Issuu on Google+

FRActAl HAppIneSS Adam Blaney 06092109 [Re_Map]


contentS Preface

Site justification

Agenda & trajectory

Proto cell

Critical Readings

Programme over time

Flow diagram

Programme

Site location and porcess

Happiness ratio

Basic human needs

Happiness ratio

Excess human needs

Happiness network

Overall happiness

Swarm fractals

Relationships

Crystal growth

Computation

Encasing fractals

Visulising data

Initial massing model

Interface

Initial plans & sections

Scenario montages

Prototype agenda

Crit

Voronoi screen 0.1

Installation

Voronoi screen 0.2

London Derive

Forming

Paris Derive

Casting

Classification system Fruit bowl LSOA process LSOA process tabulated data Stokes relative happiness state LSOA process basic human needs LSOA process excess human needs LSOA process sustainability LSOA process overall results


PRefAce

The trajectory of this thesis aims to develop a process in which architecture is manifested. The central proposal is to improve a contexts ‘happiness’. Mapping methodologies are implemented to quantify happiness due to infrastructural elements at key times (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly etc) which facilitate happiness or are detrimental to happiness. A process is highly flexible and can be added to, to generate greater resolution. This proposed model can therefore accommodate multiple contextual requirements because it is procedural. Explorations will therefore be carried out into methodologies and tools that facilitate a flexible sytem and how this transcends efficiently into architectural production. The first half of the thesis [Fractal Happiness] proposes and contextualises the design intention. The second half of the thesis [Packing Happiness] proposes the execution of the architectural system and the tools and process used to attain this flexible system.


AgendA And TrAjectoRy

Happiness - “Feeling or showing pleasure, a qualitative emotional response” This body of work will address issues which impact upon the emotion happiness, what is the most significant factor be it physical or non physical that impacts upon happiness. A possible end result may highlight a universal factor or ratio that optimises a communities happiness, maybe this factor or ratio is specific to a context but at what scale does this change; street, neighbourhood, town, city, nationally. Can this ratio then be utilised in planning policy to generate a new urban context. For the purpose of the first stage of the exploration we have refrained from using the human emotion of happiness to quantify how ‘happy’ a particular place is. This draws links with the Gross National Happiness (GNH) criteria developed Bhutan government, this alters from the global norm of Gross National Production (GNP). Both aim to quantifiably measure the prosperity of a country. A non subjective criteria needs to be implemented to quantify happiness to generate comparative studies. The criteria has be based on Sigmund Freud’s trait theory, this has been used as it represents a westernised model of society and it also removes the subjective qualities of emotion. Trait theory states that all humans has basic needs, these needs are outlined in later pages. A process of mapping existing programme that facilitates or impedes these needs and comparing these to government standards will therefore create a basic needs happiness score. The criteria for measuring a Freudian model of happiness has been applied to a gridded area of Stoke on Trent. Each cell in this grid can then be given a quantifiable ‘happiness rating’ according to the attributes within that cell, this can therefore be compared to each cell. We explore what physical and nonphysical infrastructure facilitates or impedes a cities state of happiness, the exploration can then be developed to analyse what has the greatest influence (such as propaganda) on happiness according to current theory. A hierarchy of the infrastructure can be defined for each of these positions, scenarios are played out to measure the success of these positions. The aim is to therefore deduce what accommodates for the happiest city, a city has a metabolism and therefore it can change states, this will be reflected in the data as it will be represented over time. This will reveal the greatest average happy city, the happiest city at any one time and the happiest point in a city at any one time. What can be deduced from this data is that is there a particular regime, of government model that optimally facilitates a cities happiness state more so than others. Does happiness therefore become desirable and result in regeneration of a particular area? Is happiness a desirable commodity that is consumed to generate income for regeneration? Does this model of consumption destroy the happiness recorded in this exploration? The human emotion of happiness can be accommodated for and compared to the GNH model of a cities happiness. This can confirm or deny the actual influences of happiness and what is physically there on terms of infrastructure to facilitate happiness. The human emotion can be incorporated by setting up a digital infrastructure that records an individual’s position within the grid and asks them “How happy are you out of 1 - 10?” This is time based (hourly, weekly, monthly, and yearly). Time is a factor that is incorporated into the physical data collection. This can therefore confirm or deny what mapping methods have highlighted. In order to deduce the most significant ratio an interface will need to be created which offers the user the opportunity to select what they perceive as the most important factors, over a large range of people a trend will be produced in which a ratio can be defined specific to that population. Interests may arise of corrupt data is introduced, if a framework is created in which design can manifest new programmatic typologies may emerge. This bares resemblance into computation and research published by Paul Coates, Programming architecture and Kostas Terzidis, Algorithmic architecture. To what extent can architectural design and production be automated? The data harvesting methodologies carried out in defining happiness states lend itself to a computation process of design as these data inputs and the defined ratios are the variables which ultimately inform the optimised form of an architectural object.


AgendA And TRAjectoRy 0.2

All of the above caters for a mass population, as outlined in the book ‘Building Happiness’ it is very much down to an individual in what they require for happiness to flourish or increase. I feel that at certain points in the design process a top down methodology cannot accommodate for the individual / all be it an unfeasible amount of work. Specific points are highlighted in ‘Building Happiness’ in which certain planning models help to facilitate happiness more than others, an example of this is the corridor and suite design dormitories from Baum and Valins, 1977. In essence the corridor model is detrimental to happiness, this is because of certain factors such as no natural light, no clear escape route if confronted ect. The corridor model hinders possibilities in new friendships being created, therefore for the duration of dwelling in this accommodation model the individual is more likely to be a recluse from the other house mates. In contrast studies undertake revealed those living in the suite model were more likely to live together in later years of university, therefore long lasting friendships are cemented. BEDZED is a contemporary development which instils community spirit, something which became redundant with the right to buy scheme introduced by Margret Thatcher. This scheme was detrimental to community spirit which resulted in social housing schemes being neglected, undesirable and unsafe because of its deign orientation, this is most prominent in Sheffield’s Park Hill development. Sustainable benefits of inducing a community spirit are prominent and proven in the BEDZED scheme, car pooling being one minor factor but having significant ramifications. This is depicted by Richard Rodgers. All of the above addresses a digitally efficient and flexible design process utilising already available tools all with the aim to improve a contexts state of happiness. Digital production of design and potential systems is a topic that will be explored further in later chapters of this thesis.


CRItIcAl ReAdIngS Network Parctices: New strategies in architecture and design Burke, A. & Tierney, T.

Capitalist Realism: Is there no alternative?

Scalability , Complexity , Digital efficiency , Networks , Adaption

Culture , Commodity , Objects , Consumption , Independence , Alternative

Foot hills , Plains of ID , Nimby ism , Density , Self gain

De-/signing the urbanism: Techno-genesis and the urban image. Healy, P. & Bruyns, G. 2006

The Cybernetic Brain: Sketches of another future Pickering, A

Radical Games: Popping bubble of the 1960s’ architecture Schrijver, L.

Feed back loops , Reactive , Response , Sustainable , Emergent , Automation

Movements , Ideologies , Reformation , Globalisation , Untenable

Andreotti, L. & Costa, X.

Fast-forward Urbanism: Rethinking architecture’s engagement with the city Cuff, D. & Bruyns, R.

Recovering Landscape: Essaya in contemporary landscape architecture Corner, J.

Flâneur , Period , Culture , Unitary , Change

Nodes , Variables , Complexity , Systematic , Landscape

Branding , Seductive , Relative , Landscape , data scape , Iconography

Natural systems , Digital Perception , Reality Standardisation

Situationistas: arte, politica, urbanismo

, ,

Fisher, M.

The Infrastructural City: Networked ecologies in Los Angeles Vamelis, K.

the


CRITIcAl ReADIngS

The significance of the critical readings helps to inform valid trajectories. This open discussion allows collaboration from opposite or conducive perspectives producing a far greater proposal. In the most basic sense it produces a core source of information in which interests can be discussed and shared openly, this engagement with peers solidifies a year long discourse in which a unified identity emerges. This spontaneous identity holds interests with regards to political and social possibilities, what is required for potential equality? That can or can not be corrupted?


Selected area to test comparaitve ‘happiness’ values 1 : 8000 [Stoke on Trent]

The selected area has been gridded up into cells of 200 meters x 200 meters. This process defines a cells state and allows comparative studies. It facilitates data processing.

200 meters x 200 meters


Flow dIAgRAm

Roads

Influences / Facilitator

Food

Congestion and peak time travel impeeding commuting duration, impacts on leisure time. This takes congestion as a negative.

All data derived (where applicable) will be compared to city averages, National averages and Buhtan national averages. This will give a comparative scale in which happiness can be judged quantifiably. This is a framework / criteria itself in which the process can be applied to any ‘place’ to create a greater data bank to compare happiness, a global league can be created. City or national planning could be orientated around this criteria to increase ‘happiness’ values. The most significant factor that facilitates or impedes happiness has not yet been deduced, therefore a physical or non physical intervention may be needed.

