronze Norman Collier monument with in-built speaker

Complimentary Georgian architecture at health centre

to the adjacent classical architecture. The Urban Jigsaw challenges children to reshape Hull whilst the

Office blocks

Norman Collier monument is often heard reciting, “Charlie.... phone..fix...please!”.

Norman Collier monument Mixed use apartments

Fig 6.15e Proposed section C-C

Fig 6.15i Albion Square Plaza

Floral art and water features

Urban Stone paving Jigsaw

Retained landscaping

Wall of Citizens with inscribed reflections of Hull


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| quay west/st stephens Proposed built form/uses The increased housing reform St Stephen’s as a prime urban settlement and with a landmark apartment tower sited adjacent to the St Stephen’s Shopping Centre, the SDA boundary is strengthened. The reinstated church allows for social integration sited adjacent to a typical Victorian low rise housing proposal. Similar architectural styles are replicated at Quay West. Medium density mixed use retail blocks provide an invaluable shopping experience for visitors with a mixture of high brand and local retailers. Common materials include Portland stone, steel, aluminium, timber, brick and render.

Proposed streets/spaces Pearson Street is pedestrianised and forms an attractive route to St Patrick’s Church with a view to the prime central green space, Rhythm Park. A linear route connects the park to the shopping centre and A165 Freetown Way primary road. The extensive walking routes at Quay West provide predominant linkages to the city’s wider movement network. The vehicle access routes have been relocated to create a more efficient development layout. The central square breaks the urban blocks and is surrounded by vast new landscaping.

Proposed colour palette

Proposed public art The secondary public art trail in the city, the ‘Retail Trail’ is made of constituent public art installations located around the St Stephen’s and Quay West SDA’s and will enforce visitors to embark on a fun and interactive search. Visitors start by collecting a checklist from the Hull Tourist and Information Centre before heading to Carr Lane where the route begins. The installation forms all differ and are themed as common shopping necessities such as a handbag, cheque book, credit cards, pound coin etc. Upon locating them, a simple puzzle must be solved and recorded on the checklist. When this is handed back to the tourist reps, the visitor is rewarded discount vouchers. The trail will sustain the economic conditions of the city by attract a substantial amount of tourism.

and a distinctive retail experience contribute to a full renewed character which will be a magnet for tourism

Fig 6.16a Prince’s Square is regularly manipulated in ways to provoke public reaction. Other installations include new public seating, signage and LED art.

The Rhythm Park praises the city’s cultural entertainment and the Hull Truck Theatre with 3 playable musical instruments (a piano, guitar and a trumpet) integrated into the paved landscape. New play facilities are located on the Prince’s Square north south spine at Quay West. The north plaza compromises of a chess board and the south plaza, a draughts board. The central space at Prince’s Square has 3 public art works, one of which is a credit card land installation part of the Retail Trail, a monument and digital sculpture of the latest sales at the high stores. The monument is depicts Ted Lewis, an artist based Hull and


The cluster of contemporary and classic buildings at Quay West with good quality public spaces

Retail Trail

Fig 6.16b St Stephen’s proposals

Fig 6.16c Quay West proposals

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| The public square juxtaposes elements of play and colour to add richness and distinguish a sense of place

Internal balconies allow for attractive views and natural surveillance

Retail Trail Heads Up hollow steel installation

Mixed use amenities

Fig 6.16e Existing Spring Street

Fig 6.16f Existing Myton Street The Rhythm Park represents a harmonious environment, both physically and mentally. The gardens create an oasis of serenity whilst people play the sculpture instruments

Fig 6.16d Rhythm Park The Ted Lewis monument at Prince’s Square is a

In a predominant housing location although the

catalyst for public art engagement. Add-ons from

colour and form of the Hand my Bag installation

the monument include a swing, a soft ball, a large

differentiates to the surrounding environment,

rubiks cube and other play objects, leaving people

it draws people to acknowledge the city’s retail

opportunities to react to the situation Children’s bench

Diverse landscaping infrastructure

Fig 6.15h Prince’s Square

culture stands out too

Stained glass at retail centre

New pedestrian access routes

Interactive bronze Ted Lewis monument

Credit Installment


Small retail outlets provide central enclosure

Fig 6.15g Quay West north plaza

Central square with brass and bronze chess game Hand my Bag painted bronze with brickwork

New zebra crossing

Fig 6.15i St Patrick’s Church and Rhythm Park

Colourful and welcoming shop fronts Low rise Victorian housing compliments the church Enhanced walkability along church

Linear landscape leads to park


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.3 Framework • Framework - Use the five key public art strategy initiatives of STRUCTURE, CONTEXT, STRATEGY, ENGAGE and SUSTAIN to devise the framework of the Hull draft urban art strategy

In this section, the key initiatives above which form the overall assessment criteria of public art strategies in Section 4 will be examined in further detail in context to the Hull Draft Urban Art Strategy. Public art principles Local context

As a response of the public art study in Section 4 and the site appraisals conducted, the following principles have been revised as an approach for future public art commissioning for the Hull city centre context. They have been categorised into the following 3 disciplines:

1. Public art must respect and compliment existing themes and cultures in the city centre and pay particular attention to the diverse character areas which together form the city centre urban environment

5. New forms of representing public art such as street art or light displays should be explored to diversify the city’s existing public art collection alongside the numerous sculptural and monumental works

2. Public art must be efficient and practical for the proposed context with a high standard of design regarding principles such as aesthetics, security, typologies and most importantly, accessibility for all

6. Regardless of typology or form, the use of colour in proposed public art interventions should be examined as one of the prime design specifications in a striving nature to decorate the urban environment with vibrant art works

1. Local context 2. Benefits 3. Community

3. Public art should enhance its contextual setting and be utilised as a regenerative tool in built environment disciples with selective application to the many disconnected areas where the potential is yet to be achieved such as The Fruit Market, East Bank and Humber Quays 4. Public art wherever possible, must respect and celebrate Hull’s heritage through the urban environment and preserve the qualitative features which add richness to Hull’s urban spaces Fig 6.17 Where is the love? community mural


7. If art galleries or museums are proposed, their exhibitions and public collections should promote distinction and should not reiterate content in the existing maritime, slavery, transport and art museums

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Benefits Community Sustainability strategy Social sustainability

1. Public art should wherever possible, aim to uplift the social, environmental and economic profile of the city

1. Public art must facilitate for everyone, and foster engagement between community members, built environment specialists and other disciplines

The role of sustainability is pivotal in all future public art designs for Hull as this motive has the potential to characterise the city from other places as not only a one for the arts, but one also which furthers the relationship between art and its environment.