Average family size

Agenda defining a places state of happiness

Distance travled in 5 minutes

Programme available in 5 minutes travel

Distance travled in 5 minutes

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Wifi

Scale and level of detail

7.

8.

9.

A Freudian criteria has been implemented to quantify happiness. A Freudian model has been implemented because;

11.

I get angry over minor things

12.

13.

Quite easy

Very easy

Often

Sometimes

Very rarely

Never

Agree

Somewhat agree/ disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Completely true

Mostly true

Somewhat true/ false

Mostly false

Often

Sometimes

Very rarely

Completely false

I feel tense. Never

Employment Psycometric test, trait theory. Correlation personality and programme, day and time.

Security of body

Sex

Homeless population

Number of GP practices

S p o r t s f a c i l i t i e s

Birth

Number of markets

Homeless shelters

NHS Expendit u r e

Obesity

Average

Opening hours

Property o w n e r s

Death

Competative sprts teams

Local produce

Property r e n t e r s

rates

defined

between

Excess facilities

Exersion

rates

age

Crime

rates

Employment

Unemployed

E m p l o y e d

Property

Av p r

house i c e

Av rent cost

Social programme

Resturant

B

a

r

Red light d i s t r i c t

C i n e m a

L i f e expectancy

B r o t h e l s

S h o p p i n g

Pr e d o m i n a n t a g e

Strip

L e i s u r e

Te r m i n a l i l l n e s s

Completely false

Personality

Number of supermarkets

Eating dissorders

Mostly false

*(delete as applicable)

Basic human needs (minimum levels of happiness)

rate

Somewhat difficult

Always

The list is non exhaustive, the more data gathered the greater the sensitivity in the end model.

Health

Completely false

Unless a person can be useful for my advancement, I have little interest in pursuing a relationship.

2 - Western civic values are based upon Frauds model.

Shelter

Mostly false

"Time is money!" Strongly agree

Time of day

Somewhat true/false

Mostly true

I tend to find it ____ to relax.

Always

Field study

Somewhat true/ false

Mostly true

10.

14.

Food

(These are the final scores, for the process of developing the scoring criteria please refer to later pages for the process)

If I cannot do something perfectly, I do not do it at all.

Extremely difficult

1 - Personality is eliminated and therefore subjectivity.

Security of body

I am frequently disappointed in my friends/co-workers.

Completely true

Day of week

Desktop study

Sex

What is your favourite day of the week? What is your favourite time of day? What is your favourite location in Stoke-on-Trent? What is your favourite social event? If a co-worker is performing better than me… I double my efforts I try a bit harder to I consider that I may I don't mind - it has I wouldn't even so I can outdo him catch up or outdo have something to nothing to do with notice or her him or her learn from him or her my performance Unless you are walking with a destination in mind, you are losing time… Completely agree Mostly agree Somewhat agree Mostly disagree Completely disagree In heavy traffic on the way to an airport, your cab driver keeps taking bad "shortcuts" and then turns and says, "Nice day isn't it?", as though nothing was wrong. How do you feel? I feel slightly I don't feel angry or I feel furious I feel a little angry I feel annoyed annoyed annoyed

Completely true

Influences / Facilitator

Influences and impacts

Exersion

Questionaire

Programme available in 5 minutes travel

1.

People and resources required

Health

Trams

Railways

Propose and aims (happiness of Stoke)

Shelter

bars

H

o

t

e

Education

S c h o o l s

Truency rates

Pass

rates

Religion

V a r i e t y

Predominant

Green space

A

r

Travel

e

Pe r s o n a l i t y prefers cinema on weekdays at 7pm

Extrovert

a

time

Pe r s o n a l i t y prefers Arts on weekends at 9am

Neurotic

Stable

l

Interovert

Property

Social programme

Green space

Basic

Excess


MAppIng PRogRAmme

Selected programme that generates ‘happiness’ based on Freudian criteria 1 : 8000

Key

Social programme Average house price

Gym (exertion)

Shopping

Average income

Food (allotments / shops)

Bar

Sex

Shelter (home owner)

Cinema

Education

Religion

Hotel

Green spce (exertion)

Leisure

Crime rates (security of body)

Restaurant

Employed

Unemployed

NB

-

some

of

the

above

are

non

physical

attributes

and

are

explored

at

later

stages


BASIc HumAn needS Shelter - Home owner and home renter 1 : 15000 Dwelling locations

Home ownership Stoke average 65% national average 69.8%

Home renters Stoke average 35% national average 30.2%

Good

Bad

Good

Bad

Happiness value of -5.8 assigned (renting negative as no asset gained)

The statistics that are shown for home renters and owners were applied generically to each grid cell. This is highly inaccurate for each individual cell, but reflects accurately the condition of stoke as a whole.

Happiness value of 4.7 assigned


BASIc HumAn needS Gym (exertion) 1 : 15000 Gym locations

Gym area per cell

Gym proximity and access per cell. This investigation provides a comparitve value.

Happiness value for exertion

Good

Bad


BASIc HumAn needS Gym (exertion) 1 : 15000 Green space locations

Green space proximity and access per cell. This investigation provides a comparitve value.

Happiness value for exertion

Good

Bad


BASIc HumAn needS Health 1 : 15000 Obesity rates in Stoke average 30.4% national average 23.4%

Good

Range comparing national average hear attackGood and Stoke per 100 people Nat 120 Stoke 150

Bad

Bad

(as obesity and all other statistics on this page are ‘bad’, therefore the value can never be positive. The greatest score per cell can be 0. As it is compared to a national average it would have to be double that or greater to recieve a score of -10.)

Happiness value of -6.25 assigned

Happiness value of -6.5 assigned Range comparing national average cancer rate and Stoke per 100 people Nat 90 Stoke

Happiness value of -7.77 assigned

Good

Bad

Range comparing national average life expectancy 80 years and Stoke 77 years

Happiness value of +4.8 assigned

Good

Bad


BASIc HumAn needS Sex (underage pregnancy) 1 : 15000 Pregnancy rates per population (according to Stoke.gov Good average 63 in every 1000 girls aged 14-17 fell pregnant)

Bad

These figures were deduced by; Taking the number of houses per cell Times this number by average family size Divide this number by female population Divide this by female population age 14-17 Then taking the Stoke pregnancy statistic This is rough and the area with the greatest number of houses will result in the least happiest score, which may not be true at all.

Pregnancy rates compared to national average (11 girls per 1000 is UK average)

Good

Bad


BASIc HumAn needS Security of body (crime)1 : 15000 Crime rates / number per cell

Crimes per 1000 population in each square (1000 / population x total crimes in square)

Good

Bad

Number of crimes per cell

Good

Bad

Security of body happiness value

Good

Bad


BASIc HumAn needS Food (allotments) 1 : 15000 Allotment locations

Allotment land available per house in Stoke (0.96 acres per 1000 households) in relation to the allotment act of 1950 (4 acres per 1000 households)

Happiness value of 1.2 assigned

Allotment area per cell

Good

Bad


BASIc HumAn needS Basic human needs hapiness score 1 : 15000 Site context

Basic Happiness rating per cell out of 50

Good

Bad

This basic happiness score is an amalgamation of all previous factors that have been outlined by a Freudian model , these factors have been analytically mapped to produce this definitive score. For greater sensitivity more sub factors can be mapped that feed into the basic human needs requirement, enough variables have been explored in this instance to pursue other avenues.


eXCeSS HumAn needS Income and un / employment 1 : 15000 Range comparing national average income (ÂŁ26,000) and Stoke average income ÂŁ23,327

Good

Bad

Happiness value of 4.4 assigned Range comparing national average unemployment rate (5.5%) and Stoke 5.3%

Happiness value of -4.81 assigned

Range comparing national average (64.2%) and Stoke employment rate 54.2%

Happiness value of 4.2 assigned Good

Bad

Good

Bad


eXCeSS HumAn needS House renting and house price 1 : 15000 Average renting price range

Good

Bad

Renting compared to national average (ÂŁ691)

Good

Bad

Good

Bad

(average renting and house price applies to 2 bedroom semi detached homes, an average is take from 3 2 bedroom semi detached homes within each cell)

Final happiness scores for renting Average house price range

Good

Bad

Average house price compared to national average ÂŁ194,733

Final happiness scores for house prices


eXCeSS HumAn needS Social programme, shopping 1 : 15000 Shop location and number

Shop proximity

(time in minutes, travel method is Happiness score based on proximity time range

Good

Bad


eXCeSS HumAn needS Social programme, restaurant 1 : 15000 Restaurant location and number

Restaurant proximity

(time in minutes, travel method is walking) Happiness score based on proximity time range

Good

Bad


eXCeSS HumAn needS Social programme, bar 1 : 15000 Bar location and number

Bar proximity

(time in minutes, travel method is walking) Happiness score based on proximity time range

Good

Bad


eXCeSS HumAn needS Education 1 : 15000 Education location and number

Range comparing national average (53.7%) and Stoke achieving 5 or more A* - C (43%)

Good

Bad

(education happiness was not based on proximity, the final score was based on Stokes academic achievements. This provided a comparison to national averages in which Stokes education can be judged)


eXCeSS HumAn needS Excess human needs hapiness score 1 : 15000 Site context

Stokes excessive happiness score out of 100

Good

Bad

This excess happiness score is an amalgamation of all previous factors that have been outlined by a Freudian model , these factors have been analytically mapped to produce this definitive score. For greater sensitivity more sub factors can be mapped that feed into the excess human needs requirement, enough variables have been explored in this instance to pursue other avenues.


OveRAll HAppIneSS ScoReS Overall hapiness scores 1 : 15000 Site context

Stokes excessive happiness score out of 100

Good

Bad

Basic Happiness rating per cell out of 50

Good

Bad

Stokes overall happiness score out of 150

Good

Bad


RelAtIonSHIpS

Basic human happiness needs

Excess human happiness needs

Food Exersion Sex Crime Green Space Bars Restaurants Shopping Leisure Property Employment Religion Eductation

Health , Bar , Restaurant , Employment , Greenspace Sex , Employment , Greenspce , Gym , Health Greenspce , Gym , Health , Bar , Restaurant , Shopping , Food Bar , Health , Property , Employment Health , Propoerty , Greenspce , Food Crime , Food , Sex , Health , Property Food , Sex , Health , Property , Shelter Food , Health , Sex , Leisure , Employment Food , Health , Sex , Property , Employment Shelter , Employment , Sex , Health Property , Employment , Sex , Leisure , Bar , Restaurant Shelter , Health , Education Employment , Greenspace , Exersion , Health

Relationships have been defined in the above list and diagram. These relationships are based on immediate effects with one another, this can be a subjective opinion, this stage allows for data processing and posses a trade off, this results in an optimised state for each cell. If the optimised state is exceeded then negative repercussions may occur, for example increasing bar numbers may result in increased crime and decreased health (these repercussions are addressed later on). What is required is the most significant factor that produces the greatest yield of happiness with the least cost and negative implications. Again this factor will vary from culture to culture but this flexible process can accommodate for that and provides an urban trajectory. One way of defining a hierarchy and therefore the most significant factor would be to provide the community with an interface. The interface would facilitate unbiased predominance for each factor. This would obviously vary from culture to culture. Time can also be incorporated into this but this would require a responsive urban environment, much like past explorations of Cedric price and Fun Place and current explorations of Philip Beesley and Hylozoic Ground.


ComputAtIon We are looking to utilise a computers capabilities (processing information) in order to develop a flexible tool. Utilising a computers processing potential lends itself well to this approach as it provides potentials for endless results with no extra man power when the framework is established. As we have used a gridded / cell approach to compare data it lends itself to a cellular automata model. A cellular automata competes against all other cells to become optimised based on the desired criteria. This is explained further below. A voronoi mathematical model has also been utilised in order to address the proximity issues. Points of interest (ie bars, restaurants etc) can be mapped and then compared computationally by utilising this model, again this is explained in more detail below.

CellulAR AutomAtA

A - Singel cell Food

Shopping

Exersion

Leisure

Sex

Property

Crime

Employment

Green Space

Religion

Bars

Eductation

Restaurants

Individual desired amounts for each criteria are selected. This amount is the optimum for each cell and the whole system.

B - Neighbourhood a Size of nighbourh o o d defined

C - Neighbourhood b

Neighbourh o o d s competing against neighbourhoods

Each individual cell competes to obtain the desired criteria. Each cell tries to do this within a neighbourhood of cell, therefore the neighbourhood tries to become optimised based on the criteria. This neighbourhood can vary in size (figure B & C). Individual cells affect the neighbourhood’s state and the neighbourhood affects the cells state and consequently the whole system.

This diagram represents each cell competing with its own neighbourhood and therefore impacting on the whole system. Cells do not have to be next to one another to affect each of their states.

A gradient is added to define the cells state, in this case we are only interested in the final happiness state therefore only one key is needed to signify this. If multiple factors were incorporated then multiple visual defining characteristics would be required.

This is the location for all of the bars within the area of Stoke explored. Each bar is effectively a point in which to compare the most efficient / shortest distance. A voronoi diagram is a visualisation of this data, it is the most efficient distances between points.

Each bar is converted into a data point, the location is still accurate but more representative but this step in the process allows for the computer to process the data. Utilising parametric methodologies in design allows for dynamic possibilities.

Final voronoi diagram produced, this is a visualisation of the most efficient distances between points. This is a visualisation and not the actual model used to analyse the data, the same principle is used within the syntax structure.

VoRonoI

The voronoi diagram works on the basis of the most efficient distance between points. This provides a model in which to asses proximity for a certain factor, in this case bars. The shortest distance in this case is the best. It allows comparative studies.

The problem with the voronoi model is that it does not take into account actual contextual routes (the road ways are not apparent). It has merely been utilised to give a more comprehensive model.


VISuAlISIng dAtA

Above is a plan view of a voronoi diagram based on the data point of the bar locations, this represents the most efficient distance between bar locations. This is a visual representation of how a computer can process proximity information to determine the ‘happiness’ value of cells.

Above is the definition used to create the 3d voronoi diagram. The diagram has been created in Grasshopper a plugin for Rhino 3d modelling. Grasshopper is a parametric modelling software, Grasshopper can also be utilised as a data processing tool. It has a strong community and may also be more intuitive to learn instead of a scripting medium because of its visual interface.


VISuALISIng dAtA Perspective of voronoi diagram representing bar locations

Latent data scape Potentials in unexplored data such as time can produce data scapes that represent areas at specific time contain a concentration of activity. This may inform possible planning trajectories, why is this area failing at certain times or succeeding?


VISuAlISIng dAtA One cell has been selected to contextualise the collected data in detail. This contextualisation of data will be in the format of photomontages representing the desired scenarios created by the user. The scenarios will be generated by them amount of specific attributes selected, these individual combinations will produce a unique montage and have ramifications on the state of happiness based on the Freudian criteria outlined earlier, certain combinations at certain times will be more successful / ‘happier’ then others.

Below is a plan montage of increasing industry, as with the grid the images must have a key in order to translate the scenario. Increasing certain factors have repercussions on other factors, in this case increasing industry has reduced house prices due to decreasing desirability in the context.

Montage Key


VISuAlISIng dAtA Data can accessed and understood easily, the problem is pure data or subjective representation of this data does not transcend into common architectural discussion. The installation attempts to address this subjective quality. It utilises physical mapping as a potential to represent the various scenarios. Physical mapping projects an image onto in this case a physical scale model of one cell. The images themselves are plans of extreme scenarios and the knock on effects these have. An interface is provided for the user, the selected attribute values are then processed, the values selected that are closest to set values for a image scenario are then physically mapped onto the model. Extreme scenario images are easier to create, subtlety is the hardest factor to address.

Projector Interface

Physical mapping

Physical model

Visual feedback loop, if the user dislikes scenario can change the attributes / scenarion using the interface. Current context

Increased green space

Increased exersion (gyms)

Increased industry / employment

Socail Programmes / Bars, Resurants etc

Sex / Strip bars, Brothels

Exersion / Gyms

Food / Markets, Supermarkets

Education / Schools, University

Green Space

Shelter / House prices

Employment / Industry, Business

Religion

Different scenarios will result in other detrimental or positive affects, in this case increased green space results in increased house prices, vice versa increased industry results in lower house prices. There is therefore an optimum for all requirements.


InteRfAce Below is the interface developed for criteria selection. As outlined in previous pages the user selects the required amount of attributes per cell. Based on the existing programme / attributes within that cell a cells state of happiness changes along with the whole systems happiness state. The data / assigned attributes are processed via cellular automation for individual and collective states of happiness. Voronoi analysis is also utilised for proximity and distance of existing programme and informs potential developments and how to optimally attain these scenarios / required ratios to maintain certain happiness scenario. The software acknowledges potential locations and amount per cell. Please see video on cd for a demonstration on software and resultant scenario montages, the video runs with VLC media player. Interface and default cell states

Attributes Instructions

Basic needs Time of day

Interface accoutns for time of day

Excess needs

Grid reflecting happiness state of selected scenario

At this point a cell may also be selected to see what existing attribute are already present within that cell.

Attirbute analysis

Applying new attributes

Attributes chosen

The time of day has an impact in what programme / attribute is desirable and what is most conducive to produce happiness at certain times of day. ie lots of bars at 9am - 5pm midweek are not the most appropriate programme / attribute, although bars on the weekend at the time of 7pm – 1 am would increase happiness.

Percentage checker

The 2nd interface allows for programme distribution analysis

attribute

/

Attributes applied

Testing scenarios happiness

View new attributes scenario

Attirbute location

Visual representation of new attribute combination at a certain time of day. The lighter the cell the happier it is

Attribute / programe is selected then the cells containing that specific programme are highlighted. Not all cells contain the programme as it works on distribution and the whole system can become more happier, this idea can lend itself to Stokes current poly neuclaic to improve the whole state of happiness of Stoke


ScenARIo montAgeS Below is the current context of the selected cell in Stoke on Trent. This provides the basis in which to carry out possible scenario montages based on a users specifications, this provides a feedback loop in which the user can alter or refine their choice as a result of the happiness results and the imagery of the context in their selected scenario.