1. New spaces will be dedicated to promote community arts development such as The Hub space at the Fruit Market, where community members will be permitted to freely create public art

2. More permanent art interventions are encouraged not just to decorate the urban environment, but also to prolong the awareness of public art in the city and brand Hull as a city for the arts 3. Sustainability is a key initiative for the design of public art interventions and should be considered at every stage of the design process from inception to installation

2. Public art interventions, regardless of typology or form should aim to engage all community members in any way possible and bring them together to appreciate their own urban character 3. Adequate workspace should be provided for artists, designers and others wishing to embark upon public art developments within the city centre

4. Public art should act as the primary catalyst to uplifting Hull’s social image and provide a significant boost to the 4. Community groups should be cultural status of the city and citizens established to allow continuity of strong civic pride and reinforce local community integration in a vast range 5. If walking trails are to be proposed, of art and design activities they should encourage walking and exploration of the whole city centre or at least several of its constituent areas 5. During the commissioning of a public as a unified place art installation, artists should be fully briefed as early as possible and be 6. Regular maintenance of public art involved in all matters of the design works and public spaces should be process from inception to completion undertaken to protect and preserve to foster the creation of ‘Hull specific’ facilities for a longer lifespan public art initiatives.

The principles of sustainability have been examined below in consideration to the proposals of the draft urban art strategy. They are categorised into the following 4 principles: 1. Social 2. Environment/Ecological 3. Economic

2. Programs and events within art centres and galleries such as the Hull Art Parade will be encouraged for community members to socialise, share ideas and comment on the future role of public art initiatives within their city in respect to sustainability 3. The proposals of public green spaces and plazas will foster active and passive recreational activities for community members which include skate parks and play equipment. 4. New housing and mixed leisure buildings will see an increase in social interaction

Fig 6.18 Norman Collier monument

5. Improvements have been made to the city’s movement infrastructure, with a larger quantity of attractive walking and cycling routes around SDA proposals especially at the waterfront


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Environment sustainability Economic sustainability

1. The construction materials from 5. Cycling as a primary means of demolished buildings, whilst transport has been encouraged considering the safety of users, will be with increased bike stands within reused for public art and public space key spaces and new pedestrianised design for e.g Industrial Gardens at routes East Bank 6. Materials and media for community 2. The landscaping within existing art production will be locally available public spaces will be enhanced and from The Hub at the Fruit Market maintained to a high standard for social and ecological benefits. More 7. Some buildings at the St Stephen’s, trees will be planted around the city Fruit Market and East Bank SDA’s will to combat the effects of air pollution be refurbished and retained for new from vehicles. uses

1. Proposed galleries, museums and further permanent arts installations including public art trails compromising of the City Trail, Retail Trail and Hull Arts Parade will substantially contribute to the economic growth of the city with increased tourism and local participation

6. More qualitative green space and public art initiatives will raise property values for developers and stakeholders

2. Existing festivals and events such as the Hull Fair which continue to be successful, will be integrated with further community and ephemeral art forms

8. Funds raised from charitable art organisations will be secured in future public art initiatives

3. Public art installations within ecological spaces will be considered a high priority and more ways to integrate art to benefit an ecosystem will be encouraged. An example includes the wooden bird sculptures at the East Bank Woodland which have integrated retreats and food compartments for woodland creatures 4. Local food production will be available in certain locations within the city centre. Ideally community members can create personal sculptures for growing food


8. Local energy production and retention will include green roof’s, solar panels, 3. Further shopping outlets at the Quay grey water systems West and St Stephen’s SDA will rebrand Hull as a key city for retail, and further reclaim and attract visitors from neighbouring cities such as York, Doncaster and Leeds 4. More local retail and food outlets such as the Indoor Fish Market at the Fruit Market will secure financial growth in the economy 5. Further development proposals will secure more permanent jobs in the city and create a thriving city environment

7. Further leisure facilities and art education related courses will see an increase of students enrolling at the city’s colleges and universities

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.4 Heritage By preserving these elements, along with the addition of new heritage art works, this serves to encourage community members, especially young people to educate themselves about the origins of their home.

• Heritage - Preserve and enhance historic features with sensitive development which together enrich the city’s heritage

The proposed draft urban art strategy framework pays tribute to the city’s built heritage in numerous ways. All listed buildings in or within close proximity to the SDA’s have been retained which include St Patrick’s Church at St Stephen’s, Georgian terraces at Blaydes Dock and several others. Deteriorated buildings have been restored to former use to preserve a sense of place and legibility.

City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Development blocks

The city’s public art collection has enhanced with the arrival of new heritage based installations. The Knowledge of Space is the predominant heritage work, sited at the Peace Gardens. Visitors will begin to appreciate first hand accounts of Hull’s history through the eyes of architects, musicians, kings, and other historic figures as they can interpreted in the large book sculptures. The installation acts as a threshold to the Education Quarter being situated at the Heart of the City.

Proposed heritage art work Existing heritage art work City Trail Retail Trail

The results of the public art study in Section 4 displayed segregation between certain classes of community members, particularly with the youth. Some locals opted for heritage based works designed in a contemporary fashion and effectively this has been carried out. These installations have the ability to bring the diverse community members together to celebrate the city’s past achievements and heritage through social events such as the Hull Arts Parade.

Hull Art Parade route Old Town Conservation Area New Town Conservation Area

Fig 6.19 Existing and proposed heritage art works Other installations include the Norman Collier and Ted Lewis monuments, the WWII Museum and Industrial Gardens. Hull’s heritage is essentially a progressive story of a walled town to a city which has witnessed substantial

Museum Quarter Whitefriargate

growth and development with the influences of notable figures through time. Certain historic buildings, streets, furniture, etc add richness to the natural urban character to distinguish it from other places.

Heritage should be respected in the city as this also contributes to erasing Hull’s negative portrayal. As a bordering city, people often stereotype York as a historic place, with regards to the York Minister and Clifford’s Tower. Hull will indefinitely develop a similar historic profile which will raise the economic conditions of the city whilst also igniting a sense of civic pride amongst locals.


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.5 Character Humber Quays with the addition of historic and contemporary public art amusements. The character evolution boosts credibility for the waterfront, which now accommodates a distinctive change through each area to benefit locals and enhance the city’s image.

• Character - Strengthen the city image and create local distinctiveness with uplifting mixed character areas

Through urban arts regeneration, each of the SDA’s have renewed characters which distinguish them individually within the Hull city centre and on a regional scale. Utilising culture as a means to characterise Hull has been fully exploited and systematically integrated into the city areas. The urban art framework has relabeled Hull as a city for the arts with imaginative art forms, types and themes which are compliant with the existing nature of city areas and significantly contribute to the city character through the creation of memorable landmarks and site specific works. The existing profile of art within the city has been raised as a dominant feature with the addition of further permanent and ephemeral arts installations. Design Council CABE (2008) argue the role of culture and state ‘if we are to live in a more stimulating environment, then recognising our culture should shape every aspect of placemaking, from the design of a building all the way through to street furniture, so that the scope, possibilities, style and tenor of physical, social and economic development is culturally determined.’


City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Public art

The use of public art as a means to reconnect Hull with its heritage and educate people in the process has also been proposed. Public art must be robust and adapt to the city’s current and future context in which the city’s heritage is also a consistent theme which must not be forgotten. Monuments and other historic installations further contribute to the vast collection of existing heritage themed works and through the urban environment, it is evident Hull has achievements to celebrate.

Built form Uses

Fig 6.20 Proposed SDA character This cultural development is evident through the urban art framework as new galleries and museums redefine the Museum Quarter whilst regular arts based events are held to uplift social character and as shown in Fig 6.20, various other art installations located throughout the city centre add further distinctive qualities to their areas.

With retail opposition from York, Hull’s economic profile has been uplifted to Through the city centre boundary, Hull’s deliver a high quality retail experience for visitors. The St Stephen’s Shopping regenerated waterfront includes new Centre managed to stabilise tourism mixed use developments, enhanced levels although Hull was not given the promenades and diverse public art interventions. Improved walkability along full credibility it deserved. Proposed leisure and shopping outlets have East Bank and Blaydes Dock leads visitors through industrial art installations sustained the city’s retail culture with more high street brand names and local alongside the Museum Quarter and shops. marine life before the experience of community arts initiatives at the Fruit Market. This nature is followed into the Space


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.6 Community ensure the designs specifications are produced to a high standard and may also encourage the youth to take art as a hobby or a career.

â&#x20AC;˘ Community - Provide distinctive spaces for all members of the community, addressing the existing difficulties

Issues raised by locals in Section 4 implied there were ongoing social concerns regarding youth behaviour. The urban art framework proposes to eliminate these concerns through the utilisation of contemporary public art to accommodate the needs of community members. The art galleries and museums promote free entry and regularly host city-wide exhibitions for everyone. The charitable art organisations and art centres such as those at The Hub aim to establish community integration through diverse events and artist engagement in events ranging from street painting, public art creation, all day workshops, competitions, drawing, modelling and many others. Children are encouraged to visualise and reflect upon what they enjoy the most and in doing so, have their work exhibited on the elevations of riverside buildings to enhance civic pride and local distinctiveness. People who participate and volunteer regularly are guaranteed to be involved in large scale events such as the Hull Art Parade. Interactive art such as the Norman Collier monument, Rhythm Park instruments and Knowledge of Space

The quantity of facilities within public spaces in the city has been increased to foster the development of further housing and mixed use proposals. The integrated art works include children and adult play equipment e.g. chess boards, swings, public fountains, allotments and floral art. City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Development blocks Proposed community art facility City Trail Retail Trail Hull Art Parade route

The diversity of new community facilities will enhance the quality of public spaces in the city centre and will attract more people to use and appreciate them. This furthers community integration to succeed as people will feel a sense of ownership with facilities that are provided solely for their benefit and use.

Proposed public space Existing public space

Fig 6.21 Proposed community facilities may interest the older generation whilst the Urban Jigsaw and Ted Lewis monument may attract those who are younger. Public art interaction is not limited in any way as people will during time, find new ways to interact with the art in their spaces. This reaction was similar to the Larkin Toads, (Burke and Charlton, 2011) where findings showed directly after siting the toads, locals began to climb them and take photos.

Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse

Two skate parks are located at the Peace Gardens and south of the A63 Myton Bridge to facilitate for the youth culture along with urban graffiti boards at the Fruit Market and outside the Hull College, in which media is provided under regulations. The youth will initially be given the opportunity to decorate the skate parks with street art and paintings with the guidance of professional street artists. This consultation process will


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.7 Public realm • Public realm - Enhance existing public spaces with the addition of further public space throughout the city

The development proposes a large quantity of space dedicated to public use, compromising of green space, plazas, a woodland and a skate park. The largest public space development with exception to the Queens Gardens, is the Riverside Quays. The spatial requirements are pivotal for surrounding housing and working communities by reclaiming the potential of the waterfront and promenades. Other small scale green spaces and plazas are located around the city and are of equal significance with respect to their public art installations. The East Bank Shark Park holds 12 recycled sculptures of contrasting shark species, each with descriptive plaques and shrubs. The Pride of Citizens along with a proposed footbridge across Scale Lane are within the same space, directing visitors to and from Queen Victoria Square. Improved walkability will ensure the public spaces and art are fully accessible and thoroughly occupied by visitors.


City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Development blocks

Charitable groups from The Hub such as public art and space management teams will volunteer and encourage others to maintain these public spaces in an effort to present the city to a high standard to locals and tourists. Community teams will be responsible for planting flowers and shrubs around the city spaces and maintaining allotments. The citizens of Hull have a new city to be proud of and the public space network hugely contributes to the urban regeneration. Ephemeral art installations will foster new facilities within the existent public spaces and economically boost the profile of what the city already has.