Street view montage current state happiness value 54.9

Happiness state of cells taken from computer models processed data. Draker = least happy

Selected cell for montage scenarios

NB The more desatured the image the less happy the scenario


ScenARIo MontAgeS exeRtIon Below is a plan montage of increasing the exertion of a cells state, it hints at the possible benefits and the programme required to facilitate this change. This scenario proposes increased pedestrian mobility and decreased automotive congestion, as a result house prices increase and there is more free time for leisure activities. An increased number of gyms produces a more health conscious and healthier society.

Street view montage happiness value 82.3

increasing

exertion,

state

of

Happiness state of cells have increased as a result of increasing the cells exertion percentage

Selected cell for montage scenarios


ScenARIo MontAgeS Employment Below is a plan montage of increasing the employment of a cells state, it hints at the possible benefits or negatives and the programme implemented to induce this change. This scenario proposes increased industry as a result of this there is increased automotive congestion, there is also an increased number of industrial developments within the context. As a result the house prices are reduced along with the cells state of happiness.

Street view montage happiness value 41.4

increasing

exertion,

state

of

Happiness state of cells have decreased as a result of increasing the cells employment percentage

Selected cell for montage scenarios


ScenARIo MontAgeS gReen SpAce Below is a plan montage representing the increase of green space available in a cell, it hints at the possible benefits or negatives and the programme implemented to induce this change. This scenario proposes increased public and private green space as a result of this there is increased community cohesion, there is also an improvement in health and increased house prices. The cells state of happiness and whole system is increased.

Street view montage increasing green space, state of happiness value 77.9

Happiness state of cells have increased as a result of increasing the cells green space percentage

Selected cell for montage scenarios


ScenARIo MontAgeS exeRtIon The image below attempts to portray an extreme version of exertion. Increased pedestrian mobility is implemented, this reduction in automotive transport reduces the carbon footprint. Increased exertion also results in reduced obesity rates and other health related issues linked to being overweight, this increases life expectancy. Increased numbers of gyms have been introduced to facilitate this requirement.

CHAIn oF AFFectS Below are a possible change of affects as a result of increasing exertion, this is not exhaustive but highlights the most predominant affected factors.

Increase exertion

Decrease obesity

Decrease NHS expenditure

Increase life expectancy


ScenARIo MontAgeS Employment The image below attempts to portray an extreme version of employment, an infrastructure is created that revolves around the reindustrialisation of Stoke on Trent. As a result of this increased influx of industry air quality is reduced. (The more monotone the image the less happier the scenario is)

CHAIn of AffectS Below are a possible change of affects as a result of increasing employment, this is not exhaustive but highlights the most predominant affected factors.

Increase industry

Increase pollution

Decrease house prices

Increase Consumption


ScenARIo MontAgeS Green SpAce The below image attempts to portray an extreme version of increased green space area. Maintained and publically utilised green space increases desirability therefore house prices are increased, also community spirit may foster within the green spaces instilling a community spirit which itself generates happiness.

CHAIn of AffectS Below are a possible change of affects as a result of increasing available green space, this is not exhaustive but highlights the most predominant affected factors.

Increase exertion

Decrease obesity

Increase life expectancy

Increased community

The 3 scenarios that have been portrayed (exertion, employment and green space) are at an extreme, subtly and a combination of all attributes and programme would be a realistic development trajectory. This has highlighted what the most significant attribute is to affect happiness positively, this may be attained by offering the interface to the community of Stoke. If a large number of people utilise the facility a specific attribute contextual to Stoke will emerge that is the most popular, this would therefore be the most significant attribute to affect happiness according to stokes inhabitants.


GRoup CRItIque A

B A – Data processed and analysed highlighting security issues. A series QR codes were created and placed along selected points within the urban context, this highlighted a potential safer route at certain times of day. An urban interactive map was created. B – Node of interest and programmes were mapped that can interact. A reactive installation was produced representing programmes resonating with one another. C – Existing and previous pottery industries were mapped along with their exports, this was combined with interviews asking about their feelings towards their context. This was then physically mapped onto a physical model with audio. D – Explorations into how the urban environment affected specific senses when others were deprived. Sight was taken away and heart rate and sound were monitored. The installation videos the route and highlights heart rate fluctuation at specific point creating a possible apprehension factors. E – Urban pollution in the form of advertisement was mapped, this then transcended into a reactive game representing pollution and its impacting qualities, possible trajectories were then highlighted with regards to advertisement.

C

D

E


InStAllAtIon As describe in visualising data, this is the physical installation which portrayed the group trajectory. It consist of a physical model which is projected onto, the projections themselves attempt to represent scenarios selected by the users desires using the interface. This provides a feedback loop that may inform the users desires to change attributes or confirms their selection. Increased green space

Current context

Increased employment

Increased sex


CellulAr model AnAlySIS This initial exploration into happiness and contextual programme that facilitates or impedes a community’s sense of happiness has revealed potential trajectories along with discrepancies and sensitivity issues. The cellular / gridded model does not take into account actual / existing boundaries / thresholds present within Stoke on Trent. In essence is represents the possibility of being happier if a road was crossed because this part of the road is in a ‘happier’ cell, this is not the case in the ‘real world’. This is the greatest limiting factor of this approach (cellular). The uniform nature of the cell does allow accurate comparisons because they are all uniform in area, and this is the comparative. What is therefore needed is a singular constant which allows for critical comparisons between actual existing boundaries / thresholds contextual to Stoke on Trent. This can be attained by utilising a Lower Super Outut Area model. This approach addresses actual thresholds and allows for comparisons as the population remains constant for each area. This will be explored at a later date.

Diagram representing cellular models short comings. Crossing the cell boundary does not represent an actual transition between physical boundaries / thresholds specific to Stoke on Trent. It is because of this uniform grid it impedes its own sensitivity.. Crossing the cells boundary does therefore not warrant an actual difference in happiness with regards to actual thresholds.

The cellular model is incapable of representing actual contextual conditions, it is not sensitive enough to address this factor, this is because it is based on a uniform grid which Stoke on Trent is not.

68.6

38.8

Scale 1 : 5000

Contextual boundary

Cell boundary

Lower Super Output Area boundary lines

Lower Super Output Area context

scale 1 : 700,000


London cross rail The study trip to London included an exploration of the cross rail development, this development looks to reduce congestion at peak times and impements the potential of hyper mobility. The scale of this infrastructural develpment is of intrest because of the potentail gains it gives back to its community. Increased efficiency in commuting times results in more leisure time being available. Within a radius of the cross rail development it resembles a 5 minute city model.


The study trip to Paris with [Re_Map] highlighted the contrasting policy and urban development compared to tha of Manchester and the UK. The scale of the Parisian developments is most evident in the La Defense and the Arc de Triomphe axis, in which the context is arranged by thses two nodes, all be it La Defence failed as a development


THeSIS development


Selection

ClASSIfIcAtIon SyStem

Function

Faciality

Blance

Discontinuity

Orientation

Geometry

Diversification

FAMILIES

Common Name

Classification Summary

Species name

Species

Mass customisation is facilitated via a dynamic design process (programming). An interface is provided to the user and the resultant ‘species’ are recorded. All this is underpinned to produce a community of ‘happiness’.

InItAl pRopoSAl Mass customisation was an initial response to physically manifest a context that is based upon or generates happiness, this is not attainable in the case if mass customisation is the only driver. The thesis trajectory needs more parameters. The problem with this idea is that it doesn’t adapt to time requirements, a possible fractal system may be able to respond to this factor along with generating mass customisation. Crystalline studies explored by Aranda and Lasch will be analysed for a potential trajectory. The species tree will still inform a fractal system but in reverse, the constituent parts inform the whole, in this case the form can be designed inside out. The species tree is a fractal itself, much like an L tree.


FRuIt Bowl This experiment was carried out to explore the potentials in digital fabrication technologies. Digital fabrication technologies were utilised as it lends itself well to a mass customisation idea. The process used for production is called sectioning which is then lazer cut in this case and staked.

Contour Inital form

Altering

the

resolution

The bowl itself was modelled in rhino and grasshopper was used to generate the voronoi apertures on the surface, because this is a parametric software size and number of apertures can be determined by a user with no extra work load.

The form is operatively modelled, the grasshopper definition is then applied. A command in Rhino called contour is used to section up the form. The distance between sections can be determined effectively altering the resolution of the final product. This is apparent in the project Ornamented Columns by Michael Hansmeyer.

Lazer cutter cutting out sheets of acrylic sectioned lines straight from the model. This is a reductive process therefore there is waste and not 100% materially efficient. It highlights efficiency from design to production when incorporating multiple tools into the whole process, production informs design and vice versa.

All of the constituent parts are now cut out, they have been numbered sequentially to speed up manual finishing. The bowl is glued using liquid solvent.