Proposed green space Proposed gardens

An example includes the Hull Art Parade, in which a chief aim of the Dry dock designated route is to provide an Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse coherent infrastructure between the City Trail existing transient public spaces, which Retail Trail Hull Art Parade route have remained in discrete and proposed public spaces. This raises the profile Locals were critical of the existing of the public realm Hull already has public spaces due to their hygiene and and creates local awareness of their facilities. The current primary public space network compromises of Queens existence and facilities. Through this Gardens, Peace Gardens, Queen Victoria procedure, the social, environmental and economic benefits of their hidden Square, Trinity Square, Hull Marina, potential can be fully achieved. Mandela Gardens and several others. Proposed plaza

Existing public space

Fig 6.22 Proposed SDA characters The Rhythm Garden design along with its public art installations compliment Hull’s theatrical culture. Visitors will recognise each public space is coherent with their surroundings and this richness strengthens the emerging character in the area.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.7.8 Tourism People will be convinced to complete the trail challenge around the city as their multifunctional appeal draws whole families through interaction and rewards. They will promote Hull as a great city and major public art attraction during holiday seasons.

• Tourism - Design lively and mixed use spaces to boost economic income and attract tourism footfall

The new developments are expected to successfully boost the economic footfall within the city through unique art facilities, walking trails and retail. The experience from the proposed and existing art galleries and museums will characterise Hull as being one of the finest cities for the arts. A range of exhibitions and community programs taking place will draw many visitors to participate and gain an insight into how the arts are a recurring theme through the city’s built environment. The proposal of several unique facilities aiming to differentiate Hull will act as catalysts to economic regeneration. Hull’s Underwater Museum is the only underwater art exhibit in Europe, and in addition will draw countless people to the city who love exploration, history,the marines and art. Underwater sculptures, shipwrecks and treasure hunts will be the predominant themes at the museum and its location will encourage people to visit the The Deep, which is within a 5 minute walk.

City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Development blocks

New public spaces have been designated for the current ephemeral events in Hull such as the Hull Fair, Hull Comedy Festival and Hull Festival as they continue to be successful and promote the city’s social image through music and cultural entertainment.

Proposed public art Retail Trail art work

Further publicity strategies will market City Trail Hull’s public art regeneration. The new Retail Trail installations and events will be marketed Hull Art Parade route Existing public art online through the Hull City Council’s Seven Seas Fish sculpture website, flyers and event posters and Seven Seas Fish Trail Proposed public space naturally by word of mouth. Public art Existing public space forums will be established at The Hub Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse to invite more artists to the city centre with the new workspace, storage and newcomers to take a visit around the whole city. The existing Seven Seas Fish accommodation facilities on offer. With Trail will be further appraised as it’s route more courses on offer at the new Hull College Arts Building more students will overlaps with those from the Hull Arts Parade and City Trail and so visitors can enrol and stay in the city centre, thus increasing the occupancy of student transfer onto a different trail. housing and short stay accommodation. Community facility

Fig 6.23 Proposed SDA characters Hull’s difference as a city is that it is one of few to feature numerous public art trails which allow people to venture through the historic and contemporary areas. The Retail Trail will greatly appeal to people using the city’s shopping facilities whilst the City Trail will allow


City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Development blocks Proposed public art Proposed monuments Projection City Trail Retail Trail Hull Art Parade route Existing public art Existing monument Seven Seas Fish sculpture Seven Seas Fish Trail Large tree Small tree Proposed public space Existing landscaping Existing public space Dry dock Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse Urban grain




Fig 6.24 Proposed and existing public art collection


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.8 Recommendations The purpose of the draft urban art strategy is to demonstrate the potential role of public art as an urban design regeneration tool for the city of Hull. The draft urban art framework was developed through a gradual process with the results from the case study assessment, which generated a structure and criteria of best practice principles and by the public art study, which distinguished how the society of Hull felt about current and future public art installations in their city. It was a direct response to sustain Hull for the future with the potential rebranding as a ‘arts city’. The research conducted in Section 4 possessed real validity as a good range of community members were approached in the subject matter with contrasting feedback. This included the elderly, middle aged people and most importantly, the youth. Although not all of them agreed on the same matters, it became obvious that a majority felt an urban art strategy would help regenerate the Hull city centre to become a more lively place.

The Fig 6.24a checklist assesses the community responses in the Section 4 study with the draft urban art strategy proposals. All but one of the aspirations were achieved, which is evident that the draft urban art strategy is a successful site specific approach for the Hull city centre context and highlights the significance of community engagement during the design process. The responses were thoroughly considered during the site appraisals and produced in some form or type of public art initiative. Based on the research from Section 4, the next section details the common social concerns identified and how public art could potentially play a significant role in the future of Hull’s urban regeneration.

Fig 6.24a Checklist assessment of community responses and design proposals Community response




What the Fish?!, Retail Trail, Arts Parade, Urban Canvas, Fruit Market murals


Retail Trail, City Trail, Arts Parade, Underwater Museum, Wilberforce Gallery


Knowledge of Space, Fruit Market murals

Outdoor pools

Hull Pool


Shark Park, St Andrew’s Quay, Rhythm Park, Industrial Gardens

Accessible art

Image of Citizens, Rhythm Park Instruments, Give us a hug!, Woodland Birds

Skate Parks

Peace Gardens, Myton Bridge

Artist design competitions

Wilberforce Gallery, Humber Quays Art Centre, The Hub

Real life ships

Sail of Hull

Digital technology & lighting

Wilberforce Gallery, Projections

Raise existing profile

Arts Parade


Urban Jigsaw, Quay West Plaza games, Hull Pool

Modern designs

Wall of Citizens, Industrial Gardens, Retail Trail

Derelict land in use

Fruit Market, East Bank, Humber Quays, St Stephen’s, Quay West

Abstract art

Fruit Market, East Bank

Coherent themes

Entertainment, heritage, retail, civic pride, arts


Community initiatives at the The Hub,

Art that can adapt

Woodland birds, Wall of Citizens, Ted Lewis Monument, Industrial Gardens

Art centres & indoor graffiti

Humber Quays, Hull College, The Hub

Preschool art

The Hub, Fruit Market murals, Unlock Yourself community art

Floral displays & gardens

Albion Square, Queens Gardens

Celebrate Hull’s heritage

Knowledge of Space, WWII Museum, Queens Dock, Sail of Hull, Hull Lighthouse

Street art

Fruit Market, Blaydes Dock, Hull College


Wall of Citizens, Underwater Museum, Knowledge of Space, Urban Jigsaw


Pride of Citizens

Performing arts

Fruit Market, Quay West


The Hub community arts groups

Community & artist balance

The Hub art centres, artist workspaces, storage and accommodation


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 6.8.1 Research Questions The research established a narrative for the report to find out how a draft urban art strategy would assist in the regeneration of the Hull city centre. The research questions conducted at the beginning of the report were: 1. Why use public art when other types of regeneration methods are available? 2. Will the community of Hull appreciate public art as a “branding technique” for local distinctiveness? 3. What are the design principles in producing a draft urban art strategy? 4. How will these design principles be applied to Hull’s existing context? 5. What are the benefits to Hull in terms of the economic, environmental and social principles of using public art as the key initiative in an urban design framework? These questions will be discussed further.

• Why use public art when other types of regeneration methods are available?

The chosen case studies commissioned by the UK Arts Councils in Section 2 identified key cities which had endured substantial regeneration in recent years with the benefits of the arts. These were: Bradford City Park - Urban Pennywell - Residential/mixed use Cardiff Bay - Waterfront regeneration Laganside River - Waterfront/urban

During recent years, Hull’s culture was distinguishable through its urban environment. The extensive public art portfolio was beginning to emerge and with the success of contemporary public art installations such as the Larkin Toads, people began to associate Hull with the arts. Public art regeneration for Hull would compliment existing artistic cultures within the city, which included the countless museums, galleries theatres, performance events and public art collection.

Miller Beach - Urban/community

The regeneration case studies were successful due to their richness of design and character. Public art regeneration was chosen to identify Hull as being different from other cities. Neighbouring city York is commonly associated with rich heritage whilst further north, Scarborough is labelled a exceptional tourist attraction. Hull was often associated negatively in which a new artistic image would help define the reputable character for the city and leave citizens a vision to be proud of.

Fig 6.26 Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff Bay


Fig 6.25 City Park, Bradford


• Will the community of Hull appreciate public art as a “branding technique” for local distinctiveness?

Most community members stated in the pubic art study in Section 4 that they thoroughly enjoyed the attractions during the Larkin 25 event. However, future public art initiatives should function to unite Hull’s community if they are to be deemed successful and not just solely appeal to one class of citizens. The society currently face major problems through differences and with no common interest to bring them together, this separation will continue. The Larkin 25 event defied new heights for public art in Hull and despite the negative attention leading up to the event, it’s success was partially due to the quality of community engagement through the design process to the installation. It became a catalyst for future public art installations leaving people with memorable experiences and cultural pride. Similarly, the renewal of the Seven Seas Fish Trail saw masses of people venturing through the Old Town, the foundation quarter of the city. The trail

continues to succeed to this day in uniting community members through fun and interaction and has attracted more than 400,000 people since it was commissioned in 1996 (Hull Daily MailC, 2010).Where past community arts initiatives have succeeded, opportunities still exist for future community art integration.

The citizens of Hull desired for their public art to stand out, as this helps to create a coherent identity for the city. The current installations which visitors are reminded of when they imagine the city of Hull are the Larkin Toads or Seven Seas Fish Trail as they are promote a difference. Essentially more diverse public art forms should be considered.

During the public art study, around 73% of locals agreed an urban art strategy would contribute to making Hull a better place and this finding alone proved public art had real functionality for Hull’s society. Although most people were clear about labelling good and bad quality public art and were compliant with the existing themes in the city, some expressed their desire to see the city move forward into a new age with a distinctive public art portfolio.

The ongoing stereotypes continues to degrade Hull’s reputation as a city and it’s citizens. Although through the years the city has battled for its reputation with new developments, it is the lack of community integration with the large quantity of neglected spaces throughout the city which do not counteract the problem. The research showed that until Hull manages to sustain its social, economic and environmental state, it will continue to be subjected to negativity through the media and even its own citizens.

Critically, public art adds identity to a place and as seen with the proposals from the draft urban art strategy, most art installations share connections with their sites through materials, content or colour. The proposed public art works represent ‘Hull only’ installations and this helps to distinguish the city’s public art collection from any other collection.

Future public art initiatives should aim to sustain the city in these three principles. Hull has many strong accomplishments to celebrate such as culture, entertainment, heritage, retail experiences, existing public art works etc and if these were utilised and promoted

further often, gradually they would overcome the image problems. The key vision for the urban arts framework was to establish the city for the arts and this regenerated image should strengthen civic pride with local distinctiveness and make people understand that on a regional and national scale, Hull is a unique city.

Fig 6.27 Give us a hug!



• What are the design principles in producing a draft urban art strategy?

The public art research subsequently identified a structure of key principles to aid the design of the draft urban art strategy. These principles formed constituent sections to the draft urban art strategy and were thoroughly addressed through the design proposals. They were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Public art Regeneration Framework Heritage Character Community Public realm Tourism

• How will these design principles be applied to Hull’s existing context?

The application of the design principles is through a varied medium of strategic public art forms and types, which have been fully considered with respect to the existing Hull city context and propose to sustain the city to distinguish it from others. The principles have been applied as follows: • Public art - New contemporary public art collection ranging from sculptures, monuments, public art trails and parades

Fig 6.28 Summary of design principles



Key term

Design principles



Public art

Incorporate a selective range of historic and contemporary public art forms and types appropriate to the modern day city context



Integrate urban design and public art as the main drivers by using the best practice principles from the public art strategy and regeneration case studies



Use the five key public art strategy analysis initatives of STRUCTURE, CONTEXT, STRATEGY, ENGAGE and SUSTAIN to devise the framework of the Hull draft urban art strategy

3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13



Preserve and enhance historic features with sensitive development which together enrich the city’s heritage

2.8, 3.9, 3.10, 4.9, 4.16.3



Strengthen the city image and create local distinctiveness with uplifting mixed character areas

2.31, 2.33, 2.5, 2.6, 2.9, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.13, 4.4, 4.8, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13, 4.15.2, 4.16.3



Provide distinctive spaces for all members of the community, addressing the existing difficulties

2.32, 2.5, 2.7, 2.10, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.14, 4.15, 4.15.1, 4.16.3


Public realm

Enhance existing public spaces with the addition of further public space throughout the city



Design lively and mixed use spaces to boost economic income and attract tourism footfall