FInAl FRuIt Bowl


FInAl FRuIt Bowl


LSOA

LoweR SupeR output AreAS


LSOA

PRoceSS

Lower super output areas have been chosen to develop the quantified happiness model with more of a realistic grounding with regards to actual boundaries and thresholds. LSOA can be used because they all contain the same population therefore allowing comparisons. The same pocess has been carried out as with the cellular model but with more sensitivity, this increase in sensitivity is due to the existing data base available when using the LSOA model. (http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/)

Scale 1 : 12000

Lower super output areas with programme mapped. The programme that has been mapped is the same as the cellular model as the criteria is still the same it is just being applied to LSOAs.


LSOA

PRoceSS

Roadway infrastructure – this has been mapped as it is the primary routes for transportation and informs the proximity diagrams. Increased mobility would intimately increase happiness as certain programmes are more readily available, this address issues highlighted in 5 minute city.

Scale 1 : 12000


LSOA

PRoceSS

Railway infrastructure - again railway locations have been mapped as it addresses mobility not just local to Stoke but may be able to interact with other contexts therefore informing the whole system.

Scale 1 : 12000


LSOA

PRoceSS

Residential locations

Scale 1 : 12000


LSOA

PRoceSS

Industrial and commercial locations

Scale 1 : 12000


LSOA

PRoceSS

Public WiFi – A digital infrastructure has been mapped as the digital increasingly informs the physical, its non physical properties also lend itself to a highly dynamic flow of information which may come to inform time based happiness which is then integrated back into the physical.

Scale 1 : 12000

The aim of this thesis is to locate the least happiest location in Stoke on Trent and the factors that induce this. This location will be used as a test bed for an eventual proposal. The end result is a proposal that self develops happiness based on a planning / happiness ratio.


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Shelter - Home owner and home renter 1 : 20000

Residential locations

Home owner

Home renter

(Home renter - seen as a negative because no asset is attained) BAD

GOOD

Ag a i n a g r a d i e n t k e y h a s b e e n u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c o m p a r a t i ve s t a t e s o f h a p p i n e s s p e r LSOA.

Please see tabulated data in later pages, this data is specific to that LSOA, it is not a generic statistic applied to a cell as done previously, therefore this data provides a more accurate contrast and happiness state.


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Sex - underage pregnancy 1 : 20000

Residential locations

Pregnancy rates

Underage pregnancy rates, 63 in 1000 girls aged 14 - 17 years (6.3 % compared to national average of 1.1%)


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Exertion - Gym access 1 : 20000

Gym locations

Gym walking travel times (optimised routes taken from Google maps)

Gym access score


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Exertion - Green space access 1 : 20000

Green space locations

Green space walking travel times (optimised routes taken from Google maps)

Green space access score


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Food - Allotment access 1 : 20000

Allotment locations

Allotment walking travel times (optimised routes taken from Google maps)

Allotment access score


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Security of body - Crime rates 1 : 20000

Residential locations

Number of crimes per area

Security of body score


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Health 1 : 20000

Health good

Health fair


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Health 1 : 20000

Health bad

Terminal illness


LSOA

PRoceSS BASIc HumAn needS

Basic human needs score 1 : 20000

Current urban condition

Basic human needs score out of 60

Programm / factors have been mapped here that facilitate basic human happiness needs, this criteria was again based on the Freudian model. In this instance the LSOA that caters least to these needs is 020B with a score of -2.8 out of 60


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

House renting prices 1 : 20000

Residential locations

Average house renting cost (two bedroom semi)

Comparative renting cost happiness score


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

House prices 1 : 20000

Residential locations

Average house cost (two bedroom semi)

Comparative house cost happiness score


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

Employment 1 : 20000

Employed

Part time employment


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

Employment 1 : 20000

Self employed

Unemployment


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

Education 1 : 20000

Student population

Education no qualifications

Education qualified level 1 - 5


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

Income 1 : 20000

Prosperity car owner

Prosperity owner

non

car


LSOA

PRoceSS eXeSS HumAn needS

Excess human needs score 1 : 20000

Current urban condition

Excess human score out of 90

needs

Programm / factors have been mapped here that facilitate basic human happiness needs, this criteria was again based on the Freudian model. In this instance the LSOA that caters least to these needs is 020A with a score of 25.2 out of 90


LSOA

PRoceSS SuStAInABIlIty

Distance traveld to work 1 : 20000

Current urban condition

Population travel to work 2km or less

Sustainability has been mapped as it is affected by the state of happiness of an area, this is evident within the BEDZeD development. A strong community spirit is installed within this residential unit, as a result of this more people car pool or walk to work because of a master plan which creates work within a 2km proximity of the residence. This obviously lowers carbon emissions created by the community with regards to day to day travel.


LSOA

PRoceSS SuStAInABIlIty

Method of traveling to work 1 : 20000

Walk to work

Bus

Train


LSOA

PRoceSS SuStAInABIlIty

Method of traveling to work 1 : 20000

Drive individually

Car pool

Cycle


LSOA

PRoceSS SuStAInABIlIty

Sustainability score 1 : 20000

Current urban condition

Sustainability score out of 60

Transportation methods to place of work have been recorder, this provides an indication of the areas community spirit, this is evident in the car pool study. 015C is the least sustainable area with a score of 10.1 out of 60. 013C is the least ‘friendly’ with a score of 0,.8 out of 10 in the car pooling study, but this area also has the greatest scores for both walking to work and resident living within 2km of work, it also has the lowest number of drivers.


LSOA

PRoceSS oveRAll ScoReS

Overall score Basic human needs score out of 60

Excess human needs score out of 90

Sustainability score out of 60

Overall score out of 210

Overall happiness score out of 150

Overall least happy area in Stoke on Trent

Site context

Top down planning methodologies will be explored / progressed with the lower super output area 020B to justify if it is a viable site to implement a possible development. The aim is to achieve a physical context that aids happiness and a community spirit that instils this. The benefits of the community spirit should theoretically improve the areas sustainability. This is currently a static output, a tool will be developed that may inform Stokes planning policy in order to improve happiness, this dynamic toll may be beneficial to aid Stokes poly neuclaic formation, therefore the whole system can improve and one area supports another, much like a cellular automata.


LSOA

PRoceSS TABulAted dAtA

Raw data collected from (http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/)

(All percentage figures for comparison) Communal establishments Car owner No car Density rate Religion Christianity Buddhist Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Other No Religion Employed full time Employed part time Self employed Unemployed Student No qualifications Qualifications (level 1 -5) Home owner Council + Renting Health Good Health Fare Health Bad Health Long term illness Distance traveled to work - 2km or less Method of travel Walk Bus Train Car Car pool Cycle Crime Underage pregnancy rates Gym proximity (minutes) Green Space Porximity (minutes) Allotment Proximity (minutes) Average House Price Average Renting Cost Population Highest Good + Lowest Good + Highest Bad Lowest Bad -

Postcode

ST4 2EF (016E) 0 331 299 44.22 45.22 0.31 0.62 0.18 19.72 0.86 0.37 21.38 14.2 4.54 2.16 3.68 47.51 18.53 79.6 43.67 56.33 71.35 20.76 7.89 13.25 13.41 9.85 7.32 3.51 55.63 6.28 1.53 38 -2.4 28 6 19 £72,255 £444 1,625

ST1 3HQ(016F) 9 294 244 110.72 76.3 0.2 0.33 0 0.27 0.27 0.47 15.31 36.65 10.37 5.01 3.89 9.33 41.31 51.43 60.53 39.46 59.08 26.95 13.97 26.08 12 8.44 4.88 0.8 10.84 2.18 0.51 34 -1.7 19 5 11 £86,233 £458 1,374

ST4 2DF (016D) 0 234 243 22.56 52.71 0.72 1.11 0.22 10.96 1.44 0.44 24.97 11.58 3.86 2.24 2.24 45.27 16.5 80.82 37.78 62.21 67.33 24.58 8.08 15.5 6.53 7.19 4.5 0.88 29.03 3.51 0.44 33 -1.2 13 7 6 £79,632 £403 1,822

ST4 2DP (015A) 9 248 270 37.5 48.21 0.84 1.34 0 19.4 0.28 0.49 18.69 17.97 5.48 3.32 5.66 33.69 28.93 67.66 48.75 51.25 66.76 22.84 10.4 17.57 6.97 6.47 11.72 0.65 90.51 8.84 2.01 18 -1.6 24 5 15 £112,138 £415 1,391

ST1 4JP (015C) 30 288 240 80 41.54 0 0.21 0 34.88 0.21 0.49 10.75 24.2 8 4.63 7.33 10.22 48.99 47.84 61.18 38.83 60.03 26.37 13.6 26.37 12.17 1.81 2.32 0 18.41 1.88 0.43 10 -2.4 21 8 9 £99,250 £426 1,380

ST1 3HX (016D) 21 234 243 22.56 52.71 0.11 0.18 0.03 3.18 0.23 0.19 13.39 11.58 3.86 2.24 2.24 45.27 16.5 81 38.08 62 67 24.58 8.08 15.5 6.53 7.19 4.5 0.88 29.03 3.51 0.44 32 -0.7 8 9 12 £72,798 £425 1,822

ST4 2RR (020C) 0 429 327 26.15 79 0 0 0.18 0.97 0 0.18 0.97 44.48 12.08 4 4.17 3.39 43.44 50 73.19 26.82 64.67 23.29 12.04 20.51 19.2 10.38 7.71 0.37 64.71 8.52 3.26 6 -2.5 10 13 18 £53,372 £422 1,349

ST4 2LA (020B) 24 355 398 35.52 75.34 0 0 0.2 1.34 0 0 12.8 34.21 9.62 3.54 3.95 3.85 49.7 45.25 41.03 58.95 54.59 27.26 18.15 32.48 14.86 5.87 4.5 0.23 27.82 5.64 0.84 21 -2.4 16 8 8 £60,999 £396 1,312

ST1 3NQ (016C) 0 346 388 53.28 75.1 0.21 0 0 2.68 0 0.48 14.31 42.82 11.36 5.55 3.64 5 41.45 53 77.62 22.38 63.64 22.15 11.2 21.72 20.9 6.84 2.34 0.29 23.43 2.93 0.29 24 -1.9 22 14 10 £110,000 £388 1,024

ST1 2BG (13C) 0 403 251 52.63 72.08 0 0 0 7.35 0.35 0.28 13.58 40.56 11.58 6.52 3.7 3.11 41.44 52.63 69.38 30.63 59.41 26.94 13.65 24.84 15.99 15.99 1.11 0 6.45 0.78 0 28 -1.7 22 15 11 £103,629 £390 1,395

ST4 4JG (020D) 0 475 207 28.41 83.28 0 0 0 0.19 0.45 0 10.63 45.04 11.68 4.79 4.37 3.19 44.29 48.15 78.7 21.29 65.75 22.41 11.84 21.45 19.41 4.17 3.88 0 31.27 5.91 1.37 16 -2.3 25 9 18 £77,333 £523 1,391

ST4 3BL (020E) 0 426 262 20.71 74.68 0 1 0 2.27 0 0.4 14.43 44.31 10.37 4.31 3.94 2.66 43.76 48.35 69.9 30.09 63.27 24.27 12.47 23.8 16.33 8.96 7.31 0 66.67 10.05 2.32 25 -1.9 30 8 12 £136,000 £421 1,641

ST4 2LT (020A) 9 404 375 19.66 73.37 0 0 0 0.37 0.37 0 16.82 40.45 8.05 4.52 4.8 3.26 49.41 45.16 53.79 46.22 59.39 26.47 14.14 25.67 12.98 4.73 3.64 0.18 38.14 7.46 1.03 11 -2.3 27 6 9 £79,283 £488 1,649


LSOA

PRoceSS TABulAted dAtA

Data compared to deduce happiness score per area Comparitive score value out of 10 Communal establishments Car owner No car Density rate Religion Christianity Buddhist Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Other No Religion Employed full time Employed part time Self employed Unemployed Student No qualifications Qualifications (level 1 -5) Home owner Council + Renting Health Good Health Fare Health Bad Health Long term illness

Postcode

ST4 2EF (016E)

ST1 3HQ(016F)

ST4 2DF (016D)

ST4 2DP (015A)

ST1 4JP (015C)

ST1 3HX (016D)

ST4 2RR (020C)

ST4 2LA (020B)

ST1 3NQ (016C)

ST1 2BG (13C)

ST4 4JG (020D)

ST4 3BL (020E)

ST4 2LT (020A)

0 7 -7.5 44.22 45.22 0.31 0.62 0.18 19.72 0.86 0.37 21.38 3.2 3.8 3.3 -5 10 -3.7 9.8 5.5 -9 10 7.6 -4.3 -4

3 6.2 -6.1 110.72 76.3 0.2 0.33 0 0.27 0.27 0.47 15.31 8.1 8.6 7.7 -5.3 1.9 -8.3 6.4 7.7 -6.3 8.3 9.9 -7.7 -8

0 4.9 -6.1 22.56 52.71 0.72 1.11 0.22 10.96 1.44 0.44 24.97 2.6 3.2 3.4 -3.1 9.5 -3.3 10 4.8 -10 9.4 9 -4.5 -4.8

3 5.2 -6.8 37.5 48.21 0.84 1.34 0 19.4 0.28 0.49 18.69 3.9 4.5 5.1 -7.7 7.1 -5.8 8.4 6.2 -8.2 9.4 8.4 -5.7 -5.4

10 6.1 -6 80 41.54 0 0.21 0 34.88 0.21 0.49 10.75 5.4 6.6 7.1 -10 2.2 -9.8 5.9 7.8 -6.2 8.4 9.7 -7.5 -8.1

7 4.9 -6.1 22.56 52.71 0.11 0.18 0.03 3.18 0.23 0.19 13.39 2.6 3.2 3.4 -3.1 9.5 -3.3 8.1 4.8 -9.9 9 9 -4.5 -4.8

0 9 -8.2 26.15 79 0 0 0.18 0.97 0 0.18 0.97 9.9 10 6.1 -5.7 0.7 -8.7 6.3 9.3 -4.3 9.1 8.5 -6.6 -6.3

8 7.5 -10 35.52 75.34 0 0 0.2 1.34 0 0 12.8 7.6 5.7 5.4 -5.4 0 .8 - 10 5.6 5.2 -9.5 7.7 10 -10 -10

0 7.3 -9.7 53.28 75.1 0.21 0 0 2.68 0 0.48 14.31 9.5 9.4 8.5 -5 1.1 -8.3 6 .5 9.8 -3.6 8.9 8.1 -6.1 -6.7

0 8.5 -6.3 52.63 72.08 0 0 0 7.35 0.35 0.28 13.58 9 9.6 10 -5.1 0.7 -8.4 6.5 8.8 -4.9 8.3 9.8 -7.5 -7.6

0 10 -5.2 28.41 83.28 0 0 0 0.19 0.45 0 10.63 10 9.7 7.3 -6 0.7 -9 5.9 10 -3.4 9.2 8.2 -6.5 -6.6

0 8.9 -6.6 20.71 74.68 0 1 0 2.27 0 0.4 14.43 9.8 8.6 6.6 -5.4 0.5 -8.9 6 8.9 -4.8 8.9 8.9 6.7 -7.3

3 8.5 -9.4 19.66 73.37 0 0 0 0.37 0.37 0 16.82 8.9 6.7 6.9 -6.5 0.7 -9.9 5.5 6.8 -7.4 8.3 9.7 -7.8 7.9

6.4 6.1 6.2 10 -6.1 6 .3 4.7

3.9 5.2 4.1 2.3 -1.1 2.2 1.6

3.1 4.5 3.8 2.5 -3.2 3.4 1.3

3.3 4 10 1.9 -10 8.9 6.1

5.8 1.1 1.9 0 -1.9 1.9 1.3

3.1 4.5 3.8 2.5 -3.2 3.5 1.3

9.1 6.5 6.6 1.1 -7.1 8.5 10

7.1 3.7 3.8 0.7 -3 5.7 2.6

10 4.2 1.9 0.8 -2.6 3 0.9

7.6 10 0.9 0 -0.7 0.8 0

9.3 2.6 3.3 0 -3.5 5.9 4.2

7.8 5.6 6.2 0 -7.4 10 7 .1

6.2 2.9 3.1 0.5 -4.2 7.5 3.1

-10 -9.6 2.9 8.3 3.1 3 .7 8.2

-8.9 -6.8 4.2 10 5.6 4.4 7.7

-8.6 -4.8 6.3 7.1 10 4.1 9.5

-4.7 -6.4 3.3 10 4 5.8 9.1

-2.6 -9.6 3.8 6.3 6.7 5.1 8.8

-8.4 -2.8 10 5.6 5 3.7 8.8

-1.5 -10 8 3.8 3.3 2.7 8.8

-5.5 -9.6 5 6.3 7.6 3.1 9.7

-6.3 -7.6 3.6 3.6 5.9 5.6 10

-7.3 -6.8 3.6 3.3 5.6 5.3 9.9

-4.2 -9.2 3.2 5.6 3.3 3.9 5.5

-6.6 -7.6 2.7 6.3 5 7 8.8

-2.9 -9.2 2.9 8.3 6.7 4.1 6.7

Comparitve Happiness Score Basic human needs score out of 60 Excessive human needs score out of 90 Combined happiness score out of 150

0.5 32.8 33.3

8 34.3 42.3

13.9 34.7 48.6

10.9 31.8 42.7

8.7 31.4 40.1

13 38.7 51.7

13.3 30.9 44.2

-2.8 28 25.2

9.6 34.9 44.5

5.3 39.7 45

9.6 32.8 42.4

21.1 35.3 56.4

23.3 25.2 48.5

Sustainability score out of out of 60

33.6

18.2

15.4

24.2

10.1

12.4

34.7

20.6

18.2

18.6

21.8

29.3

19.1

Overall score out of 200

66.9

60.5

64

66.9

50.2

64.1

78.9

45.8

62.7

63.6

64.2

85.7

67.6

Distance traveled to work - 2km or less Method of travel Walk Bus Train Car Car pool Cycle Crime Underage pregnancy rates Gym proximity Green Space Porximity Allotment Proximity Average House Price Average Renting Cost difference

Highest Good + Lowest Good + Highest Bad Lowest Bad -

Compared to national average house price ÂŁ194,733 Compared to national average renting cost ÂŁ691 (These data tables support the visual production and scoring system applied to the previous diagrams)


StokeS RelAtIve HAppIneSS StAte The diagram reflects Stoke on Trent’s state of happiness compared to national averages, this form of comparison can then be applied to other cities. This effectively produces a league table based on the Freudian criteria to deduce the happiest city / place and what are the factors that create the happiest place. This takes out human subjectivity of happiness and is therefore an equal comparative study. National average Stoke on Trent average

%

10

0

%

Bad

0

Good


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 8000 Existing context

Bar

Consumer

Education

Gym

Community

The existing programme of area 020B is being mapped to deduce a viable site to implement a design proposal. All physical programmes being mapped have a positive effect on happiness therefore a site with no programme must be utilised.