2.31, 2.32, 2.33, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 3.12, 3.13, 4.4, 4.6, 4.9, 4.15, 4.15.1, 4.15.2 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 3.7, 3.13, 4.11, 4.12, 4.15

2.31, 2.32, 2.7, 4.8, 4.14, 4.15.1, 2.6, 2.7, 2.9, 3.11, 3.12, 4.10, 4.12, 4.15, 4.15.2, 4.16.3

• Regeneration - A mixed use urban design framework compromising of new housing, office, retail and leisure developments • Framework - A cohesive report which strategically analyses the case for public art regeneration in the city to help create a unique image, unify the community and provide brief guidelines for future public art commissioning. • Heritage - The profile of existing heritage based works are increased with the addition of several new classic and contemporary monuments and heritage buildings. • Character - Existing characters within the city centre have been examined and are fully utilised with recurring public art themes, all contributing to make Hull a distinctive place. • Community - The Hub space is the centre for all community arts matters and gives locals the opportunity to have better control of future public art installations and events taking place in their city • Public realm - A new infrastructure of mixed and attractive public spaces located around the city appeal to different community groups, with facilities including skate parks, sculptural gardens and floral art • Tourism - As well as the provision of new leisure and entertainment facilities, several public art trails linking the SDA’s will attract many visitors to the city to take part and enjoy new attractions. The Hull Arts Parade will be a major annual event which links current cultural and community events such as the Hull Festival and Hull Fair.

Fig 6.29 Integrated art works


• What are the benefits to Hull in terms of the economic, environmental and social principles of using public art as the key initiative in an urban design framework?

Utilising public art as the primary urban design tool in urban art framework ensured the city of Hull to meet its social, economic and environmental challenges which included common stereotypes, use of isolated brownfield sites and the issues with tourism.




New community socialisation initiatives

Increased levels of tourism in the city

Reduction in carbon emissions

Opportunities for public art interaction/experiences

Further support to the economy

Reduction in usage of fossil fuels

Opportunities to appreciate/learn about public art

Increased local awareness of new public art events

Further landscaping around city

Enhanced walkability network through the city

Economic savings from recycled public art

Increased biodiversity

New localism programs for future public art

New jobs around the city especially in the arts sector

Further qualitative and quantitative public space

Increased city centre living

During the course of the report, it has been proven that public art does have a future role in Hull’s regeneration if further planning permission is granted for new developments, and the initiative should be given more consideration to build a good rapport between the Hull’s urban environment and its citizens. The benefits to sustainability from the draft urban art strategy include:

Fig 6.30 Examples of sustainable art initiatives


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| VISION

6.9 hull (draft) Title Hull Draft Urban Art Strategy Council/Authority N/A Year 2013 Case Studies AlburyCity 2020 Public Art Strategy Cardiff Public Art Strategy 2005

Strategy The draft urban art strategy was the much needed development tool for aiding in the Hull city centre urban regeneration. As the document is structured as an urban study, site appraisals identify existing characters and examines the current issues within the city which affect all the allocated SDA (strategic development areas). A site specific urban design framework is devised as a response to the large quantity of brownfield sites and lack of community integration. The public art initiatives detail the regeneration proposals with new building forms and uses, enhanced public networks and more qualitative public space.

Percent for Art Yes

Public art initiatives in Hull should be ambitious, exciting and engaging. They should form harmonious relationships with their environments and audiences whilst contributing to enhance the overall experience of Hull. Fundamentally, Hull’s vision as a city is to be one for the arts.

Analysis - A logical layout throughout the whole document - Graphically appealing, relevant images and text







- A practical sustainability strategy for proposed works - Sustainable art considered as part of urban framework



- Framework integrates urban design and public art - Detailed regenerative outcomes for each SDA


ENGAGE - Strategic principles for regional and local levels - A site specific approach for Hull’s urban context

Principles for public art commissioning list specific techniques for Hull’s context, with future recommendations.


- Consultation carried out during framework process - New initiatives for artists, locals and tourists


The public art principles and energetic designs excel in establishing a unique and rich character for Hull, with an extensive portfolio of thriving public art works


City centre boundary Humber Quays Fruit Market Albion Place/Heart of City East Bank/Blaydes Dock Quay West/St Stephen’s Development blocks Proposed public art Proposed public space City Trail Retail Trail Hull Art Parade route Large tree Small tree

Fig 6.31 Urban Canvas

Fig 6.31a Urban art framework




The predominant public art regenerative outcome is a developed infrastructure of new contemporary and classic public art installations with rich, qualititative public spaces juxtaposed within a structural framework of proposed urban blocks. The SDA’s are strategically linked with the addition of several walking trails which lead visitors around the city centre whilst the existing qualities have been capitalised upon, such as the waterfront, culture and retail experiences with new shopping outlets, leisure and entertainment uses and community facilities. The developments in conjunction celebrate Hull’s sense of place and define it as a unique place.

Fig 6.7 Proposed urban art framework

Existing landscaping Existing public space Dry dock Proposed watercourse Existing watercourse Urban grain Railway Road network

Fig 6.31b Industrial Gardens

“By preserving these elements, alongside the addition of new heritage art works, this serves to encourage community members, especially young people to educate themselves about the origins of their home.” Hull Draft Urban Art Strategy


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Fig 6.32 Comparison of draft urban art strategy and best practice criteria / reading






Fig 6.33 Comparison of key initiatives from draft urban art strategy and public art case studies

Kingston Upon Hull Public Art Strategy 2005

Best Practice Guidelines

Hull Draft Urban Art Strategy 2013


Define the role for contemporary public art within the scope of the city’s current and future development

Promoting high quality art, creating distinctiveness

Establish a distinctive image, contribute to city regeneration, promote Hull as a city for the arts


Artists work within the built, natural, urban or rural environment

Art in public places

The extent to which the public can interact with art in public places


Integration of public art within the physical and socio-economic regeneration of Hull

Attractive spaces, art infrastructure

Ambitious, exciting & engaging art works which bond communities & artists

Enhanced social cohesion, improved image, promoted interest in the local environment

City branding/culture, raising art profile

Develop city image, enhanced civic pride, further employment in the arts & raised tourism profile

Rejuvenating the city’s economy, protecting the city’s environment, enhancing image and raising aspirations

Engagement, city themes, local distinctiveness

Promote the city’s cultural character & heritage, local engagement, social integration