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 8000 Religion

Residential

Restaurant

Corporate

Allotments

Grocery


Site juStIfIcATIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 8000 Greeen space

Roadway infrastructure

No site available that does not positively affect happiness

As previously mentioned a site with no programme that positively effects the happiness of the area and ultimately the whole system must be utilised, the mapping exercise carried out for area 020B has revealed that it does not have an area within it that does not aid happiness. This area is therefore the least happy because of non physical factors. These factors though are impacted upon by the physical environment. As highlighted and mentioned previously each area is not in isolation, the whole system / LSOAreas work to better one another, this is physically accessible by road networks. Therefore a site along a major axis will be selected for development in order to increase the systems happiness.

Railway infrastructure


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 10000 Selected programme along major transport axis

Roadways

Railways

to Vic d roa ria

The major transport axis have been highlighted in order to justify a new site location redundant of programme. The site is to be located along one of these major axis to reduce commuting time therefore improving the happiness for the whole system when proximity / programme availability is taken into account.


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 10000 Bar

Education

Community


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 10000 Gym

Religion

Residentail


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 10000 Restaurant

Consumer

Corporate


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 10000 Allotments

Grocery

Green space


SIte juStIfIcAtIon Existing programme analysis 1 : 10000 Site location

to Vic ria d roa

This site has been selected for development to increase happiness within Stoke on Trent. Its primary reasons for selection were as previously mentioned it has no programme positively affecting happiness. It is also situated along the major transport axis of Victoria road, this can therefore cater to a greater catchment within 5 minutes travel time. This therefore has more significance in improving the overall happiness rating of the entire system.


PRogRAmme oveR tIme Context states of flux and permenance

Roads

Railways

Community

Green space

Commercial

Education

Gym

Religion

Residential

Restaurant

Time Permenant (Macro)

Seasonal (Meso)

Corporate

/

Allotments

Week

/

Grossery

Season

Temporary (Micro)

12 noon

Monday

Winter

1 pm December 2 pm

3 pm

4 pm

January

Tuesday

Febuary 5 pm

6 pm

Spring

7 pm Wednesday

March

8 pm

9 pm

April

10 pm May 11 pm Thursday 12 am

Summer

1 am June 2 am

3 am Friday

July

4 am

August

5 am

6 am Autumn 7 am

Saturday September

8 am

9 am October 10 am

11 am

Sunday

November

Bar

/

Ye a r


PRoto Cell A flexible responsive architecture may cater form many needs, this has been explored throughout architectural practice. Cedric Price’s Fun Palace was a project that attempted to cater for a constant change of programme by integrating cybernetic system into the design. Cybernetics works on a feedback loop in which an appropriate decision is made, in this case the context physically reacts. Components are therefore required to facilitate movement, in the case of the Fun Palace cranes and other mechanical parts proposed the solution. Recently Philip Beesley has created the installation Hylozoic ground, this again responds to human interaction but also takes advantage of recent developments in digital fabrication technologies. Hylozoic ground is of interest with regards to both is reactive qualities and its production, the constituent parts that create the overall form have the potential to meet multiple scales efficiently. An urban context that is constantly in flux has positives but a constant flux may result in loss of place / identify and ultimately may not cater for any needs. There has to be constant programme to inform the entire system, this may come back to basic human needs being a constant programme.

Protocell Architecture 02 [Networks], 1200 x 600 print on lightbox (detail), 2010 Architecture needs to move away from the massive tectonics of building, and to be reimagined as a network of information and experience. Drawing upon Guy Debord’s psychogeography and Bernard Tschumi’s spatial and programmatic sequences, protocell architecture suggests the creation of open and inclusive ‘synthetic’ spaces that exist between the virtual and the actual.

Images: pp 8-9 © Leroy Cronin, The University of Glasgow, 2010; p 10 © Martin Hanczyc; p 11 © Omar Khan; p 12 © © Philip Beesley Architect Inc; p 13 © Nic Clear


PRogRAmme Programme is informed by time. As previously explored certain programmes have a greater impact at specific times. Having selected programmes in flux may maintain a optimum state of happiness.

Allotments

Bar

Apartments

Green space

Sex

Markets

Permanant

Temporary

Time am

Day M i d w e

pm e k W e e k e n

Victoria Road Flexible time based programme selection

d

pm Indicative programme locations


HAppIneSS RAtIo An optimum programme ratio will be defined that yields the maximum state of happiness, this ratio is unique to Stoke on Trent at specific times of day or to any other context. The ratio itself is therefoe a variable but has the greatest impact upon spatial orientation. As this happiness ratio is a variable it is not necessary to define the ratio for Stoke on Trent, a standardised ratio may be defined that is generic and can then be altered to its community. In order to maintain flexibility with the design process. A method to generate a ratio would again be to provide an interface. This interface will record numerically what people perceive hierarchically as to what is the most significant programmes that generate happiness, a ratio can then be derived from this and is specific to its inhabitants. Possible happiness ratio 6 x Appartment

3 x Allotments

INTERFACE

1 x Restaurant

2 x Gymnasium

3 x Bar

(sample population 300)

List preferences in decreasing value (1 = highest 13 = lowest) Basic human needs

Count

Food Exersion Sex Shelter Security of body Health Excess human needs

2

41

Shelter

31.5

3

23

Food

20.5

6

31

Health

18.5

1

63

Sex

15.5

4

24

Security of body

12

5

37

Exersion

11.5

Employment rate

Employment rate Education Green space Bars Restaurants Shopping Leisure

Ratio defined specific to area

7

18

Education

8

17

Green space

12

14

Bars

13

13

Restaurants

9

10

Shopping

11

7

Leisure

10

2

9 8.5 7 6.5 5 3.5 1

The above ratio caters for a population of 300.

(these results are hy[pthetical, the ratio itself is a veriable as it differs from culture to culture, It may be possible to define an average / generic happiness ratio)


HAppIneSS netwoRk The areas state of happiness is in constant flux, programmes have altering levels of positive or negative impact a various times. A network between related programmes may be required to inform and distribute happiness. This may facilitate a greater level and more constant state of happiness. Nodes are therefore created at certain times in which happiness may be concentrated. This information and network is of a digital nature, the in habitants will migrate to these attractors. Mobility therefore has significant ramifications on peak access. Physical infrastructural developments are therefore needed to support this, possible highway networks between restaurants or green space my address this. Programme netwroks over time

Time

Morning

Evening

Programe number and location

Resturant

Bar

Employment

Green space

D tower a project by NOX is integrated and informed visually by the contexts in habitants. The visual product at the end of the day is informed by the general mood of the inhabitants at the end of day. This is achieved utilising a physical structure which colour output is deduced from data processed form a questionnaire on a website. This project effectively summarises a day to day mood but does little to improve it, it does however prove that a general consensus is created day to day or even hour to hour. (http://trex.id.iit.edu/-enricg/portfolio/dtower/dtower.htm)

Gym

‘Living city’, Video still illustrating the team’s vision for a social network of buildings, in which communication between buildings locally can have a big impact on indoor and outdoor air quality for an entire neighbourhood. (Benjamin.D and Yang.S.I. 2010. The Living. Architectural Design. Territory: Architecture Beyond Environment. 80(3). p63)


SwARm FRActAlS Previously mentioned certain programmes have significance at specific time. This can then transcend into these programmes being nodes of attraction, this in turn resonates with swarm cultures. Swarm theory may be applied to this network of nodes to constantly evaluate happiness at specific time. The below project, Logic Matter by Skylar Tibbits address efficiency in scale. If a programme has a set area requirement that is informed by all of its internal requirements and constituent parts, then the overall form is evaluated and manifests itself to meet the system requirements to achieve maximal happiness.

Attractors at certian times

Resturant

Bar

Employment Green space

Swarm of birds - nieghbour informs its neighbour which in turn informs the overall direction and form of the swarm.

Gym

Skylar Tibbits - Logic matter. A standardised from is tessellated, logic gates are defined to inform the tessellation with regards to its neighbours this ultimately informs the overall output. It resembles sub atomic particles with define the overall structure. A variation at each logic gate creates a new overall species. (http://www.innovationstuntmen.com/?p=1662)


CRyStAl gRowtH Fractal – “A geometric pattern that is repeated at ever smaller scales to produce irregular shapes and surfaces that cannot be represented by classical geometry. Fractals are used especially in computer modelling of irregular patterns and structures in nature.” 1

A

B

A - Quasicrystal by slow cooling (Al-PdRe), image by JEOL Scanning Electron Microscope B - Fractal model exploring tessellation, singular standardised form may produce infinite variation. With regards to scale / resolution, if crystal growth properties can be mimicked new parameters may be introduced to optimise form and structural qualities

C

D

Rules of 6 by Benjamin Aranda & Chris Lasch A fractal generated landscape is produced. Each unit / form is a fractal. This has potentials of integrating into a swarm system which selects certain areas that are failing in happiness and generates a new typology to increase happiness. A fractal system lends its self to this process as the whole structure can be designed inside out, therefore it is optimised structurally and is efficiently applied to various population numbers and contextual climates. (A - NLSO non-linear systems organization, From Nanostructures to Buildings: Generating an Architecture of Crystal Geometries. Benjamin Aranda Daniel Bosia Chris Lasch. 2006 (C - http://www.phillipsdepury.com/auctions/lot-detail/ARANDA%5CLASCH/NY000111/18/2/1/12/detail.aspx) (D - http://pytr75.blogspot.com/2011/05/aranda-lasch.html) (1 - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/fractal)


encASIng fRActAlS With regards to form generation an optimised overall form needs to be generated / a framework needs to be implemented in with a fractal systems form is informed and spawns within an envelope. 1

Simon Ferris & Rem Koolhaas have both explored potentials in geometric from derived for solar parameters. Synergy A B Crystal developed by Dr Craig Martin address this process of creating an optimised solar envelope improving passive solar gains for both the existing context and the development itself. This form is derived by multiple iterations of sun angle calculation, this process of calculations may be possible to automate and will be explored further. A solar envelope may be created by a methodical process. Again if this is procedural the solar envelope may implemented as a computational model, this has benefits as the form generation is automated once the process is defined in a syntax. This can then meet the demands of specific area highlighted by swarm intelligence. Primitive solar studies. This highlights a potential footprint in which the proposed scheme may occupy. 01 / 01 -

09:00

12:00

15:00

17:00

01 / 04 - 09:00

12:00

15:00

17:00

01 / 08 - 09:00

12:00

15:00

17:00

Theoretical solar envelope in which fractals generate within, detailed solar study is needed to define optimised form specific to site conditions. Micro climates are induced by each constituent part, with regards to a fractal proposal after a certain scale is passed the climate induced will be no significant enough to impact on the from generation. A

A - Theoretical solar envelope B - Fractal units occupying solar envelope C - Fractal form / tessellation experiment

B

C


SolAR gRowtH Solar envelope montage into context suggesting fractal units grow inside an optimum form until its limit is reached. The fractal system used is a Penrose tilling system. This generates infinite tilling possibilities but the geometric arrangements are unsuitable due to their inhabitable orientation.


InItAIl mASSIng model This initial massing model is generated around solar shading. The from tapers so it does not impact on the surrounding contexts potential solar gains. A more detailed study is needed to optimise the solar form to generate potential gains. As previously mentioned in putting forms within this envelope will create their own micro climate this again needs further exploration. The images below represent a daily solar study during an equniox period Morning

Afternoon

Evening

A series of views have been taken to highlight the formation of an initial solar envelope. These images highlight the scale of the proposed from within its context.

The initial massing model attempts to obtain an optimised solar envelope. By sectioning a digital form, the process in which the model has been created, has resulted in a floor plate typology. This is detrimental to solar access and cannot meet the demands of a fluctuating programme without compromising the entire building. Further explorations into solar envelopes, framework structures and perforated volumes will need to be carried out to further develop the scheme.


InItAIl PlAnS Sketch plans were developed to address potential micro climate issues. Development of these sketch proposals highlighted that a floor plate in which fractal units are placed does not work as it renders the fractal system itself useless as the floor plates are inflexible and impact severely on internal climates. A possible framework structure my need to be introduced. Again the goal is to achieve a community spirit within the building therefore top down planning principles will have to be applied to ensure the correct spatial organisation is achieved. 1

Scale na

Site context solar conditions

Inital ground floor develop-

Inital first floor development

Inital fourth floor develop-

Section AA

Section BB


PRototypIng

1


PRototype AgendA Individual explorations into material properties and possible benefits of digital materiality will be documented in the section. These investigations have been informed by some of the selected projects below among many others. This is of interest because fabricating addresses physical issues that a computer can’t, the computer and physical attributes are combined in a feedback loop, one stage informs the other with an end product that could not be attainable without explorations in both digital and physical. With regards to Neri Oxmans research an optimised material is generated that can meet multiple demands. This is efficiently achievable by accessing and utilising already available tools, in this case the processing capabilities of a computer coupled with digital production technologies. 1

A

B

C

D

E

F

A - Beast, Neri Oxman - Material ecology is a proposed development in material research by Neri Oxman, can man made material mimic and surpass the multifunctional properties of nature. (http://web.media.mit.edu/-neri/site/projects/beast/beast.html) B - ‘Foam’ wall, AMO - Developed for the Prada Epicentre. The prject explores material qualities and variables, increased transparency is increased by void size. (OMA & AMO expo from the Barbican) C - Flight Assembled Architecture, Gramazio & Kohler - Exploration into automating production technologies reveals potentials again in material properties but also a generates a more precise and affordable context that is unique. (http://www.gramaziokohler.com/web/e/projekte/209.html) D - Laser cut columns, Barkow Leibinger -Potentials in decorating internal components to alter lighting qualities, the laser cut column still maintains its structural integrity. (http://www.barkowleibinger.com/) E - Hylozoic ground, Philip Beesley - A physically responsive installation. The constituent parts must therefore facilitate movement, it also must be lightweight, utilising digital fabrications techniques made this possible. A reactive structure highlights potentials in obtaining maximal passive gains from its context. (Programmin architecture / responsive instruments) F - Grotto, Aranda & Lasch - A topography was developed by integrating computation into the design process, a tilling procedure was derived using voronoi geometries to produce the final form, this generation of form proposes an architecture that mimics crystalline growth. Tooling which is a pamphlet by Aranda and Lasch provides examples and script libraries to individual explorations. (Tooling by Aranda and Lasch)


VoRonoI ScReen 0.1 An initial 3d computer model was created in Rhino using the plug-in Grasshopper. The voronoi form is based on random points but as previously mentioned in visualising data the points may be related to specific factors. If these points therefore inform the final form it may be possible to obtain passive environmental gains with a more informed process. The screen was milled using a cnc machine, this is a reductive process and there is a large amount of waste 1

CNC routing was use to physically generate the final screen, the 3d model is opened in mill wizard 3d. A process is then carried to effectively create a G-code file. The G-code file is then ran to create the computer model. A drill bit is selected this was produced just using a 6 mm flat tip roughing tool path, a finer finish may be achieved using a bullnose and a smaller drill bit.

Computer model

Final screen Production - time 5 hours. Dimensions – 500mm x 470mm

Milling process


VoRonoI ScReen 0.2 A second screen was produced using the same process as previously. This time the screen has various depths, this was done with the intention of producing a casting study to produce an object that has numerous lighting qualities. Again cnc milling is used to produce this a 3mm bull nose on a roughing tool path produced the final screen, this screen has a far finer finish to it compared to the first. Due to the varying depths in the screen this would not have been achievable by hand.

CNC milling process

Final screen Production - time 1 hour Dimensions – 180mm x 170mm x 25mm


FoRmIng In order to cast a positive form of the second voronoi screen a case had to be created. This was done using a vacuum former. This creates a negative form of the voronoi screen in which a casting material may be poured into multiple times.

Vacum forming process

Final form Production - time 15 minutes Dimensions – 180mm x 170mm x 25mm

Final screen


CAStIng In order to attain multiple light qualities a casting material of clear properties was required, the obvious choice therefore was resin. A polyester resin combined with a colouring agent was used, the resin requires a catalyst to set, the resin to catalyst ratio alters depending on the volume of resin required. The resin solution was poured into the negative vacuum former. The resin takes 40minutes to an hour to cure. The end result is a digital material that has obtained multiple lighting qualities. Readdressing material ecology ideologies this screen with further development may act as a structural integral unit that controls solar gains all obtained by one homogenous material once a casting unit is produced. These explorations would not have been possible without the help of Jim Backhouse and the facilities at the SED workshop.

Material propoerties close up

Final casting Production - time 45 minutes Dimensions – 180mm x 170mm x 25mm



Fractal Happiness