Encourage mixed teams, foster & market adventurous commissioning

Commitment, strategic planning

A site specific approach, new ambitious & innovative designs

Distinctive functional areas, waterfront, gateways, un-used buildings

Public space, gateways, development sites

SDA’s, utilise themes around city, build on existing success & public art collection

Engagement, public & private sector funding, issue design guidance

Funding, commissioning strategies, monitor and training

Public art forums, consultation workshops, localism, further review by local authority

City centre masterplan, public art panel and programs

Negotiation, awareness, management, evaluation

Urban art framework, public art trails, classic & modern, engage community

Foster sustainable development, support economy and regeneration

Percent for art, funding, adopting policy and strategy

Promote strategy & framework, further implications for future public art works








Kingston Upon Hull Public Art Strategy 2005

Hull Draft Urban Art Strategy 2013






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Kieran, D, Jordison, S. (2003) Crap Towns: The 50 Worst Places To Live In The UK, Quercus Publishing Plc: London Knight, C.K. (2008) Public Art: Theory, Practice and Populism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning as the Science of Learning and Development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Lambert, T. (2003) A Brief History Of Kingston Upon Hull, [Internet] Available from: www. [Accessed on 12th January 2013] Landesman, C. (2012) Miller Beach Arts & Creative District an Example of Creative Placemaking in Gary, Indiana [Internet] Available from: bulletins/gd/INSTATE-46be29 [Accessed on 10th October 2012] Leeds City Council (unpublished) An Accommodating Framework: A Creative Public Art Strategy for Leeds [Report] Levine, C. (2002) ‘The paradox of public art: democratic space, the avant-garde, and Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc’, Philosophy & Geography, vol. 5, No. 1, February, pp.51-68 Lewis, M.J.T. (1991), ‘Ports and Harbours’, The Yorkshire Coast, Normandy Press, pp. 156–161 Lewisham Council (2009) London Borough of Lewisham Public Art Strategy [Report]

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8.1 Introduction Prior to carrying out the Hull public art study, a pilot study was first initiated to test the validity of the research questions and the study nature. Major chosen locations for the study within the Leeds city centre including Broadcasting Place (Leeds Metropolitan University) Henry Moore Institute, Leeds Art Gallery and Leeds City Council. The details of the process are on the next page.

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 8.2 Pilot study research questions The questionnaire was split over two pages and consisted of 11 questions (Fig 8.1) The following questions were posed:

Public Art Questionnaire





2. If you could describe the culture of Leeds with 3 words, what would they be? 3. In your opinion, what do you think of public spaces in Leeds?


2) If you could describe the culture of Leeds with 3 words, what would they be? ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3) In your opinion, what do you think of public spaces in Leeds? ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4) What does public art mean to you? ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5) List some of your favourite examples of public art in other places. ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6) Could these examples work in Leeds? If yes/no then why? ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7) What would you define as “good quality” public art? ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................

6. Could these examples work in Leeds? If yes/no then why?

8. What would you define as “bad quality” public art? 9. How do you think public art would contribute to Leeds urban renewal?

5. List some of your favourite examples of public art in other places

10. Do you think an “urban” public art strategy could work for Leeds?

........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9) How do you think public art would contribute to Leeds urban renewal? ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10) Do you think an “urban” public art strategy could work for Leeds?

11. If there was a commission for a new public art design in Leeds, what would you like to see?

The results from the pilot study are illustrated below and on the next page.

Q1) Please select your age group

........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................



Fig 8.1 Pilot questionnaire


Millennium Square Well used





Poor quality Riverside under-utilised Grey, not interesting


Thank you for your time and consideration. The data provided will be kept confidential and will only be used for educational purposes.

Q3) In your opinion, what do you think of public spaces in Leeds?


11) If there was a commission for a new public art design in Leeds, what would you like to see? ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................

Q2) If you could describe the culture of Leeds with 3 words, what would they be?

7. What would you define as “good quality” public art?

4. What does public art mean to you?

8) What would you define as “bad quality” public art?

1) Please circle your age group. <17

1. Please select your age group








Mixed quality More green around river Could be better


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Q4) What does public art mean to you?

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Not enough in Leeds compared to London Innovative architecture and landscape Inspirational and fun Creative and cultural Engaging and something to share an opinion Usually objective and opinionated Interpretation of an idea taken out of a gallery space and set up in a public area Should not be nostalgic, celebrate context and bring new life Representing diversity, democratic expression Art for the community Interesting for transient people as well as visitors Emotional and inspiring form An expression of human freedom

Q5) List some of your favourite examples of public art in other places

Q6) Could these examples work in Leeds? If yes/no then why?

Q8) What would you define as “bad quality” public art?



Unsure of concept Get community support If there is adequate space

Too crowded New ideas needed Construction difficult 25%


59% 16%





Regeneration needed New art welcoming Lot of derelict space Raise awareness

Q7) What would you define as “good quality” public art?

Great for education Keep people in city Improve public realm Great to involve people

Q9) How do you think public art would contribute to Leeds’ urban renewal?



• • • • • • • • • • •


Yorkshire Sculpture Park Henry Moore Golden Gate Bridge,USA Antony Gormley - Angel of the North Sheffield Railway Station Albert Dock, Liverpool Black Prince - City Square Tate Modern London Anish Kapoor - Chicago Bean Sydney Opera House Central Park, New York

Q10) Do you think an urban art strategy could work for Leeds?

Involving developers Use derelict space 18% Provide jobs Reduce graffiti 18%


Local Distinctiveness Bring better force to city Reflect local talent Power to put us on map Create a buzz



New ideas for public Unite community Integrate cultures Cheer people up

Q11) If there was a commission for a new public art design in Leeds, what would you like to see?

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 8.3 Reflection of pilot study The main objective of the pilot study was not to validate the opinions and views of public art in Leeds, but rather to test the chosen research method, process and research outcome. Prior to engagement, participants were fully briefed of the study nature and how their data would be used only for educational purposes. Although those from the council and university understood the value of data from conducting primary research, others particularly from libraries were reluctant to co-operate and some even debated on localism being nonexistent due to built environment professionals always interfering. Though listening to their views was interesting, their denial of good urban design and its benefits to aiding communities and spaces was persistent and this was irrelevant for the aims of study. As well as engaging with people from different backgrounds, the study locations varied, including natural public environments, student IT labs, local authority meeting rooms, art galleries and libraries. Some proved more successful than others, as participants felt they could answer the questions

8.4 Hull public art study with comfort. Responses from public spaces (despite the fact that the setting was core for an art environment) were mixed, as people felt they did not want to be bothered by anyone. Limitations were also with some art galleries as permission was needed to carry out any research. Both art galleries and public spaces are key locations for the study, and so organisation of the research methodology must handled efficiently to avoid the occurrence of similar situations in the final research study. It was noted that several participants missed questions and later discussed that they were unclear or too long. Fig 8.2 Reflection of research methodology What went well?

What went bad?

What to improve?

Diverse responses from a wide audience

Permission needed in some settings

Contact stakeholders to ask permission & discuss research procedure

Good trial and error procedures Self learning process of gathering research Opportunity to explore the city & engage with people

Some questions too long/informal A third of questionnaires left unanswered All tallies were unanswered Writing facilities ran short People sceptical about research procedure

Questions need to direct A revised one page questionnaire needed Team of people required to hand out questionnaires Adequate quantity of facilities required

For the genuine study, the questions from the pilot study were revised to be more specific and shortened for the benefits of the participants (Fig 8.3). The online survey website Survey Monkey was registered for the purpose of reaching a wider market and the below post was sent on Facebook to online Hull community groups to market the survey for 4 weeks during 2012.

An urban design study into how a public art strategy could help regenerate the city of Hull 1) Please circle your age group <17




2) Please circle your gender 46-55





3) If you could describe the CULTURE of Hull with 3 words, what would they be? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4) In your opinion, what do you think of PUBLIC SPACES in Hull City Centre? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5) What does PUBLIC ART mean to you? List some of your favourite examples in other places ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6) Could these examples work in HULL? If yes/no then why? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7) List what you would define as “gOOd qUALITy” and “BAd qUALITy” public art?

My name is Adam Lakhanpal, a student at Leeds Metropolitan University in MA Urban Design. For my Final Project, I have chosen to examine the effects of public art regeneration in the Hull City Centre. As I am basing my research on the voice of the community, I will be visiting Hull to engage with citizens and social groups on how public art can help make the city centre a better place to live and work whilst creating a sense of civic pride for all communities. I would appreciate it if you could take the time to fill out my online survey (link below) as this would help generate an idea as to how we can promote and develop Hull as a ‘city for the arts’. The research is fully confidential and will only be used for educational purposes. Thanks very much, and I hope to see you soon!



8) How do you think a PUBLIC ART STRATEgy would contribute to making Hull a better place? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9) If there was a design for a nEW PUBLIC ART WORK in Hull, what would you like to see? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Please add any notes on reverse. Thank you for your time and consideration. data provided will be kept confidential and will only be used for educational purposes.

Fig 8.3 Final questions for public art study

A summary of the responses from the Hull public art study are included on the next page.

Correct Student ID on display


|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 8.5 Summary of questionnaire results Q1) Please describe your age group: <17 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56>

5% 36% 8% 19% 13% 13%

Q4) In your opinion, what do you think Q6) Could these examples work in Q8) How do you think a PUBLIC ART of PUBLIC SPACES in Hull City Centre? HULL? If yes/no then why? STRATEGY would contribute to making Hull a better place? Spacious Isolated

Facilitating Good Attractive Well-maintained Stylish Engaging Q2) Please describe your gender: Green Medieval Female 51% Chilling Male 49% Potential Recreation Q3) If you could describe the CULTURE Nice of Hull with 3 words, what would they Exclusive


Historic Pleasant Ever-lasting Theatres Docks Proud Ambitious Unique Diverse Galleries People friendly The Deep Humber Bridge Queens Gardens Fishing Welcoming Marina Old Town Vibrant Consistent Interesting


Dying Unused Backwards Infancy Tired Hidden Odd Loud Poor Rough Minority Broken Resilient Lost Under-invested Chavvy Youth control Forgotten Boring Deprived Lacking

Outdated Disappointing Indifferent Confusing Need money Shocking Derelict Rubbish Unsafe Dynamic Dominated Hidden Horrible! Dirty Limited


Own maintenance & interpretation Tidiness Modernise city Art of all types Reduce crime

Maybe As long as there is security Provide separate funds No

Hull is not that good for these Vandalism

Larkin Toads Founders of Hull Cow Parade Angel of the North History Defines people & place Memorable Inspirational Expression Unusual Culture Tacky Unappealing Waste of public money

Modernise Hull Positive vibe 3 Solve image problem and stereotypes Engage and unite society 3 Economic regeneration 9 Collaborate resources Enrich cultural awareness 6 Provide facilities Aesthetics


Unsure of concept

Q7) List what you would define as No “GOOD QUALITY” and “BAD QUALITY” public art?

Boring Q5) What does PUBLIC ART mean Heritage Masonry to you? List some of your favourite Meaningful Freedom of expression Unco-ordinated examples in other places Banksy Freedom of expression Statues Theatre Street art Fish trail Renewal Galleries Public creativity Freshness Exploring space Urban design Knowledge Flash-mobs Murals


Inoffensive Personal Adds a smile Accessible Integrates community Updated Culture Sustainable Iconic Conversation point Aesthetic Colourful

No contrast Characterless Vandalism Tagging Vulnerable Forgotten Offensive Dull Expensive Pointless Dirty Disengaging

It would not Hull’s society is unappreciative Other regeneration is needed

Q8) How do you think a PUBLIC ART STRATEGY would contribute to making Hull a better place? Colour Community integration Tourism boost Paintings Outdoor pools Foot trails Accessibility Skate parks High profile artists Celebration Real life ships Digital technology Raise existing profile Light display Playful Sculptures Buildings Modern designs

Derelict uses WWII Abstract art Coherent themes Adaptation Indoor graffiti space Pre-school art Floral displays Heritage Street Art Originality More parks Photography Performing arts Individualism Monuments Art Centres Youth clubs 2



ADAM LAKHANPAL C3187670 MA Urban Design Leeds Metropolitan University Broadcasting Place



MA Urban Design Dissertation - Public Art Regeneration for Hull  

"An exploration into Public Art as an Urban Regeneration Tool for Hull" Whilst critically examining the effects of contemporary urban regen...

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